WorldWideScience

Sample records for gev proton-irradiated thick

  1. Taurine effect on cytogenetic lesions in the cornea of mice exposed to 9 Gev proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsova, S.V.; Yartsev, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Possibilities of preventive measures and treatment of cytogenetic injuries in the mice cornea, subjected to proton irradiation at 9 Gev were studied. Taurine containing solution (TCS) was used as a radiomodifying agent. It is shown that TCS application enables to decrease aberrant mitoses level in cornea epithelium cells of mice. Antiactinic effect of the above agent is determined by its considerable action on mitotic delay

  2. Characterization of 150μm thick epitaxial silicon detectors from different producers after proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Moll, M.; Haerkoenen, J.; Kronberger, M.; Trummer, J.; Rodeghiero, P.

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxial (EPI) silicon has recently been investigated for the development of radiation tolerant detectors for future high-luminosity HEP experiments. A study of 150μm thick EPI silicon diodes irradiated with 24GeV/c protons up to a fluence of 3x10 15 p/cm 2 has been performed by means of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements, investigations with the Transient Current Technique (TCT) and standard CV/IV characterizations. The aim of the work was to investigate the impact of radiation damage as well as the influence of the wafer processing on the material performance by comparing diodes from different manufacturers. The changes of CCE, full depletion voltage and leakage current as a function of fluence are reported. While the generation of leakage current due to irradiation is similar in all investigated series of detectors, a difference in the effective doping concentration can be observed after irradiation. In the CCE measurements an anomalous drop in performance was found even for diodes exposed to very low fluences (5x10 13 p/cm 2 ) in all measured series. This result was confirmed for one series of diodes in TCT measurements with an infrared laser. TCT measurements with a red laser showed no type inversion up to fluences of 3x10 15 p/cm 2 for n-type devices whereas p-type diodes undergo type inversion from p- to n-type for fluences higher than ∼2x10 14 p/cm 2

  3. Characterization of 150 $\\mu$m thick epitaxial silicon detectors from different producers after proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Hoedlmoser, H; Haerkoenen, J; Kronberger, M; Trummer, J; Rodeghiero, P

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxial (EPI) silicon has recently been investigated for the development of radiation tolerant detectors for future high-luminosity HEP experiments. A study of 150 mm thick EPI silicon diodes irradiated with 24GeV=c protons up to a fluence of 3 1015 p=cm2 has been performed by means of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements, investigations with the Transient Current Technique (TCT) and standard CV=IV characterizations. The aim of the work was to investigate the impact of radiation damage as well as the influence of the wafer processing on the material performance by comparing diodes from different manufacturers. The changes of CCE, full depletion voltage and leakage current as a function of fluence are reported. While the generation of leakage current due to irradiation is similar in all investigated series of detectors, a difference in the effective doping concentration can be observed after irradiation. In the CCE measurements an anomalous drop in performance was found even for diodes exposed to ...

  4. Volatile elements production rates in a 1.4 Gev proton-irradiated molten lead-bismuth target

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Everaerts, P; Fallot, M; Franberg, H; Gröschel, F; Jost, C; Kirchner, T; Kojima, Y; Köster, U; Lebenhaft, J; Manfrina, E; Pitcher, E J; Ravn, H L; Tall, Y; Wagner, W; Wohlmuther, M

    2005-01-01

    Production rates of volatile elements following spallation reaction of 1.4 GeV protons on a liquid Pb/Bi target have been measured. The experiment was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. These data are of interest for the developments of targets for accelerator driven systems such as MEGAPIE. Additional data have been taken on a liquid Pb target. Calculations were performed using the FLUKA and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes coupled with the evolution codes ORIHET3 and FISPACT using different options for the intra-nuclear cascades and evaporation models. Preliminary results from the data analysis show good comparison with calculations for Hg and for noble gases. For other elements such as I it is apparent that only a fraction of the produced isotopes is released. The agreement with the experimental data varies depending on the model combination used. The best results are obtained using MCNPX with the INCL4/ABLA models and with FLUKA. Discrepancies are found for some isotopes produced by fission using the MCNPX ...

  5. Comparison on the production of radionuclides in 1.4 GeV proton irradiated LBE targets of different thickness

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Moumita; Mendonça, Tania M; Stora, Thierry; Lahiri, Susanta

    2014-01-01

    This is the first report on the inventory of radionuclides produced in 1.4 GeV proton induced reaction on Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) targets. LBE targets of 6 mm diameter and 1 to 8 mm lengths were irradiated with 1.4 GeV protons. The radionuclides ranging from Be-7 (53.12 days) to Po-207 (5.8 h) were identified in the samples with the help of time resolved gamma-ray spectroscopy. However, there is no signature of formation of At radioisotopes, which can be produced by the interaction of secondary particles, typical for thick targets.

  6. Silicon/HfO2 interface: Effects of proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, Savita; Radhakrishna, M.

    2015-01-01

    Substrate oxide interfaces are of paramount importance in deciding the quality of the semiconductor devices. In this work we have studied how 200 keV proton irradiation affects the interface of a 13 nm thick, atomic layer deposited hafnium dioxide on silicon substrate. Pre- and post-irradiation electrical measurements are used to quantify the effect of proton irradiation for varying electrode geometries. Proton irradiation introduces positive charge in the oxide and at the interface of Si/HfO 2 interface. The gate current is not very much affected under positive injection since the induced positive charge is compensated by the injected electrons. Current voltage characteristics under negative bias get affected by the proton irradiation

  7. The PIREX proton irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, M.

    1995-01-01

    The proton Irradiation Experiment (PIREX) is a materials irradiation facility installed in a beam line of the 590 MeV proton accelerator at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Its main purpose is the testing of candidate materials for fusion reactor components. Protons of this energy produce simultaneously displacement damage and spallation products, amongst them helium and can therefore simulate any possible synergistic effects of damage and helium, that would be produced by the fusion neutrons

  8. The PIREX proton irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, M. [Association EURATOM, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    The proton Irradiation Experiment (PIREX) is a materials irradiation facility installed in a beam line of the 590 MeV proton accelerator at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Its main purpose is the testing of candidate materials for fusion reactor components. Protons of this energy produce simultaneously displacement damage and spallation products, amongst them helium and can therefore simulate any possible synergistic effects of damage and helium, that would be produced by the fusion neutrons.

  9. Evidence for plasma effect on charge collection efficiency in proton irradiated GaAs detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nava, F; Canali, C; Vittone, E; Polesello, P; Biggeri, U; Leroy, C

    1999-01-01

    The radiation damage in 100 mu m thick Schottky diodes made on semi-insulating undoped GaAs materials, were studied using alpha-, beta-, proton- and gamma-spectroscopy as well as I-V measurements. The results have been analysed within the framework of the Hecht model to investigate the influence of the plasma produced by short-range strongly ionising particles on the detector performance after 24 GeV proton irradiation. It has been found that with the mean free drift lengths for electrons and holes determined from alpha-spectra in overdepleted detectors, the charge collection efficiency for beta-particles, cce subbeta, is well predicted in the unirradiated detectors, while in the most irradiated ones, the cce subbeta is underestimated by more than 40%. The observed disagreement can be explained by assuming that the charge carrier recombination in the plasma region of such detectors, becomes significant.

  10. Proton irradiation effects on organic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, T.; Sasuga, T.; Kawakami, W.; Hagiwara, M.; Kohno, I.; Kamitsubo, H.

    1987-01-01

    Organic polymer films(100 μm thickness) of polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethyleneterephtalate, and polyethersulfone were irradiated by protons of 8 MeV using a cyclotron, and their radiation effects were investigated by the changes of mechanical properties. In order to irradiate protons uniformly over wide area of polymer films, specimens were scanned during proton irradiation using a special apparatus. The absorbed dose was measured by CTA and RCD film dosimeters, and can be determined that 1 μC/cm 2 of 8 MeV proton fluence is equivalent to 54 kGy. For polyethylene and polypropylene, there was no significant difference between proton and electron irradiation for same doses. However, for polyethersulfone the decay of mechanical property was observed to be less than that of irradiation by electron. (author)

  11. The study of spallation reactions, neutron production, and transport in a thick lead target and a uranium blanket during 1.5 GeV proton irradiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Filip; Wagner, Vladimír; Adam, Jindřich; Čaloun, Pavel; Henzl, Vladimír; Henzlová, Daniela; Krása, Antonín; Kugler, Andrej; Majerle, Mitja

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2006), s. 243-252 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ADS * MCNPX * spallation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  12. Study of 50 GeV proton ionization loss by semiconductor detector with smoothly tunable thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazhmudinov, R.M.; Kubankin, A.S. [Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod (Russian Federation); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shchagin, A.V., E-mail: shchagin@kipt.kharkov.ua [Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod (Russian Federation); Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine); Shul' ga, N.F.; Trofymenko, S.V. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine); Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine); Britvich, G.I.; Durum, A.A.; Kostin, M. Yu.; Maisheev, V.A.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Yanovich, A.A. [Institute for High Energy Physics in National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The possibility of the measurement of proton ionization loss in the Silicon (Si) layer of smoothly tunable thickness was demonstrated in an experiment with a 50-GeV proton beam. The Si surface-barrier detector with the depleted layer thickness controlled by the value of high-voltage power supply was used in the experiment. The measured spectra of ionization loss are discussed and compared with the calculated spectra. The possibilities of research of the evolution of electromagnetic field of ultrarelativistic particles traversing the media interface and the study of dynamics of particles moving in the channeling regime or the volume reflection regime with the use of detectors with smoothly tunable thickness are indicated.

  13. Proton irradiation effects in silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoen, E; Vanhellemont, J; Alaerts, A [IMEC, Leuven (Belgium); and others

    1997-03-01

    Proton irradiation effects in silicon devices are studied for components fabricated in various substrates in order to reveal possible hardening effects. The degradation of p-n junction diodes increases in first order proportionally with the fluence, when submitted to 10 MeV proton irradiations in the range 5x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} to 5x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. The damage coefficients for both p- and n-type Czochralski, Float-Zone and epitaxial wafers are reported. Charge-Coupled Devices fabricated in a 1.2 {mu}m CCD-CMOS technology are shown to be quite resistant to 59 MeV H{sup +} irradiations, irrespective of the substrate type. (author)

  14. Performance of a proton irradiation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Borsato, E.; Dal Corso, F.; Fazzi, A.; Gonella, F.; Introini, M.V.; Lippi, I.; Lorenzoli, M.; Modenese, L.; Montecassiano, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Pola, A.; Varoli, V.; Zotto, P.

    2012-01-01

    A Proton Irradiation Chamber aiming to perform radiation tests of electronic components was developed. The precision on the measurement of the ion currents was pushed beyond the resolution of the picoammeter by means of a series of collimators on the beam showing a linear correlation among the currents measured on them and the smaller, not measurable, current on the target. As an example of the obtained results the tests done on a Si microdosimeter and a power p-MOS are reported.

  15. Performance of a proton irradiation chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare-CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3 20133 Milano (Italy); Borsato, E. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dal Corso, F. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Fazzi, A. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare-CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3 20133 Milano (Italy); Gonella, F. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Introini, M.V. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare-CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3 20133 Milano (Italy); Lippi, I. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Lorenzoli, M. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare-CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3 20133 Milano (Italy); Modenese, L.; Montecassiano, F.; Pegoraro, M. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Pola, A.; Varoli, V. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare-CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3 20133 Milano (Italy); Zotto, P., E-mail: pierluigi.zotto@pd.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    A Proton Irradiation Chamber aiming to perform radiation tests of electronic components was developed. The precision on the measurement of the ion currents was pushed beyond the resolution of the picoammeter by means of a series of collimators on the beam showing a linear correlation among the currents measured on them and the smaller, not measurable, current on the target. As an example of the obtained results the tests done on a Si microdosimeter and a power p-MOS are reported.

  16. Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; /Kyushu U.; Sanami, Toshiya; /KEK, Tsukuba; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; /Kyushu U.; Iwamoto, Yosuke; /JAEA, Ibaraki; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Saito, Kiwamu; /KEK, Tsukuba; Ishibashi, Kenji; /Kyushu U.; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; /JAEA, Ibaraki; Lee, Hee-Seock; /Pohang Accelerator Lab.; Ramberg, Erik; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target was measured at the Meson Test Beam Facility (MTBF) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data allows for evaluation of neutron production process implemented in theoretical simulation codes. It also helps exploring the reasons for some disagreement between calculation results and shielding benchmark data taken at high energy accelerator facilities, since it is evaluated separately from neutron transport. The experiment was carried out using a 120 GeV proton beam of 3E5 protons/spill. Since the spill duration was 4 seconds, protoninduced events were counted pulse by pulse. The intensity was maintained using diffusers and collimators installed in the beam line to MTBF. The protons hit a copper block target the size of which is 5cm x 5cm x 60 cm long. The neutrons produced in the target were measured using NE213 liquid scintillator detectors, placed about 5.5 m away from the target at 30{sup o} and 5 m 90{sup o} with respect to the proton beam axis. The neutron energy was determined by time-of-flight technique using timing difference between the NE213 and a plastic scintillator located just before the target. Neutron detection efficiency of NE213 was determined on basis of experimental data from the high energy neutron beam line at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron spectrum was compared with the results of multiparticle transport codes to validate the implemented theoretical models. The apparatus would be applied to future measurements to obtain a systematic data set for secondary particle production on various target materials.

  17. Defect structure in proton-irradiated copper and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukuda, Noboru; Ehrhart, P.; Jaeger, W.; Schilling, W.; Dworschak, F.; Gadalla, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This single crystals of copper or nickel with a thickness of about 10 μm are irradiated with 3 MeV protons at room temperature and the structures of resultant defects are investigated based on measurements of the effects of irradiation on the electrical resistivity, length, lattice constants, x-ray diffraction line profile and electron microscopic observations. The measurements show that the electrical resistivity increases with irradiation dose, while leveling off at high dose due to overlapping of irradiation cascades. The lattice constants decreases, indicating that many vacancies still remain while most of the interstitial stoms are eliminated, absorbed or consumed for dislocation loop formation. The x-ray line profile undergoes broadening, which is the result of dislocation loops, dislocation networks and SFT's introduced by the proton irradiation. Various defects have different effects though they cannot be identified separately from the profile alone. A satellite peak appears at a low angle, which seems to arise from periodic defect structures that are found in electron microscopic observations. In both copper and nickel, such periodic defect structures are seen over a wide range from high to low dose. Defect-free and defect-rich domains (defect walls), 0.5 to several μm in size, are alingned parallel to the {001} plane at intervals of 60 nm. The defect walls, which consist of dislocations, dislocation loops and SFT's, is 20 - 40 nm thick. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Influence of proton irradiation on the photochromism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I. J.; Kim, D. E.; Kang, T. W.; Kim, N. Y.

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to extend our knowledge on the radiochromic reaction mechanism of photochromic compounds and to accumulate the basic data needed for the development of a low-cost radiochromic film dosimeter. The characteristics of the radiochromic reaction of SPO, were studied by UV-Vis and chromatographic methods. The results of the radiochromic reaction was compared with the effects of UV light on photochromic reaction of SPO. The basic data for selecting the proper materials and conditions were also obtained. Upon the proton irradiation, SPO decomposes into two chemicals (1 and 2). 1 is contains indoline group and 2 contains phenanthrene group. 2 absorbs at 480 nm and has acidic character. By the UV irradiation, SPO also decomposes to give the same products as the radiochromic reaction. Depending on the solvent trans-PMC·HCl or cis-PMC·HCl complex was produced upon the addition of HCl on SPO solution and two complexes seemed to be unstable in a given condition. It seems that 1x10 -3 M SPO/ethanol solution is very suitable system for the radiochromic dosimeter in the fluence range of 8x10 11 ∼ 2x10 13 ions/cm 2 . SPO/acetonitrile and SPO/PS system were also good candidates for the dosimeter application.

  19. Proton irradiation impacts age-driven modulations of cancer progression influenced by immune system transcriptome modifications from splenic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wage, Justin; Ma, Lili; Peluso, Michael; Lamont, Clare; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Hlatky, Lynn; Beheshti, Afshin; Evens, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Age plays a crucial role in the interplay between tumor and host, with additional impact due to irradiation. Proton irradiation of tumors induces biological modulations including inhibition of angiogenic and immune factors critical to 'hallmark' processes impacting tumor development. Proton irradiation has also provided promising results for proton therapy in cancer due to targeting advantages. Additionally, protons may contribute to the carcinogenesis risk from space travel (due to the high proportion of high-energy protons in space radiation). Through a systems biology approach, we investigated how host tissue (i.e. splenic tissue) of tumor-bearing mice was altered with age, with or without whole-body proton exposure. Transcriptome analysis was performed on splenic tissue from adolescent (68-day) versus old (736-day) C57BL/6 male mice injected with Lewis lung carcinoma cells with or without three fractionations of 0.5 Gy (1-GeV) proton irradiation. Global transcriptome analysis indicated that proton irradiation of adolescent hosts caused significant signaling changes within splenic tissues that support carcinogenesis within the mice, as compared with older subjects. Increases in cell cycling and immunosuppression in irradiated adolescent hosts with CDK2, MCM7, CD74 and RUVBL2 indicated these were the key genes involved in the regulatory changes in the host environment response (i.e. the spleen). Collectively, these results suggest that a significant biological component of proton irradiation is modulated by host age through promotion of carcinogenesis in adolescence and resistance to immunosuppression, carcinogenesis and genetic perturbation associated with advancing age. (author)

  20. Measurements of neutron spectra produced from a thick tungsten target bombarded with 5 and 15 GeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Meigo, S; Shigyo, N; Iga, K; Iwamoto, Y; Kitsuki, H; Ishibashi, K; Maehata, K; Arima, H; Nakamo, T; Numajiri, M

    2002-01-01

    For validation of calculation codes that are employed in the design of a pulse spallation neutron source and accelerator driven system, the spectrum of neutrons produced from a thick target plays an important role. However, appropriate experimental data were scarce for incident energies higher than 0.8 GeV. In this study, the spectrum from a thick tungsten target was measured. The experiment was carried out at the pi 2 beam line of the 12-GeV proton synchrotron at KEK. The tungsten target was bombarded by 0.5- and 1.5-GeV secondary protons. The spectrum of neutrons was measured by the time-of-flight technique using organic scintillators of NE213. The calculated result with NMTC/JAM and MCNP-4A is compared with the measured data. It is found that the NMTC/JAM generally gives a good agreement with experiment. The NMTC/JAM, however, gives 50% lower neutron flux in the energy region 20~80 MeV, which is consistent with the results in a previous comparison of a lead target. For the neutrons between 20 and 80 MeV, t...

  1. Radiation damage in proton-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Joern

    2009-07-01

    In this work radiation hardness of 75 μm, 100 μm and 150 μm thick epitaxial silicon pad diodes of both standard and oxygenated material was investigated. Damage after 24 GeV/c proton irradiation in a 1MeV neutron equivalent fluence range between 10 14 cm -2 and 10 16 cm -2 was studied and isothermal annealing experiments at 80 C were carried out. Standard CV/IV measurements could be performed up to 4 x 10 15 cm -2 . The volume-normalised reverse current was found to increase linearly with fluence with a slope independent of the thickness and impurity concentration. However, due to large fluctuations the fluences had to be renormalised using the current-related damage parameter. Concerning the depletion voltage, nearly all materials remained at a moderate level up to 4 x 10 15 cm -2 . During short-term annealing acceptors annealed out, whereas others were introduced during the long-term annealing. The stable damage was characterised by donor removal at low fluences and fluence-proportional predominant donor introduction for highly irradiated diodes, depending on the oxygen level. No type inversion was observed. Time-resolved measurements with a new 670 nm laser-TCT setup made the determination of the trapping time constant with the charge correction method possible. The results agreed with expectations and showed a linear increase of trapping probability with fluence. The electric field exhibited a double peak structure in highly irradiated diodes. Charge collection efficiency measurements with α-particles were independent of oxygen concentration, but showed an improved efficiency for thinner diodes. A comparison to simulation revealed systematic discrepancies. A non-constant trapping time parameter was proposed as possible solution. (orig.)

  2. Radiation damage in proton-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Joern

    2009-07-15

    In this work radiation hardness of 75 {mu}m, 100 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m thick epitaxial silicon pad diodes of both standard and oxygenated material was investigated. Damage after 24 GeV/c proton irradiation in a 1MeV neutron equivalent fluence range between 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} was studied and isothermal annealing experiments at 80 C were carried out. Standard CV/IV measurements could be performed up to 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The volume-normalised reverse current was found to increase linearly with fluence with a slope independent of the thickness and impurity concentration. However, due to large fluctuations the fluences had to be renormalised using the current-related damage parameter. Concerning the depletion voltage, nearly all materials remained at a moderate level up to 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. During short-term annealing acceptors annealed out, whereas others were introduced during the long-term annealing. The stable damage was characterised by donor removal at low fluences and fluence-proportional predominant donor introduction for highly irradiated diodes, depending on the oxygen level. No type inversion was observed. Time-resolved measurements with a new 670 nm laser-TCT setup made the determination of the trapping time constant with the charge correction method possible. The results agreed with expectations and showed a linear increase of trapping probability with fluence. The electric field exhibited a double peak structure in highly irradiated diodes. Charge collection efficiency measurements with {alpha}-particles were independent of oxygen concentration, but showed an improved efficiency for thinner diodes. A comparison to simulation revealed systematic discrepancies. A non-constant trapping time parameter was proposed as possible solution. (orig.)

  3. Measurements of Neutron Spectra Produced from a Thick Iron Target Bombarded with 1.5-GeV Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Kitsuki, Hirohiko; Ishibashi, Kenji; Maehata, Keisuke; Arima, Hidehiko; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Numajiri, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    For validation of calculation codes that are employed in the design of accelerator facilities, spectra of neutrons produced from a thick iron target bombarded with 1.5-GeV protons were measured. The calculated results with NMTC/JAM were compared with the present experimental results. It is found that the NMTC/JAM generally shows good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, the calculation gives good agreement with the experiment for the energy region 20 to 80 MeV for iron, whereas the NMTC/JAM gives 50% of the experimental data for the heavy-nuclides such as lead and tungsten

  4. Measurements of neutron spectra produced from a thick iron target bombarded with 1.5 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    For validation of calculation codes which are employed in the design of accelerator facilities, spectra of neutrons produced from a thick iron target bombarded with 1.5-GeV protons were measured. The calculated results with NMTC/JAM were compared with the present experimental results. It is found the NMTC/JAM generally shows in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, the calculation gives good agreement with the experiment for the energy region 20-80 MeV, whereas the NMTC/JAM gives 50% of the experimental data for the heavy nuclide target such as lead and tungsten target. (author)

  5. {sup 55}Co separation from proton irradiated metallic nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdovinos, H. F., E-mail: hvaldovinos@wisc.edu; Graves, S., E-mail: hvaldovinos@wisc.edu; Barnhart, T., E-mail: hvaldovinos@wisc.edu; Nickles, R. J., E-mail: hvaldovinos@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-11-07

    {sup 55}Co with > 97% radionuclidic purity 24 hours after end of bombardment (EoB) was produced from the {sup 58}Ni(p,α) reaction using proton irradiations of 16 MeV on natural nickel. Two-hour irradiations with 25 μA on a 254 μm thick nickel foil generate 0.18 ± 0.01 GBq (n = 3) 24 hours after EoB. The separation of cobalt from the target material and other metallic contaminants present at trace levels is accomplished in HCl medium by two rounds of anion exchange chromatography (AG1-X8) using an automated module driven by a peristaltic pump. 80 ± 5 % (n = 3) of the activity generated at EoB is ready for labeling in 0.1 M HCl one hour after the start of separation. Using 99.999% pure Ni, the reactivity (decay corrected to EoB) with the bifunctional chelator (BFC) DOTA was 8.5 GBq/μmol; enough for radiolabeling BFC conjugated biomolecules at a nmol scale with > 90% yield. Using 99.9% pure Ni the reactivity with DOTA and NOTA was 0.19 +/− 0.09 GBq/μmol and 2.9 +/− 1.7 GBq/μmol (n = 2), respectively. Both cobalt complexes showed 100% in vitro stability in PBS and mouse serum over 41 hours at room temperature. MicroPET images of a miniature Derenzo phantom show excellent resolution where rods of 1.5 mm were separated by two times their diameter.

  6. GINES: first rice mutant obtained from proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria C; Perez, Noraida; Cristo, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    A new rice variety of a good productive potential and salinity tolerance was obtained at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (INCA), starting from in vitro culture of J-104 rice seeds irradiated with protons. This is the first report of a variety achieved by proton irradiation

  7. Acute skin reactions observed in fractionated proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Takuro; Maruhashi, Noboru; Takada, Yoshihisa; Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Inada, Tetsuo; Kitagawa, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    Between May 1985 and July 1987, 49 skin reactions of 43 patients treated by proton irradiation were observed at the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center (PARMS), the University of Tsukuba. Taking the peak skin score as an endpoint, the radiobiological effects [relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and time-dose relationship] of the proton beam in multi-fractionated treatments were estimated. Factors influencing the skin dose, such as the prescribed tumor dose, tumor site, and number of applied fields, were also analyzed. The following conclusions regarding acute skin reactions to the clinical use of proton irradiation were obtained: 1) the physical skin-sparing effect of proton irradiation in single-field irradiation, especially in superficial regions, is not large compared with that of high-energy photon irradiation; 2) multidirectional proton irradiation significantly reduced the skin dose and severity of acute reasons; 3) the radiobiological effects of the proton beam, RBE and the time factor, estimated in human skin in multi-fractional treatment were slightly smaller than those of X-rays, i.e., 0.92 and -0.25±0.09, respectively. (author)

  8. Photo-neutron yields from thin and thick targets irradiated by 2.0 GeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee-Seock, Lee; Syuichi, Ban; Toshiya, Sanami; Kazutoshi, Takahashi; Tatsuhiko, Sato; Kazuo, Shin

    2005-01-01

    The photo-neutron yields from thin and thick targets irradiated by high energy electrons were studied. The photo-neutron spectra at 90 deg C relative to the incident 2.0 GeV electrons were measured by the pulsed beam time-of-flight technique using the Pilot-U plastic scintillator and the NE213 liquid scintillator with 2 inches in length and 2 inches in diameter. Targets, from low-Z element (carbon) to high-Z element (bismuth) and with thin (0.5 Xo) and thick (10 Xo) thickness, were used in this study. The differential photo-neutron yields between 2 MeV (mainly 8 MeV) and 400 MeV were obtained. The systematics was studied to make empirical yield terms for shielding application. Recently, the study of the angular distributed yields was conducted at two other observing angles, 48 deg C and 140 deg C. The photo-neutron yields between 8 MeV and 250 MeV were obtained for thick targets. The experimental data were compared with results calculated using the EGS4+PICA3 or the MCNPX 2.5d code. (authors)

  9. Surface cracking in proton-irradiated glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, T.; Lawn, B.R.; Dalglish, R.L.; Kelly, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Some observations are reported of the surface fracture behaviour of soda-lime glass slabs (6mm thick Pilkington float glass) irradiated with 480 kV protons. A simple indentation microfracture technique provided a convenient means of probing the irradiated surface regions. Basically, the technique involves loading a standard Vickers diamond pyramid indenter onto the area of interest such that a well-developed deformation/fracture pattern is generated. (author)

  10. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A., E-mail: ringel.5@osu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (V{sub T}) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of V{sub T} was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}. Silvaco Atlas simulations of V{sub T} shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different V{sub T} dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed V{sub T} shifts. The proton irradiation induced V{sub T} shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  11. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Speck, J. S.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (VT) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of VT was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 1014 cm-2. Silvaco Atlas simulations of VT shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different VT dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed VT shifts. The proton irradiation induced VT shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  12. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (V T ) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of V T was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 10 14  cm −2 . Silvaco Atlas simulations of V T shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different V T dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed V T shifts. The proton irradiation induced V T shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  13. Decoration of dislocations by proton irradiation of halite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, J.R.; Rose, A.; Wilkins, R.W.T.

    1981-01-01

    Proton irradiation of halite (NaCl) at temperatures in the range 150-220 0 C produces a variety of colours from yellow/brown through blue to violet/red. Under suitable conditions, colour bands are formed which decorate dislocations and colour other crystal features. One beam line of the Lucas Heights 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator has been adapted to permit the measurement of optical absorption spectra during proton irradiation of heated crystals. The results show that colour centre formation is a more complex process than has been previously reported, even for synthetic NaCl crystals. The dependence of absorption at various wavelengths on dose, dose rate, temperature, strain and exposure to light is being used to study the different quasi-equilibrium concentrations of colour centres involved in the decoration process. Proton induced X-ray measurements provide information on the presence of impurities which can have an important influence on colour centre formation. (orig.)

  14. Parameterisation of radiation effects on CVD diamond for proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartjes, F.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation hardness of CVD diamond for 24 GeV/c proton irradiation at fluences up to 5 * 10 15 protons/cm 2 . The results not only show radiation damage but also an annealing effect that is dominant at levels around 10 15 protons/cm 2 . A model describing both effects is introduced, enabling a prediction of the distribution curve of the charge signal for other levels

  15. Parameterisation of radiation effects on CVD diamond for proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartjes, F.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-08-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation hardness of CVD diamond for 24 GeV/c proton irradiation at fluences up to 5{sup *}10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. The results not only show radiation damage but also an annealing effect that is dominant at levels around 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. A model describing both effects is introduced, enabling a prediction of the distribution curve of the charge signal for other levels.

  16. Proton irradiation effects on gallium nitride-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmarkar, Aditya P.

    Proton radiation effects on state-of-the-art gallium nitride-based devices were studied using Schottky diodes and high electron-mobility transistors. The device degradation was studied over a wide range of proton fluences. This study allowed for a correlation between proton irradiation effects between different types of devices and enhanced the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for radiation damage in GaN-based devices. Proton irradiation causes reduced carrier concentration and increased series resistance and ideality factor in Schottky diodes. 1.0-MeV protons cause greater degradation than 1.8-MeV protons because of their higher non-ionizing energy loss. The displacement damage in Schottky diodes recovers during annealing. High electron-mobility transistors exhibit extremely high radiation tolerance, continuing to perform up to a fluence of ˜1014 cm-2 of 1.8-MeV protons. Proton irradiation creates defect complexes in the thin-film structure. Decreased sheet carrier mobility due to increased carrier scattering and decreased sheet carrier density due to carrier removal by the defect centers are the primary damage mechanisms. Interface disorder at either the Schottky or the Ohmic contact plays a relatively unimportant part in overall device degradation in both Schottky diodes and high electron-mobility transistors.

  17. Refractive index depth profile in PMMA due to proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilasi, S.Z.; Rajta, I.; Budai, J.; Toth, Z.; Petrik, P.; Baradacs, E.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. During Proton Beam Writing the beam damage causes chain scissioning in the polymer resist material (e.g. PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate)), producing smaller molecular weight chains. Hydrogen implantation also takes place at the end of range. Compaction of the sample has been observed too, which means that the sample density becomes higher at the places where proton irradiation occurred. Furthermore, P-beam Writing has been successfully used to create buried channel waveguides in PMMA [1], since proton irradiation increases the refractive index. There are two ways of fabricating waveguides using P-beam Writing, one of them applies direct micromachining of the high refractive index core followed by the coating of a lower refractive index cladding layer. In this application the refractive indices of the substrate, the core and the cladding have to be known, which should be homogeneous within the whole structure. The other method allows producing buried waveguides. In this case proton beam writing is used to modify the refractive index along the ion path in the sample, where most of the ion energy is deposited near the end of range also known as the Bragg peak. For polymers 10 -3 refractive index change has been reported, which is usually sufficient for forming waveguides. Those measurements of the refractive index change have been performed by the refracted near field technique. In this work we used ellipsometry, in order to measure the optical parameters of the P-beam treated sample near the surface, and along the Bragg curve. Ellipsometry measures the change in the polarization state of light occurring during reflection. This change is related to the quality of the reflecting surface (i.e. the physical structure, layer thicknesses, optical constants, surface roughness, etc.). >From these measurements the refractive index and the extinction coefficient can be determined rather accurately, which makes ellipsometry a powerful tool

  18. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium – A macroscopic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, Nikolaos, E-mail: simos@bnl.gov [Nuclear Sciences & Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Elbakhshwan, Mohamed [Nuclear Sciences & Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Zhong, Zhong [Photon Sciences, NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Camino, Fernando [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  19. Further evidences for enhanced nuclear cross-sections observed in 44 GeV carbon ion interactions with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.; Abdullaev, I.G.; Adloff, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The work of enhanced nuclear cross-sections of secondary fragments produced in the interaction of 44 GeV 12 C with copper has been deepened and extended. The earlier experiment on the emission of secondary fragments into large angles producing enhanced amounts of 24 Na in copper (Phys. Rev. C, 45, 1194(1992)) was confirmed and refined both experimentally and theoretically. In this context, one looked for another signature of such enhanced production, namely for enhanced neutron production. In order to search for this, a 20 cm thick massive copper target was irradiated with 18 and 44 GeV 12 C-ions. Secondary fragments already described could interact again with copper. Outside the metallic target, secondary neutrons got moderated and low energy nuclear reactions were studied in La and U radiochemically via (n,γ)-reactions and also with various solid state nuclear track detectors. One observed an indication, however not yet significant, of enhanced production rates for low energy nuclear reactions only with 44 GeV 12 C, when compared to 18 GeV 12 C-ions. Besides some proton irradiations at SATURNE, Saclay (France) at 2.6 GeV and at PSI, Villigen (Switzerland) at 0.6 GeV all other irradiations were carried out at the Synchrophasotron, LHE, JINR, Dubna (Russia). 46 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Comparison of gamma, neutron and proton irradiations of multimode fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, M.E.; Dorsey, K.L.; Askins, C.G.; Friebele, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of pure gamma, pure proton, and mixed neutron-gamma irradiation fields on a set of both pure and doped silica core multimode fibers have been investigated. Only slight differences are found in the radiation response of pure and doped silica core fibers exposed to gamma or mixed neutron-gamma fields, indicating that Co-60 sources can be used to simulate the effects of the mixed field (except in the case of a pure neutron environment). Although it is noted that neither mix field nor gamma sources adequately simulate the effects of proton irradiation of doped silica core fibers, a good correspondence is found in the case of the pure silica core waveguide. 13 references

  1. Proton irradiation of liquid crystal based adaptive optical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buis, E.J.; Berkhout, G.C.G.; Love, G.D.; Kirby, A.K.; Taylor, J.M.; Hannemann, S.; Collon, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assess its radiation hardness, a liquid crystal based adaptive optical element has been irradiated using a 60 MeV proton beam. The device with the functionality of an optical beam steerer was characterised before, during and after the irradiation. A systematic set of measurements on the transmission and beam deflection angles was carried out. The measurements showed that the transmission decreased only marginally and that its optical performance degraded only after a very high proton fluence (10 10 p/cm 2 ). The device showed complete annealing in the functionality as a beam steerer, which leads to the conclusion that the liquid crystal technology for optical devices is not vulnerable to proton irradiation as expected in space.

  2. Proton irradiation of liquid crystal based adaptive optical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buis, E.J., E-mail: ernst-jan.buis@tno.nl [cosine Science and Computing BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Berkhout, G.C.G. [cosine Science and Computing BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huygens Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Love, G.D.; Kirby, A.K.; Taylor, J.M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hannemann, S.; Collon, M.J. [cosine Research BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    To assess its radiation hardness, a liquid crystal based adaptive optical element has been irradiated using a 60 MeV proton beam. The device with the functionality of an optical beam steerer was characterised before, during and after the irradiation. A systematic set of measurements on the transmission and beam deflection angles was carried out. The measurements showed that the transmission decreased only marginally and that its optical performance degraded only after a very high proton fluence (10{sup 10}p/cm{sup 2}). The device showed complete annealing in the functionality as a beam steerer, which leads to the conclusion that the liquid crystal technology for optical devices is not vulnerable to proton irradiation as expected in space.

  3. Proton irradiation studies on Al and Al5083 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, P.; Gayathri, N.; Bhattacharya, M.; Gupta, A. Dutta; Sarkar, Apu; Dhar, S.; Mitra, M. K.; Mukherjee, P.

    2017-10-01

    The change in the microstructural parameters and microhardness values in 6.5 MeV proton irradiated pure Al and Al5083 alloy samples have been evaluated using different model based techniques of X-ray diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRD) and microindendation techniques. The detailed line profile analysis of the XRD data showed that the domain size increases and saturates with irradiation dose both in the case of Al and Al5083 alloy. The corresponding microstrain values did not show any change with irradiation dose in the case of the pure Al but showed an increase at higher irradiation doses in the case of Al5083 alloy. The microindendation results showed that unirradiated Al5083 alloy has higher hardness value compared to that of unirradiated pure Al. The hardness increased marginally with irradiation dose in the case of Al5083, whereas for pure Al, there was no significant change with dose.

  4. Characterizations of Proton-irradiated wide bandgap semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Kim, H. R.; Ahn, J. H.

    2008-04-01

    Current-voltages were compared before and after proton irradiation. As expected from simulation results, 5keV protons severely damaged the transistors' performance compared to 25MeV protons. Also, the effects of both lower and higher fluencies were compared. Source-Drain currents were dramatically decreased under higher fluency. At the highest dose of 2x10 16 protons/cm 2 there was a decrease of 43% in IDS and a 29% decrease in gm. The data is consistent with the introduction of defect centers in the HEMT structure by the high energy protons leading to a reduction in carrier concentration and mobility in the 2- dimensional electron gas channel due to the extremely thin 2DEG and the high displacement threshold energy, AlGaN/GaN HEMT has great potential for applications in earth orbit

  5. Measurements of neutron spectra produced from a thick tungsten target bombarded with 0.5- and 1.5-GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    For validation of calculation codes that are employed in the design of pulse spallation neutron source and accelerator driven system, spectrum of neutrons produced from a thick target plays an important role. However, appropriate experimental data were scarce for the incident energies higher than 0.8 GeV. In this study, the spectrum from a thick tungsten target was measured. The experiment was carried out at the π2 beam line of the 12-GeV proton synchrotron at KEK. The tungsten target was bombarded by the 0.5- and 1.5-GeV secondary protons. Spectrum of neutrons was measured by the time-of-flight technique using organic scintillators of NE213. The calculated result with NMTC/JAM and MCNP-4A is compared with the measured data. It is found that the NMTC/JAM generally gives a good agreement with experiment. The NMTC/JAM, however, gives 50% lower neutron flux in the energy region 20∼80 MeV, which is consistent with the results in previous comparison of lead target. For the neutrons between 20 and 80 MeV, the calculation using with the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections reproduced the experiment fairly well. (author)

  6. Hadron production at 0.8Mrad by 300GeV protons incident on a thick aluminium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Coffin, T.; Diamond, R.; French, R.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Koester, L.; Koizumi, G.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Orr, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Roberts, T.; Rubbia, C.; Sard, R.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.; White, H.

    1975-01-01

    The Fermilab muon beam was used as a double-bend spectrometer for measuring π +- , K +- , proton and antiproton hadronic production, Cherenkov counters being used for particle identification. Measurements were made at 0.8mrad with 300GeV protons hitting an aluminum target

  7. Effects of proton irradiation on electronic structure of NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhen, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: lzhen@hit.edu.cn; Xu, C.Y.; Sun, X.Y.; Shao, W.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Effects of proton irradiation on electronic structure and atomic local structure of N35EH-type NdFeB permanent magnet were investigated by soft X-ray absorption spectrometry and Moessbauer spectrometry. The local coordination environment of Fe atoms changes after proton irradiation, and the average hyperfine field H{sub in} of the magnets decreases from 288.4 to 286.9 kOe. The effects of irradiation on Fe atoms local environment at different lattice sites are different. The near edge structure of Fe L{sub 3} edge is changed, indicating the density of unoccupied state of Fe 3d electrons increases after proton irradiation.

  8. Magnetic properties of point defects in proton irradiated diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgato, T.N., E-mail: Thuto.Makgato@students.wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sideras-Haddad, E. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Center of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Ramos, M.A. [CMAM, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); García-Hernández, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A. [CMAM, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Shrivastava, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Erasmus, R. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Center of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa)

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ultra-pure type-IIa diamond following irradiation with proton beams of ≈1–2 MeV energy. SQUID magnetometry indicate the formation of Curie type paramagnetism according to the Curie law. Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the primary structural features created by proton irradiation are the centers: GR1, ND1, TR12 and 3H. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo simulations together with SQUID observations show a strong correlation between vacancy production, proton fluence and the paramagnetic factor. At an average surface vacancy spacing of ≈1–1.6 nm and bulk (peak) vacancy spacing of ≈0.3-0.5 nm Curie paramagnetism is induced by formation of ND1 centres with an effective magnetic moment μ{sub eff}~(0.1–0.2)μ{sub B}. No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. - Highlights: • Proton macro-irradiation of pure diamond creates fluence dependent paramagnetism. • The effective magnetic moment is found to be in the range μ{sub eff}~(0.1–0.2)μ{sub B}. • No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed.

  9. Magnetic properties of point defects in proton irradiated diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, T.N.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Ramos, M.A.; García-Hernández, M.; Climent-Font, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; Shrivastava, S.; Erasmus, R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ultra-pure type-IIa diamond following irradiation with proton beams of ≈1–2 MeV energy. SQUID magnetometry indicate the formation of Curie type paramagnetism according to the Curie law. Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the primary structural features created by proton irradiation are the centers: GR1, ND1, TR12 and 3H. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo simulations together with SQUID observations show a strong correlation between vacancy production, proton fluence and the paramagnetic factor. At an average surface vacancy spacing of ≈1–1.6 nm and bulk (peak) vacancy spacing of ≈0.3-0.5 nm Curie paramagnetism is induced by formation of ND1 centres with an effective magnetic moment μ eff ~(0.1–0.2)μ B . No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. - Highlights: • Proton macro-irradiation of pure diamond creates fluence dependent paramagnetism. • The effective magnetic moment is found to be in the range μ eff ~(0.1–0.2)μ B . • No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed.

  10. Recovery of hafnium radioisotopes from a proton irradiated tantalum target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.A.; Garcia, J.G.; Hamilton, V.T.; Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J.; Ott, M.A.; Philips, D.R.; Radzinski, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The 178m2 Hf nucleus, with its long half-life (31 y) and high-spin isomeric state (16 + ) is desired for new and exotic nuclear physics studies. The Los Alamos Radioisotope Program irradiated a kilogram of natural tantalum at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility in early 1981. After fifteen years of decay, this target was ideal for the recovery of 178m2 Hf. There was more than a millicurie of 178m2 Hf produced during this irradiation and there has been a sufficient period of time for most of the other hafnium radioisotopes to decayed away. Traditionally, separation techniques for recovering hafnium isotopes from tantalum targets employ solvent extractions with reagents that are considered hazardous. These techniques are no longer condoned because they generate a mixed-waste (radioactive and hazardous components) that can not be treated for disposal. In this paper we describe a new and unique procedure for the recovery of hafnium radioisotopes from a highly radioactive, proton irradiated, tantalum target using reagents that do not contribute a hazardous waste component. (author)

  11. Proton irradiation augments the reduction in tumor progression observed with advanced age

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proton irradiation is touted for its improved tumor targeting due to the physical advantages of ion beams for radiotherapy. Recent studies from our laboratory have...

  12. Ferromagnetism in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Wei Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal. An initial increase in proton dose leads to pronounced ferromagnetism, accompanying with obvious increase in vacancy concentration. Further increase in irradiation dose lowers the saturation magnetization with the decrease in total vacancy defects due to the defects recombination. It is found that divacancies are the mainly defects in proton irradiated 4H-SiC and responsible for the observed ferromagnetism.

  13. Radiation defects and electron disordering in proton-irradiated diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschenko, V.E.; Soloviev, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    The absorption spectra are studied in the region of the fundamental absorption band and its longwave boundary for the 0.6 μm thick diamond films deposited onto Al 2 O 3 single crystal underlayers and irradiated by 100 keV and 50 keV protons at fluences of 10 13 -10 16 cm -2 . The E 0 β (6.10-5.9eV) and E 0 α (5.51-5.43eV) maxima and the exponential tails towards lower energies are resolved in the spectra of initial films. The halfwidths of the maxima and a weak temperature dependence of their parameters and of the Urbach tail slope are indicative of disordering of the film structure. The intrinsic maxima near and above the indirect absorption boundary in diamond Γ 25 '-Δ are identified with transitions in the disordered cubic and hexagonal phases of the diamond films. The proton irradiation stimulates the intensity redistribution of the intrinsic maxima, the absorption enhancement, and the change of the Urbach tail slope. The character of radiolysis has been found to depend on the composition of the nonirradiated carbon films and on proton fluence. (author). 8 refs.; 3 figs

  14. Recoil properties of antimony isotopes produced by the reaction of 570 MeV and 18.2 GeV protons with uranium

    CERN Document Server

    Hagebø, E

    1969-01-01

    Using the method of thick target and thick catchers, the ranges and other recoil properties of 13 (12) antimony isotopes between A = 115 and A = 131 (130) have been measured for the reaction of 570 MeV (18·2 GeV) protons with uranium. The kinetic energies T are almost independent of product mass number at 570 MeV but show a strong dependence at 18·2 GeV, the lightest isotopes having only about half the kinetic energy of the heavy ones. \\\\ \\\\The cascade deposition energies for production of antimony isotopes are almost equal at 570 MeV and 18·2 GeV and fit well to straight lines of the form E$^{∗}$ (A, Z) = E$^{∗}$ (A$_{0}$, Z) + b(A − A$_{0}$). Exceptions are the cascade deposition energies for $^{115}$Sb and $^{116}$Sb which seem to be somewhat too high at 18·2 GeV. By comparison with other work it seems that the slope $b$ of these lines is independent of product element, target and of proton irradiation energy above 450 MeV. \\\\ \\\\If we assume at 570 MeV, that the fissioning nucleus is a uranium ...

  15. Measurements of spallation neutrons from a thick lead target bombarded with 0.5 and 1.5 GeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Double differential neutron spectra from a thick lead target bombarded with 0.5 and 1.5 GeV protons have been measured with the time-of-flight technique. In order to obtain the neutron spectra without the effect of the flight time fluctuation by neutron scattering in the target, an unfolding technique has also been employed in the low energy region below 3 MeV. The measured data have been compared with the calculated results of NMTC/JAERI-MCNP-4A code system. It has been found that the code system gives about 50 % lower neutron yield than the experimental ones in the energy region between 20 and 80 MeV for both incident energies. The disagreements, however, have been improved well by taking account of the inmedium nucleon-nucleon scattering cross sections in the NMTC/JAERI code. (author)

  16. Evaluation of cross sections of 56Fe up to 3 GeV and integral benchmark calculation for thick target yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Meigo, Shin-ichiro

    2001-01-01

    The neutron and proton cross sections of 56 Fe were evaluated up to 3 GeV. JENDL High Energy File of 56 Fe were developed for use in transport calculation. For neutrons, the high-energy data are merged with JENDL3.3-file. Integral benchmark calculations for thick target neutron yields (TTY) for 113 MeV and 256 MeV proton bombardment of Fe targets were performed using the evaluated libraries. Calculated TTY neutron spectra were compared with experimental data. For 113 MeV, calculated TTY at 7.5 degree underestimated in the emitted neutron energy range above 10 MeV. For 256 MeV, calculated TTY well agree with experimental data except below 10 MeV. (author)

  17. Precipitation in Zr-2.5Nb enhanced by proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cann, C.D.; So, C.B.; Styles, R.C.; Coleman, C.E.

    1993-08-01

    A 3.6 MeV proton irradiation of annealed Zr-2.5Nb has been performed to determine whether proton irradiation will enhance the precipitation of Nb-rich β-phase precipitates within the α-grains. a transmission electron microscope examination of a foil after irradiation at 770 K for 18 h and at 720 K for 264.5 h to a total damage of 0.94 dpa revealed a fine dispersion of precipitates within the α-grains. Electron diffraction analysis of the precipitates found they have lattice plane spacings consistent with the Nb-rich β-phase. This result is in agreement with the βphase precipitation observed following neutron irradiation, and thus it supports the use of proton irradiation to simulate neutron-irradiation effects in Zr-2.5Nb

  18. 380 keV proton irradiation effects on photoluminescence of Eu-doped GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Yasuo; Wakahara, Akihiro; Yoshida, Akira; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 380 keV proton irradiation on the photoluminescence (PL) properties has been investigated for undoped and Eu-doped GaN. As the proton irradiation exceeds 1x10 13 cm -2 , a drastic decrease of PL intensity of the near band-edge emission of undoped GaN was observed. On the other hand, for Eu-doped GaN, the PL emission corresponding to the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition in Eu 3+ kept the initial PL intensity after the proton irradiation up to 1x10 14 cm -2 . Present results, together with our previous report on electron irradiation results, suggest that Eu-doped GaN is a strong candidate for light emitting devices in high irradiation environment

  19. Precipitation in Zr-2.5Nb enhanced by proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cann, C. D.; So, C. B.; Styles, R. C.; Coleman, C. E.

    1993-08-15

    A 3.6 MeV proton irradiation of annealed Zr-2.5Nb has been performed to determine whether proton irradiation will enhance the precipitation of Nb-rich {beta}-phase precipitates within the {alpha}-grains. a transmission electron microscope examination of a foil after irradiation at 770 K for 18 h and at 720 K for 264.5 h to a total damage of 0.94 dpa revealed a fine dispersion of precipitates within the {alpha}-grains. Electron diffraction analysis of the precipitates found they have lattice plane spacings consistent with the Nb-rich {beta}-phase. This result is in agreement with the {beta}phase precipitation observed following neutron irradiation, and thus it supports the use of proton irradiation to simulate neutron-irradiation effects in Zr-2.5Nb.

  20. Vacancy-type defects in electron and proton irradiated ZnO and ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.; Puff, W.; Logar, B.; Baumann, H.

    1997-01-01

    A study aimed at investigating basic properties of radiation induced effects in ZnO and ZnS has been presented. Positron annihilation experiments (both lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements) were performed on polycrystalline samples. For ZnO it was found that both electron and proton irradiation caused significant changes in the positron annihilation characteristics and several annealing stages were observed, related to the annealing of variously sized vacancy complexes. The lifetime in defected, proton irradiated polycrystalline ZnS samples, grown by chemical vapour deposition, indicates the formation of large defect complexes. The annealing of proton irradiated ZnS in air at temperatures between 650 C and 750 C leads to significant oxidation and transformation into ZnO. 10 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  1. Vacancy-type defects in electron and proton irradiated ZnO and ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, S.; Puff, W.; Logar, B. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Mascher, P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Balogh, A.G. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany); Baumann, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1997-10-01

    A study aimed at investigating basic properties of radiation induced effects in ZnO and ZnS has been presented. Positron annihilation experiments (both lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements) were performed on polycrystalline samples. For ZnO it was found that both electron and proton irradiation caused significant changes in the positron annihilation characteristics and several annealing stages were observed, related to the annealing of variously sized vacancy complexes. The lifetime in defected, proton irradiated polycrystalline ZnS samples, grown by chemical vapour deposition, indicates the formation of large defect complexes. The annealing of proton irradiated ZnS in air at temperatures between 650 C and 750 C leads to significant oxidation and transformation into ZnO. 10 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  2. Vacancy-type defects in electron and proton irradiated II-VI compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.; Puff, W.; Balogh, A.G.; Baumann, H.

    1997-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors present a study aimed at investigating the basic properties of radiation induced defects in ZnS and ZnO and the influence of the atmosphere on the annealing characteristics of the defects. Positron annihilation experiments (both lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements) were performed on both single- and polycrystalline samples, irradiated with 3 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. For ZnS it was found that both electron and proton irradiation caused significant changes in the positron annihilation characteristics. The annealing of proton irradiated ZnS in air leads to significant oxidation and eventual transformation into ZnO

  3. Effect of 200 keV proton irradiation on the properties of methyl silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lixin; Xu Zhou; Wei Qiang; He Shiyu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of 200 keV proton irradiation on methyl silicone rubber were studied. The changes in surface morphology, mechanical properties, cross-linking density, glass transition temperature, infrared attenuated total reflection spectrum and mass spectrum indicated that, at lower fluence, the proton irradiation induced cross-linking, resulting in an increase in tensile strength and hardness of the methyl silicone rubber. However, at higher proton fluence, radiation-induced degradation, which decreased the tensile strength and hardness, became dominant. A macromolecular-network destruction model for silicone rubber irradiated with protons was proposed

  4. Validation of MC models of spallation reactions in thin and thick targets in the GeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenbaum, F.; Filges, D.; Neef, R.D.; Nuenighoff, K.; Paul, N.; Schaal, H.; Sterzenbach, G.; Tietze, A.; Wohlmuther, M.; Galin, J.; Letourneau, A.; Lott, B.; Peghaire, A.; Pienkowski, L.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of new projects of intense spallation neutron sources an extensive experimental and theoretical effort is devoted to the precise prediction and optimization of the targets and shielding in terms of reaction cross sections, hadronic interaction lengths and usable neutrons produced in proton induced spallation reactions. Strong constraints on Monte-Carlo high energy transport codes are put by a measurement campaign of the NESSI (neutron scintillator and silicon detector) collaboration. While the predictive power of inter- and intra-nuclear cascade models coupled to evaporation codes and transport systems is excellent as far as neutron production in thick targets is concerned, there are considerable discrepancies not only between experiments and models, but also among the different codes themselves when regarding charged particle production in thin targets. In the current contribution a representative validation will be executed and possible deficiencies within the codes are elaborated. (orig.)

  5. The annealing of interstitial carbon atoms in high-resistivity n-type silicon after proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhnke, M; Lindström, G

    2002-01-01

    The annealing of interstitial carbon C sub i after 7-10 MeV and 23 GeV proton irradiations at room temperature in high-resistivity n-type silicon is investigated. Deep level transient spectroscopy is used to determine the defect parameters. The annealing characteristics of the impurity defects C sub i , C sub i C sub s , C sub i O sub i and VO sub i suggest that the mobile C sub i atoms are also captured at divacancy VV sites at the cluster peripheries and not only at C sub s and O sub i sites in the silicon bulk. The deviation of the electrical filling characteristic of C sub i from the characteristic of a homogeneously distributed defect can be explained by an aggregation of C sub i atoms in the environment of the clusters. The capture rate of electrons into defects located in the cluster environment is reduced due to a positive space charge region surrounding the negatively charged cluster core. The optical filling characteristic of C sub i suggests that the change of the triangle-shaped electric field dis...

  6. Changes of initiation, promotion and metastatic enzyme system in human breast cancer with the proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, K. S.; Mo, J. Y. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Proton irradiations in the cells were significantly decreased cell viability but increased the QR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability was 92.3%, 88.4%, 81.8%, 72.4%, 68.9% at doses of 0.5, 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, respectively. At doses of 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, QR activity was increased 1.27-, 1.31-, 1.45- and 2.08-fold. However, negligible GST activity in the cells was detected and the activity was not changed by proton irradiation. Proton irradiation also increased GSH contents by 1.18- and 1.21-fold at doses of 0.5 and 2 Gy. In contrast, the ODC activity, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and tumor promotion, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated anti-metastatic effects of proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells. Invasion and wound healing assay showed that metastatic activities in breast cancer cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by proton beam irradiation. In zymography of MMP-9, the activity was slightly diminished. These results suggest that breast cancer chemopreventive potential was increased with proton irradiation by increasing the QR activity and the GSH levels and by inhibiting the ODC activity.

  7. Positronium formation in helium bubbles in 600 MeV proton-irradiated aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. O.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, Bachu Narain

    1985-01-01

    Aluminium samples containing helium bubbles produced by 600 MeV proton irradiation at 430°C were investigated by positron annihilation; both lifetime and angular correlation measurements were made. The angular correlation curves contain an unusually narrow component. This component is associated...

  8. Changes of initiation, promotion and metastatic enzyme system in human breast cancer with the proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, K. S.; Mo, J. Y.

    2010-04-01

    Proton irradiations in the cells were significantly decreased cell viability but increased the QR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability was 92.3%, 88.4%, 81.8%, 72.4%, 68.9% at doses of 0.5, 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, respectively. At doses of 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, QR activity was increased 1.27-, 1.31-, 1.45- and 2.08-fold. However, negligible GST activity in the cells was detected and the activity was not changed by proton irradiation. Proton irradiation also increased GSH contents by 1.18- and 1.21-fold at doses of 0.5 and 2 Gy. In contrast, the ODC activity, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and tumor promotion, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated anti-metastatic effects of proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells. Invasion and wound healing assay showed that metastatic activities in breast cancer cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by proton beam irradiation. In zymography of MMP-9, the activity was slightly diminished. These results suggest that breast cancer chemopreventive potential was increased with proton irradiation by increasing the QR activity and the GSH levels and by inhibiting the ODC activity.

  9. Angular distribution measurements of photo-neutron yields produced by 2.0 GeV electrons incident on thick targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. S.; Ban, S.; Sanami, T.; Takahashi, K.; Sato, T.; Shin, K.; Chung, C.

    2005-01-01

    A study of differential photo-neutron yields by irradiation with 2 GeV electrons has been carried out. In this extension of a previous study in which measurements were made at an angle of 90 deg. relative to incident electrons, the differential photo-neutron yield was obtained at two other angles, 48 deg. and 140 deg., to study its angular characteristics. Photo-neutron spectra were measured using a pulsed beam time-of-flight method and a BC418 plastic scintillator. The reliable range of neutron energy measurement was 8-250 MeV. The neutron spectra were measured for 10 Xo-thick Cu, Sn, W and Pb targets. The angular distribution characteristics, together with the previous results for 90 deg., are presented in the study. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo calculation results. The yields predicted by MCNPX 2.5 tend to underestimate the measured ones. The same trend holds for the comparison results using the EGS4 and PICA3 codes. (authors)

  10. Angular distribution measurements of photo-neutron yields produced by 2.0 GeV electrons incident on thick targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Seock; Ban, Syuichi; Sanami, Toshiya; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Shin, Kazuo; Chung, Chinwha

    2005-01-01

    A study of differential photo-neutron yields by irradiation with 2 GeV electrons has been carried out. In this extension of a previous study in which measurements were made at an angle of 90 degrees relative to incident electrons, the differential photo-neutron yield was obtained at two other angles, 48 degrees and 140 degrees, to study its angular characteristics. Photo-neutron spectra were measured using a pulsed beam time-of-flight method and a BC418 plastic scintillator. The reliable range of neutron energy measurement was 8-250 MeV. The neutron spectra were measured for 10 Xo-thick Cu, Sn, W and Pb targets. The angular distribution characteristics, together with the previous results for 90 degrees, are presented in the study. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo calculation results. The yields predicted by MCNPX 2.5 tend to underestimate the measured ones. The same trend holds for the comparison results using the EGS4 and PICA3 codes.

  11. ASTRO-H CdTe detectors proton irradiation at PIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limousin, O.; Renaud, D.; Horeau, B.; Dubos, S.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Chipaux, R.; Boatella Polo, C.; Marcinkowski, R.; Kawaharada, M.; Watanabe, S.; Ohta, M.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.

    2015-01-01

    Asbstract: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), is partner of the Soft Gamma-Ray Detector (SGD) and the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) onboard the 6th Japanese X-ray scientific satellite ASTRO-H (JAXA) initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). Both scientific instruments, one hosting a series of Compton Gamma Cameras and the other being a focal plane of a grazing incidence mirror telescope in the hard X-ray domain, are equipped with Cadmium Telluride based detectors. ASTRO-H will be operated in a Low Earth Orbit with a 31° inclination at ~550 km altitude, thus passing daily through the South Atlantic Anomaly radiation belt, a specially harsh environment where the detectors are suffering the effect of the interaction with trapped high energy protons. As CdTe detector performance might be affected by the irradiation, we investigate the effect of the accumulated proton fluence on their spectral response. To do so, we have characterized and irradiated representative samples of SGD and HXI detector under different conditions. The detectors in question, from ACRORAD, are single-pixels having a size of 2 mm by 2 mm and 750 µm thick. The Schottky contact is either made of an Indium or Aluminum for SGD and HXI respectively. We ran the irradiation test campaign at the Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF) at PSI, and ESA approved equipment to evaluate the radiation hardness of flight hardware. We simulated the proton flux expected on the sensors over the entire mission, and secondary neutrons flux due to primary proton interactions into the surrounding BGO active shielding. We eventually characterized the detector response evolution, emphasizing each detector spectral response as well as its stability by studying the so-called Polarization effect. The latter is provoking a spectral response degradation against time as a charge accumulation process occurs in Schottky type CdTe sensors. In this paper

  12. Tensile properties of several 800 MeV proton-irradiated bcc metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Wechsler, M.S.; Tschalar, C.

    1987-01-01

    A spallation neutron source for the 600-MeV proton accelerator facility at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN) consists of a vertical cylinder filled with molten Pb-Bi. The proton beam enters the cylinder, passing upward through a window in contact with the Pb-Bi eutectic liquid that must retain reasonable strength and ductility upon irradiation at about 673 K to fluence of about 1 x 10/sup 25/ protons/m/sup 2/. Investigations are underway at the 800-MeV proton accelerator at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) to test the performance of candidate SIN window materials under appropriate conditions of temperature, irradiation, and environment. Based on considerations of chemical compatibility with molten Pb-Bi, as well as interest in identifying fundamental radiation damage mechanisms, Fe, Ta, Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo, and Fe-12Cr-1Mo(HT-9) were chosen as candidate materials. Sheet tensile samples, 0.5-mm thick, of the four materials were fabricated and heat treated. The samples were sealed inside capsules containing Pb-Bi and were proton-irradiated at LAMPF to two fluences, 4.8 and 54 x 10/sup 23/ p/m/sup 2/. The beam current was approximately equal to the 1 mA anticipated for the upgraded SIN accelerator. The power deposited by the proton beam in the capsules was sufficient to maintain sample temperatures of about 673 K. Post-irradiation tensile tests were conducted at room temperature at a strain rate of 9 x 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/. The yield and ultimate strengths increased upon irradiation in all materials, while the ductility decreased, as indicated by the uniform strain. The pure metals, Ta and Fe, exhibited the greatest radiation hardening and embrittlement. The HT-9 alloy showed the smallest changes in strength and ductility. The increase in strength following irradiation is discussed in terms of a dispersed-barrier hardening model, for which the barrier sizes and formation cross sections are calculated

  13. HTB140 melanoma cells under proton irradiation and/or alkylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korićanac, L.; Petrović, I.; Privitera, G.; Cuttone, G.; Ristić-Fira, A.

    2007-09-01

    Chemoresistance is a major problem in the treatment of malignant melanoma. The mainstay of treatment for melanoma is the DNA-alkylating agent dacarbazine (DTIC). Fotemustine (FM), a member of the chloroethylnitrosourea group of alkylating agents, has also demonstrated significant antitumor effects in malignant melanoma. However, the intrinsic and acquired resistance of melanoma limits the clinical application of these drugs. Melanomas are also extremely radioresistant. With the objective of enhancing growth inhibition of melanoma cells, combined treatments of FM or DTIC with proton irradiation have been investigated. These effects were studied on HTB140 melanoma cell viability and proliferation. Cells exposed to treatment with FM and protons have shown inhibition of cell growth and significant reduction of proliferation capacity compared to single irradiation or drug treatment. Treatment with DTIC and protons has shown improved growth inhibition compared to appropriate single drug treatment, while the effects of single proton irradiation have been the most pronounced.

  14. Ionization versus displacement damage effects in proton irradiated CMOS sensors manufactured in deep submicron process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiffon, V.; Magnan, P.; Saint-Pe, O.; Bernard, F.; Rolland, G.

    2009-01-01

    Proton irradiation effects have been studied on CMOS image sensors manufactured in a 0.18μm technology dedicated to imaging. The ionizing dose and displacement damage effects were discriminated and localized thanks to 60 Co irradiations and large photodiode reverse current measurements. The only degradation observed was a photodiode dark current increase. It was found that ionizing dose effects dominate this rise by inducing generation centers at the interface between shallow trench isolations and depleted silicon regions. Displacement damages are is responsible for a large degradation of dark current non-uniformity. This work suggests that designing a photodiode tolerant to ionizing radiation can mitigate an important part of proton irradiation effects.

  15. Proton irradiation induced defects in Cd and Zn doped InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybicki, G.C.; Williams, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Proton irradiation induced defects in Zn and Cd doped InP have been studied by deep level transient spectroscopy, (DLTS). After 2 MeV proton irradiation the defects H4 and H5 were observed in lightly Zn doped InP, while the defects H3 and H5 were observed in more heavily Zn and Cd doped InP. The defect properties were not affected by the substitution of Cd for Zn, but the introduction rate of H5 was lower in Cd doped InP. The annealing rate of defects was also higher in Cd doped InP. The use of Cd doped InP may thus result in an InP solar cell with even greater radiation resistance

  16. Proton-irradiation technology for high-frequency high-current silicon welding diode manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagov, P B; Drenin, A S; Zinoviev, M A

    2017-01-01

    Different proton irradiation regimes were tested to provide more than 20 kHz-frequency, soft reverse recovery “snap-less” behavior, low forward voltage drop and leakage current for 50 mm diameter 7 kA/400 V welding diode Al/Si/Mo structure. Silicon diode with such parameters is very suitable for high frequency resistance welding machines of new generation for robotic welding. (paper)

  17. Proton-irradiation technology for high-frequency high-current silicon welding diode manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagov, P. B.; Drenin, A. S.; Zinoviev, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    Different proton irradiation regimes were tested to provide more than 20 kHz-frequency, soft reverse recovery “snap-less” behavior, low forward voltage drop and leakage current for 50 mm diameter 7 kA/400 V welding diode Al/Si/Mo structure. Silicon diode with such parameters is very suitable for high frequency resistance welding machines of new generation for robotic welding.

  18. Sorption technique of separation of thallium-201 from proton-irradiated thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptula, Cz.; Zajtseva, N.G.; Mikolaevskij, S.; Khalkin, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    A sorption technique is developed for radiochemical separation of thallium-201 from proton-irradiated targets of metallic thallium. The technique consists in separation of 201 Pb and 201 Tl in the column with ammonium 12-molybdophosphate fixed in the matrix of porous Teflon (AMP-sorbent). The chemical yield of radiothallium is 98 %, the duration of chemical procedures is 2.5-3 hours. 21 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  19. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  20. High total dose proton irradiation effects on silicon NPN rf power transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharathi, M. N.; Praveen, K. C.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana; Pushpa, N.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the I-V characteristics of NPN rf power transistors were studied in the dose range of 100 Krad to 100 Mrad. The different electrical characteristics like Gummel, current gain and output characteristics were systematically studied before and after irradiation. The recovery in the I-V characteristics of irradiated NPN BJTs were studied by isochronal and isothermal annealing methods

  1. High total dose proton irradiation effects on silicon NPN rf power transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathi, M. N.; Praveen, K. C.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana, E-mail: gnanaprakash@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka (India); Pushpa, N. [Department of PG Studies in Physics, JSS College, Ooty Road, Mysore-570025, Karnataka (India)

    2014-04-24

    The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the I-V characteristics of NPN rf power transistors were studied in the dose range of 100 Krad to 100 Mrad. The different electrical characteristics like Gummel, current gain and output characteristics were systematically studied before and after irradiation. The recovery in the I-V characteristics of irradiated NPN BJTs were studied by isochronal and isothermal annealing methods.

  2. Proton Irradiation Impacts Age Driven Modulations of Cancer Progression Influenced by Immune System Transcriptome Modifications from Splenic Tissue

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Age plays a crucial role in the interplay between tumor and host; with further perturbations induced by irradiation. Proton irradiation on tumors induces biological...

  3. Impact of proton irradiation on deep level states in n-GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Cinkilic, E.; Ringel, S. A.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; McSkimming, B.; Speck, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Deep levels in 1.8 MeV proton irradiated n-type GaN were systematically characterized using deep level transient spectroscopies and deep level optical spectroscopies. The impacts of proton irradiation on the introduction and evolution of those deep states were revealed as a function of proton fluences up to 1.1 × 10 13 cm −2 . The proton irradiation introduced two traps with activation energies of E C - 0.13 eV and 0.16 eV, and a monotonic increase in the concentration for most of the pre-existing traps, though the increase rates were different for each trap, suggesting different physical sources and/or configurations for these states. Through lighted capacitance voltage measurements, the deep levels at E C - 1.25 eV, 2.50 eV, and 3.25 eV were identified as being the source of systematic carrier removal in proton-damaged n-GaN as a function of proton fluence

  4. Electrical characterization of proton irradiated p+-n-n+ Si diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Lee, D.U.; Kim, E.K.; Bae, Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    Electrical characterization of p + -n-n + Si power electric diodes was done with proton irradiation. The kinetic energies of irradiated protons were 2.32, 2.55 and 2.97MeV, and for each energy condition, doses of 1x10 11 , 1x10 12 and 1x10 13 cm -2 were given. By modulating the kinetic energy, the proton penetration depth into Si crystal could be adjusted to the range of 55-90μm, and then controlled to the special depth regions such as junction region, depletion region and neutral region over the depletion layer in the p + -n-n + diode structure. Defects produced by the proton irradiation affected to electrical property of the Si diode because of their carrier trapping, and then the reverse recovery time was improved from 240 to 50ns. It appeared that the defect states with activation energies of 0.47 and 0.54eV may be responsible for the decrease of the minority carrier lifetime in the proton-irradiated diode with 2.97MeV energy and 1x10 13 cm -2 doses

  5. Photoluminescence study of high energy proton irradiation on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bonhyeong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June Hyuk [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Donghyeop [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Ahn, Byung Tae, E-mail: btahn@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byungha, E-mail: byungha@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    We have studied the effect of proton irradiation on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films using photoluminescence (PL). We used a 10 MeV proton beam with varying doses from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. Intensity-dependent low temperature PL measurements suggest that the proton irradiation does not create a new defect level but instead changes the number of preexisting defects in the detection range of the PL system. By comparing PL spectra after the proton irradiation with those obtained after thermal annealing under inert gas as well as under hydrogen gas ambient, we find that the irradiation-induced change in the defect structure does not originate from the incorporation of hydrogen but from energetics of the irradiating particles. Electrical resistivity of the proton irradiated CIGS thin films is shown to decrease after the proton irradiation, and this is explained by the reduction of the concentration of compensating donor-like defects, specifically selenium vacancies, based on the PL results. - Highlights: • Photoluminescence study of 10 MeV proton irradiation on CIGS at 10 K. • Irradiation modified population of existing defects without introducing new levels. • Changes in CIGS by 10 MeV irradiation are due to energetics of irradiating protons.

  6. Analysis of Giant-nucleated Cell Formation Following X-ray and Proton Irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahwasi, Ashraf Abdu

    Radiation-induced genetic instability has been observed in survivors of irradiated cancerous and normal cells in vitro and in vivo and has been determined in different forms, such as delayed cell death, chromosomal aberration or mutation. A well defined and characterized normal human-diploid AG1522 fibroblast cell line was used to study giant-nucleated cell (GCs) formation as the ultimate endpoint of this research. The average nuclear cross-sectional areas of the AG1522 cells were measured in mum2. The doubling time required by the AG1522 cells to divide was measured. The potential toxicity of the Hoechst dye at a working concentration on the live AG1522 cells was assessed. The yield of giant cells was determined at 7, 14 and 21 days after exposure to equivalent clinical doses of 0.2, 1 or 2 Gy of X-ray or proton irradiation. Significant differences were found to exist between X-ray or proton irradiation when compared with sham-irradiated control populations. The frequency of GCs induced by X-rays was also compared to those formed in proton irradiated cultures. The results confirm that 1 Gy X-rays are shown to induce higher rates of mitotically arrested GCs, increasing continually over time up to 21 days post-irradiation. The yield of GCs was significantly greater (10%) compared to those formed in proton populations (2%) 21 days postirradiation. The GCs can undergo a prolonged mitotic arrest that significantly increases the length of cell cycle. The arrest of GCs at the mitotic phase for longer periods of time might be indicative of a strategy for cell survival, as it increases the time available for DNA repair and enables an alternative route to division for the cells. However, the reduction in their formation 21 days after both types of radiation might favour GCs formation, ultimately contributing to carcinogenesis or cancer therapy resistance. The X-ray experiments revealed a dose-dependent increase in the GCs up to 14 days after irradiation. Although the proton

  7. Effects of fotemustine or dacarbasine on a melanoma cell line pretreated with therapeutic proton irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Privitera Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that HTB140 melanoma cells have shown a poor response to either protons or alkylating agents, the effects of a combined use of these agents have been analysed. Methods Cells were irradiated in the middle of the therapeutic 62 MeV proton spread out Bragg peak (SOBP. Irradiation doses were 12 or 16 Gy and are those frequently used in proton therapy. Four days after irradiation cells were treated with fotemustine (FM or dacarbazine (DTIC. Drug concentrations were 100 and 250 μM, values close to those that produce 50% of growth inhibition. Cell viability, proliferation, survival and cell cycle distribution were assessed 7 days after irradiation that corresponds to more than six doubling times of HTB140 cells. In this way incubation periods providing the best single effects of drugs (3 days and protons (7 days coincided at the same time. Results Single proton irradiations have reduced the number of cells to ~50%. FM caused stronger cell inactivation due to its high toxicity, while the effectiveness of DTIC, that was important at short term, almost vanished with the incubation of 7 days. Cellular mechanisms triggered by proton irradiation differently influenced the final effects of combined treatments. Combination of protons and FM did not improve cell inactivation level achieved by single treatments. A low efficiency of the single DTIC treatment was overcome when DTIC was introduced following proton irradiation, giving better inhibitory effects with respect to the single treatments. Most of the analysed cells were in G1/S phase, viable, active and able to replicate DNA. Conclusion The obtained results are the consequence of a high resistance of HTB140 melanoma cells to protons and/or drugs. The inactivation level of the HTB140 human melanoma cells after protons, FM or DTIC treatments was not enhanced by their combined application.

  8. A Method to Simulate the Observed Surface Properties of Proton Irradiated Silicon Strip Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, Timo Hannu Tapani

    2014-01-01

    A defect model of Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD simulation package for the bulk properties of proton irradiated devices has been producing simulations closely matching to measurements of silicon strip detectors. However, the model does not provide the expected behavior due to the fluence increased surface damage. The solution requires an approach that does not affect the accurate bulk properties produced by the proton model, but only adds to it the required radiation induced properties close to the surface. These include the observed position dependency of the strip detector's...

  9. Neutron production in bombardments of thin and thick W, Hg, Pb targets by 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.8 and 2.5 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letrourneau, A.; Galin, J.; Goldenbaum, F.; Lott, B.; Peghaire, A.; Enke, M.; Hilscher, D.; Jahnke, U.; Nuenighoff, K.; Filges, D.; Neef, R.D.; Paul, N.; Schaal, H.; Sterzenbach, G.; Tietze, A.

    2000-05-01

    Neutron experimental data relevant to the design of the target of neutron spallation sources are presented and discussed. The data include the reaction cross sections for W, Hg and Pb investigated with 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.8 and 2.5 GeV proton beams as well as the neutron production, neutron multiplicity distribution, as determined event per event using a high efficiency detector. The production as a function of target material is investigated for both thin (with a single reaction) and thick targets (multiple reactions). Comparisons are made with the predictions of a high energy transport code. (authors)

  10. Doping of 6H-SiC pn structures by proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'chuk, Anatoly M.; Lebedev, Alexandre A.; Kozlovski, Vitali V.; Savkina, Natali S.; Davydov, Denis V.; Solov'ev, Viktor V.; Rastegaeva, Marina G.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of proton irradiation on current-voltage characteristics, N d - N a values and parameters of deep centres in 6H-SiC pn structures grown by sublimation epitaxy has been studied. The irradiation was carried out with 8 MeV protons in the range of doses from 10 14 to 10 16 cm -2 . Irradiation with a dose of 3.6x10 14 cm -2 leaves the voltage drop at high forward currents (10 A/cm 2 ) practically unchanged. For higher irradiation dose of 1.8x10 15 cm -2 , the forward voltage drop and the degree of compensation in the samples increased ; partial annealing of the radiation defects and partial recovery of the electrical parameters occurred after annealing at T∼400-800 K. Irradiation with a dose of 5.4x10 15 cm -2 resulted in very high resistance in forward biased pn structures which remained high even after heating to 500 deg. C. It is suggested that proton irradiation causes decreasing of the lifetime and formation of an i- or an additional p-layer

  11. Studies of physiology and the morphology of the cat LGN following proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reder, Chad S.; Moyers, Michael F.; Lau, Daryl; Kirby, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: We have examined the effects of proton irradiation on the histologic and receptive field properties of thalamic relay cells in the cat visual system. The cat lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is a large structure with well-defined anatomical boundaries, and well-described afferent, efferent, and receptive field properties. Methods and Materials: A 1.0-mm proton microbeam was used on the cat LGN to determine short-term (3 months) and long-term (9 months) receptive field effects of irradiation on LGN relay cells. The doses used were 16-, 40-, and 60-gray (Gy). Results: Following irradiation, abnormalities in receptive field organization were found in 40- and 60-Gy short-term animals, and in all of the long-term animals. The abnormalities included 'silent' areas of the LGN where a visual response could not be evoked and other regions that had unusually large or small compound receptive fields. Histologic analysis failed to identify cellular necrosis or vascular damage in the irradiated LGN, but revealed a disruption in retinal afferents to areas of the LGN. Conclusions: These results indicate that microbeam proton irradiation can disrupt cellular function in the absence of obvious cellular necrosis. Moreover, the area and extent of this disruption increased with time, having larger affect with longer post-irradiation periods

  12. High-energy and high-fluence proton irradiation effects in silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Taylor, S.J.; Yang, M.; Matsuda, S.; Kawasaki, O.; Hisamatsu, T.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined proton irradiation damage in high-energy (1 endash 10 MeV) and high-fluence (approx-gt 10 13 cm -2 ) Si n + -p-p + structure space solar cells. Radiation testing has revealed an anomalous increase in short-circuit current I sc followed by an abrupt decrease and cell failure, induced by high-fluence proton irradiation. We propose a model to explain these phenomena by expressing the change in carrier concentration p of the base region as a function of the proton fluence in addition to the well-known model where the short-circuit current is decreased by minority-carrier lifetime reduction after irradiation. The reduction in carrier concentration due to majority-carrier trapping by radiation-induced defects has two effects. First, broadening of the depletion layer increases both the generation endash recombination current and also the contribution of the photocurrent generated in this region to the total photocurrent. Second, the resistivity of the base layer is increased, resulting in the abrupt decrease in the short circuit current and failure of the solar cells. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Characterization of the proton irradiation induced luminescence of materials and application in radiation oncology dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Zhang, Rongxiao; Kassaee, Alireza; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2018-03-01

    Visible light generated as the result of interaction of ionizing radiation with matter can be used for radiation therapy quality assurance. In this work, we characterized the visible light observed during proton irradiation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silica glass fiber materials by performing luminescence spectroscopy. The spectra of the luminescence signal from PMMA and silica glass fibers during proton irradiation showed continuous spectra whose shape were different from that expected from Čerenkov radiation, indicating that Čerenkov radiation cannot be the responsible radioluminescence signal. The luminescence signal from each material showed a Bragg peak pattern and their corresponding proton ranges are in agreement with measurements performed by a standard ion chamber. The spectrum of the silica showed two peaks at 460 and 650 nm stem from the point defects of the silica: oxygen deficiency centers (ODC) and non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC), respectively. The spectrum of the PMMA fiber showed a continuous spectrum with a peak at 410 nm whose origin is connected with the fluorescence of the PMMA material. Our results are of interest for various applications based on imaging radioluminescent signal in proton therapy and will inform on the design of high-resolution fiber probes for proton therapy dosimetry.

  14. Effect of proton irradiation on photoluminescent properties of PDMS-nanodiamond composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borjanovic, Vesna; Hens, Suzanne; Shenderova, Olga; McGuire, Gary E; Lawrence, William G; Edson, Clark; Jaksic, Milko; Zamboni, Ivana; Vlasov, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Pure poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films, PDMS-nanodiamond (ND) and pure nanodiamond powder were irradiated with 2 MeV protons under a variety of fluence and current conditions. Upon proton irradiation, these samples acquire a fluence-dependent photoluminescence (PL). The emission and excitation spectra, photostability and emission lifetime of the induced photoluminescence of PDMS and PDMS-ND samples are reported. Pure PDMS exhibits a noticeable stable blue PL, while the PDMS-ND composites exhibit a pronounced stable green PL under 425 nm excitation. The PL of PDMS-ND composites is much more prominent than that of pure PDMS or pure ND powder even when irradiated at higher doses. The origin of the significantly enhanced PL intensity for the proton-irradiated PDMS-ND composite is explained by the combination of enhanced intrinsic PL within ND particles due to ion-implantation-generated defects and by PL originating from structural transformations produced by protons at the nanodiamond/matrix interface.

  15. Formation cross-sections and chromatographic separation of protactinium isotopes formed in proton-irradiated thorium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radchenko, Valery; Engle, Jonathan W.; Wilson, Justin J.; Maassen, Joel R.; Nortier, Meiring F.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; John, Kevin D.; Fassbender, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) is a treatment method of increasing interest to the clinical oncology community that utilizes α-emitting radionuclides conjugated to biomolecules for the selective killing of tumor cells. Proton irradiation of thorium generates a number of α-emitting radionuclides with therapeutic potential for application via TAT. In particular, the radionuclide {sup 230}Pa is formed via the {sup 232}Th(p, 3n) nuclear reaction and partially decays to {sup 230}U, an α emitter which has recently received attention as a possible therapy nuclide. In this study, we estimate production yields for {sup 230}Pa and other Pa isotopes from proton-irradiated thorium based on cross section measurements. We adopt existing methods for the chromatographic separation of protactinium isotopes from proton irradiated thorium matrices to combine and optimize them for effective fission product decontamination.

  16. Application of the Moessbauer spectroscopy to the investigation of the proton irradiation effects in several iron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopcewicz, M.; Kotlicki, A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study into the influence of proton irradiation on the Moessbauer effect in FeSO 4 x 7H 2 O, K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] x 3H 2 O and K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] are reported. In the interpretation of the effect observed, the 'spike' model was applied. Chemical decomposition processes due to proton irradiation and formation of the superparamagnetic state of metallic iron were investigated. A Moessbauer observation of interstitial Fe 2+ ions in irradiated FeSO 4 x 7H 2 O was made. (Z.S.)

  17. Electric dipole moment in KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} systematically modified by proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Kweon, Jung; Lee, Cheol Eui [Department of Physics and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, S. J.; Kim, H. S. [Department of Applied Physics, Dankook University, Yongin 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out an impedance spectroscopy study on a series of proton-irradiated KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) systems. A systematic modification was observed in the transverse dipole moment of the proton-irradiated KDP systems, associated with hydrogen-ion displacements, as obtained from dielectric constant measurements by using a mean-field approximation. Besides, intercorrelation of the charge transport with the dielectric properties was revealed, both having closely to do with the hydrogen-bond modification.

  18. Experimental investigation of neutron generation in thick target blocks of Pb, Hg and W with 0.4 to 2.5 GeV proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, U.; Enke, M.; Filges, D.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed experimental neutron data relevant to the design of the target station of neutron spallation sources have been gathered by the NESSI-collaboration at the COSY accelerator in FZ Juelich. Numerous neutron multiplicity distributions and reaction probabilities have been measured for 0.4 to 2.5 GeV protons bombarding highly segmented target blocks from Pb, Hg and W of up to 35 cm in length and 15 cm in diameter with the intention to provide a comprehensive data base for the improvement and validation of existing reaction simulation codes. (author)

  19. Damage effects and mechanisms of proton irradiation on methyl silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.X.; He, Sh.Y.; Xu, Zh.; Wei, Q.

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed on the damage effects and mechanisms of proton irradiation with 150 keV energy to space-grade methyl silicone rubber. The changes in surface morphology, mechanical properties, infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectrum, mass spectrum and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrum (PYGC-MS) indicated that, under lower fluence, the proton radiation would induce cross-linking effect, resulting in an increase in tensile strengths and hardness of the methyl silicon rubber. However, under higher proton fluence, the radiation-induced degradation, which decreased the tensile strengths and hardness, became a dominant effect. A macromolecular-network destruction model for the silicone rubber radiated with the protons was proposed

  20. Optical and electrical properties of some electron and proton irradiated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.; Tripathy, S.P.; Sinha, D.; Dwivedi, K.K.; Ghosh, S.; Khathing, D.T.; Mueller, M.; Fink, D.; Chung, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ion beam treatment studies have been carried out to investigate the potential for improvements in conductivity properties of the polymers Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE), Polyimide (PI), Polyethyleneterepthalate (PET) and Polypropylene (PP), after 2 MeV electron and 62 MeV proton irradiation. The shift in optical absorption edges as observed by UV-VIS spectra of the irradiated polymers has been correlated to the optical band-gap using Tauc's expression. A decrease in the optical band-gap has been observed in irradiated PP and PTFE, but no considerable change was found for the optical band-gaps of PET and PI. Further AC conductivity measurements confirmed an increase in conductivity in electron irradiated PP

  1. Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of proton irradiated Zircaloy 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Apu, E-mail: asarkar@barc.gov.in [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Reserch Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Kumar, Ajay [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Reserch Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Mukherjee, S.; Sharma, S.K.; Dutta, D.; Pujari, P.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Agarwal, A.; Gupta, S.K.; Singh, P. [Ion Accelerator Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Reserch Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Samples of Zircaloy 2 have been irradiated with 4 MeV protons to two different doses. Microstructures of the unirradiated and irradiated samples have been characterized by Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction line profile analysis (XRDLPA), Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and Coincident Doppler Broadening (CDB) Spectroscopy. Tensile tests and micro hardness measurements have been carried out at room temperature to assess the changes in mechanical properties of Zircaloy 2 due to proton irradiation. The correlation of dislocation density, grain size and yield stress of the irradiated samples indicated that an increase in dislocation density due to irradiation is responsible for the change in mechanical behavior of irradiated Zircaloy.

  2. An overview of the PIREX Proton Irradiation facility and its research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, M.; Gavillet, D. [Association EURATOM, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    The main design characteristics of PIREX (Proton Irradiation Experiment) are described. The facility is installed in the 590 MeV proton beam of the PSI accelerator system. Its main task is the irradiation and testing of fusion reactor candidate materials. Protons of this energy produce simultaneously in the target material displacement damage and impurities, amongst them helium. They can therefore simulate possible synergistic effects between helium and damage that would result from irradiations with the fusion neutrons. The research program being developed includes studies on both materials of technological interest, such as martensitic stainless steels and Mo - based alloys and basic radiation damage research on pure metals. The facility is also being used for actinide transmutation studies, in the so called ATHENA experiment. The main directions of the research program are described and examples of present results are given.

  3. Defect recovery in proton irradiated Ti-modified stainless steel probed by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arunkumar, J.; Abhaya, S.; Rajaraman, R.; Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Nair, K.G.M. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)], E-mail: kgmn@igcar.gov.in; Sundar, C.S.; Raj, Baldev [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)

    2009-02-28

    The defect recovery in proton irradiated Ti-modified D9 steel has been studied by positron annihilation isochronal and isothermal annealing measurements. D9 samples have been irradiated with 3 MeV protons followed by isochronal annealing at various temperatures in the range of 323 to 1273 K. The dramatic decrease in positron annihilation parameters, viz. positron lifetime and Doppler S-parameter, around 500 K indicates the recovery of vacancy-defects. A clear difference in the recovery beyond 700 K is observed between solution annealed and cold worked state of D9 steel due to the precipitation of TiC in the latter. Isothermal annealing studies have been carried out at the temperature wherein vacancies distinctly migrate. Assuming a singly activated process for defect annealing, the effective activation energy for vacancy migration is estimated to be 1.13 {+-} 0.08 eV.

  4. Optimal conditions for high current proton irradiations at the university of Wisconsin's ion beam laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Field, K. G.; Gerczak, T. J.; Eiden, T. J.; Maier, B. R.; Albakri, O.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Electrostatics Corporation's (NEC) Toroidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS) source is known for exceptionally high proton currents with minimal service downtime as compared to traditional sputter sources. It has been possible to obtain over 150μA of proton current from the source, with over 70μA on the target stage. However, beam fluxes above ∼1×10 17 /m2-s may have many undesirable effects, especially for insulators. This may include high temperature gradients at the surface, sputtering, surface discharge, cracking or even disintegration of the sample. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the role of high current fluxes in a suite of ceramics and insulating materials. Results will show the optimal proton irradiation conditions and target mounting strategies needed to minimize unwanted macro-scale damage, while developing a procedure for conducting preliminary radiation experiments.

  5. The martensitic transformation of Ti–Ni shape memory thin films under proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z.Y.; Wang, H.Z.; Zhu, Y.Y.; Meng, X.L.; Cai, W.

    2015-01-01

    The martensitic transformation behavior of a Ti–Ni alloy irradiated by proton with different doses has been investigated. It is found that the samples irradiated by 150 keV protons have a two-step phase transformation during heating and only one-step transformation during cooling. The exothermic peak at higher temperature disappears during the following thermal cycling. A model based on the stress-assisted martensitic transformation was established by the Transport of Ions in Matter (TRIM) calculations in order to explain the transformation behavior. - Highlights: • Martensitic transformation behavior of TiNi alloy under proton irradiation • Two-step transformation appears upon heating for a sample irradiated at 150 keV. • One-step transformation appears upon cooling for a sample irradiated at 150 keV. • In the following thermal cycling, the higher temperature exothermic peak vanishes

  6. Separation of protactinum, actinium, and other radionuclides from proton irradiated thorium target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Michael E.; Radchenko, Valery

    2018-04-24

    Protactinium, actinium, radium, radiolanthanides and other radionuclide fission products were separated and recovered from a proton-irradiated thorium target. The target was dissolved in concentrated HCl, which formed anionic complexes of protactinium but not with thorium, actinium, radium, or radiolanthanides. Protactinium was separated from soluble thorium by loading a concentrated HCl solution of the target onto a column of strongly basic anion exchanger resin and eluting with concentrated HCl. Actinium, radium and radiolanthanides elute with thorium. The protactinium that is retained on the column, along with other radionuclides, is eluted may subsequently treated to remove radionuclide impurities to afford a fraction of substantially pure protactinium. The eluate with the soluble thorium, actinium, radium and radiolanthanides may be subjected to treatment with citric acid to form anionic thorium, loaded onto a cationic exchanger resin, and eluted. Actinium, radium and radiolanthanides that are retained can be subjected to extraction chromatography to separate the actinium from the radium and from the radio lanthanides.

  7. Analysis of proton irradiation products in simulated interstellar dusts by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeo; Tsuchiya, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Kensei

    1996-01-01

    It is known that various kinds of organic compounds exist in space. In order to study the possibility of the formation of organic compounds in comets or their precursory bodies (interstellar dust grains), ice mixtures of carbon monoxide (or methane), ammonia and water made in a cryostat at 10 K ('simulated cometary ices') were irradiated with high energy protons. Irradiated ice products were warmed up to room temperature, while sublimed gases were analyzed with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Some hydrocarbons and alcohols were detected. 'Amino acid precursors' (compounds yielding amino acids after hydrolysis) were detected in non-volatile products remaining on the substrate at room temperature. These results suggest the possible formation of organic compounds in interstellar dust grains by cosmic radiation. (author)

  8. Optical spectroscopy of vacancy related defects in silicon carbide generated by proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, C.; Sperlich, A.; Simin, D.; Astakhov, G.V. [Experimental Physics VI, Julius Maximilian University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Kraus, H. [Japan Atomic EnergyAgency, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan); Experimental Physics VI, Julius Maximilian University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Makino, T.; Sato, S.I.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic EnergyAgency, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan); Dyakonov, V. [Experimental Physics VI, Julius Maximilian University of Wuerzburg (Germany); ZAE Bayern, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Defects in silicon carbide (SiC) received growing attention in recent years, because they are promising candidates for spin based quantum information processing. In this study we examine silicon vacancies in 4H-SiC crystals generated by proton irradiation. By the use of confocal microscopy the implantation depth of Si vacancies for varying proton energies can be verified. An important issue is to ascertain the nature and distribution of the defects. For this purpose, we use the characteristic photoluminescence spectrum of Si vacancies, whose intensity is proportional to the defect density. Using xyz-scans, where the photoluminescence at each mapping point is recorded, one can thus determine the vacancies nature and their distribution in the SiC crystal. Additionally we verify the nature of the examined defects by measuring their uniquely defined zero-field-splitting by using ODMR associated with defect spins.

  9. Developments, characterization and proton irradiation damage tests of AlN detectors for VUV solar observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BenMoussa, A., E-mail: ali.benmoussa@stce.be [Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence (STCE), Royal Observatory of Belgium, Circular Avenue 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Soltani, A.; Gerbedoen, J.-C [Institut d’Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Saito, T. [Department of Environment and Energy, Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1, Yagiyama-Kasumi-cho, Taihaku-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8577 (Japan); Averin, S. [Fryazino Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 141190 Square Vvedenski 1, Fryazino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Gissot, S.; Giordanengo, B. [Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence (STCE), Royal Observatory of Belgium, Circular Avenue 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Berger, G. [Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain la Neuve (Belgium); Kroth, U. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); De Jaeger, J.-C. [Institut d’Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Gottwald, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    For next generation spaceborne solar ultraviolet radiometers, innovative metal–semiconductor–metal detectors based on wurtzite aluminum nitride are being developed and characterized. A set of measurement campaigns and proton irradiation damage tests was carried out to obtain their ultraviolet-to-visible characterization and degradation mechanisms. First results on large area prototypes up to 4.3 mm diameter are presented here. In the wavelength range of interest, this detector is reasonably sensitive and stable under brief irradiation with a negligible low dark current (3–6 pA/cm{sup 2}). No significant degradation of the detector performance was observed after exposure to protons of 14.4 MeV energy, showing a good radiation tolerance up to fluences of 1 × 10{sup 11} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  10. A Method to Simulate the Observed Surface Properties of Proton Irradiated Silicon Strip Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00335524; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichhorn, T.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.

    2015-04-23

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. To upgrade the tracker to required performance level, extensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. A defect model of Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD simulation package for the bulk properties of proton irradiated devices has been producing simulations closely matching with measurements of silicon strip detectors. However, the model does not provide expected behavior due to the fluence increased surface damage. The solution requires an approach that does not affect the accurate bulk properties produced by the proton model, but only adds to it the required radiation induced properties close to the surface. These include the observed position dependency of the strip detector's charge collec...

  11. A study on the proton irradiation effect of reactor materials using cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se Hwan; Park, Jong Man; Park, Deuk Keun; Lee, Bong Sang; Oh, Jong Myung

    1993-02-01

    Understanding on radiation damage of important structural materials is important for safe operation and radiation damage evaluation of new reactor structural materials. This study was performed to simulate and evaluate 14 MeV neutron irradiation effects on mechanical properties of candidate structural materials (HT-9/SS316) of next generation reactors (FBR, Fusion) irradiated by Cyclotron(MC-50) using SP test technique. After qualification of SP test techniques from J IC and ε qf correlation, SP tests were performed to evaluate 16MeV proton irradiation effects on mechanical properties of irradiated and unirradiated HT-9/SS316 steels. Test results were evaluated for ε qf , energy and displacement up to failure and J IC change. In addition, damaged zone and dpa upon depth after irradiation were calculated using TRIM code and Doppler broadening line shapes were measured to evaluate defects for 15% cold worked HT-9 steel using PAS. (Author)

  12. Effects of a low-energy proton irradiation on n+/p-AlInGaP solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Ekins-Daukes, N.J.; Khan, A.; Takamoto, T.; Imaizumi, M.; Ohshima, T.; Itoh, H.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, by deep-level transient spectroscopy, 30keV proton irradiation-induced defects in n + /p-AlInGaP solar cells have been observed. After the 30keV proton irradiation, new deep-level defects such as two majority-carrier (hole) traps HP1 (E V +0.98eV, N T =3.8x10 14 cm -3 ) and HP2, and two minority-carrier (electron) traps EP1 (E C -0.71eV, N T =2.0x10 15 cm -3 ) and EP2 have been observed in p-AlInGaP. The introduction rate of majority-carrier trap center (HP1) is 380cm -1 , which is lower than that (1500cm -1 ) in 100keV proton-irradiated p-InGaP. From the minority-carrier injection annealing for HP1 defect and carrier concentration in 30keV proton-irradiated p-AlInGaP, HP1 defect is likely to act as a recombination center as well as a compensator center

  13. A coupled RL and transport model for mixed-field proton irradiation of Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Jain, Mayank

    2008-01-01

    effects and inelastic hadronic scattering occur in proton therapy dosimetry. To investigate these aspects in relation to our system, we have combined simulation of particle transportation with a luminescence generation code based on track structure theory. The model was found to qualitatively reproduce...... the main features in experimental data from proton irradiations. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Internal friction measurements of Mo after low-temperature proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, H.; Mizubayashi, H.; Masuda, R.; Okuda, S.; Tagishi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Internal friction measurements are performed in Mo after 20 MeV proton irradiation in order to clarify the behavior of self-interstitial atoms (SIA's) in Mo. In the low dose range, strong dislocation pinning suggesting the free migration of defects is observed at about 40 K and weak pinning at about 25 K. The features are very similar to those reported after neutron irradiation except that the 25 K pinning is much smaller after proton irradiation. The result suggests that the migration of free SIA's is responsible for the 40 K pinning and that of SIA-defect clusters, probably di-SIA's, formed during irradiation for the 25 K pinning. In the high dose range, the relaxation peaks are observed at about 13 and 41 K, where the close similarities are found between the present peaks and the corresponding peaks reported after neutron irradiation except that the peak height of the 41 K peak per unit concentration of Frenkel pairs (FP) tends to increase strongly with decreasing dose here. The latter fact suggests the strong interaction between SIA's. Then the smallness of the 41 K peak reported after electron irradiation with very high dose could be explained by an increased interaction between SIA's, but not by the two-dimensional migration of SIA's as proposed by Jacques and Robrock. Deformation given prior to irradiation causes a drastic decrease in the modulus defects associated with FP's (so-called bulk effect) and in the 13 K peak height. After neutron irradiation, no such effect of deformation was reported. A possible origin for this difference is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Proton irradiation effects on optical attenuation in doped- and pure-silica fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasai, Kaoru; Bueker, H.; Haesing, F.W.; Pfeiffer, F.

    1999-05-01

    Optical attenuation in doped- and pure-silica fibers was measured at wavelengths of 470 nm, 660 nm, and 850 nm during and after 20 MeV proton irradiation. In the experiment the fibers were arranged on a holder to make one layer' so that uniform proton irradiation can be achieved to them. The induced loss of the doped-silica fiber increased strongly at the beginning of the first irradiation, and decreased slowly after stopping of the beam. In the second irradiation, however, the developed loss was not so large. On the other hand, the loss of the pure-silica fiber increased gradually in the first irradiation, and decreased very quickly after the beam stopped. The loss increased stepwise at the very beginning of the second irradiation. Small luminescence from the fibers during irradiation was observed also. The luminescence of the pure-silica fiber was slightly larger than that of the doped-silica fiber. The induced loss of HCP fibers was also measured when a SiO 2 plate was set in front of the fibers. It may be possible to estimate the proton dose in materials using fiber-optic technique. Proton sensitivities of doped- and pure-silica fibers were, respectively, 1.0 x 10 -10 at 660 nm and 5.5 x 10 -12 at 470 nm in units of (dB/m)/(protons/cm 2 ), where the values were estimated from the slope of the loss growth curves at the beginning of the first irradiation. (author)

  16. Persistent changes in neuronal structure and synaptic plasticity caused by proton irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Vipan K; Pasha, Junaid; Tran, Katherine K; Craver, Brianna M; Acharya, Munjal M; Limoli, Charles L

    2015-03-01

    Cranial radiotherapy is used routinely to control the growth of primary and secondary brain tumors, but often results in serious and debilitating cognitive dysfunction. In part due to the beneficial dose depth distributions that may spare normal tissue damage, the use of protons to treat CNS and other tumor types is rapidly gaining popularity. Astronauts exposed to lower doses of protons in the space radiation environment are also at risk for developing adverse CNS complications. To explore the consequences of whole body proton irradiation, mice were subjected to 0.1 and 1 Gy and analyzed for morphometric changes in hippocampal neurons 10 and 30 days following exposure. Significant dose-dependent reductions (~33 %) in dendritic complexity were found, when dendritic length, branching and area were analyzed 30 days after exposure. At equivalent doses and times, significant reductions in the number (~30 %) and density (50-75 %) of dendritic spines along hippocampal neurons of the dentate gyrus were also observed. Immature spines (filopodia, long) exhibited the greatest sensitivity (1.5- to 3-fold) to irradiation, while more mature spines (mushroom) were more resistant to changes over a 1-month post-irradiation timeframe. Irradiated granule cell neurons spanning the subfields of the dentate gyrus showed significant and dose-responsive reductions in synaptophysin expression, while the expression of postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95) was increased significantly. These findings corroborate our past work using photon irradiation, and demonstrate for the first time, dose-responsive changes in dendritic complexity, spine density and morphology and synaptic protein levels following exposure to low-dose whole body proton irradiation.

  17. Efficiency of respiratory-gated delivery of synchrotron-based pulsed proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunashima, Yoshikazu; Vedam, Sastry; Dong, Lei; Bues, Martin; Balter, Peter; Smith, Alfred; Mohan, Radhe; Umezawa, Masumi; Sakae, Takeji

    2008-01-01

    Significant differences exist in respiratory-gated proton beam delivery with a synchrotron-based accelerator system when compared to photon therapy with a conventional linear accelerator. Delivery of protons with a synchrotron accelerator is governed by a magnet excitation cycle pattern. Optimal synchronization of the magnet excitation cycle pattern with the respiratory motion pattern is critical to the efficiency of respiratory-gated proton delivery. There has been little systematic analysis to optimize the accelerator's operational parameters to improve gated treatment efficiency. The goal of this study was to estimate the overall efficiency of respiratory-gated synchrotron-based proton irradiation through realistic simulation. Using 62 respiratory motion traces from 38 patients, we simulated respiratory gating for duty cycles of 30%, 20% and 10% around peak exhalation for various fixed and variable magnet excitation patterns. In each case, the time required to deliver 100 monitor units in both non-gated and gated irradiation scenarios was determined. Based on results from this study, the minimum time required to deliver 100 MU was 1.1 min for non-gated irradiation. For respiratory-gated delivery at a 30% duty cycle around peak exhalation, corresponding average delivery times were typically three times longer with a fixed magnet excitation cycle pattern. However, when a variable excitation cycle was allowed in synchrony with the patient's respiratory cycle, the treatment time only doubled. Thus, respiratory-gated delivery of synchrotron-based pulsed proton irradiation is feasible and more efficient when a variable magnet excitation cycle pattern is used

  18. Effects of proton irradiation on structure of NdFeB permanent magnets studied by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Zhen, L.; Xu, C.Y.; Sun, X.Y.; Shao, W.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of proton irradiation on the structure of NdFeB permanent magnet were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results reveal that proton irradiation has no effect on the long-range structure, but significantly affects the atomic local structure of the NdFeB magnet. The alignment degree of the magnet decreases and the internal stress of the lattice increases after proton irradiation. XAFS results show that the coordination number of Fe-Nd in the first neighboring coordination shell of the Fe atoms decreases and the disorder degree increases.

  19. Effects of proton irradiation on structure of NdFeB permanent magnets studied by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhen, L., E-mail: lzhen@hit.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xu, C.Y.; Sun, X.Y.; Shao, W.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The effects of proton irradiation on the structure of NdFeB permanent magnet were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results reveal that proton irradiation has no effect on the long-range structure, but significantly affects the atomic local structure of the NdFeB magnet. The alignment degree of the magnet decreases and the internal stress of the lattice increases after proton irradiation. XAFS results show that the coordination number of Fe-Nd in the first neighboring coordination shell of the Fe atoms decreases and the disorder degree increases.

  20. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.; Nocera, P.; Zwaska, R.; Mokhov, N.

    2017-01-01

    In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140–180 MeV, to peak fluence of ~6.1×10"2"0 p/cm"2 and irradiation temperatures between 120–200 °C. The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a) comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b) understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young’s modulus. The proton fluence level of ~10"2"0 cm"-"2 where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite revealed for the first time the similarity in

  1. High-energy proton irradiation of C57Bl6 mice under hindlimb unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Marc; Todd, Paul; Orschell, Christie; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Farr, Jonathan; Klein, Susan; Sokol, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Solar proton events (SPEs) pose substantial risk for crewmembers on deep space missions. It has been shown that low gravity and ionizing radiation both produce transient anemia and immunodeficiencies. We utilized the C57Bl/6 based hindlimb suspension model to investigate the consequences of hindlimb-unloading induced immune suppression on the sensitivity to whole body irradiation with modulated 208 MeV protons. Eight-week old C57Bl/6 female mice were conditioned by hindlimb-unloading. Serial CBC and hematocrit assays by HEMAVET were accumulated for the hindlimb-unloaded mice and parallel control animals subjected to identical conditions without unloading. One week of hindlimb-unloading resulted in a persistent, statistically significant 10% reduction in RBC count and a persistent, statistically significant 35% drop in lymphocyte count. This inhibition is consistent with published observations of low Earth orbit flown mice and with crewmember blood analyses. In our experiments the cell count suppression was sustained for the entire six-week period of observation and persisted for at least 7 days beyond the period of active hindlimb-unloading. C57Bl/6 mice were also irradiated with 208 MeV Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) protons at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. We found that at 8.5 Gy hindlimb-unloaded mice were significantly more radiation sensitive with 35 lethalities out of 51 mice versus 15 out of 45 control (non-suspended) mice within 30 days of receiving 8.5 Gy of SOBP protons (p =0.001). Both control and hindlimb-unloaded stocktickerCBC analyses of 8.5 Gy proton irradiated and control mice by HEMAVET demonstrated severe reductions in WBC counts (Lymphocytes and PMNs) by day 2 post-irradiation, followed a week to ten days later by reductions in platelets, and then reductions in RBCs about 2 weeks post-irradiation. Recovery of all blood components commenced by three weeks post-irradiation. CBC analyses of 8

  2. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, N.; Nocera, P.; Zhong, Z.; Zwaska, R.; Mokhov, N.; Misek, J.; Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Kotsina, Z.

    2017-07-01

    In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140-180 MeV, to peak fluence of ˜6.1 ×1020 p /cm2 and irradiation temperatures between 120 - 200 °C . The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a) comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b) understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young's modulus. The proton fluence level of ˜1020 cm-2 where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite revealed for the first time the similarity in

  3. Field ion microscopy study of depleted zones in tungsten after proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnum, D.J.; Sommer, W.F.; Inal, O.T.; Yu, J.

    1986-01-01

    Depleted zones in tungsten, that resulted from medium-energy proton irradiations, were studied using the Field Ion Microscope (FIM). The shapes and sizes of depleted zones is an important aspect of basic radiation damage. These data can be compared to models that have been suggested as well as aid development of new models. These depleted volumes are of interest not only for an understanding of basic radiation effects, but also because they affect material properties and can act as nucleation sites for voids or gas bubbles. Depleted zones were produced in annealed tungsten wires by irradiation with 600 to 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The defects observed in the irradiated samples included vacancies, depleted zones, grain boundaries, and dislocations. Single vacancies were the most commonly observed defect. Of the samples ''imaged,'' over 50 depleted zones were found within the area of high resolution in the area between the prominent [112] poles in a [110] oriented sample. The number of layers photographed in each sample was dependent upon the initial shape of the tip and ranged from 60 to 200 [110] sequential layers

  4. Electrical properties of as-grown and proton-irradiated high purity silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Jerzy, E-mail: krupka@imio.pw.edu.pl [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Karcz, Waldemar [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kamiński, Paweł [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 13, 301-919 Warsaw (Poland); Jensen, Leif [Topsil Semiconductor Materials A/S, Siliciumvej 1, DK-3600 Frederikssund (Denmark)

    2016-08-01

    The complex permittivity of as-grown and proton-irradiated samples of high purity silicon obtained by the floating zone method was measured as a function of temperature at a few frequencies in microwave spectrum by employing the quasi TE{sub 011} and whispering gallery modes excited in the samples under test. The resistivity of the samples was determined from the measured imaginary part of the permittivity. The resistivity was additionally measured at RF frequencies employing capacitive spectroscopy as well as in a standard direct current experiment. The sample of as-grown material had the resistivity of ∼85 kΩ cm at room temperature. The sample irradiated with 23-MeV protons had the resistivity of ∼500 kΩ cm at 295 K and its behavior was typical of the intrinsic material at room and at elevated temperatures. For the irradiated sample, the extrinsic conductivity region is missing and at temperatures below 250 K hopping conductivity occurs. Thermal cycle hysteresis of the resistivity for the sample of as-grown material is observed. After heating and subsequent cooling of the sample, its resistivity decreases and then slowly (∼50 h) returns to the initial value.

  5. Proton irradiation effects in oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Swift, G.M.; Guertin, S.; Schwank, J.R.; Armendariz, M.G.; Hash, G.L.; Choquette, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes are employed as the emitter portion of opto-couplers that are used in space applications. Proton irradiation studies on VCSELs were performed at the Indiana University cyclotron facility. The beam energy was set at 192 MeV, the beam current was 200 nA that is equivalent to a flux of approximately 1*10 11 protons/cm 2 .s. We conclude that the oxide confined VCSELs examined in this study show more than sufficient radiation hardness for nearly all space applications. The observed proton-induced decreases in light output and the corresponding increases in laser threshold current can be explained in terms of proton-induced displacement damage which introduces non-radiative recombination centers in the active region of the lasers and causes a decrease in laser efficiency. These radiation effects accentuate the detrimental thermal effects observed at high currents. We also note that forward bias annealing is effective in these devices in producing at least partial recovery of the light output, and that this may be a viable hardness assurance technique during a flight mission. (A.C.)

  6. High-temperature annealing of proton irradiated beryllium – A dilatometry-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, Nikolaos, E-mail: simos@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Ghose, Sanjit [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Savkliyildiz, Ilyas [Rutgers University (United States)

    2016-08-15

    S−200 F grade beryllium has been irradiated with 160 MeV protons up to 1.2 10{sup 20} cm{sup −2} peak fluence and irradiation temperatures in the range of 100–200 °C. To address the effect of proton irradiation on dimensional stability, an important parameter in its consideration in fusion reactor applications, and to simulate high temperature irradiation conditions, multi-stage annealing using high precision dilatometry to temperatures up to 740 °C were conducted in air. X-ray diffraction studies were also performed to compliment the macroscopic thermal study and offer a microscopic view of the irradiation effects on the crystal lattice. The primary objective was to qualify the competing dimensional change processes occurring at elevated temperatures namely manufacturing defect annealing, lattice parameter recovery, transmutation {sup 4}He and {sup 3}H diffusion and swelling and oxidation kinetics. Further, quantification of the effect of irradiation dose and annealing temperature and duration on dimensional changes is sought. The study revealed the presence of manufacturing porosity in the beryllium grade, the oxidation acceleration effect of irradiation including the discontinuous character of oxidation advancement, the effect of annealing duration on the recovery of lattice parameters recovery and the triggering temperature for transmutation gas diffusion leading to swelling.

  7. DNA double strand breaks and Hsp70 expression in proton irradiated living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, Anja; Reinert, Tilo; Tanner, Judith; Butz, Tilman

    2007-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in living cells can be directly provoked by ionising radiation. DSBs can be visualized by immunostaining the phosphorylated histone γH2AX. Our concern was to test the feasibility of γH2AX staining for a direct visualization of single proton hits. If single protons produce detectable foci, DNA DSBs could be used as 'biological track detectors' for protons. Ionising radiation can also damage proteins indirectly by inducing free radicals. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) help to refold or even degrade the damaged proteins. The level of the most famous heat shock protein Hsp70 is increased by ionising radiation. We investigated the expression of γH2AX and Hsp70 after cross and line patterned irradiation with counted numbers of 2.25 MeV protons on primary human skin fibroblasts. The proton induced DSBs appear more delocalised than it was expected by the ion hit accuracy. Cooling the cells before the irradiation reduces the delocalisation of DNA DSBs, which is probably caused by the reduced diffusion of DNA damaging agents. Proton irradiation seems to provoke protein damages mainly in the cytoplasm indicated by cytoplasmic Hsp70 aggregates. On the contrary, in control heat shocked cells the Hsp70 was predominantly localized in the cell nucleus. However, the irradiated area could not be recognized, all cells on the Si 3 N 4 window showed a homogenous Hsp70 expression pattern

  8. DNA double strand breaks and Hsp70 expression in proton irradiated living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Anja [Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig (Germany) and Faculty of Biology, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: afiedler@uni-leipzig.de; Reinert, Tilo [Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig (Germany); Tanner, Judith [Clinic and Polyclinic for Radiation Oncology, University of Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Butz, Tilman [Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in living cells can be directly provoked by ionising radiation. DSBs can be visualized by immunostaining the phosphorylated histone {gamma}H2AX. Our concern was to test the feasibility of {gamma}H2AX staining for a direct visualization of single proton hits. If single protons produce detectable foci, DNA DSBs could be used as 'biological track detectors' for protons. Ionising radiation can also damage proteins indirectly by inducing free radicals. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) help to refold or even degrade the damaged proteins. The level of the most famous heat shock protein Hsp70 is increased by ionising radiation. We investigated the expression of {gamma}H2AX and Hsp70 after cross and line patterned irradiation with counted numbers of 2.25 MeV protons on primary human skin fibroblasts. The proton induced DSBs appear more delocalised than it was expected by the ion hit accuracy. Cooling the cells before the irradiation reduces the delocalisation of DNA DSBs, which is probably caused by the reduced diffusion of DNA damaging agents. Proton irradiation seems to provoke protein damages mainly in the cytoplasm indicated by cytoplasmic Hsp70 aggregates. On the contrary, in control heat shocked cells the Hsp70 was predominantly localized in the cell nucleus. However, the irradiated area could not be recognized, all cells on the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} window showed a homogenous Hsp70 expression pattern.

  9. Testing the Tester: Lessons Learned During the Testing of a State-of-the-Art Commercial 14nm Processor Under Proton Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Carl M., Jr.; Duncan, Adam R.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing of an Intel 14nm desktop processor was conducted under proton irradiation. We share lessons learned, demonstrating that complex devices beget further complex challenges requiring practical and theoretical investigative expertise to solve.

  10. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Simos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140–180 MeV, to peak fluence of ∼6.1×10^{20}  p/cm^{2} and irradiation temperatures between 120–200 °C. The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young’s modulus. The proton fluence level of ∼10^{20}  cm^{−2} where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite

  11. SU-D-304-02: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Field Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, GA; Slater, JM; Slater, JD; Wroe, AJ

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of magnetic focusing for small field proton irradiations. It is hypothesized that magnetic focusing will provide significant dose distribution benefits over standard collimated beams for fields less than 10 mm diameter. Methods: Magnets consisting of 24 segments of radiation hard samarium-cobalt adhered into hollow cylinders were designed and manufactured. Two focusing magnets were placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table. Proton beams with energies of 127 and 157 MeV, 15 and 30 mm modulation, and 8 mm initial diameters were delivered to a water tank using single-stage scattering. Depth dose distributions were measured using a PTW PR60020 diode detector and transverse profiles were measured with Gafchromic EBT3 film. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed - both for comparison with experimental data and to further explore the potential of magnetic focusing in silica. For example, beam spot areas (based on the 90% dose contour) were matched at Bragg depth between simulated 100 MeV collimated beams and simulated beams focused by two 400 T/m gradient magnets. Results: Preliminary experimental results show 23% higher peak to entrance dose ratios and flatter spread out Bragg peak plateaus for 8 mm focused beams compared with uncollimated beams. Monte Carlo simulations showed 21% larger peak to entrance ratios and a ∼9 fold more efficient dose to target delivery compared to spot-sized matched collimated beams. Our latest results will be presented. Conclusion: Our results suggest that rare earth focusing magnet assemblies could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering dose to nominally spherical radiosurgery targets over a much shorter time compared to unfocused beams. Immediate clinical applications include those associated with proton radiosurgery and functional radiosurgery of the brain and spine, however expanded treatment sites can be also envisaged

  12. WE-D-17A-04: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Volume Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, G; Slater, J [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Wroe, A [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the advantages of magnetic focusing for small volume proton irradiations and the potential clinical benefits for radiosurgery targets. The primary goal is to create narrow elongated proton beams of elliptical cross section with superior dose delivery characteristics compared to current delivery modalities (eg, collimated beams). In addition, more general beam shapes are also under investigation. Methods: Two prototype magnets consisting of 24 segments of samarium-cobalt (Sm2Co17) permanent magnetic material adhered into hollow cylinders were manufactured for testing. A single focusing magnet was placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table and 15 mm diameter proton beams with energies and modulation relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications (127 to 186 MeV, and 0 to 30 mm modulation) were delivered to a terminal water tank. Beam dose distributions were measured using a PTW diode detector and Gafchromic EBT2 film. Longitudinal and transverse dose profiles were analyzed and compared to data from Monte Carlo simulations analogous to the experimental setup. Results: The narrow elongated focused beam spots showed high elliptical symmetry indicating high magnet quality. In addition, when compared to unfocused beams, peak-to-entrance depth dose ratios were 11 to 14% larger (depending on presence or extent of modulation), and minor axis penumbras were 11 to 20% smaller (again depending on modulation) for focused beams. These results suggest that the use of rare earth magnet assemblies is practical and could improve dose-sparing of normal tissue and organs at risk while delivering enhanced dose to small proton radiosurgery targets. Conclusion: Quadrapole rare earth magnetic assemblies are a promising and inexpensive method to counteract particle out scatter that tends to degrade the peak to entrance performance of small field proton beams. Knowledge gained from current experiments will inform the design of a prototype treatment

  13. Proton irradiation of a swept charge device at cryogenic temperature and the subsequent annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, J P D; Smith, P H; Hall, D J; Holland, A D; Murray, N J; Pool, P

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that a room temperature proton irradiation may not be sufficient to provide an accurate estimation of the impact of the space radiation environment on detector performance. This is a result of the relationship between defect mobility and temperature, causing the performance to vary subject to the temperature history of the device from the point at which it was irradiated. Results measured using Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) irradiated at room temperature therefore tend to differ from those taken when the device was irradiated at a cryogenic temperature, more appropriate considering the operating conditions in space, impacting the prediction of in-flight performance. This paper describes the cryogenic irradiation, and subsequent annealing of an e2v technologies Swept Charge Device (SCD) CCD236 irradiated at −35.4°C with a 10 MeV equivalent proton fluence of 5.0 × 10 8 protons · cm −2 . The CCD236 is a large area (4.4 cm 2 ) X-ray detector that will be flown on-board the Chandrayaan-2 and Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope spacecraft, in the Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer and the Soft X-ray Detector respectively. The SCD is readout continually in order to benefit from intrinsic dither mode clocking, leading to suppression of the surface component of the dark current and allowing the detector to be operated at warmer temperatures than a conventional CCD. The SCD is therefore an excellent choice to test and demonstrate the variation in the impact of irradiation at cryogenic temperatures in comparison to a more typical room temperature irradiation

  14. SU-D-304-02: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Field Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, GA; Slater, JM [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Slater, JD; Wroe, AJ [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of magnetic focusing for small field proton irradiations. It is hypothesized that magnetic focusing will provide significant dose distribution benefits over standard collimated beams for fields less than 10 mm diameter. Methods: Magnets consisting of 24 segments of radiation hard samarium-cobalt adhered into hollow cylinders were designed and manufactured. Two focusing magnets were placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table. Proton beams with energies of 127 and 157 MeV, 15 and 30 mm modulation, and 8 mm initial diameters were delivered to a water tank using single-stage scattering. Depth dose distributions were measured using a PTW PR60020 diode detector and transverse profiles were measured with Gafchromic EBT3 film. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed - both for comparison with experimental data and to further explore the potential of magnetic focusing in silica. For example, beam spot areas (based on the 90% dose contour) were matched at Bragg depth between simulated 100 MeV collimated beams and simulated beams focused by two 400 T/m gradient magnets. Results: Preliminary experimental results show 23% higher peak to entrance dose ratios and flatter spread out Bragg peak plateaus for 8 mm focused beams compared with uncollimated beams. Monte Carlo simulations showed 21% larger peak to entrance ratios and a ∼9 fold more efficient dose to target delivery compared to spot-sized matched collimated beams. Our latest results will be presented. Conclusion: Our results suggest that rare earth focusing magnet assemblies could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering dose to nominally spherical radiosurgery targets over a much shorter time compared to unfocused beams. Immediate clinical applications include those associated with proton radiosurgery and functional radiosurgery of the brain and spine, however expanded treatment sites can be also envisaged.

  15. Electrochemical behaviour of gold and stainless steel under proton irradiation and active RedOx couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leoni, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)], E-mail: elisa.leoni@polytechnique.edu; Corbel, C. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: catherine.corbel@polytechnique.fr; Cobut, V. [Laboratoire Atomes et Molecules en Astrophysique, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 Mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville/Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Simon, D. [CNRS-CERI 3a rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Cedex 2 Orleans (France); Feron, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)], E-mail: Damien.FERON@cea.fr; Roy, M.; Raquet, O. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2007-12-01

    Model experiments are reported where proton beams delivered by the cyclotron located at CERI (CNRS-Orleans) are used for irradiating AISI 316L/water and Au/water high purity interfaces with 6 MeV protons. The free exchange potentials at the interfaces are recorded as a function of time at room temperature in situ before, under, and after proton irradiation. The evolutions are compared to those calculated for the Nernst potentials associated with the radiolytic RedOx couples. It is shown how the comparison gives evidence that five radiolytic species - O{sub 2}{center_dot}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HO{sub 2}{sup -}, HO{sub 2}{center_dot} and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} exchange electrons at the Au interfaces in a range of dose rates that vary over three orders of magnitudes, i.e. 0.0048 < dr(10{sup 7} Gy h{sup -1}) < 4.8. The balance between the electron exchanges at Au interfaces is adjusted by the RedOx reactions associated with the above species. The free exchange potential reaches the same steady value for Au and AISI 316L interfaces irradiated at high doses, {>=}2.5 x 10{sup 7} Gy, (0.020 {+-} 0.025) V versus NHE. Such low values are the first ones to be reported. The HO{sub 2}{center_dot} and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} radical disproportionations play a key role and control the potential at the interfaces under 6 MeV proton flux. This role is generally mostly overlooked for gamma irradiation.

  16. On the position of local levels of defects in proton-irradiated Pb1-xSnxTe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, N.B.; Gas'kov, A.M.; Ladygin, E.A.; Skipetrov, E.P.; Khorosh, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of fast proton irradiation (T≅300 K, E=200 keV, F≤2x10 14 cm -2 ) on electrophysical properties of thin layers p-Pb 1-x Sn x Te (0.17 ≤x≤ 0.26) is investigated. Saturation of radiation flux dependences of hole density due to occurrence of a resonance level under irradiation, which is near the ceiling of the valence band of alloys, and due to stabilization of the Fermi level with the resonance level is detected. Possibility of coordination of novadays data on the position of the levels of radiation defects in alloys Pb 1-x Sn x Te is discussed

  17. Diffusion length variation in 0.5- and 3-MeV-proton-irradiated, heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of light weight, mechanically strong, and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5- and 3-MeV proton irradiations have been explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence was calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient, K(sub L), was also plotted as a function of proton fluence.

  18. Correlations for damage in diffused-junction InP solar cells induced by electron and proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Takamoto, T.; Taylor, S.J.; Walters, R.J.; Summers, G.P.; Flood, D.J.; Ohmori, M.

    1997-01-01

    The damage to diffused-junction n + -p InP solar cells induced by electron and proton irradiations over a wide range of energy from 0.5 to 3 MeV and 0.015 to 20 MeV, respectively, has been examined. The experimental electron and proton damage coefficients have been analyzed in terms of displacement damage dose, which is the product of the particle fluence and the calculated nonionizing energy loss [G. P. Summers, E. A. Burke, R. Shapiro, S. R. Messenger, and R. J. Walters, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 1300 (1993).] Degradation of InP cells due to irradiation with electrons and protons with energies of more than 0.5 MeV show a single curve as a function of displacement damage dose. Based on the deep-level transient spectroscopy analysis, damage equivalence between electron and proton irradiation is discussed. InP solar cells are confirmed to be substantially more radiation resistant than Si and GaAs-on-Ge cells. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Whole body proton irradiation causes acute damage to bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Wang, Yingying; Pathak, Rupak; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Jones, Tamako; Mao, Xiao Wen; Nelson, Gregory; Boerma, Marjan; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to proton irradiation during missions in deep space can lead to bone marrow injury. The acute effects of proton irradiation on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells remain undefined and thus were investigated. We exposed male C57BL/6 mice to 0.5 and 1.0 Gy proton total body irradiation (proton-TBI, 150 MeV) and examined changes in peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) progenitors and LSK cells 2 weeks after exposure. 1.0 Gy proton-TBI significantly reduced the numbers of peripheral blood cells compared to 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated animals, while the numbers of peripheral blood cell counts were comparable between 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated mice. The frequencies and numbers of LSK cells and CMPs in BM of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy irradiated mice were decreased in comparison to those of normal controls. LSK cells and CMPs and their progeny exhibited a radiation-induced impairment in clonogenic function. Exposure to 1.0 Gy increased cellular apoptosis but not the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CMPs two weeks after irradiation. LSK cells from irradiated mice exhibited an increase in ROS production and apoptosis. Exposure to proton-TBI can induce acute damage to BM progenitors and LSK cells.

  20. Influence of the interface on the magnetic properties of NiZn ferrite thin films treated by proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X.D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo, D.W. [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, C.H., E-mail: c.h.zhang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fan, X.L.; Chai, G.Z. [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xue, D.S., E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-09-01

    In order to systematically investigate the influence of the interface on the magnetic properties, polycrystalline NiZn ferrite thin films were irradiated with 60 keV proton in the dose range from 5 × 10{sup 12} to 5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. A non-destructive approach by proton irradiation was found to finely adjust the magnetic properties of polycrystalline NiZn ferrite thin films such as coercivity, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as well as the effective g value. The coercivity is about 725 Oe for high proton dose ferrite, which is twice larger than the unirradiated one. The ferromagnetic resonance measurements indicated that perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the effective g value increase with the irradiation dose. Our finding indicates that all modifications of these magnetic properties were associated with the change of interface due to the diffusion and the stress induced by proton irradiation. The change of the effective g value is a result of lattice expansion and the decrease of the magnetic dipole interaction between the columnar grains. This work provides a feasible way to tailor the magnetic properties of thin films by ion irradiation and promotes investigations for the stability of magnetic thin film devices in space or unclear radiation environments.

  1. Influence of High-Energy Proton Irradiation on β-Ga2O3 Nanobelt Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gwangseok; Jang, Soohwan; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J; Kim, Jihyun

    2017-11-22

    The robust radiation resistance of wide-band gap materials is advantageous for space applications, where the high-energy particle irradiation deteriorates the performance of electronic devices. We report on the effects of proton irradiation of β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelts, whose energy band gap is ∼4.85 eV at room temperature. Back-gated field-effect transistor (FET) based on exfoliated quasi-two-dimensional β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelts were exposed to a 10 MeV proton beam. The proton-dose- and time-dependent characteristics of the radiation-damaged FETs were systematically analyzed. A 73% decrease in the field-effect mobility and a positive shift of the threshold voltage were observed after proton irradiation at a fluence of 2 × 10 15 cm -2 . Greater radiation-induced degradation occurs in the conductive channel of the β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelt than at the contact between the metal and β-Ga 2 O 3 . The on/off ratio of the exfoliated β-Ga 2 O 3 FETs was maintained even after proton doses up to 2 × 10 15 cm -2 . The radiation-induced damage in the β-Ga 2 O 3 -based FETs was significantly recovered after rapid thermal annealing at 500 °C. The outstanding radiation durability of β-Ga 2 O 3 renders it a promising building block for space applications.

  2. Niobium–niobium oxide multilayered coatings for corrosion protection of proton-irradiated liquid water targets for ["1"8F] production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skliarova, Hanna; Renzelli, Marco; Azzolini, Oscar; Felicis, Daniele de; Bemporad, Edoardo; Johnson, Richard R.; Palmieri, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Chemically inert coatings on Havar"® entrance foils of the targets for ["1"8F] production via proton irradiation of enriched water at pressurized conditions are needed to decrease the amount of ionic contaminants released from Havar"®. During current investigation, magnetron sputtered niobium and niobium oxide were chosen as the candidates for protective coatings because of their superior chemical resistance. Aluminated quartz substrates allowed us to verify the protection efficiency of the desirable coatings as diffusion barriers. Two modeling corrosion tests based on the extreme susceptibility of aluminum to liquid gallium and acid corrosion were applied. As far as niobium coatings obtained by magnetron sputtering are columnar, the grain boundaries provide a fast diffusion path for active species of corrosive media to penetrate and to corrode the substrate. Amorphous niobium oxide films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering showed superior barrier properties according to the corrosion tests performed. In order to prevent degrading of brittle niobium oxide at high pressures, multilayers combining high ductility of niobium with superior diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium oxide were proposed. The intercalation of niobium oxide interlayers was proved to interrupt the columnar grain growth of niobium during sputtering, resulting in improved diffusion barrier efficiency of obtained multilayers. The thin layer multilayer coating architecture with 70 nm bi-layer thickness was found preferential because of higher thermal stability. - Highlights: • Diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium, niobium oxide and their multilayers was studied. • The intercalation of niobium oxide layers interrupted the columnar grain growth of niobium. • The bilayer architectures influenced the stability of the multilayer coatings. • The thin layer multilayer coating with 70 nm double-layer was found superior.

  3. Niobium–niobium oxide multilayered coatings for corrosion protection of proton-irradiated liquid water targets for [{sup 18}F] production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliarova, Hanna, E-mail: Hanna.Skliarova@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Renzelli, Marco, E-mail: marco.renzelli@uniroma3.it [University of Rome “Roma TRE”, Via della Vasca Navale, 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Azzolini, Oscar, E-mail: Oscar.Azzolini@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Felicis, Daniele de, E-mail: daniele.defelicis@uniroma3.it [University of Rome “Roma TRE”, Via della Vasca Navale, 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Bemporad, Edoardo, E-mail: edoardo.bemporad@uniroma3.it [University of Rome “Roma TRE”, Via della Vasca Navale, 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Johnson, Richard R., E-mail: richard.johnson@teambest.com [BEST Cyclotron Systems Inc., 8765 Ash Street Unit 7, Vancouver BC V6P 6T3 (Canada); Palmieri, Vincenzo, E-mail: Vincenzo.Palmieri@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); University of Padua, Padua (Italy)

    2015-09-30

    Chemically inert coatings on Havar{sup ®} entrance foils of the targets for [{sup 18}F] production via proton irradiation of enriched water at pressurized conditions are needed to decrease the amount of ionic contaminants released from Havar{sup ®}. During current investigation, magnetron sputtered niobium and niobium oxide were chosen as the candidates for protective coatings because of their superior chemical resistance. Aluminated quartz substrates allowed us to verify the protection efficiency of the desirable coatings as diffusion barriers. Two modeling corrosion tests based on the extreme susceptibility of aluminum to liquid gallium and acid corrosion were applied. As far as niobium coatings obtained by magnetron sputtering are columnar, the grain boundaries provide a fast diffusion path for active species of corrosive media to penetrate and to corrode the substrate. Amorphous niobium oxide films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering showed superior barrier properties according to the corrosion tests performed. In order to prevent degrading of brittle niobium oxide at high pressures, multilayers combining high ductility of niobium with superior diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium oxide were proposed. The intercalation of niobium oxide interlayers was proved to interrupt the columnar grain growth of niobium during sputtering, resulting in improved diffusion barrier efficiency of obtained multilayers. The thin layer multilayer coating architecture with 70 nm bi-layer thickness was found preferential because of higher thermal stability. - Highlights: • Diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium, niobium oxide and their multilayers was studied. • The intercalation of niobium oxide layers interrupted the columnar grain growth of niobium. • The bilayer architectures influenced the stability of the multilayer coatings. • The thin layer multilayer coating with 70 nm double-layer was found superior.

  4. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Marshall, R. D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-04-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/ c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5×10 15 p/cm 2. We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1×10 15 p/cm 2 and decreases by ≈40% at 5×10 15 p/cm 2. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/ c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1×10 15p/cm 2 without signal loss.

  5. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation: II. The role of connexin 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Tran, D. T.; Murray, D. K.; Rightnar, S. S.; Todd, S.; Nelson, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether connexin 32-type gap junctions contribute to the "contact effect" in follicular thyrocytes and whether the response is influenced by radiation quality. Our previous studies demonstrated that early-passage follicular cultures of Fischer rat thyroid cells express functional connexin 32 gap junctions, with later-passage cultures expressing a truncated nonfunctional form of the protein. This model allowed us to assess the role of connexin 32 in radiation responsiveness without relying solely on chemical manipulation of gap junctions. The survival curves generated after gamma irradiation revealed that early-passage follicular cultures had significantly lower values of alpha (0.04 Gy(-1)) than later-passage cultures (0.11 Gy(-1)) (P 0.1, n = 9). This strongly suggests that the presence of functional connexin 32-type gap junctions was contributing to radiation resistance in gamma-irradiated thyroid follicles. Survival curves from proton-irradiated cultures had alpha values that were not significantly different whether cells expressed functional connexin 32 (0.10 Gy(-1)), did not express connexin 32 (0.09 Gy(-1)), or were down-regulated (early-passage plus heptanol, 0.09 Gy(-1); late-passage plus heptanol, 0.12 Gy(-1)) (P > 0.1, n = 19). Thus, for proton irradiation, the presence of connexin 32-type gap junctional channels did not influence their radiosensitivity. Collectively, the data support the following conclusions. (1) The lower alpha values from the gamma-ray survival curves of the early-passage cultures suggest greater repair efficiency and/or enhanced resistance to radiation-induced damage, coincident with the expression of connexin 32-type gap junctions. (2) The increased sensitivity of FRTL-5 cells to proton irradiation was independent of their ability to communicate through connexin 32 gap junctions. (3) The fact that the beta components of the survival curves from both gamma rays and proton beams were

  6. Optimal conditions for high current proton irradiations at the university of Wisconsin's ion beam laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Field, K. G.; Gerczak, T. J. [Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Eiden, T. J.; Maier, B. R.; Albakri, O.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    The National Electrostatics Corporation's (NEC) Toroidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS) source is known for exceptionally high proton currents with minimal service downtime as compared to traditional sputter sources. It has been possible to obtain over 150{mu}A of proton current from the source, with over 70{mu}A on the target stage. However, beam fluxes above {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17}/m2-s may have many undesirable effects, especially for insulators. This may include high temperature gradients at the surface, sputtering, surface discharge, cracking or even disintegration of the sample. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the role of high current fluxes in a suite of ceramics and insulating materials. Results will show the optimal proton irradiation conditions and target mounting strategies needed to minimize unwanted macro-scale damage, while developing a procedure for conducting preliminary radiation experiments.

  7. Primary and aggregate color centers in proton irradiated LiF crystals and thin films for luminescent solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinini, M; Ambrosini, F; Ampollini, A; Bonfigli, F; Libera, S; Picardi, L; Ronsivalle, C; Vincenti, M A; Montereali, R M

    2015-01-01

    Proton beams of 3 MeV energy, produced by the injector of a linear accelerator for proton therapy, were used to irradiate at room temperature lithium fluoride crystals and polycrystalline thin films grown by thermal evaporation. The irradiation fluence range was 10 11 -10 15 protons/cm 2 . The proton irradiation induced the stable formation of primary and aggregate color centers. Their formation was investigated by optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The F 2 and F 3 + photoluminescence intensities, carefully measured in LiF crystals and thin films, show linear behaviours up to different maximum values of the irradiation fluence, after which a quenching is observed, depending on the nature of the samples (crystals and films). The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the absorption spectra of colored crystals, allowed to clearly identify the formation of more complex aggregate defects in samples irradiated at highest fluences. (paper)

  8. Low energy proton irradiation effects on InP/InGaAs DHBTs and InP-base frequency dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyao; Li, Yudong; Guo, Qi; Feng, Jie

    2018-03-01

    InP/InGaAs DHBTs and frequency dividers are irradiated by low energy proton, and displacement damage effect of the devices are analyzed. InP/InGaAs DHBTs has been made DC characteristics measurements, and the function measurement for frequency dividers has been done both before and after proton irradiation. The breakdown voltage of InP DHBTs drop to 3.7V When the fluence up to 5x1013 protons/cm2. Meanwhile, the function of frequency dividers get out of order. Degradation of DC characteristics of DHBTs are due to the radiation-induced defects in the quasi neutral base and the space charge region of base-collector and base-emitter junctions. The performance deterioration of DHBTs induce the fault of frequency dividers, and prescaler may be the most sensitive circuit.

  9. Primary and aggregate color centers in proton irradiated LiF crystals and thin films for luminescent solid state detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, M.; Ambrosini, F.; Ampollini, A.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    Proton beams of 3 MeV energy, produced by the injector of a linear accelerator for proton therapy, were used to irradiate at room temperature lithium fluoride crystals and polycrystalline thin films grown by thermal evaporation. The irradiation fluence range was 1011-1015 protons/cm2. The proton irradiation induced the stable formation of primary and aggregate color centers. Their formation was investigated by optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The F2 and F3+ photoluminescence intensities, carefully measured in LiF crystals and thin films, show linear behaviours up to different maximum values of the irradiation fluence, after which a quenching is observed, depending on the nature of the samples (crystals and films). The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the absorption spectra of colored crystals, allowed to clearly identify the formation of more complex aggregate defects in samples irradiated at highest fluences.

  10. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Marshall, R.D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-04-21

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}. We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2} and decreases by {approx}40% at 5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1x10{sup 15}p/cm{sup 2} without signal loss.

  11. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, D.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Marshall, R.D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5x10 15 p/cm 2 . We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1x10 15 p/cm 2 and decreases by ∼40% at 5x10 15 p/cm 2 . Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1x10 15 p/cm 2 without signal loss

  12. Hydrogen Release From 800-MeV Proton-Irradiated Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Brian M.; Venhaus, Thomas J.; Causey, Rion A.; Garner, Francis A.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2002-01-01

    Tungsten irradiated in spallation neutron sources such as those proposed for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, or in proposed fusion reactors, will contain large quantities of generated helium and hydrogen gas. In the APT, spallation neutrons would be generated by the interaction of high energy (∼1 GeV) protons with solid tungsten rods or cylinders. In fusion reactors, tungsten used in a tokamak diverter will contain hydrogen, as well as deuterium and tritium diffusing in from the plasma-facing surface. The release kinetics of these gases during various off-normal scenarios involving loss of coolant and afterheat-induced rises in temperature is of particular interest for both applications. To determine the release kinetics of hydrogen from tungsten, tungsten rods irradiated with 800 MeV protons in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANCE) to high exposures as part of the APT project have been examined. Hydrogen evolution from the tungsten was measured using a dedicated mass spectrometer system by subjecting the specimens to an essentially linear temperature ramp from ∼323 K to ∼1473 K. Release profiles are compared with predictions obtained using the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP4). Input parameters for the modeling, consisting of diffusivity, recombination rate coefficient, and trapping, are discussed. The measurements show that for high proton doses, the majority of the hydrogen is released gradually, starting at about 900 K and reaching a maximum at about 1400 K, where it drops fairly rapidly. Comparisons with TMAP show reasonable agreement at high proton dose using a trap value of 1.4 eV and a trap density of 3%. There is also a small release fraction occurring at ∼600 K which predominates at lower proton doses, and which is relatively independent of dose. This lower-temperature release is predicted by TMAP if no traps are assumed, suggesting that this release may represent an adsorbed surface component

  13. Performance of 3-D architecture silicon sensors after intense proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, S I

    2001-01-01

    Silicon detectors with a three-dimensional architecture, in which the n- and p-electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have been successfully fabricated. The electrodes can be separated from each other by distances that are less than the substrate thickness, allowing short collection paths, low depletion voltages, and large current signals from rapid charge collection. While no special hardening steps were taken in this initial fabrication run, these features of three dimensional architectures produce an intrinsic resistance to the effects of radiation damage. Some performance measurements are given for detectors that are fully depleted and working after exposures to proton beams with doses equivalent to that from slightly more than ten years at the B-layer radius (50 mm) in the planned Atlas detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. (41 refs).

  14. 800-MeV proton irradiation of thorium and depleted uranium targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, G.J.; Brun, T.O.; Pitcher, E.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    As part of the Los Alamos Fertile-to-Fissile-Conversion (FERFICON) program in the late 1980`s, thick targets of the fertile materials thorium and depleted uranium were bombarded by 800-MeV protons to produce the fissile materials {sup 233}U and {sup 239}Pu, respectively. The amount of {sup 233}U made was determined by measuring the {sup 233}Pa activity, and the yield of {sup 239}Pu was deduced by measuring the activity of {sup 239}Np. For the thorium target, 4 spallation products and 34 fission products were also measured. For the depleted uranium target, 3 spallation products and 16 fission products were also measured. The number of fissions in each target was deduced from fission product mass-yield curves. In actuality, axial distributions of the products were measured, and the distributions were then integrated over the target volume to obtain the total number of products for each reaction.

  15. Photocarrier Radiometry for Non-contact Evaluation of Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cell Under Low-Energy (< 200 keV) Proton Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliullah, Md.; Liu, J. Y.; Song, P.; Wang, Y.

    2018-06-01

    A three-layer theoretical model is developed for the characterization of the electronic transport properties (lifetime τ, diffusion coefficient D, and surface recombination velocity s) with energetic particle irradiation on solar cells using non-contact photocarrier radiometry. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is carried out to obtain the depth profiles of the proton irradiation layer at different low energies (solar cells are investigated under different low-energy proton irradiation, and the carrier transport parameters of the three layers are obtained by best-fitting of the experimental results. The results show that the low-energy protons have little influence on the transport parameters of the non-irradiated layer, but high influences on both of the p and n-region irradiation layers which are consisted of MC simulation.

  16. Investigation of the double exponential in the current-voltage characteristics of silicon solar cells. [proton irradiation effects on ATS 1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.; Noel, G. T.; Stirn, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Difficulties in relating observed current-voltage characteristics of individual silicon solar cells to their physical and material parameters were underscored by the unexpected large changes in the current-voltage characteristics telemetered back from solar cells on the ATS-1 spacecraft during their first year in synchronous orbit. Depletion region recombination was studied in cells exhibiting a clear double-exponential dark characteristic by subjecting the cells to proton irradiation. A significant change in the saturation current, an effect included in the Sah, Noyce, Shockley formulation of diode current resulting from recombination in the depletion region, was caused by the introduction of shallow levels in the depletion region by the proton irradiation. This saturation current is not attributable only to diffusion current from outside the depletion region and only its temperature dependence can clarify its origin. The current associated with the introduction of deep-lying levels did not change significantly in these experiments.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study of the residual nuclide production in 40-2600 MeV proton-irradiated thin targets of ads structure materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Yu.E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Belonozhenko, A.A.; Borovlev, S.P.; Butko, M.A.; Florya, S.N.; Pavlov, K.V.; Rogov, V.I.; Tikhonov, R.S.; Titarenko, A.Yu.; Zhivun, V.M.

    2011-10-01

    The Project is aimed at experimental and theoretical studying the independent and cumulative yields of residual radioactive nuclei produced in high-energy proton-irradiated structure materials intended for constructing the high-power Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) with a high-current proton accelerator. The Project is an extension of the researches carried out earlier under the ISTC Projects #017, #839, and #2002 which provided more 10000 residual nuclide production cross sections mainly in materials intended to use as target materials of the ADS. This Project includes 57 measurement runs carried out using the 97 targets made only of the ADS structural materials of both monoisotopic ( 56 Fe, 93 Nb, 181 Ta) and natural ( nat Cr, nat Ni, nat W) compositions within minutely fractionated proton energy range, namely, at 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, 0.15, 0.25, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.6GeV. All the targets were irradiated using the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron. The experimental nuclide yields are determined by the direct γ-spectrometry and α-spectrometry methods. As a result, 3839 cumulative and independent yields of residual β-radioactive product nuclei with lifetimes range from 6 minutes to 10 years as well as 12 cumulative yields of α- radioactive 148 Gd whose lifetime is 74.6 years have been measured. Besides, the cross sections for the 27 Al(p,x) 22 Na , 27 Al(p,x) 24 Na and 27 Al(p,x) 7 Be monitor reactions have been measured at the same proton energies with the use of the current transformer technique. The γ-spectrometer resolution is 1.8 keV in the 1332 keV 60 Co γ-line. The experimental γ-spectra were processed by the GENIE2000 code. The γ-lines were identified, and the cross sections calculated, by the ITEP-developed SIGMA code using the PCNUDAT database. The proton fluence was monitored by the 27 Al(p,x) 22 Na reaction. Measurement data have been compared with the calculation results of the BERTINI and ISABEL models of MCNPX code, CEM03.02, INCL 4.2, INCL4

  18. Measurement and investigation of proton irradiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency in PPD CIS at different integration times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zujun; Zhang, Fengqi; Bian, Jingying; Yao, Zhibin; He, Baoping; Liu, Minbo; Sheng, Jiangkun; Ma, Wuying; Dong, Guantao; Jin, Junshan

    2018-04-01

    Charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) is an important parameter for photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs). A test system was built and used to measure the CTI of PPD CIS devices at different integration times. The radiation effects of 3 MeV and 10 MeV protons on the CTI were investigated. The experiments were carried out at the EN Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at proton fluences in the range 1010 to 1011 p/cm2. The CTI was measured within the 2 h following proton radiations. The dependence of CTI on integration time, proton energy and fluence were investigated. The CTI was observed to increase after proton irradiation: with the effect of irradiation with 3 MeV proton being more severe than that with 10 MeV protons. The CTI was also observed to decrease with increasing integration time, which is thought to be related to the charge density in the space charge region (SCR) of the CIS devices. This work has provided a simple method to measure the CTI and helped us to understand proton radiation effects on the CTI of PPD CISs.

  19. X-ray diffraction studies of 145MeV proton-irradiated AlBeMet 162

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elbakhshwan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AlBeMet 162 (Materion Co., formerly Brush Wellman has been irradiated with 145MeV protons up to 1.2×1020cm−2 fluence, with irradiation temperatures in the range of 100–220°C. Macroscopic post-irradiation evaluation on the evolution of mechanical and thermal properties was integrated with a comprehensive X-ray- diffraction study using high-energy monochromatic and polychromatic X-ray beams, which offered a microscopic view of the irradiation damage effects on AlBeMet. The study confirmed the stability of the metal–matrix composite, its resistance to proton damage, and the continuing separation of the two distinct phases, fcc aluminum and hcp beryllium, following irradiation. Furthermore, based on the absence of inter-planar distance change during proton irradiation, it was confirmed that the stacking faults and clusters on the Al (111 planes are stable, and thus can migrate from the cascade region and be absorbed at various sinks. XRD analysis of the unirradiated AlBeMet 162 showed clear change in the texture of the fcc phase with orientation especially in the Al (111 reflection which exhibits a “non-perfect” six-fold symmetry, implying lack of isotropy in the composite.

  20. Structural changes in quantum dots core-shell CdSe/ZnS by thermal treatment and proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.G.; Sortica, M.A.; Grande, P.L.; Debastiani, R.; Dias, J.F.; Hentz, A.; Radtke, C.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Compound quantum-dots (QDs) are promising materials used in many fields of technological development. In spite of that, the accurate knowledge of their compositional depth-profiling is still a technological challenge. Recently, we used the MEIS (medium energy ion-scattering) technique, combined with PIXE and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) to characterize core-shell nanostructures of CdSe/ZnS [1]. In this work, we use the same characterization methods to survey the changes of elemental distribution in the the core and shell regions of these QDs, when submitted to a range of thermal treatments and proton irradiation conditions. Our preliminary results show that for temperatures below the melting point of the bulk CdSe compound, there is already a decrease in the amount of cadmium, accompanied by an overall decrease in the diameter of the CdSe QD nuclei. [1] M. A. Sortica, P. L. Grande, C. Radtke, L. Almeida, R. Debastiani, J. F. Dias, A. Hentz, Applied Physics Letters, 101 (2012)023110. (author)

  1. TSC measurements on proton-irradiated p-type Si-sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegani, Elena; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra [University of Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Thin n{sup +}p Si sensors are potential candidates for coping with neutron equivalent fluences up to 2.10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and an ionizing dose in the order of a few MGy, which are expected e.g. for the HL-LHC upgrade. The aim of the present work is to provide experimental data on radiation-induced defects in order to: firstly, get a deeper understanding of the properties of hadron induced defects, and secondly develop a radiation damage model based on microscopic measurements. Therefore, the outcomes of Thermally Stimulated Current measurements on 200 μm thick Float-Zone (FZ) and Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) diodes will be shown, as a results of irradiation with 23 MeV protons and isothermal annealing. The samples were irradiated in the fluence range (0.3-1).10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, so that the maximal temperature at which the TSC signal is still sharply distinguishable from the dark current is 200 K. In particular, special focus will be given to the defect introduction rate and to the issue of boron removal in p-type silicon. Annealing studies allow to distinguish which defects mainly contribute to the leakage current and which to the space charge, and thus correlate microscopic defects properties with macroscopic sensor properties.

  2. Effect of front and rear incident proton irradiation on silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, Bruce; Kachare, Ram

    1987-01-01

    Four solar cell types of current manufacture were irradiated through the front and rear surfaces with protons in the energy range between 1 and 10 MeV. The solar cell parameters varied for this study were cell thickness and back surface field (BSF) vs. no BSF. Some cells were irradiated at normal incidence and an equal number were irradiated with simulated isotropic fluences. The solar cell electrical characteristics were measured under simulated AM0 illumination after each fluence. Using the normal incidence data, proton damage coefficients were computed for all four types of cells for both normal and omnidirectional radiation fields. These were found to compare well with the omnidirectional damage coefficients derived directly from the rear-incidence radiation data. Similarly, the rear-incidence omnidirectional radiation data were used to compute appropriate damage coefficients. A method for calculating the effect of a spectrum of energies is derived from these calculations. It is suitable for calculating the degradation of cells in space when they have minimal rear-surface shielding.

  3. SHIELDOSE, Doses from Electron and Proton Irradiation in Space Vehicle Al Shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The ability to predict absorbed dose within a spacecraft due to a specified radiation environment is important for design and planning considerations pertaining to the reliability of electronic components and to the radiological safety of on-board personnel. This computer code SHIELDOSE evaluates the absorbed dose as a function of depth in aluminum shielding material of spacecraft, given the electron and proton fluences encountered in orbit. 2 - Method of solution: It makes use of pre-calculated, monoenergetic depth-dose data for an isotropic, broad-beam fluence of radiation incident on uniform aluminum plane media. Such data are particularly suitable for routine dose predictions in situations where the geometrical and compositional complexities of the spacecraft are not known. Furthermore, restricting our consideration to these rather simple geometries has allowed for the development of accurate electron and electron-Bremsstrahlung data sets based on detailed transport calculations rather than on more approximate methods. The present version of SHIELDOSE calculates, for arbitrary proton and electron incident spectra, the dose absorbed in small volumes of the detector materials Al, H 2 O (tissue-equivalent detector), Si and SiO 2 , in the following aluminum shield geometries: (1) in a semi- infinite plane medium, as a function of depth; (2) at the transmission surface of a plane slab, as a function of slab thickness; and (3) at the center of a solid sphere, as a function of sphere radius. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - No. of depth Z for which dose calculation is desired (IMAX) ≤50; - No. of prints used in the numerical evaluation of the integral over the incident proton spectrum (NPTSP) ≤301; - No. of points used in the numerical evaluation of the internal over the incident electron spectrum (NPTSE) ≤101; - No. of energy for which the solar-flare-proton spectrum is read in (JSMAX), incident

  4. Multi-MW accelerator target material properties under proton irradiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory linear isotope producer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, N.; Ludewig, H.; Kirk, H.; Dooryhee, E.; Ghose, S.; Zhong, Z.; Zhong, H.; Makimura, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Bennett, J. R. J.; Kotsinas, G.; Kotsina, Z.; McDonald, K. T.

    2018-05-01

    The effects of proton beams irradiating materials considered for targets in high-power accelerator experiments have been studied using the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) 200 MeV proton linac. A wide array of materials and alloys covering a wide range of the atomic number (Z) are being scoped by the high-power accelerator community prompting the BNL studies to focus on materials representing each distinct range, i.e. low-Z, mid-Z and high-Z. The low range includes materials such as beryllium and graphite, the midrange alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V, gum metal and super-Invar and finally the high-Z range pure tungsten and tantalum. Of interest in assessing proton irradiation effects are (a) changes in physiomechanical properties which are important in maintaining high-power target functionality, (b) identification of possible limits of proton flux or fluence above which certain materials cease to maintain integrity, (c) the role of material operating temperature in inducing or maintaining radiation damage reversal, and (d) phase stability and microstructural changes. The paper presents excerpt results deduced from macroscopic and microscopic post-irradiation evaluation (PIE) following several irradiation campaigns conducted at the BNL 200 MeV linac and specifically at the isotope producer beam-line/target station. The microscopic PIE relied on high energy x-ray diffraction at the BNL NSLS X17B1 and NSLS II XPD beam lines. The studies reveal the dramatic effects of irradiation on phase stability in several of the materials, changes in physical properties and ductility loss as well as thermally induced radiation damage reversal in graphite and alloys such as super-Invar.

  5. Effects of high-energy proton irradiation on the superconducting properties of Fe(Se,Te) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylva, G.; Bellingeri, E.; Ferdeghini, C.; Martinelli, A.; Pallecchi, I.; Pellegrino, L.; Putti, M.; Ghigo, G.; Gozzelino, L.; Torsello, D.; Grimaldi, G.; Leo, A.; Nigro, A.; Braccini, V.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we explore the effects of 3.5 MeV proton irradiation on Fe(Se,Te) thin films grown on CaF2. In particular, we carry out an experimental investigation with different irradiation fluences up to 7.30 · 1016 cm‑2 and different proton implantation depths, in order to clarify whether and to what extent the critical current is enhanced or suppressed, what are the effects of irradiation on the critical temperature, resistivity, and critical magnetic fields, and finally what is the role played by the substrate in this context. We find that the effect of irradiation on superconducting properties is generally small compared to the case of other iron-based superconductors. The irradiation effect is more evident on the critical current density Jc, while it is minor on the transition temperature Tc, normal state resistivity ρ, and on the upper critical field Hc2 up to the highest fluences explored in this work. In more detail, our analysis shows that when protons implant in the substrate far from the superconducting film, the critical current can be enhanced up to 50% of the pristine value at 7 T and 12 K; meanwhile, there is no appreciable effect on critical temperature and critical fields together with a slight decrease in resistivity. On the contrary, when the implantation layer is closer to the film–substrate interface, both critical current and temperature show a decrease accompanied by an enhancement of the resistivity and lattice strain. This result evidences that possible modifications induced by irradiation in the substrate may affect the superconducting properties of the film via lattice strain. The robustness of the Fe(Se,Te) system to irradiation-induced damage makes it a promising compound for the fabrication of magnets in high-energy accelerators.

  6. Spherical nanoindentation of proton irradiated 304 stainless steel: A comparison of small scale mechanical test techniques for measuring irradiation hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jordan S.; Pathak, Siddhartha; Reichardt, Ashley; Vo, Hi T.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Hosemann, Peter; Mara, Nathan A.

    2017-09-01

    Experimentally quantifying the mechanical effects of radiation damage in reactor materials is necessary for the development and qualification of new materials for improved performance and safety. This can be achieved in a high-throughput fashion through a combination of ion beam irradiation and small scale mechanical testing in contrast to the high cost and laborious nature of bulk testing of reactor irradiated samples. The current work focuses on using spherical nanoindentation stress-strain curves on unirradiated and proton irradiated (10 dpa at 360 °C) 304 stainless steel to quantify the mechanical effects of radiation damage. Spherical nanoindentation stress-strain measurements show a radiation-induced increase in indentation yield strength from 1.36 GPa to 2.72 GPa and a radiation-induced increase in indentation work hardening rate of 10 GPa-30 GPa. These measurements are critically compared against Berkovich nanohardness, micropillar compression, and micro-tension measurements on the same material and similar grain orientations. The ratio of irradiated to unirradiated yield strength increases by a similar factor of 2 when measured via spherical nanoindentation or Berkovich nanohardness testing. A comparison of spherical indentation stress-strain curves to uniaxial (micropillar and micro-tension) stress-strain curves was achieved using a simple scaling relationship which shows good agreement for the unirradiated condition and poor agreement in post-yield behavior for the irradiated condition. The disagreement between spherical nanoindentation and uniaxial stress-strain curves is likely due to the plastic instability that occurs during uniaxial tests but is absent during spherical nanoindentation tests.

  7. Thermal conductivity profile determination in proton-irradiated ZrC by spatial and frequency scanning thermal wave methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.; Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Antoniow, J. S.; Pron, H.; Ban, H.

    2013-01-01

    Using complementary thermal wave methods, the irradiation damaged region of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is characterized by quantifiably profiling the thermophysical property degradation. The ZrC sample was irradiated by a 2.6 MeV proton beam at 600 °C to a dose of 1.75 displacements per atom. Spatial scanning techniques including scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), lock-in infrared thermography (lock-in IRT), and photothermal radiometry (PTR) were used to directly map the in-depth profile of thermal conductivity on a cross section of the ZrC sample. The advantages and limitations of each system are discussed and compared, finding consistent results from all techniques. SThM provides the best resolution finding a very uniform thermal conductivity envelope in the damaged region measuring ∼52 ± 2 μm deep. Frequency-based scanning PTR provides quantification of the thermal parameters of the sample using the SThM measured profile to provide validation of a heating model. Measured irradiated and virgin thermal conductivities are found to be 11.9 ± 0.5 W m −1 K −1 and 26.7 ±1 W m −1 K −1 , respectively. A thermal resistance evidenced in the frequency spectra of the PTR results was calculated to be (1.58 ± 0.1) × 10 −6 m 2 K W −1 . The measured thermal conductivity values compare well with the thermal conductivity extracted from the SThM calibrated signal and the spatially scanned PTR. Combined spatial and frequency scanning techniques are shown to provide a valuable, complementary combination for thermal property characterization of proton-irradiated ZrC. Such methodology could be useful for other studies of ion-irradiated materials

  8. Neutron production in spallation reactions of 0.9 and 1.5 GeV protons on a thick lead target. Comparison between experimental data and Monte-Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Wagner, V.; Kugler, A.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Majerle, M.; Adam, J.; Caloun, P.; Bradnova, V.; Chultem, D.; Kalinnikov, V.G.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Solnyshkin, A.A.; Stegajlov, V.I.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Tumehndehlgehr, Ts.; Vasil'ev, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on two experiments performed at the Synchrophasotron/Nuclotron accelerator complex at JINR. Relativistic protons with energies 885 MeV and 1.5 GeV hit a massive cylindrical lead target. The spatial and energetic distributions of the neutron field produced by the spallation reactions were measured by the activation of Al, Au, Bi, Co, and Cu foils placed on the surface of the target and close to it. The yields of the radioactive nuclei produced by threshold reactions in these foils were determined by the analyses of their γ spectra. The comparison with Monte-Carlo based simulations was performed both with the LAHET+MCNP code and the MCNPX code

  9. Neutron Production in Spallation Reactions of 0.9 and 1.5 GeV Protons on a Thick Lead Target. Comparison between Experimental Data and Monte-Carlo Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Krasa, A; Bradnova, V; Caloun, P; Chultem, D; Henzl, V; Henzlová, D; Kalinnikov, V G; Krivopustov, M I; Krízek, F; Kugler, A; Majerle, M; Solnyshkin, A A; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Tumendelger, T; Vasilev, S I; Wagner, V; Nuclear Physics Institute of Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Rez, Czech Republic

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on two experiments performed at the Synchrophasotron/Nuclotron accelerator complex at JINR. Relativistic protons with energies 885 MeV and 1.5 GeV hit a massive cylindrical lead target. The spatial and energetic distributions of the neutron field produced by the spallation reactions were measured by the activation of Al, Au, Bi, Co, and Cu foils placed on the surface of the target and close to it. The yields of the radioactive nuclei produced by threshold reactions in these foils were determined by the analyses of their $\\gamma$ spectra. The comparison with Monte-Carlo based simulations was performed both with the LAHET+MCNP code and the MCNPX code.

  10. Optimum target thickness for polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters with thick targets are a tool to measure the proton polarization. But the question about the optimum target thickness is still the subject of discussion. An attempt to calculate the most common parameters concerning this problem, in a few GeV region, is made

  11. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    It was found that female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was determined to be 7 years after the proton exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received by the experimental animals were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event. It is concluded that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crew members. 15 references

  12. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was 7 years after exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event, leading to the conclusion that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crewmembers

  13. Biological Effects of Neutron and Proton Irradiations. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Biological Effects of Neutron Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    the importance of radiobiological investigations with neutrons for applied sciences; the topics discussed in these papers were the use of neutron irradiation in agriculture, applied genetics and radiotherapy; some results of research work on the biological action of neutrons and protons were also presented. The two-volume Proceedings of this Symposium should assist in promoting research on the biological effect of neutron and proton irradiation and help countries where no biological experiments with neutrons are yet being carried out

  14. Study of the iron corrosion at the interface of different media (water, air) submitted to protons irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapuerta, S.

    2005-10-01

    During the deep geological disposal, stainless steel containers of the vitrified waste will be put in carbon steel overpacks. After the closing of the storage site, overpacks will be in contact with a humid air and a radioactive medium. After hundred years, overpacks could be in contact with water radiolysis in an anoxic medium. In this context, my PhD work is a fundamental study which is the understanding of the corrosion mechanisms of pure iron under proton irradiation. This corrosion is affected by the contact of iron with different atmospheres (air, nitrogen) and water. In the case of the atmospheric iron corrosion under irradiation, we have studied the influence of the proton beam flux. During this work, we have characterized the structure of the oxides formed at the iron surface. The structure formed does not correspond to iron oxides and hydroxides indexed. However, we have shown that the oxide structure is close to that of lepidocrocite and bernalite. Moreover, we have determined the oxygen diffusion coefficient in iron under irradiation and we have shown that the irradiation accelerates of 6 orders of magnitude the iron corrosion. In addition, the irradiations which were realized in different gas have put in evidence the negligible role of nitrates, and the importance of the O 2 /H 2 O coupling on the iron corrosion. Finally, we have shown the influence of the relative humidity, the maximum of the corrosion being observed for a relative humidity close to 45%. In the case of the iron corrosion in aqueous media under irradiation, the influence of the oxygen dissolved in water has been studied using a surface marker. We have put in evidence that the corrosion is twice more significant in aerated medium than in deaerated medium. Moreover, the influence of radicals has been shown. An irradiated sample is more corroded than a sample put in contact with a H 2 O 2 solution. Finally, the follow-up of the iron potential under irradiation have shown the majority role

  15. Evaluation of critical resolved shear strength and deformation mode in proton-irradiated austenitic stainless steel using micro-compression tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyung-Ha; Ko, Eunsol; Kwon, Junhyun; Hwang, Seong Sik [Nuclear Materials Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chansun, E-mail: c.shin@mju.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Myongji University, 116 Myongji-ro, Cheoin-gu, Youngin, Gyeonggi-do, 449-728 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Micro-compression tests were applied to evaluate the changes in the strength and deformation mode of proton-irradiated commercial austenitic stainless steel. Proton irradiation generated small dots at low dose levels and Frank loops at high dose levels. The increase in critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) was measured from micro-compression of pillars and the Schmid factor calculated from the measured loading direction. The magnitudes of the CRSS increase were in good agreement with the values calculated from the barrier hardening model using the measured size and density of radiation defects. The deformation mode changed upon increasing the irradiation dose level. At a low radiation dose level, work hardening and smooth flow behavior were observed. Increasing the dose level resulted in the flow behavior changing to a distinct heterogeneous flow, yielding a few large strain bursts in the stress–strain curves. The change in the deformation mode was related to the formation and propagation of defect-free slip bands. The effect of the orientation of the pillar or loading direction on the strengths is discussed.

  16. Proton irradiation effects on deep level states in Mg-doped p-type GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Speck, J. S.; Ringel, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of proton irradiation on the deep level states throughout the Mg-doped p-type GaN bandgap is investigated using deep level transient and optical spectroscopies. Exposure to 1.8 MeV protons of 1 × 1013 cm-2 and 3 × 1013 cm-2 fluences not only introduces a trap with an EV + 1.02 eV activation energy but also brings monotonic increases in concentration for as-grown deep states at EV + 0.48 eV, EV + 2.42 eV, EV + 3.00 eV, and EV + 3.28 eV. The non-uniform sensitivities for individual states suggest different physical sources and/or defect generation mechanisms. Comparing with prior theoretical calculations reveals that several traps are consistent with associations to nitrogen vacancy, nitrogen interstitial, and gallium vacancy origins, and thus are likely generated through displacing nitrogen and gallium atoms from the crystal lattice in proton irradiation environment.

  17. Detailed Analysis of Apoptosis and Delayed Luminescence of Human Leukemia Jurkat T Cells after Proton Irradiation and Treatments with Oxidant Agents and Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Baran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following previous work, we investigated in more detail the relationship between apoptosis and delayed luminescence (DL in human leukemia Jurkat T cells under a wide variety of treatments. We used menadione and hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress and two flavonoids, quercetin, and epigallocatechin gallate, applied alone or in combination with menadione or H2O2. 62 MeV proton beams were used to irradiate cells under a uniform dose of 2 or 10 Gy, respectively. We assessed apoptosis, cell cycle distributions, and DL. Menadione, H2O2 and quercetin were potent inducers of apoptosis and DL inhibitors. Quercetin decreased clonogenic survival and the NAD(PH level in a dose-dependent manner. Proton irradiation with 2 Gy but not 10 Gy increased the apoptotic rate. However, both doses induced a substantial G2/M arrest. Quercetin reduced apoptosis and prolonged the G2/M arrest induced by radiation. DL spectroscopy indicated that proton irradiation disrupted the electron flow within Complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thus explaining the massive necrosis induced by 10 Gy of protons and also suggested an equivalent action of menadione and quercetin at the level of the Fe/S center N2, which may be mediated by their binding to a common site within Complex I, probably the rotenone-binding site.

  18. Calculations of the displacement damage and short-circuit current degradation in proton irradiated (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C. S.; Li, S. S.; Loo, R. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical model for computing the displacement damage defect density and the short-circuit current (I sub sc) degradation in proton-irradiated (AlGa)As-GaAs p-n junction solar cells is presented. Assumptions were made with justification that the radiation induced displacement defects form an effective recombination center which controls the electron and hole lifetimes in the junction space charge region and in the n-GaAs active layer of the irradiated GaAs p-n junction cells. The degradation of I sub sc in the (AlGa)As layer was found to be negligible compared to the total degradation. In order to determine the I sub sc degradation, the displacement defect density, path length, range, reduced energy after penetrating a distance x, and the average number of displacements formed by one proton scattering event were first calculated. The I sub sc degradation was calculated by using the electron capture cross section in the p-diffused layer and the hole capture cross section in the n-base layer as well as the wavelength dependent absorption coefficients. Excellent agreement was found between the researchers calculated values and the measured I sub sc in the proton irradiated GaAs solar cells for proton energies of 100 KeV to 10 MeV and fluences from 10 to the 10th power p/square cm to 10 to the 12th power p/square cm.

  19. CIGS Solar Cells for Space Applications: Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Traps Created by High-Energy Electron and Proton Irradiation on the Performance of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbabi, Samar; Ben Nasr, Tarek; Turki Kamoun, Najoua

    2018-02-01

    Numerical simulation is carried out using the Silvaco ATLAS software to predict the effect of 1-MeV electron and 4-MeV proton irradiation on the performance of a Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell that operates under the air mass zero spectrum (AM0). As a consequence of irradiation, two types of traps are induced including the donor- and acceptor-type traps. Only one of them (the donor-type trap) is found responsible for the degradation of the open-circuit voltage (V OC), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η), while the short circuit current (J SC) remains essentially unaffected. The modelling simulation validity is verified by comparison with the experimental data. This article shows that CIGS solar cells are suited for space applications.

  20. Majority- and minority-carrier deep level traps in proton-irradiated n+/p-InGaP space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmarasu, Nethaji; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Bourgoin, Jacques C.; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Ohshima, Takeshi; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Matsuda, Sumio

    2002-01-01

    We report the properties of observed defects in n + /p-InGaP solar cells created by irradiation of protons of different energies. Three majority (hole) and a minority-carrier traps, labeled respectively as HP1 (E v +0.90±0.05 eV), HP2 (E v +0.73±0.05 eV), H2 (E v +0.55 eV), and EP1 (E c -0.54 eV), were identified using deep level transient spectroscopy. All majority-carrier traps were found to act as recombination centers. While the H2 trap present in the proton-irradiated p-InGaP was found to anneal out by minority-carrier injection, the other traps were not

  1. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation of absorbed dose and radiolysis yields enhancement from a gold nanoparticle under MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H.N., E-mail: tranngochoang@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Karamitros, M. [Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre-Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ivanchenko, V.N. [Geant4 Associates International Ltd, Hebden Bridge (United Kingdom); Guatelli, S.; McKinnon, S. [Centre For Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong (Australia); Illawarra Health and Medical Research, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Okada, S. [Computing Research Center, High Energy Accelerator Organization, KEK, Tsukuba City (Japan); Bordage, M.C. [INSERM, UMR 1037, CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Univ. Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR 1037, CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Francis, Z. [Saint Joseph University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Beirut (Lebanon); El Bitar, Z. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien/IN2P3/CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Shin, J.I. [Division of Heavy Ion Clinical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, 75, Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.B. [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 323, Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Barberet, Ph. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Tran, T.T. [VNUHCM-University of Science (Viet Nam); Brown, J.M.C. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-04-15

    Gold nanoparticles have been reported as a possible radio-sensitizer agent in radiation therapy due to their ability to increase energy deposition and subsequent direct damage to cells and DNA within their local vicinity. Moreover, this increase in energy deposition also results in an increase of the radiochemical yields. In this work we present, for the first time, an in silico investigation, based on the general purpose Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4, into energy deposition and radical species production around a spherical gold nanoparticle 50 nm in diameter via proton irradiation. Simulations were preformed for incident proton energies ranging from 2 to 170 MeV, which are of interest for clinical proton therapy.

  2. Annealing enhancement effect by light illumination on proton irradiated Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakita, Shirou; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Matsuda, Sumio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Kushiya, Katsumi; Ohshima, Takeshi; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the high radiation tolerance of copper indium gallium di-selenide (CIGS) thin-film solar cells by conducting in situ measurements of short circuit current and open circuit voltage of CIGS thin-film solar cells during and after proton irradiation under short circuit condition. We found that the annealing rate of proton-induced defects in CIGS thin-film solar cells under light illumination with an AM0 solar simulator is higher than that under dark conditions. The activation energy of proton-induced defects in the CIGS thin-film solar cells with (without) light illumination is 0.80 eV (0.92 eV), which implies on enhanced defect annealing rate in CIGS thin-film solar cells due to minority-carrier injection. (author)

  3. On the study of proton-irradiated Tellurium targets relevant for production of medical radioisotopes 123I and 124I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam Kambali; Hari Suryanto; Daya Agung Sarwono; Cahyana Amiruddin

    2014-01-01

    The energy loss distribution and range of energetic proton beams in tellurium (Te) target have been simulated using the Stopping and Range of Ion in Matter (SRIM 2013) codes. The calculated data of the proton's range were then used to determine the optimum thickness of Te targets for future production of 123 I and 124 I from 123 Te(p,n) 123 I, 124 Te(p,n) 124 I and 124 Te(p,2n) 123 I nuclear reactions using the BATAN's Cs-30 cyclotron. It was found that for an incidence angle of 0° with respect to the target normal, the optimum thickness of 123 Te and 124 Te targets for 123 I production should be 644 µm and 1.8 mm respectively, whereas a 649 µm thick 124 Te target would be Required for 124 I production. In addition, the thickness should be decreased with increasing incidence angle. The EOB yield could theoretically reach up to 13.62 Ci of 123 I at proton energy of 22 Me V and beam current of 30 µA if the 124 Te is irradiated over a period of 3 hours. The theoretical EOB yield is comparable to the experimental data with accuracy within 10%. (author)

  4. <300> GeV team

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    The 300 GeV team had been assembled. In the photograph are Hans Horisberger, Clemens Zettler, Roy Billinge, Norman Blackburne, John Adams, Hans-Otto Wuster, Lars Persson, Bas de Raad, Hans Goebel, Simon Van der Meer.

  5. Enhanced vortex pinning and critical current density in proton-irradiated YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, E.L.; Siegal, M.P.; White, A.E.; Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The appropriate fluence of 2.0 MeV H + ions has been shown previously to enhance the critical current density J c by a factor of two at a magnetic field of 0.9 tesla in 1,000 angstrom thick epitaxial films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ grown by the ex situ BaF 2 process. The as-grown films exhibit single crystal-like behavior in both atomic ordering and J c versus temperature and magnetic field. TRIM simulations suggest that H + irradiation generates mainly point defects throughout the crystal structure. The authors show here that such defects result in an even greater enhancement of J c for fields above 1 tesla plus a significant increase in the apparent vortex pinning potential deduced from magnetization relaxation data

  6. Enhanced vortex pinning and critical current density in proton-irradiated YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, E.L.; Siegal, M.P.; White, A.E.; Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The appropriate fluence of 2.0 MeV H + ions has been shown previously to enhance the critical current density J c by a factor of two at a magnetic field of 0.9 tesla in 1000 Angstrom thick epitaxial films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ grown by the ex situ BaF 2 process. The as-grown films exhibit single crystal-like behavior in both atomic ordering and J c versus temperature and magnetic field. TRIM simulations suggest that H + irradiation generates mainly point defects throughout the crystal structure. We show here that such defects produce both a large enhancement of J c for fields above 1 tesla and a significant increase in the apparent vortex pinning potential deduced from magnetization relaxation data

  7. Enhanced vortex pinning and critical current density in proton-irradiated YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, E. L.; Siegal, M. P.; White, A. E.; Hou, S. Y.; Phillips, J. M.

    1992-11-01

    The appropriate fluence of 2.0 MeV H(sup +) ions has been shown previously to enhance the critical current density J(sub c) by a factor of two at a magnetic field of 0.9 tesla in 1000 (Angstrom) thick epitaxial films of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta) grown by the ex situ BaF2 process. The as-grown films exhibit single crystal-like behavior in both atomic ordering and J(sub c) versus temperature and magnetic field. TRIM simulations suggest that H(sup +) irradiation generates mainly point defects throughout the crystal structure. We show here that such defects produce both a large enhancement of J(sub c) for fields above 1 tesla and a significant increase in the apparent vortex pinning potential deduced from magnetization relaxation data.

  8. Effects of low temperature periodic annealing on the deep-level defects in 200 keV proton irradiated AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. S.; Chiu, T. T.; Loo, R. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The GaAs solar cell has shown good potential for space applications. However, degradation in performance occurred when the cells were irradiated by high energy electrons and protons in the space environment. The considered investigation is concerned with the effect of periodic thermal annealing on the deep-level defects induced by the 200 keV protons in the AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells. Protons at a fluence of 10 to the 11th P/sq cm were used in the irradiation cycle, while annealing temperatures of 200 C (for 24 hours), 300 C (six hours), and 400 C (six hours) were employed. The most likely candidate for the E(c) -0.71 eV electron trap observed in the 200 keV proton irradiated samples may be due to GaAs antisite, while the observed E(v) +0.18 eV hole trap has been attributed to the gallium vacancy related defect. The obtained results show that periodic annealing in the considered case does not offer any advantages over the one time annealing process.

  9. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of beryllium from some transition metals produced in high energy proton irradiations of medium mass elements: measurement of (p,7Be) cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, M.; Spellerberg, S.; Qaim, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the separation of 7 Be formed in high energy proton irradiation of medium mass elements like Fe, Cu etc. The bulk of the target material was removed in a preseparation step. Thereafter beryllium was obtained in a high purity within a few minutes elution time using a mixture of 5 mM citric acid and 1.0 mM pyridinedicarboxylic acid as eluent and a SYKAM KO2 analytical cation-exchange column. The effect of Be-carrier on the quality of separation was investigated. The quality of separation deteriorated with the increasing Be-carrier column loading. A certain amount of Be-carrier was, however, necessary in order to quantitate the results. By using low Be-carrier amounts (∝100 μg) and determining the elution yield via a conductometric method, it was possible to obtain quantitative separation results. Besides the analytical column, a semi-preparative column was also used, and the Be separation yield determined gravimetrically. The cross sections for the (p, 7 Be) process on Cu obtained using the two separation columns (analytical and semipreparative) and the two separation yield determination methods agreed within 15%. (orig.)

  10. Mechanical-property changes of structural composite materials after low-temperature proton irradiation: Implications for use in SSC magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morena, J.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Czajkowski, C.; Skaritka, J.

    1993-01-01

    Longterm physical, mechanical, electrical, and other properties of advanced composites, plastics, and other polymer materials are greatly affected by high-energy proton, neutron, electron, and gamma radiation. The effects of high-energy particles on materials is a critical design parameter to consider when choosing polymeric structural, nonstructural, and elastomeric matrix resin systems. Polymer materials used for filled resins, laminates, seals, gaskets, coatings, insulation and other nonmetallic components must be chosen carefully, and reference data viewed with caution. Most reference data collected in the high-energy physics community to date reflects material property degradation using other than proton irradiations. In most instances, the data were collected for room-temperature irradiations, not 4.2 K or other cryogenic temperatures, and at doses less than 10 8 --10 9 Rad. Energetic proton (and the accompanying spallation-product particles) provide good simulation fidelity to the expected radiation fields predicted for the cold-mass regions of the SSC magnets, especially the corrector magnets. The authors present here results for some structural composite materials which were part of a larger irradiation-characterization of polymeric materials for SSC applications

  11. Quantification of rat retinal growth and vascular population changes after single and split doses of proton irradiation: translational study using stereology methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao W.; Archambeau, John O.; Kubinova, Lucie; Boyle, Soames; Petersen, Georgia; Grove, Roger; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    This study quantified architectural and population changes in the rat retinal vasculature after proton irradiation using stereology. A 100 MeV conformal proton beam delivered 8, 14, 20 and 28 Gy as single and split doses to the whole eye. The vascular networks were prepared from retinal digests. Stereological methods were used to obtain the area of the retina and unbiased estimates of microvessel/artery/vein endothelial, pericyte and smooth muscle population, and vessel length. The retinal area increased progressively in the unirradiated, age-matched controls and in the retinas irradiated with 8 and 14 Gy, indicating uniform progressive retinal growth. No growth occurred after 20 and 28 Gy. Regression analysis of total endothelial cell number in all vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) after irradiation documented a progressive time- and dose-dependent cell loss occurring over 15 to 24 months. The difference from controls was significant (Ppopulations after split doses. At 10 Gy, the rate of endothelial cell loss, a dose parameter used to characterize the time- and dose-dependent loss of the endothelial population, was doubled.

  12. Isolation of radiothallium from proton irradiated lead by means of sorption from solutions on ammonium 12-molybdophosphate and by gas thermochromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptula, Ch.; Zajtseva, N.G.; Kim Sen Khan; Knotek, O.; Mikets, P.; Khalkin, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Tl ultramicroquantity adsorption from lead nitric acid solutions by ammonium 12-molybdophosphate, fixed in a matrix of porous Teflon (by AMP-sorbent) is investigated. It is shown that efficient Tl and Pb separation occurs during adsorption. Process of Tl washing from AMP-sorbent are studied and it is detected, that a complete Tl extraction is achieved under AMP dissolution in concentrated ammonium. Subsequent Tl refinement and concentration are performed by cation exchange chromatography on cationites dowex 50 or KU-2. During investigation into Tl ultramicroquantity behaviour in Pb melt it is shown that Tl is quantitatively isolated into a gaseous phase under the application of fluorinating agents-PbF 2 or NaF solid salt additions, covering the melt surface. Radiothallium is removed from evaporation zone by inert gas (He or N 2 ) flow into thermochromatographic column, where it is precipitated in a limited zone with maximum at ∼240 deg C. Based on the results obtained, liquid and gaseous methods for radiothallium isolation from proton irradiated lead are developed. Radiothallium is characterized by radionuclide, radiochemical and chemical purity, necessary in nuclear medicine for 201 Tl preparations. Both methods provide for a chemical yield of ≅95% and it takes about two hours for their realization

  13. Effect of Proton Irradiation on the Corrosion Behaviors of Ferritic/Martensitic Steel in Liquid Metal Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeonghyeon; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) such as sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) are the candidates of GEN-IV nuclear energy systems. Among various liquid metals that can be used as primary coolant material, sodium is a world widely used coolant for GEN-IV reactors. In this study, as-received Gr.92 and irradiated Gr.92 specimen in the oxygen-saturated liquid sodium were examined at high temperature for 300h. The microstructure results reveal the information of the effect of irradiation and effect of the chrome concentration in specimen. From the SRIM result, penetration distance of 40 μm in stainless steel and nominal sample thickness of 30 μm was used to avoid the damage peak and any proton implantation and From the microstructural evaluation, chromium-rich zones existed under the surface of the both of non-irradiated and irradiated materials. The irradiated materials showed chromium-rich zones with larger depths than the non-irradiated specimens.

  14. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    The RBE of protons has been assumed to be equivalent to that of photons. The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced DNA and chromosome damage, apoptosis, cell killing and cell cycling in organized epithelial cells was influenced by radiation quality. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-dependent Fischer rat thyroid cells, established as follicles, were exposed to gamma rays or proton beams delivered acutely over a range of physical doses. Gamma-irradiated cells were able to repair DNA damage relatively rapidly so that by 1 h postirradiation they had approximately 20% fewer exposed 3' ends than their counterparts that had been irradiated with proton beams. The persistence of free ends of DNA in the samples irradiated with the proton beam implies that either more initial breaks or a quantitatively different type of damage had occurred. These results were further supported by an increased frequency of chromosomal damage as measured by the presence of micronuclei. Proton-beam irradiation induced micronuclei at a rate of 2.4% per gray, which at 12 Gy translated to 40% more micronuclei than in comparable gamma-irradiated cultures. The higher rate of micronucleus formation and the presence of larger micronuclei in proton-irradiated cells was further evidence that a qualitatively more severe class of damage had been induced than was induced by gamma rays. Differences in the type of damage produced were detected in the apoptosis assay, wherein a significant lag in the induction of apoptosis occurred after gamma irradiation that did not occur with protons. The more immediate expression of apoptotic cells in the cultures irradiated with the proton beam suggests that the damage inflicted was more severe. Alternatively, the cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms required for recovery from such damage might not have been invoked. Differences based on radiation quality were also evident in the alpha components of cell survival curves (0.05 Gy(-1) for gamma rays, 0

  15. Application of ion exchange and extraction chromatography to the separation of actinium from proton-irradiated thorium metal for analytical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Engle, J W; Wilson, J J; Maassen, J R; Nortier, F M; Taylor, W A; Birnbaum, E R; Hudston, L A; John, K D; Fassbender, M E

    2015-02-06

    Actinium-225 (t1/2=9.92d) is an α-emitting radionuclide with nuclear properties well-suited for use in targeted alpha therapy (TAT), a powerful treatment method for malignant tumors. Actinium-225 can also be utilized as a generator for (213)Bi (t1/2 45.6 min), which is another valuable candidate for TAT. Actinium-225 can be produced via proton irradiation of thorium metal; however, long-lived (227)Ac (t1/2=21.8a, 99% β(-), 1% α) is co-produced during this process and will impact the quality of the final product. Thus, accurate assays are needed to determine the (225)Ac/(227)Ac ratio, which is dependent on beam energy, irradiation time and target design. Accurate actinium assays, in turn, require efficient separation of actinium isotopes from both the Th matrix and highly radioactive activation by-products, especially radiolanthanides formed from proton-induced fission. In this study, we introduce a novel, selective chromatographic technique for the recovery and purification of actinium isotopes from irradiated Th matrices. A two-step sequence of cation exchange and extraction chromatography was implemented. Radiolanthanides were quantitatively removed from Ac, and no non-Ac radionuclidic impurities were detected in the final Ac fraction. An (225)Ac spike added prior to separation was recovered at ≥ 98%, and Ac decontamination from Th was found to be ≥ 10(6). The purified actinium fraction allowed for highly accurate (227)Ac determination at analytical scales, i.e., at (227)Ac activities of 1-100 kBq (27 nCi to 2.7 μCi). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Proton irradiation parameters and chemical separation procedure for the bulk production of high-specific-activity {sup 186g}Re using WO{sub 3} targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, M.E.; Ballard, B.; Birnbaum, E.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.] [and others

    2013-08-01

    Rhenium-186g (T{sub 1/2} = 89.2 h) is a {beta}{sup -} emitter suitable for therapeutic applications. Current production methods rely on reactor production via {sup 185}Re(n,{gamma}) which results in low specific activities, thereby limiting its use. Production by p,d activation of enriched {sup 186}W results in a {sup 186g}Re product with a higher specific activity, allowing it to be used for targeted therapy with limited receptors. A test target consisting of pressed, sintered {sup nat}WO{sub 3} was proton irradiated at Los Alamos (LANL-IPF) to evaluate product yield and impurities, irradiation parameters and wet chemical Re recovery for proof-of-concept for bulk production of {sup 186g}Re. We demonstrated isolation of {sup 186g}Re in 97% yield from irradiated {sup nat}WO{sub 3} targets within 12 h of end of bombardment (EOB) via an alkaline dissolution followed by anion exchange. The recovery process has potential for automation, and WO{sub 3} can be easily recycled for recurrent irradiations. A {sup 186g}Re batch yield of 42.7 {+-} 2.2 {mu}Ci/{mu}Ah or 439 {+-} 23 MBq/C was obtained after 24 h in an 18.5 {mu}A proton beam. The target entrance energy was determined to be 15.6 MeV. The specific activity of {sup 186g}Re at EOB was measured to be 1.9 kCi (70.3 TBq) mmol{sup -1}, which agrees well with the result of a previous {sup 185,186m}Re co-production EMPIRE and TALYS modeling study assuming similar conditions. Utilizing enriched {sup 186}WO{sub 3}, we anticipate that a proton beam of 250 {mu}A for 24 h will provide batch yields of 256 mCi (9.5 GBq) of {sup 186g}Re at EOB with specific activities even higher than 1.9 kCi (70.3 TBq) mmol{sup -1}, suitable for therapy applications. (orig.)

  17. Thick Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find ...

  18. Effects of conventional high-voltage irradiation and proton irradiation as adjuncts to surgical measures in acromegaly with particular attention being given to the further course of illness with and without drug treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Comparisons of effectiveness and side-effect levels were carried out between conventional high-voltage irradiation and proton irradiation being used as adjunctive treatment in 56 patients suffering from acromegaly, whose STH levels had failed to return to normal (STH > 4.5 ng/ml) after surgery. For the evaluation of the results it was also of importance, if the patients were subjected to drug treatment or allowed to recover spontaneously during follow-up. The two therapeutic strategies were found to be equally potent. In both patient groups, the decreases in STH achieved over 4.5 to 5 years averaged 80%. Proton irradiation was associated with a higher rate of injuries to the anterior lobe of the pituitary, while the damage caused by conventional irradiation mostly was of a more severe nature (like generalised attacks). On an average, the STH levels of patients under treatment with dopamine agonists were reduced by approx. 67% within three years. In the group of patients receiving no further treatment in spite of sustained STH elevations (spontaneous recoveries) after surgery, 76.5% were found to have normal STH basal values by that time. (ECB) [de

  19. Progress towards vertical transport study of proton-irradiated InAs/GaSb type-II strained-layer superlattice materials for space-based infrared detectors using magnetoresistance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Mitchell C.; Morath, Christian P.; Fahey, Stephen; Klein, Brianna; Cowan, Vincent M.; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II strained-layer superlattice (T2SLS) materials are being considered for space-based infrared detector applications. However, an inadequate understanding of the role of carrier transport, specifically the vertical mobility, in the radiation tolerance of T2SLS detectors remains. Here, progress towards a vertical transport study of proton-irradiated, p-type InAs/GaSb T2SLS materials using magnetoresistance measurements is reported. Measurements in the growth direction of square mesas formed from InAs/GaSb superlattice material were performed using two distinct contact geometries in a Kelvin mode setup at variable magnetic fields, ranging from -9 T to 9 T, and temperatures, ranging from 5 K and 300 K. The results here suggested multi-carrier conduction and a field-dependent series resistance from the contact layer were present. The implications of these results and the plans for future magnetoresistance measurements on proton-irradiated T2SLS materials are discussed.

  20. GeV electron microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A strong consensus has developed recently in the nuclear physics community that research with electromagnetic probes in the 1 to 2 GeV range generated by a high current 100% duty factor electron accelerator represents an exciting new frontier. Because of this rapidly growing interest, a design group of 5 ANL physicists and accelerator specialists recently reviewed developments in accelerator technology and developed conceptual designs for technical evaluation and subsequent cost analysis. Exploratory designs were developed for two concepts, the linac-stretcher ring and a modified microtron system. These were used to make a critical comparison of the two conceptual designs along with an improved microtron design, the double-sided microtron. The results are presented in Table VIII-I. The double-sided microtron shows promise for development into a substantially less expensive facility than a linac-ring system, but its technical feasibility remains to be established. The potential savings in capital cost are large for the microtron system, perhaps $10 million. They dictate that in the absence of a major technical limitation the double-sided microtron is the preferred design

  1. Beam tests of proton-irradiated PbWO$_4$ crystals and evaluation of double-sided read-out technique for mitigation of radiation damage effects

    CERN Document Server

    Lucchini, Marco Toliman

    2016-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment in which detectors will have to operate during the High Luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) represents a crucial challenge for many calorimeter technologies. In the CMS forward calorimeters, ionizing doses and hadron fluences will reach up to 300 kGy (at a dose rate of 30 Gy/h) and $2\\times10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$, respectively, at the pseudorapidity region of $\\lvert \\eta\\rvert=2.6$. To evaluate the evolution of the CMS ECAL performance in such conditions, a set of PbWO$_4$ crystals, exposed to 24 GeV protons up to integrated fluences between $2.1\\times10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$ and $1.3\\times10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$, has been studied in beam tests. A degradation of the energy resolution and a non-linear response to electron showers are observed in damaged crystals. Direct measurements of the light output from the crystals show the amplitude decreasing and pulse becoming faster as the fluence increases. The evolution of the performance of the PbWO$_4$ crystals has been well understood and parame...

  2. Interactions of relativistic heavy ions in thick heavy element targets and some unresolved problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.; Ditlov, V.A.; Pozharova, E.A.; Smirnitskij, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions of relativistic heavy ions with total energies above 30 GeV in thick Cu and Pb targets (≥2 cm) have been studied with various techniques. Radiochemical irradiation experiments using thick Cu targets, both in a compact form or as diluted '2π-Cu targets' have been carried out with several relativistic heavy ions, such as 44 GeV 12 C (JINR, Dubna) and 72 GeV 40 Ar (LBL, Berkeley, USA). Neutron measuring experiments using thick targets irradiated with various relativistic heavy ions up to 44 GeV 12 C have been performed at JINR. In addition, the number of 'black prongs' in nuclear interactions (due to protons with energies less than 30 MeV and emitted from the target-like interaction partner at rest) produced with 72 GeV 22 Ne ions in nuclear emulsion plates has been measured in the first nuclear interaction of the primary 22 Ne ion and in the following second nuclear interaction of the secondary heavy (Z>1) ion. Some essential results have been obtained. 1) Spallation products produced by relativistic secondary fragments in interactions ([44 GeV 12 C or 72 GeV 40 Ar]+Cu) within thick copper yield less products close to the target and much more products far away from the target as compared to primary beam interactions. This applies also to secondary particles emitted into large angles (Θ>10deg). 2) The neutron production of 44 GeV 12 C within thick Cu and Pb targets is beyond the estimated yield as based on experiments with 12 GeV 12 C. These rather independent experimental results cannot be understood with well-accepted nuclear reaction models. They appear to present unresolved problems

  3. Interactions of hadrons in nuclear emulsion in the energy range 60 GeV - 400 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynski, R.

    1986-01-01

    Interactions of pions and protons in the energy range 60 GeV in nuclear emulsion have been analysed. The fragmentation process of the struck nucleus as well as the multiple production of relativistic particles have been investigated as a function of the primary energy and the effective thickness of the target. It is shown that both, the fragmentation of the target nucleus and particle production, can be described by models in which the projectile (or its constituents) undergoes multiple collisions inside the target nucleus. In particular the particle production in the projectile fragmentation region in pion-nucleus interactions is well described by the additive quark model. 47 refs., 35 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  4. Proton irradiation experiment for x-ray charge-coupled devices of the monitor of all-sky x-ray image mission onboard the international space station. 2. Degradation of dark current and identification of electron trap level

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Kamiyama, D

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be used for the Japanese X-ray mission, the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI), onboard the international space station (ISS). A temperature dependence of the dark current as a function of incremental dose is studied. We found that the protons having energy of >292 keV seriously increased the dark current of the devices. In order to improve the radiation tolerance of the devices, we have developed various device architectures to minimize the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, nitride oxide enables us to reduce the dark current significantly and therefore we adopted nitride oxide for the flight devices. We also compared the dark current of a device in operation and that out of operation during the proton irradiation. The dark current of the device in operation became twofold that out of operation, and we thus determined that devices would be turned off during the passage of the radiation belt. The temperature dependenc...

  5. Recoil properties of radionuclides formed in the interaction of 1--300-GeV protons with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, S.B.; Steinberg, E.P.; Weisfield, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The thick-target recoil properties of a number of nuclides, varying from 22 Na to 196 AU, formed in the interaction of 1--300-GeV protons with 197 Au have been measured in order to study the systematics of their variation with product mass and incident energy. The forward-to-backward ratios (F/B) of many of the products have a peak at 3 GeV and decrease at higher energies, with products in the mass region 46 or approx. = 140 decrease montonically between 1 and 300 GeV. The results are analyzed by the two-step model of high-energy reactions and discussed in terms of the different reaction mechanisms, spallation, fission and fragmentation. Fission contributes appreciably to the formation of products in the mass region 46 < or = A < or =103 at 1 GeV bombarding energy, but other mechanisms predominate at and above 11.5 GeV. The results are compared to the predictions of intranuclear cascade-evaporation calculations, and are in reasonable agreement at 1 and 3 GeV, although the calculations predict more forward momentum transfer than is observed. At higher energies the relation between forward momentum and mean deposition energy derived from the calculations must break down, because nuclides requiring high deposition energies for their formation have little or no forward momentum. Some possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed

  6. Target shape effects on monoenergetic GeV proton acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Min; Yu Tongpu; Pukhov, Alexander [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Sheng Zhengming, E-mail: pukhov@tp1.uni-duesseldorf.d [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-04-15

    When a circularly polarized laser pulse interacts with a foil target, there are three stages: pre-hole-boring, hole-boring and light sail acceleration. We study the electron and ion dynamics in the first stage and find the minimum foil thickness requirement for a given laser intensity. Based on this analysis, we propose using a shaped foil for ion acceleration, whose thickness varies transversely to match the laser intensity. Then, the target evolves into three regions: the acceleration, transparency and deformation regions. In the acceleration region, the target can be uniformly accelerated producing a mono-energetic and spatially collimated ion beam. Detailed numerical simulations are performed to check the feasibility and robustness of this scheme, such as the influence of shape factors and surface roughness. A GeV mono-energetic proton beam is observed in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations when a laser pulse with a focus intensity of 10{sup 22} W cm{sup -2} is used. The energy conversion efficiency of the laser pulse to the accelerated proton beam with the simulation parameters is more than 23%.

  7. Target shape effects on monoenergetic GeV proton acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Min; Yu Tongpu; Pukhov, Alexander; Sheng Zhengming

    2010-01-01

    When a circularly polarized laser pulse interacts with a foil target, there are three stages: pre-hole-boring, hole-boring and light sail acceleration. We study the electron and ion dynamics in the first stage and find the minimum foil thickness requirement for a given laser intensity. Based on this analysis, we propose using a shaped foil for ion acceleration, whose thickness varies transversely to match the laser intensity. Then, the target evolves into three regions: the acceleration, transparency and deformation regions. In the acceleration region, the target can be uniformly accelerated producing a mono-energetic and spatially collimated ion beam. Detailed numerical simulations are performed to check the feasibility and robustness of this scheme, such as the influence of shape factors and surface roughness. A GeV mono-energetic proton beam is observed in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations when a laser pulse with a focus intensity of 10 22 W cm -2 is used. The energy conversion efficiency of the laser pulse to the accelerated proton beam with the simulation parameters is more than 23%.

  8. The 400 GeV proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    A general account is given of the 400-GeV proton synchrotron, known as Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at Geneva. A brief chapter on the history of the project covers the steps leading to the earlier plan for a 300-GeV accelerator at a new CERN laboratory elsewhere in Europe, abandoned in 1971 in favour of the present machine, and the progress of construction of the latter. The general features of the SPS design are outlined, illustrated by an aerial view of the CERN site, a plan of the SPS, and interior views of the SPS ring tunnel and main control room. (WSN)

  9. Europe at 400 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walgate, R.

    1977-01-01

    The inaugural opening of the 400 GeV proton accelerator at CERN took place on 7 May 1977. A review of difficulties encountered during the 14 years since the SPS was first proposed is given and experiments already underway are outlined. The advantages of this facility over Fermilab and the type of experiment which can now be undertaken to answer some of the questions left open by Fermilab are discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Experimental study on the ionizing radiation field in absorbers irradiated by the 0.8 GeV and 1.2 GeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosimov, V.K.; Kalmykov, N.N.; Kovalenko, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement results of spatial distribution of aluminium detector energy release and radioactivity in absorbers irradiated by 0.8 and 1.2 GeV electrons are given. Absorbers are made of aluminium, iron and lead, 30x30 cm size across the thickness is about 18 radiation length units. Thermoluminescence dosimeters LiF and radiochromium film dosimeters have been used to measure energy release. Induced activity of 18 F and 24 Na nuclides is determined in aluminium detectors. The experimental data are compared with the results of calculation carried out by the Monte-Carlo method

  11. Theoretical scenarios for 103 GeV to 1019 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Basic dogmas of particle physics are reviewed. Some of their implications beyond the standard model are explored. Higgs sector of the standard model of electroweak interactions is the weakest link in the model. Elementary Higgs field makes the model unnatural beyond about 10 3 GeV. Supersymmetry provides the most attractive framework where in this problem can be addressed. This new symmetry, relating fermions and bosons, is expected to be operative at about 10 3 GeV. In addition, grand unification of the fundamental interactions can be studied consistently only within a supersymmetric formulation. Inclusion of gravity with other interactions leads to supergravity theories, which should emerge as a low energy description of a more fundamental theory, the string-theory. Supersymmetry again is an essential feature of such a theory. Quantum gravity, with its characteristic scale of 10 19 GeV, may well be described by a superstring theory. (author). 28 refs., 1 fig

  12. A 100 GeV SLAC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2002-01-01

    The SLAC beam energy can be increased from the current 50 GeV to 100 GeV, if we change the operating frequency from the present 2856 MHz to 11424 MHz, using technology developed for the NLC. We replace the power distribution system with a proposed NLC distribution system as shown in Fig. 1. The four 3 meter s-band 820 nS fill time accelerator sections are replaced by six 2 meter x-band 120 nS fill time sections. Thus the accelerator length per klystron retains the same length, 12 meters. The 4050 65MW-3.5(micro)S klystrons are replaced by 75MW-1.5(micro)S permanent magnet klystrons developed here and in Japan. The present input to the klystrons would be multiplied by a factor of 4 and possibly amplified. The SLED [1] cavities have to be replaced. The increase in beam voltage is due to the higher elastance to group velocity ratio, higher compression ratio and higher unloaded to external Q ratio of the new SLED cavities. The average power input is reduced because of the narrower klystron pulse width and because the klystron electro-magnets are replaced by permanent magnets

  13. Influence of proton irradiation on the photochromism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I. J.; Kim, D. E.; Kim, N. Y.

    2007-04-01

    The experimental results regarding on the reaction rate, spectral resolution and sensitivity of the absorption spectra of reactants and products, and their stability show that spirooxazines are among photochromic compounds studied best suited to the objective of this study. Because chloroform, polystyrene and PMMA are nearly not affected by the proton beam in the fluence range of 1x10 10 ions/cm 2 ∼ 2x10 14 ions/cm 2 , it is deduced that these matrices can be usable for the study of the radiochromic reaction mechanism. Although, due to the differences in the stopping power of the matrix, the fluence value that the radiochromic reaction onsets was different from matrix to matrix, the reaction mechanism was similar in general. As the ion fluence increases, a series reaction proceeds. Here, B is the species absorbing at 450-480 nm and the fluorescent species C absorbs at 380 nm. The reaction rate constant were determined from the dependence of the absorbance on ion fluence. The aging effects were observed in the polymer matrices

  14. Radiation stability of proton irradiated zirconium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Dickerson, Clayton A.; Allen, Todd R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for the deep burn (DB)-TRISO fuel as a replacement for the silicon carbide coating. The radiation stability of ZrC was studied using 2.6 MeV protons, across the irradiation temperature range from 600 to 900degC and to doses up to 1.75 dpa. The microstructural characterization shows that the irradiated microstructure is comprised of a high density of nanometer-sized dislocation loops, while no irradiation induced amorphization or voids are observed. The lattice expansion induced by point defects is found to increase as the dose increases for the samples irradiated at 600 and 800degC, while for the 900degC irradiation, a slight lattice contraction is observed. The radiation hardening is also quantified using a micro indentation technique for the temperature and doses studies. (author)

  15. Dielectric properties of proton irradiated PES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Nilam; Singh, N.L.; Singh, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Polyethersulfone films were irradiated with 3 MeV proton beam at fluences ranging from 10 13 to 10 15 ions/cm 2 . AC electrical properties of irradiated samples were studied in the frequency range 100 Hz to 1MHz by LCR meter. There is an exponential increase in conductivity with frequency but the effect of irradiation is not significant. The dielectric loss/constant are observed to change with fluence. (author)

  16. Modification of polycrystalline copper by proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, F.; Cabral P, A.; Saniger B, J.M.; Banuelos, J.G.; Barragan V, A.

    1997-01-01

    Polished copper samples were irradiated with proton beams of 300 and 700 keV at room temperature and at -150 Centigrade. In this work the obtained results are reported when such copper irradiated samples are analysed with Sem, Tem, AFM. The Sem micrographs showed evident changes in surface of these copper samples, therefore an EDAX microanalysis was done for its characterization. additionally, the Tem micrographs showed heaps formation until 200 nm. Its electron diffraction spectra indicated that these heaps consist of a copper compound. Finally with AFM were observed changes in coloration of the irradiated sample surface, as well as changes in texture and rugosity of them. These results show in general that irradiation process with protons which is known as an innocuo process produces changes in the copper properties. (Author)

  17. The first acceleration to 300 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    After the acceleration to 80 GeV in May the 200 GeV energy was attained on June 4, followed by a successful attempt to reach 300 GeV and then 400 GeV by the Council session on June 17. Here at the desk (centre) Boris Milman and Bas de Raad, (right) Pat Mills and a machine operator. Then standing on the back Jacques Althaber, Simon Van der Meer, Hans-Peter Kindermann, Raymond Rausch, John Adams, Klaus Batzner, and still back Antonio Millich, Jim Allaby, Wim Middelkoop, Bo Angerth, Hans Horisberger.

  18. Spallation study with proton beams around 1 GeV: neutron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudard, A.; Borne, F.; Brochard, F.; Crespin, S.; Drake, D.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, D.; Durand, J.M.; Frehaut, J.; Hanappe, F.; Kowalski, L.; Lebrun, C.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Ledoux, X.; Lefebvres, F.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Louvel, M.; Martinez, E.; Meigo, S.I.; Menard, S.; Milleret, G.; Patin, Y.; Petibon, E.; Plouin, F.; Pras, P.; Schapira, J.P.; Stuttge, L.; Terrien, Y.; Thun, J.; Uematsu, M.; Varignon, C.; Volant, C.; Whittal, D.M.; Wlazlo, W.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments performed at Lab. Nat. SATURNE on neutron produced by spallation from proton beams in the range 0.8 - 1.6 GeV are presented. Experimental data compared with codes show a significant improvement of the recent intra-nuclear cascade (J. Cugnon). This is also true in the same way for the neutron production from thick targets. However the model underestimates the energetic neutrons produced in the backward direction and other quantities as residual nuclei cross sections are not accurately predicted

  19. Photoproduction of eta mesons from threshold to 1.2 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, A.; Breuer, M.; Hoffman-Rothe, P.; Anton, G.; Arends, J.; Berrier-Ronsin, G.; Beulertz, W.; Blanpied, G.; Bock, A.; Bruns, M.; Didelez, J.; Djaladi, C.; Edel, G.; Frascaria, R.; Maass, R.; Helbing, K.; Hey, J.; Noeldeke, G.; Hourani, E.; Mayers, M.; Preedom, B.; Ritchie, B.; Rosier, L.; Saghai, B.; Schumacher, M.; Smend, F.; Whisnant, S.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured total and differential cross sections for η-meson photo-production on 7 cm thick 1 H, 2 D, and 14 N liquid targets from threshold to 1.2 GeV, using the tagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam produced by the electrons extracted from the ELSA storage ring at Bonn. The photoreaction was identified by detecting the η decay products in the neutral meson spectrometer SPES0-2π, while the recoil baryons (proton, neutron, or deuteron) were detected by a variety of large angle scintillator detectors. Some of our recent preliminary results, both theoretical and experimental, will be discussed. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Photon multiplicity in the hard radiation of 150 GeV electrons in an aligned germanium crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacem, A.; Chevallier, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Kirsch, R.; Poizat, J.C.; Remillieux, J.; Bologna, G.; Peigneux, J.P.; Sillou, D.; Spighel, M.; Cue, N.; Kimball, J.C.; Marsh, B.B.; Sun, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mean values m of photon multiplicity in the radiation of 150 GeV electrons directed at and near the axis of a 0.185 mm thick Ge crystal cooled to 100 K have been deduced from the measurements of pair conversion probabilities. Depending on the distribution of multiplicity assumed, values of m ranging from 3.8 to 4.3 are obtained for the previously reported anomalous radiation peak. (orig.)

  1. The gamma-ray pulsar population of globular clusters: implications for the GeV excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Linden, Tim, E-mail: dhooper@fnal.gov, E-mail: linden.70@osu.edu [Ohio State University, Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physcis (CCAPP), Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that the GeV excess, observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, might originate from a population of millisecond pulsars that formed in globular clusters. With this in mind, we employ the publicly available Fermi data to study the gamma-ray emission from 157 globular clusters, identifying a statistically significant signal from 25 of these sources (ten of which are not found in existing gamma-ray catalogs). We combine these observations with the predicted pulsar formation rate based on the stellar encounter rate of each globular cluster to constrain the gamma-ray luminosity function of millisecond pulsars in the Milky Way's globular cluster system. We find that this pulsar population exhibits a luminosity function that is quite similar to those millisecond pulsars observed in the field of the Milky Way (i.e. the thick disk). After pulsars are expelled from a globular cluster, however, they continue to lose rotational kinetic energy and become less luminous, causing their luminosity function to depart from the steady-state distribution. Using this luminosity function and a model for the globular cluster disruption rate, we show that millisecond pulsars born in globular clusters can account for only a few percent or less of the observed GeV excess. Among other challenges, scenarios in which the entire GeV excess is generated from such pulsars are in conflict with the observed mass of the Milky Way's Central Stellar Cluster.

  2. 3 GeV Injector Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-12-16

    This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

  3. 20 GeV e+ x 400 GeV p: some synchrotron radiation considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.W.; Limon, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of a 20 GeV electron ring in the 400 x 400 GeV 2 ISABELLE tunnel is considered. The conclusions that can be drawn from these considerations are: (1) much work remains to be done on the implications of synchrotron radiation for insertion design; (2) in the absence of considerations concerning insertion areas with longitudinal polarization, placing the electron ring in the same vertical plane as the electron ring is mildly favored; (3) creating insertions for longitudinally polarized electrons is difficult, and elementary considerations indicate that the synchrotron radiation flux in the insertion region will increase by a factor of approximately 100 and the luminosity may decrease by a factor of approximately 10; and (4) the creation of insertions for longitudinally polarized electrons favors placing the electron ring in the same horizontal plane as the proton ring

  4. Effects of conventional high-voltage irradiation and proton irradiation as adjuncts to surgical measures in acromegaly with particular attention being given to the further course of illness with and without drug treatment. Effekt der konventionellen Hochvoltbestrahlung und der Protonenbestrahlung als Sekundaertherapie nach Operation bei Akromegalie unter Beruecksichtigung der medikamentoesen Nachbehandlung und der Spontanverlaeufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, B.S.

    1986-09-03

    Comparisons of effectiveness and side-effect levels were carried out between conventional high-voltage irradiation and proton irradiation being used as adjunctive treatment in 56 patients suffering from acromegaly, whose STH levels had failed to return to normal (STH > 4.5 ng/ml) after surgery. For the evaluation of the results it was also of importance, if the patients were subjected to drug treatment or allowed to recover spontaneously during follow-up. The two therapeutic strategies were found to be equally potent. In both patient groups, the decreases in STH achieved over 4.5 to 5 years averaged 80%. Proton irradiation was associated with a higher rate of injuries to the anterior lobe of the pituitary, while the damage caused by conventional irradiation mostly was of a more severe nature (like generalised attacks). On an average, the STH levels of patients under treatment with dopamine agonists were reduced by approx. 67% within three years. In the group of patients receiving no further treatment in spite of sustained STH elevations (spontaneous recoveries) after surgery, 76.5% were found to have normal STH basal values by that time. (ECB).

  5. Search for prompt neutrinos and new penetrating particles from 28-GeV proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukas, A.; Wanderer, P.; Weng, W.; Bregman, M.; Claudson, M.; LoSecco, J.; Rivkin, L.; Roeder, J.; Russek, S.; Sulak, L.; Timbie, P.; Yudis, M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Galik, R.S.; Horstkotte, J.; Knauer, J.; Levine, M.; Williams, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a search for weakly or semistrongly interacting particles produced in the collision of 4.9 x 10 18 28-GeV protons with a thick copper and brass beam stop. 104 events have been observed; their characteristics are similar to those produced by neutrinos arising from proton interactions in a 15-cm-thick brass target. However, compared to the number expected, an excess of 48 events is found with uncertainties of +- 10 (statistical) and +- 12 (systematic). At most ten events (68% confidence level) are attributable to beam losses

  6. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  7. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  8. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  9. Preparing for 1000 GeV physics at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The superconducting proton beams and the neutrino beams at Fermilab prepared for the research with 1000 GeV colliding proton and antiproton beams are described. Especially a new developed helium transfer line is described. (HSI).

  10. arXiv Charged Fermions Below 100 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Egana-Ugrinovic, Daniel; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2018-05-03

    How light can a fermion be if it has unit electric charge? We revisit the lore that LEP robustly excludes charged fermions lighter than about 100 GeV. We review LEP chargino searches, and find them to exclude charged fermions lighter than 90 GeV, assuming a higgsino-like cross section. However, if the charged fermion couples to a new scalar, destructive interference among production channels can lower the LEP cross section by a factor of 3. In this case, we find that charged fermions as light as 75 GeV can evade LEP bounds, while remaining consistent with constraints from the LHC. As the LHC collects more data, charged fermions in the 75–100 GeV mass range serve as a target for future monojet and disappearing track searches.

  11. Elastic scattering crossovers from 50 to 175 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.L.; Ayres, D.S.; Barton, D.S.; Brenner, A.E.; Butler, J.; Cutts, D.; DeMarzo, C.; Diebold, R.; Elias, J.E.; Fines, J.; Friedman, J.I.; Gittelman, B.; Gottschalk, B.; Guerriero, L.; Gustavson, D.; Kendall, H.W.; Lanou, R.E.; Lavopa, P.; Levinson, L.J.; Litt, J.; Loh, E.; Maclay, G.J.; Maggi, G.; Massimo, J.T.; Meunier, R.; Mikenberg, G.; Nelson, B.; Posa, F.; Rich, K.; Ritson, D.M.; Rosenson, L.; Selvaggi, G.; Sogard, M.; Spinelli, P.; Verdier, R.; Waldner, F.; Weitsch, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of K/sup plus-or-minus/p and p/sup plus-or-minus/p elastic scattering is made for incident energy 50 to 175 GeV. Average values of 0.19 +- 0.04 and 0.11 +- 0.02 GeV 2 were found for the invariant-momentum-transfer values of the Kp and pp crossover points, respectively

  12. The 50 GeV program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1994-03-01

    SLAC has undertaken a modes programs to upgrade the beam energy for fixed target experiments to 50 GeV. This upgrade is possible due to the previous extensive development work on the linac accelerating gradient for the SLC, which has been operational for over five years. The SLC can deliver a beam of energy up to 60 GeV using a pulse compression technique in the rf system which trades pulse length for a higher pulse amplitude. This mode of operation has been reliable and routine for the SLC. However the beam line transport which takes electrons or positrons from the end of the linac to the target in End Station A has not been upgraded from the original design energy of 25 GeV. The 50 GeV upgrade for the fixed target experiments consists in modifying and increasing the number of beam line dipole magnets to reach 50 GeV, plus modernization of the beam line instrumentation and controls. The plans for spin structure experiments using electron beams at energies up to 50 GeV are described

  13. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  14. Propagation of GeV neutrinos through Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas, Yaithd Daniel; Sahu, Sarira

    2018-06-01

    We have studied the Earth matter effect on the oscillation of upward going GeV neutrinos by taking into account the three active neutrino flavors. For neutrino energy in the range 3 to 12 GeV we observed three distinct resonant peaks for the oscillation process νe ↔νμ,τ in three distinct densities. However, according to the most realistic density profile of the Earth, the second peak at neutrino energy 6.18 GeV corresponding to the density 6.6 g/cm3 does not exist. So the resonance at this energy can not be of MSW-type. For the calculation of observed flux of these GeV neutrinos on Earth, we considered two different flux ratios at the source, the standard scenario with the flux ratio 1 : 2 : 0 and the muon damped scenario with 0 : 1 : 0. It is observed that at the detector while the standard scenario gives the observed flux ratio 1 : 1 : 1, the muon damped scenario has a different ratio. For muon damped case with Eν 20 GeV, we get the average Φνe ∼ 0 and Φνμ ≃Φντ ≃ 0.45. The upcoming PINGU will be able to shed more light on the nature of the resonance in these GeV neutrinos and hopefully will also be able to discriminate among different processes of neutrino production at the source in GeV energy range.

  15. ISABELLE: a 200 + 200 GeV colliding beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.

    1977-01-01

    Plans are under way for the construction of a pair of intersecting storage rings providing for colliding beams of protons of energy at least 200 GeV. The rings (circumference 2.62 km) will contain superconducting magnets constructed with braided Nb--Ti filamentary wire, with a peak field of 4.0 T corresponding to an energy of 200 GeV. A current of 10 A of protons will be injected at 29 GeV from the existing AGS accelerator at Brookhaven, using the energy stacking technique similar to that employed at the CERN ISR; subsequently the stored beam will be accelerated gradually in the storage rings. Six intersection areas will be provided for experiments. They are designed to provide flexibility in beam characteristics for different experiments. The maximum luminosity at full energy is expected to be 1.0 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 , at 29 GeV it will be approximately 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . Recent work with prototype magnets indicates that fields of 5.0 T can be produced. This has led to an alternative design of somewhat larger rings (circumference 3.77 km) that should be capable of providing colliding beams at 400 + 400 GeV

  16. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  17. The 12 GeV Upgrade at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolf Ent

    2002-01-01

    There has been a remarkable fruitful evolution of our picture of the behavior of strongly interacting matter during the almost two decades that have passed since the parameters of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab were defined. These advances have revealed important new experimental questions best addressed by a CEBAF-class machine at higher energy. Fortunately, favorable technical developments coupled with foresight in the design of the facility make it feasible to triple (double) CEBAF's design (achieved) beam energy from 4 (6) GeV to 12 GeV, in a cost-effective manner: the Upgrade can be realized for about 15% of the cost of the initial facility. This Upgrade would enable the worldwide community to greatly expand its physics horizons. In addition to in general improving the figure of merit and momentum transfer range of the present Jefferson Lab physics program, raising the energy of the accelerator to 12 GeV opens up two main new areas of physics: (1) It allows direct exploration of the quark-gluon structure of hadrons and nuclei in the ''valence quark region''. It is known that inclusive electron scattering at the high momentum and energy transfers available at 12 GeV is governed by elementary interactions with quarks and, indirectly, gluons. The original CEBAF energy is not adequate to study this critical region, while with continuous 12 GeV beams one can cleanly access the entire ''valence quark region'' and exploit the newly discovered Generalized Parton Distributions. In addition, a 12-GeV Jefferson Lab can essentially complete the studies of the transition from hadronic to quark-gluon degrees of freedom. (2) It allows crossing the threshold above which the origins of quark confinement can be investigated. Specifically, 12 GeV will enable the production of certain ''exotic'' mesons. Whereas in the QCD region of asymptotic freedom ample evidence for the role of gluons exist through the observation of gluon jets

  18. CEBAF SRF Performance during Initial 12 GeV Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Allison, Trent; Daly, Edward; Drury, Michael; Hovater, J; Lahti, George; Mounts, Clyde; Nelson, Richard; Plawski, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV includes the installation of eleven new 100 MV cryomodules (88 cavities). The superconducting RF cavities are designed to operate CW at an accelerating gradient of 19.3 MV/m with a Q L of 3x10 7 . Not all the cavities were operated at the minimum gradient of 19.3 MV/m with the beam. Though the initial 12 GeV milestones were achieved during the initial commissioning of CEBAF, there are still some issues to be addressed for long term reliable operation of these modules. This paper reports the operational experiences during the initial commissioning and the path forward to improve the performance of C100 (100 MV) modules.

  19. The CERN 400 GeV proton synchrotron (CERN SPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The main characteristics of the CERN 400 GeV proton synchrotron (SPS) has described. Beam intensity averages about 5x10 12 protons per pulse. The CERN 28 GeV proton synchrotron serves as an injector for the SPS. There are 108 magnet periods in the machine with a phase shift per period of π/2. The magnet system consists of 800 dipoles with 1.8 T magnetic field and 216 quadrupoles with a field gradient of 20.7 T (per meter). The frequency chosen for the RF system of the SPS is 200 MHz. Two beam extraction systems are installed in the SPS, one to feed protons to the West Experimental Area, and the other to feed protons to the North Experimental Area. The planned development of the machine in the next few years has described. The cost per GeV of the SPS works out 3 to 4 times less than that of the CPS

  20. Characterising the 750 GeV diphoton excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Goudelis, Andreas; Kraml, Sabine; Mawatari, Kentarou; Sengupta, Dipan

    2016-01-01

    We study kinematic distributions that may help characterise the recently observed excess in diphoton events at 750 GeV at the LHC Run 2. Several scenarios are considered, including spin-0 and spin-2 750 GeV resonances that decay directly into photon pairs as well as heavier parent resonances that undergo three-body or cascade decays. We find that combinations of the distributions of the diphoton system and the leading photon can distinguish the topology and mass spectra of the different scenarios, while patterns of QCD radiation can help differentiate the production mechanisms. Moreover, missing energy is a powerful discriminator for the heavy parent scenarios if they involve (effectively) invisible particles. While our study concentrates on the current excess at 750 GeV, the analysis is general and can also be useful for characterising other potential diphoton signals in the future.

  1. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  2. Spallation Neutron Spectrum on a Massive Lead/Paraffin Target Irradiated with 1 GeV Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Barashenkov, V S; Brandt, R; Golovatiouk, V M; Kalinnikov, V G; Katovsky, K; Krivopustov, M I; Kumar, V; Kumawat, H; Odoj, R; Pronskikh, V S; Solnyshkin, A A; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Westmeier, W

    2004-01-01

    The spectra of gamma-ray emitted by decaying residual nuclei, produced by spallation neutrons with (n, xn), (n,xnyp), (n,p), (n,gamma) reactions in activation threshold detectors - namely, ^{209}Bi, ^{197}Au, ^{59}Co, ^{115}In, ^{232}Th, were measured in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (LNP), JINR, Dubna, Russia. Spallation neutrons were generated by bombarding a 20 cm long cylindrical lead target, 8 cm in diameter, surrounded by a 6 cm thick layer of paraffin moderator, with a 1 GeV proton beam from the Nuclotron accelerator. Reaction rates and spallation neutron spectrum were measured and compared with CASCADE code calculations.

  3. Reconstruction of GeV Neutrino Events in LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellenberg, R.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hellgartner, D.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Winter, J.; Wurm, M.; Peltoniemi, J.

    2011-01-01

    LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a proposed next generation liquid-scintillator detector with about 50 kt target mass. Besides the detection of solar neutrinos, geoneutrinos, supernova neutrinos and the search for the proton decay, LENA could also be used as the far detector of a next generation neutrino beam. The present contribution outlines the status of the Monte Carlo studies towards the reconstruction of GeV neutrinos in LENA. Both the tracking capabilities at a few hundred MeV, most interesting for a beta beam, and above 1 GeV for a superbeam experiment are presented.

  4. Summary of the 70 GeV Booster Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, Y.; Khiari, F.

    1985-06-01

    The energy range of the 70 GeV SSC booster makes it difficult to employ a single technique for preserving the beam polarization. Results of DEPOL calculations show that the expected resonance strengths are below the .5 x 10 -1 level, which poses no problem for resonance jumping. It was found that a single adiabatically energized Siberian snake will not significantly depolarize the beam. Thus one good solution to the mixing problem is that the snake magnets be energized during the acceleration cycle reaching maximum operating value at 20 GeV, where they take over the resonance jumping role. The possibility of adiabatically energizing two snakes was found to be feasible

  5. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  6. Thick melanoma in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Brandani, Paola; Gerlini, Gianni; Rubegni, Pietro; Lamberti, Arianna; Salvini, Camilla; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Cecchi, Roberto; Sirna, Riccardo; Lorenzi, Stefano; Gattai, Riccardo; Battistini, Silvio; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2017-03-14

    The epidemiologic trends of cutaneous melanoma are similar in several countries with a Western-type life style, where there is a progressive increasing incidence and a low but not decreasing mor- tality, or somewhere an increase too, especially in the older age groups. Also in Tuscany there is a steady rise in incidence with prevalence of in situ and invasive thin melanomas, with also an increase of thick melanomas. It is necessary to reduce the frequency of thick melanomas to reduce specific mortality. The objective of the current survey has been to compare, in the Tuscany population, by a case- case study, thin and thick melanoma cases, trying to find out those personal and tumour characteristics which may help to customize preventive interventions. RESULTS The results confirmed the age and the lower edu- cation level are associated with a later detection. The habit to perform skin self-examination is resulted protec- tive forward thick melanoma and also the diagnosis by a doctor. The elements emerging from the survey allow to hypothesize a group of subjects resulting at higher risk for a late diagnosis, aged over 50 and carrier of a fewer constitutional and environmental risk factors: few total and few atypical nevi, and lower sun exposure and burning. It is assumable that a part of people did not be reached from messages of prevention because does not recognize oneself in the categories of people at risk for skin cancers described in educational cam- paigns. If we want to obtain better results on diagnosis of skin melanoma we have to think a new strategy. At least to think over the educational messages discriminating people more at risk of incidence of melanoma from people more at risk to die from melanoma, and to renewed active involvement of the Gen- eral Practitioners .

  7. Thick brane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Minamitsuji, Masato; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive review on thick brane solutions and related topics. Such models have attracted much attention from many aspects since the birth of the brane world scenario. In many works, it has been usually assumed that a brane is an infinitely thin object; however, in more general situations, one can no longer assume this. It is also widely considered that more fundamental theories such as string theory would have a minimal length scale. Many multidimensional field theories coupled to gravitation have exact solutions of gravitating topological defects, which can represent our brane world. The inclusion of brane thickness can realize a variety of possible brane world models. Given our understanding, the known solutions can be classified into topologically non-trivial solutions and trivial ones. The former class contains solutions of a single scalar (domain walls), multi-scalar, gauge-Higgs (vortices), Weyl gravity and so on. As an example of the latter class, we consider solutions of two interacting scalar fields. Approaches to obtain cosmological equations in the thick brane world are reviewed. Solutions with spatially extended branes (S-branes) and those with an extra time-like direction are also discussed.

  8. GeV Detection of HESS J0632+057

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; Wilhelmi, Emma de Oña [Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC–IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Magrans s/n, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain); Cheng, K.-S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Kretschmar, Peter [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Science Operations Department, Villanueva de la Cañada (Madrid) (Spain); Hou, Xian [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming 650216 (China); Takata, Jumpei, E-mail: jian@ice.csic.es [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-09-10

    HESS J0632+057 is the only gamma-ray binary that has been detected at TeV energies, but not at GeV energies yet. Based on nearly nine years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 data, we report here on a deep search for the gamma-ray emission from HESS J0632+057 in the 0.1–300 GeV energy range. We find a previously unknown gamma-ray source, Fermi J0632.6+0548, spatially coincident with HESS J0632+057. The measured flux of Fermi J0632.6+0548 is consistent with the previous flux upper limit on HESS J0632+057 and shows variability that can be related to the HESS J0632+057 orbital phase. We propose that Fermi J0632.6+0548 is the GeV counterpart of HESS J0632+057. Considering the Very High Energy spectrum of HESS J0632+057, a possible spectral turnover above 10 GeV may exist in Fermi J0632.6+0548, as appears to be common in other established gamma-ray binaries.

  9. 12 GeV detector technology at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leckey, John P. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Collaboration: GlueX Collaboration

    2013-04-19

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) is presently in the middle of an upgrade to increase the energy of its CW electron beam from 6 GeV to 12 GeV along with the addition of a fourth experimental hall. Driven both by necessity and availability, novel detectors and electronics modules have been used in the upgrade. One such sensor is the Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM), specifically a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC), which is an array of avalanche photodiode pixels operating in Geiger mode that are used to sense photons. The SiPMs replace conventional photomultiplier tubes and have several distinct advantages including the safe operation in a magnetic field and the lack of need for high voltage. Another key to 12 GeV success is advanced fast electronics. Jlab will use custom 250 MHz and 125 MHz 12-bit analog to digital converters (ADCs) and time to digital converters (TDCs) all of which take advantage of VME Switched Serial (VXS) bus with its GB/s high bandwidth readout capability. These new technologies will be used to readout drift chambers, calorimeters, spectrometers and other particle detectors at Jlab once the 12 GeV upgrade is complete. The largest experiment at Jlab utilizing these components is GlueX - an experiment in the newly constructed Hall D that will study the photoproduction of light mesons in the search for hybrid mesons. The performance of these components and their respective detectors will be presented.

  10. RUNNING THE AGS MMPS AT 5 HZ, 24 GEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARNERIS, I.; ROSER, T.; RUGGIERO, A.G.; SANDBERG, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton enera of 29 GeV. At this energy, the maximum intensity achieved is 7 x 10 13 protons per pulse. This corresponds to an average beam power of about 0.2 MW. Future programs in high-energy and neutron physics may require an upgrade of the AGS accelerator to an average beam power of around 4 MW, with proton beams at the energy of 24 GeV. This can be achieved with an increase of the beam intensity to 2 x 10 14 protons per pulse that requires a 1.5-GeV super-conducting linac [1], as a new injector and by upgrading the power supply system to allow cycling at 5 beam pulses per second. This paper describes the present mode of operation of the AGS main magnet power supply, the requirements for operation at 5 Hz and a proposed sorption of all modifications required to upgrade the AGS main magnet power supply to operate at 5 HZ, with proton beams at the energy of 24 GeV

  11. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    During the past decade, synchrotron radiation emitted by circulating electron beams has come into wide use as a powerful, versatile source of x-rays for probing the structure of matter and for studying various physical processes. Several synchrotron radiation facilities with different designs and characteristics are now in regular operation throughout the world, with recent additions in this country being the 0.8-GeV and 2.5-GeV rings of NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. However, none of the operating facilities has been designed to use a low-emittance, high-energy stored beam, together with modern undulator devices, to produce a large number of hard x-ray beams of extremely high brilliance. This document is a proposal to the Department of Energy to construct and operate high-energy synchrotron radiation facility at Argonne National Laboratory. We have now chosen to set the design energy of this facility at 7.0 GeV, with the capability to operate at up to 7.5 GeV

  12. Injection error monitor for KEK 12 GeV PS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakata, Masashi; Sato, Hikaru; Toyama, Takeshi; Marutsuka, Katsumi.

    1994-01-01

    The injection error monitor is now developing for an easy tuning of the main ring beam injection at the KEK 12 GeV proton synchrotron. The beam trajectory on the horizontal phase space plane is obtained by a test bench system. The injection error monitor proved to be available for the beam injection tuning. (author)

  13. CMS event at 900 GeV - 5 May 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS, Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This proton collision di-jet event was detected at the CMS detector. The red bars represent the energy deposited in the electromagnetic calorimeter and the blue represent the energy in the hadronic calorimeter. The total hadronic and electromagnetic energy is approximately 30 GeV in each jet. The back-to-back jet cones can be clearly seen emanating from the vertex.

  14. GeV C.W. electron microtron design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    Rising interest in the nuclear physics community in a GeV C.W. electron accelerator reflects the growing importance of high-resolution short-range nuclear physics to future advances in the field. In this report major current problems are reviewed and the details of prospective measurements which could be made with a GeV C.W. electron facility are discussed, together with their impact on an understanding of nuclear forces and the structure of nuclear matter. The microtron accelerator has been chosen as the technology to generate the electron beams required for the research discussed because of the advantages of superior beam quality, low capital and operating cost and capability of furnishing beams of several energies and intensities simultaneously. A complete technical description of the conceptual design for a 2 GeV double-sided C.W. electron microtron is presented. The accelerator can furnish three beams with independently controlled energy and intensity. The maximum current per beam is 100 μamps. Although the precise objective for maximum beam energy is still a subject of debate, the design developed in this study provides the base technology for microtron accelerators at higher energies (2 to 6 GeV) using multi-sided geometries

  15. GeV C. W. electron microtron design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    Rising interest in the nuclear physics community in a GeV C.W. electron accelerator reflects the growing importance of high-resolution short-range nuclear physics to future advances in the field. In this report major current problems are reviewed and the details of prospective measurements which could be made with a GeV C.W. electron facility are discussed, together with their impact on an understanding of nuclear forces and the structure of nuclear matter. The microtron accelerator has been chosen as the technology to generate the electron beams required for the research discussed because of the advantages of superior beam quality, low capital and operating cost and capability of furnishing beams of several energies and intensities simultaneously. A complete technical description of the conceptual design for a 2 GeV double-sided C.W. electron microtron is presented. The accelerator can furnish three beams with independently controlled energy and intensity. The maximum current per beam is 100 ..mu..amps. Although the precise objective for maximum beam energy is still a subject of debate, the design developed in this study provides the base technology for microtron accelerators at higher energies (2 to 6 GeV) using multi-sided geometries.

  16. 90 - GeV Higgs boson in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzadkowski, B.; Kalinowski, J.; Pokorski, S.

    1989-07-01

    We discuss supersymmetric models with a hierarchy of vacuum expectation values of Higgs fields. These models predict one of the physical neutral Higgs bosons to have its mass very close to the Z-boson mass. Properties of such a 90-GeV Higgs boson are discussed. (author)

  17. Polarized protons from the source to 70 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, Y.I.

    1985-01-01

    This energy range covers the current project at the AGS and extends well beyond it. I shall report on our learning experience at BNL, discuss the potential for improvement, and the limitations of extending the AGS resonance jumping technique beyond 25 GeV

  18. Effects of buffer thickness on ATW blanket performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W. S.; Mercatali, L.; Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for liquid metal cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) systems, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using 840 MWt liquid metal cooled ATW designs, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performance have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performance parameters have been estimated by a series of calculations using the MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance variation are studied by investigating the low-energy ( and lt; 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. For investigating irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. Results for the liquid-metal-cooled designs show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable. Investigation of the impact of the proton beam energy on the target and buffer design shows that for a given blanket power level, a lower beam energy (0.6 GeV versus 1 GeV) results in a higher irradiation damage to the beam window. This trend occurs because of the increase in the beam intensity required to maintain the power level

  19. Effects of Buffer Thickness on ATW Blanket Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Mercatali, L.; Taiwo, T.A.; Hill, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for liquid metal cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) systems, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using 840 MWt liquid metal cooled ATW designs, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performance have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performance parameters have been estimated by a series of calculations using the MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance variation are studied by investigating the low-energy (< 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. For investigating irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. Results for the liquid-metal-cooled designs show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable. Investigation of the impact of the proton beam energy on the target and buffer design shows that for a given blanket power level, a lower beam energy (0.6 GeV versus 1 GeV) results in a higher irradiation damage to the beam window. This trend occurs because of the increase in the beam intensity required to maintain the power level. (authors)

  20. Study of nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Kullberg, R.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.; Nilsson, G.; Kim, C.O.; Lorry, J.; Meton, C.; Schune, D.; Chu, T.; Villot, B.; Kaiser, R.; Vincent, M.A.; Baumann, G.; Devienne, R.; Schmitt, R.; Adamovic, O.; Juric, M.; Bolta, J.M.; Sanchis, M.A.; Bravo, L.; Niembro, R.; Ruiz, A.; Villar, E.

    1977-05-01

    400 GeV inelastic proton-emulsion nucleus interactions from an International Emulsion Group experiment at Fermilab are reported. The results are compared with the corresponding data at 67-300 GeV. (Auth.)

  1. Simulation of electron, positron and Bremsstrahlung spectrum generated due to electromagnetic cascade by 2.5 GeV electron hitting lead target using FLUKA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahani, P.K.; Dev, Vipin; Haridas, G.; Thakkar, K.K.; Singh, Gurnam; Sarkar, P.K.; Sharma, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    INDUS-2 is a high energy electron accelerator facility where electrons are accelerated in circular ring up to maximum energy 2.5 GeV, to generate synchrotron radiation. During normal operation of the machine a fraction of these electrons is lost, which interact with the accelerator structures and components like vacuum chamber and residual gases in the cavity and hence generates significant amount of Bremsstrahlung radiation. The Bremsstrahlung radiation is highly dependent on the incident electron energy, target material and its thickness. The Bremsstrahlung radiation dominates the radiation environment in such electron storage rings. Because of its broad spectrum extending up to incident electron energy and pulsed nature, it is very difficult to segregate the Bremsstrahlung component from the mixed field environment in accelerators. With the help of FLUKA Monte Carlo code, Bremsstrahlung spectrum generated from 2.5 GeV electron on bombardment of high Z lead target is simulated. To study the variation in Bremsstrahlung spectrum on target thickness, lead targets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 mm thickness was used. The energy spectrum of emerging electron and positron is also simulated. The study suggests that as the target thickness increases, the emergent Bremsstrahlung photon fluence increases. With increase in the target thickness Bremsstrahlung photons in the spectrum dominate the low energy part and degrade in high energy part. The electron and positron spectra also extend up to incident electron energy. (author)

  2. Full reflector thickness and isolation thickness on neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tomohiro; Naito, Yoshitaka; Komuro, Yuichi.

    1988-08-01

    A method to determine ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'', which is utilized for criticality safety evaluation on nuclear fuel facilities, was proposed in this paper. Firstly, a calculation was tryed to obtain the two kinds of thicknesses from the result of criticality calculations for a specific case. Then, two simple equations which calculates the two kinds of thicknesses were made from the relation between reflector (or isolator) thickness and k eff , and one-group diffusion theory. Finally, we proposed a new method to determine the thicknesses. From the method we proposed, ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'' can be obtain using the equations and migration length of the reflector (or isolator) and infinite and effective multiplication factor of the fuel. (author)

  3. Why is GeV physics relevant in the age of the LHC?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Michael R. [JLAB

    2014-02-01

    The contribution that Jefferson Lab has made, with its 6 GeV electron beam, and will make, with its 12 GeV upgrade, to our understanding of the way the fundamental interactions work, particularly strong coupling QCD, is outlined. The physics at the GeV scale is essential even in TeV collisions.

  4. A study of LPM suppression of bremsstrahlung at 25 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, P.; Becker-Szendy, R.; Bosted, P.

    1993-03-01

    We are making an accurate measurement of the LPM suppression of bremsstrahlung with 25 GeV electrons. By using a 120 pulses per second beam, a precise BGO calorimeter, and spectrometer to tag the outgoing electrons, we are able to make an accurate measurement of the bremsstrahlung photons in the 0-400 MeV region, where the Bethe Heitler and LPM predictions differ. We are taking data with targets made of carbon, uranium, tungsten and iron, with thicknesses in the 2% to 6% X 0 range. In addition, we are taking data with two very thin gold targets. The latter have thicknesses that are comparable to or less than the LPM formation zone length, and so should not exhibit LPM suppression. We are also studying photons of a few MeV in energy, to test the closely related longitudinal density effect predicted by Ter-Mikaelian in which very low energy photon emission is suppressed due to dielectric effects of the medium

  5. Dynamic aperture calculation for 100 GeV Au-Au and 250 GeV pp lattices with near third order resonance working point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, X.; Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the preparation for the 2011 RHIC 250 GeV polarized proton (pp) run, both experiment and simulation were carried out to investigate the possibility to accelerate the proton beam with a vertical tune near 2/3. It had been found experimentally in Run-9 that accelerating the proton beam with a vertical tune close to 2/3 will greatly benefit the transmission of the proton polarization. In this note, we report the calculated dynamic apertures with the 100 GeV Au run and 250 GeV proton run lattices with vertical tunes close to the third order resonance. We will compare the third order resonance band width between the beam experiment and the simulation with the 100 GeV Au lattices. And we also will compare the calculated resonance band width between the 100 GeV Au and 250 GeV proton run lattices.

  6. Radiation spectra of high-energy electrons in monocrystals of various thickness and orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, R.O.; Agan'yants, A.O.; Akopov, N.Z.; Vartanov, Yu.A.; Vartapetyan, G.A.; Lebedev, A.N.; Mirzoyan, R.M.; Taroyan, S.P.; Danagulyan, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Yield of photons with energies 20-200 MeV at motion of the 4.7 GeV electron beam in parallel to the axis of a diamond crystal exceeds substantially the corresponding yield from a disoriented target. A similarity is observed in the radiation spectra within the crystal thickness range of 100- 610 mkm. The radiation yield is suppressed at certain energies of the γ quanta [ru

  7. Study of rare processes induced by 209-Gev muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.

    1981-05-01

    Analysis of dimuon final states from 1.4 x 10 11 positive and 2.9 x 10 10 negative 209-Gev muons in a magnetized iron calorimeter has set a lower limit of 9 Gev/c 2 on the mass of a heavy neutral muon (M 0 ), and a 90%-confidence level upper limit of sigma(μN→b anti bX)B(b anti b→μX) -36 cm 2 for the production of bottom hadrons by muons. The dimuon mass spectrum from 102,678 trimuon final states places a 90%-confidence level upper limit for the muoproduction of upsilon states: sigma(μN→μ UPSILON X)B(UPSILON→μ + μ - ) -39 cm 2 . In addition, analysis of 71 rare multimuon events, including 4- and 5-muon final states, is presented

  8. New forces and the 750 GeV resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, Michael; Fileviez Perez, Pavel; Smirnov, Juri

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations have pointed out the possible existence of a new resonance with a mass around 750 GeV. We investigate the possibility to identify this new resonance with a spin zero field responsible for the breaking of a new gauge symmetry. We focus on a simple theory where the baryon number is a local symmetry spontaneously broken at the low scale. In this context new vector-like quarks are needed to cancel all baryonic anomalies and define the production mechanism and decays of the new Higgs at the LHC. Assuming the existence of the new Higgs with a mass of 750 GeV at the LHC we find an upper bound on the symmetry breaking scale. Therefore, one expects that a new force associated with baryon number could be discovered at the LHC.

  9. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  10. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  11. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  12. The European 400 GeV proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Middelkoop, Willem Cornelis

    1977-01-01

    On 19th February 1971, CERN decided to build a super proton synchrotron at a cost of 1150*10/sup 6/ Swiss francs. The design target of 400 GeV with a beam intensity of 10/sup 13/ protons/pulse was reached on the 4th of November 1976 within the original budget, allowing for inflation. The technical aspects of the SPS are reviewed, together with operating experience since May 1976. (2 refs).

  13. Elastic p-4He scattering near 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.J.; Alexander, Y.

    1977-02-01

    New 1.029 GeV p- 4 He data from an Argonne-UCLA-Minnesota collaboration are in excellent agreement with existing multiple diffraction theory predictions. The theoretical calculation includes spin and isospin dependence of the Δ intermediate state process that fills the first diffraction minimum. The recently normalized Saclay data and the older Brookhaven data disagree with our calculation and the new data

  14. National CW GeV Electron Microtron laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    Rising interest in the nuclear physics community in a CW GeV electron accelerator reflects the growing importance of high-resolution short-range nuclear physics to future advances in the field. To meet this need, Argonne National Laboratory proposes to build a CW GeV Electron Microtron (GEM) laboratory as a national user facility. The microtron accelerator has been chosen as the technology to generate the electron beams required for the research discussed because of the advantages of superior beam quality, low capital and operating costs and capability of furnishing beams of several energies and intensities simultaneously. A complete technical description of the conceptual design for a six-sided CW microtron (hexatron) is presented. The hexatron and three experimental areas will be housed in a well-shielded complex of existing buildings that provide all utilities and services required for an advanced accelerator and an active research program at a savings of $30 to 40 million. Beam lines have been designed to accommodate the transport of polarized beams to each area. The total capital cost of the facility will be $78.6 million and the annual budget for accelerator operations will be $12.1 million. Design and construction of the facility will require four and one half years. Staged construction with a 2 GeV phase costing $65.9 million is also discussed

  15. Undulator sources at a 8 GeV storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harami, Taikan.

    1989-06-01

    The use of undulators plays an important role as a high brilliance sources of synchrotron photon at a facility having an electron (or positron) storage ring. This paper describes the characteristics, tunability from gap variation and brilliance of synchrotron photon from undulators at a 8 GeV storage ring. The numerical studies show the following results. (1) Undulators for a 8 GeV storage ring can cover the first harmonic photon energy range from about 0.3 to 30 keV and the third harmonic photon from 0.85 to 70 keV. (2) The brilliance of undulator can be expected to be the order of 10 21 photons/(sec mm 2 mrad 2 0.1% band width mA), without size and angular spread in the electron beam (diffraction limit). (3) The peak brilliance has a broad maximum as a function of β function of the lattice and is shown to be practically independent on the β function. The peak brilliance is calculated to be the order of 10 16 photons/(sec mm 2 mrad 2 0.1% band width mA) at the electron beam emittance of 5 x 10 -9 m·rad (undulator length 2 m). (4) The nuclei of 57 Fe, 119 Sn and 238 U are expected to be the candidates for the Moessbauer scattering experiment using synchrotron photon from a 8 GeV storage ring. (author)

  16. Exclusive processes at JLab at 6 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deeply virtual exclusive reactions provide a unique opportunity to probe the complex internal structure of the nucleon. They allow to access information about the correlations between parton transverse spatial and longitudinal momentum distributions from experimental observables. Dedicated experiments to study Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP have been carried out at Jefferson Lab using continuous electron beam with energies up to 6 GeV. Unpolarized cross sections, beam, target and double spin asymmetries have been measured for DVCS as well as for π0 exclusive electroproduction. The data from Hall B provide a wide kinematic coverage with Q2=1-4.5 GeV2, xB=0.1-0.5, and −t up to 2 GeV2. Hall A data have limited kinematic range partially overlapping with Hall B kinematics but provide a high accuracy measurements. Scaling tests of the DVCS cross sections provide solid evidence of twist-2 dominance, which makes chiral-even GPDs accessible even at modest Q2. We will discuss the interpretation of these data in terms of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs model. Successful description of the recent CLAS π0 exclusive production data within the framework of the GPD-based model provides a unique opportunity to access the chiral-odd GPDs.

  17. Top Mass Measurement at CLIC at 500 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank; Poss, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the capability of a 500 GeV e+e- collider based on CLIC technology for precision measurements of top quark properties. The analysis is based on full detector simulations of the CLIC_ILD detector concept using Geant4, including realistic background contributions from two photon processes. Event reconstruction is performed using a particle flow algorithm with stringent cuts to control the influence of background. The mass and width of the top quark are studied in fully-hadronic and semi-leptonic decays of ttbar pairs using event samples of signal and standard model background processes corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 100/fb. Statistical uncertainties of the top mass given by the invariant mass of its decay products of 0.08 GeV and 0.09 GeV are obtained for the fully-hadronic and the semi-leptonic decay channel, respectively, demonstrating that similar precision to that at ILC can be achieved at CLIC despite less favorable experimental conditions.

  18. 750 GeV diphoton resonance and electric dipole moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwoon Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine the implication of the recently observed 750 GeV diphoton excess for the electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron. If the excess is due to a spin zero resonance which couples to photons and gluons through the loops of massive vector-like fermions, the resulting neutron electric dipole moment can be comparable to the present experimental bound if the CP-violating angle α in the underlying new physics is of O(10−1. An electron EDM comparable to the present bound can be achieved through a mixing between the 750 GeV resonance and the Standard Model Higgs boson, if the mixing angle itself for an approximately pseudoscalar resonance, or the mixing angle times the CP-violating angle α for an approximately scalar resonance, is of O(10−3. For the case that the 750 GeV resonance corresponds to a composite pseudo-Nambu–Goldstone boson formed by a QCD-like hypercolor dynamics confining at ΛHC, the resulting neutron EDM can be estimated with α∼(750 GeV/ΛHC2θHC, where θHC is the hypercolor vacuum angle.

  19. Nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.; Nilsson, G.; Adamovic, O.; Juric, M.; Areti, H.; Hebert, C.J.D.; Hebert, J.; Baumann, G.; Devienne, R.; Bolta, J.M.; Sanchis, M.A.; Bravo, L.; Niembro, R.; Ruiz, A.; Villar, E.

    1978-01-01

    The authors report on 400 GeV proton-emulsion nuclei reactions and compare the results to hadron-nucleus reactions at smaller energies. In particular they present results on the emission of fast target protons (essentially grey track particles) and on their correlation with the number of collisions inside the nucleus, γ, with the number of charged evaporated particles (essentially black track particles) and with the number of pions produced (essentially shower particles). It is observed that the main features of the 200-400 GeV data are very similar. However, it is found that the mean shower-particle multiplicity at 400 GeV is essentially higher than expected from the simple independent particle model prediction = [1+0.5( )-1)]. The shower particle multiplicities do not seem to follow a target mass dependence of the form =nsub(ch)>Asup(α) with α=0.14 or α=0.19 as has been suggested in the literature. The pseudo-rapidity distribution shows limiting target and projectile fragmentation. The shower-particle multiplicity in the 'central region' increases linearly with but faster than 0.5(γ) times the corresponding multiplicity in pp reactions. (Auth.)

  20. Nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.

    1978-04-01

    We report on 400 GeV proton-emulsion nucleus reactions and compare the results to hadron-nucleus reactions at smaller energies. In particular we present results on the emission of fast target protons (essentially grey track particles) and on their correlation with the number of collisions inside the nucleus, ν, with the number of charged evaporated particles (essentially black particles) and with the number of pions produced (essentially shower particles). We observe that the main features of the 200-400 GeV data are very similar. However, we find that the mean shower-particle multiplicity at 400 GeV is essentially higher than expected from the simple independent particle model prediction = [1 + 0.5 ( - 1)]. The shower particle multiplicities do not seem to follow a target mass dependence of the form = A sup(α) with α = 0.19 as has been suggested in the literature. The pseudo-rapidity distribution shows limiting target and projectile fragmentation. The shower particle multiplicity in the ''central region'' increases linearily with but faster than 0.5 times the corresponding multiplicity in pp-reactions. (author)

  1. Nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.

    1978-04-01

    We report on 400 GeV proton-emulsion nucleus reactions and compare the results to hadron-nucleus reactions at smaller energies. In particular we present results on the emission of fast target protons (essentially grey track particles) and on their correlation with the number of collisions inside the nucleus, ν, with the number of charged evaporated particles (essentially black track particles) and with the number of pions produced (essentially shower particles). We observe that the main features of the 200-400 GeV data are very similar. However, we find that the mean shower-particle multiplicity at 400 GeV is essentially higher than expected from the simple independent particle model prediction = [1 + 0.5 ( - 1)]. The shower particle multiplicities do not seem to follow a target mass dependence of the form = Asup(α) with α = 0.14 or α = 0.19 as has been suggested in the literature. The pseudo-rapidity distribution shows limiting target and projectile fragmentation. The shower particle multiplicity in the ''central region'' increases linearily with but faster than 0.5 times the corresponding multiplicity in pp-reactions. (author)

  2. Self-interacting dark matter constraints in a thick dark disk scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattis, Kyriakos; Koushiappas, Savvas M.

    2018-05-01

    A thick dark matter disk is predicted in cold dark matter simulations as the outcome of the interaction between accreted satellites and the stellar disk in Milky Way-sized halos. We study the effects of a self-interacting thick dark disk on the energetic neutrino flux from the Sun. We find that for particle masses between 100 GeV and 1 TeV and dark matter annihilation to τ+τ-, either the self-interaction may not be strong enough to solve the small-scale structure motivation or a dark disk cannot be present in the Milky Way.

  3. Missing mass spectra in pp inelastic scattering at total energies of 23 GeV and 31 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Van der Veen, F

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of measurements of the momentum spectra of protons emitted at small angles in inelastic reactions at the CERN ISR. The data are for total energies s/sup 1///sub 2/ of 23 GeV and 31 GeV. The structure of the peak at low values of the missing mass M (of the system recoiling against the observed proton) is studied. The missing mass distributions have the form (M/sup 2/)-/sup B(t)/ where t is the four-momentum transfer squared. B(t) drops from 0.98+or-0.06 at t=-0.15 GeV/sup 2/ to 0.20+or-0.15 at t=-1.65 GeV/sup 2/. The results are compared with a simple triple-Regge formula. (12 refs).

  4. Multiple collision effects on the antiproton production by high energy proton (100 GeV - 1000 GeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Powell, J.

    1987-01-01

    Antiproton production rates which take into account multiple collision are calculated using a simple model. Methods to reduce capture of the produced antiprotons by the target are discussed, including geometry of target and the use of a high intensity laser. Antiproton production increases substantially above 150 GeV proton incident energy. The yield increases almost linearly with incident energy, alleviating space charge problems in the high current accelerator that produces large amounts of antiprotons

  5. Single and multi-photon events with missing energy in $e^+ e^-$ collisions at 161 GeV < $\\sqrt{s}$ < 172 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hong, S J; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    A search for single and multi-photon events with missing energy is performed using data collected at centre-of-mass energies between 161 GeV and 172 GeV for a total of 20.9 pb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. The results obtained are used to derive the value for the $\

  6. Measurement of the ratio of b-quark production cross sections at √s = 630 GeV and √s = 1800 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    We report on a measurement of the ratio of b-quark production cross section in pp collisions at √s = 630 GeV and √s = 1800 GeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. Results are compared to the predictions of next-to-leading order QCD calculations. 16 refs., 4 figs

  7. Search for neutralinos, scalar leptons and scalar quarks in $e^+ e^-$ interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$=130 GeV and 136 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chernyaev, E; Chikilev, O G; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1996-01-01

    Using data accumulated by DELPHI during the November 1995 LEP run at 130~GeV -- 136~GeV, searches have been made for events with jets or leptons in conjunction with missing momentum. The results are interpreted in terms of limits on the production of neutralinos, scalar leptons, and scalar quarks.

  8. Probability of ternary fission of 93Nb andnat Ag nuclei induced by 0.8-1.8 GeV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.A. de; Milomen, W.C.C.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    1989-01-01

    The yields of ternary fission of 93 Nb and nat Ag nuclei induced by bremsstrahlung photons of 0.8, 1.0, 1.4 and 1.8 GeV end-point energies have been measured by using the 2 Π-forward geometry with thick target metal foils in contact with makrofol polycarbonate sheets as fission-track detectors. Absolute mean cross sections per photon in the range 0.8-1.8 GeV have been obtained as 0.3 ± 0.3 μb and 0.5 ± μb, respectively, for 93 Nb and nat Ag nuclei. These correspond to a probability of ternary fission of approx. 10 -5 for both nuclei. Results are discussed and compared with previous ternary fission data obtained for nuclei of A [pt

  9. Deeply virtual compton scattering at 6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthot, J.; Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a measurement of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process (DVCS) ep → epγ in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a 6 GeV beam. We are able to explore the onset of Q 2 scaling, by measuring a beam helicity asymmetry for Q 2 ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 GeV 2 at x B ∼0.35. At this kinematics, the asymmetry is dominated by the DVCS - Bethe-Heitler (BH) interference, which is proportional to the imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude amplified by the full magnitude of the BH amplitude. The imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude is expected to scale early. Indeed, the imaginary part of the forward Compton amplitude measured in deep inelastic scattering (via the optical theorem) scales at Q 2 as low as 1 GeV 2 . If the scaling regime is reached, we will make an 8% measurement of the skewed parton distributions (SPD) contributing to the DVCS amplitude. Also, this experiment allows us to separately estimate the size of the higher-twist effects, since they are only suppressed by an additional factor 1/Q compared to the leading-twist term, and have a different angular dependence. We use a polarized electron beam and detect the scattered electron in the HRSe, the real photon in an electromagnetic calorimeter (under construction) and the recoil proton in a shielded scintillator array (to be constructed). This allows as to determine the difference in cross-sections for electrons of opposite helicities. This observable is directly linked to the SPD's. We estimate that 25 days of beam (600 hours) are needed to achieve this goal. (authors)

  10. Static and dynamic through thickness lamina properties of thick laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thick laminates are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of self-heating, the scaling effect, and the manufacturing

  11. Simulation of inelastic hadron collisions below 5 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroni, P.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the detector characteristics in an experiment designed to study photoproduction and photodisintegration at energies above pion production threshold at the Saclay linear accelerator (ALS), a Monte Carlo simulation program has been written. The CEREN FORTRAN package GEANT3 which has been modified to correctly generate hadronic interactions of particle with momenta below a few GeV has been used. In this note is described a simulation program in which GEANT3 has been corrected with the addition of a new hadronic library. Some comparisons between simulated and experimental data for detector has been provided

  12. Dimuon scaling comparison at 44 and 62 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antreasyan, D.; Becker, U.; Bellettini, G.; Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139)

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of pp→μ + μ - +X at √s = 44 and 62 GeV are compared. The data are taken under identical conditions utilizing clean proton-proton collisions from the CERN-intersecting storage rings and confirm scaling to 5%. The observed μ + μ - yield is a factor of 1.6 +- 0.2 larger than estimated from a simple parton model but is consistent with QCD. The P/sub T/ dependence of the muon pairs agrees well with expectations from QCD

  13. Are there heavy quarks of mass 23 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornet, F.; Hagiwara, K.; Zeppenfeld, D.; Glover, E.W.N.; Martin, A.D.

    1986-02-01

    An excess of events with an isolated muon and low thrust observed by the MARK-J collaboration at the highest PETRA energy √s=46.7 GeV, is found to be consistent with the near threshold production of heavy quarks of charge -1/3. A natural candidate is a fourth generation 'down' quark or, possibly, a member of a 27 representation of E 6 . We investigate signatures of such heavy quark pair production at the CERN panti p collider and conclude that the present data have a chance to confirm the signal. (orig.)

  14. Dynamics of GeV light-ion-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, K.; Bracken, D.S.; Foxford, E.R.; Ginger, D.S.; Hsi, W.C.; Morley, K.B.; Viola, V.E.; Wang, G.; Korteling, R.G.; Legrain, R.

    1996-09-01

    Recent results from studies of the 1.8 - 4.8 GeV 3 He + nat Ag, 197 Au reactions at LNS with the ISiS detector array have shown evidence for a saturation in deposition energy and multifragmentation from a low-density source. The collision dynamics have been examined in the context of intranuclear cascade and BUU models, while breakup phenomena have been compared with EES and SMM models. Fragment-fragment correlations and isotope ratios are also investigated. (K.A.)

  15. Measurements of Pair Production Under Channelling Conditions by 70-180 GeV Photons Incident on Single Crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will use the WA69 set-up to deliver a tagged photon beam in the energy range from 15~GeV to 150~GeV with a total angular spread of about @M~0.5~mrad. The incident photon direction is known to about 35~@mrad through the direction of the emitting electron. The photon beam is incident on an about 1~mm thick Ge single crystal in order to investigate pair production in single crystals. Above a certain energy threshold photons incident along crystal axis will show strongly increased pair production yi - the so-called .us Channelling Pair Production (ChPP). The produced pairs are analyzed in the @W-spectrometer. The large spread in incident photon angles offers an excellent opportunity to investigate in one single experiment the pair production in an angular region around a crystal axes and thereby compare ChPP with coherent (CPP) and incoherent (ICPP) processes. The very abrupt onset of ChPP (around threshold) will be measured and give a crucial test of the theoretical calculations. The differential...

  16. Study of projectile fragmentation in the reaction (158 A GeV) Pb + Pb using CR-39

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, I E; Javed, M T; Manzoor, S; Sher, G; Aleem, F; Khan, H A

    2005-01-01

    The fragmentation of Pb ions at 158 A GeV energy produced in the interaction with Pb target has been studied using a CR-39 track detector. A stack comprising of 64 detectors was prepared such that a target of 1 cm thickness was sandwiched between the sheets of CR-39. The purpose of this exposure geometry was to calibrate CR-39 with respect to relativistic heavy ions as well as to study the fragmentation of Pb ions at 158 A GeV energy. The exposure was carried out at the SPS beam facility of CERN at normal incidence with a fluence of . Two detectors from the exposed stack have been selected for this study: one before and the other after the target material. After etching, the detectors were scanned using an optical microscope and the etched track lengths and the diameters of the track openings were measured manually. Considering that the lengths of tracks provide the best charge resolution for Z>65, we have measured track lengths for a sufficiently large number of fragments to identify individual charge states...

  17. Measurement of the atmospheric muon spectrum from 20 to 2000 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Unger, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric muon spectrum between 20 and 2000 GeV was measured with the L3 magnetic muon spectrometer for zenith angles ranging from 0 to 58 degrees. Due to the large data set and the good detector resolution, a precision of 2.6% at 100 GeV was achieved for the absolute normalization of the vertical muon flux. The momentum dependence of the ratio of positive to negative muons was obtained between 20 and 630 GeV.

  18. Nahal Ein Gev II, a Late Natufian Community at the Sea of Galilee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leore Grosman

    Full Text Available The Natufian culture is of great importance as a starting point to investigate the dynamics of the transition to agriculture. Given its chronological position at the threshold of the Neolithic (ca. 12,000 years ago and its geographic setting in the productive Jordan Valley, the site of Nahal Ein Gev II (NEG II reveals aspects of the Late Natufian adaptations and its implications for the transition to agriculture. The size of the site, the thick archaeological deposits, invested architecture and multiple occupation sub-phases reveal a large, sedentary community at least on par with Early Natufian camps in the Mediterranean zone. Although the NEG II lithic tool kit completely lacks attributes typical of succeeding Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA assemblages, the artistic style is more closely related to the early PPNA world, despite clear roots in Early Natufian tradition. The site does not conform to current perceptions of the Late Natufians as a largely mobile population coping with reduced resource productivity caused by the Younger Dryas. Instead, the faunal and architectural data suggest that the sedentary populations of the Early Natufian did not revert back to a nomadic way of life in the Late Natufian in the Jordan Valley. NEG II encapsulates cultural characteristics typical of both Natufian and PPNA traditions and thus bridges the crossroads between Late Paleolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers.

  19. Performance tests of developed silicon strip detector by using a 150 GeV electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Hyojung; Jung, Sunwoo; Kah, Dongha; Kang, Heedong; Kim, Hongjoo; Park, Hwanbae

    2008-01-01

    We manufactured and characterized a silicon micro-strip detector to be used in a beam tracker. A silicon detector features a DC-coupled silicon strip sensor with VA1 Prime2 analog readout chips. The silicon strip sensors have been fabricated on 5-in. wafers at Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Daejeon, Korea). The silicon strip sensor is single-sided and has 32 channels with a 1 mm pitch, and its active area is 3.2 by 3.2 cm 2 with 380 μm thickness. The readout electronics consists of VA hybrid, VA Interface, and FlashADC and Control boards. Analog signals from the silicon strip sensor were being processed by the analog readout chips on the VA hybrid board. Analog signals were then changed into digital signals by a 12 bit 25 MHz FlashADC. The digital signals were read out by the Linux-operating PC through the FlashADC-USB2 interface. The DAQ system and analysis programs were written in the framework of ROOT package. The beam test with the silicon detector had been performed at CERN beam facility. We used a 150 GeV electron beam out of the SPS(Super Proton Synchrotron) H2 beam line. We present beam test setup and measurement result of signal-to-noise ratio of each strip channel. (author)

  20. Strong Support for the Millisecond Pulsar Origin of the Galactic Center GeV Excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Suraj; Weniger, Christoph

    2016-02-05

    Using γ-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, various groups have identified a clear excess emission in the Inner Galaxy, at energies around a few GeV. This excess resembles remarkably well a signal from dark-matter annihilation. One of the most compelling astrophysical interpretations is that the excess is caused by the combined effect of a previously undetected population of dim γ-ray sources. Because of their spectral similarity, the best candidates are millisecond pulsars. Here, we search for this hypothetical source population, using a novel approach based on wavelet decomposition of the γ-ray sky and the statistics of Gaussian random fields. Using almost seven years of Fermi-LAT data, we detect a clustering of photons as predicted for the hypothetical population of millisecond pulsar, with a statistical significance of 10.0σ. For plausible values of the luminosity function, this population explains 100% of the observed excess emission. We argue that other extragalactic or Galactic sources, a mismodeling of Galactic diffuse emission, or the thick-disk population of pulsars are unlikely to account for this observation.

  1. The 750 GeV Diphoton Resonance in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Djouadi, Abdelhak

    2017-02-10

    We propose a simple interpretation of the 750 GeV diphoton resonance as hinted by the current 13 TeV LHC data, within the context of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). In the CP-conserving limit of the theory, the resonance may be identified with the heavier CP-even $H$ boson of the MSSM, whose gluon-fusion production and decay into two photons are enhanced by loops of the lightest supersymmetric partner of the top quark $\\tilde{t}_1$ when its mass $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}$ happens to be near the $\\tilde{t}^*_1\\tilde{t}_1$ threshold, i.e.~for $m_{\\tilde{t}_1} \\sim \\frac12 M_H$ and, to a lesser extent, by resonant contributions due to $\\tilde{t}_1^* \\tilde{t}_1$ bound states. The scenario requires a relatively low supersymmetry-breaking scale~$M_S\\lsim 1$~TeV, but large values of the higgsino mass parameter, $\\mu \\gsim 3$ TeV that leads to a strong $H \\tilde{t}_1 \\tilde{t}_1$ coupling. Such parameters can accommodate the observed mass and standard-like couplings of the 125~GeV $h$ boson...

  2. Search for Chargino and Neutralino Production at $\\sqrt{s} = 189 GeV$ at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, I.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2000-01-01

    A search for charginos and neutralinos, predicted by supersymmetric theories, is performed using a data sample of 182.1 pb-1 taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 189 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. No evidence for chargino or neutralino production is found. Upper limits on chargino and neutralino pair production cross-sections are obtained as a function of the chargino mass, the lightest neutralino mass and the second lightest neutralino mass. Within the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model framework, and for a chargino - neutralino mass difference of more than 5 GeV, the 95% confidence level lower limits on the chargino mass are 93.6 GeV for tan{beta} = 1.5 and 94.1 GeV for tan{beta} = 35. These limits are obtained assuming a universal scalar mass m_0 > 500 GeV. The corresponding limits for all m_0 are 78.0 and 71.7 GeV. The 95% confidence level lower limits on the lightest neutralino mass, valid for any value of tan{beta} are 32.8 GeV for m_0 > 500 GeV and 31.6 GeV for all m_0.

  3. Commissioning of the 123 MeV injector for 12 GeV CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Hofler, Alicia S.; Kazimi, Reza

    2015-09-01

    The upgrade of CEBAF to 12GeV included modifications to the injector portion of the accelerator. These changes included the doubling of the injection energy and relocation of the final transport elements to accommodate changes in the CEBAF recirculation arcs. This paper will describe the design changes and the modelling of the new 12GeV CEBAF injector. Stray magnetic fields have been a known issue for the 6 GeV CEBAF injector, the results of modelling the new 12GeV injector and the resulting changes implemented to mitigate this issue are described in this paper. The results of beam commissioning of the injector are also presented.

  4. Studies on neutron production in the interaction of 7.4 GeV protons with extended lead target

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Ochs, M; Wan, J S; Schmidt, T; Langrock, E J; Vater, P; Adam, J; Bamblevskij, V P; Bradnova, V; Gelovani, L K; Kalinnikov, V K; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Sosnin, A N; Perelygin, V P; Pronskikh, V S; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Modolo, G; Odoj, R; Phlippen, P W; Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Zamani-Valassiadou, M; Dwivedi, K K; Wilson, B

    1999-01-01

    A cylindrical lead target of diameter 8 cm and length 20 cm was irradiated with 7.4 GeV protons along the axis of the cylinder. The lead target was surrounded with a paraffin layer of thickness 6 cm to moderate the neutrons produced in p + Pb reactions. The spatial distribution of the slow and fast neutrons on different surfaces of the moderator were determined using LR 115 2B detectors (through sup 1 sup 0 B(n,alpha) sup 7 Li reactions) and CR39 detectors (through proton recoils) respectively. Such results can be valuable in the studies and design of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Waste Incinerators.

  5. Update on the Code Intercomparison and Benchmark for Muon Fluence and Absorbed Dose Induced by an 18 GeV Electron Beam After Massive Iron Shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, A. [SLAC; Ferrari, A. [CERN; Ferrari, A. [HZDR, Dresden; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Mueller, S. E. [HZDR, Dresden; Nelson, W. R. [SLAC; Roesler, S. [CERN; Sanami, t.; Striganov, S. I. [Fermilab; Versaci, R. [Unlisted, CZ

    2016-12-01

    In 1974, Nelson, Kase and Svensson published an experimental investigation on muon shielding around SLAC high-energy electron accelerators [1]. They measured muon fluence and absorbed dose induced by 14 and 18 GeV electron beams hitting a copper/water beamdump and attenuated in a thick steel shielding. In their paper, they compared the results with the theoretical models available at that time. In order to compare their experimental results with present model calculations, we use the modern transport Monte Carlo codes MARS15, FLUKA2011 and GEANT4 to model the experimental setup and run simulations. The results are then compared between the codes, and with the SLAC data.

  6. Calculated performance of iron--argon and iron--plastic calorimeters for incident hadrons with energies of 5 to 75 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Schmidt, W.

    1976-02-01

    The calculated responses of iron--argon and iron--plastic calorimeters for incident hadrons with energies of 5 to 75 GeV are presented. The responses calculated are energy resolution vs energy, energy resolution vs the thickness of the sampling plates, the angular and spatial root-mean-square deviations (i.e., the ability to determine the incident particle's entrance angle and impact point), and the spatial properties of the average and individual hadronic cascades. Some comparisons are made with experimental data; however, the main purpose of this paper is to provide specific design information for these types of calorimeters

  7. An ASCA Survey of GeV Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. S. E.; Romani, R. W.; Kawai, N.

    1999-04-01

    We present an ASCA survey of GeV selected EGRET sources with E>1 GeV gamma -ray photon flux >5.0 x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1) . A combination of archival and new data covers ~ 75% of the sky contained within the 95% confidence position contours of these sources, and additional data obtained during the current observing cycle will increase this coverage to ~ 90%. We start with flat-fielded 2-10 keV images from the GIS data, and fit power-law spectra to potential counterparts. SIS, ROSAT, and Einstein data are used to confirm source detections and extend survey coverage. We then use the X-ray sources to identify radio counterparts in continuum survey data. Of the 26 GeV sources above our flux threshhold (Lamb and Macomb, 1997), 3 of the 4 at high galactic latitudes (bga 10(deg) ) are known blazars, while 5 of the low latitude sources are young pulsars. Of the remaining sources, 5 are plausibly associated with known young pulsars and/or plerionic SNR, one is at the Galactic center, and one may be associated with LSI+61 303. We focus here on the remaining 11 sources. By comparison with the known radio and X-ray properties of blazars and pulsars, we can identify potential members of these source classes, and potential new classes of gamma -ray emitters. We also estimate source luminosities using distances inferred from nearby tracers of star formation (Yadigaroglu and Romani, 1997). Data from several fields are consistent with these sources being synchrotron nebulae surrounding radio-quiet `Geminga-like' pulsars. These data provide incentives for further searches for pulsations at high energies and in the radio. In other fields identification is more problematic. We compare our results to models of the relative beaming fractions inferred from the radio and gamma -ray ray pulse shapes. The fraction of `pulsar candidate' detections is shown to provide useful constraints on pulsar luminosity evolution and beaming statistics.

  8. Measurements of Compton Scattering on the Proton at 2 - 6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danagoulian, Areg [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Similar to elastic electron scattering, Compton Scattering on the proton at high momentum transfers(and high p⊥) can be an effective method to study its short-distance structure. An experiment has been carried out to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering (RCS) on the proton for 2.3-5.7 GeV electron beam energies and a wide distribution of large scattering angles. The 25 kinematic settings sampled a domain of s = 5-11(GeV/c)2,-t = -7(GeV/c)2 and -u = 0.5-6.5(GeV/c)2. In addition, a measurement of longitudinal and transverse polarization transfer asymmetries was made at a 3.48 GeV beam energy and a scattering angle of θcm = 120°. These measurements were performed to test the existing theoretical mechanisms for this process as well as to determine RCS form factors. At the heart of the scientific motivation is the desire to understand the manner in which a nucleon interacts with external excitations at the above listed energies, by comparing and contrasting the two existing models – Leading Twist Mechanism and Soft Overlap “Handbag” Mechanism – and identify the dominant mechanism. Furthermore, the Handbag Mechanism allows one to calculate reaction observables in the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD), which have the function of bridging the wide gap between the exclusive(form factors) and inclusive(parton distribution functions) description of the proton. The experiment was conducted in Hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility(Jefferson Lab). It used a polarized and unpolarized electron beam, a 6% copper radiator with the thickness of 6.1% radiation lengths (to produce a bremsstrahlung photon beam), the Hall A liquid hydrogen target, a high resolution spectrometer with a focal plane polarimeter, and a photon hodoscope calorimeter. Results of the differential cross sections are presented, and discussed in the general context of the scientific motivation.

  9. Analysis of p-bar p scattering at 31 GeV and 62 GeV by the Chou-Yang model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padua, A.B. de; Covolan, R.J.M.; Souza Paes, J.T. de

    1988-01-01

    The p-bar p scattering is analysed at 31 GeV and 62 GeV energies for momentum transfers in the range O 2 . The experimental (dσ/dt)p-bar p values were fitted using a pure imaginary written as a sum of exponentials, that is, a(s,t)=a(s,O) σ n i=l α i e βit . Using the parameters obtained we have calculated the absorption constant K p-bar p the form factor and the mean square radius of the p-bar matter distribuition by the Chou-Yang model. These calculations reveal a ''dip'' around -t approx.= 1.3 (GeV/c) 2 at 31 GeV and 62 GeV. (author) [pt

  10. Shower development of particles with momenta from 15 GeV to 150 GeV in the CALICE scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Chefdeville, M.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Eigen, G.; Marshall, J.S.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Alipour Tehrani, N.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Roloff, P.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Zutshi, V.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Brianne, E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Tran, H.L.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Onel, Y.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M. -C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Thiebault, A.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Cizel, J-B.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Nanni, J.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Shpak, K.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Yu, D.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Chen, S.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Kozakai, C.; Nakanishi, H.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2015-12-10

    We present a study of showers initiated by electrons, pions, kaons, and protons with momenta from 15 GeV to 150 GeV in the highly granular CALICE analogue scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter. The data were recorded at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron in 2011. The analysis includes measurements of the calorimeter response to each particle type as well as measurements of the energy resolution and studies of the longitudinal and radial shower development for selected particles. The results are compared to Geant4 simulations (version 9.6.p02). In the study of the energy resolution we include previously published data with beam momenta from 1 GeV to 10 GeV recorded at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in 2010.

  11. Secondary cosmic-ray e+- from 1 to 100 GeV in the upper atmosphere and interstellar space, and interpretation of a recent e+ flux measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Buffington, A.

    1976-01-01

    Secondary fluxes of cosmic-ray e from the decay of mesons produced by nuclear interactions are calculated for depths under 10 g cm -2 of atmosphere or interstellar space for energies from 1 to 100 GeV. Secondary meson spectra applicable for energies > or =5 GeV are obtained from the recently measured spectra of Carey et al. using Monte Carlo techniques. An analytic model is presented which identifies all essential parameters and enables easy calculation of efluxes for various parameter values. This model is used to interpret the e + measurement of Buffington, Orth, and Smoot. We find the mean thickness of interstellar and source material to be 4.3 (+1.8,-1.2) g cm -2 for cosmic-ray e + above 4 GeV. This result is difficult to reconcile with the recently proposed two-containment-volume propagation models of Cowsik and Wilson; Rengarajan, Stephens, and Verma; and Meneguzzi: all of the models predict a result near 1.8 g cm -2 at these energies due to the energy dependence of the measured (Li+Be+B)/(C+O) ratio. Single-containment-volume (galactic) models invoking an energy-dependent leakage lifetime are compatible with the e + data, but lack a mechanism to explain the energy dependence

  12. Measurement of 0.8 and 1.5 GeV proton induced neutron production cross sections at 0deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Kunieda, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takehito; Ishibashi, Kenji; Satoh, Daiki; Meigo, Shin-ichiro

    2004-01-01

    Neutron-production double-differential cross sections at 0deg were measured for proton-induced reactions on Fe and Pb targets at 0.8 and 1.5 GeV. The experiment was performed at the π2 beam line of the 12 GeV proton synchrotron in High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). Neutrons were measured by time-of-flight technique with two different flight path lengths, i.e. 3.5 and 5.0 m at 0.8 and 1.5 GeV, respectively. NE213 liquid organic scintillators 12.7 cm in diameter and 12.7 cm in thickness were set at 0deg as neutron detector. For the improvement of the energy resolution, the scintillator was connected with three Hamamatsu H2431 photomultipliers 5.1 cm in diameter. The neutron detection efficiencies were obtained by the SCINFUL-QMD code. The experimental data were compared with the calculation results of the intranuclear-cascade-evaporation (INC/E) and the quantum-molecular-dynamics (QMD) models. (author)

  13. Search for sleptons in $e^+ e^-$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 161 GeV and 172 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Becker, U; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Machefert, F P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Cavanaugh, R J; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Hühn, T; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Turnbull, R M; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Morawitz, P; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Konstantinidis, N P; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Tilquin, A; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Serin, L; Simion, S; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Foss, J; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Williams, R W; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G

    1997-01-01

    The data recorded by the ALEPH experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies of 161 GeV and 172 GeV were analysed to search for sleptons, the supersymmetric partners of leptons. No evidence for the production of these particles was found. The number of candidates observed is consistent with the background expected from four-fermion processes and gammagamma-interactions. Improved mass limits at 95% C.L. are reported.

  14. Search for sleptons in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 161 GeV and 172 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Becker, U.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J. C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Cavanaugh, R.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Huehn, T.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Schune, M.-H.; Serin, L.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Foss, J.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R. W.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Sau, Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zobernig, G.

    1997-02-01

    The data recorded by the ALEPH experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies of 161 GeV and 172 GeV were analysed to search for sleptons, the supersymmetric partners of leptons. No evidence for the production of these particles was found. The number of candidates observed is consistent with the background expected from four-fermion processes and yy-interactions. Improved mass limits at 95% C.L. are reported.

  15. Measurement of hadron and lepton-pair production at 130 GeV $<$ $\\sqrt{s}$ $<$ 140 GeV at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bencze, G L; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Brambilla, Elena; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buijs, A; Bujak, A T; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Burgos, C; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Castello, R; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coan, T E; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Dénes, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabbretti, R; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Fernández, G; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Gailloud, M; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; González, E; Gougas, Andreas; Goujon, D; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gustafson, H R; Gutay, L J; Hangarter, K; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; He, J T; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Ilyas, M M; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapinos, P; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Koffeman, E; Köngeter, A; Koutsenko, V F; Koulbardis, A; Krämer, R W; Kramer, T; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Lenti, M; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lindemann, B; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Ludovici, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Macchiolo, A; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Maolinbay, M; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; McNally, D; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Möller, M; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nowak, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Raghavan, R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Redaelli, M; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Ricker, A; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Röhner, S; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Salicio, J M; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Schöneich, B; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schulte, R; Schultze, K; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seiler, P G; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Sticozzi, F; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Toker, O; Tonisch, F; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tsaregorodtsev, A Yu; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Urbàn, L; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vuilleumier, L; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weill, R; Willmott, C; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zaccardelli, C; Zalite, A; Zemp, P; Zeng, J Y; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, G J; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Van der Zwaan, B C C

    1996-01-01

    We report on the first measurements of e+e- annihilations into hadrons and lepton pairs at center-of-mass energies between 130 GeV and 140 GeV. In a total luminosity of 5 pb-1 collected with the L3 detector at LEP we select 1577 hadronic and 401 lepton-pair events. The measured cross sections and leptonic forward-backward asymmetries agree well with the Standard Model predictions.

  16. Higgs Stability and the 750 GeV Diphoton Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We study the implications of a possible unstable particle with mass $M_X<$ TeV for the Higgs stability, naturalness and inflation. We pay particular attention to the case $M_X\\approx$ 750 GeV, suggested by recent results of ATLAS and CMS on diphoton final states, and work within the minimal model: we add to the Standard Model field content a pseudoscalar and a vector-like charged quark. This can stabilize the electroweak vacuum without invoking new physics at very high energies, which would give an unnaturally large contribution to the Higgs mass. We also show that inflation can be obtained via a UV modification of General Relativity.

  17. Scattering of 7-GeV muons in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, M.; Aslanides, E.; Lederman, L.M.; Limon, P.; Rapp, P.; Entenberg, A.; Jostlein, H.; Kim, I.J.; Konigsman, K.; Kostoulas, I.G.; Melissinos, A.C.; Gittleson, H.; Kirk, T.; Murtagh, M.; Tannenbaum, M.J.; Sculli, J.; White, T.; Yamanouchi, T.

    1975-01-01

    We have measured the inclusive scattering of muons of average energy 7.2 GeV from a variety of nuclear targets in the four-momentum-transfer range 0.6 2 2 . We find that the data can be well represented as an incoherent sum of muon-proton and muon-neutron scattering except in the region x (equivalent1/ω=Q 2 /2mν) <0.1 A fit in this region by the form A)=sigma/subA//(Z/A) sigma/subp/+(N/A) sigma/subn/=A/sup rho/ yields a value of the exponent rho of 0.963plus-or-minus0.006

  18. Operating experience with the Fermilab 500-GeV accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, G.S.; Gannon, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Fermilab accelerator has been operating for more than four years. It has been improved so that it is now capable of operating at an energy of 500 GeV and an intensity in excess of 2.0 x 10 13 protons per pulse. The accelerator is manned on a 24 hour a day basis by an operating team of five persons. This is possible in part, because almost all of the hardware systems have status monitoring and control through an advanced computer control system. A discussion is given of the operation of the accelerator with emphasis on person to machine interface, operator training techniques used at Fermilab, and the keeping of records and reliability information

  19. 1-GeV Linac Upgrade Study at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, M.; Moretti, A.; Noble, R.; Schmidt, C.W.

    1998-09-01

    A linac injector for a new proton source complex at Fermilab is assumed to have a kinetic energy of 1 GeV. This linac would be sized to accelerate 100 mA of H - beam in a 200 microsecond pulse at a 15 Hz repetition rate. This would be adequate to produce ∼10 14 protons per pulse allowing for future improvements of the new proton source complex. An alternate proposal is to add 600 MeV of side coupled cavity linac at 805 MHz to the existing 400 MeV Linac. This addition may either be in a new location or use the present Booster tunnel. A discussion of these possibilities will be given

  20. Proton tungsten reactions at 400 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincheza, J.; Cohen, J.; Marin, A.

    1979-03-01

    We report from an experiment where 400 GeV protons interact with tungsten nuclei in thin wires laminated into nuclear emulsion. The mean multiplicities of black, grey and shower track producing particles are found to be 11.5+-0.4, 5.2+-0.2 and 20.0+-0.6 respectively. The correlations between different particle categories are studied and we find that the correlation between black and grey prongs is dependent on the target mass, while the correlation between the grey prongs and the shower particles are similar to the one found when lighter elements are used as targets. This provides evidence that the grey prong particles (recoiling protons) is a measure of the number of collisions inside the nucleus. (author)

  1. Corneal thickness: measurement and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Niels; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2004-03-01

    The thickness of the cornea was reported in more than 100-year-old textbooks on physiological optics (Helmholtz, Gullstrand). Physiological interest was revived in the 1950s by David Maurice, and over the next 50 years, this 'simple' biological parameter has been studied extensively. Several techniques for its measurement have been described and physiological and clinical significance have been studied. In this review, the different methods and techniques of measurement are briefly presented (optical, ultrasound). While the corneal thickness of many animals are the same over a considerable part of the surface, in the human cornea anterior and posterior curvature are not concentric giving rise to a problem of definition. Based on this the precision and accuracy of determining the central corneal thickness are discussed. Changes in corneal thickness reflects changes in function of the boundary layers, in particular the endothelial barrier. The absolute value of thickness is of importance for the estimation of IOP but also in diagnosis of corneal and systemic disorders. Finally it is discussed to what extent the thickness is a biometric parameter of significance, e.g. in the progression of myopia or in the development of retinal detachment.

  2. Search for heavy neutral and charged leptons in $e^+ e^-$ annihilation at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 161 GeV and $\\sqrt{s}$ = 172 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hong, S J; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    A search for unstable neutral and charged heavy leptons as well as for stable charged heavy leptons has been made at center-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s}$ = 161 GeV and $\\sqrt{s}$ = 172 GeV with the L3 detector at LEP. No evidence for their existence was found. We exclude unstable neutral leptons of Dirac (Majorana) type for masses below 78.0 (66.7), 78.0 (66.7) and 72.2 (58.2) GeV, if the heavy neutrino couples to the electron, muon or tau family, respectively. We exclude unstable charged heavy leptons for masses below 81.0 GeV for a wide mass range of the associated neutral heavy lepton. The production of stable charged heavy leptons with a mass less than 84.2 GeV is also excluded. If the unstable charged heavy lepton decays via mixing into a massless neutrino, we exclude masses below 78.7 GeV.

  3. Impact parameter analysis of proton-antiproton elastic scattering from √s=7.6 GeV to √s=546 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, T.

    1985-09-01

    The proton-antiproton elastic profile function GAMMA (b) and inelastic overlap function Gsub(in)(b) are calculated from a coherent set of proton-antiproton elastic scattering data at Psub(L)=30 and 50 GeV/c (√s=7.6 and 9.8 GeV), and at √s=53 and 546 GeV. The energy dependence of Gsub(in)(b) is studied in the low energy regime and in the high energy regime. The increase of the inelastic cross section from 50 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c and from √s=53 GeV to √s=546 GeV is found to originate from a peripheral increase of Gsub(in) around 1 fm, accompanied by a non-negligible central increase. The proton-antiproton collision at √s=53 GeV is shown to be slightly less absorptive centrally than pp at this energy, while it is more absorptive peripherally around 1.2 fm. The inelastic overlap functions strongly disagree with the predictions of geometrical scaling and factorizing eikonal models, both in the low energy regime psub(L)=30-50 GeV/c and in the high energy regime √s=53-546 GeV

  4. Possible brick wall effect at 400 GeV in Isabelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1978-01-01

    The distortion of the working line, due to space charge forces, is estimated. It is found that the brick wall effect may occur at 400 GeV, due to working line distortion because of electron neutralization of the beam. The smallness of the beam at 400 GeV makes it difficult to correct the working line distortion by exciting octupole correction coils

  5. The LEP 2 machine : pushing to the limits 209 GeV! Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    By installing 288 new superconducting accelerating cavities after 1995,and thanks to the excellent work of the CERN teams,energies up to 209 GeV -well beyond LEP 's original design energy -have been achieved.Significant experi- mental data have been collected at energies in excess of 206 GeV.

  6. Shielding required for radiation produced by 15 GeV stored electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.M.; McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1974-01-01

    The first phase of PEP will consist of a 15 GeV electron and positron storage ring. This note examines the shielding required by such a facility. Shielding of neutrons and muons produced by 200 GeV protons in the second phase of PEP has been discussed in previous notes. 9 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Measurement of the Atmospheric Muon Spectrum from 20 to 3000 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Van den Ancker, M E; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bähr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chiarusi, T; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Durán, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grabosch, H J; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H L; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hoferjun, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Hu, Y; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jing, C L; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kantserov, V A; Kaur, M; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A J; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Kuang Hao Huai; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P A M; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmitt, V; Schöneich, B; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Van Wijk, R F; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yeh, S C; Yu, Z Q; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhou, S J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zhu, Q Q; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M; Zwart, A N M

    2004-01-01

    The absolute muon flux between 20 GeV and 300 GeV is measured with the L3 magnetic muon spectrometer for zenith angles ranging from 0 degree to 58 degrees. Due to the large exposure of about 150 m2 sr d, and the excellent momentum resolution of the L3 muon chambers, a precision of 2.3% at 150 GeV in the vertical direction is achieved. The ratio of positive to negative muons is studied between 20 GeV and 500 GeV, and the average vertical muon charge ratio is found to be 1.285 +- 0.003 (stat.)+- 0.019 (syst.).

  8. Final state interaction in the pd → pnp reaction at 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloff, A.

    1992-09-01

    The pd → pnp reaction at 1 GeV in both the direct and charge exchange channel has been investigated. The experimental data come from a line reversed beam-target experiment with 3.3 GeV/c deuterons incident on a proton target. In the direct channel data exhibit narrow structures in the np effective mass spectra: at threshold, at 2.02 GeV and at 2.12 GeV which have been seen before and we report on a new narrow enhancement at 1.95 GeV. In charge exchange channel the data show somewhat broader peak at 2.18 GeV. The data are explained by using a conventional approach, i.e. without sub-nucleonic degrees of freedom, but including the ΔN channel in NN scattering. 29 figs., 1 tab., 36 refs. (author)

  9. Lattice design of 3 GeV synchrotron for JAERI-KEK joint project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, F. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    This paper summarizes the Lattice of 3 GeV proton synchrotron for JAERI-KEK joint project. This 3 GeV ring provides 3 GeV proton beam for neutron science, muon science, exotic nuclear science facility and 50 GeV ring. The output beam power of this ring is 1 MW with 25 Hz operation. This beam power is a few times higher than that of the existing accelerators. To achieve this goal, it is important to cure an uncontrolled beam loss. A power of uncontrolled beam loss must be smaller than 1 W/m for hands-on maintenance. This uncontrolled beam loss is caused by beam injection, space-charge force, extraction and some known or unknown instability. The precise painting system, adequate aperture of ring and extraction line, and secure collimation systems are essential issues of this 3 GeV ring. (author)

  10. Permeability coefficient of proton irradiated polyethylene terephatalate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassani, L.C.; Santos, W.M.S.; Marechal, B.

    1983-01-01

    The principle of operation of an apparatus developed to study gas permation through thin films is described and the measurement method is discussed. Use is made of diffusion theory to obtain a expression for the permeability coefficient as a function of the rate of increase of the pressure in the receiving volume. The Gibbs function for permeation of Helium through Polyethylene Terephtalate (P.E.T.) is determined. The permeability coefficient of Helium is found to increase significantly with the range of the implanted protons although the incident charge has been kept constant. The hypothesis of structural modifications of the proton implanted P.E.T. seems to be confirmed by small angles X-rays scattering experiments on the irradiated samples. (Author) [pt

  11. 13N species formed by proton irradiation of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbury, R.S.; Dahl, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    We have shown that the irradiation of aerated water with 14.5-MeV protons produces as principal radioactive products nitrogen-13-labeled nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium ions. The yield of 13 NH 4 + varied from approximately 40% at low integrated dose (0.01 μAh) to 0.4% at high integrated dose (25 μAh), 13 NO 3 - varied from 50% at low dose to 85% at high dose. 13 N 2 - varied from 10% at low dose to 5% at high dose and 40% at intermediate doses. The results varied with recent use of target chamber. Induced radioactivity in the window foil was shown to have an effect on product composition. The effect of dissolved oxygen and certain additives (ethanol, ascorbic acid, formic acid, and ammonia) were investigated. In the absence of dissolved oxygen, or in the presence of ethanol, formic acid or ascorbic acid, almost pure 13 NH 3 could be produced at doses up to 2μAh. The data are explained by postulating the initial production of 13 NH 3 by successive abstraction of H atoms by the 13 NH 3 to HNO 2 and HNO 3

  12. Analytical dose modeling for preclinical proton irradiation of millimetric targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstalle, Marie; Constanzo, Julie; Karakaya, Yusuf; Finck, Christian; Rousseau, Marc; Brasse, David

    2018-01-01

    Due to the considerable development of proton radiotherapy, several proton platforms have emerged to irradiate small animals in order to study the biological effectiveness of proton radiation. A dedicated analytical treatment planning tool was developed in this study to accurately calculate the delivered dose given the specific constraints imposed by the small dimensions of the irradiated areas. The treatment planning system (TPS) developed in this study is based on an analytical formulation of the Bragg peak and uses experimental range values of protons. The method was validated after comparison with experimental data from the literature and then compared to Monte Carlo simulations conducted using Geant4. Three examples of treatment planning, performed with phantoms made of water targets and bone-slab insert, were generated with the analytical formulation and Geant4. Each treatment planning was evaluated using dose-volume histograms and gamma index maps. We demonstrate the value of the analytical function for mouse irradiation, which requires a targeting accuracy of 0.1 mm. Using the appropriate database, the analytical modeling limits the errors caused by misestimating the stopping power. For example, 99% of a 1-mm tumor irradiated with a 24-MeV beam receives the prescribed dose. The analytical dose deviations from the prescribed dose remain within the dose tolerances stated by report 62 of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements for all tested configurations. In addition, the gamma index maps show that the highly constrained targeting accuracy of 0.1 mm for mouse irradiation leads to a significant disagreement between Geant4 and the reference. This simulated treatment planning is nevertheless compatible with a targeting accuracy exceeding 0.2 mm, corresponding to rat and rabbit irradiations. Good dose accuracy for millimetric tumors is achieved with the analytical calculation used in this work. These volume sizes are typical in mouse models for radiation studies. Our results demonstrate that the choice of analytical rather than simulated treatment planning depends on the animal model under consideration. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Positron annihilation studies on proton irradiated nitrile rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Chandran, T.S.G.; Lobo, Blaise; Ranganath, M.R.; Gopal, S.; Sreeramalu, V.

    1996-01-01

    NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) was irradiated with 4 MeV proton beam from a variable energy cyclotron (VEC) at VEC Centre, Calcutta, to a flux of 10 16 ions/cm 2 , in a vacuum of 10 -9 Torr and was studied through positron lifetime measurements

  14. Dose determination of 600 MeV proton irradiated specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavillet, D.

    1991-01-01

    The calculation method for the experimental determination of the atomic production cross section from the γ activity measurements are presented. This method is used for the determination of some isotope production cross sections for 600 MeV proton irradition in MANET steel, copper, tungsten, gold and titanium. The results are compared with some calculation. These values are used to determine the dose of specimens irradiated in the PIREX II facility. The results are discussed in terms of the irradiation parameters. A guide for the use of the production cross section determined in the dosimetry experiment are given. (author) tabs., refs

  15. Methods of thallium-201 preparation from proton irradiated thallium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, M.D.; Sevast'yanova, A.S.; Malinin, A.B.; Kurenkov, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of thallium-201 preparation from Tl-targets irradiated by protons: oxidation-extraction (1) and extraction (2) - are developed. At first radioactive lead is separated from the target material - thallium macroquantities during ∼32 hours, then thallium-201 was separated from residual activity of lead radioisotopes and transformed it into the necessary chemical formula. The 1st and 2nd methods differ from each other by the 1st stage of target retreatment; only extraction was used to separate radioactive lead in the 2nd method. The target was solved in H 2 SO 4 . The 1st method permits to separate thallium-201 with chemical yield not less than 90 %, the 2nd one - higher than 95 %. Volumetric activity of thallium-201 prepared is more than 55 MBq/ml. 5 refs

  16. Mechanical properties of low temperature proton irradiated single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildcrout, M.

    1975-01-01

    Single crystal copper samples, of varying degrees of cold work, were irradiated near either liquid helium or liquid nitrogen temperature by 10.1-MeV protons. The internal friction and dynamic Young's modulus were observed as a function of either temperature or integrated proton flux. The primary effect of irradiation was to produce dislocation pinning. The initial pinning rate was found to be very sensitive to cold work. During irradiation it was found that heavily cold worked samples (25 percent compression) exhibited, almost exclusively, exponential pinning given by Y = e/sup --lambda phi/. This is attributed to the immobilization, rather than shortening, of loop lengths and is characterized by the pinning constant lambda. Exponential pinning was also found, to a smaller degree, in less heavily cold worked samples. Cold work appears to reduce the ''effective volume'' within which the defect clusters produced by irradiation, can immobilize dislocation segments. The bulk effect was observed after dislocation pinning was completed. Expressed in terms of the fractional change in Young's modulus per unit concentration of irradiation induced defects, it was measured at liquid helium temperature to be --18.5 +- 3. An anelastic process occurring near 10 0 K for low kHz frequencies and due to stress-induced ordering of point defects produced by irradiation has also been studied. The peak height per unit fluence was found to decrease with increasing cold work. The peak was not observed in samples compressed 25 percent. For the most carefully handled sample the activation energy was (1.28 +- 0.05) x 10 -2 eV, the attempt frequency was 10/sup 11.6 +- .8/ s -1 , the shape factor was 0.20, and the half width of the peak was 11 percent larger than the theoretical value calculated from the Debye equation for a single relaxation process

  17. Degradation of SiGe devices by proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, Hidenori; Hayama, Kiyoteru [Kumamoto National Coll. of Technology, Nishigoshi (Japan); Vanhellemont, J; Takami, Yasukiyo; Sunaga, Hiromi; Nashiyama, Isamu; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Poortmans, J; Caymax, M

    1997-03-01

    The degradation and recovery behavior of strained Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} diodes and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) by irradiated by protons are studied. The degradation of device performance and the generation of lattice defects are reported as a function of fluence and germanium content and also compared extensively with previous results obtained on electron and neutron irradiated devices. In order to study the recovery behavior of the irradiated devices, isochronal annealing is performed. The radiation source dependence of the degradation is discussed taking into account the number of knock-on atoms and the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL). (author)

  18. Production of fast switching power thyristors by proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawko, D.C.; Bartko, J.

    1983-01-01

    There are several techniques currently employed by various manufacturers in the fabrication of fast switching power thyristors. Gold doping and irradiation by electron beams are among the more common ones. In all cases, the fast switching capability results from a reduction of the minority carrier lifetime of the host material by the introduction of carrier traps or recombination centers. However, accompanying this beneficial reduction in switching speed is a deleterious increase in forward voltage drop which also results from the introduction of carrier traps. Methods which minimize the voltage drop increase as the switching speed is reduced are highly desirable. One such method would achieve this by introducing the traps or recombination centers into well defined narrow regions where they will be more effective in reducing the switching speed than in increasing the forward voltage drop. Because the proton range-energy relationship in materials is relatively well defined and the lifetime reducing displacements occur near the end of their ranges, the lifetime in silicon can be reduced where desired by the precise control of proton energy. Dual energy proton beams from a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator were used in the experiments to determine whether proton beam irradiations offer advantages over other techniques. This was the subject of the present work. The results indicate that this is the preferred technique for reproducibly and rapidly processing fast switching thyristors with superior characteristics. The experimental procedure is discussed and comparisons are made with electron and neutron irradiated thyristors

  19. Hall effect measurements on proton-irradiated ROSE samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggeri, U.; Bruzzi, M.; Borchi, E.

    1997-01-01

    Bulk samples obtained from two wafers of a silicon monocrystal material produced by Float-Zone refinement have been analyzed using the four-point probe method. One of the wafers comes from an oxygenated ingot; two sets of pure and oxygenated samples have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons in the fluence range from 10 13 p/cm 2 to 2x10 14 p/cm 2 . Van der Pauw resistivity and Hall coefficient have been measured before and after irradiation as a function of the temperature. A thermal treatment (30 minutes at 100C) has been performed to accelerate the reverse annealing effect in the irradiated silicon. The irradiated samples show the same exponential dependence of the resistivity and of the Hall coefficient on the temperature from 370K to 100K, corresponding to the presence of radiation-induced deep energy levels around 0.6-0.7eV in the silicon gap. The free carrier concentrations (n, p) have been evaluated in the investigated fluence range. The inversion of the conductivity type from n to p occurred respectively at 7x10 13 p/cm 2 and at 4x10 13 p/cm 2 before and after the annealing treatment, for both the two sets. Only slight differences have been detected between the pure and oxygenated samples

  20. Particle Production in Hadron - Nuclear Matter in the Energy Range Between 50-GeV - 150-GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Braune, Kersten

    1980-01-01

    In an experiment at the CERN SPS the particle production in hadron-nucleus collisions in an energy range between 50 and 150 GeV was studied. The detector detects charged particles and separates them into two groups: fast particles, mainly produced pions, and slow particles, mainly recoil protons from the nucleus, whereby the boundary lies at a velocity v/c = 0.7. Multiplicity and angular respectively pseudo-rapidity distributions were measured. From the data analysis resulted that the slow particles are a measure for the number of collisions of the projectile in the nucleus. The properties of the fast particle were studied in dependence on . Thereby it was shown that at a description of the measured results using the variable the dependence on the projectile and on the mass number A of the target are extensively eliminated.

  1. Study of the iron corrosion at the interface of different media (water, air) submitted to protons irradiation; Etude de la corrosion du fer a l'interface de differents milieux (eau, air) soumis a l'irradiation de protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapuerta, S

    2005-10-15

    During the deep geological disposal, stainless steel containers of the vitrified waste will be put in carbon steel overpacks. After the closing of the storage site, overpacks will be in contact with a humid air and a radioactive medium. After hundred years, overpacks could be in contact with water radiolysis in an anoxic medium. In this context, my PhD work is a fundamental study which is the understanding of the corrosion mechanisms of pure iron under proton irradiation. This corrosion is affected by the contact of iron with different atmospheres (air, nitrogen) and water. In the case of the atmospheric iron corrosion under irradiation, we have studied the influence of the proton beam flux. During this work, we have characterized the structure of the oxides formed at the iron surface. The structure formed does not correspond to iron oxides and hydroxides indexed. However, we have shown that the oxide structure is close to that of lepidocrocite and bernalite. Moreover, we have determined the oxygen diffusion coefficient in iron under irradiation and we have shown that the irradiation accelerates of 6 orders of magnitude the iron corrosion. In addition, the irradiations which were realized in different gas have put in evidence the negligible role of nitrates, and the importance of the O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O coupling on the iron corrosion. Finally, we have shown the influence of the relative humidity, the maximum of the corrosion being observed for a relative humidity close to 45%. In the case of the iron corrosion in aqueous media under irradiation, the influence of the oxygen dissolved in water has been studied using a surface marker. We have put in evidence that the corrosion is twice more significant in aerated medium than in deaerated medium. Moreover, the influence of radicals has been shown. An irradiated sample is more corroded than a sample put in contact with a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution. Finally, the follow-up of the iron potential under irradiation have shown

  2. Energy distributions study of spallation neutrons produced at 0 deg. by proton beams (0.8 GeV and 1.6 GeV) and deuteron beams (1.2 and 1.6 GeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Eugenie

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the energy distributions of spallation neutrons produced at 0 deg. by protons of 0.8 GeV up to 1.6 GeV and deuterons of 1.2 and 1.6 GeV with two complementary experimental techniques: the time of flight measurement with tagged incident protons for low energy neutrons (3-400 MeV) and the use of a magnetic spectrometer at high energy (E ≥ 200 MeV). These measurements enable us to measure for the first time the neutron spectra for incident energies higher than 800 MeV. We have compared the double differential cross sections produced with 1.2 GeV protons on several thin targets (Al, Fe, Zr, W, Pb and Th). The neutron production obtained for a lead target is also studied for various energies (0.8 up to 1.6 GeV) and incident particles (p, d). Data are compared with theoretical simulations carried out using the TIERCE system and the intranuclear cascade model of J. Cugnon associated to the decay code of D. Durand. The neutron spectra calculated by using the HETC and MCNP codes, included in TIERCE, are significantly higher than the measured distributions. A better agreement is observed with the results of the Cugnon's cascade model. (author) [fr

  3. Evidence of formation of trans-Fe nuclei in Fe+Al interactions at 1.88 GeV using Cr-39 (DOP) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.K.; Chaudhuri, Biva

    1991-01-01

    A wedge-shaped aluminium target was irradiated with 1.88 A GeV Fe beam to study various features of Fe+Al nucleus-nucleus interaction and their dependence on target thickness. The detector employed was a stack of CR-39 (DOP) and Lexan plastic nuclear track detectors which have a characteristically high charge resolution property. To distinguish the actual events from background and buildup a selection criteria for easy and unambiguous rejection of unwanted interfering events the stack of detectors was placed at an angle of 60deg with respect to the beam. After irradiation the CR-39 (DOP) detectors were etched and the elliptic etch-pit diameters were scanned. The diameter distribution of the elliptic etch-pits exhibits the existence of trans Fe nuclei. The production of trans Fe fraction is seen to increase with the thickness of the aluminium target. The possible causes of this increase are being investigated. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs

  4. Are galaxy discs optically thick?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, Michael; Davies, Jonathan; Phillipps, Steven

    1989-01-01

    We re-examine the classical optical evidence for the low optical depths traditionally assigned to spiral discs and argue that it is highly model-dependent and unconvincing. In particular, layered models with a physically thin but optically thick dust layer behave like optically thin discs. The opposite hypotheses, that such discs are optically thick is then examined in the light of modern evidence. We find it to be consistent with the near-infrared and IRAS observations, with the surface brightnesses, with the HI and CO column densities and with the Hα measurements. (author)

  5. Background model systematics for the Fermi GeV excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The possible gamma-ray excess in the inner Galaxy and the Galactic center (GC) suggested by Fermi-LAT observations has triggered a large number of studies. It has been interpreted as a variety of different phenomena such as a signal from WIMP dark matter annihilation, gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars, or emission from cosmic rays injected in a sequence of burst-like events or continuously at the GC. We present the first comprehensive study of model systematics coming from the Galactic diffuse emission in the inner part of our Galaxy and their impact on the inferred properties of the excess emission at Galactic latitudes 2° < |b| < 20° and 300 MeV to 500 GeV. We study both theoretical and empirical model systematics, which we deduce from a large range of Galactic diffuse emission models and a principal component analysis of residuals in numerous test regions along the Galactic plane. We show that the hypothesis of an extended spherical excess emission with a uniform energy spectrum is compatible with the Fermi-LAT data in our region of interest at 95% CL. Assuming that this excess is the extended counterpart of the one seen in the inner few degrees of the Galaxy, we derive a lower limit of 10.0° (95% CL) on its extension away from the GC. We show that, in light of the large correlated uncertainties that affect the subtraction of the Galactic diffuse emission in the relevant regions, the energy spectrum of the excess is equally compatible with both a simple broken power-law of break energy E(break) = 2.1 ± 0.2 GeV, and with spectra predicted by the self-annihilation of dark matter, implying in the case of bar bb final states a dark matter mass of m(χ)=49(+6.4)(-)(5.4)  GeV.

  6. Search for excited leptons at 130-140 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J. C.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jacobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Bauer, C.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R. W.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    A search for the radiative decay of excited charged leptons, ℓ ∗, and for radiative and weak decays of excited electron neutrinos, ν e∗, is performed, using the 5.8 pb -1 of data collected by ALEPH at 130-140 GeV. No evidence for a signal is found in single or pair production. Excluded mass limits from pair production are close to 65 GeV/ c2 for all excited lepton species. Limits on the couplings, {λ}/{m ℓ ∗}, of excited leptons are derived from single production. For an excited lepton mass of 130 GeV/ c2, these limits are 0.04 GeV -1 for μ ∗ and τ ∗, and 0.0007 GeV -1 for e ∗. For ν e∗, the limit is at the level of 0.03 GeV -1 for a mass of 120 GeV/ c2, independent of the decay branching ratios.

  7. Search for excited leptons in $e^{+} e^{-}$ annihilation at $\\sqrt {s}$ = 130 - 140 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bencze, G L; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Brambilla, Elena; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buijs, A; Bujak, A T; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Burgos, C; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Castello, R; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coan, T E; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Dénes, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabbretti, R; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Fernández, G; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Gailloud, M; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; González, E; Gougas, Andreas; Goujon, D; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gustafson, H R; Gutay, L J; Hangarter, K; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; He, J T; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Ilyas, M M; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapinos, P; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Koffeman, E; Köngeter, A; Koutsenko, V F; Koulbardis, A; Krämer, R W; Kramer, T; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Lenti, M; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lindemann, B; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Ludovici, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Macchiolo, A; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Maolinbay, M; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; McNally, D; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Möller, M; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nowak, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Raghavan, R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Redaelli, M; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Ricker, A; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Röhner, S; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Salicio, J M; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Schöneich, B; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schulte, R; Schultze, K; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seiler, P G; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Sticozzi, F; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Toker, O; Tonisch, F; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tsaregorodtsev, A Yu; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Urbàn, L; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vuilleumier, L; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weill, R; Willmott, C; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zaccardelli, C; Zalite, A; Zemp, P; Zeng, J Y; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, G J; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Van der Zwaan, B C C

    1996-01-01

    We report on a search for the excited leptons e^*,mu^*,tau^* and nu^* in e+e- collisions at sqrt{s} = 130 - 140 GeV using the L3 detector at LEP. No evidence has been found for their existence. From an analysis of the expected pair produced l^*l^* in the channels e.e.gamma.gamma, mu.mu.gamma.gamma, tau.tau.gamma.gamma, eeWW, and nu.nu.gamma.gamma, we determine the lower mass limits at 95% C.L. of 64.7 GeV for e^*, 64.9 GeV for mu^*, 64.2 GeV for tau*, 57.3 GeV ( eW decay mode) and 61.4 GeV ( nu.gamma decay mode) for nu^*. From an analysis of the expected singly produced l.l^* in the channels e.e.gamma, mu.mu.gamma, tau.tau.gamma, nu.eW and nu.nu.gamma, we determine upper limits on the couplings lambda/m_{l^*} up to m_{l^*} = 130 GeV.

  8. A 10-GeV, 5-MW proton source for a pulsed spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Chae, Y.C.; Crosbie, E.

    1995-01-01

    A feasibility study for a pulsed spallation source based on a 5-MW, 10-GeV rapid proton synchrotron (RCS) is in progress. The integrated concept and performance parameters of the facility are discussed. The 10-GeV synchrotron uses as its injector the 2-GeV accelerator system of a 1-MW source described elsewhere. The 1-MW source accelerator system consists of a 400-MeV H - linac with 2.5 MeV energy spread in the 75% chopped (25% removed) beam and a 30-Hz RCS that accelerates the 400-MeV beam to 2 GeV. The time averaged current of the accelerator system is 0.5 mA, equivalent to 1.04 x 10 14 protons per pulse. The 10-GeV RCS accepts the 2 GeV beam and accelerates it to 10 GeV. Beam transfer from the 2-GeV synchrotron to the 10-GeV machine u highly efficient bunch-to-bucket injection, so that the transfer can be made without beam loss. The synchrotron lattice uses FODO cells of 90 degrees phase advance. Dispersion-free straight sections are obtained using a missing magnet scheme. The synchrotron magnets are powered by dual-frequency resonant circuits. The magnets are excited at a 20-Hz rate and de-excited at 60-Hz. resulting in an effective 30-Hz rate. A key feature of the design of this accelerator system is that beam losses are minimized from injection to extraction, reducing activation to levels consistent with hands-on maintenance. Details of the study are presented

  9. [Endoscopic full-thickness resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K

    2016-08-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.

  10. Hadron--deuteron scattering at 50 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, L.J.

    1978-06-01

    The forward scattering of π + , π - , and protons on deuterons and protons was measured with a single arm spectrometer at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The energy was 50 GeV and the invariant 4-momentum transfer range was .06 2 for π + and p, and .06 - . The missing mass, determined by the spectrometer, selected proton elastic and deuteron elastic-plus-breakup scattering, rejecting particle and resonance production events. The measured proton and deuteron differential cross sections were analyzed in the context of the Glauber Theory of deuteron elastic-plus-breakup scattering and a neutron elastic differential cross section was extracted. The theory and analysis were tested by comparing the π + n cross section extracted from the π + d and n + p data with the π - p data; by I-spin symmetry the π + n cross section must equal the π - p. The same test was done for π - n. The proton--neutron elastic differential cross section was then extracted from the pd and pp data. The theory and the data were not found to be consistent within the random errors. Systematic errors are probably the cause; several possible systematic errors are discussed. Also an attempt to use recoil particle detectors to extract the deuteron elastic and the neutron cross sections is reported

  11. Hydrodynamical assessment of 200A GeV collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnedermann, E.; Heinz, U.

    1994-01-01

    We are analyzing the hydrodynamics of 200A GeV S+S collisions using a new approach which tries to quantify the uncertainties arising from the specific implementation of the hydrodynamical model. Based on a previous phenomenological analysis we use the global hydrodynamics model to show that the amount of initial flow, or initial energy density, cannot be determined from the hadronic momentum spectra. We additionally find that almost always a sizable transverse flow develops, which causes the system to freeze out, thereby limiting the flow velocity in itself. This freeze-out dominance in turn makes a distinction between a plasma and a hadron resonance gas equation of state very difficult, whereas a pure pion gas can easily be ruled out from present data. To complete the picture we also analyze particle multiplicity data, which suggest that chemical equilibrium is not reached with respect to the strange particles. However, the overpopulation of pions seems to be at most moderate, with a pion chemical potential far away from the Bose divergence

  12. Variable gamma-ray sky at 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshirkov, M. S.; Rubtsov, G. I.

    2013-01-01

    We search for the long-term variability of the gamma-ray sky in the energy range E > 1 GeV with 168 weeks of the gamma-ray telescope Fermi-LAT data. We perform a full sky blind search for regions with variable flux looking for deviations from uniformity. We bin the sky into 12288 pixels using the HEALPix package and use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare weekly photon counts in each pixel with the constant flux hypothesis. The weekly exposure of Fermi-LAT for each pixel is calculated with the Fermi-LAT tools. We consider flux variations in a pixel significant if the statistical probability of uniformity is less than 4 × 10 −6 , which corresponds to 0.05 false detections in the whole set. We identified 117 variable sources, 27 of which have not been reported variable before. The sources with previously unidentified variability contain 25 active galactic nuclei (AGN) belonging to the blazar class (11 BL Lacs and 14 FSRQs), one AGN of an uncertain type, and one pulsar PSR J0633+1746 (Geminga).

  13. Wide-band neutrino beams at 1000 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malensek, A.; Stutte, L.

    1983-01-01

    In a previous publication, S. Mori discussed various broad-band neutrino and antineutrino beams using 1000 GeV protons on target. A new beam (SST) has been designed which provides the same neutrino flux as the quadrupole triplet (QT) while suppressing the wrong sign flux by a factor of 18. It also provides more than twice as much high energy antineutrino flux than the sign-selected bare target (SSBT) and in addition, has better neutrino suppression. While it is possible to increase the flux obtained from the single horn system over that previously described, the conclusion which states any horn focussing system seems to be of marginal use for Tevatron neutrino physics, is unchanged. Neutrino and antineutrino event rates and wrong sign backgrounds were computed using NUADA for a 100 metric ton detector of radius 1.5 meters. Due to radiation considerations and the existing transformer location, the horn beam is placed in its usual position inside the Target Tube. All other beams are placed in Fronthall. Thus, for the wide-band Fronthall trains a decay distance of 520 meters is used, versus 400 meters for the horn train

  14. Bottomonium and Drell-Yan production in p-A collisions at 450 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B.; Arnaldi, R.; Atayan, M.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Borges, G.; Castor, J.; Chaurand, B.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cortese, P.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Fargeix, J.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Grigoryan, A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkanyan, H.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavicheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; MacCormick, M.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Monteno, M.; Musso, A.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prino, F.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Riccati, L.; Santos, H.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Sitta, M.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.L.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    2006-01-01

    The NA50 Collaboration has measured heavy-quarkonium production in p-A collisions at 450 GeV incident energy (sqrt(s) = 29.1 GeV). We report here results on the production of the Upsilon states and of high-mass Drell-Yan muon pairs (m > 6 GeV). The cross-section at midrapidity and the A-dependence of the measured yields are determined and compared with the results of other fixed-target experiments and with the available theoretical estimates. Finally, we also address some issues concerning the transverse momentum distributions of the measured dimuons.

  15. A study for lattice comparison for PLS 2 GeV storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, M.

    1991-01-01

    TBA and DBA lattices are compared for 1.5-2.5 GeV synchrotron light source, with particular attention to the PLS 2 GeV electron storage ring currently being developed in Pohang, Korea. For the comparison study, the optimum electron energy was chosen to be 2 GeV and the circumference of the ring is less than 280.56 m, the natural beam emittance no greater than 13 nm. Results from various linear and nonlinear optics comparison studies are presented

  16. Energy loss of muons in the energy range 1-10000 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, W.; Kopp, R.; Voss, R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is given of the most recent formulae for the cross-sections contributing to the energy loss of muons in matter, notably due to electro-magnetic interactions (ionization, bremsstrahlung and electron-pair production) and nuclear interactions. Computed energy losses dE/dx are tabulated for muons with energy between 1 GeV and 10,000 GeV in a number of materials commonly used in high-energy physics experiments. In comparison with earlier tables, these show deviations that grow with energy and amount to several per cent at 200 GeV muon energy. (orig.)

  17. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  18. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  19. Searches for supersymmetry in the photon(s) plus missing energy channels at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 161 GeV and 172 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Lees, J.P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.N.; Nief, J.Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J.M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Padilla, C.; Park, I.C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J.A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A.O.; Becker, U.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, John; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Lehraus, I.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.F.; Ranjard, F.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, Gigi; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I.R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Rensch, B.; Waananen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.C.; Machefert, F.; Rouge, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Boccali, T.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Cavanaugh, R.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Huehn, T.; Jaffe, D.E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S.J.; Halley, A.W.; Knowles, I.G.; Lynch, J.G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J.M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, Evelyn J.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R.M.; Buchmuller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E.B.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Spagnolo, P.; Stacey, A.M.; Williams, M.D.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A.P.; Bowdery, C.K.; Buck, P.G.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E.P.; Williams, M.I.; Giehl, I.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J.J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Buescher, Volker; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lutjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Richter, Robert, 1; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, Ph.; Hocker, Andreas; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D.W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrancois, J.; Lutz, A.M.; Nikolic, Irina; Schune, M.H.; Serin, L.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciaba, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Blair, G.A.; Bryant, L.M.; Chambers, J.T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M.G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J.A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Botterill, D.R.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P.R.; Thompson, J.C.; Wright, A.E.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Kozanecki, W.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S.N.; Dann, J.H.; Kim, H.Y.; Litke, A.M.; McNeil, M.A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C.A.J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M.S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W.M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L.F.; Affholderbach, K.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Foss, J.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R.W.; Armstrong, S.R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gonzalez, S.; Greening, T.C.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nachtman, J.M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J.M.; Zobernig, G.

    1998-01-01

    Searches for supersymmetric particles in channels with one or more photons and missing energy have been performed with data collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP. The data consist of 11.1 \\pb\\ at $\\sqrt{s} = 161 ~\\, \\rm GeV$, 1.1 \\pb\\ at 170 \\gev\\ and 9.5 \\pb\\ at 172 GeV. The \\eenunu\\ cross se ction is measured. The data are in good agreement with predictions based on the Standard Model, and are used to set upper limits on the cross sections for anomalous photon production. These limits are compared to two different SUSY models and used to set limits on the neutralino mass. A limit of 71 \\gevsq\\ at 95\\% C.L. is set on the mass of the lightest neutralin o ($\\tau_{\\chi_{1}^{0}} \\leq $ 3 ns) for the gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking and LNZ models.

  20. Studies of Hadronic Event Structure in $e^+ e^-$ Annihilation from 30 GeV to 209 GeV with the L3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Romeo, G.Cara; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this Report, QCD results obtained from a study of hadronic event structure in high energy e^+e^- interactions with the L3 detector are presented. The operation of the LEP collider at many different collision energies from 91 GeV to 209 GeV offers a unique opportunity to test QCD by measuring the energy dependence of different observables. The main results concern the measurement of the strong coupling constant, \\alpha_s, from hadronic event shapes and the study of effects of soft gluon coherence through charged particle multiplicity and momentum distributions.

  1. Study of the structure of hadronic events and determination of $\\alpha_{s}$ at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130 GeV and 136 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bencze, G L; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Brambilla, Elena; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buijs, A; Bujak, A T; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Burgos, C; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Castello, R; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coan, T E; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Dénes, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabbretti, R; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Fernández, G; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Gailloud, M; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; González, E; Gougas, Andreas; Goujon, D; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gustafson, H R; Gutay, L J; Hangarter, K; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; He, J T; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Ilyas, M M; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapinos, P; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; Koffeman, E; Köngeter, A; Koutsenko, V F; Koulbardis, A; Krämer, R W; Kramer, T; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Lenti, M; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lindemann, B; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Ludovici, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Macchiolo, A; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Maolinbay, M; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; McNally, D; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Möller, M; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nowak, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Raghavan, R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Redaelli, M; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Ricker, A; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Röhner, S; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Salicio, J M; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Schöneich, B; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schulte, R; Schultze, K; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seiler, P G; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Sticozzi, F; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Toker, O; Tonisch, F; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tsaregorodtsev, A Yu; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Urbàn, L; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vuilleumier, L; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weill, R; Willmott, C; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zaccardelli, C; Zalite, A; Zemp, P; Zeng, J Y; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, G J; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Van der Zwaan, B C C

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the structure of hadronic events recorded by the L3 detector at center-of-mass energies of 130 and 136 GeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5 pb-1 collected during the high energy run of 1995. The shapes of the event shape distributions and the energy dependence of their mean values are well reproduced by QCD models. From a comparison of the data with resummed O(alpha_s^2) QCD calculations, we determine the strong coupling constant to be alpha_s(133 GeV) = 0.107 +/- 0.005(exp) +/- 0.006(theor).

  2. First Fermi-LAT Catalog of Sources above 10 GeV (1FHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This catalog of LAT sources above 10 GeV reports the locations, spectra, and variability properties of the 514 sources significantly detected in this range during...

  3. Fragment emission in the interaction of xenon with 1-20 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porile, N.T.; Bujak, A.J.; Carmony, D.D.; Chung, Y.H.; Gutay, L.J.; Hirsch, A.S.; Mahi, M.; Paderewski, G.L.; Sangster, T.C.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Stringfellow, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    Differential cross sections for the emission of intermediate mass fragments in the interaction of xenon with 1-20 GeV protons have been measured. The cross sections increase sharply with energy up to 10 GeV and then level off. The energy spectra were fitted with an expression based on the phase transition droplet model and excellent fits were obtained above 9 GeV. Below 6 GeV, the fits show an increasing contribution from another mechanism, believed to be binary breakup. A droplet model fit to the cross sections ascribed to the multi-fragmentation component is able to reproduce their variation with both fragment mass and proton energy

  4. ATLAS event at 900 GeV - 5 May 2015 - Run 263962 Evt 20805

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of one of the first proton-proton collision events recorded by ATLAS on 5 May 2015, at 900 GeV collision energy. Tracks are reconstructed from hits in two of the tracking detectors (SCT and TRT).

  5. Investigation of GeV proton-induced spallation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilscher, D.; Herbach, C.-M.; Jahnke, U.

    2003-01-01

    A reliable and precise modeling of GeV proton-induced spallation reactions is indispensable for the design of the spallation module and the target station of future accelerator driven hybrid reactors (ADS) or spallation neutron sources (ESS), in particular, to provide precise predictions for the neutron production, the radiation damage of materials (window), and the production of radioactivity ( 3 H, 7 Be etc.) in the target medium. Detailed experimental nuclear data are needed for sensitive validations and improvements of the models, whose predictive power is strongly dependent on the correct physical description of the three main stages of a spallation reaction: (i) the Intra-Nuclear-Cascade (INC) with the fast heating of the target nucleus, (ii) the de-excitation due to pre-equilibrium emission including the possibility of multi-fragmentation, and (iii) the statistical decay of thermally excited nuclei by evaporation of light particles and fission in the case of heavy nuclei. Key experimental data for this endeavour are absolute production cross sections and energy spectra for neutrons and light charged-particles (LCPs), emission of composite particles prior and post to the attainment of an equilibrated system, distribution of excitation energies deposited in the nuclei after the INC, and fission probabilities. The correlations of these quantities are particularly important to detect and identify possible deficiencies of the theoretical modeling of the various stages of a spallation reaction. Systematic measurements of such data are furthermore needed over large ranges of target nuclei and incident proton energies. Such data has been measured with the NESSI detector. An overview of new and previous results will be given. (authors)

  6. Deeply virtual compton scattering at 6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthot, J. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand II, Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire (CNRS), 63 - Aubiere (France); Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E. [National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    We propose a measurement of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process (DVCS) ep {yields} ep{gamma} in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a 6 GeV beam. We are able to explore the onset of Q{sup 2} scaling, by measuring a beam helicity asymmetry for Q{sup 2} ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 GeV{sup 2} at x{sub B}{approx}0.35. At this kinematics, the asymmetry is dominated by the DVCS - Bethe-Heitler (BH) interference, which is proportional to the imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude amplified by the full magnitude of the BH amplitude. The imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude is expected to scale early. Indeed, the imaginary part of the forward Compton amplitude measured in deep inelastic scattering (via the optical theorem) scales at Q{sup 2} as low as 1 GeV{sup 2}. If the scaling regime is reached, we will make an 8% measurement of the skewed parton distributions (SPD) contributing to the DVCS amplitude. Also, this experiment allows us to separately estimate the size of the higher-twist effects, since they are only suppressed by an additional factor 1/Q compared to the leading-twist term, and have a different angular dependence. We use a polarized electron beam and detect the scattered electron in the HRSe, the real photon in an electromagnetic calorimeter (under construction) and the recoil proton in a shielded scintillator array (to be constructed). This allows as to determine the difference in cross-sections for electrons of opposite helicities. This observable is directly linked to the SPD's. We estimate that 25 days of beam (600 hours) are needed to achieve this goal. (authors)

  7. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)

  8. Soliton models for thick branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z 2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w 2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ 4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ 6 branes. (orig.)

  9. Soliton models for thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyravi, Marzieh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Nematollah [Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ{sup 4} and φ{sup 6} scalar fields, which have broken Z{sub 2} symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w{sup 2} term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ{sup 4} brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ{sup 6} branes. (orig.)

  10. Photoproduction of an isoscalar 3π resonance at 1.67 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laberrigue, J.; Lassalle, J.C.; Patrick, G.N.; Storr, K.M.; Levy, J.M.; La Vaissiere, C. de; Yiou, T.P.; Atkinson, M.; Axon, T.J.; Barberis, D.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brookes, G.R.; Bunn, J.J.; Bussey, P.J.; Clegg, A.B.; Dainton, J.B.; Davenport, M.; Dickinson, B.; Diekmann, B.; Donnachie, A.; Ellison, R.J.; Flower, P.; Flynn, P.J.; Galbraith, W.; Heinloth, K.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Hutton, J.S.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacob, H.P.; Jung, M.; Kemp, M.A.R.; Kumar, B.R.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lane, J.B.; Liebenau, V.; McClatchey, R.H.; Mercer, D.; Morris, J.A.G.; Morris, J.V.; Newton, D.; Paterson, C.; Paul, E.; Raine, C.; Reidenbach, M.; Rotscheidt, H.; Schloesser, A.; Sharp, P.H.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Thompson, R.J.; Waite, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    A rhoπ enhancement with mass 1.67 +- 0.02 GeV and width 0.16 +- 0.02 GeV is observed in the channel #betta#p -> pπ + π - 0 . Assuming an incoherent background, the cross section x branching ratio is 100 +- 20 nb. A spin-parity analysis favours Jsup(P) = 1 - . The enhancement is most simply interpreted as a radial recurrence of the #betta# meson. (orig.)

  11. The future machine with electrons of 15-30 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkatchenko, A.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the project of european linear accelerator with a continuous beam of high energy electrons for the Nuclear Physics researches. Based on a superconducting linear accelerator crossed several times, this machine will be able to produce beams of 15 GeV in a first time, then 30 GeV, by increasing of accelerator cavity field without modifying the beam circulation system

  12. A measurement of σtot(γp) at sqrt(S) = 210 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Sugano, K.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R. L.; Thron, J.; Arzarello, F.; Ayed, R.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Romeo, G. Cara; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Ciralli, F.; Contin, A.; D'Auria, S.; Del Papa, C.; Frasconi, F.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Lin, Q.; Lisowski, B.; Maccarrone, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Barreiro, F.; Crittenden, J.; Dabbous, H.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Gutjahr, B.; Hartmann, H.; Hartmann, J.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kramarczyk, S.; Kückes, M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Müsch, H.; Paul, E.; Schattevoy, R.; Schneider, B.; Schneider, J.-L.; Wedemeyer, R.; Cassidy, A.; Cussans, D. G.; Dyce, N.; Fawcett, H. F.; Foster, B.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G. P.; Lancaster, M.; Llewellyn, T. J.; Malos, J.; Morgado, C. J. S.; Tapper, R. J.; Wilson, S. S.; Rau, R. R.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Gialas, I.; Parsons, J. A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P. B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Barillari, T.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Burkot, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Dwuraźny, A.; Eskreys, A.; Nizioł, B.; Jakubowski, Z.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Borzemski, P.; Eskreys, K.; Jeleń, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Kulka, J.; Rulikowska-Zarȩbska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zajaç, J.; Kȩdzierski, T.; Kotański, A.; Przybycień, M.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Behrens, U.; Bienlein, J. K.; Coldewey, C.; Dannemann, A.; Dierks, K.; Dorth, W.; Drews, G.; Erhard, P.; Flasiński, M.; Fleck, I.; Fürtjes, A.; Gläser, R.; Göttlicher, P.; Haas, T.; Hagge, L.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Hultschig, H.; Jahnen, G.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Löhr, B.; Löwe, M.; Lüke, D.; Mainusch, J.; Manczak, O.; Momayezi, M.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Park, I.; Pösnecker, K.-U.; Rohde, M.; Ros, E.; Schneekloth, U.; Schroeder, J.; Schulz, W.; Selonke, F.; Tscheslog, E.; Tsurugai, T.; Turkot, F.; Vogel, W.; Woeniger, T.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Grabosch, H. J.; Leich, A.; Meyer, A.; Rethfeldt, C.; Schlenstedt, S.; Casalbuoni, R.; De Curtis, S.; Dominici, D.; Francescato, A.; Nuti, M.; Pelfer, P.; Anzivino, G.; Casaccia, R.; Laakso, I.; De Pasquale, S.; Qian, S.; Votano, L.; Bamberger, A.; Freidhof, A.; Poser, T.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Theisen, G.; Trefzger, T.; Brook, N. H.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Forbes, J. R.; Jamieson, V. A.; Raine, C.; Saxon, D. H.; Gloth, G.; Holm, U.; Kammerlocher, H.; Krebs, B.; Neumann, T.; Wick, K.; Hofmann, A.; Kröger, W.; Krüger, J.; Lohrmann, E.; Milewski, J.; Nakahata, M.; Pavel, N.; Poelz, G.; Salomon, R.; Seidman, A.; Schott, W.; Wiik, B. H.; Zetsche, F.; Bacon, T. C.; Butterworth, I.; Markou, C.; McQuillan, D.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Prinias, A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Bienz, T.; Kreutzmann, H.; Mallik, U.; McCliment, E.; Roco, M.; Wang, M. Z.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Chen, L.; Imlay, R.; Kartik, S.; Kim, H.-J.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W.; Cases, G.; Hervás, L.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Roldán, J.; Terrón, J.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Ikraiam, F.; Mayer, J. K.; Smith, G. R.; Corriveau, F.; Gilkinson, D. J.; Hanna, D. S.; Hung, L. W.; Mitchell, J. W.; Patel, P. M.; Sinclair, L. E.; Stairs, D. G.; Ullmann, R.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Ermolov, P. F.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kuznetsov, E. N.; Savin, A. A.; Voronin, A. G.; Zotov, N. P.; Bentvelsen, S.; Dake, A.; Engelen, J.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S.; de Kamps, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kruse, A.; van der Lugt, H.; O'Dell, V.; Straver, J.; Tenner, A.; Tiecke, H.; Uijterwaal, H.; Vermeulen, J.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; van Woudenberg, R.; Yoshida, R.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Li, C.; Ling, T. Y.; McLean, K. W.; Murray, W. N.; Park, S. K.; Romanowski, T. A.; Seidlein, R.; Blair, G. A.; Butterworth, J. M.; Byrne, A.; Cashmore, R. J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hallam-Baker, P. M.; Harnew, N.; Khatri, T.; Long, K. R.; Luffman, P.; McArthur, I.; Morawitz, P.; Nash, J.; Smith, S. J. P.; Roocroft, N. C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abbiendi, G.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; De Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Fanin, C.; Gasparini, F.; Limentani, S.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Lim, J. N.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J.; Bonori, M.; Contino, U.; D'Agostini, G.; Guida, M.; Iori, M.; Mari, S.; Marini, G.; Mattioli, M.; Monaldi, D.; Nigro, A.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Shah, T. P.; Short, T. L.; Barberis, E.; Cartiglia, N.; Heusch, C.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; Ng, J. S. T.; O'Shaughnessy, K.; Sadrozinski, H. F.; Seiden, A.; Badura, E.; Biltzinger, J.; Chaves, H.; Rost, M.; Seifert, R. J.; Walenta, A. H.; Weihs, W.; Zech, G.; Dagan, S.; Heifetz, R.; Levy, A.; Zer-Zion, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishii, T.; Kasai, S.; Kuze, M.; Nagasawa, Y.; Nakao, M.; Okuno, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Watanabe, T.; Yamada, S.; Chiba, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Kitamura, S.; Nagayama, S.; Nakamitsu, Y.; Arneodo, M.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Lamberti, L.; Maselli, S.; Peroni, C.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Dardo, M.; Bailey, D. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Benard, F.; Bhadra, S.; Brkic, M.; Burow, B. D.; Chlebana, F. S.; Crombie, M. B.; Hartner, G. F.; Levman, G. M.; Martin, J. F.; Orr, R. S.; Prentice, J. D.; Sampson, C. R.; Stairs, G. G.; Teuscher, R. J.; Yoon, T.-S.; Bullock, F. W.; Catterall, C. D.; Giddings, J. C.; Jones, T. W.; Khan, A. M.; Lane, J. B.; Makkar, P. L.; Shaw, D.; Shulman, J.; Blankenship, K.; Kochocki, J.; Lu, B.; Mo, L. W.; Charchuła, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gajewski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kasprzak, M.; Krzyżanowski, M.; Muchorowski, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Stojda, K.; Stopczyński, A.; Szwed, R.; Tymieniecka, T.; Walczak, R.; Wróblewski, A. K.; Zakrzewski, J. A.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Eisenberg, Y.; Glasman, C.; Karshon, U.; Montag, A.; Revel, D.; Ronat, E. E.; Shapira, A.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Camerini, U.; Dasu, S.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Lomperski, M.; Loveless, R. J.; Nylander, P.; Ptacek, M.; Reeder, D. D.; Smith, W. H.; Silverstein, S.; Frisken, W. R.; Furutani, K. M.; Iga, Y.; ZEUS Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    The total photoproduction cross section is determined from a measurement of electroproduction with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The Q2 values of the virtual photons are in the range 10 -7< Q2<2×10 -2 GeV 2. The γp total cross section in the γp centre of mass energy range 186-233 GeV is 154 ± 16 (stat.) ± 32 (syst.) μb.

  13. Properties of prompt muons produced by 28 GeV proton interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.M.; Lai, K.W.; Larsen, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    Prompt dimuon production from the interactions of 28.5 GeV protons with nuclear targets. The dimuon differential cross section dsigma/dx and the prompt muon to pion ratio are equal within errors to that found at an incident proton beam energy of 400 GeV. The atomic number dependence is found to be the same as that of the total proton nucleon cross section. The dimuon invariant mass distribution is presented. 13 references

  14. The first fermi-lat catalog of sources above 10 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bernieri, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Campana, R.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kawano, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Massaro, E.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orienti, M.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Łukasz; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.

    2013-11-14

    We present a catalog of gamma-ray sources at energies above 10 GeV based on data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) accumulated during the first three years of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of >10GeV sources (1FHL) has 514 sources. For each source we present location, spectrum, a measure of variability, and associations with cataloged sources at other wavelengths. We found that 449 (87%) could be associated with known sources, of which 393 (76% of the 1FHL sources) are active galactic nuclei. Of the 27 sources associated with known pulsars, we find 20 (12) to have significant pulsations in the range >10GeV (>25GeV). In this work we also report that, at energies above 10 GeV, unresolved sources account for 27+/-8 % of the isotropic gamma-ray background, while the unresolved Galactic population contributes only at the few percent level to the Galactic diffuse background. We also highlight the subset of the 1FHL sources that are best candidates for detection at energies above 50-100 GeV with current and future ground-based gamma-ray observatories.

  15. Messung der Myonpaarproduktion im Prozess e+ e- --> mu+ mu- (gamma) bei Schwerpunktsenergien von 89 GeV bis 183 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Siedenburg, Thorsten

    2000-01-01

    Presented are the total cross-sections and forward-backward-asymmetries of the reaction at center of mass energies between 89 GeV and 183 GeV at the LEP-accelerator measured with the L3-Detector from 1995 to 1997. These data include measurements from LEP I on the Z-resonance and from LEP II above the W-pairproduction-threshhold. The myonselection acceptance was increased from polar angles above up to Compared to previous measurements, uncertainties are reduced regarding the assumption of lepton-universality and the determination of the Z-mass and width: Fitting the myonpair-data using a parametrisation in effective coupling constants and yields = (91.196Þ0.013) GeV and = (2.497Þ0.021) GeV. Additionally the Z-mass is determined using the S-matrix-parametrisation without restrictions on the -Z interference term. Adding LEP II data to the LEP I results halves the error on the Z-mass. The results presented in this thesis are obtained by using the FB myonchambersystem - installed before 1995 LEP running - to its...

  16. Changing the PEP-II Center-of-Mass Energy Down to 10 GeV and up to 11 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.

    2009-01-01

    PEP-II, the SLAC, LBNL, LLNL B-Factory was designed and optimized to run at the Upsilon 4S resonance (10.580 GeV with an 8.973 GeV e- beam and a 3.119 GeV e+ beam). The interaction region (IR) used permanent magnet dipoles to bring the beams into a head-on collision. The first focusing element for both beams was also a permanent magnet. The IR geometry, masking, beam orbits and beam pipe apertures were designed for 4S running. Even though PEP-II was optimized for the 4S, we successfully changed the center-of-mass energy (E cm ) down to the Upsilon 2S resonance and completed an E cm scan from the 4S resonance up to 11.2 GeV. The luminosity throughout most of these changes remained near 1 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . The E cm was changed by moving the energy of the high-energy beam (HEB). The beam energy differed by more than 20% which produced significantly different running conditions for the RF system. The energy loss per turn changed 2.5 times over this range. We describe how the beam energy was changed and discuss some of the consequences for the beam orbit in the interaction region. We also describe some of the RF issues that arose and how we solved them as the high-current HEB energy changed

  17. P-barp and pp elastic scattering from 10 GeV to 1000 GeV centre-of-mass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.M.; Fearnley, T.; Guillaud, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering are studied simultaneously over the energy range √s approx. (10-1000) GeV in a nucleon valence core model proposed earlier. The scattering is described as primarily due to two processes: diffraction and hard scattering. The latter originates from the scattering of a nucleon core off another core. Destructive interference between the two processes produces dips in p-barp and pp differential cross-sections. As energy increases beyond the ISR range (√s = (23-62) GeV), the dips get filled up, and eventually transform into shoulders or breaks at collider energies. Differences between p-barp and pp differential cross-sections persist even at collider energies. Comparison with ISR data shows that the model provides a quantitative description of pp elastic scattering in this energy range. Predictions of p-barp and pp differential cross-sections at future collider energies √s = 800 and 2000 GeV are given. In order to distinguish between competing models, need for measuring the p-barp differential cross-section at the ISR and SPS collider in the abs (t)-range (0.5-2.0) (GeV) 2 is stressed

  18. The crustal thickness of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Studying Angular Distribution of Neutron for (p,n) Reaction from 0.5 GeV to 1.5 GeV on some Heavy Targets 238U, 206Pb, 197Au, 186W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Giao; Tran Thanh Dung; Nguyen Thi Ai Thu; Huynh Thi Xuan Tham

    2010-08-01

    The angular distributions of neutron are calculated for a spallation reaction induced by proton energy from 0.5 GeV to 1.5 GeV on target nuclei 206 Pb, 197 Au, 238 U, 186 W. In this report, we use nuclear data of JENDL-HE with evaluated proton induced cross-sections up to 3 GeV. The obtained results have been discussed in detail. (author)

  20. Thickly Syndetical Sensitivity of Topological Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider the surjective continuous map f:X→X, where X is a compact metric space. In this paper we give several stronger versions of sensitivity, such as thick sensitivity, syndetic sensitivity, thickly syndetic sensitivity, and strong sensitivity. We establish the following. (1 If (X,f is minimal and sensitive, then (X,f is syndetically sensitive. (2 Weak mixing implies thick sensitivity. (3 If (X,f is minimal and weakly mixing, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. (4 If (X,f is a nonminimal M-system, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. Devaney chaos implies thickly periodic sensitivity. (5 We give a syndetically sensitive system which is not thickly sensitive. (6 We give thickly syndetically sensitive examples but not cofinitely sensitive ones.

  1. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  2. Non-contact radiation thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, T.; Okino, T.

    1983-01-01

    A noncontact thickness gauge system for measuring the thickness of a material comprising a source of radiation, a detector for detecting the amount of radiation transmitted through the material which is a function of the absorptance and thickness of the material, a memory for storing the output signals of the detector and curve-defining parameters for a plurality of quadratic calibration curves which correspond to respective thickness ranges, and a processor for processing the signals and curve defining parameters to determine the thickness of the material. Measurements are made after precalibration to obtain calibration curves and these are stored in the memory, providing signals representative of a nominal thickness and an alloy compensation coefficient for the material. The calibration curve corresponding to a particular thickness range is selected and the curve compensated for drift; the material is inserted into the radiation path and the detector output signal processed with the compensated calibration curve to determine the thickness of the material. (author)

  3. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the conductivity of an infinitely thick slab of sea ice. Ice thickness, Hice, is then obtained by subtracting the height of the ...Thickness Survey of Sea Ice Runway” ERDC/CRREL SR-16-4 ii Abstract We conducted an autonomous survey of sea -ice thickness using the Polar rover Yeti...efficiency relative to manual surveys routinely con- ducted to assess the safety of roads and runways constructed on the sea ice. Yeti executed the

  4. Sulphur dissociation in nuclear emulsion at 3.7 and 200A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Nadi, M.; Abdelsalam, A.; Shaat, E.A.; Abou Moussa, Z. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Hussien, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Fayoum Branch, Fayoum (Egypt); Ali-Mossa, N. [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Engineering, Banha Branch, Zagazig University, Banha (Egypt); Kamel, S.; Hafiz, M.E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Waged, K.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Banha (Egypt)

    2002-02-01

    In this work, the electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) of sulphur projectile induced by two widely differing energies in nuclear emulsions is investigated. Although the percentages of EMD events of the total numbers of studied interactions are relatively small, i.e. 5.7 and 14.4% for 3.7 and 200A GeV interactions respectively, one could extract some results out of them. The emission of a proton through the {sup 32}S({gamma}, p){sup 31}P channel is found to be a dominant process (43.8%) at 200A GeV whereas the single alpha emission through the {sup 32}S({gamma}, {alpha}){sup 28}Si channel is the dominant one (34.0%) at 3.7A GeV. Multiplicity distributions of hydrogen and helium isotopes as well as the measured probabilities for the different modes of fragmentation are studied. The comparison of the present results, from electromagnetic and peripheral nuclear interactions, indicates the effective role of the different reaction mechanisms at ultra-relativistic energy (200A GeV). The experimental inclusive cross sections of different fragmentation modes produced in the EMD of {sup 32}S ions at 200A GeV were found to be in satisfactory agreement with the predictions of the combined approach of Pshenichnov et al. (author)

  5. Inclusive prompt muon and dimuon production by 28.5 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grannan, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    The inclusive production of single prompt muons and muon pairs from the interaction of 28.5 GeV protons with nuclear targets has been investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ratio of single prompt muons to mesons produced in the fragmentation region was compared with data at 400 GeV and found to be independent of the proton energy. The dimuon differential cross section dsigma/dx was observed to be equal within errors to that observed at 150 GeV and 400 GeV incident proton energies. The average invariant mass of the dimuons increased with x to a mean mass of about 700 MeV/c 2 at x = 0.56. Measurements of the intensity of muon pairs generated in Wolfram, iron, and carbon targets established the A-dependence of the production. The dimuon production was found to vary with the target nucleous as A/sup 2/3/ in an x-region where meson production varies as A 0 54 . A high resolution measurement of the low mass dimuon spectrum yielded a continuum similar to that observed at 150 GeV, demonstrating the scaling of the differential cross section dsigma/dxdM in dimuon production

  6. Search for Higgs Bosons in $e^{+} e^{-}$ Collisions at 183 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hoch, M.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    The data collected by the OPAL experiment at sqrts=183 GeV were used to search for Higgs bosons which are predicted by the Standard Model and various extensions, such as general models with two Higgs field doublets and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of approximately 54pb-1. None of the searches for neutral and charged Higgs bosons have revealed an excess of events beyond the expected background. This negative outcome, in combination with similar results from searches at lower energies, leads to new limits for the Higgs boson masses and other model parameters. In particular, the 95% confidence level lower limit for the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson is 88.3 GeV. Charged Higgs bosons can be excluded for masses up to 59.5 GeV. In the MSSM, mh > 70.5 GeV and mA > 72.0 GeV are obtained for tan{beta}>1, no and maximal scalar top mixing and soft SUSY-breaking masses of 1 TeV. The range 0.8 < tanb < 1.9 is excluded for minimal scalar top...

  7. Search for a massive diphoton resonance at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 91-172 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1998-01-01

    A search for the resonant production of high mass photon pairs associated with a leptonic or hadronic system has been performed using a total data sample of 25.7 pb^-1 taken at centre-of-mass energies between 130 GeV and 172 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The observed number of events is consistent with the expected number from Standard Model processes. The observed candidates are combined with search results from sqrt{s} ~ M_Z to place limits on Br(H^0 -> gamma gamma) within the Standard Model for Higgs boson masses up to 77 GeV, and on the production cross section of any scalar resonance decaying into di-photons. Upper limits on Br(H^0 -> gamma gamma) x sigma(e^+e^- -> H^0 Z^0) of 290 - 830 fb are obtained over 40 < M_H < 160 GeV. Type-I two-Higgs-doublet scalars which couple only to gauge bosons are ruled out up to a mass of 76.5 GeV at the 95% confidence level.

  8. Fragment emission in reactions of 18.5-GeV 12C ions with complex nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porile, N.T.; Cole, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    The emission of fragments ranging from 24 Na to 52 Mn in reactions of 18.5 GeV 12 C ions with Cu, Ag, Gd, Ta, Au, and U targets has been studied by means of activation techniques. The experiments involved determination of the fragment production cross sections and thick-target recoil properties. The latter were used to obtain mean fragment kinetic energies and values of β/sub parallel to/, the forward velocity component of the struck nucleus (in units of c). The results are compared with similar data for incident protons of the same total kinetic energy. The data may be used to assess the importance of central collisions in fragment production. Such collisions lead to the near total destruction of both interacting nuclei and the resulting fragments are emitted by a system of intermediate rapidity. In such a process, the factorization hypothesis, which has been shown to be valid for target and projectile fragmentation reactions, should not be obeyed. A test for factorization is performed by means of a relation which states that the ratio of the cross sections for producing fragment /sup A/Z in 12 C reactions to that for producing the same fragment in proton reactions with the same target is unity, provided both cross sections are reduced by the values of the corresponding total reaction cross sections sigma/sub R/, and evaluated for the same total kinetic energy of the projectile. The results of this comparison for the targets studied are presented and discussed

  9. Prototyping and tests for an MRPC-based time-of-flight detector for 1 GeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Aumann, T. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bemmerer, D., E-mail: d.bemmerer@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Boretzky, K. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Caesar, C. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Ciobanu, M. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Cowan, T.; Elekes, Z. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Elvers, M. [Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Gonzalez Diaz, D. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Hannaske, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Hehner, J.; Heil, M. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Kempe, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Maroussov, V. [Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Nusair, O. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Al Balqa' Applied University, Salt (Jordan); Simon, H. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Sobiella, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); and others

    2011-10-21

    The NeuLAND detector at the R{sup 3}B experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt aims to detect fast neutrons (0.2-1.0 GeV) with high time and spatial resolutions ({sigma}{sub t}<100ps,{sigma}{sub x,y,z}<1cm). This task can be performed either with a scintillator or based on the multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) technology. Here, prototyping and test for an MRPC-based solution are discussed. In order to reach 90% detection efficiency, the final detector must consist of 50 consecutive MRPC stacks. Each stack contains a 4 mm thick anode made of iron converter material, with an additional 4 mm of converter material between two stacks. The secondary charged particles stemming from hadronic interactions of the high energetic neutrons in the converter will be detected in the MRPCs. As part of the ongoing development effort, a number of prototypes for this detector have been developed and built. They have been tested in experiments with a single-electron beam with picosecond resolution at the superconducting linac ELBE (Dresden, Germany). The results of the tests are presented here, and an outlook is given.

  10. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  11. Macular thickness and volume in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Forshaw, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    manifests in the macula of the elderly focusing on clinical relevant measures that are thicknesses and volumes of different macular areas. Ageing seems to increase center point foveal thickness. Ageing does not seem to change the center subfield thickness significantly. Ageing decreases the inner and outer...

  12. Transmutation of 129I and 237Np using spallation neutrons produced by 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, M.; Schmidt, Th.; Wan, J.-S.

    1999-01-01

    Small samples of approximately 1 g of 129 I and 237 Np, two long-lived radioactive waste nuclides, were exposed to spallation neutron fluences from relatively small metal targets of lead or uranium, surrounded with a paraffin moderator 6 cm thick irradiated with 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons. The (n, γ) transmutation rates have been determined for the two radioactive waste nuclides. Conventional radiochemical La and U sensors and a variety of solid-state nuclear track detectors were irradiated simultaneously with secondary neutrons. The observed secondary neutron fluences appear to be systematically larger, as compared to the calculations with the well-known cascade codes (LAHET from Los Alamos and DCM-CEM from Dubna)

  13. Transmutation of 129I and 237Np using spallation neutrons produced by 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, J.-S.; Schmidt, T.Th.; Langrock, E.-J.; Vater, P.; Brandt, R.; Adam, J.; Bradnova, V.; Bamblevski, V.P.; Gelovani, L.; Gridnev, T.D.; Kalinnikov, V.G.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Kulakov, B.A.; Sosnin, A.N.; Perelygin, V.P.; Pronskikh, V.S.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Modolo, G.; Odoj, R.; Phlippen, P.-W.; Zamani-Valassiadou, M.; Adloff, J.C.; Debeauvais, M.; Hashemi-Nezhad, S.R.; Guo, S.-L.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.-L.; Dwivedi, K.K.; Zhuk, I.V.; Boulyga, S.F.; Lomonossova, E.M.; Kievitskaja, A.F.; Rakhno, I.L.; Chigrinov, S.E.; Wilson, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Small samples of 129 I and 237 Np, two long-lived radwaste nuclides, were exposed to spallation neutron fluences from relatively small metal targets of lead and uranium, that were surrounded with a 6 cm thick paraffin moderator, and irradiated with 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons. The (n,γ) transmutation rates were determined for these nuclides. Conventional radiochemical La- and U-sensors and a variety of solid-state nuclear track detectors were irradiated simultaneously with secondary neutrons. Compared with results from calculations with well-known cascade codes (LAHET from Los Alamos and DCM/CEM from Dubna), the observed secondary neutron fluences are larger

  14. Transmutation of {sup 129}I and {sup 237}Np using spallation neutrons produced by 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, J.-S.; Schmidt, T.Th.; Langrock, E.-J.; Vater, P.; Brandt, R. E-mail: brandtr@mailer.uni-marburg.de; Adam, J.; Bradnova, V.; Bamblevski, V.P.; Gelovani, L.; Gridnev, T.D.; Kalinnikov, V.G.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Kulakov, B.A.; Sosnin, A.N.; Perelygin, V.P.; Pronskikh, V.S.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Modolo, G.; Odoj, R.; Phlippen, P.-W.; Zamani-Valassiadou, M.; Adloff, J.C.; Debeauvais, M.; Hashemi-Nezhad, S.R.; Guo, S.-L.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.-L.; Dwivedi, K.K.; Zhuk, I.V.; Boulyga, S.F.; Lomonossova, E.M.; Kievitskaja, A.F.; Rakhno, I.L.; Chigrinov, S.E.; Wilson, W.B

    2001-05-11

    Small samples of {sup 129}I and {sup 237}Np, two long-lived radwaste nuclides, were exposed to spallation neutron fluences from relatively small metal targets of lead and uranium, that were surrounded with a 6 cm thick paraffin moderator, and irradiated with 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons. The (n,{gamma}) transmutation rates were determined for these nuclides. Conventional radiochemical La- and U-sensors and a variety of solid-state nuclear track detectors were irradiated simultaneously with secondary neutrons. Compared with results from calculations with well-known cascade codes (LAHET from Los Alamos and DCM/CEM from Dubna), the observed secondary neutron fluences are larger.

  15. Transmutation of 129I and 237Np using spallation neutrons produced by 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.-S.; Schmidt, Th.; Langrock, E.-J.; Vater, P.; Brandt, R.; Adam, J.; Bradnova, V.; Bamblevski, V. P.; Gelovani, L.; Gridnev, T. D.; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Kulakov, B. A.; Sosnin, A. N.; Perelygin, V. P.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Modolo, G.; Odoj, R.; Phlippen, P.-W.; Zamani-Valassiadou, M.; Adloff, J. C.; Debeauvais, M.; Hashemi-Nezhad, S. R.; Guo, S.-L.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.-L.; Dwivedi, K. K.; Zhuk, I. V.; Boulyga, S. F.; Lomonossova, E. M.; Kievitskaja, A. F.; Rakhno, I. L.; Chigrinov, S. E.; Wilson, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    Small samples of 129I and 237Np, two long-lived radwaste nuclides, were exposed to spallation neutron fluences from relatively small metal targets of lead and uranium, that were surrounded with a 6 cm thick paraffin moderator, and irradiated with 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons. The (n,γ) transmutation rates were determined for these nuclides. Conventional radiochemical La- and U-sensors and a variety of solid-state nuclear track detectors were irradiated simultaneously with secondary neutrons. Compared with results from calculations with well-known cascade codes (LAHET from Los Alamos and DCM/CEM from Dubna), the observed secondary neutron fluences are larger.

  16. Suppression of back-to-back hadron pairs at forward rapidity in d+Au collisions at √s(NN)=200 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, Y-J; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2011-10-21

    Back-to-back hadron pair yields in d+Au and p+p collisions at √s(NN)=200 GeV were measured with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Rapidity separated hadron pairs were detected with the trigger hadron at pseudorapidity |η|back-to-back hadron pairs in d+Au collisions with small impact parameters is observed to be suppressed by a factor of 10 relative to p+p collisions. The kinematics of these pairs is expected to probe partons in the Au nucleus with a low fraction x of the nucleon momenta, where the gluon densities rise sharply. The observed suppression as a function of nuclear thickness, p(T), and η points to cold nuclear matter effects arising at high parton densities. © 2011 American Physical Society

  17. Improvements on monitor system in the KEK 2.5-GeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidara, T.; Oogoe, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements to the monitor system of the KEK 2.5-GeV linac have been undertaken. Energy analyzing stations were added to both the positron generator linac and the 2.5-GeV electron linac in order to realize easier checking of beam energy. Wall current monitors and profile monitors were added in the beam transport line between the positron generator linac and the 2.5-GeV electron linac in order to realize easier positron-beam transfer. As a result of the installation of an automatic beam-current-surveillance system and with other existing surveillance systems, more reliable and easier operation of the linac is expected. (author)

  18. 5-10 GeV neutrinos from gamma-Ray burst fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall; Meszaros

    2000-08-14

    A gamma-ray burst fireball is likely to contain an admixture of neutrons. Inelastic collisions between differentially streaming protons and neutrons in the fireball produce nu(&mgr;) (nu;(&mgr;)) of approximately 10 GeV as well as nu(e) (nu;(e)) of approximately 5 GeV, which could produce approximately 7 events/year in km(3) detectors, if the neutron abundance is comparable to that of protons. Photons of approximately 10 GeV from pi(0) decay and approximately 100 MeV nu;(e) from neutron decay are also produced, but will be difficult to detect. Photons with energies less, similar1 MeV from shocks following neutron decay produce a characteristic signal which may be distinguishable from the proton-related MeV photons.

  19. Evidence for weakly new hadrons in e+e- collisions above 4 GeV cms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Martyn, H.U.; Sander, H.G.; Schmitz, D.; Sturm, W.; Wallraff, W.; Cords, D.; Felst, R.; Fries, R.; Gadermann, E.

    1976-07-01

    Single electrons produced with hadrons in e + e - collisions at cms energies of 4.0 to 4.2 GeV have been observed at DORIS using the double arm spectrometer DASP. The measured electron spectrum peaks at low momentum and the associated hadron multiplicity is high. These experimental results are consistent with the electromagnetic production and weak decay of a hadron with a new quantum number that is conserved by the strong and electromganetic interaction. The electron yield at 3.7 GeV (the PSI' resonance) and at lower energies was found to be consistent with the estimated background, indicating that the production threshold lies between 3.7 and 4.0 GeV. (orig.) [de

  20. MSSM with mh = 125 GeV in high-scale gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Sibo

    2014-01-01

    After the discovery of an SM-like Higgs with m h = 125 GeV, it is increasingly urgent to explore a solution to the hierarchy problem. In the context of MSSM from gauge-mediated SUSY breaking, the lower bound on the gluino mass suggests that the messenger scale M is probably large if the magnitude of Λ ∝ 100 TeV. In this paper, we study the 5 + 5 model with M ∝ 10 8 -10 12 GeV and Λ ≅ 100 TeV. For moderate Higgs C messenger coupling, a viable model will be shown with moderate fine tuning. In this model, μ ∝ 800 GeV, and B μ nearly vanishes at the input scale, which can be constructed in a microscopic model. (orig.)

  1. Status and schedule of J-PARC 50 GeV synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogoe, Takao; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Yasunori; Shirakata, Masashi; Shirakabe, Yoshihisa; Kuniyasu, Yuu; Oki, Hiroshi; Takiyama, Youichi

    2005-01-01

    Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is the research complex based on three high intensity proton Accelerators: a linac, a 3 GeV synchrotron (RCS), and a 50 GeV synchrotron (MR). The construction of the MR started in 2002, and its beam commissioning is scheduled in January of 2008. The accelerator tunnel of the J-PARC 50 GeV Synchrotron is still under construction, and will be completed at the end of 2006. Installation of accelerator-components is scheduled to start in July 2005 in parallel with civil and utility construction. This document describes how to install accelerator components in the tunnel and civil engineering of the tunnel. (author)

  2. Conceptual design of the Argonne 6-GeV synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.; Khoe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory Synchrotron Light Source Storage Ring is designed to have a natural emittance of 6.5 x 10 -9 m for circulating 6-GeV positrons. Thirty of the 32 long straight sections, each 6.5-m long, will be available for synchrotron light insertion devices. A circulating positron current of 300 mA can be injected in about 8 min. from a booster synchrotron operating with a repetition time of 1.2 sec. The booster synchrotron will contain two different RF systems. The lower frequency system (38.97 MHz) will accept positrons from a 360-MeV linac and will accelerate them to 2.25 GeV. The higher frequency system (350.76 MHz) will accelerate the positrons to 6 GeV. The positrons will be produced from a 300-MeV electron beam on a tungsten target. A conceptual layout is shown

  3. The hexatron, a six-sided 4-GeV 300-μA CW microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.; Crosbie, E.A.; Foss, M.

    1984-01-01

    The use of microtron accelerators to provide intense CW beams of electrons with energies in the 1-5 GeV range is discussed. Principles of operation are reviewed and a design is presented for a six-sided hexagonal microtron, a Hexatron, which is capable of furnishing 300 μA of electrons in 3 extracted beams whose energies can be varied individually from injection energy to 4.0 GeV. Results of prototype studies of the hexatron sector magnets are discussed. Two configurations of beam optics, are shown to provide good beam containment. Options for operating the Hexatron at energies above 4 GeV are also discussed. (author)

  4. Conceptual design of the Argonne 6-GeV synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.; Khoe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory Synchrotron Light Source Storage Ring is designed to have a natural emittance of 6.5 X 10 -9 m for circulating 6-GeV positrons. Thirty of the 32 long straight sections, each 6.5-m long, will be available for synchrotron light insertion devices. A circulating positron current of 300 mA can be injected in about 8 min. from a booster synchrotron operating with a repetition time of 1.2 sec. The booster synchrotron will contain two different rf systems. The lower frequency system (38.97 MHz) will accept positrons from a 360-MeV linac and will accelerate them to 2.25 GeV. The higher frequency system (350.76 MHz) will accelerate the positrons to 6 GeV. The positrons will be produced from a 300-MeV electron beam on a tungsten target

  5. Processing high-Tc superconductors with GeV heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwick, A.D.; Civale, L.; Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Worthington, T.K.; Holtzberg, F.; Thompson, J.R.; Sun, Y.R.; Kerchner, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation of high-T c superconducting crystals with low doses (10 10 --10 11 ions/cm 2 ) of GeV heavy ions (0.58 GeV Sn-116; 1.0-GeV Au-197) produces a unique microstructure consisting of discrete amorphous columns which are only a few nm in diameter but tens of microns long. It has been found recently that this columnar microstructure causes larger increases in magnetization and critical current at high temperature and high magnetic field than other types of defects in these materials. This can be understood as a consequence of the effective pinning of magnetic vortex lines provided by the columnar defects. Measurements confirm that the pinning is strongest when the magnetic field is aligned with the ion tracks. Differences in the pinning in different materials can be related to differences in their anisotropy, which affects the structure of the vortices and their pinning at columnar defects

  6. Study of Z Pair Production and Anomalous Couplings in $e^+ e^-$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ between 190 GeV and 209 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2003-01-01

    A study of Z-boson pair production in e+e- annihilation at center-of-mass energies between 190 GeV and 209 GeV is reported. Final states containing only leptons, (l+l-l+l- and l+l-nn), quark and lepton pairs, (qql+l-, qqnn) and only hadrons (qqqq) are considered. In all states with at least one Z boson decaying hadronically, lifetime, lepton and event-shape tags are used to separate bb pairs from qq final state. Limits on anomalous ZZgamma and ZZZ couplings are derived from the measured cross sections and from event kinematics using an optimal observable method. Limits on low scale gravity with large dimensions are derived from the cross sections and their dependence on polar angle.

  7. Observation of a resonance at 4.4 GeV and additional structure near 4.1 GeV in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, J.; Abrams, G.S.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.; Chinowsky, W.; Feldman, G.J.; Friedberg, C.E.; Fryberger, D.; Goldhaber, G.; Hanson, G.; Hartill, D.L.; Jaros, J.; Jean-Marie, B.; Kadyk, J.A.; Larsen, R.R.; Luke, D.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H.L.; Madaras, R.; Morehouse, C.C.; Nguyen, H.K.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Peruzzi, I.; Pierre, F.M.; Piccolo, M.; Pun, T.P.; Rapidis, P.; Richter, B.; Sadoulet, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Tanenbaum, W.; Trilling, G.H.; Vannucci, F.; Whitaker, J.S.; Winkelman, F.C.; Wiss, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    We observe a resonancelike structure in the total cross section for hadron production by e + e - colliding beams at a mass of 4414 +- 7 MeV having a total width GAMMA = 33 +- 10 MeV. From the area under this resonance, we deduce the partial width to electron pairs to be GAMMA/sub ee/ = 440 +- 140 eV. Further structure of comparable width is present near 4.1 GeV

  8. Intelligent processing for thick composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daniel Dong-Ok

    2000-10-01

    Manufacturing thick composite parts are associated with adverse curing conditions such as large in-plane temperature gradient and exotherms. The condition is further aggravated because the manufacturer's cycle and the existing cure control systems do not adequately counter such affects. In response, the forecast-based thermal control system is developed to have better cure control for thick composites. Accurate cure kinetic model is crucial for correctly identifying the amount of heat generated for composite process simulation. A new technique for identifying cure parameters for Hercules AS4/3502 prepreg is presented by normalizing the DSC data. The cure kinetics is based on an autocatalytic model for the proposed method, which uses dynamic and isothermal DSC data to determine its parameters. Existing models are also used to determine kinetic parameters but rendered inadequate because of the material's temperature dependent final degree of cure. The model predictions determined from the new technique showed good agreement to both isothermal and dynamic DSC data. The final degree of cure was also in good agreement with experimental data. A realistic cure simulation model including bleeder ply analysis and compaction is validated with Hercules AS4/3501-6 based laminates. The nonsymmetrical temperature distribution resulting from the presence of bleeder plies agreed well to the model prediction. Some of the discrepancies in the predicted compaction behavior were attributed to inaccurate viscosity and permeability models. The temperature prediction was quite good for the 3cm laminate. The validated process simulation model along with cure kinetics model for AS4/3502 prepreg were integrated into the thermal control system. The 3cm Hercules AS4/3501-6 and AS4/3502 laminate were fabricated. The resulting cure cycles satisfied all imposed requirements by minimizing exotherms and temperature gradient. Although the duration of the cure cycles increased, such phenomena was

  9. The merging of the Intersecting Storage Rings for a 60 GeV collider with the 400 GeV proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Following the recommendation of the Workshop on Future ISR Physics, 1976, a study has been made of using the existing ISR (Intersecting Storage Rings) equipment at CERN to build a single 60 GeV storage ring (Merged ISR) for beam collision with the 400 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). At a minimum cost of 103 MSF, a single-intersection physics facility with a 3.55 0 crossing angle, a luminosity of 1.2 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and a centre-of-mass energy of 255 GeV could be built. For a further 7 MSF, the luminosity could be easily raised to 3.8 10 30 cm -2 s -1 . Alternatively, the MISR can be built to give a single, zero-angle crossing with a luminosity of 1.1 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . The last solution is not recommended, however, as the free space around the intersection is extremely limited and the facility becomes very specialized in the type of physics experiments which could be performed. In all cases, the project could be completed in three years and two months with a 9 1/2-month shutdown for the SPS and 18 months between the closing down of the ISR and the start-up of MISR. (Auth.)

  10. anti pp and pp elastic scattering from 10 GeV to 1000 GeV centre-of-mass energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M. (Connecticut Univ., Storrs (USA). Dept. of Physics); Fearnley, T. (University Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Guillaud, J.P. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules)

    1984-06-21

    Antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering are studied simultaneously over the energy range ..sqrt..anti s approx.= (10/1000) GeV in a nucleon valence core model proposed earlier. The scattering is described as primarily due to two processes: diffraction and hard scattering. The latter originates from the scattering of a nucleon core off another core. Destructive interference between the two processes produces dips in anti pp and pp differential cross-sections. As energy increases beyond the ISR range (..sqrt..anti s = (23/62) GeV), the dips get filled up, and eventually transform into shoulders or breaks at collider energies. Differences between anti pp and pp differential cross-sections persist even at collider energies. Comparison with ISR data shows that the model provides a quantitative description of pp elastic scattering in this energy range. Predictions of anti pp and pp differential cross-sections at future collider energies ..sqrt..s = 800 and 2000 GeV are given. In order to distinguish between competing models, need for measuring the anti pp differential cross-section at the ISR and SPS collider in the vertical stroketvertical stroke-range (0.5/2.0) (GeV)/sup 2/ is stressed.

  11. Search for supersymmetry in the photon(s) plus missing energy channels at sqrt(s)=161 GeV and 172 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALEPH Collaboration; Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Becker, U.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Lehraus, I.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J. C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Boccali, T.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Cavanaugh, R.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Huehn, T.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Buchmüller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Buck, P. G.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Giehl, I.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Schune, M.-H.; Serin, L.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Foss, J.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R. W.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zobernig, G.

    1998-02-01

    Searches for supersymmetric particles in channels with one or more photons and missing energy have been performed with data collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP. The data consist of 11.1 pb-1 at sqrt(s)=161 GeV, 1.1 pb-1 at 170 GeV and 9.5 pb-1 at 172 GeV. The e+e--->νν¯γ(γ) cross section is measured. The data are in good agreement with predictions based on the Standard Model, and are used to set upper limits on the cross sections for anomalous photon production. These limits are compared to two different SUSY models and used to set limits on the neutralino mass. A limit of 71 GeV/c2 at 95% C.L. is set on the mass of the lightest neutralino (τχ10<= 3 ns) for the gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking and LNZ models. © 1998

  12. P-barp and pp elastic scattering from 10 GeV to 1000 GeV centre-of-mass energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M. (Connecticut Univ., Storrs (USA). Dept. of Physics); Fearnley, T. (University Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Guillaud, J.P. (L.A.P.P. - BP909, 74019 Annecy-Le-Vieux Cedex, France)

    1984-06-21

    Antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering are studied simultaneously over the energy range ..sqrt..s approx. (10-1000) GeV in a nucleon valence core model proposed earlier. The scattering is described as primarily due to two processes: diffraction and hard scattering. The latter originates from the scattering of a nucleon core off another core. Destructive interference between the two processes produces dips in p-barp and pp differential cross-sections. As energy increases beyond the ISR range (..sqrt..s = (23-62) GeV), the dips get filled up, and eventually transform into shoulders or breaks at collider energies. Differences between p-barp and pp differential cross-sections persist even at collider energies. Comparison with ISR data shows that the model provides a quantitative description of pp elastic scattering in this energy range. Predictions of p-barp and pp differential cross-sections at future collider energies ..sqrt..s = 800 and 2000 GeV are given. In order to distinguish between competing models, need for measuring the p-barp differential cross-section at the ISR and SPS collider in the abs (t)-range (0.5-2.0) (GeV)/sup 2/ is stressed.

  13. Higgs Candidates in $e^+ e^-$ Interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$= 206.6 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Baldew, S V; Todorova-Nová, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Kopp, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Lugnier, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Oulianov, A; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Park, H K; Park, I H; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seganti, A; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Sztaricskai, T; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, A; Zilizi, G; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2000-01-01

    In a search for the Standard Model Higgs boson, carried out on 212.5~$\\mathrm{pb^{-1}}$ of data collected by the L3 detector at the highest LEP centre-of-mass energies, including 116.5~$\\mathrm{pb^{-1}}$ above $\\sqrt{s} = 206$~GeV, an excess of candidates for the process $e^+ e^- \\rightarrow Z^{*}\\rightarrow HZ$ is found for Higgs masses near 114.5~GeV. We present an analysis of our data and the characteristics of our strongest candidates.

  14. Straw man 900-1000 GeV crystal extraction test beam for Fermilab collider operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    A design for a 900-1000 GeV, 100 khz parasitic test beam for use during collider operations has been developed. The beam makes use of two bent crystals, one for extraction and the other one for redirecting the beam in to the present Switchyard beam system. The beam requires only a few modifications in the A0 area and largely uses existing devices. It should be straight-forward to modify one or two beam lines in the fixed target experimental areas to work above 800 GeV. Possibilities for improvements to the design,to operate at higher fluxes are discussed

  15. Adsorption/desorption properties of vacuum materials for the 6 GeV synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable attention must be paid to the vacuum and adsorption/desorption properties of all materials installed inside the vacuum envelope if the design goals of the 6 GeV synchrotron are to be met. Unfortunately, the data is very sparse in several key areas. Additionally, some procedures normally associated with good vacuum practice, such as air baking, may prove to be totally unsuitable on the basis of desorption properties. We present here a brief discussion of the adsorption, outgassing, electron-stimulated desorption (ESD), and photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) properties of vacuum materials as they relate to the design of a 6 GeV synchrotron

  16. Measurement of $R_b$ in $e^+ e^-$ Collisions at 182 - 209 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of Rb, the ratio of the bbbar cross-section to the qqbar cross- section in e+e- collisions, are presented. The data were collected by the OPAL experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 182 GeV and 209 GeV. Lepton, lifetime and event shape information is used to tag events containing b quarks with high efficiency. The data are compatible with the Standard Model expectation. The mean ratio of the eight measurements reported here to the Standard Model prediction is 1.055+-0.031+-0.037, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  17. Dipole magnets for the SLAC 50 GeV A-Line upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; DeBarger, S.; Spencer, C.M.; Wolf, Z.

    1995-05-01

    The SLAC A-Line is a transport system originally designed to deliver electron beams of up to 25 GeV to fixed target experiments in End Station A. To raise the beam energy capability of the A-Line to 52 GeV, the eight original bending magnets, plus four more of the same type, have been modified by reducing their gaps and adding trim windings to compensate for energy loss due to synchrotron radiation. In this paper the authors describe the modifications that have been completed, and they compare test and measurement results with predicted performance

  18. 3-dimensional lattice studies of the electroweak phase transition at MHiggs∼ 70 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertler, M.; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Kripfganz, J.

    1996-06-01

    We study the electroweak phase transition by lattice simulations of an effective 3-dimensional theory, for a Higgs mass of about 70 GeV. Exploiting, among others, a variant of the equal weight criterion of phase equilibrium, we obtain transition temperature, latent heat and surface tension, and compare with M H ∼35 GeV. In the broken phase masses and Higgs condensates are compared to perturbation theory. For the symmetric phase, bound state masses and the static force are determined. (orig.)

  19. Interactions of 400 GeV proton with Different target nuclei in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nadi, M.; Abdel-Halim, S.M.; Yasin, M.N.; El-Nagdy, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction characteristics of 400 GeV proton with emulsion nuclei were studied and discussed. The multiplicity distributions of secondary charged particles have been measured for 480 inelastic events and are compared with the results obtained in p-emulsion collisions at different energies. The integral distribution of the number of disintegrated particles from the target nuclei N h are used to separate the number of the inelastic interactions of proton with light (Cno) and heavy (Ag Br) nuclei in the emulsion. The interaction characteristics of proton (400 GeV) with different groups of target nuclei have been investigated

  20. Interactions of 400 GeV protons with different target nuclei in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nadi, M.; Abdel Halim, S.M.; Yasin, M.N.; El-Nagdy, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction characteristics of 400 GeV protons with emulsion nuclei were studied and discussed. The multiplicity distributions of secondary charged particles have been measured for 480 inelastic events and are compared with the results obtained in p-emulsion (P-Em) collisions at different energies. The integral distribution of the number of disintegrated particles from the target nuclei N h is used to separate the number of the inelastic interactions of proton with light (CNO) and heavy (AgBR) nuclei in the emulsion. The interaction characteristics of protons (400 GeV) with different groups of target nuclei have been investigated. (author)

  1. Inclusive Jet Production from Pbar P Collisions at SQRTS=630 GEV in the Cdf Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, Alexander

    1996-05-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of the inclusive jet cross section from pbar p collisions at √ s= 630 GeV, measured using the CDF detector. We compare these results with previous CDF measurements at 546 and 1800 GeV. ^Supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-FG02-91ER-40651. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy; the National Science Foundation; the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy; the Ministry of Science, Culture and Education of Japan; the A.P. Sloan Foundation, and the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung.

  2. The spectrum of protons produced in pp collisions at 31 GeV total energy

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Van der Veen, F

    1973-01-01

    Data are reported on the distributions in longitudinal and transverse momentum of protons produced in the range 0.5GeV c.m. energy at the CERN ISR. The invariant inelastic cross section shows a peak at high longitudinal momenta. The shape of this peak suggests substantial production of states with masses up to at least 7 GeV. (4 refs).

  3. Calculated inclusive neutron production from 400 GeV proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Alsmiller, F.S.; Hermann, O.W.

    1989-08-01

    Calculated inclusive neutron production from 400 GeV proton-nucleus collisions is presented and compared with experimental data. Target nuclei H, Be, Cu, and Pb are considered and the comparisons cover the laboratory energy range of 20 to 400 GeV, and angular range 0.7 to 10 mr. Moderately good agreement between the calculated and experimental data is found, but the agreement in the case of Be, Cu and Pb is significantly better than in the case of H. 8 refs., 4 figs

  4. What can we learn from experiments with 10 GeV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1998-09-01

    I review various opportunities to 'see' the mechanisms of confinement at work: Meson spectroscopy; Off Forward Parton Distributions in electroproduction of mesons; Gluonic content of hadronic matter in photoproduction of vector mesons; Valence quark wave functions in photoproduction of pseudo-scalar mesons and in Compton Scattering; Short range structure of nuclei in photoproduction of charm near threshold. An intense continuous beam of real photons, in the 10 GeV range, and of electrons, in the 30 GeV range, will allow to address most of these issues. (author)

  5. γ astrophysics above 10-30 GeV with the MAGIC telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmick

    1999-01-01

    The project on the 17 m oe telescope, dubbed MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescope), is dedicated for γ astrophysics in the energy range from 10-30 GeV till 50-100 TeV. MAGIC will for the first time allow to explore with very high sensitivity the energy range 10-300 GeV and to bridge the existing energy gap between satellite and ground-based air Cherenkov measurements. We believe MAGIC will serve as a prototype for future multi-telescope γ ray observatories

  6. Three-dimensional primate molar enamel thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Anthony J; Tafforeau, Paul; Feeney, Robin N M; Martin, Lawrence B

    2008-02-01

    Molar enamel thickness has played an important role in the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and dietary assessments of fossil primate teeth for nearly 90 years. Despite the frequency with which enamel thickness is discussed in paleoanthropological discourse, methods used to attain information about enamel thickness are destructive and record information from only a single plane of section. Such semidestructive planar methods limit sample sizes and ignore dimensional data that may be culled from the entire length of a tooth. In light of recently developed techniques to investigate enamel thickness in 3D and the frequent use of enamel thickness in dietary and phylogenetic interpretations of living and fossil primates, the study presented here aims to produce and make available to other researchers a database of 3D enamel thickness measurements of primate molars (n=182 molars). The 3D enamel thickness measurements reported here generally agree with 2D studies. Hominoids show a broad range of relative enamel thicknesses, and cercopithecoids have relatively thicker enamel than ceboids, which in turn have relatively thicker enamel than strepsirrhine primates, on average. Past studies performed using 2D sections appear to have accurately diagnosed the 3D relative enamel thickness condition in great apes and humans: Gorilla has the relatively thinnest enamel, Pan has relatively thinner enamel than Pongo, and Homo has the relatively thickest enamel. Although the data set presented here has some taxonomic gaps, it may serve as a useful reference for researchers investigating enamel thickness in fossil taxa and studies of primate gnathic biology.

  7. Method of working thick beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giezynski, A; Bialasik, A; Krawiec, A; Wylenzek, A

    1981-12-30

    The patented method of working thick coal beds in layers consists of creating in the collapsed rocks or from the fill material a bearing rock plate by strengthening these rocks with a hardening composition made of wastes of raw material, resin and water injected into the rock through wells. The difference in the suggestion is that through boreholes drilled in the lower part of the rock roofing on a previously calculated network, a solution is regularly injected which consists of dust wastes obtained in electric filters during production of clinker from mineral raw material in a quantity of 60-70% by volume, wastes of open-hearth production in a quantity of 15-20% and natural sand in a quantity of 15-20%, and water in a quantity of 35-55% of the volume of mineral components. In the second variant, the injected compostion contains: wastes from production of clinker 55-57%, open-hearth wastes 20-23%, natural sand 12-14%, asbestos fine particles 7-8% and water 38-45% of the volume of mineral components. In addition, the difference is that in the boreholes drilled in the coal block directly under the roofing, a composition is injected which consists of natural sand and catalyst in the form of powder and individually supplied liquid synthetic resin in a quantity of 3-5% by weight in relation to the sand. The hardening time with normal temperature is 1-1.5 h, after which strength is reached of 80 kg-f/cm/sup 2/.

  8. Search for Charged Higgs Bosons in $e^{+} e^{-}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=189-202 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Bellunato, T.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Belous, K.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bol, L.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Bracko, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenner, R.A.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Castillo Gimenez, M.V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Shlyapnikov, P.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Croix, J.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Geralis, T.; Ghodbane, N.; Gil Botella, Ines; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Guz, Yu.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Hernandez, J.J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hertz, O.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovansky, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kuznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kurowska, J.; Lamsa, J.W.; Laugier, J.P.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; Merle, E.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Myagkov, A.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Muller, U.; Munich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.M.; Murray, W.J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Nemecek, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Nygren, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwanda, C.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Yu.; Segar, A.M.; Sekulin, R.; Sette, G.; Shellard, R.C.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Sokolov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassoff, T.; Spiriti, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkachev, L.G.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tortosa, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Den Boeck, W.; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vlasov, E.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zinchenko, A.; Zoller, P.; Zumerle, G.; Zupan, M.

    2002-01-01

    A search for pair-produced charged Higgs bosons was performed in the high energy data collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP II at centre-of-mass energies from 189~GeV to 202~GeV\\@. The three different final states, $\\tau \

  9. Characteristics of the thick, compound refractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, Richard H.; Feinstein, Joseph; Beguiristain, H. Raul; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Cremer, Jay T.

    2003-01-01

    A compound refractive lens (CRL), consisting of a series of N closely spaced lens elements each of which contributes a small fraction of the total focusing, can be used to focus x rays or neutrons. The thickness of a CRL can be comparable to its focal length, whereupon a thick-lens analysis must be performed. In contrast with the conventional optical lens, where the ray inside the lens follows a straight line, the ray inside the CRL is continually changing direction because of the multiple refracting surfaces. Thus the matrix representation for the thick CRL is quite different from that for the thick optical lens. Principal planes can be defined such that the thick-lens matrix can be converted to that of a thin lens. For a thick lens the focal length is greater than for a thin lens with the same lens curvature, but this lengthening effect is less for the CRL than for the conventional optical lens

  10. ATLAS event at 900 GeV - 6 May 2015 - Run 264034 lb 659 event 11526514

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of a proton-proton collision event recorded by ATLAS on 6 May 2015, at 900 GeV collision energy. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as orange arcs curving in the solenoidal magnetic field. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the Liquid Argon and Scintillating Tile calorimeters respectively.

  11. Complete disintegration of heavy nuclei induced by 340 GeV negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Tariq, M.; Irfan, M.; Zafar, M.; Ahsan, M.Z.; Shafi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The total disintegration of AgBr nuclei caused by 340 GeV negative pions is investigated. The probability of this phenomena depends on the energy of the pion projectile. The angular distributions of grey and black tracks are investigated. Results for the rapidity gap correlation in these catastrophic destructions are also presented. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs., 9 figs

  12. Target fragmentation in 1 A GeV Au + Pb reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Grabez, B

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the production of target fragments in interaction of 1 A GeV Au projectile with Pb. The behaviour of the atomic numbers of fragments and of the relative velocities has been examined in dependence of the centrality of collision. The results have been compared with the data of other authors obtained for projectile fragmentation.

  13. Composition of primary cosmic rays near 10/sup 7/GeV from multiple underground muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamasco, L; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1980-01-19

    The results on the rate of parallel penetrating particles at the Mt. Blanc Station (approximately 4300 hg.cm/sup -2/) compared with the predictions of the scaling model are in favour of a mean mass A approximately 10-30 for primary cosmic rays at >=10/sup 7/ GeV.

  14. The planned replacement of a functioning control system on the CERN 28 GEV accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.E.; Daneels, A.; Perriollat, F.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: the accelerators (in the 28 GeV accelerator complex) and the old control system; goals of the new control system; constraints (involved in planning a replacement for the control system); a pilot project; major software issues in the system design; portability; parallelism; transition; conclusion. (U.K.)

  15. Transverse beam containment in the ANL 4-GeV microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.

    1983-01-01

    Optical systems have been designed to contain the electrons during the acceleration from 0.185 to 4.0 GeV. These systems are located in the dispersive straight sections and maintain a matched dispersion-free beam with β* = 15.0 m in the linac centers, and transverse beam waists in the centers of the dispersive straight sections. A thin-lens code has been developed to design the multi-energy system. Three versions of the focussing systems have been evolved: (i) two quadruople triplets for E less than or equal to 1.62 GeV; (ii) a single triplet for 1.655 less than or equal to E 2.215 GeV, and (iii) a pentaquad system for E greater than or equal to 2.250 GeV. For case (i) we step the exit edges for the 60 0 bending magnets so as to simulate a zero degree edge - this reduces vertical defocussing effects to an acceptable value. At the higher energies the exit edge angles are -60 0 . The entrance angles are 15 0 on the linac sides of the dipoles. Energy behavior of the Twiss parameters and quadrupole strengths are presented

  16. The 8-GeV transfer line injection into main ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Included in this report are a brief review of the design lattice of the 8-GeV beam transfer line and the Main Ring, the recent measurements on the 8-GeV line lattice function as well as that of the Main Ring at 8-GeV. The injection matching is a very important part of the MR operation. Mismatches such as energy, timing, or position are easily corrected because they cause oscillations which are visible on the Turn-By-Turn (TBT) TV monitor display. Mis-matches due to beta and dispersion functions are detected only by using the Flying Wire or by doing measurements during beam study. A new method which makes use of the available data from TBT hardware was used to obtain the beam phase space ellipse. Data taken from Main Ring at injection gives the beta function needed for transfer matching from 8-GeV line. The result of this measurement is also presented here

  17. Physics with a high-intensity proton accelerator below 30 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The types of physics that would be pursued at a high-intensity, moderate-energy proton accelerator are discussed. The discussion is drawn from the deliberations of the 30-GeV subgroup of the Fixed-Target Group at this workshop

  18. Production of $D^{\\pm}$ Mesons in $K^+$ Nucleon Collisions at 250 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Motta Filho, Helio [Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    1993-11-01

    The $X_f$, $P^2_t$ and $p_t$ distribution of $D^{\\pm}$ mesons produced by 250 GeV $K^+$-nucleon interactions are measured through the decay channel $D^{\\pm} \\to K^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{\\pm}$....

  19. Ytarget optimization for E93050 experiment. Pt. 1. Q2 = 1 GeV2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaminion, S.; Fonvieille, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Espace y tg optimization that has been performed for experiment E93050 at Q 2 = 1 GeV 2 is summarized. The method and results are presented. The optic Y tensor elements obtained can be used for first pass analysis, although a more refined analysis may need further optimized optic elements. (author)

  20. New results on multi-muon production in 250 GeV μ+ Fe interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, C.H.

    1981-05-01

    Preliminary results on the contribution to the nucleon structure function F 2 from charm particle production are presented. The data consist of dimuon and trimuon events from a high statistics experiment for a beam energy of 250 GeV. Exotic trimuon events have been observed and are compared to predictions from BETABETA and tautau production and decay. (author)

  1. Storage ring design of the 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility (SPring-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, M.; Bc, S.H.; Motonaga, S.

    1990-01-01

    In Japan, RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) have organized a joint design team and started a design study for an 8 GeV synchrotron radiation X-ray source. This paper outlines the status of the design study for the 8 GeV highly brilliant synchrotron radiation X-ray source ring named Super Photon Ring (SPring-8). The facility consists of a main storage ring, a full-energy injector booster synchrotron and a pre-injector 1 GeV linac. The injector linac and synchrotron are laid outside the storage ring because to permit the use of the linac and synchrotron not only as an injector but also as an electron or positron beam source. The purpose of the facility is to provide stable photon beams with high brilliance in the X-ray region. The energy of the stored electrons (positrons) is fixed at 8 GeV to fulfill the required condition using conventional type insertion devices. (N.K.)

  2. Scattering of thermal photons by a 46 GeV positron beam at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Diambrini-Palazzi, G.; Di Cosimo, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Gauzzi, P.; Zanello, D.

    1991-01-01

    The scattering of thermal photons present in the vacuum pipe of LEP against the high energy positron beam has been detected. The spectrum of the back-scattered photons is presented for a positron beam energy of 46.1 GeV. Measurements have been performed in the interaction region 1 with the LEP-5 experiment calorimeter. (orig.)

  3. Production of charmonium in 250 GeV μ+-iron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.; Dobinson, R.W.; Dosselli, U.; Edwards, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gregory, P.; Haas, J.; Leenen, M.; Montgomery, H.E.; Osborne, A.M.; Bassompierre, G.; Bouard, X. de; Broll, C.; Coignet, G.; Crespo, J.M.; Declais, Y.; Favier, J.; Maire, M.; Massonnet, L.; Minssieux, H.; Payre, P.; Pessard, H.; Schneegans, M.; Thenard, J.M.; Urban, L.; Becks, K.H.; Boehm, E.; Brown, S.; Cobb, J.H.; Combley, F.; D'Agostini, G.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Dalpiaz, P.; Dau, W.D.; Davies, J.K.; Drees, J.; Ferrero, M.I.; Gamet, R.; Gerhardt, V.; Hamacher, K.; Hayman, P.; Henckes, M.; Landgraf, U.; Mohr, W.; Moser, K.; Mount, R.P.; McNicholas, J.; Peroni, C.; Pietrzyk, U.; Rith, K.; Sloan, T.; Stier, H.E.; Stockhausen, W.; Villers, M.; Wahlen, H.; Whalley, M.; Williams, D.; Williams, W.S.C.; Williamson, J.; Wimpenny, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    The production of J/psi and psi' has been measured in 250 GeV muon iron interactions. The measured total cross sections are sigma(μN-> μJ/psiX) = 0.74 +- 0.14 nb and sigma (μN->μpsi'X) =0.16 +-. (orig.)

  4. Study for a 6 GeV undulator based synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignola, G.; Barton, M.; Blumberg, R.; Galayda, J.; Krinsky, S.; Luccio, A.; Pellegrini, C.; van Steenbergen, A.; Wang, J.

    1985-01-01

    A partial study for a 6 GeV undulator based synchrotron radiation source for production of high brightness undulator radiation, in the A region, is presented. The basic lattice adopted for the storage ring is a hybrid FODO Chasman-Green lattice, making use of gradient in the dipoles. We discuss also the e beam current limits and the injection parameters

  5. The inclusive jet cross section at √s = 630 GeV at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, J.

    1996-09-01

    The authors present a preliminary measurement of the cross section for central inclusive jet production at √s = 630 GeV using ∼ 400 nb -1 of data collected during the December 1995 Fermilab collider run at D0. These results are compared to NLO QCD predictions

  6. Beam transport of PF (Positron Factory) 2.5-GeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraga, Takahiro; Asami, Akira; Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Hitoshi.

    1993-01-01

    The beam transport is one of the most important problems in the linac to be used as the injector for the B-FACTORY accelerators. A basic problem of the beam transport is how to correct transport parameters immediately when a klystron becomes off. This is studied with the PF (Positron Factory) 2.5-GeV linac. (author)

  7. Details and justifications for the MAP concept specification for acceleration above 63 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) requires a concept specification for each of the accelerator systems. The Muon accelerators will bring the beam energy from a total energy of 63 GeV to the maximum energy that will fit on the Fermilab site. Justifications and supporting references are included, providing more detail than will appear in the concept specification itself.

  8. First observation of neutral current proton electron scattering at √s = 300 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takuya

    1993-02-01

    Neutral current proton electron scattering at center of mass energy 295 GeV was observed for the first time, using the newly built proton electron collider HERA (Hadron Elektron Ring Anlage) and the general purpose detector ZEUS. The distributions of Q 2 , Bjorken-x(x) and Bjorken-y(y) were compared with the expectation based on the standard electroweak theory and QCD. Regarding the investigation of high-Q 2 region, an event of Q 2 ∼ 1000 GeV 2 was observed for the first time. From the x-distribution of the events, a limit on the mass and the coupling of an exotic s-channel resonance of a quark-lepton system (leptoquark) was obtained. The mass limit is 72 GeV(97 GeV) at 95% confidence level for a scalar type leptoquark with a left-handed (right-handed) electromagnetic coupling to ordinary leptons. The leptoquark is assumed to be weak-isoscalar. To realize this experiment a uranium scintillator sandwich type calorimeter was developed. Equal response to electrons and hadrons (e/h = 1), which is essential for the good energy resolution for hadrons, has been achieved. One of the main characteristics of this calorimeter is a possibility of calibration utilizing of its own uranium radioactivity. The grain variation of each channel can be detected with an accuracy of ± 1 %. (J.P.N.) 65 refs

  9. Fragment production in 12-GeV proton-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yuichi; Ohnishi, Akira; Ohtsuka, Naohiko; Nara, Yasushi; Niida, Koji; Chiba, Satoshi; Takada, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    We study mass and angular distribution of Intermediate Mass Fragment (IMF) produced from p(12 GeV)+ 197 Au reaction by using JAM cascade model combined with percolation model. Although the mass distribution of IMF is well reproduced, the experimentally observed sideward peak of IMF angular distribution is not explained within present JAM + percolation model. (author)

  10. Fragmentation of nitrogen-14 nuclei at 2.1 Gev per nucleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, H. H.; Greiner, D. E.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Bieser, F. S.

    1971-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out at the bevatron on the nuclear fragmentation of nitrogen-14 ions at an energy of 2.1 billion electron volts (Gev) per nucleon. Because of the near equality of the velocities of the nitrogen-14 beam and the fragmentation products at an angle of 0 deg, we find it possible to identify the nuclear fragments isotopically.

  11. Aspects of strangeness production with 15 -- 30 GeV proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    We discuss the spectrum of physics questions related to strangeness which could be addressed with a 15--30 GeV proton storage ring. We focus on various aspects of strangeness production, including hyperon production in pp collisions, studies of hyperon-nucleon scattering, production of hyper-fragments in p-nucleus collisions, and hyperon spin observables in inclusive production

  12. Particle production in hadron--nucleus collisions above 10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busza, W.

    1978-01-01

    The reasons for interest in the observed phenomena in hadron reactions above 10 GeV are considered. The latest data are not reviewed except for comparison with theoretical models. Among the topics considered are total or absorption cross sections, low average multiplicity, nuclear fragment distributions, implications for the nature of hadrons and their interactions, rapidity distributions, and multiple production energy dependence. 38 references

  13. A 1.5 GeV high brilliance synchrotron light source with combined function lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, M.; Lindgren, L.J.; Andersson, Aa.; Roejsel, P.; Werin, S.

    1988-01-01

    A 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source with a combined function lattice is studied. The light source will offer X-ray radiation with λc=1.0 angstrom from a superconducting wiggler and high brilliance VUV-radiation from undulators. The magnet lattice, magnet design and ring performance is discussed. (authors)

  14. An alternative explanation for the GeV excess in the Fermi gamma ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, Iris; Boer, Wim de; Neumann, Alexander [Karlsruhe Institute of Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Towards the Galactic center the diffuse Fermi Gamma Ray data show a 1-3 GeV excess, which has been interpreted previously as a new source, like dark matter annihilation, contributions from millisecond pulsars or cosmic rays interacting with molecular clouds. We search for this excess in the whole Galactic Plane and find it to be perfectly correlated with the spatial distribution of the {sup 26}Al line, thought to be a tracer of SNRs. So the excess is not only found in the Galactic Center, but found everywhere, where there are molecular clouds (MCs). This excludes the dark matter annihilation interpretation. If we assume the proton spectrum in MCs to be depleted at energies below 14 GeV by a combination of trapping, solar winds and energy losses, we find a perfect description of the whole gamma ray sky. In this case the excess is not an excess, but a depletion of low energy gamma rays below a few GeV due to the depletion of the protons in MCs below 14 GeV, which happens not only in the Galactic Center, but everywhere in the Galactic Plane, where there are MCs with star formation, as proven by the identical morphology of the excess and the 1.8 MeV line of {sup 26}Al, observed by Comptel and Integral.

  15. e+e- collisions at 500 GeV: The physics potential. Pt. C. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerwas, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named workshop. These concern the production of Higgs bosons, electroweak gauge bosons, top particles, particles required by grand unification, supersymmetric particles in 500 Gev e + e - interactions together with γγ physics and some description of collider detectors. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  16. Proton and antiproton interactions in hydrogen, argon and xenon at 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malecki, P.

    1984-01-01

    The detailed analysis of the production of particles emitted into forward hemisphere in 200 GeV proton and antiproton interactions with hydrogen, argon and xenon targets is presented. Two-particle rapidity correlations and long-range multiplicity correlations are also discussed. (author)

  17. Comparison of Forward Dispersion Relations with Experiments around 10 GeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, B.; Møller-Nielsen, Peter; Olesen, P.

    1965-01-01

    no assumptions whatsoever about the unknown cross sections above 20 GeV. On account of the large systematic errors in the measured real parts, no definite conclusion can be drawn as to the validity of forward dispersion relations. In estimating the standard deviations in the dispersion integrals, a Monte Carlo...

  18. Zenith-angle distributions of atmospheric muons above 20 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decoster, R.J.; Stevenson, M.L.; Breakstone, A.; Flatte, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a magnetic-spectrometer experiment at ground level with optical spark chambers, scintillator hodoscope trigger and an air-gap magnet, are reported to given an evaluation of the zenith-angle distribution of the atmospheric muons above 20 GeV. An automatic flying spot digitizer, the Hummingbird, was used

  19. Identified particles in Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Wosiek, Barbara; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The yields of identified particles have been measured at RHIC for Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV using the PHOBOS spectrometer. The ratios of antiparticle to particle yields near mid-rapidity are presented. The first measurements of the invariant yields of charged pions, kaons and protons at very low transverse momenta are also shown.

  20. Study of different type neutrino oscillations based on neutrino beams from 600 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'ev, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of the different type neutrino oscillations based on a wide-band and narrow-band neutrino beam from the 600 GeV UNK-1 machine using the Baical Neutrino Telescope (4200 km from a accelerator) are discussed. The main parameters of the neutrino channel are presented. 17 refs.; 12 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Graph Treewidth and Geometric Thickness Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Wood, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Consider a drawing of a graph $G$ in the plane such that crossing edges are coloured differently. The minimum number of colours, taken over all drawings of $G$, is the classical graph parameter "thickness". By restricting the edges to be straight, we obtain the "geometric thickness". By further restricting the vertices to be in convex position, we obtain the "book thickness". This paper studies the relationship between these parameters and treewidth. Our first main result states that for grap...

  2. Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba

    2004-01-01

    We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z 2 symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS 5 spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes

  3. Does cement mantle thickness really matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, J.

    2008-01-01

    The thickness of the cement mantle around the femoral component of total hip replacements is a contributing factor to aseptic loosening and revision. Nevertheless, various designs of stems and surgical tooling lead to cement mantles of differing thicknesses. This thesis is concerned with variability in cement thickness around the Stanmore Hip, due to surgical approach, broach size and stem orientation, and its effects on stress and cracking in the cement. The extent to which cement mantle thi...

  4. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  5. Measurement of the W Mass and Width in $e^{+}e^{-}$ Collisions at 183 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Hoch, M; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    Using a data sample of 57 pb-1 recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of 183 GeV with the Opal detector at LEP, 282 W+W- -> qqqq and 300 W+W- -> qqlnu candidate events are used to obtain a measurement of the mass of the W boson, W_W = 80.39 +- 0.13(stat.) +- 0.05(syst.) GeV assuming the Standard Model relation between M_W and Gam_W. A second fit provides a direct measure of the width of the W boson and gives Gam_W = 1.96 +- 0.34(stat.) +- 0.20(syst.) GeV. These results are combined with previous OPAL results to obtain M_W = 80.38 +- 0.12(stat.) +- 0.05(syst.) GeV and Gam_W = 1.84 +- 0.32(stat.) +- 0.20(syst.) GeV.

  6. Searches for prompt light gravitino signatures in $e^{+}e^{-}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 189 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauke, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schmitt, S.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tarem, S.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2001-01-01

    Searches for final states expected in models with light gravitinos have been performed, including experimental topologies with multi-leptons with missing energy, leptons and photons with missing energy, and jets and photons with missing energy. No excess over the expectations from the Standard Model has been observed. Limits are placed on production cross-sections in the different experimental topologies. Additionally, combining with searches for the anomalous production of lepton and photon pairs with missing energy results are interpreted in the context of minimal models of gauge mediated SUSY breaking. Exclusion limits are established at the 95% confidence level on the supersymmetric particle masses; m-slepton > 70GeV and m-neutralino > 85GeV for tan(beta)=2, m-stau > 76GeV, m-selectron,-smu > 93GeV and m-neutralino > 76GeV for tan(beta)=20.

  7. Dual beam x-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The apparatus and method for continuous measurement of thickness of a sheet at a rolling mill or the like without contacting the sheet are described. A system directing radiation through the sheet in two energy bands and providing a measure of change in composition of the material as it passes the thickness gauging station is included. A system providing for changing the absorption coefficient of the material in the thickness measurement as a function of the change in composition so that the measured thickness is substantially independent of variations in composition is described

  8. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  9. Uncertainties in thick-target PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.L.; Cookson, J.A.; Paul, H.

    1983-01-01

    Thick-target PIXE analysis insolves uncertainties arising from the calculation of thick-target X-ray production in addition to the usual PIXE uncertainties. The calculation demands knowledge of ionization cross-sections, stopping powers and photon attenuation coefficients. Information on these is reviewed critically and a computational method is used to estimate the uncertainties transmitted from this data base into results of thick-target PIXE analyses with reference to particular specimen types using beams of 2-3 MeV protons. A detailed assessment of the accuracy of thick-target PIXE is presented. (orig.)

  10. Dielectron production in Au + Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Al-Ta'Ani, H.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Castera, P.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danley, T. W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; D'Orazio, L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Issah, M.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimelman, B.; Kinney, E.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Král, A.; Krizek, F.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Masumoto, S.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Rinn, T.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seidl, R.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Vale, C.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; White, A. S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Younus, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of e+e- production at midrapidity in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV. The invariant yield is studied within the PHENIX detector acceptance over a wide range of mass (me e<5 GeV /c2) and pair transverse momentum (pT<5 GeV /c ) for minimum bias and for five centrality classes. The e+e- yield is compared to the expectations from known sources. In the low-mass region (me e=0.30 - 0.76 GeV /c2 ) there is an enhancement that increases with centrality and is distributed over the entire pair pT range measured. It is significantly smaller than previously reported by the PHENIX experiment and amounts to 2.3 ±0.4 (stat )±0.4 (syst )±0.2 (model ) or to 1.7 ±0.3 (stat )±0.3 (syst )±0.2 (model ) for minimum bias collisions when the open heavy-flavor contribution is calculated with pythia or mc@nlo, respectively. The inclusive mass and pT distributions, as well as the centrality dependence, are well reproduced by model calculations where the enhancement mainly originates from the melting of the ρ meson resonance as the system approaches chiral symmetry restoration. In the intermediate-mass region (me e=1.2 - 2.8 GeV /c2 ), the data hint at a significant contribution in addition to the yield from the semileptonic decays of heavy-flavor mesons.

  11. Neutral-Current Four-Fermion Production in $e^+ e^-$ Interactions at 130 GeV $\\leq \\sqrt{s} \\leq$ 172 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hong, S J; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    A study of neutral-current four-fermion processes is performed, using data collected by the L3 detector at LEP during high-energy runs at centre-of-mass energies 130 - 136, 161 and 170 - 172 GeV, with integrated luminosities of 4.9, 10.7 and 10.1 pb$^{-1}$, respectively. The total cross sections for the final states $ \\ell\\ell \\ell^\\prime \\ell^\\prime $ and $\\rm \\ell\\ell qq $ ($\\ell$,~$\\ell^\\prime $ = e, $\\mu$ or $\\tau$) are measured and found to be in agreement with the Standard Model prediction.

  12. Contribution to the study of slab thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraitis, G.A.; Rorris, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the time-independent values of the equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere, defined as the ratio of the total electron content to the corresponding maximum electron density of the F region. Periodic variations of slab thickness are studied and are correlated to relative changes in exospheric temperature, deduced from the OGO-6 model

  13. Eggshell thickness in mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Eggs (n = 452) of the mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) were collected from 9 states in 1969 and 11 states in 1970, and shell thickness was compared with that of eggs (n = 97) collected from 24 states during the years 1861 to 1935. Mean shell thickness did not differ significantly in the test groups.

  14. Applications of precision ultrasonic thickness gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.A.; Elfbaum, G.M.; Husarek, V.; Castel, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse-echo ultrasonic thickness gauging is now recognized as an accurate method of measuring thickness of a product from one side when the velocity of ultrasound in the material is known. The advantages and present limitation of this gauging technique are presented, together with several applications of industrial interest [fr

  15. Skull thickness in patients with clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, T; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP).......The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP)....

  16. The Variable Crab Nebula: Evidence for a Connection Between GeV Flares and Hard X-ray Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E. A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Finger, M. H.; Jenke, P.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, hard X-ray variations (Wilson-Hodge et al. 2011) and GeV flares (Tavani et al 2011, Abdo et al. 2011) from the Crab Nebula were discovered. Connections between these two phenomena were unclear, in part because the timescales were quite different, with yearly variations in hard X-rays and hourly to daily variations in the GeV flares. The hard X-ray flux from the Crab Nebula has again declined since 2014, much like it did in 2008-2010. During both hard X-ray decline periods, the Fermi LAT detected no GeV flares, suggesting that injection of particles from the GeV flares produces the much slower and weaker hard X-ray variations. The timescale for the particles emitting the GeV flares to lose enough energy to emit synchrotron photons in hard X-rays is consistent with the yearly variations observed in hard X-rays and with the expectation that the timescale for variations slowly increases with decreasing energy. This hypothesis also predicts even slower and weaker variations below 10 keV, consistent with the non-detection of counterparts to the GeV flares by Chandra (Weisskopf et al 2013). We will present a comparison of the observed hard X-ray variations and a simple model of the decay of particles from the GeV flares to test our hypothesis.

  17. Study on the ionization chamber for thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shili; Miao Qiangwen

    1988-01-01

    The principle, construction and performances of ionization chambers for measuring the thickness of metal and nonmetal materials are introduced. With them the thickness of thin materials (thickness ranging from 10 to 6000 g/m 2 ), the surface layer thickness of composed materials and the thickness of steel plate (thickness ranging from 0 to 32 kg/m 2 ) are measured effectively

  18. Measurement of charged pions in {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C collisions at 1A GeV and 2A GeV with HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agakishiev, G.; Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J.S.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B. [Justus Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Agodi, C.; Coniglione, R.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Balanda, A.; Kozuch, A.; Przygoda, W. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Panstwowa Wyzsza Szkola Zawodowa, Nowy Sacz (Poland); Bellia, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Duran, I.; Garzon, J.A.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Marin, J. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Belyaev, A.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Ierusalimov, A.; Zanevsky, Y. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bielcik, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Galatyuk, T.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Heinz, T.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Lang, S.; Muench, M.; Palka, M.; Pietraszko, J.; Rustamov, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schwab, E.; Simon, R.S.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S.; Zumbruch, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Blanco, A.; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A. [LIP-Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Coimbra (Portugal); Bortolotti, A.; Michalska, B. [Sezione di Milano, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Boyard, J.L.; Hennino, T.; Moriniere, E.; Ramstein, B.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Sudol, M. [CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Christ, T.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Jurkovic, M.; Kruecken, R. [and others

    2009-04-15

    We present the results of a study of charged-pion production in {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C collisions at incident beam energies of 1A GeV and 2A GeV using the HADES spectrometer at GSI. The main emphasis of the HADES program is on the dielectron signal from the early phase of the collision. Here, however, we discuss the data with respect to the emission of charged hadrons, specifically the production of {pi}{sup {+-}} mesons, which are related to neutral pions representing a dominant contribution to the dielectron yield. We have performed the first large-angular-range measurement of the distribution of {pi}{sup {+-}} mesons for the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C collision system covering a fairly large rapidity interval. The pion yields, transverse-mass and angular distributions are compared with calculations done within a transport model, as well as with existing data from other experiments. The anisotropy of pion production is systematically analyzed. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of small angle antiproton-proton elastic scattering at √s =546 and 1800 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Albrow, M.; Amidei, D.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Apollinari, G.; Atac, M.; Auchincloss, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Baden, A.R.; Badgett, W.; Bailey, M.W.; Bamberger, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Bertolucci, S.; Biery, K.; Bhadra, S.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bolognesi, V.; Booth, A.W.; Boswell, C.; Brandenburg, G.; Brown, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carey, R.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Carroll, J.T.; Cashmore, R.; Castro, A.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chadwick, K.; Chapman, J.; Chapin, T.J.; Chiarelli, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Connor, D.; Contreras, M.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Crane, D.; Cunningham, J.D.; Day, C.; DeJongh, F.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; Dickson, M.; Drucker, R.B.; Dunn, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Eno, S.; Errede, S.; Etchegoyen, A.; Farhat, B.; Frautschi, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.; Fuess, T.; Fukui, Y.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gauthier, A.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Grieco, G.M.; Grindley, R.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Handler, R.; Hara, K.; Harral, B.; Harris, R.M.; Hauger, S.A.; Hauser, J.; Hawk, C.; Hessing, T.; Hollebeek, R.; Holloway, L.; Hoelscher, A.; Hong, S.; Houk, G.; Hu, P.; Hubbard, B.; Huffman, B.T.; Hughes, R.; Hurst, P.; Huth, J.; Hylen, J.; Incagli, M.; Ino, T.; Iso, H.; Jessop, C.P.; Johnson, R.P.; Joshi, U.; Kadel, R.W.; Kamon, T.; Kanda, S.; Kardelis, D.A.; Karliner, I.; Kearns, E.; Keeble, L.; Kephart, R.; Kesten, P.

    1994-01-01

    Antiproton-proton elastic scattering was measured at c.m.s. energies √s =546 and 1800 GeV in the range of four-momentum transfer squared 0.025 2 . The data are well described by the exponential form e bt with a slope b=15.28±0.58 (16.98±0.25) GeV -2 at √s =546 (1800) GeV. The elastic scattering cross sections are, respectively, σ el =12.87±0.30 and 19.70±0.85 mb

  20. Measurement of the antiproton-proton total cross section at √s =546 and 1800 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Albrow, M.; Amidei, D.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Apollinari, G.; Atac, M.; Auchincloss, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Baden, A.R.; Badgett, W.; Bailey, M.W.; Bamberger, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Bertolucci, S.; Biery, K.; Bhadra, S.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bolognesi, V.; Booth, A.W.; Boswell, C.; Brandenburg, G.; Brown, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carey, R.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Carroll, J.T.; Cashmore, R.; Castro, A.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chadwick, K.; Chapman, J.; Chapin, T.J.; Chiarelli, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Connor, D.; Contreras, M.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Crane, D.; Cunningham, J.D.; Day, C.; DeJongh, F.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; Dickson, M.; Drucker, R.B.; Dunn, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Eno, S.; Errede, S.; Etchegoyen, A.; Farhat, B.; Frautschi, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.; Fuess, T.; Fukui, Y.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gauthier, A.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Grieco, G.M.; Grindley, R.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Grunhaus, J.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Handler, R.; Hara, K.; Harral, B.; Harris, R.M.; Hauger, S.A.; Hauser, J.; Hawk, C.; Hessing, T.; Hollebeek, R.; Holloway, L.; Hoelscher, A.; Hong, S.; Houk, G.; Hu, P.; Hubbard, B.; Huffman, B.T.; Hughes, R.; Hurst, P.; Huth, J.; Hylen, J.; Incagli, M.; Ino, T.; Iso, H.; Jessop, C.P.; Johnson, R.P.; Joshi, U.; Kadel, R.W.; Kamon, T.; Kanda, S.; Kardelis, D.A.; Karliner, I.; Kearns, E.; Keeble, L.

    1994-01-01

    We report a measurement of the proton-antiproton total cross section σ T at c.m.s. energies √s =546 and 1800 GeV. Using the luminosity-independent method, we find σ T =61.26±0.93 mb at √s =546 GeV and 80.03±2.24 mb at √s =1800 GeV. In this energy range, the ratio σ el /σ T increases from 0.210±0.002 to 0.246±0.004

  1. Translucency of dental ceramics with different thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2013-07-01

    The increased use of esthetic restorations requires an improved understanding of the translucent characteristics of ceramic materials. Ceramic translucency has been considered to be dependent on composition and thickness, but less information is available about the translucent characteristics of these materials, especially at different thicknesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between translucency and the thickness of different dental ceramics. Six disk-shaped specimens of 8 glass ceramics (IPS e.max Press HO, MO, LT, HT, IPS e.max CAD LT, MO, AvanteZ Dentin, and Trans) and 5 specimens of 5 zirconia ceramics (Cercon Base, Zenotec Zr Bridge, Lava Standard, Lava Standard FS3, and Lava Plus High Translucency) were prepared following the manufacturers' instructions and ground to a predetermined thickness with a grinding machine. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the translucency parameters (TP) of the glass ceramics, which ranged from 2.0 to 0.6 mm, and of the zirconia ceramics, which ranged from 1.0 to 0.4 mm. The relationship between the thickness and TP of each material was evaluated using a regression analysis (α=.05). The TP values of the glass ceramics ranged from 2.2 to 25.3 and the zirconia ceramics from 5.5 to 15.1. There was an increase in the TP with a decrease in thickness, but the amount of change was material dependent. An exponential relationship with statistical significance (Pceramics and zirconia ceramics. The translucency of dental ceramics was significantly influenced by both material and thickness. The translucency of all materials increased exponentially as the thickness decreased. All of the zirconia ceramics evaluated in the present study showed some degree of translucency, which was less sensitive to thickness compared to that of the glass ceramics. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions.

  3. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, G A; Gerbasi, R [CNR, Padua (Italy). Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati

    1996-09-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive.

  4. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  5. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G. A.; Gerbasi, R.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive

  6. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  7. Status report of a 500 GeV S-band linear collider study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balewski, K.; Bieler, M.; Bothe, W.; Bredehoeft, K.; Brinkmann, R.; Choroba, S.; Dwersteg, B.; Ebert, M.; Febel, A.; Fischer, R.; Floettmann, K.; Holzer, B.; Juergensen, H.; Kouptsidis, J.; Kumpfert, H.; Loeffler, F.; Marx, M.; Narciss, H.; Neumann, R.; Peters, F.; Peters, M.; Pillat, P.; Rossbach, J.; Schumann, G.; Schwarz, W.; Vilcins, S.; Voss, G.A.; Werner, M.; Wipf, S.; Wuempelmann, H.; Beyer, H.G.; Dehler, M.; Dohlus, M.; Ebeling, F.; Hahne, P.; Holtkamp, N.; Klatt, R.; Krawczyk, F.; Tsakanov, V.; Rienen, U. van; Wanzenberg, R.; Weiland, T.; Wolter, H.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the status of a feasibility study of a 500 GeV center of mass linear collider, which is based almost entirely on conventional rf-technology. The basic components are S-band travelling wave, constant-gradient accelerating structures and 130 MW klystrons. 3 GeV damping rings are used to produce extremely small emittances in both planes which are in the same range as those of the next generation synchrotron light sources. Very strong focussing in the linear accelerator and near the interaction region, as well as a dedicated chromatic correction scheme, are necessary to achieve spot sizes that have not been produced yet. The methods envisaged to stabilize the motion of the tiny beam along the 15 km long linac seem promising and give rise to be assumption that the proposed values can be reached with todays' available technology. (orig.)

  8. Identification of Climate Change with Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) Distribution Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahayu, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Some events are difficult to avoid and gives considerable influence to humans and the environment is extreme weather and climate change. Many of the problems that require knowledge about the behavior of extreme values and one of the methods used are the Extreme Value Theory (EVT). EVT used to draw up reliable systems in a variety of conditions, so as to minimize the risk of a major disaster. There are two methods for identifying extreme value, Block Maxima with Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution approach and Peaks over Threshold (POT) with Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) approach. This research in Indramayu with January 1961-December 2003 period, the method used is Block Maxima with GEV distribution approach. The result showed that there is no climate change in Indramayu with January 1961-December 2003 period.

  9. Study of dimuon pair production in e+ e- collisions from 196 - 202 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Flacher, Henning

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the electroweak process $e^{+} e^{-}$ --> $μ^{+} μ^{-}$ was studied and an inclusive and exclusive cross section were measured. Furthermore the forward-backward asymmetry Afb was determined from the exclusive event sample. The investigated data was recorded·with the detector ALEPH at centre-of-mass energies of 196, 200 and 202 GeV resulting in a total integrated luminosity of 208.1 pb-1. All the measured results are in good agreement with the Standard Model. From the measurements of total cross sections and angular distributions for all the two fermion processes at energies from 130 - 202 GeV limits on processes beyond the Standard Model were derived. For Contact Interactions they were found to be of the order of 10 TeV while for TeV-Scale Quantum Gravity a limit for the ultra-violet cut-off parameter of A::1 TeV could be derived.

  10. Conceptual design of a linac-stretcher ring to obtain a 2-gev continuous electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.; Khoe, T.K.; Mavrogenes, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain a high duty factor, >100 /mu/A 2-Gev electron beam, a linac-stretcher ring system was designed. The system is an attractive option because it draws heavily on the existing accelerator technology. The linac-stretcher ring consists of a 2-Gev SLAC-type pulsed linac which injects into a storage ring. In between linac pulses, the stored electron beam is to extract resonantly. This design differs from those discussed recently in several important respects. The storage ring includes an rf system whose purpose is to control the beam orbit and rate of extraction from the ring. With an rf system in the ring, the injection scheme consists of a few turns of synchronous transfers of beam between the linac and storage ring. 4 refs

  11. An improved 8 GeV beam transport system for the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphers, M.J.

    1987-06-01

    A new 8 GeV beam transport system between the Booster and Main Ring synchrotrons at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is presented. The system was developed in an effort to improve the transverse phase space area occupied by the proton beam upon injection into the Main Ring accelerator. Problems with the original system are described and general methods of beamline design are formulated. Errors in the transverse properties of a beamline at the injection point of the second synchrotron and their effects on the region in transverse phase space occupied by a beam of particles are discussed. Results from the commissioning phase of the project are presented as well as measurements of the degree of phase space dilution generated by the transfer of 8 GeV protons from the Booster synchrotron to the Main Ring synchrotron

  12. Front end designs for the 7-GeV advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Barraza, J.; Sanchez, T.; Nielsen, R.W.; Collins, J.T.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The conceptual designs for the insertion device (ID) and bending magnet (BM) front ends have been completed for the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. These designs satisfy the generic front end functions. However, the high power and high heat fluxes imposed by the X-ray sources of the 7-GeV APS have presented various design engineering challenges for the front end. Consideration of such challenges and their solutions have led to novel and advanced features including modularized systems, enhanced heat transfer concepts in the fixed mask and the photon shutter designs, a radiation safety philosophy based on multiple photon shutters for a fail-safe operation, a sub-micron resolution beam position monitor for beam monitoring and ring feedback information, and minimal beam filtering concepts to deliver maximized beam power and spectra to the experimenters. The criteria and special features of the front end design are discussed in this paper

  13. The Lattice for the 50-50 GeV Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.-Y.; Trbojevic, D.

    1998-02-01

    The lattice design of the 50-50 Gev muon collider is presented. Due to the short lifetime of the 50 GeV muons, the ring needs to be as small as possible. The 4 cm low betas in both planes lead to high betatron functions at the focusing quadrupoles and hence large chromaticities, which must be corrected locally. In order to maintain a low rf voltage of around 10 MV, the momentum-compaction factor must be kept to less than 10 -2 , and therefore the flexible momentum-compaction modules are used in the arcs. The dynamical aperture is larger than 6 to 7 rms beam size for ±5 rms momentum offset. Comments are given and modifications are suggested

  14. Dilepton and dihadron production in proton-nucleus collisions at 800 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.

    1990-05-01

    A high statistics measurement of the atomic mass dependence of Drell-Yan, J/ψ, ψ' and Υ production induced by 800 GeV protons on deuterium, carbon, calcium, iron and tungsten targets has been performed at FermiLab (E772). The data consist of about 700,000 muon pairs covering the mass region 3 GeV ≤Mμμ 2 2 < 0.1 is slightly less than unity for heavy nuclei. J/ψ and ψ' production are strongly suppressed in heavy nuclei. An upgraded version on the spectrometer designed to measure two-body decays of neutral c and b-quark hadrons (E789) will be discussed. 17 refs., 8 figs

  15. Hard-photon production at $\\sqrt{