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Sample records for germination rate survival

  1. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, H.L.; Xue, J.M.; Lai, J.N.; Wang, J.Y.; Zhang, W.M.; Miao, Q.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W.J.; He, F.; Gu, H.Y.; Wang, Y.G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10 9 -1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper

  2. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.L. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xue, J.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lai, J.N. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, W.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Miao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yan, S. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, W.J. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); He, F. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gu, H.Y. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Y.G. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: ygwang@pku.edu.cn

    2006-04-15

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10{sup 9}-1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper.

  3. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Hugh C

    2012-01-01

    This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely-but only where tides and currents were favourable-and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely-to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating-and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers related to fruit abscission and

  4. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Hugh C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. Scope This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Significance Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely—but only where tides and currents were favourable—and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely—to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating—and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers

  5. Constant temperatures and the rate of seed germination in maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of germination of the NEM cultivar was faster than that of the QPM cultivar at all temperatures. The thermal times for median germination were 46 for QPM and 40.7 oCd for the NEM cultivar. The cardinal temperatures (base, Tb, optimum, To and ceiling, Tc) for the NEM cultivar were Tb: 7, To: 30 and Tc: 48.2 oC.

  6. Red fox ( Vulpes vulpes L.) favour seed dispersal, germination and seedling survival of Mediterranean Hackberry ( Celtis australis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Traba; Sagrario, Arrieta; Jesús, Herranz; Cristina, Clamagirand M.

    2006-07-01

    Seeds of the Mediterranean Hackberry Celtis australis are often encountered in fox faeces. In order to evaluate the effect of gut transit on the size of seeds selected, the rates and speed of germination and on the survival of the seedlings, Mediterranean Hackberry seeds from fox faeces were germinated in a greenhouse. The results were compared with those of seeds taken from ripe, uneaten fruits. Fox-dispersed seeds were smaller and lighter than the control ones and had higher (74% vs. 57%) and more rapid germination (74.5 days vs. 99.2 days). Seedlings from fox-dispersed seeds showed significantly greater survival by the end of the study period (74.1% vs. 43.6%) than the control ones. Survival in seedlings from fox-dispersed seeds was related to germination date, late seedlings showing poorer survival. This relationship was not observed away in the control seedlings. Seed mass did not affect seedling survival. Seedling arising from fox-dispersed seeds grew faster than control ones. These results suggest that fox can play a relevant role as seed disperser of Mediterranean Hackberry.

  7. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  8. Dependence of rate of germination of teak ( Tectona grandis ) seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine suitable sources of teak (Tectona grandis) seeds and methods of treating the seeds to promote higher rate of germination, with the objective to supply large quantities of seedlings for developing commercial teak plantations in Ghana. The field work involved seed collection, seed pericarp ...

  9. Survival of germinal cells of the male rat after exposure to 14 and 50 MeV neutrons and R.B.E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Guy; Grillon, Gerard; Ricourt, Alain.

    1977-10-01

    No significant differences could be demonstrated between male rat germinal cell survivals to 14MeV and up to 50 MeV neutrons respectively. The survivals are well fitted by an exponential model (D 0 =289 rads) logically situated between the models concerning 60 Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. On the basis of the testes weight loss after irradiation, the experimental results gave EBR ranging from 10 to 1.3 for survival rates from 92 to 2% [fr

  10. Mean germination time and germination rate of oat seeds subjected to stationary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell, Maria Victoria; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine and quantify the effect produced by stationary magnetic fields on oat seed germination (Avena sativa, L. var. c obena ) . For this purpose, seeds were exposed to a magnetic field 125 mT of 250 mT during different periods of time: 20 minutes (E1, E5), 1 hour (E2, E6), 24 hours (E3, E7), or in a conic form (E4, E8) during the whole germination process. Germination tests were carried out under laboratory conditions with cylindrical magnets to obtain the magnetic field. For magnetic treatment seed on Petri dishes were placed on magnets during time necessary for each treatment. Seeds without exposition to the magnetic field were used as control group. Parameters used for germination speed analysis were: number of germinated seeds (G), mean germination time (MGT) and necessary time for germination of 1, 10, 25, 50 and 75% of N number of speeds used for each treatment (T1, T10, T25, T50, and T75). These parameters were supplied through the software Seed calculator, as well as the corresponding germination curves. In general, from the results obtained it can be said that the time required to obtain different germination percentages was lower for seeds exposed to the magnetic field (treatments E1 and E8). Reduction in time for E1 treatment stands up with 20 a minutes-exposition-time to 125 mT. MGT obtained for seeds with magnetic treatment E1 was significantly lower (11.48%) than the control group. Parameters T1, T10, T25 were also lower for seeds submitted to treatment, obtaining reductions of 46.62 %, 24.02 % and 13.46 % respectively. Reduction in germination parameters indicates that germination speed is higher. Because parameters T1 and T10 are related to the beginning of germination, this study represents a progress in germination and a reduction in the induction phase in most of the magnetic treatments applied. Previous studies done by authors about the influence of stationary magnetic fields have shown increases in

  11. Effect of canopy position on germination and seedling survival of epiphytic bromeliads in a Mexican humid montane forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Manuela; Hülber, Karl; Hietz, Peter

    2005-05-01

    Seeds of epiphytes must land on branches with suitable substrates and microclimates to germinate and for the resulting seedlings to survive. It is important to understand the fate of seeds and seedlings in order to model populations, but this is often neglected when only established plants are included in analyses. The seeds of five bromeliad species were exposed to different canopy positions in a Mexican montane forest, and germination and early seedling survival were recorded. Additionally, the survival of naturally dispersed seedlings was monitored in a census over 2.5 years. Survival analysis, a procedure rarely used in plant ecology, was used to study the influence of branch characteristics and light on germination and seedling survival in natural and experimental populations. Experimental germination percentages ranged from 7.2 % in Tillandsia deppeana to 33.7 % in T. juncea, but the seeds of T. multicaulis largely failed to germinate. Twenty months after exposure between 3.5 and 9.4 % of the seedlings were still alive. There was no evidence that canopy position affected the probability of germination, but time to germination was shorter in less exposed canopy positions indicating that higher humidity accelerates germination. More experimental seedlings survived when canopy openness was high, whereas survival in census-seedlings was influenced by moss cover. While mortality decreased steadily with age in juveniles of the atmospheric Tillandsia, in the more mesomorphic Catopsis sessiliflora mortality increased dramatically in the dry season. Seedling mortality, rather than the failure to germinate, accounts for the differential distribution of epiphytes within the canopy studied. With few safe sites to germinate and high seedling mortality, changes of local climate may affect epiphyte populations primarily through their seedling stage.

  12. Seedling survival of Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart ex DC Mattos in a semi-arid environment through modified germination speed and post-germination desiccation tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract Uniform rapid seed germination generally forms a great risk for the plant population if subsequent intermittent precipitation causes desiccation and seedling death. Handroanthus impetiginosus can be found commonly in a wide range of biomes within Brazil including those that are semi-arid. Germination and early growth was studied to understand how germinated seeds survive under these stringent conditions. Accessions were sampled from four seasonally dry biomes in Brazil. Precipitation at the start of the rainy season in the Caatinga, a semi-arid biome, is less predictable and the number of successive dry days per dry interval in the first four months of the rainy season was higher than in the other studied biomes. Plants from the Caatinga produced thicker seeds and this trait concurred with slow germination and stronger osmotic inhibition of germination across the accessions, forming a stress avoidance mechanism in the Caatinga. Post-germination desiccation tolerance was high in the Caatinga accession, could be re-induced in accessions from biomes with more regular precipitation (Cerrado and transition zone, but remained poor in the Cerradão accession; thus forming a stress tolerance mechanism. Production of adventitious roots ascertained survival of all tested individuals from all four locations, even if protruded radicles did not survive desiccation, forming an additional stress tolerance mechanism. A sequence of stress avoidance and stress tolerance mechanisms in seeds and germinated seeds was associated with precipitation patterns in different biomes. These mechanisms purportedly allow rapid seedling establishment when conditions are suitable and enable survival of the young seedling when conditions are adverse.

  13. Soil Preferences in Germination and Survival of Limber Pine in the Great Basin White Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian V. Smithers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Great Basin, limber pine is a sub-alpine tree species that is colonizing newly available habitat above treeline in greater numbers than treeline-dominating Great Basin bristlecone pine, especially on dolomite soil, where few plants are able to grow and where limber pine adults are rare. To examine the role of soil type on germination and establishment of limber pine, I sowed limber pine seeds in containers of the three main White Mountains soil types in one location while measuring soil moisture and temperature. I found that dolomite soil retains water longer, and has higher soil water content, than quartzite and granite soils and has the coolest maximum growing season temperatures. Limber pine germination and survival were highest in dolomite soil relative to quartzite and granite where limber pine adults are more common. While adult limber pines are rare on dolomite soils, young limber pines appear to prefer them. This indicates that limber pine either has only recently been able to survive in treeline climate on dolomite or that bristlecone pine has some long-term competitive advantage on dolomite making limber pine, a species with 1500 year old individuals, an early succession species in Great Basin sub-alpine forests.

  14. Increased germination and growth rates of pea and Zucchini seed by FSG plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Shohreh; Ahmadinia, Arash

    2018-04-01

    Recently, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) with the unique bio-disinfection features is used in various fields of industry, medicine, and agriculture. The main objectives of this work were to design FSG plasma (a semi-automatic device) and investigate the effect of the cold plasma in the enhancement of the Pea and Zucchini seed germination. Plasma irradiation time was studied to obtain a proper condition for the germination enhancement of seeds. The growth rate was calculated by measuring length of root and stem and dry weight of plants treated by plasma. To investigate drought resistance of plants, all treated and untreated samples were kept in darkness without water for 48 h. From the experimental results, it could be confirmed both drought resistance and germination of seedlings increased after plasma was applied to seeds at 30 s, while seeds treated whiten 60 s showed a decrease in both germination rate and seedling growth.

  15. Germination, survival and growth of three vascular plants on biological soil crusts from a Mexican tropical desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godínez-Alvarez, H; Morín, C; Rivera-Aguilar, V

    2012-01-01

    Information about the effects of biological soil crusts (BSC) on germination, seedling survival and growth of vascular plants is controversial because they can have positive, neutral or negative effects. This controversy may be because most studies conducted until now have just analysed one or two recruitment stages independently. To understand the BSC effects on vascular plants, it is necessary to consider each stage of the recruitment process and synthesise all this information. The goal of this study was twofold. First, we analyse germination, seedling survival and growth of three vascular plants (Agave marmorata, Prosopis laevigata and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo) on BSC (cyanobacteria and mixed crust) from a tropical desert region of south-central México. Second, we synthesise the information to determine the total effect of BSC on plant species performance. We conducted experiments under controlled conditions to evaluate the proportion of germinated seeds, proportion of surviving seedlings and seedling dry weight in BSC and bare soil. Results showed that BSC have different effects on germination, seedling survival and growth of plant species. Plant species performance was qualitatively higher on BSC than bare soil. The highest performance of A. marmorata and P. laevigata was observed on cyanobacteria and mixed crusts, respectively. The highest performance of N. tetetzo was on both crust types. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Microsite and elevation zone effects on seed pilferage, germination, and seedling survival during early whitebark pine recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansing, Elizabeth R; Tomback, Diana F; Wunder, Michael B; French, Joshua P; Wagner, Aaron C

    2017-11-01

    Tree recruitment is a spatially structured process that may undergo change over time because of variation in postdispersal processes. We examined seed pilferage, seed germination, and seedling survival in whitebark pine to determine whether 1) microsite type alters the initial spatial pattern of seed caches, 2) higher abiotic stress (i.e. higher elevations) exacerbates spatial distribution changes, and 3) these postdispersal processes are spatially clustered. At two study areas, we created a seed distribution pattern by burying seed caches in microsite types frequently used by whitebark pine's avian seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker) in upper subalpine forest and at treeline, the latter characterized by high abiotic environmental stress. We monitored caches for two years for pilferage, germination, and seedling survival. Odds of pilferage (both study areas), germination (northern study area), and survival (southern study area) were higher at treeline relative to subalpine forest. At the southern study area, we found higher odds of 1) pilferage near rocks and trees relative to no object in subalpine forest, 2) germination near rocks relative to trees within both elevation zones, and 3) seedling survival near rocks and trees relative to no object at treeline. No microsite effects were detected at the northern study area. Findings indicated that the microsite distribution of seed caches changes with seed/seedling stage. Higher odds of seedling survival near rocks and trees were observed at treeline, suggesting abiotic stress may limit safe site availability, thereby shifting the spatial distribution toward protective microsites. Higher odds of pilferage at treeline, however, suggest rodents may limit treeline recruitment. Further, odds of pilferage were higher near rocks and trees relative to no object in subalpine forest but did not differ among microsites at treeline, suggesting pilferage can modulate the spatial structure of regeneration, a finding supported by

  17. Effect of dose of gamma-rays and ethylmethane sulphonate on the germination and survival of induced mutations in pigeonpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premsekar, S [Central Inst. for Cotton Research, Coimbatore (India). Regional Station; Appadurai, R [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India)

    1981-06-01

    The LD/sub 50/ values for germination and survival of the induced mutants (M/sub 1/) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Millsp.) were attained with 20 and 15 krad when gamma-rays were used, and 30 and 40 mM concentration when EMS was used. In the combination treatments the half-kill dose for germination and survival was reached even at the low dose combination of 5 krad gamma-ray + 20 mM EMS. Higher doses resulted in lower pollen and seed fertility. The sterility was much enhanced in the combined treatments. The number of pods, seed yield and weight of seeds could be stimulated with 10 and 15 krad doses of gamma-rays and 20 mM of EMS. In combination treatments such a stimulatory effect was noticed in seed weight only.

  18. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens on seed germination and survival of seedling in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, N.; Rao, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Dry and healthy seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Co-2 were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR. The percentage of seed germination was directly proportional to the dose given. The survival percentage decreased with higher doses. Concentration of EMS and NMU applied, ranged from 10 mM to 50 mM and 1 mM to 5 mM, respectively. The duration of soaking of seed was 4 hours in distilled water and 4 hours in mutagenic agents. In treated seeds, the percentage of germination and survival of seedlings decreased with an increase in concentration of these chemical mutagens. These observations are discussed in detail. (author). 11 refs

  19. Lab and Field Warming Similarly Advance Germination Date and Limit Germination Rate for High and Low Elevation Provenances of Two Widespread Subalpine Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara M. Kueppers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting upslope shifts in subalpine tree ranges with warming requires understanding how future forest populations will be affected by climate change, as these are the seed sources for new tree line and alpine populations. Early life history stages are particularly sensitive to climate and are also influenced by genetic variation among populations. We tested the climate sensitivity of germination and initial development for two widely distributed subalpine conifers, using controlled-environment growth chambers with one temperature regime from subalpine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and one 5 °C warmer, and two soil moisture levels. We tracked germination rate and timing, rate of seedling development, and seedling morphology for two seed provenances separated by ~300 m elevation. Warming advanced germination timing and initial seedling development by a total of ~2 weeks, advances comparable to mean differences between provenances. Advances were similar for both provenances and species; however, warming reduced the overall germination rate, as did low soil moisture, only for Picea engelmannii. A three-year field warming and watering experiment planted with the same species and provenances yielded responses qualitatively consistent with the lab trials. Together these experiments indicate that in a warmer, drier climate, P. engelmannii germination, and thus regeneration, could decline, which could lead to declining subalpine forest populations, while Pinus flexilis forest populations could remain robust as a seed source for upslope range shifts.

  20. Study on the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during germination by using segmented moisture conditioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yinping; Jia, Fuguo; Han, Yanlong; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during the process of germination. The process of water addition in brown rice could be divided into three stages according to different water absorption speeds in soaking process. Water was added with three different speeds in three stages to get the optimal water adding rate in the whole process of germination. Thus, the technology of segmented moisture conditioning which is a method of adding water gradually was put forward. Germinated brown rice was produced by using segmented moisture conditioning method to reduce the loss of water-soluble nutrients and was beneficial to the accumulation of gamma aminobutyric acid. The effects of once moisture adding amount in three stages on the gamma aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice and germination rate of brown rice were investigated by using response surface methodology. The optimum process parameters were obtained as follows: once moisture adding amount of stage I with 1.06 %/h, once moisture adding amount of stage II with 1.42 %/h and once moisture adding amount of stage III with 1.31 %/h. The germination rate under the optimum parameters was 91.33 %, which was 7.45 % higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (84.97 %). The content of gamma aminobutyric acid in germinated brown rice under the optimum parameters was 29.03 mg/100 g, which was more than two times higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (12.81 mg/100 g). The technology of segmented moisture conditioning has potential applications for studying many other cereals.

  1. Nesting success and survival rates of suburban Olive Thrushes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive rate, clutch size, nesting success and survival rate of dependent fledglings were estimated from breeding records in the Eastern Cape. These data were used to estimate survival rate of independent fledglings. The estimated adult survival rate in this region was high and the clutch size was small, compared to ...

  2. Reduced seed germination in Arabidopsis over-expressing SWI/SNF2 ATPase genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeggangers, H.A.C.F.; Folta, A.; Muras, A.; Nap, J.P.H.; Mlynarova, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the life of flowering plants, seed germination is a critical step to ensure survival into the next generation. Generally the seed prior to germination has been in a dormant state with a low rate of metabolism. In the transition from a dormant seed to a germinating seed, various epigenetic

  3. Soilborne fungi have host affinity and host-specific effects on seed germination and survival in a lowland tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Carolina; Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Dalling, James W; Davis, Adam S; Stump, Simon M; U'Ren, Jana M; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2017-10-24

    The Janzen-Connell (JC) hypothesis provides a conceptual framework for explaining the maintenance of tree diversity in tropical forests. Its central tenet-that recruits experience high mortality near conspecifics and at high densities-assumes a degree of host specialization in interactions between plants and natural enemies. Studies confirming JC effects have focused primarily on spatial distributions of seedlings and saplings, leaving major knowledge gaps regarding the fate of seeds in soil and the specificity of the soilborne fungi that are their most important antagonists. Here we use a common garden experiment in a lowland tropical forest in Panama to show that communities of seed-infecting fungi are structured predominantly by plant species, with only minor influences of factors such as local soil type, forest characteristics, or time in soil (1-12 months). Inoculation experiments confirmed that fungi affected seed viability and germination in a host-specific manner and that effects on seed viability preceded seedling emergence. Seeds are critical components of reproduction for tropical trees, and the factors influencing their persistence, survival, and germination shape the populations of seedlings and saplings on which current perspectives regarding forest dynamics are based. Together these findings bring seed dynamics to light in the context of the JC hypothesis, implicating them directly in the processes that have emerged as critical for diversity maintenance in species-rich tropical forests.

  4. A direct observation technique for evaluating sclerotium germination by Macrophomina phaseolina and effects of biocontrol materials on survival of sclerotia in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Robert G

    2006-08-01

    Germination of sclerotia of Macrophomina phaseolina was quantified by direct microscopic observation following application of experimental treatments in vitro and incubation of sclerotia in soil. To assay germination, pieces of agar containing sclerotia were macerated in dilute, liquid cornmeal agar on glass slides; thinly spread; and incubated in a saturated atmosphere for 18-22 h. Germinated sclerotia then were identified by morphological features of germ hyphae. Frequencies of germination were similar in three dilute agar media. Germination was not affected by air-drying sclerotia for 2 weeks, but it was significantly reduced after 4 weeks and greatly reduced or eliminated after 6 or 8 weeks. Survival of sclerotia for 14 days in soil was greatest at 50, 75, and 100% moisture-holding capacity, less at 0 and 25%, and least at 125% (flooded soil). Incorporation of ground poultry litter into soil at 5% by weight reduced survival of sclerotia after 13 days, and incorporation of litter at 10% nearly eliminated it. These results indicate that the direct-observation technique may be used to evaluate animal wastes and other agricultural byproducts for biocontrol activity against sclerotia of M. phaseolina in soil.

  5. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Bridgers, Kevin; Brown, Cecelia Wright

    1995-01-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  6. Sporulation and Germination patterns - hedging a bet on long term microbial survivability in dry soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, N.; Or, D.

    2012-04-01

    Soil hosts unparalleled diversity of microbial life that is constantly challenged by the vagaries of fluctuating ambient conditions. Desiccation stresses play a key role not only by directly affecting individual bacterial cells, but also by shaping diffusion pathways and cell dispersion. The gradual thinning and fragmentation of the aqueous environment during drying have led to different survival mechanisms including dormancy and sporulation, resulting in a highly resistive state capable of surviving extreme and prolonged environmental stresses until conditions improve in the future. Our aim is to investigate how temporal changes in hydration status shape microbial communities over time, based on simple survival strategy rules for each individual bacterium. The two survival strategies considered are dormancy and sporulation. Dormancy is the state in which bacterial cells significantly reduce their metabolism with minor morphological adaptations. The required energy and time for attaining this state are low relative to sporulation costs. Sporulation involves several morphological and biochemical changes that result in a resistive capsule that endures extreme stresses over long periods of time. The working hypothesis is that different micro-ecological conditions and community compositions would result from temporal patterns and magnitude of desiccation stresses. An Individual Based Model (IBM) considering habitats on rough soil surfaces and local effects of micro-hydrological conditions on dispersion and nutrient diffusion would enable systematic study of emerging communities over extended periods. Different population compositions are expected to emerge based on low and high frequency, duration and amplitudes of wetting-drying cycles reflecting relative success or failure of survival strategy.

  7. Germination et croissance initiale de Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine Prance, une espèce oléagineuse du Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Guimbo, I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and Initial Growth of Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine Prance, a oleaginous Species of Niger. The study conducted in parallel in the real environment, nursery and laboratory to better understand the characteristics of germination and seedling development Neocarya macrophylla, a species of oleaginous Niger. The treatments applied to seed have a waiting time shorter than the untreated seeds. The control has a staggered germination (30 days and shelling of nuts influenced seed germination bundled (16 days. Unprocessed nuts are the best germination rate (89.53%. Soaking nuts during 72 h and 120 h is fatal for germination. The shelf life has significant effects on the germination of walnuts and almonds. The observation shows a germinating seed cryptogeal. The low germination rates nuts without water shows that water is a limiting factor to the spread of this tree species. The seedlings are very sensitive to dampingoff and tolerant enough to transplantation with a survival rate of 79%.

  8. Investigation of survival rate of trees planted in agroforestry and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low survival rate of trees planted during annual planting campaigns is often reported in many parts of the country and there is need to understand why and propose adequate solutions to improve survival rate of trees in plantation. The study was conducted in three sectors of Huye District namely Mukura, Tumba and Ngoma ...

  9. Bacillus subtilis spore survival and expression of germination-induced bioluminescence after prolonged incubation under simulated Mars atmospheric pressure and composition: implications for planetary protection and lithopanspermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial endospores in the genus Bacillus are considered good models for studying interplanetary transfer of microbes by natural or human processes. Although spore survival during transfer itself has been the subject of considerable study, the fate of spores in extraterrestrial environments has received less attention. In this report we subjected spores of a strain of Bacillus subtilis, containing luciferase resulting from expression of an sspB-luxAB gene fusion, to simulated martian atmospheric pressure (7-18 mbar) and composition (100% CO(2)) for up to 19 days in a Mars simulation chamber. We report here that survival was similar between spores exposed to Earth conditions and spores exposed up to 19 days to simulated martian conditions. However, germination-induced bioluminescence was lower in spores exposed to simulated martian atmosphere, which suggests sublethal impairment of some endogenous spore germination processes.

  10. Higher seed size and germination rate may favour autotetraploids of Vicia cracca L. (Fabaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliášová, A.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-73 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Vicia * autotetraploid * seed size * germination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014

  11. Survival Rate of Limb Replantation in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Urata, Shiro; Tanaka, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Takeda, Shinsuke; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Revascularization of damaged limbs/digits is technically feasible, but indications for surgical replantation remain controversial. The authors analyzed the survival rate of upper limb amputations and the associated factors in different age groups. They grouped 371 limb/digit amputees (average age, 44 years; range, 2-85 years) treated in their hospital during the past 10 years into three groups based on age (young, ≤ 15 years, n  = 12; adult, 16-64 years, n  = 302; elderly, ≥ 65 years, n  = 57) and analyzed their injury type (extent of injury and stump status), operation method, presence of medical complications (Charlson comorbidity index), and survival rate. There were 168 replantations, and the overall replantation survival rate was 93%. The Charlson comorbidity index of the replantation patients was 0 in 124 cases; 1 in 32; 2 in 9; and 3 in 3, but it did not show any significant difference in survival rate after replantation. Eight elderly patients (14%) did not opt for replantation. Younger patients tended to undergo replantation, but they had lower success rates due to their severe injury status. The results of this study show that the survival rate of replantation in elderly patients is equal to that in adults. Stump evaluation is important for survival, but the presence of medical complications is not associated with the overall survival rate.

  12. Effects of gut passage, feces, and seed handling on latency and rate of germination in seeds consumed by capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Kim; Fedigan, Linda M

    2009-04-01

    One of the key measures of the effectiveness of primary seed dispersal by animals is the quality of seed dispersal (Schupp: Plant Ecol 107/108 [1993] 15-29). We present data on quality of seed dispersal by two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica to test the hypothesis that capuchin seed handling results in effective primary dispersal for some fruit species they consume. We examined seed handling for 27 plant species, and germination rates of 18 species consumed by capuchins. For five of the most commonly swallowed seed species, we determined germination rates and average time to germination (latency) for seeds ingested and defecated by capuchins and compared these to seeds removed directly from fruit and planted. For the same five species, we compared germination rates and latency for passed seeds planted in capuchin feces to those cleaned of feces and planted in soil. For three of five species, differences in proportion of germinated seeds were significantly higher for gut passed seeds than for controls. For four of five species, germination latency was significantly faster for gut passed seeds than for controls. Feces had either no effect on seed germination rate or precluded germination. Data presented here support the hypothesis that white-faced capuchins are effective primary dispersers.

  13. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  14. Nonsurgical factors of digital replantation and survival rate A metaanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this metaanalysis was to evaluate the association between nonsurgical factors and survival rate of digital replantation. A computer search of MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE and CNKI databases was conducted to identify literatures for digital replantation, with the keywords of "digit," "finger" and "replantation" from their inception to June 10, 2014. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, data were extracted independently by two authors using piloted forms. Review Manager 5.2 software was used for data analysis. The effect of some nonsurgical factors (gender, age, amputated finger, injury mechanisms, ischemia time and the way of preservation on the survival rate of digital replantation was assessed. The metaanalysis result suggested that gender and ischemia time had no significant influence on the survival rate of amputation replantation. However, the survival rate of digital replantation of adults was significantly higher than that of children. The guillotine injury of a finger was easier to replant successfully than the crush and avulsion. The little finger was more difficult for replantation than thumb. Survival rate of fingers stored in low temperature was higher than that in common temperature. The present metaanalysis suggested that age, injury mechanism, amputated finger and the way of preservation were significantly associated with the survival rate of digital replantation.

  15. Effects of rice husks and their chars from hydrothermal carbonization on the germination rate and root length of Lepidium sativum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jürgen; Mukhina, Irina; Dicke, Christiane; Lanza, Giacomo; Kalderis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    Currently, char substrates gain a lot of interest, since they are being discussed as a component in growing media, which may become one option for the replacement of peat. Among different thermal conversion processes of biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been found to produce chars with similar acidic pH values like peat. The question however is, if these hydrochars, which may contain toxic phenolic compounds are suitable to be introduced as a new substitute for peat in horticulture. In this study rice husk were hydrothermally carbonized at 200° C for 6 hours, yielding in hydrochars containing organic contaminants such as phenols and furfurals, which may affect plants and soil organisms. We investigated potential toxic effects on the germination rate and the root length of cress salad (Lepidium sativum) in four fractions: i) soil control, ii) raw rice husk + soil, iii) unwashed rice char + soil and iv) acetone/water washed rice char + soil. It could be shown that phenols and furfurals, which were removed from the hydrochar after washing by 80 to 96% did not affect the germination rate and the root length of the cress plants. The lowest germination rate and root length were found in the soil control, the highest in the non-washed hydrochar treatment, indicating a fertilization effect and growth stimulation of cress salad by hydrochar. If this result can be confirmed for other target and non-target organisms in future studies, a new strategy for the production of growing media may be developed.

  16. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase......Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...

  17. Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D

    2003-12-01

    Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation

  18. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L. N.E.Br. on the germination, establishment and survival of native plants: a clue for assessing its competitive strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Novoa

    Full Text Available Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis' soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L. R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L. growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats.

  19. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. on the Germination, Establishment and Survival of Native Plants: A Clue for Assessing Its Competitive Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis’ soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L.) R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L.) growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats. PMID:25210924

  20. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. on the germination, establishment and survival of native plants: a clue for assessing its competitive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis' soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L.) R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L.) growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats.

  1. PREDICTORS OF OVERALL SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT NON-SEMINOMATOUS GERMINAL TESTICULAR TUMORS ON CURRENT SECOND-LINE CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define predictors that influence longevity in patients with recurrent non-seminomatous germinal testicular tumors (NGTT on standard second-line chemotherapy (CT including cisplatin and iphosphamide. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical packages Graph Pad Prism 4.00 for Windows and SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Subjects and methods. Case history data were analyzed in 693 patients with disseminated NGTT who had received current CT and followed up at the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and CT, N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The median follow-up was 32 (range 3-215 months. The disease progressed in 181 (26% patients. Detailed information was available on the nature of second-line CT in only 138 patients. Half (71 (51.7% of the 138 patients had second-line CT including iphosphamide. Uni- and multivariate analyses were made to identify predictors that influence longevity in patients with recurrent NGTT on standard secondline CT including cisplatin and iphosphamide. Results. Five-year overall survival (OS was 32% (95% confidence interval 25-41%. The multivariate analysis showed the morphological pattern of a primary tumor (a yolk sac tumor component, a pre-induction CT lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level of ?d1.5 units of the upper normal range, progression during induction CT, and a pre-second-line CT LDH level of ?d 1000 U/l to be negative predictors. According to the number of negative factors, the patients were classified into 3 groups: 1 good prognosis [n = 10 (14% of the 71 patients], 100% 3-year OS; 2 intermediate prognosis (one negative factor [n = 33 (46.5% of the 71 patients], 50.2% 3-year OS; 3 poor prognosis (?d 2 negative factors, 6.7% 3-year OS. Conclusion. Standard iphosphamide-containing therapy enables all patients to be treated in the good prognosis group of those with recurrent NGTT. That fails to achieve such striking results in the intermediate and

  2. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  3. Water application rate and frequency affect seedling survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate amount of water is critical to successful tree nursery operation among resource-constrained smallholder farmers in Africa. Two experiments were undertaken with the objectives of evaluating effects of water application rate and frequency on seedling growth and survival of Persea americana and Vangueria ...

  4. Survival rates in bankruptcy systems : overlooking the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenberg, Oscar

    2001-01-01

    Extensive research on bankruptcy still has not made it possible to end the efficiency discussion concerning the need for a reorganization provision in bankruptcy laws. In this paper, I discuss the pervasiveness of asset sales in bankruptcy procedures and the effect it has on survival rates. Without

  5. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asad; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Sharef, Sharef W.; Fazalullah, Muhammad; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Khan, Ashfaq A.; Ahmad, Masood; Kripail, Mathew; Abuanza, Mazen; Bataclan, Flordeliza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%), retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%), intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9%) and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4%) were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants. PMID:26357555

  6. [The research of Valeriana amurensis seed germination characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Yang, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Bo; Fang, Min; Du, Juan

    2011-10-01

    To study the effect of different treatments on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Used different chemical reagents and seed soakings on the routine germination test and the orthogonal test of the Valeriana amurensis seed, calculated the germination rate under different germination condition. Valeriana amurensis treated with different chemical reagends had different germination rate. The suitable immersion time could enhance Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Different treatment time, different disposal temperature, different germination temperature would have an impact on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. In order to raise the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate, use appropriate treatment on the seed before plant seeds; The seed growing must under suitable time and temperature.

  7. Data on empirically estimated corporate survival rate in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Evgeny A

    2018-02-01

    The article presents data on the corporate survival rate in Russia in 1991-2014. The empirical survey was based on a random sample with the average number of non-repeated observations (number of companies) for the survey each year equal to 75,958 (24,236 minimum and 126,953 maximum). The actual limiting mean error ∆ p was 2.24% with 99% integrity. The survey methodology was based on a cross joining of various formal periods in the corporate life cycles (legal and business), which makes it possible to talk about a conventionally active time life of companies' existence with a number of assumptions. The empirical survey values were grouped by Russian regions and industries according to the classifier and consolidated into a single database for analysing the corporate life cycle and their survival rate and searching for deviation dependencies in calculated parameters. Preliminary and incomplete figures were available in the paper entitled "Survival Rate and Lifecycle in Terms of Uncertainty: Review of Companies from Russia and Eastern Europe" (Kuzmin and Guseva, 2016) [3]. The further survey led to filtered processed data with clerical errors excluded. These particular values are available in the article. The survey intended to fill a fact-based gap in various fundamental surveys that involved matters of the corporate life cycle in Russia within the insufficient statistical framework. The data are of interest for an analysis of Russian entrepreneurship, assessment of the market development and incorporation risks in the current business environment. A further heuristic potential is achievable through an ability of forecasted changes in business demography and model building based on the representative data set.

  8. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    germination. Lastly, the application of metabolomics to barley grain germination provides essential data on biochemical processes, including insights into the formation of compounds that contribute to malt quality. To maximize the benefits of the 'omics' revolution to the malting industry, there is a need......Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...

  9. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  10. Biochemical Changes Associated with Germinating Rice Grains and Germination Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine biochemical changes during the germination of rice grains (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan and to improve germination rate using gibberellic acid and surfactants [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS (1.0 g/L and Triton-X−100 (1.0 mL/L], whole rice grains soaked in distilled water for 12 h at 30°C were germinated in the dark at 30°C for five days. The highest germination rate (77.1% was obtained on the 5th day. An increase in the content of reducing sugars from 7.3 to 58.1 mg/g DM (dry matter was observed from the 1st day of germination. Free amino acids and soluble protein contents increased to 3.69 and 5.29 mg/g DM, respectively on the 5th day of germination. Total protein content decreased from 100.5 to 91.0 g/kg DM during germination. Increases in amylolytic (1.1 to 190.0 U/g DM and proteolytic (0 to 0.12 U/g DM activities were observed during germination. Effects of different concentrations of gibberellic acid on the germination of rice grains were evaluated and 0.1 g/L was found to promote germination. When effects of gibberellic acid (0.1 g/L and surfactants were evaluated individually and together, higher germination rate was observed in the control experiment (grains germinated in distilled water, whereas giberellic acid and surfactants decreased the germination rate. Therefore, the flour obtained from the grains germinated for four days using distilled water to obtain high content of soluble materials and enzyme activities can be used in preparation of bakery items.

  11. Mutagenic effects of gamma rays on soybean (Glycine max L.) germination and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmiyati, F.; Sutarno; Sas, M. G. A.; Herwibawa, B.

    2018-01-01

    Narrow genetic diversity is a main problem restricting the progress of soybean breeding. One way to improve genetic diversity of plant is through mutation. The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of different dose of gamma rays as induced mutagen on physiological, morphological, and anatomical markers during seed germination and seedling growth of soybean. Seeds of soybean cultivars Dering-1 were irradiated with 11 doses of gamma rays (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1280, and 2560 Gy [Gray]. The research design was arranged in a completely randomized block design in three replicates. Results showed that soybean seed exposed at high doses (640, 1280, and 2560 Gy) did not survive more than 20 days, the doses were then removed from anatomical evaluation. Higher doses of gamma rays siginificantly reduced germination percentage at the first count and final count, coefficient of germination velocity, germination rate index, germination index, seedling height and seedling root length, and significantly increased mean germination time, first day of germination, last day of germination, and time spread of germination. However, the effects of gamma rays were varies for density, width, and length of stomata. The LD50 obtained based on survival percentage was 314.78 Gy. It can be concluded that very low and low doses of gamma rays (5-320 Gy) might be used to study the improvement of soybean diversity.

  12. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: analysis of epidemiological profile and survival rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Mariana Cardoso; da Silva, Denise Bousfield; Freund, Ana Paula Ferreira; Dacoregio, Juliana Shmitz; Costa, Tatiana El Jaick Bonifácio; Costa, Imaruí; Faraco, Daniel; Silva, Maurício Laerte

    2016-01-01

    To describe the epidemiological profile and the survival rate of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a state reference pediatric hospital. Clinical-epidemiological, observational, retrospective, descriptive study. The study included new cases of patients with AML, diagnosed between 2004 and 2012, younger than 15 years. Of the 51 patients studied, 84% were white; 45% were females and 55%, males. Regarding age, 8% were younger than 1 year, 47% were aged between 1 and 10 years, and 45% were older than 10 years. The main signs/symptoms were fever (41.1%), asthenia/lack of appetite (35.2%), and hemorrhagic manifestations (27.4%). The most affected extra-medullary site was the central nervous system (14%). In 47% of patients, the white blood cell (WBC) count was below 10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis. The minimal residual disease (MRD) was less than 0.1%, on the 15th day of treatment in 16% of the sample. Medullary relapse occurred in 14% of cases. When comparing the bone marrow MRD with the vital status, it was observed that 71.42% of the patients with type M3 AML were alive, as were 54.05% of those with non-M3 AML. The death rate was 43% and the main proximate cause was septic shock (63.6%). In this study, the majority of patients were male, white, and older than 1 year. Most patients with WBC count <10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis lived. Overall survival was higher in patients with MRD <0.1%. The prognosis was better in patients with AML-M3. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced seed germination in Arabidopsis over-expressing SWI/SNF2 ATPase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeggangers, Hendrika A C F; Folta, Adam; Muras, Aleksandra; Nap, Jan-Peter; Mlynarova, Ludmila

    2015-02-01

    In the life of flowering plants, seed germination is a critical step to ensure survival into the next generation. Generally the seed prior to germination has been in a dormant state with a low rate of metabolism. In the transition from a dormant seed to a germinating seed, various epigenetic mechanisms play a regulatory role. Here, we demonstrate that the over-expression of chromatin remodeling ATPase genes (AtCHR12 or AtCHR23) reduced the frequency of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana up to 30% relative to the wild-type seeds. On the other hand, single loss-of-function mutations of the two genes did not affect seed germination. The reduction of germination in over-expressing mutants was more pronounced in stress conditions (salt or high temperature), showing the impact of the environment. Reduced germinations upon over-expression coincided with increased transcript levels of seed maturation genes and with reduced degradation of their mRNAs stored in dry seeds. Our results indicate that repression of AtCHR12/23 gene expression in germinating wild-type Arabidopsis seeds is required for full germination. This establishes a functional link between chromatin modifiers and regulatory networks towards seed maturation and germination. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Aberrant Meiotic Modulation Partially Contributes to the Lower Germination Rate of Pollen Grains in Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Low Nitrogen Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongyan; Wu, Huamao; Pan, Xiaoying; Jin, Weiwei; Li, Xuexian

    2017-02-01

    Pollen germination is an essential step towards successful pollination during maize reproduction. How low niutrogen (N) affects pollen germination remains an interesting biological question to be addressed. We found that only low N resulted in a significantly lower germination rate of pollen grains after 4 weeks of low N, phosphorus or potassium treatment in maize production. Importantly, cytological analysis showed 7-fold more micronuclei in male meiocytes under the low N treatment than in the control, indicating that the lower germination rate of pollen grains was partially due to numerous chromosome loss events resulting from preceding meiosis. The appearance of 10 bivalents in the control and low N cells at diakinesis suggested that chromosome pairing and recombination in meiosis I was not affected by low N. Further gene expression analysis revealed dramatic down-regulation of Nuclear Division Cycle 80 (Ndc80) and Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1 (Rcc1-1) expression and up-regulation of Cell Division Cycle 20 (Cdc20-1) expression, although no significant difference in the expression level of kinetochore foundation proteins Centromeric Histone H3 (Cenh3) and Centromere Protein C (Cenpc) and cohesion regulators Recombination 8 (Rec8) and Shugoshin (Sgo1) was observed. Aberrant modulation of three key meiotic regulators presumably resulted in a high likelihood of erroneous chromosome segregation, as testified by pronounced lagging chromosomes at anaphase I or cell cycle disruption at meiosis II. Thus, we proposed a cytogenetic mechanism whereby low N affects male meiosis and causes a higher chromosome loss frequency and eventually a lower germination rate of pollen grains in a staple crop plant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Outcomes of chronic dialysis in Korean children with respect to survival rates and causes of death

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hye Jin; Han, Kyoung Hee; Cho, Min Hyun; Park, Young Seo; Kang, Hee Gyung; Cheong, Hae Il; Ha, Il Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Adult Korean patients on chronic dialysis have a 9-year survival rate of 50%, with cardiovascular problems being the most significant cause of death. The 2011 annual report of the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies group reported 3-year survival rates of 93.4% and relatively poorer survival in younger patients. Methods In this study, we have reviewed data from Korean Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Registry from 2002 to 2010 to assess survival rates and c...

  16. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-25

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells.

  17. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells. PMID:28120926

  18. on seed germination and growth of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... Seed germination tests: After 72 h of fermentation in plastic bags, seeds were ... Models (GLM) procedure of the R statistical version 9.1 was used to identify traits .... L-1) had accelerated seed germination. Germination rates.

  19. Effects of soil quality and depth on seed germination and seedling survival at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, K.W.; Lyon, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended in 1987, directs the US Department of Energy (DOE) to study Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a potential site for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. DOE policy mandates the restoration of all lands disturbed by site characterization activities and DOE has developed an environmental program that is to be implemented during site characterization activities at Yucca.Mountain. DOE is currently conducting reclamation feasibility trials as part of this environmental program. No topsoil was saved on disturbances during early site investigation and minimal soil remains at existing disturbances on Yucca Mountain. A study was developed to test the effects of soil quality and depth on seedling emergence and survival. A series of plots was established and two treatments were tested. The first treatment compared native topsoil to subsoil imported from a borrow pit. The second treatment compared four different depth ranges of both soil types. All plots received identical seeding treatments. Seedling density was measured after emergence. Overall seedling densities were low, averaging 10.3 ± 8.8 (SD) plants/m 2 . Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the two treatment factors. The subsoil had increasing densities from the deep soil depths to the shallow depths while the topsoil had increasing densities from the shallow soil depths to the deep depths. The cause of this interaction may have resulted from the bedrock being close to the soil surface of the shallow plots

  20. Cancer survival for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a national study of survival rates and excess mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, John R; Zhang, Xiaohua; Baade, Peter; Griffiths, Kalinda; Cunningham, Joan; Roder, David M; Coory, Michael; Jelfs, Paul L; Threlfall, Tim

    2014-01-31

    National cancer survival statistics are available for the total Australian population but not Indigenous Australians, although their cancer mortality rates are known to be higher than those of other Australians. We aimed to validate analysis methods and report cancer survival rates for Indigenous Australians as the basis for regular national reporting. We used national cancer registrations data to calculate all-cancer and site-specific relative survival for Indigenous Australians (compared with non-Indigenous Australians) diagnosed in 2001-2005. Because of limited availability of Indigenous life tables, we validated and used cause-specific survival (rather than relative survival) for proportional hazards regression to analyze time trends and regional variation in all-cancer survival between 1991 and 2005. Survival was lower for Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians for all cancers combined and for many cancer sites. The excess mortality of Indigenous people with cancer was restricted to the first three years after diagnosis, and greatest in the first year. Survival was lower for rural and remote than urban residents; this disparity was much greater for Indigenous people. Survival improved between 1991 and 2005 for non-Indigenous people (mortality decreased by 28%), but to a much lesser extent for Indigenous people (11%) and only for those in remote areas; cancer survival did not improve for urban Indigenous residents. Cancer survival is lower for Indigenous than other Australians, for all cancers combined and many individual cancer sites, although more accurate recording of Indigenous status by cancer registers is required before the extent of this disadvantage can be known with certainty. Cancer care for Indigenous Australians needs to be considerably improved; cancer diagnosis, treatment, and support services need to be redesigned specifically to be accessible and acceptable to Indigenous people.

  1. Dormancy and germination in short-lived lepidium perfoliatu l. (brassicaceae) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, An-Jun; Tian, M.; Long, Chun-Lin

    2010-01-01

    To understand germination timing in an ecological context, the response to environmental events that effect seed dormancy is central and has to be combined with knowledge of germination responses to different ecological factors. In this study, seed dormancy, germination and seedling survival of annual short-lived clasping pepper weed Lepidium perfoliatum L. (Brassicaceae) were investigated. Three types of pre-treatments viz., various temperature dry storage, light and water stress were tested as possible dormancy and survival-affecting environmental events. Fresh mature seeds were greatly dormant. Warm (30 deg. C) dry storage more facilitated breaking dormancy, they germinated well under apt conditions (e.g. 20 deg. C and 10/20 deg. C plus periodic light, 14 h/d). For those seeds which underwent after-ripening, they could germinate at a range of constant temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 deg. C) and one alternating temperature (10/20 deg. C). Under alternating temperature regimes, the final percent germination of L. perfoliatum seeds increased from 37 deg. C to 93% when temperature altered from 4/10 deg. C to 10/20 deg. C in light, then decreased with increasing temperature. The germination pattern under constant temperature conditions was similar to that under alternating temperature and significant differences in final percent germinations and rates of germination were observed among different temperatures. Under different light treatments, final germination of showed significant differences, only with 35% of germination percentage in dark, much lower than those in red and white light (i.e. 93% and 91%, respectively). GA3 could promote the germination of non-dormant seeds in dark. When water potentials were reduced, final percent germination decreased dramatically, and few seeds germinated at -0.98 MPa (generated by PEG-8000). The changes of proline content in resultant seedlings were reverse to that of final percent germination with changing water

  2. Effect of 60Co γ-irradiation on germination rate of corms and selection of a higher temperature-tolerance mutant 'zf893' of Crocus sativus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiaosheng; Wang Zhiping; Pan Jianyong; Li Xuebing; Xu Bujin; Zou Fenglian; Lu Gang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation on germination rate of corms of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were studied and the results were as follows: (1) The corm germination rate raised with the corm fresh weight M (g) increasing, and the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays, the typical radiation effect of dose on germination rate were obtained, and the semi-lethal dose (D 50 ) for the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays and the stigma productivity of ZF893 was 1.3 times as that of the parent, for the field growing period, total weight of daughter corms and flower numbers of ZF893 were 22%, 27% and 30% higher than that of the parent, respectively. (4) The soluble protein SDS-PAGE patterns between ZF893 and it's parent were very similar, but the 54.8kD bands were much stronger in ZF893 and the 20.9 kD bands which were clear in ZF893, but were nearly absent in it's parent. (authors)

  3. Optical sensing method to analyze germination rate of Capsicum annum seeds treated with growth-promoting chemical compounds using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-09-01

    Seed germination rate differs based on chemical treatments, and nondestructive measurements of germination rate have become an essential requirement in the field of agriculture. Seed scientists and other biologists are interested in optical sensing technologies-based biological discoveries due to nondestructive detection capability. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently emerged as a powerful method for biological and plant material discoveries. We report an extended application of OCT by monitoring the germination rate acceleration of chemically primed seeds. To validate the versatility of the method, Capsicum annum seeds were primed using three chemical compounds: sterile distilled water (SDW), butandiol, and 1-hexadecene. Monitoring was performed using a 1310-nm swept source OCT system. The results confirmed more rapid morphological variations in the seeds treated with 1-hexadecene medium than the seeds treated with SDW and butandiol within 8 consecutive days. In addition, fresh weight measurements (gold standard) of seeds were monitored for 15 days, and the obtained results were correlated with the OCT results. Thus, such a method can be used in various agricultural fields, and OCT shows potential as a rigorous sensing method for selecting the optimal plant growth-promoting chemical compounds rapidly, when compared with the gold standard methods.

  4. IV. Effect of 60Co gamma rays on survival rate of China aster plants (Callistephus chinensis Nees in M1 generations - under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wosińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were undertaken on the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on survival rate of plants (germinated from irradiated seeds for 5 China aster varieties specified at florescence time. During their growth under field conditions (from planting time to blooming lethal effect of the radiation occurred in plants of all varieties and its level depended on dose and variety. Effect of 3 kR and 6 kR doses differed depending on variety and was not always harmful, but following irradiation with doses exceeding 6 kR a considerable decrease in survival rate was observed. Radioresistance of studied varieties - measured both: by LD50 and LDl00 - differed; depending on variety, LD50 and LDl00 values fluctuated: from 6 to 9 kR and 12 to 15 kR respectively.

  5. Using In Situ Symbiotic Seed Germination to Restore Over-collected Medicinal Orchids in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shi-Cheng; Burgess, Kevin S; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Liu, Qiang; Fan, Xu-Li; Huang, Hui; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing demand for medicinal and horticultural uses, the Orchidaceae is in urgent need of innovative and novel propagation techniques that address both market demand and conservation. Traditionally, restoration techniques have been centered on ex situ asymbiotic or symbiotic seed germination techniques that are not cost-effective, have limited genetic potential and often result in low survival rates in the field. Here, we propose a novel in situ advanced restoration-friendly program for the endangered epiphytic orchid species Dendrobium devonianum , in which a series of in situ symbiotic seed germination trials base on conspecific fungal isolates were conducted at two sites in Yunnan Province, China. We found that percentage germination varied among treatments and locations; control treatments (no inoculum) did not germinate at both sites. We found that the optimal treatment, having the highest in situ seed germination rate (0.94-1.44%) with no significant variation among sites, supported a warm, moist and fixed site that allowed for light penetration. When accounting for seed density, percentage germination was highest (2.78-2.35%) at low densities and did not vary among locations for the treatment that supported optimal conditions. Similarly for the same treatment, seed germination ranged from 0.24 to 5.87% among seasons but also did vary among sites. This study reports on the cultivation and restoration of an endangered epiphytic orchid species by in situ symbiotic seed germination and is likely to have broad application to the horticulture and conservation of the Orchidaceae.

  6. Describing phytotoxic effects on cumulative germination

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Phytotoxic studies strongly depend on evaluation of germination responses, which implies the need for adequate procedures to account for distinct aspects of the germinative process. For this, indices, comparisons among treatments at various times, and model fitting have been proposed. The objective of this work is to compare the three approaches and select the one providing greater insight and precision. Speed of germination, speed of accumulated germination, the coefficient of the rate of ge...

  7. DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and maintains genome stability in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Footitt, Steven; Bray, Clifford M; Finch-Savage, William E; West, Christopher E

    2016-08-23

    Genome integrity is crucial for cellular survival and the faithful transmission of genetic information. The eukaryotic cellular response to DNA damage is orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination. We demonstrate that double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rate-limiting for germination. We identify that desiccation tolerant seeds exhibit a striking transcriptional DSB damage response during germination, indicative of high levels of genotoxic stress, which is induced following maturation drying and quiescence. Mutant atr and atm seeds are highly resistant to aging, establishing ATM and ATR as determinants of seed viability. In response to aging, ATM delays germination, whereas atm mutant seeds germinate with extensive chromosomal abnormalities. This identifies ATM as a major factor that controls germination in aged seeds, integrating progression through germination with surveillance of genome integrity. Mechanistically, ATM functions through control of DNA replication in imbibing seeds. ATM signaling is mediated by transcriptional control of the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED 5, an essential factor required for the aging-induced delay to germination. In the soil seed bank, seeds exhibit increased transcript levels of ATM and ATR, with changes in dormancy and germination potential modulated by environmental signals, including temperature and soil moisture. Collectively, our findings reveal physiological functions for these sensor kinases in linking genome integrity to germination, thereby influencing seed quality, crucial for plant survival in the natural environment and sustainable crop production.

  8. Survival and mortality rates among Danes with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Stenager, Egon; Hansen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Long-term survival and trends in overall and cause-specific excess mortality among people with MS have been studied using the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, which contains information about all Danish MS patients since the mid-20th Century. A total of 4254 deaths among approximately 10......,000 people with MS, representing more than 200,000 person-years of observation, have been analysed. Overall, mortality was almost three times higher and life expectancy 10 years less among people with MS than for the general population. However, excess mortality has declined significantly since 1950....

  9. Effects of sand burial and seed size on seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling biomass of anabasis aphylla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.T.; Chu, G.M.; Jiang, P.; Wang, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to test the effects of sand burial (0-2 cm) and seed size (small, medium and large) on seed germination and seedling growth of Anabasis aphylla, which is typically used as a windbreak and for the fixation of sand in the Gurbantunggut desert of Xinjiang, region of northwest China. The results showed that sand burial significantly affected seed germination, seedling emergence, survival and biomass of A. aphylla. The seed germination rate, seedling emergence rate, seedling survival rate and biomass were highest at the 0.2 and 0.5 cm sand burial depths. At different burial depths, different sizes of A. aphylla seed showed a significant difference in the germination and emergence rate. At the same sand burial depth, the seedling emergence rate of the large seeds was significantly higher than that of medium and small seeds. At sand burial depth of 0.2-2 cm, germination of large seeds and seedling survival rates were significantly higher than those at the same sand burial depth for medium seed germination, and the latter was significantly higher than for small seed. We speculate that tolerance to sand burial and diversity of seed size increased the adaption of A. aphylla to this environment, contributing to its dominance in the windy and sandy area of Gurbantunggut desert. (author)

  10. Seed colour affects light and temperature requirements during germination in two Lotus species (Fabaceae) of the Arabian subtropical deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Arvind; Gairola, Sanjay; El-Keblawy, Ali A

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneity in seeds mostly occurs due to physiological, environmental and genetic factors, and these could affect seed dormancy and germination. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of seed colour on germination behavior. For this, both light and temperature requirements were assessed in Lotus glinoides and Lotus halophilus (Fabaceae) from the hyper-arid deserts of the United Arab Emirates. Germination was assessed in terms of both final germination level (percentage) and germination rate, as expressed by Timson’s germination velocity index. Lotus glinoides produces black and yellow-colored seeds, and L. halophilus produces green and yellow seeds. Different seed lots were germinated in both light and darkness at different temperatures. Yellow seeds of the two species attained significantly lower germination, compared to black and green seeds. There was no specific light or temperature requirements for the germination of the two coloured seeds of L. glinoides; the effect of interactions between seed colour and both light and incubation temperature, were not significant on the final germination percentage. In L. halophilus, green seeds germinated significantly more in both light and darkness at lower temperatures (15/25 °C) and in light at higher temperatures (25/35 °C), compared to yellow seeds. Yellow seeds germinated faster, compared to black at 15/25 °C in L. glinoides and compared to green seeds at 15/25 °C and 25/35 °C in L. halophilus. Seed colour variation, at least in L. halophilus, could be a survival strategy that would determine the time of germination throughout the year in the unpredictable desert environment.

  11. High-Throughput Scoring of Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of seed germination for phenotyping large genetic populations or mutant collections is very labor intensive and would highly benefit from an automated setup. Although very often used, the total germination percentage after a nominated period of time is not very informative as it lacks information about start, rate, and uniformity of germination, which are highly indicative of such traits as dormancy, stress tolerance, and seed longevity. The calculation of cumulative germination curves requires information about germination percentage at various time points. We developed the GERMINATOR package: a simple, highly cost-efficient, and flexible procedure for high-throughput automatic scoring and evaluation of germination that can be implemented without the use of complex robotics. The GERMINATOR package contains three modules: (I) design of experimental setup with various options to replicate and randomize samples; (II) automatic scoring of germination based on the color contrast between the protruding radicle and seed coat on a single image; and (III) curve fitting of cumulative germination data and the extraction, recap, and visualization of the various germination parameters. GERMINATOR is a freely available package that allows the monitoring and analysis of several thousands of germination tests, several times a day by a single person.

  12. Effect of EI-treatment in relation to physiological and biochemical traits in rice: delay in germination and its recovery with provision of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Hasegawa, H.; Hori, S.

    1975-01-01

    Rice seeds treated with 0.2 to 1.2 v/v % of ethyleneimine (EI) demonstrated increasingly delayed germination concomitant with increasing dose. At the time of germination, the release of storage products was slightly inhibited at lower doses and completely reduced at higher doses. With increasing time after germination the development of shoot length, content of reducing sugar and free amino acid, and synthesis of nucleic acid and protein in treated seeds, showed the same response pattern as the control, although at reduced levels in the treated seeds. Consequently, it is interpreted that the delay of germination is due to physiological dormancy, i.e. impaired release of dormancy which would normally yield active forms of enzymes. When treated seeds were cultured in [ 14 C]-glucose medium, the specific activity of [ 14 C]-glucose was higher in late-germinating seeds than in early-germinating seeds. Furthermore, the provision of glucose prevented the delay of germination, resulting in about a 10% increase in germination rate (survival rate), and yet had no effect on subsequent growth. Finally, it is concluded that the damage resulting in delayed germination and reduction of survival differs from the damage leading to inhibition of subsequent growth in that the former can be compensated for by provision of glucose while the latter cannot. (author)

  13. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, A.T.; Johnson, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We used four reasonably large samples (83-213) of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) nests on an interstate highway right-of-way in southcentral North Dakota to evaluate potential biases in hatch-rate estimates. Twelve consecutive, weekly searches for nests were conducted with a cable-chain drag in 1976 and 1977. Nests were revisited at weekly intervals. Four methods were used to estimate hatch rates for the four data sets: the Traditional Method, the Mayfield Method, and two modifications of the Mayfield Method that are sometimes appropriate when daily mortality rates of nests are not constant. Hatch rates and the average age of nests at discovery declined as the interval between searches decreased, suggesting that mortality rates were not constant in our samples. An analysis of variance indicated that daily mortality rates varied with the age of nests in all four samples. Mortality was generally highest during the early laying period, moderately high during the late laying period, and lowest during incubation. We speculate that this relationship of mortality to nest age might be due to the presence of hens at nests or to differences in the vulnerability of nest sites to predation. A modification of the Mayfield Method that accounts for age-related variation in nest mortality was most appropriate for our samples. We suggest methods for conducting nesting studies and estimating nest success for species possessing similar nesting habits.

  14. Survival rate of breast cancer patients in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nor Aini; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Muhammad, Nor Asiah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ibrahim, Lailanor; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.

  15. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PACHECO Anna Luisa de Brito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE and Vitro Molar (DFL. A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%. There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98–2.62, p = 0.058. The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%. Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  16. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

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    Bernt Rønning

    Full Text Available The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR, as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (P<0.1. Thus, the effect of BMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  17. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Berntsen, Henrik H; Noreen, Elin; Bech, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR), as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age) and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (PBMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  18. Effect of gamma rays on growth and survival of three mustard varieties in M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamala, T.; Rao, R.N.B.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on germination, survival percentage, seedling height, leaf length and breadth, and growth rate in three mustard varieties were studied in M 1 generation. Seeds were exposed to 15, 30, 45, 60 and 80 Kr doses for the study. Germinations and survival percentages and seedling height showed dose-dependent decrease, while growth rate, leaf length and breadth increased at 60, 45 and 30 Kr and decreased at 80 Kr, though varietal differences were observed. (M.G.B.)

  19. Evaluation of Strains of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana against Spodoptera litura on the Basis of Their Virulence, Germination Rate, Conidia Production, Radial Growth and Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlamul, Wanida; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2012-06-01

    Ten strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were evaluated to find the most effective strain for optimization studies. The first criterion tested for strain selection was the mortality (> 50%) of Spodoptera litura larvae after inoculation of the fungus for 4 days. Results on several bioassays revealed that B. bassiana BNBCRC showed the most virulence on mortality S. litura larvae (80% mortality). B. bassiana BNBCRC also showed the highest germination rate (72.22%). However, its conidia yield (7.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL) was lower than those of B. bassiana B 14841 (8.3 × 10(8) conidia/mL) and M. anisopliae M6 (8.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL). The highest accumulative radial growth was obtained from the strain B14841 (37.10 mm/day) while the strain BNBCRC showed moderate radial growth (24.40 mm/day). M. anisopliae M6 possessed the highest protease activity (145.00 mU/mL) while M. anisopliae M8 possessed the highest chitinase activity (20.00 mU/mL) during 96~144 hr cultivation. Amongst these criteria, selection based on virulence and germination rate lead to the selection of B. bassiana BNBCRC. B. bassiana B14841 would be selected if based on growth rate while M. anisopliae M6 and M8 possessed the highest enzyme activities.

  20. SURVIVAL RATES IN ORAL CANCER PATIENTS – A 10-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Tonchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and presents a serious health problem in countries with higher alcohol consumption and smoking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the survival rates of patients with oral cancer diagnosed at a single center in Bulgaria. The clinical records of patients with oral cancer admitted to the Clinic of Maxillofacial surgery, University Hospital “St. George”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, from 2004 till 2013 were reviewed. Additional information about follow-up was obtained from the Regional Complex Oncological Centre (RCOC. Data about patient and tumor characteristics – age, sex, site of cancer, stage, degree of differentiation and survival rates were analyzed. The overall 5-year survival rate was 36% while the disease-specific survival rate was 45%. The highest chance for survival was for upper lip (66% while the lowest was for retromolar trigone (0%. Overall survival rate depended also on the stage and grade of differentiation of the tumor. The study confirmed that oral cancer remains serious problem in terms of risk factors, delayed diagnosis, and overall survival rates.

  1. Estimation of survival rates and abundance of green turtles along the U.S. West Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine abundance and survival rates of the east Pacific green turtles in the northern most foraging grounds, the turtle research groups at SWFSC have been...

  2. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Survival rate is an essential component of population dynamics; therefore, identification of variation in mortality rates and the factors that influence them might be of key importance in understanding why populations increase or decrease. In Denmark, the Little Owl Athene noctua, a species...... the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... the breeding season. In radio-tagged adults and fledged juveniles, accidents in buildings and other human infrastructures were responsible for two-thirds of all fatalities. Anthropogenic habitats currently comprise the nesting and roosting habitats for the last Danish Little Owls. The accidental deaths...

  3. Ecological implications and environment dependence of the seed germination of common species in cold deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.Y.; Tong, L.; Chi, L.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation is increasingly affected by climate change in cold deserts. Nonetheless, research is limited regarding the natural environmental demands of seed germination in such deserts. This study was conducted in Gurbantunggut Desert as a research base and 17 common species as subjects to investigate the moisture and temperature needs of seed germination in artificial settings, as well as the relationship between characteristics of seed germination and the local distribution of dune and shrubs. Results showed:(1) all tested species generally display low germination percentages that range between 2.9% and 79.6%. Winter snow melt dictates seed germination in cold deserts. Moreover, the subsequent spring rainfall can increase the survival rate of seedlings and significantly affect the process of seed germination. (2) seeds start to germinate only two days after snow melts at the average daily temperature (day/night) of 3.5 degree C (6.7 degree C/-0.5 degree C) and at a soil volumetric water content of 24.2%. Fifteen days after snow melt, all species germinate when the soil volumetric water content is 6.0% and the average daily temperature is 12.9 degree C (18.3 degree C/7.1 degree C). (3) The seed germination of the tested species can be divided into four patterns: rapid, transitional, slow, and low. Low-pattern plants mainly grow on upper dunes and are significantly associated with shrubs. Rapid- and slow-pattern plants distribute in middle and lower dunes. A few of these plants are significantly associated with shrubs. Transitional-pattern plants generally develop in the low land between hills and middle dunes. This study provides a reference for the actual environmental needs of seed germination in cold deserts and for the temperature and moisture requirements of this process in future experimental settings. (author)

  4. Seed vigor and germination of facheiro plants (Pilosocereus catingicola (Gurke Byles & Rowley Subsp. Salvadorensis (Werderm. Zappi (Cactaceae at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Luis Silva de Medeiros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several species of endemic Cactaceae are found in northeastern Brazil, which are important plants to the local fauna and flora; nevertheless, there are only a few studies assessing the germination of this plant genus. Understanding the germination of species native to the Caatinga is essential to subsidize conservation actions for such ecosystem. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of three localities and different temperatures on the vigor and germination of facheiro seeds. The experiment was conducted by evaluating seed vigor and germination in three distinct areas (Arara, Bananeiras, and Boa Vista at different temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 20-30 ºC. Quantitative data were submitted to polynomial regression analysis at 5% significance with four replicates of 50 seeds. In Arara, germination rates at 20 and 25 ºC reached 96% and, at 30 ºC, 86%. The temperatures of 25 and 30 ºC presented the best germination speed index. For the three studied areas, the highest germination rates were recorded at a constant temperature of 25 ºC and at the alternating temperature (20-30 ºC. Yet the highest germination speed was reached at 30 ºC. Based on its sexual propagation, the taxon in question is able to survive in environments with temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 ºC, as seen in the studied habitats.

  5. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  6. Dose-rate dependent stochastic effects in radiation cell-survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.K.; Hlatky, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    When cells are subjected to ionizing radiation the specific energy rate (microscopic analog of dose-rate) varies from cell to cell. Within one cell, this rate fluctuates during the course of time; a crossing of a sensitive cellular site by a high energy charged particle produces many ionizations almost simultaneously, but during the interval between events no ionizations occur. In any cell-survival model one can incorporate the effect of such fluctuations without changing the basic biological assumptions. Using stochastic differential equations and Monte Carlo methods to take into account stochastic effects we calculated the dose-survival rfelationships in a number of current cell survival models. Some of the models assume quadratic misrepair; others assume saturable repair enzyme systems. It was found that a significant effect of random fluctuations is to decrease the theoretically predicted amount of dose-rate sparing. In the limit of low dose-rates neglecting the stochastic nature of specific energy rates often leads to qualitatively misleading results by overestimating the surviving fraction drastically. In the opposite limit of acute irradiation, analyzing the fluctuations in rates merely amounts to analyzing fluctuations in total specific energy via the usual microdosimetric specific energy distribution function, and neglecting fluctuations usually underestimates the surviving fraction. The Monte Carlo methods interpolate systematically between the low dose-rate and high dose-rate limits. As in other approaches, the slope of the survival curve at low dose-rates is virtually independent of dose and equals the initial slope of the survival curve for acute radiation. (orig.)

  7. Survival behavior in the cyclic Lotka-Volterra model with a randomly switching reaction rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; Mobilia, Mauro; Rucklidge, Alastair M.

    2018-02-01

    We study the influence of a randomly switching reproduction-predation rate on the survival behavior of the nonspatial cyclic Lotka-Volterra model, also known as the zero-sum rock-paper-scissors game, used to metaphorically describe the cyclic competition between three species. In large and finite populations, demographic fluctuations (internal noise) drive two species to extinction in a finite time, while the species with the smallest reproduction-predation rate is the most likely to be the surviving one (law of the weakest). Here we model environmental (external) noise by assuming that the reproduction-predation rate of the strongest species (the fastest to reproduce and predate) in a given static environment randomly switches between two values corresponding to more and less favorable external conditions. We study the joint effect of environmental and demographic noise on the species survival probabilities and on the mean extinction time. In particular, we investigate whether the survival probabilities follow the law of the weakest and analyze their dependence on the external noise intensity and switching rate. Remarkably, when, on average, there is a finite number of switches prior to extinction, the survival probability of the predator of the species whose reaction rate switches typically varies nonmonotonically with the external noise intensity (with optimal survival about a critical noise strength). We also outline the relationship with the case where all reaction rates switch on markedly different time scales.

  8. Survival behavior in the cyclic Lotka-Volterra model with a randomly switching reaction rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; Mobilia, Mauro; Rucklidge, Alastair M

    2018-02-01

    We study the influence of a randomly switching reproduction-predation rate on the survival behavior of the nonspatial cyclic Lotka-Volterra model, also known as the zero-sum rock-paper-scissors game, used to metaphorically describe the cyclic competition between three species. In large and finite populations, demographic fluctuations (internal noise) drive two species to extinction in a finite time, while the species with the smallest reproduction-predation rate is the most likely to be the surviving one (law of the weakest). Here we model environmental (external) noise by assuming that the reproduction-predation rate of the strongest species (the fastest to reproduce and predate) in a given static environment randomly switches between two values corresponding to more and less favorable external conditions. We study the joint effect of environmental and demographic noise on the species survival probabilities and on the mean extinction time. In particular, we investigate whether the survival probabilities follow the law of the weakest and analyze their dependence on the external noise intensity and switching rate. Remarkably, when, on average, there is a finite number of switches prior to extinction, the survival probability of the predator of the species whose reaction rate switches typically varies nonmonotonically with the external noise intensity (with optimal survival about a critical noise strength). We also outline the relationship with the case where all reaction rates switch on markedly different time scales.

  9. Chest compression rates and survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ahamed H; Guffey, Danielle; Pepe, Paul E; Brown, Siobhan P; Brooks, Steven C; Callaway, Clifton W; Christenson, Jim; Davis, Daniel P; Daya, Mohamud R; Gray, Randal; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Larsen, Jonathan; Lin, Steve; Menegazzi, James J; Sheehan, Kellie; Sopko, George; Stiell, Ian; Nichol, Graham; Aufderheide, Tom P

    2015-04-01

    Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend a chest compression rate of at least 100 compressions/min. A recent clinical study reported optimal return of spontaneous circulation with rates between 100 and 120/min during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the relationship between compression rate and survival is still undetermined. Prospective, observational study. Data is from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Prehospital Resuscitation IMpedance threshold device and Early versus Delayed analysis clinical trial. Adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated by emergency medical service providers. None. Data were abstracted from monitor-defibrillator recordings for the first five minutes of emergency medical service cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Multiple logistic regression assessed odds ratio for survival by compression rate categories (compression fraction and depth, first rhythm, and study site. Compression rate data were available for 10,371 patients; 6,399 also had chest compression fraction and depth data. Age (mean±SD) was 67±16 years. Chest compression rate was 111±19 per minute, compression fraction was 0.70±0.17, and compression depth was 42±12 mm. Circulation was restored in 34%; 9% survived to hospital discharge. After adjustment for covariates without chest compression depth and fraction (n=10,371), a global test found no significant relationship between compression rate and survival (p=0.19). However, after adjustment for covariates including chest compression depth and fraction (n=6,399), the global test found a significant relationship between compression rate and survival (p=0.02), with the reference group (100-119 compressions/min) having the greatest likelihood for survival. After adjustment for chest compression fraction and depth, compression rates between 100 and 120 per minute were associated with greatest survival to hospital discharge.

  10. Effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on germination and seedling growth of Hibiscus syriacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiufen; Wu Fulan; Zhang Deshun; Meng Zhennong; Cao Jiyun

    2009-01-01

    The seeds of Hibiscus syria cus were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at dose rate of 50 ∼ 500Gy/h for 0.5 and 1h, the seed germination rate and the seedling growth characters were surveyed. The results indicated that the seed germination was promoted when the absorbed dose was below 200Gy, and the seedling survival rate was increased when the dose was below 100Gy. The germination was inhibited, leaves and secondary roots were difficult to form, and the seedlings blasting occurred when the dose was over 200Gy. The dose rate affects the irradiation results. Absorbed dosed of 50 ∼ 100Gy were suggested for increasing seedling growth rate and 100 ∼ 200Gy were recommend for mutagenesis. (authors)

  11. SURVIVAL RATE PENYANDANG HIPERTENSI DENGAN KONSUMSI NATRIUM RENDAH TERHADAP KEJADIAN STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekowati Rahajeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Several studies have shown that stroke can be prevented through modifiable risk factors. The adequate treatment of hypertension may reduce the risk of stroke. Lifestyle modification such as reducing salt intake in hypertension management have demonstrated lowering blood pressure, enhancing the effectiveness of antihypertension drugs and also reducing stroke risk. This study aims to verify the survival rate of hypertension with lower sodium intake (<2000 mg per day on the incidence of stroke. The study was conducted through a prospective cohort study (4 years of follow-up in 1082 people with confirmed hypertension. Stroke were confirmed by neurologist. The consumption of sodium, sugar and fat were collected through 24-hour dietary recall. Hypertension survival rate was calculated using Life Table Survival analysis. This study has demonstrated evidence of the higher survival rate of hypertension with low sodium intake on the incidence of stroke, with the difference 2-year survival rate is 3 percent higher and 4-year survival rate is 5 percent higher. Sodium consumption of <2000 mg per day in people with hypertension has prevented a 78 percent incidence of stroke. Therefore, the intervention programs to reduce of the consumption of salt or sodium in Indonesia should be prioritized.

  12. Comparison of survival rates among different treatment methods of transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Yong Woon; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Do Yun; Jun, Pyoung Jun; Chang, So Yong [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    To compare the survival rates of patients with hepatoma using different methods of transcatheter arterial chemoemblization(THAE). Four hundred and eighty three patients with hepatoma diagnosed by biopsy, serum alpha-fetoprotein, abdominal CT scan, abdominal ultrasonography or hepatic angiography were included, but not all had received surgical treatment. They were divided onto two groups according to Child's classification and into subgroups according to different methods of THAE. Five-tear survival rates among these groups were retrospectively compared. The patients were aged between 24 and 85(mean, 58) ; male to female ratio was 324 : 61 for those who received THAE (369 : 87 when only hepatic angiography was considered.). In the group with more than a single episode of chemoembolization, regardless of Child's classification, a better survival rate compared to the other groups with or without concommitant radiotherapy or without chemoembolization was noted. There was no difference in the survival rate of patients with multiple chemoembolization. moreover, no difference in this rate was observed no matter what chemotherapeutic agents, including Adriamycin, Cis-Diaminedichloroplatinum of I-131-Lipiodol, were used. Amortization by gelfoam in conjuction with Adriamycin resulted in no difference in survival rate regardless of frequency of chemoembolization. An improved survival rate was seen when multiple episodes of chemoembolization were applied, but no difference was seen when there was concomitant application of either gelfoam or radiotherapy. Two different chemotherapeutic agents, Adriamycin and Cis-Diaminedichloroplatinum, were used, but there was no difference between them in their effect on survival rates.

  13. The survival rate of self-immolators in Kermanshah Province 2010- 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Najafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-immolation is one of the most violent methods of suicide, which is spreading in Iran. The highest rate of deaths due to committing suicide and self-immolation in Iran is observed in Kermanshah province. This research was conducted to study the survival rate and the factors that influence survival among the ones who commit self-immolation in Kermanshah province. Methods: In this study, all the cases who did not survive, as well as all the ones who were hospitalized due to self-immolation in Kermanshah province during 2010 and 2011 were examined. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival function, and in order to do the comparisons, Logrank test and Cox Regression were employed using Stata 12 software. Results: The results indicated that during 2010 and 2011, 343 individuals committed self-immolation in Kermanshah Province, while, 288 (84% were women. Also, it was found that 184 (53% did not survive, the mean and median of survival time in those who committed suicide deliberately, were 33±2.6 and 11±2 days respectively. Estimation of survival rate using Logrank test indicated that survival rate had a significant relationship with age, mental disorders, drug addiction, and TBSA (Total Body Surface Area, while it did not suggest a statistically significant relationship with gender, marital status and cause of injury. After multivariate analysis using Cox regression, only two variables of age and TBSA could remain in the model and the other variables were excluded from the model. Conclusion: The death toll due to self-immolation is very high and the mean and median of survival time among the people who committed self-immolation is very low. Therefore, it is recommended that remedial action be performed quickly without wasting time.

  14. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M.; Knudsen, Amy B.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the US. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival. Methods We used the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model to estimate CRC incidence and mortality rates in blacks aged 50 years and older from 1975 to 2007 assuming they had: 1) the same trends in screening rates as whites instead of observed screening rates (incidence and mortality); and 2) the same trends in stage-specific relative CRC survival rates as whites instead of observed (mortality only); and 3) a combination of both. The racial disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates attributable to differences in screening and/or stage-specific relative CRC survival were then calculated by comparing rates from these scenarios to the observed black rates. Results Differences in screening account for 42% of disparity in CRC incidence and 19% of disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. 36% of the disparity in CRC mortality could be attributed to differences in stage-specific relative CRC survival. Together screening and survival explained a little over 50% of the disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. Conclusion Differences in screening and relative CRC survival are responsible for a considerable proportion of the observed disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites. Impact Enabling blacks to achieve equal access to care as whites could substantially reduce the racial disparities in CRC burden. PMID:22514249

  15. Dose rate effects on survival of two insect species which commonly infest stored corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adem, E.; Uribe, R.M.; Watters, F.L.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the dose rate effects on survival of two species of insects which commonly infest commercial maize in Mexico was undertaken using 60 Co γ radiation and 1.0 MeV electrons, to determine whether an optimum dose rate exists for the irradiation of grain infested with these insects. Experiments have shown that the effectiveness of γ and electron irradiation were not influenced by dose rates from 10 to 120 Gy/min for 60 Co and 35 to 300 Gy/min for electrons when the insects were irradiated at 2500 Gy. Survival curves for each species are presented for both types of radiation. (author)

  16. Increasing Winter Maximal Metabolic Rate Improves Intrawinter Survival in Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Clavijo-Baquet, Sabrina; Vézina, François

    Small resident bird species living at northern latitudes increase their metabolism in winter, and this is widely assumed to improve their chances of survival. However, the relationship between winter metabolic performance and survival has yet to be demonstrated. Using capture-mark-recapture, we followed a population of free-living black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) over 3 yr and evaluated their survival probability within and among winters. We also measured the size-independent body mass (M s ), hematocrit (Hct), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum) and investigated how these parameters influenced survival within and among winters. Results showed that survival probability was high and constant both within (0.92) and among (0.96) winters. They also showed that while M s , Hct, and BMR had no significant influence, survival was positively related to Msum-following a sigmoid relationship-within but not among winter. Birds expressing an Msum below 1.26 W (i.e., similar to summer levels) had a winter. Our data therefore suggest that black-capped chickadees that are either too slow or unable to adjust their phenotype from summer to winter have little chances of survival and thus that seasonal upregulation of metabolic performance is highly beneficial. This study is the first to document in an avian system the relationship between thermogenic capacity and winter survival, a proxy of fitness.

  17. Evidence that a Highway Reduces Apparent Survival Rates of Squirrel Gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. McCall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are prominent components of most landscapes throughout the world, and their negative effects on the natural environment can extend for hundreds or thousands of meters beyond the road. These effects include mortality of wildlife due to collisions with vehicles, pollution of soil and air, modification of wildlife behavior in response to noise, creation of barriers to wildlife movement, and establishment of dispersal conduits for some plant and animal species. In southeast Australia, much of the remaining habitat for the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, is located in narrow strips of Eucalyptus woodland that is adjacent to roads and streams, as well as in small patches of woodland vegetation that is farther from roads. We evaluated the effect of traffic volume on squirrel gliders by estimating apparent annual survival rates of adults along the Hume Freeway and nearby low-traffic-volume roads. We surveyed populations of squirrel gliders by trapping them over 2.5 years, and combined these data with prior information on apparent survival rates in populations located away from freeways to model the ratio of apparent annual survival rates in both site types. The apparent annual survival rate of adult squirrel gliders living along the Hume Freeway was estimated to be approximately 60% lower than for squirrel gliders living near local roads. The cause of the reduced apparent survival rate may be due to higher rates of mortality and/or higher emigration rates adjacent to the Hume Freeway compared with populations near smaller country roads. Management options for population persistence will be influenced by which of these factors is the primary cause of a reduced apparent survival rate.

  18. Effet de prétraitements des semences sur la germination de Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrot. et Rich. Taub., (Césalpiniacées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'po Ifonti M'po

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Seed Treatments on the Germination of Iron Tree Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrot. et Rich. Taub. The effect of four seed treatments (i soaking in concentrate sulphuric acid for 15 mn, (ii soaking in hot water at 100 oC for 3 mm followed by in immersion into tap water for 24 hours, (iii scarification with razor blade (iv no treatment on the germination of Prosopis africana seeds was evaluated on two types of growing substrate: erosion sand and ferrallitic soil. Non treated seeds gave the highest rates of germination on the two types of growing substrate (100% on erosion sand and 89% on ferrallitic soil and by much longer duration of germination compared to treated seeds (46 days on erosion sand and 42 days on ferrallitic soil. Overall, germination is better (rates and speed on erosion sand. Treatments of the seeds in concentrate sulphuric acid are prejudicial to the survival of the embryo and yield low germination rates (30% on erosion sand and 20% on ferrallitic soil. Scarification by razor blade and soaking in hot water at 100 oC gave the highest germination rate (85%, 18 days after sowing on erosion sand and allowed to accelerate the germination. Because of their simplicity and their low cost, these two seed treatments can be recommended for planters and the use of erosion sand for the sowing.

  19. Survival Rate of Dental Implants in Patients with History of Periodontal Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Francisco; Gouveia, Sónia; Felino, António Campos; Costa, Ana Lemos; Almeida, Ricardo Faria

    To evaluate the differences between the survival rates of implants placed in patients with no history of periodontal disease (NP) and in patients with a history of chronic periodontal disease (CP). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which all consenting patients treated with dental implants in a private clinic in Oporto, Portugal, from November 2, 2002 through February 11, 2011 were included. All patients were treated consecutively by the same experimental operator. This study aimed to analyze how the primary outcomes (presence of disease, time of placement, and time of loading) and the secondary outcomes (severity-generalized periodontitis, brand, implant length, prosthesis type, prosthesis metal-ceramic extension) influence the survival rate of dental implants. The survival analysis was performed through the Kaplan-Meier method, and the equality of survival distributions for all groups was tested with the log-rank test with a significance level of .05 for all comparisons. The sample consisted of 202 patients (47% NP and 53% CP) and 689 implants (31% NP and 69% CP). The survival rate in the NP and CP groups showed no statistically significant differences (95.8% versus 93.1%; P ≥ .05). Implants were lost before loading in 54.9% of the cases. The majority of the implants were lost in the first year and stabilized after the second year. Survival rates in the NP and CP patients showed no statistically significant differences when comparing the following factors: subclassification of the disease, implant brands, implant length (short/standard), type of prosthesis, extension of the prosthesis metal-ceramic, and time of placement and loading (P ≥ .05). This work disclosed no statistically significant differences in terms of survival rates when compared with the control group. Placing implants in patients with a history of periodontal disease appears to be viable and safe.

  20. Has prenatal screening influenced the prevalence of comorbidities associated with Down syndrome and subsequent survival rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jane; Collins, Veronica; Riley, Merilyn; Youssef, Danielle; Muggli, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    With this study we aimed to compare survival rates for children with Down syndrome in 2 time periods, 1 before prenatal screening (1988-1990) and 1 contemporaneous with screening (1998-2000), and to examine the frequency of comorbidities and their influence on survival rates. Record-linkage was performed between the population-based Victorian Birth Defects Register and records of deaths in children up to 15 years of age collected under the auspice of the Consultative Council on Obstetric and Pediatric Mortality and Morbidity. Cases of Down syndrome were coded according to the presence or absence of comorbidities by using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision classification of birth defects. Kaplan-Meier survival functions and log rank tests for equality of survival distributions were performed. Of infants liveborn with Down syndrome in 1998-2000, 90% survived to 5 years of age, compared with 86% in the earlier cohort. With fetal deaths excluded, the proportion of isolated Down syndrome cases in the earlier cohort was 48.7% compared with 46.1% in the most recent cohort. In 1988-1990 there was at least 1 cardiac defect in 41.1% of cases and in 45.4% in 1998-2000. There was significant variation in survival rates for the different comorbidity groupings in the 1988-1990 cohort, but this was not so evident in the 1998-2000 cohort. Survival of children with Down syndrome continues to improve, and there is an overall survival figure of 90% to at least 5 years of age. It is clear from this study that prenatal screening technologies are not differentially ascertaining fetuses with Down syndrome and additional defects, because there has been no proportional increase in births of isolated cases with Down syndrome.

  1. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry’s survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  2. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  3. Effects of non-surgical factors on digital replantation survival rate: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z; Guo, F; Qi, J; Xiang, W; Zhang, J

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors affecting survival rate of digital replantation by a meta-analysis. A computer retrieval of MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE, and CNKI databases was conducted to identify citations for digital replantation with digit or finger or thumb or digital or fingertip and replantation as keywords. RevMan 5.2 software was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios. In total, there were 4678 amputated digits in 2641 patients. Gender and ischemia time had no significant influence on the survival rate of amputation replantation (P > 0.05). Age, injured hand, injury type, zone, and the method of preservation the amputated digit significantly influence the survival rate of digital replantation (P < 0.05). Children, right hand, crush, or avulsion and little finger are the risk factors that adversely affect the outcome. Level 5*. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. [Survival rate for breast cancer in Rabat (Morocco) 2005-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechita, Nada Bennani; Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Er-Raki, Abdelouahed; Mrabet, Mustapha; Saadi, Asma; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Razine, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem in Morocco. This study aims to estimate the survival rate for patients with breast cancer living in Rabat. We conducted a prognostic study of female patients with breast cancer diagnosed during 2005-2008, living in Rabat and whose data were recorded in the Rabat Cancer Registry. The date of inclusion in this study corresponded with the date on which cancer was histologically confirmed. Survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the comparison between the different classes of a variable was made using the log rank test. The study of factors associated with survival was performed using the Cox model. During the study period 628 cases of breast cancer were collected. Mortality rate was 19.9%. Overall 1-year survival rate was 97.1%, 89.2% at 3 years and 80.6% at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, breast cancer survival was statistically lower in patients over 70 years of age (p <0.001) with large tumor size (p < 0.001), advanced-stage adenopathies (p = 0.007), metastases (p < 0.001) and not using hormone therapy (p = 0.002). Large tumor size and metastases are poor prognostic factors in breast cancer, hence the need to strengthen screening programs.

  5. Self-rated health as a predictor of survival among patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadbolt, Bruce; Barresi, Jane; Craft, Paul

    2002-05-15

    Evidence is emerging about the strong predictive relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and survival, although there is little evidence on palliative populations where an accurate prediction of survival is valuable. Thus, the relative importance of SRH in predicting the survival of ambulatory patients with advanced cancer was examined. SRH was compared to clinical assessments of performance status, as well as to quality-of-life measures. By use of a prospective cohort design, 181 patients (76% response rate) with advanced cancer were recruited into the study, resurveyed at 18 weeks, and observed to record deaths. The average age of patients was 62 years (SD = 12). The median survival time was 10 months. SRH was the strongest predictor of survival from baseline. Also, a Cox regression comparing changes in SRH over time yielded hazard ratios suggesting the relative risk (RR) of dying was greater for fair ratings at 18 weeks (approximately 3 times) compared with consistent good or better ratings; the RR was even greater (4.2 and 6.2 times) for poor ratings, especially when ratings were poor at baseline and 18 weeks (31 times). Improvement in SRH over time yielded the lowest RR. SRH is valid, reliable, and responsive to change as a predictor of survival of advanced cancer. These qualities suggest that SRH should be considered as an additional tool by oncologists to assess patients. Similarly, health managers could use SRH as an indicator of disease severity in palliative care case mix. Finally, SRH could provide a key to help us understand the human side of disease and its relationship with medicine.

  6. Survival Rate and Associated Factors of Childhood Leukemia in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Veisani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Resent reviews have shown that about 18% of all child cancers are leukemia. Track of the survival rate can help researchers improve quality of life of patients through improving screening or discovery of better treatments. Objectives This review aimed at estimating the 5-year survival rates and associated factors of childhood leukemia in Iran. Data Sources We carried out a systematic review through search of relevant studies published in English (PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and ISI and Persian databases (Magiran, Medlib, SID, and Iran Medex. Study Selection The study included all epidemiologic studies that estimated survival rate in children with leukemia in Iran during years 2002 to 2015, and a standardized manner was used for extraction of information. Data Extraction The entire text or summary of all searched articles was extracted and then, related articles were selected, and irrelevant ones were excluded. Fixed and random effects models were calculated by the STATA using standard meta-analysis methods. Heterogeneity was assessed by I² statistics. Results The overall 5-year survival rate in patients with childhood leukemia in Iran was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.67, 10 studies, in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL subtype was 71.0% (95% CI: 68.0 to 74.0, and in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML subtype was 46.0%. Results of the meta analysis showed significant poor survival with relapse (heart rate (HR 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.27 to 1.98 and white blood count (WBC counts ≥ 50,000 (HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.60. Conclusions The results showed that 5-year survival rates in patients with AML were lower than patients with ALL. The results of this meta analysis strongly support the need for future research, action, and guidance for clinicians to improve health-related quality of life and outcomes for children with leukemia.

  7. Effects of γ-irradiation of garden rose seeds on yield growth anddevelopment of plants. Stufy of relationship between radiation variability of survival rate, growth and developement of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zykov, K.I.; Klimenko, Z.K.

    1994-01-01

    Correlations between the yield of seedings in green house, survival rate, growth and development in an outdoor plot with rigid agroecological conditions were studied, when variability of these indices was due to γ-irradiation of seeds in different modes. The results obtained allow us to suppose that when a heterogeneous population of garden roses exposed to high doses significantly reduced their germination ability, a selection of ecologically stable, well growing and developing genotypes can take place. It is accounted for direct relation between radioresistance of the seeds and their genetically conditioned ecological stability and ability of seedings to good growth and development

  8. Ten-year survival rates of teeth adjacent to treated and untreated posterior bounded edentulous spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, S A; Shugars, D A; Bader, J D; White, B A

    2001-05-01

    Failure to replace a single missing posterior tooth may lead to a variety of dental problems, which may ultimately result in tooth loss. However, little is known about the fate of the adjacent teeth if a missing posterior tooth is not replaced. This retrospective study evaluated the survival of teeth adjacent to treated and untreated posterior bounded edentulous spaces. Data were obtained from electronic treatment records from the Kaiser Permanente Dental Care Program, Portland, Ore. A final sample of 317 patients who met the study inclusion criteria was identified. Each bounded edentulous space was placed in 1 of 3 treatment categories: untreated, restored with a fixed partial denture, or restored with a removable partial denture. Subsequent treatment and the status of the teeth adjacent to the bounded edentulous space were followed through December 1999. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were generated for each treatment group, and differences in survival were evaluated with the log-rank chi-square test (alpha=.05). There was a significant difference in survival among the 3 treatment categories (P=.005). Spaces restored with a fixed partial denture had longer 10-year survival estimates (92%) than those that remained untreated (81%). Spaces restored with a removable partial denture had the poorest 10-year survival rate (56%). Under the conditions and selection bias associated with this retrospective study, the survival of teeth adjacent to a single posterior edentulous space was negatively associated with removable partial denture placement compared with no treatment or the use of a fixed partial denture.

  9. Advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Influence of preoperative radiation therapy on toxicity and long-term survival rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malzoni, Carlos Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    The surgical treatment of gastric cancer has better long-term survival rates when performed in patients with early gastric cancer. Worse results are obtained in treatment of advanced gastric cancer. Most patients in west centers are treated in advanced stages. A great number of them go through a surgical treatment unable by itself to cure them. the frequent local recurrence caused by failure of the surgical treatment has been keeping poor survival rates in patients with advanced gastric cancer for decades. The desire of improving survival is the reason of the use of adjuvant therapies. This paper achieved the retrospective study of the influence of preoperative radiation therapy (2000 cGy) in long-term survival rates (120 months) of patients with advanced gastric cancer on stages IIIa, IIIb and IV. The possible injuries caused in the liver and kidney were observed also as well as first group was treated by surgical and radiation therapies and the second received surgical treatment only. There was no statistical difference between the two groups when sex, age, race, occurrence of other diseases, nutritional assessment, TNM stage, occurrence of obstruction or bleeding caused by tumor, surgical procedure and hepatic and renal function were considered. Survival rates and changes on hepatic and renal function were statistically compared. The results showed a statistic improvement on the long-term survival rates of stage IIIa patients treated by preoperative radiation therapy. No statistic difference was observed on hepatic or renal function between the groups. No adverse influence of radiation therapy method was detected by the used parameters. There was no statistical difference between the two groups when immediate surgical complications were considered. (author)

  10. Annual survival rate estimate of satellite transmitter–marked eastern population greater sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, David L.; Andersen, David E.; Hanna, Everett E.; Cooper, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Several surveys have documented the increasing population size and geographic distribution of Eastern Population greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida since the 1960s. Sport hunting of this population of sandhill cranes started in 2012 following the provisions of the Eastern Population Sandhill Crane Management Plan. However, there are currently no published estimates of Eastern Population sandhill crane survival rate that can be used to inform harvest management. As part of two studies of Eastern Population sandhill crane migration, we deployed solar-powered global positioning system platform transmitting terminals on Eastern Population sandhill cranes (n  =  42) at key concentration areas from 2009 to 2012. We estimated an annual survival rate for Eastern Population sandhill cranes from data resulting from monitoring these cranes by using the known-fates model in the MARK program. Estimated annual survival rate for adult Eastern Population sandhill cranes was 0.950 (95% confidence interval  =  0.885–0.979) during December 2009–August 2014. All fatalities (n  =  5) occurred after spring migration in late spring and early summer. We were unable to determine cause of death for crane fatalities in our study. Our survival rate estimate will be useful when combined with other population parameters such as the population index derived from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service fall survey, harvest, and recruitment rates to assess the effects of harvest on population size and trend and evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies.

  11. Seed germination, seedling traits, and seed bank of the tree Moringa peregrina (Moringaceae) in a hyper-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Nasr H; Picó, F Xavier

    2011-06-01

    Water-limited hot environments are good examples of hyper-aridity. Trees are scarce in these environments but some manage to survive, such as the tree Moringa peregrina. Understanding how trees maintain viable populations in extremely arid environments may provide insight into the adaptive mechanisms by which trees cope with extremely arid weather conditions. This understanding is relevant to the current increasing aridity in several regions of the world. Seed germination experiments were conducted to assess variation in seed mass, seed germination, and seedling traits of Moringa peregrina plants and the correlations among these traits. A seed burial experiment was also designed to study the fate of M. peregrina seeds buried at two depths in the soil for two time periods. On average, seeds germinated in three days and seedling shoots grew 0.7 cm per day over three weeks. Larger seeds decreased germination time and increased seedling growth rates relative to smaller seeds. Seeds remained quiescent in the soil and germination was very high at both depths and burial times. The after-ripening time of Moringa peregrina seeds is short and seeds germinate quickly after imbibition. Plants of M. peregrina may increase in hyper-arid environments from seeds with larger mass, shorter germination times, and faster seedling growth rates. The results also illustrate the adjustment in allocation to seed biomass and correlations among seed and seedling traits that allows M. peregrina to be successful in coping with aridity in its environment.

  12. Breast cancer survival rates among Seventh-day Adventists and non-Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, T W; Phillips, R L; Kuzma, J W

    1984-04-01

    Survival rates were compared among 282 Seventh-day Adventists and 1675 other white female cancer cases following diagnosis during the 30-year period, 1946 to 1976, at two California hospitals owned and operated by the Seventh-day Adventist Church. The Adventist women had a more favorable 5-year relative survival pattern than the other women (69.7% vs. 62.9%) as well as a higher probability of not dying of breast cancer. The differences, however, were no longer significant when stage at diagnosis was taken into account. It seems likely that the lower breast cancer death rates reported among Seventh-day Adventist women as compared with the general population result in part from better survival patterns due to earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  13. On the relationship between tumour growth rate and survival in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh B. Mistry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A recurrent question within oncology drug development is predicting phase III outcome for a new treatment using early clinical data. One approach to tackle this problem has been to derive metrics from mathematical models that describe tumour size dynamics termed re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth. They have shown to be strong predictors of overall survival in numerous studies but there is debate about how these metrics are derived and if they are more predictive than empirical end-points. This work explores the issues raised in using model-derived metric as predictors for survival analyses. Re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth were calculated for three large clinical studies by forward and reverse alignment. The latter involves re-aligning patients to their time of progression. Hence, it accounts for the time taken to estimate re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth but also assesses if these predictors correlate to survival from the time of progression. I found that neither re-growth rate nor time to tumour re-growth correlated to survival using reverse alignment. This suggests that the dynamics of tumours up until disease progression has no relationship to survival post progression. For prediction of a phase III trial I found the metrics performed no better than empirical end-points. These results highlight that care must be taken when relating dynamics of tumour imaging to survival and that bench-marking new approaches to existing ones is essential.

  14. Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae that survive sublethal doses of nucleopolyhedrovirus exhibit high metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Gustav; Nardini, Luisa; Duncan, Frances D

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of sublethal doses of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearSNPV) on the metabolic rate of H. armigera, the respiration rates of third instar H. armigera larvae inoculated with sublethal doses of HearSNPV were evaluated. Respiration rates, measured as the rate of CO(2) production (VCO(2)), were recorded daily using closed-system respirometry. By 4 days post-inoculation (dpi), the metabolic rates of LD(25) or LD(75) survivors were significantly higher than that of uninoculated controls. When dose data were pooled, the VCO(2) values of larvae that survived inoculation (0.0288mlh(-1)), the uninoculated controls (0.0250mlh(-1)), and the larvae that did not survive inoculation (0.0199mlh(-1)) differed significantly from one another. At 4dpi, the VCO(2) of the uninoculated controls were significantly lower than the VCO(2) of inoculation survivors, but significantly higher than the VCO(2) of inoculation non-survivors. Inoculation survivors may have had high metabolic rates due to a combination of viral replication, organ damage, and an energy-intensive induced cellular immune response. The high 4dpi metabolic rate of inoculation survivors may reflect an effective immune response and may be seen as the metabolic signature of larvae that are in the process of surviving inoculation with HearSNPV.

  15. Exploring location influences on firm survival rates using parametric duration models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzato, G.G.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Ettema, D.F.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Vries, de B.

    2010-01-01

    Using parametric duration models applied to an office firm dataset, we carried out an exploratory study about the location influences on firm survival rates. Amongst the variables included, we found that accessibility to infrastructure supply, regional effects, demographic and economic aspects, and

  16. Exploring location influences on firm survival rates using parametric duration models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzato, G.G.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Ettema, D.F.

    2011-01-01

    Using parametric duration models applied to an office firm dataset, we carried out an exploratory study about the location influences on firm survival rates. Amongst the variables included, we found that accessibility to infrastructure supply, regional effects, demographic and economic aspects, and

  17. Exploration of location influences on firm survival rates using parametric duration models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzato, G.G.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Ettema, D.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the influences of location on business firm survival rates with the use of parametric duration models applied to a data set. Of the variables included, those found to be the most significant were accessibility to infrastructure supply, regional effects, demographic and economic

  18. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Zauber (Ann); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the United States. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival.

  19. A method for studying post-fledging survival rates using data from ringing recoveries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, D.L.; Baillie, S.R.; Peach, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a method for studying post-fledging survival rates from data on national ringing recoveries. The approach extends the classical two-age-class models of Brownie et al. (1985) to include a third age-class of birds ringed as nestlings. The models can incorporate age-class-specific and

  20. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the

  1. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved pension...

  2. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... ESTIMATED GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE AND RISK OF SURVIVAL IN ACUTE STROKE. E. I. Okaka, MBBS, FWACP, F. A. Imarhiagbe, MBChB, FMCP, F. E. Odiase, MBBS, FMCP, O. C. A. Okoye, MBBS, FWACP,. Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

  3. Survival rates in the Czech Republic of introduced plants known as wool aliens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2005), s. 567-576 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/00/1443 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : wool aliens * survival rate * naturalization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  5. Dental implant survival rate in well-controlled diabetic patients. A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Arbildo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental implants have now become one of the most popular options for replacing a missing tooth. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease that affects a large part of the population and is generally considered an absolute or relative contraindication to implant therapy. Aim: To determine the survival rate of dental implants in controlled diabetic patients through a systematic review. Material and methods: A systematic search in Pubmed, SciELO and RedALyC databases was performed. The selection criteria were: studies published in the last 10 years, with at least 20 controlled diabetic patients, reporting survival rate and number of implants placed, with follow-up periods equal to or longer than 1 year, including a control group of healthy patients. Methodological quality was analyzed with the follwing scales: Jadad and Downs & Black’s CMQ. Results: Three articles with a follow-up period between 1 and 12 years were analyzed. The overall survival rate of dental implants in diabetic controlled patients was 97.43%. Conclusion: The reviewed literature suggests that survival rate of dental implants in well-controlled diabetic patients is similar to non-diabetic patients.

  6. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General...

  7. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect ofBacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of Bacillus subtilis, isolated ...

  8. Using In Situ Symbiotic Seed Germination to Restore Over-collected Medicinal Orchids in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cheng Shao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing demand for medicinal and horticultural uses, the Orchidaceae is in urgent need of innovative and novel propagation techniques that address both market demand and conservation. Traditionally, restoration techniques have been centered on ex situ asymbiotic or symbiotic seed germination techniques that are not cost-effective, have limited genetic potential and often result in low survival rates in the field. Here, we propose a novel in situ advanced restoration-friendly program for the endangered epiphytic orchid species Dendrobium devonianum, in which a series of in situ symbiotic seed germination trials base on conspecific fungal isolates were conducted at two sites in Yunnan Province, China. We found that percentage germination varied among treatments and locations; control treatments (no inoculum did not germinate at both sites. We found that the optimal treatment, having the highest in situ seed germination rate (0.94-1.44% with no significant variation among sites, supported a warm, moist and fixed site that allowed for light penetration. When accounting for seed density, percentage germination was highest (2.78-2.35% at low densities and did not vary among locations for the treatment that supported optimal conditions. Similarly for the same treatment, seed germination ranged from 0.24 to 5.87% among seasons but also did vary among sites. This study reports on the cultivation and restoration of an endangered epiphytic orchid species by in situ symbiotic seed germination and is likely to have broad application to the horticulture and conservation of the Orchidaceae.

  9. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  10. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks; Single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%, retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%, intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9% and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4% were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  11. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks: Single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asad; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Sharef, Sharef W; Fazalullah, Muhammad; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Khan, Ashfaq A; Ahmad, Masood; Kripail, Mathew; Abuanza, Mazen; Bataclan, Flordeliza

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23-26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. A total of 81 infants between 23-26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%), retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%), intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9%) and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4%) were the most common morbidities. The overall survival rate of infants between 23-26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  12. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] inference from this model, study designs should seek a minimum of 25 animals of each marking type observed (marked or observed via telemetry) in each time period and geographic stratum.

  13. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shahbazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011 among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and "charity for kidney patients" of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients′ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.47 (1.02-2.13]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered.

  14. Comparative Germination Responses of Cowpea and Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination, emergence and establishment phase are critical to the growth cycle of plant as it determines the density of the stand obtained. However, a number of factors including soil available moisture decrease seed germination and the rate of decline is found to vary with crop species. Pot experiment was therefore ...

  15. Effects of eco-friendly carbohydrate-based superabsorbent polymers on seed germination and seedling growth of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jinghe; Zhang, Wenxu; Liang, Li; Lei, Ziqiang

    2018-02-01

    Desertification is the degradation of land in arid and semi-arid areas. Nowadays, lack of water and desertification are extreme problems for plant survival and growth in the arid and semi-arid areas of the world. It becomes increasingly important as to how to let the plant absorb moisture more effectively for keeping growth strong. We synthesized superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) with carbohydrate and characterized them by Fourier transform infrared spectra analyses, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses. Then, a completely randomized experiment was conducted to assess the effect of carbohydrate-based SAPs on seed germination and seedling growth of maize in an artificial climate chest. The results showed that adding an appropriate amount of SAPs could improve root length, shoot length, total biomass, germination potential and germination rate. It indicates that this SAP is not toxic to plants and can promote seed germination, and at the same time provides a possibility of replacing other substrates.

  16. Effects of eco-friendly carbohydrate-based superabsorbent polymers on seed germination and seedling growth of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jinghe; Liang, Li; Lei, Ziqiang

    2018-01-01

    Desertification is the degradation of land in arid and semi-arid areas. Nowadays, lack of water and desertification are extreme problems for plant survival and growth in the arid and semi-arid areas of the world. It becomes increasingly important as to how to let the plant absorb moisture more effectively for keeping growth strong. We synthesized superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) with carbohydrate and characterized them by Fourier transform infrared spectra analyses, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses. Then, a completely randomized experiment was conducted to assess the effect of carbohydrate-based SAPs on seed germination and seedling growth of maize in an artificial climate chest. The results showed that adding an appropriate amount of SAPs could improve root length, shoot length, total biomass, germination potential and germination rate. It indicates that this SAP is not toxic to plants and can promote seed germination, and at the same time provides a possibility of replacing other substrates. PMID:29515838

  17. Investigating Seed Germination Indices and Absorption Rate of Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, and Potassium in Different Parts of Seedlings of Sweet Corn KSC 403 (Zea Mays L var. Saccharata Under Salinity Stress and Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah alhossini,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of seed priming on germination indices and nutrient absorption at early growth stages of sweet corn (Golden Kernel Hybrid a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2011. The experiment consists of 6 levels of primings (seeds without priming, priming with tap water, priming with distilled water, priming with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrous calcium chloride and five levels of salinity (zero, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m sodium chloride. The characteristics studied were germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, root to shoot ratio and determination of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium concentration in different parts of seedlings (stems, roots and seed. The results indicated that increasing salinity stress levels decreased all parameters measured. Priming seeds with hydrated calcium chloride responded to significantly to salinity stress better than other treatments. Results also showed that increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt, increased absorption rate of sodium but concentration of calcium and potassium were reduced. Because application of hydrous calcium chloride stimulates cell in using calcium under salinity conditions it leads to improved seedling growth parameters. To achieve a more accurate results slicing interaction effect of seed priming×salinity levels was performed. Hydrous calcium chloride treatments improved all traits under study except sodium and potassium concentration. This represents a better performance of seeds germination under salinity stress when seeds primed with hydrous calcium chloride.

  18. Effect of the irradiation of bacteria upon their survival rate during conventional methods of meat preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczawinska, M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the effect of irradiation upon the survival rate of non-sporing bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens) during basic methods of meat preservation. The bacteria were irradiated in broth by X-rays at a dose that destroyed about 90% of the bacteria (D 10 ). The survival rate of unirradiated and irradiated bacteria during cooling and freezing, in solutions of sodium chloride, nitrates and liquid smoke, was defined. The number of microorganisms was determined directly after irradiation as well as 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after irradiation. The effect of irradiation upon heat resistance of the examined species of bacteria was also defined. The microorganisms were heated in broth, at 70 0 C for 1, 2 and 5 minutes. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. On the basis of the research results, a faster dying rate of irradiated populations of S. aureus and E. coli during any type of preservation treatment, the lack of any reaction to irradiation regarding the survival rate of S. typhimurium, and the lack of any effect of irradiation upon the rate of deterioration of P. fluorescens during freezing and storage in a solution with 10% addition of NaCI, were observed. On the other hand, a pronounced effect of irradiation upon the lowering of the heat resistance of the bacteria, as well as delayed growth in other variants of the experiment, was determined. (author)

  19. In Vitro Maturation and Embryo Development to blastocyst Mouse Germinal Vesicle Oocytes after Vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nikseresht

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Vitrification is a simple and ultra rapid technique for the conservation of fertility. Improving pregnancy rate associate with the use of cryopreserved oocytes would be an important advanced in human assisted reproductive technology (ART. The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival, oocytes maturation and embryo development to the blastocyst stage after vitrification of oocytes germinal vesicle-stage and multi stage Methods: In the present experimental study, germinal vesicle oocytes with or without cumulus cells were transferred to vitrification solution containing 30% (v/v ethylene glycol, 18% (w/v Ficoll-70, and 0.3 M sucrose, either by single step or in a step-wise way. After vitrification and storage in liquid nitrogen, the oocytes were thawed and washed twice in culture medium TCM119, and then subjected to in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture. Data analysis was performed by using One-way variance and Tukey tests. Results: Oocytes survival, metaphase 2 stage oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo formed blastocyst in vitrification methods multistage were significantly higher than the single step procedure (P<0/05 Conclusion: The Germinal vesicle stage oocytes vitrified with cumulus cells and stepwise procedure had positive effect on the survival, maturation and developmental rate on blastocyst compared to oocytes without cumulus cell and single step procedure. Key words: Germinal Vesicle Oocyte, Blastocyst, Vitrification, Ethylene glycol

  20. Temperature, larval diet, and density effects on development rate and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannelle Couret

    Full Text Available Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1 diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2 that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature.

  1. Survival and Complication Rate of Radiation Therapy in Stage I and II Carcinoma of uterine Cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Sun Young; Cho, Heung Lea; Sohn, Seung Chang

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : To analyze survival rate and late rectal and bladder complication for patients with stage with stage I and II carcinoma of uterine cervix treated by radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy. Materials and Methods : Between November 1984 and December 1993, 127 patients with stage I and II carcinoma of uterine cervix treated by radiation alone or combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy. Retrospective analysis for survival rate was carried out on eligible 107 patients and review for complication was possible in 91 patients. The median follow-up was 47 months (range 3-118) and the median age of patients was 56 years (range 31-76). 26 patients were stage IB by FIGO classification. 40 were stage IIA and 41 were stage IIB. 86 cases were treated by radiation alone and 21 were treated by radiation and chemotherapy. 101 patients were treated with intracavitary radiation therapy (ICRT), of these, 80 were received low dose rate (LDR) ICRT and 21 were received high dose rate (HDR) ICRT. Of the patients who received LDR ICRT, 63 were treated by 1 intracavitary insertion and 17 were underwent 2 insertions. And we evaluated the external radiation dose and midline shield. Results : Acturial survival rate at 5 years was 92% for stage IB, 75% for stage IIA, 53% for stage IIB and 69% in all patients. Grade 1 rectal complications were developed in 20 cases(22%), grade 2 were in 22 cases (24%), 22 cases (24%) of grade 1 urinary complications and 17 cases (19%) of grade 2 urinary complications were observed But no patients had severe complications that needed surgical management or admission care. Maximum bladder dose for the group of patients with urinary complications was higher than that for the patients without urinary complications(7608cGy v 6960cGy, p<0.01). Maximum rectal dose for the group of patients with rectal complications was higher than that for the patients without urinary complications (7041cGy v 6269cGy, p<0.01). While there was no significant

  2. Investigating Rates of Hunting and Survival in Declining European Lapwing Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Souchay

    Full Text Available Understanding effects of harvest on population dynamics is of major interest, especially for declining species. European lapwing Vanellus vanellus populations increased from the 1960s until the 1980s and declined strongly thereafter. About 400,000 lapwings are harvested annually and it is thus of high conservation relevance to assess whether hunting was a main cause for the observed changes in lapwing population trends. We developed a multi-event cause-specific mortality model which we applied to a long-term ring-recovery data set (1960-2010 of > 360,000 records to estimate survival and cause-specific mortalities. We found no temporal change in survival over the last 50 years for first-year (FY and older birds (after first-year; AFY originating from different ringing areas. Mean survival was high, around 0.60 and 0.80 for FY and AFY individuals, respectively. The proportion of total mortality due to hunting was <0.10 over the study period and the estimated proportion of harvested individuals (kill rate was <0.05 in each year. Our result of constant survival indicates that demographic processes other than survival were responsible for the pronounced change in lapwing population trends in the 1980s. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that hunting was not a significant contributor to the large-scale decline of lapwing populations. To halt the ongoing decline of European lapwing populations management should focus on life history stages other than survival (e.g. productivity. Further analyses are required to investigate the contribution of other demographic rates to the decline of lapwings and to identify the most efficient conservation actions.

  3. A Germination Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity that involves using sponge seedlings to demonstrate the germination process without the usual waiting period. Discusses epigeous versus hypogeous germination, and cotyledon number and biodiversity. (JRH)

  4. Intraoperative radiotherapy combined with resection for pancreatic cancer. Analysis of survival rates and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuga, Hirotaka; Nishihara, Kazuyoshi; Matsunaga, Hiroaki; Suehara, Nobuhiro; Abe, Yuji; Ihara, Takaaki; Iwashita, Toshimitsu; Mitsuyama, Shoshu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) combined with surgical resection. Subjects were consecutive 69 patients with pancreatic cancer treated with surgery alone (n=31) or surgical resection combined with IORT (n=38) in a 13 year period between 1991 and 2003. We evaluated the effects of IORT against local recurrence of cancer and patients' survival, retrospectively. Furthermore, clinicopathological factors affecting the 5-year survival rate in the two groups were comparatively investigated. The IORT group showed a significantly lower local recurrence rate of cancer than that in the surgery alone group (7.8% and 22.6%, respectively; p<0.05). The 5-year survival probability in the IORT group was significantly higher than that in the surgery alone group (29.9% and 3.4%, respectively; p<0.05). According to the Japanese classification of pancreatic cancer, cancers located in the pancreas body or tail, no local residual cancer post operative procedure (R0), low grade local cancer progression (t1, 2), and low grade intrapancreatic neural invasion (ne0, 1) were significantly better prognostic factors in the IORT group than those in the surgery alone group. There were no significant differences between the both groups in the 5-year survival rate in terms of the sex of the patients, cancer of the pancreas head, histological type, more than R1, the presence of lymph node involvement, ne2-3, and clinical stages. IORT is a useful intraoperative adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer, when the curative resection is achieved. Our data have suggested that IORT suppresses the local recurrence of cancer and provides the significant survival benefit for those patients. (author)

  5. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Longevity of anterior resin-bonded bridges: survival rates of two tooth preparation designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzar, M; Locke, J; Burt, G; Clausen, G; Escobar, K

    2018-04-16

    Significant developments have occurred in the design of resin-bonded bridges (RBB) over the past two decades. They are commonly used as an alternative treatment option for a single missing tooth. The longevity of these bridges needs to be further investigated to evaluate long-term outcomes for this option to remain relevant. A cohort of patients who received anterior resin-bonded bridges (ARBB) over two decades was studied retrospectively. Longevity of 206 ARBB was assessed using Kaplan-Meier probability estimates. The two modified tooth preparation designs investigated were: (A) mesial and distal vertical grooves only; and (B) one proximal groove adjacent to the pontic and two palatal grooves. Age and gender of the patient cohort were also recorded. Overall survival rate of ARBB was 98% at 5 years, 97.2% at 10 years, and 95.1% from 12 years till 21 years. Survival curves showed minor differences when compared for the two designs, age groups and gender of ARBB recipients. Differences in the proportion of surviving bridges for design A (95.96%) and design B (98.13%) were not statistically significant (Fisher's exact test). Anterior RBB with described tooth preparation designs demonstrate a high survival rate. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  7. Daily survival rate and habitat characteristics of nests of Wilson's Plover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Elizabeth; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed habitat characteristics and measured daily survival rate of 72 nests of Charadrius wilsonia (Wilson's Plover) during 2012 and 2013 on South Island and Sand Island on the central coast of South Carolina. At both study areas, nest sites were located at slightly higher elevations (i.e., small platforms of sand) relative to randomly selected nearby unused sites, and nests at each study area also appeared to be situated to enhance crypsis and/or vigilance. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests ranged from 0.969 to 0.988 among study sites and years, and the probability of nest survival ranged from 0.405 to 0.764. Flooding and predation were the most common causes of nest failure at both sites. At South Island, DSR was most strongly related to maximum tide height, which suggests that flooding and overwash may be common causes of nest loss for Wilson's Plovers at these study sites. The difference in model results between the 2 nearby study sites may be partially due to more-frequent flooding at Sand Island because of some underlying yet unmeasured physiographic feature. Remaining data gaps for the species include regional assessments of nest and chick survival and habitat requirements during chick rearing.

  8. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  9. Survival and reproductive rate of mites in relation to resistance of their barn swallow hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2000-08-01

    Parasite resistance may act via a number of different mechanisms that regulate or control the survival and the reproductive rate of parasites. Observations and experiments were used to test for effects of host resistance on parasite survival and rate of reproduction. Natural levels of infestation of barn swallow Hirundo rustica nests by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa were positively related to brood size, inversely related to the length of the outermost tail feathers of male nest owners (a secondary sexual character) and affected by time of reproduction by the host. A mite inoculation experiment, in which 50 adult mites were introduced into nests during the laying period of the host, was used to test for differential survival and reproduction of mites as a function of host resistance. The relationship between survival and reproduction of parasites, male tail length and host resistance was investigated. There was a negative relationship between mite numbers per nest after fledging of nestlings and male tail length. This relationship was mainly caused by a reduction in the number of mites in the first and second nymph stage with increasing tail length of male hosts, implying a reduction in rate of reproduction of mites. The proportion of mites that had recently fed was inversely related to tail length of male hosts. The proportion of nymph stages was positively related to the proportion of mites that had recently had a blood meal. Parasite resistance of barn swallows to the tropical fowl mite thus appeared to act through increased mortality rate of adult and nymph stages of mites, and through reduced reproductive rates of mites on resistant hosts. This is the first study demonstating a direct relationship between fitness components of a parasite and the expression of a secondary sexual character of a host.

  10. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Wang, Xiao-teng; Gan, Cai-ling; Fang, Yan-qiong; Zhang, Meng

    2012-09-01

    To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N+ with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N+ beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 × 1016 to 15 × 1016 ions cm-2 severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 × 1016 ion cm-2, biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 × 1016 ions cm-2 may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA-GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  11. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bitik, Ozan; Kamburoglu, Haldun Onuralp; Uzun, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4%) survived. Ten (66.6%) of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2%) of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100%) and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%). Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%). The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury.

  12. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dadaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials and Methods: 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Results: Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4% survived. Ten (66.6% of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2% of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100% and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%. Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%. The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions: The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury.

  13. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Dadaci; Bilsev Ince; Zeynep Altuntas; Ozan Bitik; Haldun Onuralp Kamburoglu; Hakan Uzun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials a...

  14. Retrospective analysis of survival rates and marginal bone loss on short implants in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draenert, Florian G; Sagheb, Keyvan; Baumgardt, Katharina; Kämmerer, Peer W

    2012-09-01

    Short implants have become an interesting alternative to bone augmentation in dental implantology. Design of shorter implants and longer surveillance times are a current research issue. The goal of this study was to show the survival rates of short implants below 9 mm in the partly edentulous mandibular premolar and molar regions with fixed prosthetics. Marginal vertical and 2D bone loss was evaluated additionally. Different implant designs are orientationally evaluated. A total of 247 dental implants with fixed prosthetics (crowns and bridges) in the premolar and molar region of the mandible were evaluated; 47 implants were 9 mm or shorter. Patient data were evaluated to acquire implant survival rates, implant diameter, gender and age. Panoramic X-rays were analysed for marginal bone loss. Average surveillance time was 1327 days. Cumulative survival rate (CSR) of short implants was 98% (1 implants lost) compared to 94% in the longer implants group without significance. Thirty-five of the short implants were Astratech (0 losses) and 12 were Camlog Screw Line Promote Plus (1 loss). Early vertical and two-dimensional marginal bone loss was not significantly different in short and regular length implant group with an average of 0.6 mm and 0.7 mm(2) in short implants over the observation period. Within the limitations of this study, we conclude that short implants with a length of 9 mm or less have equal survival rates compared with longer implants over the observation period of 1-3 years. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Bayesian Analysis of the Survival Function and Failure Rate of Weibull Distribution with Censored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bambey Guure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival function of the Weibull distribution determines the probability that a unit or an individual will survive beyond a certain specified time while the failure rate is the rate at which a randomly selected individual known to be alive at time will die at time (. The classical approach for estimating the survival function and the failure rate is the maximum likelihood method. In this study, we strive to determine the best method, by comparing the classical maximum likelihood against the Bayesian estimators using an informative prior and a proposed data-dependent prior known as generalised noninformative prior. The Bayesian estimation is considered under three loss functions. Due to the complexity in dealing with the integrals using the Bayesian estimator, Lindley’s approximation procedure is employed to reduce the ratio of the integrals. For the purpose of comparison, the mean squared error (MSE and the absolute bias are obtained. This study is conducted via simulation by utilising different sample sizes. We observed from the study that the generalised prior we assumed performed better than the others under linear exponential loss function with respect to MSE and under general entropy loss function with respect to absolute bias.

  16. Prevalence of sinus floor elevation procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Ozçakır Tomruk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sinus-lifting procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla. This retrospective chart review examined consecutive patients with tooth/teeth loss in the posterior maxilla between 2008 and 2012 treated with sinus lift, when needed, and implant insertion. Demographic variables, health status, residual alveolar bone height, augmentation types, the implant position, diameter and height, and implant failure, prosthesis types, and the marginal bone loss were recorded. The study included 302 patients at a mean age of 5.2 years, who received a total of 609 dental implants. A total of 380 (62.3% implants were inserted in native areas, 203 (33.3% ones in external sinus-lifted areas and 26 (4.4% ones in internal lifted areas. The survival rate in native or internal lifted areas were 100% and 95.6% in external sinus lifted ones (10 implant failures/203 implants. Almost half of the implants were examined radiologically with a mean duration of 30 months and the mean marginal bone loss was 0.64 ± 1.2 mm. The results showed that the survival rates of native bone and the internal sinus lifting were slightly higher than that of external sinus lifting. Implants placed with sinus augmentation exhibited more marginal bone loss than implants in native bone.

  17. Environmental and ecological conditions at Arctic breeding sites have limited effects on true survival rates of adult shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Emily L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Gates, H. River; Bentzen, Rebecca L.; Bêty, Joël; Boldenow, Megan L.; English, Willow B.; Franks, Samantha E.; Koloski, Laura; Kwon, Eunbi; Lamarre, Jean-Francois; Lank, David B.; Liebezeit, Joseph R.; McKinnon, Laura; Nol, Erica; Rausch, Jennie; Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Senner, Nathan R.; Ward, David H.; Woodard, Paul F.; Sandercock, Brett K.

    2018-01-01

    Many Arctic shorebird populations are declining, and quantifying adult survival and the effects of anthropogenic factors is a crucial step toward a better understanding of population dynamics. We used a recently developed, spatially explicit Cormack–Jolly–Seber model in a Bayesian framework to obtain broad-scale estimates of true annual survival rates for 6 species of shorebirds at 9 breeding sites across the North American Arctic in 2010–2014. We tested for effects of environmental and ecological variables, study site, nest fate, and sex on annual survival rates of each species in the spatially explicit framework, which allowed us to distinguish between effects of variables on site fidelity versus true survival. Our spatially explicit analysis produced estimates of true survival rates that were substantially higher than previously published estimates of apparent survival for most species, ranging from S = 0.72 to 0.98 across 5 species. However, survival was lower for the arcticolasubspecies of Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola; S = 0.54), our only study taxon that migrates through the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Like other species that use that flyway, arcticola Dunlin could be experiencing unsustainably low survival rates as a result of loss of migratory stopover habitat. Survival rates of our study species were not affected by timing of snowmelt or summer temperature, and only 2 species showed minor variation among study sites. Furthermore, although previous reproductive success, predator abundance, and the availability of alternative prey each affected survival of one species, no factors broadly affected survival across species. Overall, our findings of few effects of environmental or ecological variables suggest that annual survival rates of adult shorebirds are generally robust to conditions at Arctic breeding sites. Instead, conditions at migratory stopovers or overwintering sites might be driving adult survival rates and should be the

  18. [Effects of illumination and seed-soaking reagent on seed germination of Solanum nigrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Jie; Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hu, Ya-Hu; Niu, Rong-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    To explore a rapid seed germination method for hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, a germination experiment with different illumination and seed-soaking treatments was conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse, with filter as burgeon base. Under illumination, the germination rate was about 5 times high of that without illumination (P seed germination of S. nigrum. All test seed-soaking reagents could significantly improve the germination rate of S. nigrum (P seeds treated with H2O2 had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds soaked but without cleaning was 2-3 times as high as that of seeds soaked and cleaned with water.

  19. Germination phenology determines the propensity for facilitation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverett, Lindsay D

    2017-09-01

    A single plant can interact both positively and negatively with its neighbors through the processes of facilitation and competition, respectively. Much of the variation in the balance of facilitation and competition that individuals experience can be explained by the degree of physical stress and the sizes or ages of plants during the interaction. Germination phenology partly controls both of these factors, but its role in defining the facilitation-competition balance has not been explicitly considered. I performed an experiment in a population of the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) to test whether germinating during physically stressful periods leads to facilitation while germinating during periods that promote growth and reproduction leads to competition. I manipulated germination and neighbor presence across two years in order to quantify the effects of the local plant community on survival, fecundity, and total fitness as a function of germination phenology. Neighbors increased survival when germination occurred under conditions that were unsuitable for survival, but they reduced fecundity in germinants that were otherwise the most fecund. Later germination was associated with facilitation in the first year but competition in the second year. These episodes of facilitation and competition opposed each other, leading to no net effect of neighbors when averaged over all cohorts. These results indicate that variation in germination timing can explain some of the variation in the facilitation-competition balance in plant communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Liu, T [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yuh, K [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, R; Grecula, J [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lo, S [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  1. Survival rate of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer without early postoperative external radiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saur, H.B.; Lerch, H.; Schober, O.

    1996-01-01

    Results of survival rates in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and comparison with a review of literature are given. Four hundred and sixty-four patients with differentiated cancer of the thyroid (354 female, 110 male, range: 6 to 84 years, median: 46.8 years; 275 patients with papillary and 190 with follicular cancer) were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated with ablative doses of radioiodine after thyroidectomy including compartment oriented lymphadenectomy in 27 patients. All patients passed an individual systematic follow-up according to risk: 'Low risk' pT≤3NxM0 vs. 'high risk' pT4 and/or M1. Early postoperative radiation was not included even in patients with local invasion (pT4). The corrected 5- and 10-year survival rates for papillary cancer are 0.91 and 0.91, for follicular cancer 0.94 resp. 0.78 (p=0.55), age (≤40 years 0.96 and 0.96, >40 years 0.90 and 0.80; p=0.008), gender (female 0.93 and 0.92, male 0.90 and 0.70; p=0.06) and invasion/distant metastases (pT4 and/or M1 0.83 and 0.71, other 0.97 and 0.97; p=0.0001). A systematic follow-up with an individually adapted standardized scheme is associated with high survival rates in patients with differentiated cancer of the thyroid. Early diagnosis of recurrences, locoregional lymph node and distant metastases with early surgical treatment including compartment oriented lymphadenectomy and radioiodine therapy yield high survival even without external radiation. (orig./MG) [de

  2. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 mediates a conserved coat-dormancy mechanism for the temperature- and gibberellin-dependent control of seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Graeber, K.; Linkies, A.; Steinbrecher, T.; Tarkowská, D. (Danuše); Turečková, V. (Veronika); Ignatz, M.; Voegele, A.; Urbanová, T. (Terezie); Strnad, M. (Miroslav); Leubner-Metzger, G. (Gerhard)

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination is an important life-cycle transition because it determines subsequent plant survival and reproductive success. To detect optimal spatiotemporal conditions for germination, seeds act as sophisticated environmental sensors integrating information such as ambient temperature. Here we show that the DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) gene, known for providing dormancy adaptation to distinct environments, determines the optimal temperature for seed germination. By reciprocal gene-swapp...

  4. The influence of disturbance events on survival and dispersal rates of Florida box turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C.K.; Ozgul, A.; Oli, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbances have the potential to cause long-term effects to ecosystem structure and function, and they may affect individual species in different ways. Long-lived vertebrates such as turtles may be at risk from such events, inasmuch as their life histories preclude rapid recovery should extensive mortality occur. We applied capture–mark–recapture models to assess disturbance effects on a population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Near the midpoint of the study, a series of physical disturbances affected the island, from salt water overwash associated with several tropical storms to extensive removal of nonindigenous vegetation. These disturbances allowed us to examine demographic responses of the turtle population and to determine if they affected dispersal throughout the island. Adult survival rates did not vary significantly either between sexes or among years of the study. Survival rates did not vary significantly between juvenile and adult turtles, or among years of the study. Furthermore, neither adult nor juvenile survival rates differed significantly between pre- and post-disturbance. However, dispersal rates varied significantly among the four major study sites, and dispersal rates were higher during the pre-disturbance sampling periods compared to post-disturbance. Our results suggest few long-term effects on the demography of the turtle population. Florida box turtles responded to tropical storms and vegetation control by moving to favorable habitats minimally affected by the disturbances and remaining there. As long as turtles and perhaps other long-lived vertebrates can disperse to non-disturbed habitat, and high levels of mortality do not occur in a population, a long life span may allow them to wait out the impact of disturbance with potentially little effect on long-term population processes.

  5. Ovulation rate and early embryonic survival rate in female rabbits of a synthetic line and a local Algerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Belabbas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A higher litter size at birth has been reported in female rabbits from a Synthetic line than in those of the Local Algerian population. The aim of this work was to analyse whether this difference in litter size was due to a higher ovulation rate and/or embryonic survival rate in Synthetic line than in Local Algerian population. In total, 24 multiparous female rabbits from Synthetic line and 23 from Local population were used in this experiment. Litter size at birth was recorded up to the first 3 parities. Litter size was 20% higher in Synthetic line than Local population. At their 4th gestation, the females were euthanized at 72 h post coitum. Synthetic line females had 50% more ova and embryos than those of Local population (+4.42 ova and +3.92 embryos, respectively. Synthetic line displayed a lower percentage of normal embryos and a larger number of unfertilized oocytes than Local population (–2.81% and +0.64 oocytes, respectively, but differences were not relevant. Synthetic line showed a lesser embryonic stage of development at 72 h post coitum, showing a higher percentage of early morulae (31.50 vs. 8.50% and a lower percentage of compact morulae (51.45 vs. 78.65% than Local population. No relevant difference was found for early embryonic survival rate between Synthetic line and Local population. In conclusion, the difference in litter size was mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in the Synthetic line, allowing more embryos to develop in this line.

  6. Is seed conditioning essential for Orobanche germination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Parasitic Orobanchaceae germinate only after receiving a chemical stimulus from roots of potential host plants. A preparatory phase of several days that follows seed imbibition, termed conditioning, is known to be required; thereafter the seeds can respond to germination stimulants. The aim of this study was to examine whether conditioning is essential for stimulant receptivity. Non-conditioned seeds of both Orobanche cumana Wallr. and O. aegyptiaca Pers. [syn. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel] were able to germinate in response to chemical stimulation by GR24 even without prior conditioning. Stimulated seeds reached maximal germination rates about 2 weeks after the onset of imbibition, no matter whether the seeds had or had not been conditioned before stimulation. Whereas the lag time between stimulation and germination response of non-conditioned seeds was longer than for conditioned seeds, the total time between imbibition and germination was shorter for the non-conditioned seeds. Unlike the above two species, O. crenata Forsk. was found to require conditioning prior to stimulation. Seeds of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca are already receptive before conditioning. Thus, conditioning is not involved in stimulant receptivity. A hypothesis is put forward, suggesting that conditioning includes (a) a parasite-specific early phase that allows the imbibed seeds to overcome the stress caused by failing to receive an immediate germination stimulus, and (b) a non-specific later phase that is identical to the pregermination phase between seed imbibition and actual germination that is typical for all higher plants.

  7. Disentangling plant establishment in sandy coastal systems: biotic and abiotic factors that determine Allagoptera arenaria (Arecaceae germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Germination rate and establishment success of plants in harsh environments depend on the ability of seeds to withstand unfavorable environmental conditions and avoid predators. Brazilian coastal plains, known as restinga, are subject to environmental factors that seriously limit plant establishment and survival (e.g. salinity, desiccation, oligotrophy, flooding, high temperature and radiation levels. We tested, both in field and laboratory experiments, conditions for germination and establishment of Allagoptera arenaria, a palm tree often found in restinga ecosystems of southeastern Brazil, and which have a principal role in plant community dynamics. Our results showed that the absence of mesocarp, high radiation exposure, and temperature were the main drivers of seed germination. In the field, the highest germination rate was linked to nude seeds buried in open areas. High temperatures and/or predation damaged seeds that remained on the soil surface, especially if they were close to the mother plant and alongside dung piles made by dispersers. Under controlled conditions, seeds exhibited optimum germination at 35 ºC. Therefore, the germination and establishment of A. arenaria depend as much on environmental conditions as on a network of interactions including vertebrates and invertebrates, which allow this species to colonize harsh, open areas in restinga ecosystems.

  8. Hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 decreased survival rate of canine lymphoma cells under hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroki; Lai, Yu-Chang; Tateno, Morihiro; Setoguchi, Asuka; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that hypoxic stimulation enhances growth potentials of canine lymphoma cells by activating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and that the hypoxia-activated prodrug (TH-302) inhibits growth potentials in the cells. We investigated how hypoxic culture affects the growth rate, chemoresistance, and invasiveness of canine lymphoma cells and doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant lymphoma cells, and influences of TH-302 on survival rate of the cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrated that hypoxic culture upregulated the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes, including ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and survivin, and enhanced the growth rate, DOX resistance, and invasiveness of the cells. Additionally, TH-302 decreased the survival rate of the cells under hypoxic condition. Our studies suggest that hypoxic stimulation may advance the tumorigenicity of canine lymphoma cells, favoring malignant transformation. Therefore, the data presented may contribute to the development of TH-302-based hypoxia-targeting therapies for canine lymphoma.

  9. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method

  10. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, Richard F

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method.

  11. [Study on germination characteristics of Disporum cantoniense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nan; Wang, Hua-Lei; Zhao, Zhi; Liu, Hong-Chang; Luo, Chun-Li; Li, Jin-Ling; Luo, Fu-Lai; Huang, Ming-Jin

    2012-11-01

    To study the seed germination characteristic and optimal germination condition of wild Disporum cantoniense. Used wild Disporum cantoniense seed as the test materials, the rate of water absorption of the seed was determined. The germination rates under different conditions, along a temperature gradient (15, 20, 25 and 30 degres C), in light or dark, on top or between wet filter papers, and keeping or removing the seed coat, were determined respectively using petri dish method. At the same time germination trends were observed. The thousand seed weight was 33.24 g, and the seed water-absorbing reached saturation pot after soaking for 30 h. Higher germination rates were respectively recorded at 25 degrees C, between filter papers, and in dark after 24 h soaking in the pretreatment solution. The optimal condition for the germination of the seed of wild Disporum cantoniense is as follow: keeping testa, seed soaking for 24 h in seed germination agent and being incubated between wet filter papers in dark at 25 degrees C.

  12. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING Lactobacillus ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL RATE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY OF Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunak Nafiqoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two Lactobacillus bacteria on protease activity and growth rate of Litopenaeus vannamei. An experiment was conducted to examine protease activity and growth rate. The experiment consisted of two treatment tanks, the first tank was provided with artemia immersed in 2.6 x 1016 cfu/mL of bacteria solution, the second tank served as the control tank. After 20 days, the L. vannamei in the tank that received Lactobacillus have significantly different in growth, survival rate and protease activity (P<0.05 compared to the control, but no significant difference between Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum treatments. Within the digestive organ, protease activity of hepatopancreas and stomach demonstrated significant higher activity (P<0.05 compared to the intestine.

  13. Stadium IB - IIA cervical cancer patient’s survival rate after receiving definitive radiation and radical operation therapy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy along with analysis of factors affecting the patient’s survival rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslim, S. K.; Purwoto, G.; Widyahening, I. S.; Ramli, I.

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the characteristics and overall survival rates of early stage cervical cancer (FIGO IB-IIA) patients who receive definitive radiation therapy and those who are prescribed adjuvant postoperative radiation and to conduct a factors analysis of the variables that affect the overall survival rates in both groups of therapy. The medical records of 85 patients with cervical cancer FIGO stages IB-IIA who were treated at the Department of Radiotherapy of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were reviewed and analyzed to determine their overall survival and the factors that affected it between a definitive radiation group and an adjuvant postoperative radiation group. There were 25 patients in the definitive radiation and 60 patients in the adjuvant radiation group. The overall survival rates in the adjuvant radiation group at years one, two, and three were 96.7%, 95%, and 93.3%, respectively. Negative lymph node metastasis had an average association with overall survival (p 12 g/dl was a factor with an average association with the overall survival (p cervical cancer FIGO stage IB-IIA patients who received definitive radiation or adjuvant postoperative radiation. Negative lymph node metastasis had an effect on the overall survival rate in the adjuvant postoperative radiation group, while a preradiation Hb level >12 g/dl tended to affect the overall survival in the definitive radiation group patients.

  14. Submergence sensitivity of durum wheat, bread wheat and barley at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iduna Arduini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging at initial growth stages can cause heavy yield losses of winter cereals. Therefore, the screening for submergence tolerance traits in seeds of commercial varieties is of high concern worldwide. Ten Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., bread wheat (T. aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were investigated for their ability to germinate in submerged conditions and to recover after submergence periods of three to 15 days. Submergence prevented germination and decreased germinability, at rates that increased with duration of submergence. Sensitivity ranked in the order: barley >durum wheat >bread wheat. We related the higher sensitivity of barley to its slower germination and slightly higher leakage of electrolytes, whereas the percentage of abnormal seedlings was lower than in other species. It was less than 4%, compared to less than 15 and 8% in durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively. Wide varietal differences were found in all species. According to variety, after 6-day submergence, germinability ranged from 2 to 42% in barley, from 5 to 80% in durum wheat, and from 30 to 77% in bread wheat. Varieties with more than 40% seed survival were three, six and seven per species, in the same order. The differential submergence sensitivity of varieties indicates a potential to select for waterlogging tolerance within Italian genotypes of winter cereal crops.

  15. High survival rates and associated factors among ebola virus disease patients hospitalized at donka national hospital, conakry, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Chughtai, Morad; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Barry, Moumié; Béavogui, Kézély; Loua, Tokpagnan Oscar; Malik, Ahmed A

    2015-02-01

    Anecdotal reports suggesting that survival rates among hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in Guinea are higher than the 29.2% rate observed in the current epidemic in West Africa. Survival after symptom onset was determined using Kaplan Meier survival methods among patients with confirmed Ebola virus disease treated in Conakry, Guinea from March 25, 2014, to August 5, 2014. We analyzed the relationship between survival and patient factors, including demographics and clinical features. Of the 70 patients analyzed [mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 34 ± 14.1; 44 were men], 42 were discharged alive with a survival rate among hospitalized patients of 60% (95% confidence interval, 41.5-78.5%). The survival rate was 28 (71.8%) among 39 patients under 34 years of age, and 14 (46.7%) among 30 patients aged 35 years or greater (p = 0.034). The rates of myalgia (3 of 42 versus 7 of 28, p = 0.036) and hiccups (1 of 42 versus 5 of 28, p = 0.023) were significantly lower among patients who survived. Our results provide insights into a cohort of hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in whom survival is prominently higher than seen in other cohorts of hospitalized patients.

  16. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  17. Seed dormancy and germination : light and nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable

  18. Unravelling desiccation tolerance in germinated Arabidopsis seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maia de Oliveira, J.

    2014-01-01

    How different organisms survive in the absence or under very limited amounts of water is still an open question. The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to explore the molecular basis of desiccation tolerance in seeds. We investigated the possibilities of using germinated desiccation

  19. The effect of initial density and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate on classical biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yanni; Tang Sanyi

    2008-01-01

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interaction of a parasitoid and its host. The host-parasitoid systems have identified several important and general factors affecting the long-term dynamics of interacting populations. However, much less is known about how the initial densities of host-parasitoid populations affect the biological control as well as the stability of host-parasitoid systems. To do this, the classical Nicholson-Bailey model with host self-regulation and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate is used to uncover the effect of initial densities on the successful biological control. The results indicate that the simplest Nicholson-Bailey model has various coexistence with a wide range of parameters, including boundary attractors where the parasitoid population is absent and interior attractors where host-parasitoid coexists. The final stable states of host-parasitoid populations depend on their initial densities as well as their ratios, and those results are confirmed by basins of attraction of initial densities. The results also indicate that the parasitoid intergenerational survival rate increases the stability of the host-parasitoid systems. Therefore, the present research can help us to further understand the dynamical behavior of host-parasitoid interactions, to improve the classical biological control and to make management decisions

  20. [Survival rate of IPS-Empress 2 all-ceramic crowns and bridges: three year's results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Doris; Gerds, Thomas; Strub, Jörg R

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical study was to calculate the survival rate of IPS-Empress2 crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPD) over a three-year period. In 43 patients 27 IPS-Empress2 crowns and 31 fixed partial dentures were adhesively luted. Crowns were placed on premolars and molars and FPDs were inserted in the anterior and premolar area. Abutments were prepared with a circular 1.2 mm wide shoulder. The clinical follow-up examination took place after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. After a mean of 38 months, the survival rate (Kaplan-Meier) of all-ceramic crowns was 100% and of the three unit FDP 72.4%. There were a total of six complete failures which occurred only with the three-unit IPS-Empress2 FPDs. Three FPDs exhibited fractures of the framework for which the manufacturer's instructions of connector-dimension was not satisfied, and one FPD exhibited an irreparable incomplete veneer fracture. Further two FPDs showed biological failures. The accuracy of fit and esthetics were clinically satisfactory. The three-year results showed the IPS-Empress2-ceramic as an adequate all-ceramic material for single crowns. The use for FPD needs further critical consideration.

  1. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a commercially produced yogurt, (ii) determine the survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes during cold storage of yogurt and (iii) to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behavior of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples of yogurt were inoculated with the mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 days of storage. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto ALOA agar (agar for Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti). It was found that applied temperature and storage time significantly influenced the survival rate of listeriae (pbacteria was found in the samples stored at 6°C (D-10 value = 243.9 h), whereas the highest reduction in the number of the bacteria was observed in the samples stored at 15°C (D-10 value = 87.0 h). The number of L. monocytogenes was correlated with the pH value of the samples (pyogurt stored under temperature range from 3 to 15°C, however, the polynomial model gave a better fit to the experimental data.

  2. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Hung, Shih-Kai; Huang, Tze-Ta; Lee, Moon-Sing; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chou, Pesus; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lin, Hon-Yi; Chien, Sou-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p < 0.001). Using a Cox proportional hazard model, patients with NPC treated by high-volume physicians (caseload ≥ 35) had better survival rates (p = 0.001) after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p < 0.001). Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate

  3. Effects of combined radiation-burn injury on survival rate of allogeneic skin grafts and immune reaction in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Xinze; Yan Yongtang; Cheng Tianmin; Li Yuan; Wei Shuqing

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined radiation-burn injury on survival rate of allogeneic skin grafts and immune reaction were studied in rats with combined injury of 3-8 Gy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation plus 15% total body surface area full thickness burn induced by exposure to a 5 kw bromotungsten lamp. The allogeneic skin was transplanted 24 hours after injury. It was found that all the skin grafts failed to survive in 10 days and the immune reaction significantly increased in the early stage of burn injury. But the immune reaction was obviously suppressed by the combined radiation-burn injury. The survival rates of skin grafts were 20% and 30% in the combined injury of burn plus 3 and 4 Gy irradiation respectively. When the radiation doses increased to 5,6 and 8 Gy, the survival rates elevated to 69%, 88% and 100% respectively (in the group of 8 Gy, bone marrow transplantation was conducted before receiving skin graft). At day 30 post-transplantation the survival rates were still 36%, 42% and 100% respectively. Compared with burn group, there was a significant difference in survival rate when the radiation doses were higher than 5 Gy. These results indicate that the survival rate of the allogeneic skin graft increases concurrently with the increase in radiation dose and decreases with the elapse of the post-transplantation time

  4. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-03-12

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves, recovered 2,458 bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured 455 known-age birds between 2007 and 2010. The best supporting model found some evidence for geographic differences in survival rates among strata (A-C) in both hatch-year (juvenile; A = 0.205 [SE = 0.0476], B = 0.213 [SE = 0.0278], C = 0.364 [SE = 0.0254]) and after-hatch year (adult; A = 0.483 [SE = 0.0775], B = 0.465 [SE = 0.0366], C = 0.538 [SE = 0.251]) birds. White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata (0.009) or being recaptured (0.002) across all strata. Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Retrospective success and survival rates of dental implants placed after a ridge preservation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Peter; Darby, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Ridge preservation is any procedure that takes place at the time of, or shortly after an extraction, to minimise resorption of the ridge and maximise bone formation within the socket. The aim of this project is to investigate the outcome of implant treatment following ridge preservation and compare it to an ungrafted implant control group. Following ethics approval, an electronic and manual search of patient records was conducted, and appropriate cases of implant placement following a ridge preservation procedure were identified. Forty-two patients with 51 implants at ridge-preserved sites were examined by one author (PA) with the following parameters assessed at each implant: pocket probing depth, bleeding on probing, presence/absence of plaque and radiographic bone loss. Clinical and radiographic findings were compared to an ungrafted implant control group and analysed by years in function. There was a 100% survival rate of implants in ridge-preserved sites. In the majority of cases, ridge preservation was performed in the anterior maxilla with a flap raised and the use of deproteinised bovine bone mineral and collagen membrane materials. The mean time in function was 31 (±24) months with a range of 2-102 months. Differences in the mean PPD, BOP, plaque index and radiographic bone loss were not statistically significant between implants at ridge-preserved or ungrafted sites. The overall success rate was around 58% for ungrafted implants and around 51% for implants in ridge-preserved sites. However, this difference was not statistically significant. In this retrospective study, implant placement at ridge-preserved sites was a predictable procedure that led to very high survival rates and similar success rates to implant placement at ungrafted sites. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Breast cancer survival rate according to data of cancer registry and death registry systems in Bushehr province, 2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rampisheh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. Survival rate of breast cancer, especially as an indicator of the successful implementation of screening, diagnosis and treatment programs, has been at the center of attention of public health experts Material and Methods: In a survival study, the records of breast cancer cases in cancer registry system of Bushehr Province were extracted during 2001, March to 2013, September. These records were linked and matched with records of death registry system. After determining patients, status regarding being alive or dead, survival analysis was done. Life table, Kaplan-Mayer analysis, log rank and Breslow tests were used for computing and comparing survival rates. Results: In 300 recorded breast cancer cases, mean and standard deviation of age was 51.26±13.87. Survival rates were 95, 88, 78, 73 and 68 percent since the first year through the fifth year, respectively. Mean survival was 87.20 months (95% CI= 81.28- 93.12. There was no significant difference in mean survival regarding age and different geographical areas. Conclusion: Although survival rates of registered breast cancer patients in Bushehr Province are similar to other provinces, they are far from those of developed countries. This situation demands more extensive efforts regarding public education and improving the process of diagnosis, treatment and care of patients especially during first two years after diagnosis.

  7. Variation of germination of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seed during storage life

    OpenAIRE

    Ristić, Nevena; Todorović, Vesna; Adžić, Slađan; Zdravković, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seed is dormant, which means that the maximum germination is achieved after some time. The research was performed on one genotype (Domaci srednje dugi - DSD). The seed, studied for germination rate, originates from year 2007 and the germination variation was studied for period 2007 - 2011. Eggplant seed was dormant after yield in 2007, but the germination increased over the years. The trial was conducted at the standard germination test method, defined in the R...

  8. Determine movement patterns and survival rates of Central Valley Chinook salmon, steelhead and their predators using acoustic tags.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project’s objective is to document movement patterns and survival rates of Chinook salmon, steelhead, green sturgeon, and other fish from several sources in...

  9. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Salmonella Enteritidis in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the inactivation rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercially produced yogurt and to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behaviour of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples were inoculated with the mixture of three S. Enteritidis strains and stored at 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C for 24 h. The number of salmonellae was determined every two hours. It was found that the number of bacteria decreased linearly with storage time in all samples. Storage temperature and pH of yogurt significantly influenced survival rate of S. Enteritidis (p bacteria was the most dynamic. The natural logarithm of mean inactivation rates of Salmonella calculated from primary model was fitted to two secondary models: linear and polynomial. Equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for prediction of inactivation rate of Salmonella in yogurt stored under temperature range from 5 to 25 degrees C; however, polynomial model gave the better fit to the experimental data.

  10. Practical aspects of temperature intervention in germination and post-germination development of bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastna, J.; Vinter, V.; Babicka, J.

    1974-01-01

    Temperature dependence of germination and post-germination growth was studied in the spores of B a c i l l u s c e r e u s NCIB 8122. It was found that a temperature of 5 0 C slowed down germination, with the cells showing the capacity of synthetizing only a limited amount of proteins. The synthesis of the cellular wall, however, went on for another few hours. Thick-walled, less permeable and less metabolically active cells formed having an altered ultrastructure. A prolonged cultivation at 30 0 C resulted in the reduction of living cells while the low cultivation temperature (5 0 C) was found to have a protective effect. Pre-irradiation with 30g krad of gamma radiation increased the sensitivity of surviving cells to the cultivation conditions. Spores in the post-germination period were found to be much more resistent and alternating use of low and higher temperatures had little effect on growth

  11. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  12. Outpatient-shopping behavior and survival rates in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shang-Jyh; Wang, Shiow-Ing; Liu, Chien-Hsiang; Yaung, Chih-Liang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the appropriateness of the definition of outpatient-shopping behavior in Taiwanese patients. Linked study of 3 databases (Taiwan Cancer Registry, National Health Insurance [NHI] claim database, and death registry database). Outpatient shopping behavior was defined as making at least 4 or 5 physician visits to confirm a cancer diagnosis. We analyzed patient-related factors and the 5-year overall survival rate of the outpatient-shopping group compared with a nonshopping group. Using the household registration database and NHI database, we determined the proportion of outpatient shopping, characteristics of patients who did and did not shop for outpatient therapy, time between diagnosis and start of regular treatment, and medical service utilization in the shopping versus the nonshopping group. Patients with higher incomes were significantly more likely to shop for outpatient care. Patients with higher comorbidity scores were 1.4 times more likely to shop for outpatient care than patients with lower scores. Patients diagnosed with more advanced cancer were more likely to shop than those who were not. Patients might be more trusting of cancer diagnoses given at higher-level hospitals. The nonshopping groups had a longer duration of survival over 5 years. Health authorities should consider charging additional fees after a specific outpatient- shopping threshold is reached to reduce this behavior. The government may need to reassess the function of the medical sources network by shrinking it from the original 4 levels to 2 levels, or by enhancing the referral function among different hospital levels.

  13. Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Cox, Dave; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2003-05-01

    This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to test a newly developed water delivery system, and to determine the optimal combination of water volume and substrate for the imbibition and germination of flax ( Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different combinations of germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. A single layer of thick germination paper was compared with one layer of thin germination paper under a layer of thick paper. Paper strips were cut to fit snugly into seed cassettes, and seeds were glued to them with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in small increments that traveled through the paper via capillary action. Three water delivery volumes were tested, with the largest (480 μL) outperforming the 400 μL, and 320 μL volumes for percent germination (90.6%) and root growth (mean = 4.1 mm) during the 34-hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment yielded similar results, but with lower rates of germination (84.4%) and shorter root lengths (mean = 2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of thick germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery system, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated as an effective method for promoting seed germination and root growth under microgravity conditions.

  14. The oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, O.; Hasenstein, K.

    Experiments for earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and often germinated in orbit in order to study gravity effects on developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds and respiration. In orbit the formation of a water layer around the seed may further limit oxygen availability. Therefore, the oxygen content of the available gas volume is one of the limiting factors for seed germination. In preparation for an upcoming shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware. We tested per seed chamber (gas volume = 14 mL, O2 = 2.9 mL) between 4 to 32 seeds glued to germination paper by 1% (w/v) gum guar. A lexan cover and a gasket hermetically sealed each of the eight chambers. For imbibition of the seeds a previously optimized amount of distilled water was dispensed through sealed inlets. The seedlings were allowed to grow for either 32 to 48 h on a clinostat or without microgravity simulation. Then their root length was measured. With 32 seeds per chamber, four times the intended number of seeds for the flight, the germination rate decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%. Experiments on the germination and root length in controlled atmospheres (5, 10, 15 and 21% O2 ) suggest that germination and growth for two days requires about 200 :l of O (1 mL air) per seed. Our2 experiments correlate oxygen dependency from seed mass and germination temperature, and analyze accumulation of gaseous metabolites (supported by NASA grant NAG10-0190).

  15. Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Cox, Dave; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to test a newly developed water delivery system, and to determine the optimal combination of water volume and substrate for the imbibition and germination of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different combinations of germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. A single layer of thick germination paper was compared with one layer of thin germination paper under a layer of thick paper. Paper strips were cut to fit snugly into seed cassettes, and seeds were glued to them with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in small increments that traveled through the paper via capillary action. Three water delivery volumes were tested, with the largest (480 microliters) outperforming the 400 microliters and 320 microliters volumes for percent germination (90.6%) and root growth (mean=4.1 mm) during the 34-hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment yielded similar results, but with lower rates of germination (84.4%) and shorter root lengths (mean=2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of thick germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery system, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated as an effective method for promoting seed germination and root growth under microgravity conditions. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. External and intraoperative radiotherapy for resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer: analysis of survival rates and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasumasa; Hosotani, Ryo; Shibamoto, Yuta; Kokubo, Masaki; Kanamori, Shuichi; Sasai, Keisuke; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ohshio, Gakuji; Imamura, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaji; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and/or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for both resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer were analyzed. Methods and Materials: Between 1980 and 1995, 332 patients with pancreatic cancer were treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy (RT). Of the 332 patients, 157 patients were treated with surgical resection of pancreatic tumor, and the remaining 175 patients had unresectable pancreatic tumors. Among the 157 patients with resected pancreatic cancer, 62 patients were not treated with RT, while 40 patients were treated with EBRT alone (mean RT dose; 46.3 Gy) and 55 patients with IORT (25.2 Gy) ± EBRT (44.0 Gy). On the other hand, among the 175 patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer, 58 patients were not treated with RT, 46 patients were treated with EBRT alone (39.2 Gy), and the remaining 71 patients with IORT (29.3 Gy) ± EBRT (41.2 Gy). Results: For 87 patients with curative resection, the median survival times (MSTs) of the no-RT, the EBRT, and the IORT ± EBRT groups were 10.4, 13.0, and 15.5 months, respectively, without significant difference. For 70 patients with non curative resection, the MSTs of the no-RT, the EBRT, and the IORT ± EBRT groups were 5.3, 8.7, and 6.5 months, respectively. When the EBRT and the IORT ± EBRT groups were combined, the survival rate was significantly higher than that of the no RT group for non curatively resected pancreatic cancers (log rank test; p = 0.028). The 2-year survival probability of the IORT ± EBRT group (16%) was higher than that of the EBRT group (0%). For unresectable pancreatic cancer, the MSTs of 52 patients without distant metastases were 6.7 months for palliative surgery alone, 7.6 months for EBRT alone, and 8.2 months for IORT ± EBRT. The survival curve of the IORT ± EBRT group was significantly better than that of the no-RT group (p 2 years) were obtained by IORT ± EBRT for non curatively resected and unresectable pancreatic

  17. Survival rate and prognostic factors of conventional osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand: A series from Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Arpornchayanon, Olarn; Uttamo, Nantawat; Leerapun, Taninnit; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2015-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common and aggressive primary malignant bone tumor occurring in children and adolescents. It is one of the most aggressive human cancers and the most common cause of cancer-associated limb loss. As treatment in Thailand has produced a lower survival rate than in developed countries; therefore, this study identified survival rate and the poor prognostic factors of osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand. The retrospective cases of osteosarcoma, diagnosis between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2013, were evaluated. Five and ten year overall survival rates were analyzed using time-to-event analysis. Potential prognostic factors were identified by multivariate regression analysis. There were 208 newly diagnosed osteosarcomas during that period, and 144 cases met the criteria for analysis. The majority of the osteosarcoma cases (78.5%) were aged 0-24 years. The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 37.9% and 33.6%, respectively. Presence of metastasis at initial examination, delayed and against treatment co-operation, and axial skeletal location were identified as independent prognostic factors for survival, with hazard ratios of 4.3, 2.5 and 3.8, and 3.1, respectively. This osteosarcoma cohort had a relatively poor overall survival rate. The prognostic factors identified would play a critical role in modifying survival rates of osteosarcoma patients; as rapid disease recognition, a better treatment counselling, as well as improving of chemotherapeutic regimens were found to be important in improving the overall survival rate in Thailand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. P-cadherin expression and survival rate in oral squamous cell carcinoma:an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laino Gregorio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P-cadherin (P-cad is a transmembrane molecule involved in the cell-cell adhesion and similar to E-cadherin (E-cad, but less investigated in oncology, especially in in vivo studies. Aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of P-cad expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and to verify whether P-cad can be considered a marker of prognosis in patients with OSCC. Methods In a retrospective study, a cohort of 67 OSCC patients was investigated for P-cad expression and its cellular localization by immunohistochemistry; some respective healthy margins of resection were similarly investigated as standard controls. After grouping for P-cad expression, OSCCs were statistically analyzed for the variables age, gender, histological grading (G, TNM, Staging, and overall survival rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results 37 cases (55.2% of OSCC showed membranous/cytoplasmic positivity for P-cad, whereas 30 (44.8 % were negative. Although with some differences in membranous vs cytoplasmic localization of P-cad in OSCC with different G, no statistical association was found between P-cad expression and any variables considered at baseline. In terms of prognostic significance, P-cad non expression was found to have an independent association with poorer overall survival rate than P-cad expressing group (P = 0.056; moreover, among P-cad +ve patients the best prognosis was for those OSCC with membranous (P Conclusion On the basis of these results, it is possible to suggest P-cad as an early marker of poor prognosis. The abnormal or lack of P-cad expression could constitute an hallmark of aggressive biological behavior in OSCC

  19. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gang; Wang Xiaoteng; Gan Cailing; Fang Yanqiong; Zhang Meng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed biological effects of N + implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed. ► N + implantation greatly decreased seedling survival rate. ► At doses beyond 15 × 10 16 ion cm −2 , biological repair took place. ► CAT was essential for H 2 O 2 removal. POD mainly functioned as seed was severely hurt. ► HAsA–GSH cycle mainly contributed to the regeneration of HAsA. - Abstract: To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N + with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N + beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 × 10 16 to 15 × 10 16 ions cm −2 severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 × 10 16 ion cm −2 , biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 × 10 16 ions cm −2 may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA–GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  20. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M.; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 μg per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  1. The Effects of water and salt stresses on germination in two bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed those germination rate was delayed by both solutions in both varieties, with differences between genotypes among growth stages, given that Saisonez genotype showed a higher germination rate than Cascogne genotype in NaCl. NaCl had a lesser effect on genotypes in terms of germination rate and the ...

  2. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Pesus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  3. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will OM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Olga Maria Will,1,* Nicolai Purcz,2,* Athena Chalaris,3 Carola Heneweer,4,5 Susann Boretius,1 Larissa Purcz,2 Lila Nikkola,6 Nureddin Ashammakhi,6 Holger Kalthoff,7 Claus-Christian Glüer,1 Jörg Wiltfang,2 Yahya Açil,2 Sanjay Tiwari1 1Section Biomedical Imaging, Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, MOIN CC, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 3Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 4Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, 5Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 6Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland; 7Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1 no treatment, 2 implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3 implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4 diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal

  4. Effect of continuous hemofiltration on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ming CHEN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of continuous hemofiltration(CHF on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock.Methods Sixteen healthy male dogs were randomly divided into heatshock group(HS group,n=8 and continuous hemofiltration group(CHF group,n=8.Severe heatstroke model was established by applying high temperature to whole body,and then the animals were removed from the heating cabin as soon as they presented manifestations of shock.Dogs of HS group were put into an ordinary environment,while dogs of CHF group received CHF treatment.The core temperature(Tc,mean arterial pressure(MAP,blood gas analysis,serum electrolytes and survival rate of dogs in two groups were observed.Results The time from heat exposure to shock was 107.0±28.5min and 111.4±22.2min in HS group and CHF group respectively(t=-0.354,P=0.729.The Tc in CHF group declined to normal level 15 to 30 minitues after CHF treatment,while the Tc in HS group remained at a level higher than that before heat exposure at 90min after shock.The Tc of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.01.The MAP of both groups was obviously lowered than that before heatstroke.The MAP of CHF group raised gradually 30 min after treatment,while the MAP of HS group rose very slowly,and it was significantly lower than that of CHF group at each time point after 45min(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.All the dogs in both groups manifested hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis when shock appeared.After shock,respiratory alkalosis in HS group gradually became metabolic acidosis,with some animals manifested combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis because of respiratory decompensation,while the blood gas levels in CHF group recovered to normal gradually.The blood gas levels of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.Hypernatremia,hyperchloraemia and hyperpotassaemia were found in all animals of both

  5. Reduced in-hospital survival rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims with obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, M T; Warnier, M J; Bardai, A

    2013-01-01

    ) had comparable survival to ER (75% vs. 78%, OR 0.9 [95% CI: 0.6-1.3]) and to hospital admission (56% vs. 57%, OR 1.0 [0.7-1.4]). However, survival to hospital discharge was significantly lower among OPD patients (21% vs. 33%, OR 0.6 [0.4-0.9]). Multivariate regression analysis among patients who were...... with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have a lower survival rate after OHCA than non-OPD patients. METHODS: We performed a community-based cohort study of 1172 patients with non-traumatic OHCA with ECG-documented VT/VF between 2005 and 2008. We compared survival to emergency room (ER), to hospital admission...... admitted to hospital (OPD: n=100, no OPD: n=561) revealed that OPD was an independent determinant of reduced 30-day survival rate (39% vs. 59%, adjusted OR 0.6 [0.4-1.0, p=0.035]). CONCLUSION: OPD-patients had lower survival rates after OHCA than non-OPD patients. Survival to ER and to hospital admission...

  6. [Study on influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Guang-Lin; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Long-Yun

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve reproductive efficiency and quality standard, the influence factors of seed germination and seeding growth of Lonicera macranthoides werew studied. The fruit and seed morphological characteristics of L. macranthoides were observed, the seed water absorbing capacity was determined, and different wet sand stratification time, temperature and germination bed treatment were set up. The effects of the parameters on seed germination and seedling growth were analysed. There was no obstacles of water absorption on L. macranthoides seed, quantity for 22 h water absorption was close to saturation. In the first 80 d, with the increase of the stratification time, seed initial germination time was shortened, germination rate and germination potential was improved. Stratification for 100 d, germination rate decreased. At 15 ℃, seed germination and seedling growth indicators were the best. The seedling cotyledon width in light was significantly higher than that in dark. Seeds on the top of paper and top of sand germination rate, germination potential, and germination index was significantly higher than that of other germination bed and mildew rate is low. The optimal conditions of seeds germination test was stratified in 4 ℃ wet sand for 80 d, 15 ℃ illuminate culture on the top of paper or top of sand. The first seeding counting time was the 4th day after beginning the test, the final time was the 23th day. The germination potential statistical time was the 13th day after beginning the test. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolism and the triggering of germination of Bacillus megaterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, I.R.; Ellar, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    L-[2,3- 3 H]Alanine was used to probe for metabolism of alanine during triggering of germination of spores of Bacillus megaterium KM. No detectable incorporation of label into any compound, including water, was found, indicating that any metabolism involving the alanine germinant must be at a very low rate and also that alanine racemase is absent from spores of this strain. Spores were germinated in 3 H 2 0 to find if any of the many metabolic reactions causing irreversible incorporation of 3 H into reaction products took place during triggering og germination. No incorporation was detected until 2-3 min after addition of germinants. It is therefore concluded that a wide variety of metabolic routes, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway and amino acid metabolism are either not involved in the reactions causing the triggering of germination or operate at an extremely low rate during this process. (author)

  9. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hala; Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Corcoran, Paul; Deady, Sandra; Sharp, Linda; Kabir, Zubair

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009. National data on incident oral cancers [ICD 10 codes C01-C06] were obtained from the National Cancer Registry Ireland from 1994 to 2009. We estimated annual percentage change (APC) in oral cancer incidence during 1994-2009 using joinpoint regression software (version 4.2.0.2). The lifetime risk of oral cancer to age 79 was estimated using Irish incidence and population data from 2007 to 2009. Survival rates were also examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to explore the influence of several demographic/lifestyle covariates with follow-up to end 2012. Data were obtained on 2,147 oral cancer incident cases. Men accounted for two-thirds of oral cancer cases (n = 1,430). Annual rates in men decreased significantly during 1994-2001 (APC = -4.8 %, 95 % CI: -8.7 to -0.7) and then increased moderately (APC = 2.3 %, 95 % CI: -0.9 to 5.6). In contrast, annual incidence increased significantly in women throughout the study period (APC = 3.2 %, 95 % CI: 1.9 to 4.6). There was an elevated risk of death among oral cancer patients who were: older than 60 years of age; smokers; unemployed or retired; those living in the most deprived areas; and those whose tumour was sited in the base of the tongue. Being married and diagnosed in more recent years were associated with reduced risk of death. Oral cancer increased significantly in both sexes between 1999 and 2009 in Ireland. Our analyses demonstrate the influence of measured factors such as smoking, time of diagnosis and age on observed trends. Unmeasured factors such as alcohol use, HPV and dietary factors may also be contributing to increased trends. Several of

  10. Short seed longevity, variable germination conditions, and infrequent establishment events provide a narrow window for Yucca brevifolia (Agavaceae) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, M.; Reynolds, J.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The future of long-lived stand-forming desert plants such as Yucca brevifolia (Joshua tree) has come into question in light of climate variation and landscape-scale disturbances such as wildfire. Understanding plant establishment dynamics is important for mitigating the impacts of disturbances and promoting revegetation. • METHODS: We placed Y. brevifolia seeds in shallow caches and manipulated granivore access, nurse shrub effects, and the season of cache placement to determine conditions for seed germination and seedling establishment. • KEY RESULTS: Greatest seedling emergence occurred during spring and summer, when increased soil moisture was accompanied by warm soil temperatures. Late winter-spring emergence for cached seeds was enhanced beneath shrub canopies, but seedling survival declined beneath shrubs as temperatures increased in spring. Germinability of seed remaining in the soil was reduced from 50-68% after 12 mo residence time in soil and declined to germinability, imposing substantial losses of potential germinants. • CONCLUSIONS: Specific germination and establishment requirements impose stringent limits on recruitment rates for Y. brevifolia. Coupled with infrequent seed availability, the return rates to prefire densities and demographic structure may require decades to centuries, especially in light of potential changes to regional desert climate in combination with the potential for fire recurrence. Demographic patterns are predicted to vary spatially in response to environmental variability that limits recruitment and may already be apparent among extant populations.

  11. Short seed longevity, variable germination conditions, and infrequent establishment events provide a narrow window for Yucca brevifolia (Agavaceae) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, M.; Reynolds, J.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The future of long-lived stand-forming desert plants such as Yucca brevifolia (Joshua tree) has come into question in light of climate variation and landscape-scale disturbances such as wildfire. Understanding plant establishment dynamics is important for mitigating the impacts of disturbances and promoting revegetation. • METHODS: We placed Y. brevifolia seeds in shallow caches and manipulated granivore access, nurse shrub effects, and the season of cache placement to determine conditions for seed germination and seedling establishment. • KEY RESULTS: Greatest seedling emergence occurred during spring and summer, when increased soil moisture was accompanied by warm soil temperatures. Late winter-spring emergence for cached seeds was enhanced beneath shrub canopies, but seedling survival declined beneath shrubs as temperatures increased in spring. Germinability of seed remaining in the soil was reduced from 50-68% after 12 mo residence time in soil and declined to parent plants, seeds are either removed by granivores or lose germinability, imposing substantial losses of potential germinants. • CONCLUSIONS: Specific germination and establishment requirements impose stringent limits on recruitment rates for Y. brevifolia. Coupled with infrequent seed availability, the return rates to prefire densities and demographic structure may require decades to centuries, especially in light of potential changes to regional desert climate in combination with the potential for fire recurrence. Demographic patterns are predicted to vary spatially in response to environmental variability that limits recruitment and may already be apparent among extant populations.

  12. Effects of Wood Pollution on Pore-Water Sulfide Levels and Eelgrass Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, C.

    2016-02-01

    Historically, sawmills released wood waste onto coastal shorelines throughout the Pacific Northwest of the USA, enriching marine sediments with organic material. The increase in organic carbon boosts the bacterial reduction of sulfate and results in the production of a toxic metabolite, hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is a phytotoxin and can decrease the growth and survival of eelgrass. This is a critical issue since eelgrass, Zostera marina, forms habitat for many species, stabilizes sediment, and plays a role in nutrient cycling and sediment chemistry. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of wood debris on sediment pore-water hydrogen sulfide concentrations and eelgrass germination. To test the impact of wood inputs on sulfide production and seed germination, we conducted a laboratory mesocosm experiment, adding sawdust to marine sediments and measuring the sulfide levels weekly. We subsequently planted seeds in the mesocosms and measured germination rates. Higher concentrations of sawdust led to higher levels of pore-water hydrogen sulfide and drastically slower eelgrass germination rates. Treatments with greater than 10% wood enrichment developed free sulfide concentrations of 0.815 (± 0.427) mM after 118 days, suggesting sediments with greater than 10% wood pollution may have threateningly high pore-water hydrogen sulfide levels. These results can be used to set thresholds for remediation efforts and guide seed distribution in wood polluted areas.

  13. Survival and growth rates of juvenile salmonids reared in lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golski Janusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of propagating juvenile trout, Salmo trutta L. in small lowland streams and to evaluate the impact of the environmental conditions in the streams on the juvenile fish. Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario and sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta early fry fed under controlled conditions were used to stock third-order lowland streams. During summer, fall, and spring catches, fry were counted, measured, and weighed. The following parameters were calculated using the data collected: fry stocking density (ind. m-2; survival; specific mortality rate (SMR; length range; mean specimen length; body weight; mean body weight; specific growth rate (SGR; body condition (Fulton’s index. The ichthyological studies were accompanied by simultaneous analyses of environmental conditions that were performed monthly, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled in spring and fall. No differences were observed in the biological parameters analyzed between sea trout and brown trout. Variability in environmental parameters such as temperature, oxygenation, conductivity, and stream width and depth were associated with differentiation in the biological parameters of the fry. The results clearly indicate that the considerable potential of small lowland streams for the propagation of salmonid juvenile stages is currently underexploited.

  14. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Tyne

    Full Text Available Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68. Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761 spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  15. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. [Effects of fluridone, gibberellin acid and germination temperature on dormancy-breaking for Epimedium wushanense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, He; Wang, Yue; Yang, Yang; Dong, Xue-Hui

    2016-07-01

    We introduced Epimedium wushanense seed which has been stratified for 90 days at 10/20 ℃ as experimental materials, with which we studied the effects of fluridone, gibberellin acid and temperature on E. wushanense germination. The results were suggested as shown below. ①Temperature, fluridone and gibberellin acid can both solely or jointly affect germination energy, germination rate significantly. Among those factors, fluridone affect germination rate and germination energy the most, followed by gibberellin acid and temperature. The highest germination rate under 4 ℃ and 10/20 ℃ stratification are 79.3%, 72.0% respectively, which resulted from treatment of F10GA300 and F20GA200 respectively. The highest germination energy under 4 ℃ and 10/20 ℃ stratification are 52.7%, 52.0%, respectively, which both resulted from F20GA200. ②Compared with 4 ℃ germination, seed could not germinate at 10/20 ℃ germination. Nontheless, application of fluridone can lead E. wushanense seeds to germinating.③The effects of gibberellin acid and interaction between gibberellin acid and fluridone significantly affect seed rotten rate during germination. In addition, soaking is another remarkable factor which increased seed rotten rate. As a result, it is feasible to promote E. wushanense dormancy releasing with gibberellin acid and fluridone associating with a proper germination temperature. Further, it is necessary taking actions to avoid seed rotten rate for saving E. wushanense nurseries'cost. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  18. Comparative effectiveness and survival of infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept for rheumatoid arthritis patients in the Hellenic Registry of Biologics: Low rates of remission and 5-year drug survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Irini; Markatseli, Theodora E; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Boki, Kyriaki A; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Settas, Loukas; Zisopoulos, Dimitrios; Skopouli, Fotini N; Iliopoulos, Alexios; Bertsias, George K; Geborek, Pierre; Drosos, Alexandros A; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos

    2014-02-01

    To compare effectiveness, drug survival, and safety between infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, in a nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. This study is a prospective cohort study of 1208 active RA patients. Effectiveness, drug survival, and serious adverse events during entire follow-up (median 2.9 years) were monitored. EULAR and CDAI responses were comparable between the three agents (EULAR good/moderate responses at 12 months ranged 76-79%). At 12 months, 15-23% achieved remission. For adalimumab and etanercept, adjusted hazard rate (HR) for EULAR/ACR remission (reference: infliximab) was 2.7 and 2.1 (95% confidence interval was 1.7-4.1 and 1.3-3.4, respectively); males (HR 1.6; 1.1-2.4), use of glucocorticoids (HR 2.0; 1.3-3.0), and swollen joint count >7 (HR 0.36; 0.24-0.55) were independent predictors. Five-year drug survival was 31%, 43%, and 49% for infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, respectively (p = 0.010). Infliximab was associated with significantly more withdrawals due to adverse events. Disease activity, CRP, and use of glucocorticoids predicted efficacy-related drug survival; age, use of methotrexate, and prior DMARDs failures predicted safety-related survival. Risk for serious infections was lower with adalimumab (odds ratio [OR] 0.62; 0.38-1.00) or etanercept (OR 0.39; 0.21-0.72) than infliximab, independent of the effects of age (OR 1.65; 1.37-2.00 per 10 years), tender joint count >10 (OR 1.86; 1.21-2.86), and glucocorticoids >35mg/week (OR 1.83; 1.12-2.99). Response rates were comparable among anti-TNF agents. Overall, 5-year drug survival was below 50%, with infliximab demonstrating increased safety-related discontinuations. Remission rates are low in clinical practice. Strategies to increase effectiveness and long-term survival of anti-TNF agents in RA are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of proton beam irradiation on seed germination and growth of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Juhyun; Kim, Woon Ji; Kim, Sang Hun; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the morphological effects of proton beam irradiation on the seed germination, seedling survival, and plant growth of soybean. Seeds of three Korean elite cultivars (Kwangankong, Daepungkong, and Pungsannamulkong) were irradiated with a 57-MeV proton beam in the range of 50 - 400 Gy. The germination rates of all the varieties increased to > 95%; however, the survival rates were significantly reduced. At doses of > 300 Gy irradiation, the Daepungkong, Kwangankong, and Pungsannamulkong cultivars exhibited 39, 75, and 71% survival rates, respectively. In addition, plant height and the fresh weight of shoots and roots were significantly decreased by doses of > 100 Gy irradiation, as were the dry weights of the shoots and roots. However, SPAD values increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Abnormal plants with atypically branched stems, modified leaves, and chlorophyll mutations were observed. Based on the survival rate, plant growth inhibition, and mutation frequency, it appears that the optimum dosage of proton beam irradiation for soybean mutation breeding is between 250 and 300 Gy.

  20. The Cooperative and Interdependent Roles of GerA, GerK, and Ynd in Germination of Bacillus licheniformis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch-Pedersen, Kristina; Lindbäck, Toril; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Kidd, Shani W; O'Sullivan, Kristin; Granum, Per Einar; Aspholm, Marina

    2016-07-15

    When nutrients are scarce, Bacillus species form metabolically dormant and extremely resistant spores that enable survival over long periods of time under conditions not permitting growth. The presence of specific nutrients triggers spore germination through interaction with germinant receptors located in the spore's inner membrane. Bacillus licheniformis is a biotechnologically important species, but it is also associated with food spoilage and food-borne disease. The B. licheniformis ATCC 14580/DSM13 genome exhibits three gerA family operons (gerA, gerK, and ynd) encoding germinant receptors. We show that spores of B. licheniformis germinate efficiently in response to a range of different single l-amino acid germinants, in addition to a weak germination response seen with d-glucose. Mutational analyses revealed that the GerA and Ynd germination receptors function cooperatively in triggering an efficient germination response with single l-amino acid germinants, whereas the GerK germination receptor is essential for germination with d-glucose. Mutant spores expressing only GerA and GerK or only Ynd and GerK show reduced or severely impaired germination responses, respectively, with single l-amino acid germinants. Neither GerA nor Ynd could function alone in stimulating spore germination. Together, these results functionally characterize the germination receptor operons present in B. licheniformis We demonstrate the overlapping germinant recognition patterns of the GerA and Ynd germination receptors and the cooperative functionalities between GerA, Ynd, and GerK in inducing germination. To ensure safe food production and durable foods, there is an obvious need for more knowledge on spore-forming bacteria. It is the process of spore germination that ultimately leads to food spoilage and food poisoning. Bacillus licheniformis is a biotechnologically important species that is also associated with food spoilage and food-borne disease. Despite its importance, the

  1. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in 10 European regions : the MOSAIC birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draper, E. S.; Zeitlin, J.; Fenton, A. C.; Weber, T.; Gerrits, J.; Martens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Breart, G.

    Objective: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. Design: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for 10 geographically defined European regions during 2003, followed to discharge home from hospital. Participants:

  2. Survival of mouse embryos after vitrification depending on the cooling rate of the cryoprotectant solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hredzák, R; Ostró, A; Zdilová, Viera; Maracek, I; Kacmárik, J

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the rate of cooling of eight-cell mouse embryos to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) and their developmental capacity after thawing on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') during in vitro culturing. Eight-cell embryos were obtained from superovulated female mice and divided into three experimental and one control group. Embryos from the experimental groups were cryopreserved by the vitrification method using ethylene glycol as cryoprotectant. The vitrification protocols used in the study differed in the rate of cooling of the cryoprotectant solution. Embryos from the first group were frozen in conventional 0.25-ml plastic straws, those from the second group in pipetting 'tips', and embryos from the third group, placed in vitrification solution, were introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen. The control group of embryos was cultured in vitro without freezing in a culturing medium in an environment consisting of 95% air and 5% CO2. The developmental capacity of thawed embryos was assessed on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') after three days of in vitro culturing. In the control group 95.1% of embryos 'hatched'. A significantly higher number of embryos that 'hatched' after thawing was observed in the group introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen (60.0%) compared to the group frozen in pipetting 'tips' (37.9%). The group frozen in straws yielded significantly the lowest proportion of 'hatching' embryos (8.1%). These results showed that increasing cooling rates during vitrification of embryos improved their survival.

  3. Evaluation of the Survival Rate and Bone Loss of Implants with Various Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Rokn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The replacement of missing teeth with implant-associated restorations has become a widely used treatment modality in recent years. The length of dental implants may be a critical factor in achieving and maintaining osseointegration.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and bone loss of dental implants with different lengthsMaterials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 60 ITI-system implants, evenly distributed into three groups including 8, 10 and 12 mm high implants in the posterior segments of both jaws. Demographic information, oral hygiene,cigarette smoking, implant length, duration of implant placement (at least 24 months,bleeding on probing index and pocket probing depth were recorded for all participants.Bone loss was calculated using pre- and post-operative panoramic radiographs.Results: The mean rate of bone loss was different among the three groups and were found to be 0.21 (0.45, 0.3 (0.41 and 0.43 (0.55 mm in the 8, 10, and 12 mm high implants, respectively. Neither mean bone loss nor bleeding on probing index showed significant differences with implant length. A significant correlation was found between implant length and pocket probing depth (P<0.0001.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that both short (8 mm high and long (10 or 12 mm high implants may be used with nearly equal success rates in the posterior segments of the jaws.

  4. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Its Relationship with Vegetative growth in Bromus danthoniae Genotypes from Saline and Non-Saline Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus danthoniae Trin. is an annual grass species that is well adapted to harsh climates and could be considered as an important genetic resources for tolerance to environmental stresses such as salinity. In this study, 24 genotypes collected from Ilam, Kurdistan, Kermanshah (non-saline areas and West Azerbaijan (saline area: shores of Uremia Salt Lake provinces of Iran were investigated at the germination stage under salt treatments with concentrations of 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 mM sodium chloride. Germination percentage, germination rate index, seed vigor, root length, shoot length and seedling fresh and dry weights were measured. In addition, the relationship between the percentage of germination in 300 mM sodium chloride and the survival rate (% after four weeks in 350 mM sodium chloride at the vegetative stage was evaluated. The results of analysis of variance showed that salinity treatments caused significant reductions in all the studied traits. Genotypic variation and the interaction of genotype × salt treatments were also significant. Genotypes USLN3 and KER4 were found to be the most tolerant and sensitive genotypes to salinity stress, with 13% and 98% reduction in germination percentage at 300 mM NaCl, respectively. Cluster analysis divided the genotypes into three groups, with one group containing only tolerant genotypes from Uremia Salt Lake, another one comprising only sensitive genotypes from non-saline regions, and the third one containing genotypes from both regions. The correlation between the germination percentage and the survival rate at the vegetative stage was not significant, indicating that different mechanisms are, perhaps, responsible for salinity tolerance at the germination and vegetative stages in B. danthoniae.

  5. Heart Rate Recovery After 6-Min Walk Test Predicts Survival in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swigris, Jeffrey J.; Swick, Jeff; Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Sprunger, David; du Bois, Roland; Fischer, Aryeh; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Frankel, Stephen K.; Fernandez-Perez, Evans R.; Kervitsky, Dolly; Brown, Kevin K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), our objectives were to identify predictors of abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) at 1 min after completion of a 6-min walk test (6MWT) [HRR1] and 2 min after completion of a 6MWT (HRR2), and to determine whether abnormal HRR predicts mortality. Methods: From 2003 to 2008, we identified IPF patients who had been evaluated at our center (n = 76) with a pulmonary physiologic examination and the 6MWT. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of abnormal HRR, the product-limit method to compare survival in the sample stratified on HRR, and Cox proportional hazards analysis to estimate the prognostic capability of abnormal HRR. Results: Cutoff values were 13 beats for abnormal HRR1 and 22 beats for HRR2. In a multivariable model, predictors of abnormal HRR1 were diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (odds ratio [OR], 0.4 per 10% predicted; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2 to 0.7; p = 0.003), change in heart rate from baseline to maximum (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.8 to 0.97; p = 0.01), and having a right ventricular systolic pressure > 35 mm Hg as determined by transthoracic echocardiogram (OR, 12.7; 95% CI, 2.0 to 79.7; p = 0.01). Subjects with an abnormal HRR had significantly worse survival than subjects with a normal HRR (for HRR1, p = 0.0007 [log-rank test]; for HRR2, p = 0.03 [log-rank test]); these results held for the subgroup of 30 subjects without resting pulmonary hypertension (HRR1, p = 0.04 [log-rank test]). Among several candidate variables, abnormal HRR1 appeared to be the most potent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.8 to 15.2; p = 0.004). Conclusion: Abnormal HRR after 6MWT predicts mortality in IPF patients. Research is needed to confirm these findings prospectively and to examine the mechanisms of HRR in IPF patients. PMID:19395579

  6. Effect of Different Medium on Survival Rate and Growth of Chironomus sp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental fish and fish for food culture, feeding by natural feed is very suitable since they are easy to digest and their size is suitable with  to larval mouth.  One of natural foods is blood worm Chironomus sp. larvae that has high protein content (till  65.2% of  protein. Until now, blood worm is obtained from nature and their stock depends on the weather.  That problem  may be overcome by culturing blood worm in appropriate culture medium.  Naturally, Chironomus sp. grows well in the water containing sago waste.  This study was carried out to examine the growth of Chironomus sp. reared in the medium containing mud, solid sago waste, solid tapioca wastes and water with no waste in depth of 0.5 cm. After 35-day rearing, survival rate of Chironomus sp was different among the treatments, while growth in length was similar. The best survival rate, 58.93% was obtained in the media containing solid sago waste.   Keywords: Chironomus, blood worm, sago waste, tapioca waste   ABSTRAK Dalam usaha budidaya ikan hias maupun ikan konsumsi, pemberian pakan alami sangat cocok karena mudah dicerna dan sesuai dengan bukaan mulut larva. Salah satu contoh pakan alami adalah Chironomus sp. (blood worm yang mempunyai kandungan protein mencapai 65,2%. Selama ini cacing darah diperoleh dari alam dan suplainya tergantung pada kondisi musim. Hal ini mungkin dapat diatasi dengan membudidayakan cacing darah dengan  media yang sesuai sebagai tempat hidupnya. Secara alami, Chironomus sp. dapat tumbuh dan berkembang dengan baik pada limbah sagu. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Chironomus sp. yang dipelihara pada media berupa lumpur, limbah sagu padat, limbah tapioka padat dan air tanpa limbah dengan ketebalan media 0,5 cm. Setelah 35 hari masa pemeliharaan, diketahui bahwa penggunaan media limbah padat sagu, limbah padat tapioka, lumpur dan air tanpa limbah pada pemeliharaan Chironomus sp. masing-masing menghasilkan tingkat

  7. Testicular germinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of testicular germinal tumors. The presumed diagnosis is based in the anamnesis, clinical examination, testicular ultrasound and tumor markers. The definitive diagnosis is obtained through the inguinal radical orchidectomy

  8. Germination, carbohydrate composition and vigor of cryopreserved Caesalpinia echinata seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood seeds stored at negative temperatures. Recently harvested seeds were cryopreserved at -18º or -196ºC and periodically evaluated for germination, seed vigor and carbohydrate composition. The temperatures did not influence the germination percentages or vigor. The germination percentage decreased from 88% in recently harvested seeds to 60% after 730 days of storage. The different temperature and storage times tested did not affect the vigor seed germination as indicated by the measures of plant growth and survival. The different temperatures used did not cause changes in the carbohydrate composition. The tegument cell walls were rich in lignin, arabinose and xylose. The cytoplasm of the cotyledons and embryos had high levels of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The cryopreservation technique here presented was effective in the conservation of Brazilwood seeds for the medium term.

  9. Survival analysis approach to account for non-exponential decay rate effects in lifetime experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, K.J., E-mail: kevincoakley@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Dewey, M.S.; Huber, M.G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8461, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Huffer, C.R.; Huffman, P.R. [North Carolina State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, 116 Science Drive, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Marley, D.E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8461, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); North Carolina State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Mumm, H.P. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8461, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); O' Shaughnessy, C.M. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 120 E. Cameron Ave., CB #3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, 116 Science Drive, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Schelhammer, K.W. [North Carolina State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, 116 Science Drive, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Thompson, A.K.; Yue, A.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8461, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    In experiments that measure the lifetime of trapped particles, in addition to loss mechanisms with exponential survival probability functions, particles can be lost by mechanisms with non-exponential survival probability functions. Failure to account for such loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in these measurements. In this work, we develop a general competing risks survival analysis method to account for the joint effect of loss mechanisms with either exponential or non-exponential survival probability functions, and a method to quantify the size of systematic effects and associated uncertainties for lifetime estimates. As a case study, we apply our survival analysis formalism and method to the Ultra Cold Neutron lifetime experiment at NIST. In this experiment, neutrons can escape a magnetic trap before they decay due to a wall loss mechanism with an associated non-exponential survival probability function.

  10. Survival analysis approach to account for non-exponential decay rate effects in lifetime experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, K.J.; Dewey, M.S.; Huber, M.G.; Huffer, C.R.; Huffman, P.R.; Marley, D.E.; Mumm, H.P.; O'Shaughnessy, C.M.; Schelhammer, K.W.; Thompson, A.K.; Yue, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    In experiments that measure the lifetime of trapped particles, in addition to loss mechanisms with exponential survival probability functions, particles can be lost by mechanisms with non-exponential survival probability functions. Failure to account for such loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in these measurements. In this work, we develop a general competing risks survival analysis method to account for the joint effect of loss mechanisms with either exponential or non-exponential survival probability functions, and a method to quantify the size of systematic effects and associated uncertainties for lifetime estimates. As a case study, we apply our survival analysis formalism and method to the Ultra Cold Neutron lifetime experiment at NIST. In this experiment, neutrons can escape a magnetic trap before they decay due to a wall loss mechanism with an associated non-exponential survival probability function.

  11. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  12. Firms Started As Franchises Have Lower Survival Rates Than Independent Small Business Startups

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Bates

    1994-01-01

    Aspiring entrepreneurs choosing to become franchisees certainly expect to improve their chances of survival during the turbulent early years of business startup and operation. Alignment with a franchiser parent company offers the franchisee managerial assistance, access to financial capital, and access to markets via the right to utilize the parent company trademark. This study examines survival patterns among franchise and nonfranchise small firms started between 1984 and 1987: survival thro...

  13. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M.; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  14. Egg Hatch Rate and Nymphal Survival of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) After Exposure to Insecticide Sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, K R; Benson, E P; Zungoli, P A; Bridges, W C; Ellis, B R

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the efficacy of insecticides used against eggs and first-instar nymphs of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Insect eggs are often resistant to insecticides; therefore, information on which products are effective is important. We evaluated the efficacy of four commonly used insecticide sprays applied directly to bed bug eggs. We also evaluated the efficacy of these insecticides to first-instar nymphs exposed to residuals resulting from directly spraying eggs. Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin, imidacloprid) was the most effective insecticide at preventing egg hatch (13% hatch rate) for pyrethroid-resistant, field-strain (Jersey City) bed bugs compared with a control (water [99% hatch rate]), Bedlam (MGK-264, sumithrin [84% hatch rate]), Demand CS (lambda-cyhalothrin [91% hatch rate]), and Phantom SC (chlorfenapyr [95% hatch rate]). Demand CS and Temprid SC were most effective at preventing egg hatch (0%) for an insecticide-susceptible (Harold Harlan) strain, followed by Bedlam (28%). Phantom SC produced a hatch rate similar to the control (97% and 96%, respectively). Harold Harlan-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control but 0% survival for Bedlam and Phantom SC. Jersey City-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control, 99% survival for Bedlam, 0% survival for Demand CS, 4% survival for Phantom SC, and 38% survival for Temprid SC. Demand CS was less effective at preventing hatch (91% hatch rate) of Jersey City-strain nymphs but was the only product to kill all nymphs (0% survival). One of the least effective products for preventing Jersey City-strain egg hatch (Phantom SC, 95% hatch rate) was the second most effective at killing nymphs, leaving only six of 141 alive. These findings indicate that survival of directly sprayed eggs and residually exposed, first-instar nymphs varies by strain, life stage, and product used. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological

  15. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  16. Analysis of Survival Rates Following Primary Surgery of 178 Consecutive Patients with Oral Cancer in a Large District General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, William P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the survival rates in patients treated for oral cancer with primary surgery in a large district general hospital. We discuss the influence of the most significant prognostic factors on survival and compare our results with larger centres specializing in the management of oral cancer. All patients diagnosed with oral cancer from 1995 to 2006 and were treated in the Department had their details entered prospectively onto a computerized database. Demographic details of patients, type of treatment, pathological stage of tumor (TNM), local and regional recurrence rate, overall survival, disease specific survival and incidence of involved margins were recorded and calculated. Of the 178 patients, 96 (54 %) were alive and free of oral cancer 5 years after surgery. Forty-four patients died of oral cancer (24.7 %) but 38 (21.3 %) died of other causes. The overall survival rate after primary surgery in relation to stage was: I 84 %, II 71 %, III 36 % and IV 28 %. As almost half of our patients presented with advanced cancer and had discouraging survival rates, we emphasize the need for early recognition of the disease. Advanced disease signifies difficulty in obtaining clear margins which actually indicates a higher recurrence rate. 25 % of our patients died of oral cancer within 5 years of surgery which highlights the poor prognosis that recurrence carries after treatment. Effective educational campaign with purpose to raise oral cancer awareness and earlier referral may result in improvement of survival.

  17. Bayesian Analysis for Dynamic Generalized Linear Latent Model with Application to Tree Survival Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-sheng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression model is the most popular regression technique, available for modeling categorical data especially for dichotomous variables. Classic logistic regression model is typically used to interpret relationship between response variables and explanatory variables. However, in real applications, most data sets are collected in follow-up, which leads to the temporal correlation among the data. In order to characterize the different variables correlations, a new method about the latent variables is introduced in this study. At the same time, the latent variables about AR (1 model are used to depict time dependence. In the framework of Bayesian analysis, parameters estimates and statistical inferences are carried out via Gibbs sampler with Metropolis-Hastings (MH algorithm. Model comparison, based on the Bayes factor, and forecasting/smoothing of the survival rate of the tree are established. A simulation study is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method and a pika data set is analyzed to illustrate the real application. Since Bayes factor approaches vary significantly, efficiency tests have been performed in order to decide which solution provides a better tool for the analysis of real relational data sets.

  18. Fingertip Replantation Without and With Palmar Venous Anastomosis: Analysis of the Survival Rates and Vein Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Alper; Gungor, Melike; Sir, Emin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of fingertip replantations without (artery anastomosis only replantations) and with venous anastomosis (replantations in which both arterial and palmar venous anastomoses were performed). Also, distribution of the veins used for anastomosis was analyzed retrospectively. First 53 digits (47 patients) received only arterial anastomosis (group 1). For relieving venous congestion, external bleeding method was used. Last 41 digits (38 patients) received both arterial and palmar venous anastomoses without external bleeding (group 2). There was statistical significance of the survival rate between group 1 [77.3% (41/53)] and group 2 [92.6% (38/41)] (P = 0.039). Venous congestion was encountered at 10 digits in group 1 (all underwent necrosis totally) and at 3 digits in group 2 (both were moderate and could be salvaged partially) (P = 0.094, no statistical significance). There was statistical significance of the mean operation time for single-fingertip replantation between group 1 (80 ± 7.8 minutes) and group 2 (105 ± 14.5 minutes) (P replantations with palmar venous anastomosis have simpler postoperative care and lower drawbacks as compared with artery anastomosis-only replantations.

  19. Effects of germination season on life history traits and on transgenerational plasticity in seed dormancy in a cold desert annual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juan J; Tan, Dun Y; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M

    2016-04-27

    The maternal environment can influence the intensity of seed dormancy and thus seasonal germination timing and post-germination life history traits. We tested the hypotheses that germination season influences phenotypic expression of post-germination life history traits in the cold desert annual Isatis violascens and that plants from autumn- and spring-germinating seeds produce different proportions of seeds with nondeep and intermediate physiological dormancy (PD). Seeds were sown in summer and flexibility in various life history traits determined for plants that germinated in autumn and in spring. A higher percentage of spring- than of autumn-germinating plants survived the seedling stage, and all surviving plants reproduced. Number of silicles increased with plant size (autumn- > spring-germinating plants), whereas percent dry mass allocated to reproduction was higher in spring- than in autumn-germinating plants. Autumn-germinating plants produced proportionally more seeds with intermediate PD than spring-germinating plants, while spring-germinating plants produced proportionally more seeds with nondeep PD than autumn-germinating plants. Flexibility throughout the life history and transgenerational plasticity in seed dormancy are adaptations of I. violascens to its desert habitat. Our study is the first to demonstrate that autumn- and spring-germinating plants in a species population differ in proportion of seeds produced with different levels of PD.

  20. Effect of mutagens on seed germination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamayanthi, K.P.M.; Reddy, V.R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of chilli variety CO-2 (Coimbatore-2) were irradiated with gamma rays ranging from 10 kR to 35 kR at an interval of 5 kR and the effect on seed germination, seedling survival, percent lethality and seedling injury were studied. Lower doses were stimulative, while higher doses had inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling survival. The highest percentage of seed germination (37.5) and seedling survival (31.3) was recorded at 10 kR as compared to 28 percent of germination and 3.3 percent seedling survival in control. Percent lethality (9.6%) and seedling injury (6.5%) were comparatively low than the lethality percentage and seedling injury of the higher dose treatments. In chemical mutagen treatments, the maximum seed germination (54.5%) and seedling survival (51.2%), seedling lethality (0.97%) and seedling injury (1.37%) were obtained in the treated seeds of EMS at 0.5% concentration followed by 39.5% seed germination and 30.0% seedling survival, seedling lethality (3.8%) and seedling injury (3.06%) of MMS. The stimulative effect of seed germination is more in chemical mutagens than the physical mutagen. There was a proportionate decrease in germination percentage and seedling survival with an increase in dose/concentration of both the chemicals. (author)

  1. Effects of graphene on seed germination and seedling growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Gao, Bin, E-mail: bg55@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering (United States); Chen, Jianjun [University of Florida, Department of Environmental Horticulture and Mid-Florida Research & Education Center (United States); Li, Yuncong [University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Department Tropical Research & Education Center (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The environmental impact of graphene has recently attracted great attention. In this work, we show that graphene at a low concentration affected tomato seed germination and seedling growth. Graphene-treated seeds germinated much faster than control seeds. Analytical results indicated that graphene penetrated seed husks. The penetration might break the husks to facilitate water uptake, resulting in faster germination and higher germination rates. At the stage of seedling growth, graphene was also able to penetrate root tip cells. Seedlings germinated from graphene-treated seeds had slightly lower biomass accumulation than the control, but exhibited significantly longer stems and roots than the control, which suggests that graphene, in contrast with other nanoparticles, had different effects on seedling growth. Taken together, our results imply that graphene played complicated roles in affecting the initial stage of seed germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  2. The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on cancer survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence, tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy, and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  3. Does accelerometer feedback on high-quality chest compression improve survival rate? An in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Hee; Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Dong Hoon; Chang, Wen Joen

    2015-08-01

    We investigated whether visual feedback from an accelerometer device facilitated high-quality chest compressions during an in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation using a manikin. Thirty health care providers participated in an in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation with 1 minute of continuous chest compressions. Chest compressions were performed on a manikin lying on a bed according to visual feedback from an accelerometer feedback device. The manikin and accelerometer recorded chest compression data simultaneously. The simulated patient was deemed to have survived when the chest compression data satisfied all of the preset high-quality chest compression criteria (depth ≥51 mm, rate >100 per minute, and ≥95% full recoil). Survival rates were calculated from the feedback device and manikin data. The survival rate according to the feedback device data was 80%; however, the manikin data indicated a significantly lower survival rate (46.7%; P = .015). The difference between the accelerometer and manikin survival rates was not significant for participants with a body mass index greater than or equal to 20 kg/m(2) (93.3 vs 73.3%, respectively; P = .330); however, the difference in survival rate was significant in participants with body mass index less than 20 kg/m(2) (66.7 vs 20.0%, respectively; P = .025). The use of accelerometer feedback devices to facilitate high-quality chest compression may not be appropriate for lightweight rescuers because of the potential for compression depth overestimation. Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001449). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Dupont, Nana Hee; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Outcomes of colic treatment are of great interest to clinicians, horse owners and insurers. One commonly used criterion of success is the overall short-term survival rate. This is used as to compare treatments and to measure quality of veterinary care, but may be biased by demographic...... the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners ’ attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias...

  5. The mechanism underlying fast germination of tomato cultivar LA2711.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchao; Chu, Zhuannan; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Ying; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Dianbo; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Ouyang, Bo; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Seed germination is important for early plant morphogenesis as well as abiotic stress tolerance, and is mainly controlled by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Our previous studies identified a salt-tolerant tomato cultivar, LA2711, which is also a fast-germinating genotype, compared to its salt-sensitive counterpart, ZS-5. In an effort to further clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we compared the dynamic levels of ABA and GA4, the transcript abundance of genes involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism as well as signal transduction between the two cultivars. In addition, we tested seed germination sensitivity to ABA and GAs. Our results revealed that insensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA and low ABA content in seeds are the physiological mechanisms conferring faster germination rates of LA2711 seeds. SlCYP707A2, which encodes an ABA catabolic enzyme, may play a decisive role in the fast germination rate of LA2711, as it showed a significantly higher level of expression in LA2711 than ZS-5 at most time points tested during germination. The current results will enable us to gain insight into the mechanism(s) regarding seed germination of tomato and the role of fast germination in stress tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and maternal plant sex on seed germination and early plant establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi usually enhance overall plant performance, yet their effects on seed germination and early plant establishment, crucial steps in plant cycles, are generally overlooked. In gynodioecious species, sexual dimorphism in these traits has been reported, with females producing seeds that germinate at a faster rate than seeds from hermaphrodites.• Using the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum, I investigated in a greenhouse experiment whether the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores affects seed germination and early plant establishment, examining at the same time whether the sex of the mother producing the seeds also influences these parameters and whether sex-specific interactions between these two factors exist.• The presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores in the soil decreased seed germination, did not affect plant survival, but did increase plant growth. Moreover, no significant differences in seed traits were detected between the sexes of the plants producing the seeds.• This study demonstrates that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may have contrasting effects for plants during early life stages and that mycorrhizal effects can take place even at the precolonization stage. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  7. Effect of seed harvesting season and sterilization treatments on germination and in vitro propagation of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep YADAV

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objective of standardizing the protocol for the micropropagation of Albizia lebbeck (L.. Seeds were collected from three different colored pods (yellow, dark yellow and brownish yellow harvested from field grown Albizia tree from November to January and were surface sterilized using different concentration of mercuric chloride (0.05-0.15% w/v for different exposure durations (2, 5 and 8 min. Seeds collected from dark-yellow colored pod showed the highest germination (83.3 % and short germination time (4.29 days, while those collected from brownish yellow colored pod showedrelatively less germination (53.3% and longer germination time (6.0 days. Success of seed germination increased with maturity upto a certain level after which it declines significantly with increasing harvesting time. A five-minute dip of HgCl2 (0.1% was found to be the optimum duration for giving the maximum (83.3% germinated and healthy seedlings. Increasing time and concentration ofHgCl2 significantly reduced the contamination, but on the other hand it also effected the germination of seeds. Best shoot regeneration response from in vitro nodal segment was obtained on MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l + NAA (0.5 mg/l. The highest percentage of callus induction (85% was also observed in the above same media from in vitro internodal segment. Proliferated micro-shoots showed 60% rooting on half strength medium supplemented with IAA (2.0 mg/l after 4 weeks of culturing. The well rooted micropropagated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully established in pots containing sterilized soil and sand mixture (1:1 with 60% survival rate under field conditions.

  8. Apparent survival rates of forest birds in eastern Ecuador revisited: improvement in precision but no change in estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Blake

    Full Text Available Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02 when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs  = -0.72 and recaptures (rs  = -0.93, P<0.001 in both cases. Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient.

  9. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por

  10. A Systemic Review of Autologous Fat Grafting Survival Rate and Related Severe Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Ze Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical application of autologous fat grafting (AFG is quickly expanding. Despite the widely acceptance, long-term survival rate (SR of AFG remains a question not yet solved. Meanwhile, although rare, severe complications related to AFG including vision loss, stroke even death could be seen in the literature. Data Sources: A comprehensive research of PubMed database to June 2013 was performed according to guidelines of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force Assessment Methodology. Articles were screened using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study Selection: Data collected included patient characteristics, surgical technique, donor site, recipient site, graft amount, and quantified measurement methods. Patient cohorts were pooled, and SR was calculated. All the severe complications were also summarized according to the different clinical characteristics. Results: Of 550 articles, 16 clinical articles and 10 animal studies met the inclusion criteria and provided quantified measurement methods. Totally, 596 patients were included. SR varied from 34% to 82% in breast and 30-83% in the facial area. Nude mice were applied to investigate human fat grafting SR (38.3-52.5% after 15 weeks. Rabbits were commonly used to study animal AFG SR (14.00-14.56% after 1-year. Totally, 21 severe complications were reported, including death (2, stroke (10, vision loss (11, 8 of which accompanied with stroke, sepsis (3, multiple abscess (1 and giant fat necrotic cyst (2. Ten of these complications happened within 10 years. Conclusions: There is no unified measurement method to evaluate fat graft SR until now and no clinical evidence to show better SR according to different donor and recipient cite. Body mass index change between pre- and postoperation may be the bias factor in evaluating fat SR. Fat embolisms of the ophthalmic artery and the middle cerebral artery are the most severe complication of AFG and still lack

  11. Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates of Cryotop-Vitrified Oocyte and Embryo Using Low Concentrated Cryoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roozbehi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The preserving embryos, the risk of multiple pregnancies, the existence of factors in stimulated uterine cycle, are important forces in perfecting embryo cryopreservation. The aim of current study was to assess Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates (SRs, FRs, DRs of the mouse oocytes and embryos using cryotop and low concentrated cryoprotectants solutions. Methods: Mouse C57BL/6 oocytes and embryos were collected. Oocytes SRs, FRs, DRs were recorded after cryotop-vitrification/ warming. As well as comparing fresh oocytes and embryos, the data obtained from experimental groups (exp. applying 1.25, 1.0, and 0.75 Molar (M CPAs were analyzed in comparison to those of exp. adopting 1.5 M CPAs (largely-used concentration of EthylenGlycol (EG and Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO. Results: The data of oocytes exposed to 1.25 M CPAs were in consistency with those exposed to 1.5 M and control group in terms of SR, FR and DR. As fewer concentrations were applied, the more decreased SRs, FRs and DRs were obtained from other experimental groups. The results of embryos were exposed to 1.25 M and 1.0 M was close to those vitrified with 1.5 M and fresh embryos. The results of 0.75 M concentrated CPAs solutions were significantly lower than those of control, 1.5 M and 1.0 M treated groups. Conclusion: CPAs limited reduction to 1.25 M and 1.0 M instead of using 1.5 M, for oocyte and embryo cryotop-vitrification procedure may be a slight adjustment.

  12. Effects of non-implantation factors on survival rate of microbe irradiated by low-energy N+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianyou; Chen Linhai; Qin Guangyong; Li Zongwei; Su Mingjie; Wang Yanping; Chang Shenghe; Huo Yuping; Li Zongyi

    2006-01-01

    The effects of non-implantation factors, such as drying, vacuum and the staying time of the E.coli LE392 culture, on survival rate of E.coli LE392 were studied when E.coli LE392 was irradiated by the low-energy N + . The results show that the survival rate of E.coli LE392 does not reduce steadily all the time but rapidly drops sometime during drying. The survival rate of E.coli LE392 declines sharply as the samples are placed in vacuum, then falls in distinctively with increasing of time. the tolerance of E.coli LE392 towards vacuum increasingly strengthens when the E.coli LE392 culture is placed at room temperature. Preparing the culture in batchs can ensure the consistency of the irradiated samples and avoid errors caused by the inconsistent samples. When the non-implantation factors are controlled, E.coli is implanted by 30 kev N + of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 and 3 x 10 15 cm -2 , respectively. And the results show no difference in the E.coli's survival rates between batchs at the same dose. (authors)

  13. Effects of carbon ion irradiation on survival rate, catalase and peroxidase activity of alfalfa M1 under low temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyang; Li Jinghua; Jiang Boling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three kinds of alfalfa including Zhonglan 1, BC-04-477 and Ta Cheng were treated with different doses of "1"2C"6"+ (75 keV) heavy ion radiation, and then the influence of survival rate, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity of M1 with low temperature stress were tested. The results showed that under the condition of 400 Gy radiation dose, the survival rate and CAT activity of Zhonglan 1 under low temperature stress have increased by 33.3%, 56.3% respectively compared with those of the control group, while there was no difference in POD activity between those two groups. The survival rate, CAT and POD activity of BC-04-477 treated with low temperature have been improved by 33.3%, 69.2%, 5.1% respectively compared with those of the control group when the radiation dose was 400 Gy. Compared with those of the control group, the survival rate, CAT and POD activity of Ta Cheng under low temperature stress have been improved by 25%, 26%,22.8% respectively when the radiation dose was 800 Gy. These results indicate that the viability and the cold resistance ability of Zhong Lan 1, BC-04-477 and Ta Cheng can be improved by "1"2C"6"+ radiation. (authors)

  14. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Aim.  To evaluate the influence of the size of proximal cavities on the survival rate of the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Design.  A total of 804 children, aged 6-8 years, from a low socio-economic community, with an ART restorable proximal carious lesion in their primary

  15. Long-term survival rate of implant-supported overdentures with various attachment systems: A 20-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Sheng Chang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The overall survival rate of dental implants with overdenture rehabilitation was 95.3% (91.3% in maxillae vs. 96.4% in mandibles within the past 20 years. With careful treatment planning, implant-supported overdenture is an interesting treatment alternative with better esthetic, retention, stability, and good hygienic maintenance for patients with severe ridge resorption.

  16. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  17. Perioperative survival rates after surgery for diaphragmatic hernia in dogs and cats: 92 cases (1990-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Thomas W G; Brisson, Brigitte A; Sears, William

    2005-07-01

    To determine the survival rates of dogs and cats that underwent surgical treatment for traumatic diaphragmatic hernia within 24 hours of admission and determine whether timing of surgery affected perioperative survival rate. Retrospective study. 63 dogs and 29 cats treated surgically for traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Medical records were reviewed to evaluate associations between perioperative survival rates and variables including timing of surgery in relation to admission and acute versus chronic diaphragmatic hernia. Among the 92 animals, 82 (89.1%) were discharged alive after surgery. Sixty-four (69.6%) patients received surgical intervention within 12 hours of admission, and 84 (91.3%) received surgical intervention within 24 hours of admission. Median time from admission to discharge was 4 days (2 to 33 days). Data for acute cases (68 dogs and cats) were analyzed separately. Sixty-three (92.6%) patients with acute diaphragmatic hernia received surgical intervention within 24 hours of admission to the hospital, and 59 (93.7%) of these patients were discharged alive. Twenty-nine (42.6%) patients with acute diaphragmatic hernia received surgical intervention within 24 hours of trauma, and 26 of 29 (89.7%) patients were discharged alive. An overall acute and chronic perioperative survival rate of 89.7% was observed in dogs and cats that received surgical intervention within 24 hours of admission. Results in 68 dogs and cats that underwent surgery within 24 hours of admission suggested that early surgical intervention for acute diaphragmatic hernia was associated with good perioperative survival rates.

  18. Prolonged Elevated Heart Rate and 90-Day Survival in Acutely Ill Patients: Data From the MIMIC-III Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Veit; Johnson, Alistair E W; Kunz, Lauren M; Vargas, Jose D; Rosing, Douglas R

    2018-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the association of prolonged elevated heart rate (peHR) with survival in acutely ill patients. We used a large observational intensive care unit (ICU) database (Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III [MIMIC-III]), where frequent heart rate measurements were available. The peHR was defined as a heart rate >100 beats/min in 11 of 12 consecutive hours. The outcome was survival status at 90 days. We collected heart rates, disease severity (simplified acute physiology scores [SAPS II]), comorbidities (Charlson scores), and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis information in 31 513 patients from the MIMIC-III ICU database. Propensity score (PS) methods followed by inverse probability weighting based on the PS was used to balance the 2 groups (the presence/absence of peHR). Multivariable weighted logistic regression was used to assess for association of peHR with the outcome survival at 90 days adjusting for additional covariates. The mean age was 64 years, and the most frequent main disease category was circulatory disease (41%). The mean SAPS II score was 35, and the mean Charlson comorbidity score was 2.3. Overall survival of the cohort at 90 days was 82%. Adjusted logistic regression showed a significantly increased risk of death within 90 days in patients with an episode of peHR ( P < .001; odds ratio for death 1.79; confidence interval, 1.69-1.88). This finding was independent of median heart rate. We found a significant association of peHR with decreased survival in a large and heterogenous cohort of ICU patients.

  19. Survival and metamorphosis rate of swimming crab Portunus pelagicus larvae with the use of phytoecdysteroid in the artificial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nikhlani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The survival rate of blue swimming crabs and the larval metamorphosis processes are still low in hatcheries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different phytoecdysteroids doses on both the survival and the rate of Blue swimmer crab larvae metamorphosis. The study consisted of four different phytoecdysteroids treatments, namely: control (0 mg/100 g of feed, 1 mg/100 g of feed, 2 mg/100 g of feed, and 4 mg/100 g of feed. Each treatment was replicated three times. The survival rate of the larvae was analyzed through analysis of variance, while the rate of larval metamorphosis was descriptively analyzed. The results showed that the dose of phytoecdysteroid of 2 mg/100 g of artificial feed resulted in the highest survival and the fastest metamorphosis speed of crab larvae for zoea-2 and zoea-3, and the dose of 4 mg/100 g of artificial feed for stadia megalopa and crablet. Keywords: phytoecdysteroids, survival rate, metamorphosis, blue swimming crab  ABSTRAK Kelangsungan hidup rajungan dalam pembenihan masih rendah, dan proses metamorfosis larva masih lambat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pemberian fitoekdisteroid dosis berbeda terhadap kelangsungan hidup dan kecepatan metamorfosis larva rajungan. Penelitian ini terdiri atas empat perlakuan dosis fitoekdisteroid yang berbeda, yaitu: kontrol (0 mg/100 g pakan, 1 mg/100 g pakan, 2 mg/100 g pakan, dan 4 mg/100 g pakan dengan masing-masing perlakuan dilakukan tiga kali ulangan. Kelangsungan hidup larva dianalisis menggunakan analisis sidik ragam, sedangkan kecepatan metamorfosis larva dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dosis fitoekdisteroid sebanyak 2 mg/100 g pakan buatan menghasilkan kelangsungan hidup tertinggi dan proses metamorfosis larva rajungan tercepat untuk stadia zoea-2 dan zoea-3, serta  dosis 4 mg/100 g pakan buatan untuk stadia megalopa dan crablet. Kata kunci: fitoekdisteroid, kelangsungan

  20. [Effects of salt stress on germination and in vitro growth of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmahioul, Benamar; Daguin, Florence; Kaid-Harche, Meriem

    2009-08-01

    In order to study the salinity tolerance of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), embryos developed from mature seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro and subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0, 42.8, 85.5, 171.1 and 256.6 mM) for 30 days. The results showed that in vitro germination of embryonic axes was not affected by the salt concentration. However, the germinated embryo survival rates decreased from 100% for the control to 62.9% for the highest salt concentration (256.6 mM). In addition, the plantlet growth (length of aerial and root parts, number of leaf produced per embryo, as well as the production of total fresh and dry matter for both aerial parts and roots) showed significant differences according the various salt concentrations.

  1. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... The role of 20E in plant physiology including seed germination is not studied. ..... GA3, ABA and CKs on lettuce Lactuca sativa seed germination are ..... Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals and humans: an update. J.

  2. Tumors of germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, Ricardo; Avila, Andres

    2002-01-01

    The tumors of germinal cells (TGC) are derived neoplasia of the primordial germinal cells that in the life embryonic migrant from the primitive central nervous system until being located in the gonads. Their cause is even unknown and they represent 95% of the testicular tumors. In them, the intention of the treatment is always healing and the diagnostic has improved thanks to the results of the handling multidisciplinary. The paper includes topics like their incidence and prevalence, epidemiology and pathology, clinic and diagnoses among other topics

  3. A Comparative Study of Survival Rate in High Grade Glioma Tumors Being Treated by Radiotherapy Alone Versus Chemoradiation With Nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshyari, Mohammad; Hajalikhani, Farzaneh; Rakhsha, Afshin; Hajian, Parastoo

    2015-03-25

    In adults, malignant glioma (high-grade glioma) is one of the most common brain tumors. In spite of different types of treatment, the outcome is still not likely to be favorable. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between survival rate in adult patients with high grade glioma treated by radiotherapy only and those treated by a combination of radiotherapy and nitrosurea-based chemotherapy. This study was conducted using the records of 48 patients with grade 3 or 4 of glial brain tumor referred to the radiation-oncology ward of Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran from 2005 to 2012. The patients had undergone radiotherapy alone or adjuvant chemoradiation with nitrosourea. The median survival of patients after receiving the different types of treatment were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log -rank exam. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis for median survival regarding to the patients' age, gender, extent of surgery, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank exam. We used the Cox-model for multivariate analysis. Records of 48 patients were studied (34 men and 14 women). The mean survival were 18 months for men and 15.2 months for women (P=0.05). Around 58% (28 patients) were more than 50 years old, and 42% (20 patients) were less than 50, and mean survival for the two age groups were 13 and 20 months, respectively (P<0.001). Then, the patients were divided into three groups according to the extent of surgery, i.e., excisional biopsy (11 patients), stereotactic biopsy (22 patients), and resection (15 patients), and the mean survival for the three groups were 14.7, 17.3, and 18.8 months, respectively. There was no significant statistical difference for mean survival between the three groups (P=0.23). The KPS was greater than 70% in 23 patients and less than 70% in 21 patients, and the mean survival for the former and latter groups were 17.6 and 16 months, respectively (P=0

  4. Hydrothermal time models for conidial germination and mycelial growth of the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor W. Barth; Susan E. Meyer; Julie Beckstead; Phil S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Population-based threshold models using hydrothermal time (HTT) have been widely used to model seed germination. We used HTT to model conidial germination and mycelial growth for the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda in a novel approach to understanding its interactions with host seeds. Germination time courses and mycelial growth rates for P.semeniperda were...

  5. Impact of crop residues on seed germination of native desert plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop residues produce allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination of many weeds. In this study, I assessed the effect of aqueous extracts of three crop residues (radish, rocket and rhodes) on final germination percentage and germination rate of four desert plants recorded as weeds in the United Arab Emirates farms ...

  6. The Effect of Seasonal Ambient Temperatures on Fire-Stimulated Germination of Species with Physiological Dormancy: A Case Study Using Boronia (Rutaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Tony D.; Keith, David A.; Hui, Francis K. C.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy and germination requirements determine the timing and magnitude of seedling emergence, with important consequences for seedling survival and growth. Physiological dormancy is the most widespread form of dormancy in flowering plants, yet the seed ecology of species with this dormancy type is poorly understood in fire-prone vegetation. The role of seasonal temperatures as germination cues in these habitats is often overlooked due to a focus on direct fire cues such as heat shock and smoke, and little is known about the combined effects of multiple fire-related cues and environmental cues as these are seldom assessed in combination. We aimed to improve understanding of the germination requirements of species with physiological dormancy in fire-prone floras by investigating germination responses across members of the Rutaceae from south eastern Australia. We used a fully factorial experimental design to quantify the individual and combined effects of heat shock, smoke and seasonal ambient temperatures on germination of freshly dispersed seeds of seven species of Boronia, a large and difficult-to-germinate genus. Germination syndromes were highly variable but correlated with broad patterns in seed morphology and phylogenetic relationships between species. Seasonal temperatures influenced the rate and/or magnitude of germination responses in six species, and interacted with fire cues in complex ways. The combined effects of heat shock and smoke ranged from neutral to additive, synergistic, unitive or negative and varied with species, seasonal temperatures and duration of incubation. These responses could not be reliably predicted from the effect of the application of single cues. Based on these findings, fire season and fire intensity are predicted to affect both the magnitude and timing of seedling emergence in wild populations of species with physiological dormancy, with important implications for current fire management practices and for population

  7. Survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout kelts Salmo trutta during downstream migration in freshwater and at sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik; Thorstad, EB

    2015-01-01

    The marine migration of post-spawning anadromous fish remains poorly understood. The present study examined survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. after spawning (kelts) during downriver, fjord, and sea migration. Kelts (n = 49) were captured in the Danish River...... completing the reach within 4 d, suggesting that the kelts spent limited time foraging after returning to the fjord. The total survival during the entire marine migration, including the fjord, was a minimum of 29%. Our study provides data that are important for management of anadromous brown trout...

  8. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  9. Limnology of nine small lakes, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska, and the survival and growth rates of rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The survival and growth rates of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnieri) were concurrently measured with selected limnological characteristics in nine small (surface area Gasterosteus aculeatus) also influenced survival of rainbow trout but their effects were overshadowed by winterkill. Predictive capability was also reduced because of inconsistencies in rankings generated by each of the four limnological variables chosen as indicators of potential biological productivity. A lake ranked low in productivity by one variable was commonly ranked high in productivity by another variable. The survivability of rainbow trout stocked in lakes such as these nine may be a more important indicator of potential biomass production than are indicators of lake fertility. Assessments of a lake 's susceptibility to winterkill and the degree of competition with threespine stickleback are suggested as important topics for additional research. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Comparison of hypertabastic survival model with other unimodal hazard rate functions using a goodness-of-fit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M Ramzan; Tran, Quang X; Nikulin, Mikhail S

    2017-05-30

    We studied the problem of testing a hypothesized distribution in survival regression models when the data is right censored and survival times are influenced by covariates. A modified chi-squared type test, known as Nikulin-Rao-Robson statistic, is applied for the comparison of accelerated failure time models. This statistic is used to test the goodness-of-fit for hypertabastic survival model and four other unimodal hazard rate functions. The results of simulation study showed that the hypertabastic distribution can be used as an alternative to log-logistic and log-normal distribution. In statistical modeling, because of its flexible shape of hazard functions, this distribution can also be used as a competitor of Birnbaum-Saunders and inverse Gaussian distributions. The results for the real data application are shown. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effects of Water Replacement rate on Growth and Survival of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of frequency of water replacement on growth performance and survival of the Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus fry of mean 1.14g + 0.00 of the same brood stock reared in a static culture was investigated in the laboratory over a period of forty-two days. There were five treatments namely, treatment A = daily ...

  12. Do pathological fractures influence survival and local recurrence rate in bony sarcomas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramer, J. A. M.; Abudu, A. A.; Grimer, R. J.; Carter, S. R.; Tillman, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of pathological fracture on surgical management, local recurrence and survival was established in patients with high grade, localised, extremity osteosarcoma (n=484), chondrosarcoma (n=130) and Ewing's sarcoma (n=156). Limb salvage was possible in 79% of patients with a fracture

  13. Scatter hoarding of seeds confers survival advantages and disadvantages to large-seeded tropical plants at different life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Kuprewicz

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarding of seeds by animals contributes significantly to forest-level processes, including plant recruitment and forest community composition. However, the potential positive and negative effects of caching on seed survival, germination success, and seedling survival have rarely been assessed through experimental studies. Here, I tested the hypothesis that seed burial mimicking caches made by scatter hoarding Central American agoutis (Dasyprocta punctate enhances seed survival, germination, and growth by protecting seeds from seed predators and providing favorable microhabitats for germination. In a series of experiments, I used simulated agouti seed caches to assess how hoarding affects seed predation by ground-dwelling invertebrates and vertebrates for four plant species. I tracked germination and seedling growth of intact and beetle-infested seeds and, using exclosures, monitored the effects of mammals on seedling survival through time. All experiments were conducted over three years in a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. The majority of hoarded palm seeds escaped predation by both invertebrates and vertebrates while exposed seeds suffered high levels of infestation and removal. Hoarding had no effect on infestation rates of D. panamensis, but burial negatively affected germination success by preventing endocarp dehiscence. Non-infested palm seeds had higher germination success and produced larger seedlings than infested seeds. Seedlings of A. alatum and I. deltoidea suffered high mortality by seed-eating mammals. Hoarding protected most seeds from predators and enhanced germination success (except for D. panamensis and seedling growth, although mammals killed many seedlings of two plant species; all seedling deaths were due to seed removal from the plant base. Using experimental caches, this study shows that scatter hoarding is beneficial to most seeds and may positively affect plant propagation in tropical forests, although

  14. [Study on physiological and germination characteristics of Tulipa edulis seed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengjun; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Ma, Hongliang; Xu, Hongjian; Miao, Yuanyuan

    2012-03-01

    Current study was conducted to investigate the seed physiological characteristics of Tulipa edulis and improve germination rate. Anatomical characteristics was observed. Seed water absorption curve was tested by soaking method. Dynamic of embryo development and germination rate as well as germination index under different conditions were recorded. And the biological test of cabbage seed was used for detecting the germination inhibitors. The embryo rate of newly matured seeds was about 10%, and there was no obstacle of water absorption on testa of T. edulis. The optimum method for embryo development was exposure to 300 mg x L(-1) gibberellin solution for 24 hours, and stratification at 25 degrees C for 70 days followed by stratification at 5 degrees C for 40 days. The germintion rate and germination index of dormancy-broken seeds under the dark environment at 10 degrees C and 15 degrees C were significantly higher than those under other conditions. Additionally, there were some germination inhibitory substances in dry seeds. The seed of T. edulis can be classified as having complex morphophysiological dormancy, and the morphological embryo dormancy played a leading role. Warm and cold stratification resulted in a fast dormancy breaking effect, and a high germination rate more than 90% could be obtained under the optimum conditions.

  15. In vitro seed germination of economically important edible bamboo Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Jasmine; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro propagation protocol using mature seeds of D. membranaceus was successfully established. Scarcity of seeds in bamboos because of their long flowering periods and irregular seed set resulting in low viability and germination potential, motivated us to undertake the present study. The effects of sterilants, light conditions, exogenous application of plant growth regulators and temperature in overcoming germination barriers in ageing seeds of bamboo were studied. It was found that HgCl2 (0.1%) along with bleach (15%) was more effective in raising aseptic cultures. Dark conditions, high temperatures around 30 degrees C and soaking of seeds in GA3 solution (50 ppm) overnight stimulated high percent of seed germination with corresponding increase in shoot length (2.7 +/- 0.7 mm) and number of sprouts (2.1 +/- 0.7) per explants during culture initiation. 6-benzylaminopurine acted synergistically with kinetin to give optimum germination rate of 70 +/- 13.9% as compared to 63.13% when used individually. For prolonged maintenance of cultures, 2% sucrose was found to be suitable for promoting photomixotrophic micropropagation. Following this procedure, about 65% survival of plantlets could be achieved during hardening. Biochemically seeds consume starchy endosperm for emergence of radicle which is taken as a sign of germination as also evident from the present study. Loss of viability and vigour after a year was confirmed by Tetrazolium chloride test. Micropropagation protocol developed here will ensure regeneration of large number of plants in a relatively short time. Conclusively, in vitro propagation protocol developed in D. membranaceus using mature seeds as an explants is reported for the first time.

  16. Evaluation of Survival Rate and Effective Factors in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in Emam Hospital (Year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maghsoodloo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For the time being we have considered that the myocardial infarction is an increasing event in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help us to diminish the number of death from this ongoing event. The main aim of this research is to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and the association of it with different variables. Methods and Materials: The present research is a descriptive case-series study which evaluates the 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction who had been admitted in Tehran Emam Khomeini Hospital during the year 1999. Results: The mean age of patients was 57 years. The peak of attack rates was in spring and autumn. Investigating of the past history of these patients reviled that 41 percent had been smokers, 63.5 percent have had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 41 percent have had hyper cholestrolemia, 34 percent had hypertension, 18 percent had diabetes mellitus, 9 percent had mitral rigurgitation and 9 percent had heart block. The Survival rate in our study has been calculated 68 percent in first 28 days of disease. Conclusion: In our study we concluded that there is significant correlation between survival rate and past history of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, tobacco smoking and clip classification.

  17. Toxicity of mercury (Hg on survival and growth rate, hemato- and histopathological parameters ofOreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are serious pollutants of the aquatic environment because of their environmental persistence and ability to be accumulated by aquatic organisms. Oreochromis niloticus exposed to 0, 0.16, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm Hg for 30 days. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of mercury in water on survival rate, growth rates, hematological, and histological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus. This study was conducted from Mei to June 2009. The experimental design was arranged in completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications. Stock density was 8 fish/aquarium with mean initial body weight was 15.70±1.13 g. Growth and survival rates of test fish were decreased with increasing the Hg concentration. Red blood cell (RBC count, haematocrit content, and haemoglobin content decreased when compared to the control. The number of white blood cells (WBC increased in mercuric treated fish. The results are statistically significant at p<0.05 level. Keywords:mercury, survival and growth rate, hematology, histopathology, Oreochromis niloticus

  18. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dadkhah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in germinator in order to study the effects of water potential on seed germination, rate of germination and seedlings growth of four medicinal plants (Coriandrum sativum, Plantago psyllium, Discorinia sophia and Portulaca oleracea. Four water potential inclouding distilled water as control (0, -0.37, -0.59 and –0.81 Mpa which made by different salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and NaCl+CaCl2 in 5 to 1 molar ratio. The experiment was carried out based on completly randomized design with six replications. Results showed that the effects of water potential, type of salt on germination percentage, rate of germination, root and shoot length were significant. With decreasing water potential, germination percentage and rate of germination declined but the response of plant were differ. Germination of Portulaca oleracea was not affected by decreasing water potential where as other significantly decreased. The effect of salt composition was significant on rate and percentage germination. The percentage of germination at lower water potential (–0.37 MPa which made by NaCl + CaCl2 significantly was higher than the same water potential made by only NaCl and CaCl2. Although, percentage and rate germination of Portulaca oleracea were not affected by different water potential, seedling growth of Portulaca oleracea significantly decreased.

  19. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  20. Survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: On different states of wheat and rye kernels previously infested by beetle pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Filip N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813, reared on different mechanical states of Vizija winter wheat cultivar and Raša winter rye cultivar, previously infested with different beetle pests. Wheat was previously infested with Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cryptolestes ferrugineus, while rye was infested only with O. surinamensis. Kernels were tested in three different mechanical states: (A whole undamaged kernels; (B kernels already damaged by pests and (C original storage kernels (mixture of B and C type. No P. interpunctella adult emerged on wheat kernels, while 36 adults developed on rye kernels. The highest abundance reached beetle species who fed with a mixture of kernels damaged by pests and whole undamaged kernels. Development and survival rate of five different storage insect pests depends on type of kernels and there exist significant survivorship correlations among them.

  1. Sesquiterpene lactones of Vernonia - influence of glaucolide-A on the growth rate and survival of Lepidopterous larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samuel B; Burnett, William C; Coile, Nancy C; Mabry, Tom J; Betkouski, M F

    1979-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone glaucolide-A from Vernonia, incorporated in the rearing diets of five species of Lepidoptera, significantly reduced the rate of growth of larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania; fall armyworm, S. frugiperda; and yellowstriped armyworm, S. ornithogalli. Quantitative feeding tests demonstrated that decreased feeding levels and reduced growth resulted from ingestion of a sesquiterpene lactone. Ingestion of glaucolide-A increased the number of days to pupation in four of the species. In the southern armyworm, it significantly reduced pupal weight. Glaucolide-A decidedly reduced percentage of survival of southern and fall armyworms. Yellow woollybear, Diacrisia virginica, and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, larvae were essentially uneffected by the ingestion of the sesquiterpene lactone. Sesquiterpene lactones adversely affect growth rate and survival of certain insects that feed upon plants containing them. They apparently function as defensive products, screening out a portion of the potential herbivores.

  2. The mass effect model of the survival rate's dose effect of organism irradiated with low energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Gui Qifu; Yu Zengliang

    1995-01-01

    The main characteristic of the low energy ions mutation is its mass deposition effect. Basing on the theory of 'double strand breaking' and the 'mass deposition effect', the authors suggests that the mass deposition products can repair or further damage the double strand breaking of DNA. According to this consideration the dose effect model of the survival rate of organism irradiated by low energy of N + ion beam is deduced as: S exp{-p[αφ + βφ 2 -Rφ 2 exp(-kφ)-Lφ 3 exp(-kφ)]}, which can be called 'mass effect model'. In the low energy ion beam mutation, the dose effects of many survival rates that can not be imitated by previous models are successfully imitated by this model. The suitable application fields of the model are also discussed

  3. Micronucleus formation compared to the survival rate of human melanoma cells after X-ray and neutron irradiation and hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Beuningen, D.; Streffer, C.; Bertholdt, G.

    1981-09-01

    After neutron and X-ray irradiation and combined X-ray irradiation and hyperthermia (3 hours, 42/sup 0/C), the survival rate of human melanoma cells was measured by means of the colony formation test and compared to the formation of micronuclei. Neutrons had a stronger effect on the formation of micronuclei than the combination of X-rays and hyperthermia. X-rays had the lowest effect. The dose effect curve showed a break at that dose level at which a reduction of cells was observed in the cultures. A good relation between survival rate and formation of micronuclei was found for the X-ray irradiation, but not for the neutron irradiation and the combined treatment. These observations are discussed. At least for X-rays, the micronucleus test has turned out to be a good screening method for the radiosensitivity of a biologic system.

  4. One-year results of maxillary overdentures supported by 2 titanium-zirconium implants - implant survival rates and radiographic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembic, Anja; Tahmaseb, Ali; Jung, Ronald E; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    To assess implant survival rates and peri-implant bone loss of 2 titanium-zirconium implants supporting maxillary overdentures at 1 year of loading. Twenty maxillary edentulous patients (5 women and 15 men) being dissatisfied with their complete dentures were included. In total, 40 diameter-reduced titanium-zirconium implants were placed in the anterior maxilla. Local guided bone regeneration (GBR) was allowed if the treatment did not compromise implant stability. Following 3 to 5 months of healing, implant-supported overdentures were inserted on two ball anchors. Implants and overdentures were assessed at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after implant insertion and 2, 4, and 12 months after insertion of overdentures (baseline). Standardized radiographs were taken at implant loading and 1 year. Implant survival rates and bone loss were the primary outcomes. Nineteen patients (1 dropout) with 38 implants were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 1.1 years (range 1.0-1.7 years). One implant failed resulting in an implant survival rate of 97.3%. There was a significant peri-implant bone loss of the implants at 1 year of function (mean, 0.7 mm, SD = 1.1 mm; median: 0.48 mm, IQR = 0.56 mm). There was a high 1-year implant survival rate for edentulous patients receiving 2 maxillary implants and ball anchors as overdenture support. However, several implants exhibited an increased amount of bone loss of more than 2 mm. Overdentures supported by 2 maxillary implants should thus be used with caution as minimally invasive treatment for specific patients encountering problems with their upper dentures until more long-term data is available. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the metabolic rate, hematological response, and survival of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Moreno, Karla; Mejía-Ruiz, Claudio Humberto; Díaz, Fernando; Reyna-Verdugo, Horacio; Re, Ana Denisse; Vazquez-Felix, Edgar F; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Mota-Morales, Josué D; Pestryakov, Alexey; Bogdanchikova, Nina

    2017-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly lethal and contagious in shrimps; its outbreaks causes an economic crisis for aquaculture. Several attempts have been made to treat this disease; however, to date, there is no effective cure. Because of their antimicrobial activities, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most studied nanomaterial. Although the antiviral properties of AgNPs have been studied, their antiviral effect against viral infection in aquaculture has not been reported. The AgNPs tested herein are coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and possess multiple international certifications for their use in veterinary and human applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival rate of juvenile white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) after the intramuscular administration of AgNPs. For this, different concentrations of metallic AgNPs and PVP alone were injected into the organisms. After 96 h of administration, shrimp survival was more than 90% for all treatments. The oxygen consumption routine rate and total hemocyte count remained unaltered after AgNP injection, reflecting no stress caused. We evaluated whether AgNPs had an antiviral effect in shrimps infected with WSSV. The results revealed that the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps after AgNP administration was 80%, whereas the survival rate of untreated organisms was only 10% 96 h after infection. These results open up the possibility to explore the potential use of AgNPs as antiviral agents for the treatment of diseases in aquaculture organisms, particularly the WSSV in shrimp culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Vitamin E on the Survival Rate of unc-13 Caenorhabditis elegans mutants under Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Porcelan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans unc-13 mutants express decreased neuronal activity and thus are a good model strain for examining defective nervous systems. These unc-13 mutants as well as wild type N2 strains, show rapid mortality when under oxidative stress. However, the antioxidant vitamin E may prolong survival in unc-13 mutant and N2 strains under oxidative stress. The addition of vitamin E to organisms under oxidative stress has a protective effect in both N2 and unc-13 C. elegans strains. Interestingly, vitamin E resulted in a greater increase in survival rate in N2 worms than with unc-13 mutant worms. While both strains displayed lower mortality rates with the addition of vitamin E, this finding suggests that vitamin E more efficiently increases survival rates of C. elegans with typical nervous system function. The efficacy of vitamin E implies that use of antioxidants may lessen the damage caused by oxidative stress in both N2 and mutant worms.

  7. Salt tolerance of physalis during germination and seedling growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.; Karlidag, H.

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NaCl salinity on germination and emergence of Physalis ixocarpa and Physalis peruviana. Seeds of P. ixocarpa and P. peruviana were germinated by the use of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 mM NaCl solutions in petri dishes. Final germination percentage (FGP) decreased with the increase in NaCl concentration. Both species germinated at the ranges of salinity. P. peruviana gave the greater germination percentages under salt stress than P. ixocarpa. NaCl salinity at different concentrations adversely affected germination rates. For seedling growth, seeds of both species were sown at 10 mm depth in plastic trays filled with peat to determine final emergence percentage (FEP). The trays were irrigated manually to saturation every day with 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 or 180 mM NaCl solutions to maintain the level of salinity. Salinity affected seed emergence and seedlings growth more than seed germination. The study showed that no emergence of Physalis was observed at 90, 120 and 180 mM NaCl salinity. Fresh and dry weights of normal seedlings were also evaluated. Salt stress significantly decreased the plant fresh and dry weight of both species. Based on the results of the experiment, it can be concluded that seedling emergence and growth is more sensitive to salt stress than seed germination in Physalis. (author)

  8. EFFECTS OF PRE-GERMINATION TREATMENTS AND STORAGE ON GERMINATION OF Astronium fraxinifolium SCHOTT (ANACARDIACEAE DIASPORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Lima Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814577The goal of this study was to evaluate the germination and the storage capacity of Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores. Six pre-germination treatments were used in the experiment: control treatment (intact diaspores; diaspores immersed in water at room temperature (25º C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 70° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 100° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in sodium hypochlorite solution (1:1000 for 2 min; and diaspores mechanically scarified with sandpaper #80. To evaluate storage conditions, we tested two different types of packaging (permeable paper bag and transparent glass jar and two environmental conditions (cold chamber and room conditions, resulting in four treatments. The germination tests were performed for zero (control and 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days after storage. The effects of different treatments on germination and storage of diaspores were evaluated by ANOVA, followed by Tukey test. Regarding to pre-germination treatments, high germination rates were observed in the hypochlorite (98.0 ± 4.22%, control (97.0 ± 4.83%, water at room temperature (96.0 ± 6.99% and water at 70º C (83.0 ± 29.08% treatments. Thus, Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores do not present dormancy. During storage, the diaspores remained viable throughout the study period with high germination rates, except for the treatment in paper bags placed in the cold chamber, in which the diaspores lost their viability in the eighth month of storage. Therefore, this is not a recommended storage method for this species.

  9. Impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Volkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal carcinoma.Subjects and methods. Four hundred and fifty-three patients with pT1–3aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma and normally functioning secondkidney who had undergone radical nephrectomy (n = 226 (49.9 % or kidney resection (n = 227 (50.1 % were selected for the investigation. The patient groups who had undergone different-volume operations were matched for gender, age, body mass index (BMI, side of involvement, tumor sizes, and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR (p > for all. The median baseline Charlson index and the rate of ASA classes III–IV operative risk were significantly higher in candidates for radical nephrectomy (p < 0.05 for all, the rate of diseases affecting kidney function, pT1a category, and G1 anaplasia were higher in the kidney resection group (p < 0.0001. The median follow-up was 50 (12–224 months.Results. Within 28 days postsurgery, the rate of acute renal dysfunction (ARD was 36.2 %. The independent risk factors of ARD were kidney resection (risk ratio (RR = 0.210; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.115–0.288; р < 0.0001 and ischemia time (RR = 0.012; 95 % CI 0.004–0.021; p = 0.004. The degree of ARD after kidney resection was significantly lower than that following radical nephrectomy (p < 0.0001. In the late postoperative period, the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD Stage ≥ III was 38.4 %. Its independent risk factors were low baseline GFR (RR = 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002–0.005; p < 0.0001, radical nephrectomy (RR = 0.195; 95 % CI 0.093–0.298; p < 0.0001, and ARD (RR = 0.281; 95 % CI 0.187–0.376; p = 0.0001. Ten-year specific and cardiospecific survival rates in all the patients were 98.5 and 94.9 %, respectively, and unrelated to surgical volume. The independent predictors of poor cardiospecific survival were BMI, Charlson index, and ASA risk

  10. Impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Volkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal carcinoma.Subjects and methods. Four hundred and fifty-three patients with pT1–3aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma and normally functioning secondkidney who had undergone radical nephrectomy (n = 226 (49.9 % or kidney resection (n = 227 (50.1 % were selected for the investigation. The patient groups who had undergone different-volume operations were matched for gender, age, body mass index (BMI, side of involvement, tumor sizes, and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR (p > for all. The median baseline Charlson index and the rate of ASA classes III–IV operative risk were significantly higher in candidates for radical nephrectomy (p < 0.05 for all, the rate of diseases affecting kidney function, pT1a category, and G1 anaplasia were higher in the kidney resection group (p < 0.0001. The median follow-up was 50 (12–224 months.Results. Within 28 days postsurgery, the rate of acute renal dysfunction (ARD was 36.2 %. The independent risk factors of ARD were kidney resection (risk ratio (RR = 0.210; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.115–0.288; р < 0.0001 and ischemia time (RR = 0.012; 95 % CI 0.004–0.021; p = 0.004. The degree of ARD after kidney resection was significantly lower than that following radical nephrectomy (p < 0.0001. In the late postoperative period, the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD Stage ≥ III was 38.4 %. Its independent risk factors were low baseline GFR (RR = 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002–0.005; p < 0.0001, radical nephrectomy (RR = 0.195; 95 % CI 0.093–0.298; p < 0.0001, and ARD (RR = 0.281; 95 % CI 0.187–0.376; p = 0.0001. Ten-year specific and cardiospecific survival rates in all the patients were 98.5 and 94.9 %, respectively, and unrelated to surgical volume. The independent predictors of poor cardiospecific survival were BMI, Charlson index, and ASA risk

  11. Performance efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate, and survival rate of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) through the addition of phytase in the feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, D.; Samidjan, I.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding phytase enzyme in the feed on digestibility of feed, efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate and survival rate of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish samples in this research were Common carp with an average - weight of 3.34 ± 0,16 g/fish. The treatments were adding the phytase enzyme in the feed with the different level of doses. Those were A (0 U kg-1 feed), B (500 U kg-1 feed), C (1.000 U kg-1 feed g) and D (1.500 U kg-1 feed). Observation was conducted on digestibility of protein (ADCP), digestibility of phosphor (ADCF), efficiency of feed utilization (EFU), relative growth rate (RGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR) and water quality parameters. The results show that the addition of phytase enzyme significantly (P0.05) affected on SR of common carp. Based on results, it was concluded that optimum doses of phytase enzyme feed in terms of digestibility of feed, efficiency utilization of Feed and growth rate of Common carp ranges from 943 to 1100 U kg-1 feed

  12. Association mapping of soybean seed germination under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wenming; Ma, Deyuan; Zhang, Dan; Hao, Derong; Hu, Zhenbin; Yu, Deyue

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Seed germination is a critical phase that ensures the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soils. However, little information is available regarding soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of soybean seed germination under salt stress. One natural population consisting of 191 soybean landraces was used in this study. Soybean seeds produced in four environments were used to evaluate the salt tolerance at their germination stage. Using 1142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the molecular markers associated with salt tolerance were detected by genome-wide association analysis. Eight SNP-trait associations and 13 suggestive SNP-trait associations were identified using a mixed linear model and the TASSEL 4.0 software. Eight SNPs or suggestive SNPs were co-associated with two salt tolerance indices, namely (1) the ratio of the germination index under salt conditions to the germination index under no-salt conditions (ST-GI) and (2) the ratio of the germination rate under salt conditions to the germination rate under no-salt conditions (ST-GR). One SNP (BARC-021347-04042) was significantly associated with these two traits (ST-GI and ST-GR). In addition, nine possible candidate genes were located in or near the genetic region where the above markers were mapped. Of these, five genes, Glyma08g12400.1, Glyma08g09730.1, Glyma18g47140.1, Glyma09g00460.1, and Glyma09g00490.3, were verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. The SNPs detected could facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage, and the marker BARC-021347-04042 could contribute to future breeding for soybean salt tolerance by marker-assisted selection.

  13. Germination and in vitro multiplication of Helianthemum kahiricum, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... Seeds of Helianthemum kahiricum have an excellent germination rate ... of H. kahiricum on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) free growth regulators ... The kinetin had a positive effect on the multiplication and growth, but a.

  14. Self-rated health supersedes patient satisfaction with service quality as a predictor of survival in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Digant; Patel, Kamal; Lis, Christopher G

    2015-09-04

    We have previously reported that higher patient satisfaction (PS) with service quality is associated with favorable survival outcomes in a variety of cancers. However, we argued that patients with greater satisfaction might be the ones with better self-rated health (SRH), a recognized predictor of cancer survival. We therefore investigated whether SRH can supersede patient satisfaction as a predictor of survival in prostate cancer. Nine hundred seventeen prostate cancer treated at four Cancer Treatment Centers of America(®) hospitals between July 2011 and March 2013. PS was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "completely dissatisfied" to "completely satisfied". SRH was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "very poor" to "excellent". Both were dichotomized into two categories: top box response (7) versus all others (1-6). Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between PS and survival controlling for covariates. The response rate for this study was 72%. Majority of patients (n = 517) had stage II disease. Seven hundred eighty-seven (85.8%) patients were "completely satisfied". Three hundred nineteen (34.8%) patients had "excellent" SRH. There was a weak but significant correlation between satisfaction and SRH (Kendall's tau b = 0.18; p < 0.001). On univariate analysis, "completely satisfied" patients had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.25-0.85; p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with "excellent" SRH had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.11-0.58; p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, SRH was found to be a significant predictor of survival (HR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.12-0.79; p = 0.01) while patient satisfaction was not (HR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.40-1.5; p = 0.40). SRH supersedes patient satisfaction with service quality as a predictor of survival in prostate cancer. SRH should be used as a control variable in analyses involving patient satisfaction as a

  15. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS......: All deliveries from 22+0 to 31+6 weeks gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All outcomes of pregnancy by gestational age group, including termination of pregnancy for congenital anomalies and other reasons, ante-partum stillbirth, intra-partum stillbirth, labour ward death, death after admission...

  16. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, The affiliated hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000 (China); Qing, Quan [Sichuan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mianyang 621000 (China); Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jin-Lian [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Qin, Ting-Wu, E-mail: tingwuqin@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The shapes of tenocytes varied when seeded on different surface of scaffolds. • Tenocytes were flat on smooth surface and spindle on micro-grooved surface. • Tenocytes were ellipse or spindle on porous surface. • Tenocytes got varying adhesion shape and elongation index on varying surfaces. • The tenocyte survival on porous surface was superior to the other two groups. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  17. Impacts of low dose rate irradiation on the fertility, fecundity and hatchling survival of Japanese rice fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Coughlin, D.P.; Marsh, L.C.; Yi, Yi; Winn, R.

    2004-01-01

    A renewed international interest in the effects on biota from low dose rate irradiation has recently occurred. Much of that interest is centered on the relevance of previously accepted dose rate guidelines (e.g. 10 mGy d -1 for aquatic biota) suggested by the ICRP and IAEA. All parties concerned seem to agree that additional data are needed on population level impacts from chronic low-level exposures to radionuclides. Using a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LoDIF), we conducted an experiment on the fecundity, fertility and hatchling survival of Japanese Rice Fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes). Fish were exposed externally to 137 Cs from juvenile through adulthood at mean dose rates of 3.5, 35 and 350 mGy d -1 . Fish were bred at maturity and the following endpoints were examined: 1) the number of eggs produced; 2) the percent of eggs that hatched; and 3) the survival of hatchlings 20-days post hatch. The influence of gender was examined by breeding irradiated males with control females; control males with irradiated females; irradiated males with irradiated females; and control males with control females. The data contribute to our understanding the impacts of low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  18. Effect of temperature on growth, survival and respiratory rate of larval allis shad Alosa alosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundt M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior species distribution models identified temperature as one of the most important environmental variables defining the present and future distribution of anadromous allis shad (Alosa alosa. The current study analysed effects of temperature on the recruitment-potential of allis shad by investigating growth and survival at 16, 20, 24 and 28 °C during a ten day rearing trial and by measuring mass-specific respiration. Highest growth in length was at 28 °C; growth at 16 °C was minimal. At the end of the rearing-period, no significant differences in survival between tested rearing-temperatures were found. Exposure to temperatures of 13 to 30 °C and subsequent measurement of mass-specific respiration revealed tolerance of temperatures up to 30 °C and a lower temperature limitation close to 16 °C. After acclimatization of larvae to temperatures ranging from 16−28 °C for 10 days, Q10-values of mass-specific respiration indicated a high adaptive capacity to increasing temperatures, but also the ability to adapt to temperatures as low as 16 °C. Our results indicate that the predicted temperature sensitivity of A. alosa cannot be explained by a direct physiological relationship. The obtained results can help to improve predictive modelling and the conservation of allis shad throughout its current distribution range.

  19. Effect of Salinity Adaptation Technique on Survival and Growth Rate of Patin Catfish, Pangasius sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nirmala

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of salinity adaptation techniques on growth and survival of patin catfish Pangasius sp. fry.  Fry of 1.5-2.0 inch in length were reared in the water with different of the initial salinity of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ppt.  Salinity was then daily increased by duplicated the initial water salinity until fish died.  The results of study showed that fry could survive by initial salinity adaptation of 1 ppt and then increasing the salinity by 1 ppt/day to reach 27 ppt.  In the other treatments, all fry died after the salinity reach 18-25 ppt. Keywords: patin catfish, Pangasius, adaptation, salinity   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh teknik adaptasi salinitas terhadap pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup benih ikan patin Pangasius sp.  Benih patin ukuran 1,5-2 inci dipelihara pada salinitas awal berbeda, yaitu 1, 2, 3, 4 dan 5 ppt. Salinitas air pemeliharaan ditingkatkan kelipatan dari salinitas awal setiap hari hingga ikan mati.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adaptasi salinitas awal 1 ppt dan peningkatan sebesar 1ppt/hari menyebabkan ikan dapat bertahan hidup sampai pada salinitas 27 ppt. Pada perlakuan lainnya, benih ikan mengalami kematian masal ketika salinitas mencapai 18-25 ppt. Kata kunci: ikan patin, Pangasius, adaptasi, salinitas

  20. Low-Salt Intake during Mating or Gestation in Rats Is Associated with Low Birth and Survival Rates of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranna Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of maternal salt restriction during mating or gestation on birth rate and offspring growth in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS. DS were divided into 5 groups: DS fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl, w/w (DS-low or high-salt (4% NaCl, w/w diet (DS-high during mating and DS-high or DS-low during gestation, and DS fed regular chow (0.75% NaCl, w/w (DS-regular throughout mating and gestation. During the unspecified periods, the rats were given regular chow. DS-low during mating delivered fewer infants than high-salt mothers (P<0.05. The birth rate on regular chow was 87%. Six out of 11 DS-low rats during pregnancy produced pups while the rats fed a high-salt diet all delivered pups (P<0.025. The pup survival rate was 67% for high-salt mothers during mating and 54% for mothers on a low-salt diet. The pup survival rate was 95% for mothers on a high-salt diet during pregnancy and 64% for mothers on a low-salt diet (P<0.0001. Seven out of 8 DS-regular rats during mating delivered 59 neonates. However, 66% of the neonates survived. A low-salt diet during mating or pregnancy lowers birth rate and the neonates from low-salt mothers during pregnancy were more likely to die than those from high-salt mothers.

  1. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... for NIC. For babies rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  2. Dose-rate effects on the cell cycle and survival of S3 HeLa and V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.; Bedford, J.S.; Bailey, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of continuous irradiation at different dose rates on the cell cycle and on cell survival were studied using synchronized S3 HeLa and V79 cells. The minimum dose rate necessary to stop cell division was found to be approximately 23 rad/hr for HeLa cells and 270 rad/hr for V79 cells. For dose rates that stop cell division, cells progress through G 1 and S, with a small delay in the S phase, and are blocked in G 2 . Appreciable mitotic accumulation was observed for HeLa cells at dose rates which stopped cell division. By comparison, much less mitotic accumulation was observed for V79 cells over a range of dose rates from 37 to 270 rad/hr. Minimum mitotic delays for a variety of dose rates were determined for both cell lines. S3 HeLa cells are much more sensitive in this respect than V79 cells; however, it appeared that for higher dose rates the minimum mitotic delay in HeLa cells asymptotically approached a value of about 35 hr. In addition to the qualitative differences observed for the two cell lines in regard to mitotic accumulation, HeLa cells accumulated for prolonged periods in the presence of colcemid while V79 cells were blocked for only a few hours, HeLa cells show a dramatic effect of redistribution of cells into sensitive phases of the cell cycle during exposure, which was reflected in the survival curves at low dose rate. More cell killing per unit dose was observed at 37 than at 74 rad/hr

  3. Immunophenotypic features of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from mammary carcinomas in female dogs associated with prognostic factors and survival rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Araújo, Márcio SS; Costa-Neto, João M; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Barrouin-Melo, Stella M; Cardoso, Sergio V; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Serakides, Rogéria; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-01-01

    The immune system plays an important role in the multifactorial biologic system during the development of neoplasias. However, the involvement of the inflammatory response in the promotion/control of malignant cells is still controversial, and the cell subsets and the mechanisms involved are poorly investigated. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical-pathological status and the immunophenotyping profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and their association with the animal survival rates in canine mammary carcinomas. Fifty-one animals with mammary carcinomas, classified as carcinomas in mixed tumors-MC-BMT = 31 and carcinomas-MC = 20 were submitted to systematic clinical-pathological analysis (tumor size; presence of lymph node and pulmonary metastasis; clinical stage; histological grade; inflammatory distribution and intensity as well as the lymphocytic infiltrate intensity) and survival rates. Twenty-four animals (MC-BMT = 16 and MC = 8) were elected to the immunophenotypic study performed by flow cytometry. Data analysis demonstrated that clinical stage II-IV and histological grade was I more frequent in MC-BMT as compared to MC. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the intensity of inflammation (moderate/intense) and the proportion of CD4 + (≥ 66.7%) or CD8 + T-cells (<33.3%) were not associated with worse survival rate. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only lymphocytic infiltrate intensity ≥ 600 (P = 0.02) remained as independent prognostic factor. Despite the clinical manifestation, the lymphocytes represented the predominant cell type in the tumor infiltrate. The percentage of T-cells was higher in animals with MC-BMT without metastasis, while the percentage of B-lymphocytes was greater in animals with metastasized MC-BMT (P < 0.05). The relative percentage of CD4 + T-cells was significantly greater in metastasized tumors (both MC-BMT and MC), (P < 0.05) while the proportion of CD8 + T-cells was higher in MC-BMT without

  4. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999–1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  5. The Effect of Coexistence of a Pair of Mutated Oncogenes on the Survival Rate of Invasive Breast Carcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of two mutated oncogenes on the survival rate from invasive breast carcinoma when in comparison to the mutation of a single oncogene on the survival rate. An oncogene is defined as a gene, that when mutated, can lead to cancer. The two oncogenes used in this project were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and c-myc (MYC). HER2 and MYC are both oncogenes that contribute to the formation of cancer. HER2 proteins are receptors on breast cells, and when the HER2 gene is mutated, there is an overexpression of HER2 protein on the breast cell. This makes the breast cells proliferate uncontrollably. MYC is a gene that codes for a transcription factor that plays a role in cell cycle progression. The overexpression of MYC also leads to the proliferation of cells. I hypothesized that if there is a mutation in both the MYC and HER2 genes, then the survival rate of invasive breast carcinoma patients will be lower compared to patients with the mutations of only MYC or HER2. To test this hypothesis, we conducted individual gene searches in CBioPortal for HER2 in the datasets from the studies titled TCGA Nature 2012, TCGA Cell 2015, and TCGA Provisional. We conducted individual gene searches in CBioPortal for MYC in the same datasets. The survival rate data was then exported and analyzed for patients with mutations of either HER2 or MYC and with mutations of both genes. To determine the cases that had both HER2 and MYC mutations, we found the overlapping cases in both HER2 and MYC groups for all three datasets. We calculated the median of the survival data for cases where either HER2 or MYC was mutated and cases where both MYC and HER2 were mutated. From the first dataset, the median of MYC data was 95.53, HER2 data was 95.83, and both HER2 and MYC data was 91.24. In the second dataset, the median of MYC data was 92.17 , HER2 data was 93.5, and both HER2 and MYC data was 87.95 . In the third dataset, the median

  6. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  7. Dispersal and survival rates of adult and juvenile Red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda exposed to potential contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber, E. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual survival and dispersal rates of adult and juvenile red-tailed tropicbirds were examined in connection with exposure to heavy metals. From 1990-2000 the incineration of a U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons stored at Johnston Atoll exposed nesting tropicbirds to increased levels of human disturbance, smoke stack emissions and potential leaks. Using a multi-state mark-recapture modeling approach, birds nesting in this site (downwind of the plant were compared to those nesting in a reference site (upwind of the plant with less human disturbance, no exposure to smoke stack emissions or other potential incineration emissions. We did not find any difference in survival of adults or juveniles when comparing the two sites. Adult breeding dispersal rates did not differ between the sites but we did find differences in the age-specific natal dispersal rates. Birds fledged from downwind areas were less likely to return to their natal area to nest and more likely to immigrate to the upwind area than vice-versa. This asymmetry in emigration rates is believed to be due to differing vegetation densities and has implications for vegetation management in relation to tropicbird nest success and population size.

  8. Germination traits of three weed species in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmeti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinochloa crus-galli and Datura stramonium are the most important weed species in Kosovo. They cause severe yield depression, contaminate fodder and negatively affect growth and reproduction of other weed species. To counteract these problems, specific strategies need to be developed. Such strategies should consider information on species germination traits. In this context, our study provides information on temperature requirements for germination. Seeds of A. retroflexus, E. crus-galli and D. stramonium were harvested in two sub-regions of Kosovo (western and eastern parts differing in climate and land use. They were set for germination experiments in growth chambers at temperatures ranging from 3 to 35 °C and under field conditions. In both experiments, the germination rate differed between species and provenances. In the growth chamber experiment, germination of all three species was negligible below 15 °C and reached the highest rates between 24 and 30 °C. Seeds originating from the western part of Kosovo had higher germination rates and required a lower temperature for germination than seeds originating from the eastern part. In the field experiment, the time-dependent germination behaviour of D. stramonium differed between provenances. In general, germination started when soil temperature was above 18 °C and continued as long as the soil was moist. The results are discussed in the context of the need to develop weed management strategies against these weeds in Kosovo.

  9. Effect of Hydropriming and Biopriming on Seed Germination and Growth of Two Mexican Fir Tree Species in Danger of Extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Zulueta-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abies spp. in general have been shown to need a period of cold stratification to break dormancy and germinate, but this can be very time consuming. In this study, hydropriming by itself and in combination with biopriming was carried out on Abies hickelii and Abies religiosa seeds. For biopriming, three species of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ( Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida and Bacillus subtilis were tested. The purpose was to determine if germination and growth could be improved for these two endangered species. Our results demonstrated that treating A. hickelii and A. religiosa with both hydropriming and biopriming with certain strains of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR could improve germination rates up to 91% for A. hickelii and up to 68% for A. religiosa. Importantly, these treatments showed no significant negative impact on the growth of A. religiosa and actually improved growth in A. hickelii. The application of both hydropriming and biopriming offer possibly an alternative methodology to improve germination, survival and preservation of these fir tree species of Mexico that are at risk of extinction.

  10. Study of allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus erythrocorys L. crude extracts against germination and seedling growth of weeds and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ghnaya, Asma; Hamrouni, Lamia; Amri, Ismail; Ahoues, Haifa; Hanana, Mohsen; Romane, Abderrahmane

    2016-09-01

    Allelopathic materials inside a tree can produce positive or negative change in the survival, growth, reproduction and behaviour of other organisms if they escape into the environment. To assess these effects, this work was carried out to evaluate the allelopathic impact of Eucalyptus erythrocorys L. on seed germination and seedling growth of two weeds: Sinapis arvensis L. and Phalaris canariensis L.; on one cultivated crop: Triticum durum L. Aqueous; and on ethanolic leaf extracts of E. erythrocorys L. The study was effected using four concentrations (10, 20, 25 and 30 μL/mL) while distilled water was used as a control. The results showed that the E. erythrocorys L. crude extracts had an inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling growth of both studied weeds and wheat. The inhibition rate was increased by the increase in extract concentration. Only ethanolic extracts of E. erythrocorys L. induced a significant inhibition of seed germination of durum wheat. The effect of E. erythrocorys L. crude extracts was more severe on weeds than on durum wheat. These results indicate that the seedling growth, especially radicle elongation, was the more sensitive indicator to evaluate the effects of extracts than was the seed germination.

  11. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana; Silva, Luanna R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of 60 Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD 50 obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  12. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  13. Germination and development of pecan cultivar seedlings by seed stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of seed stratification on germination rate, germination speed, and initial development of seedlings of six pecan (Carya illinoinensis cultivars under subtropical climatic conditions in southern Brazil. For stratification, the seeds were placed in boxes with moist sand, in a cold chamber at 4°C, for 90 days. In the fourteenth week after sowing, the emergence speed index, total emergence, plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were evaluated. Seed stratification significantly improves the germination potential and morphological traits of the evaluated cultivars.

  14. Live-imaging of Bacillus subtilis spore germination and outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium cause huge economic losses to the food industry. In food products, spores survive under food preservation conditions and subsequent germination and outgrowth eventually causes food spoilage. Therefore efforts are being made to

  15. Survival of tumor bearing mice by sequencing of low dose rate (LDR) neutron and photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onomura, C.I.; Feola, J.M.; Maruyama, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Cf-252 neutron radiation (NT) has been shown to be effective therapy for bulky, hypoxic human tumor and to produce consistent rapid clearance and 5 year cures. NT has been found to be more or less effective depending upon the schedule in which it is used and upon mixing with photon radiation. In an effort to study this scheduling and photon effect, LSA tumor was irradiated in vivo in a hypoxic, advanced state, in different schedules in combination of NT with Co-60 photons. The LSA lymphoma of C57BL/ym mice represents an accurate system to assess dose-response of tumor cells in vivo. Mean survival time was used as endpoint. A high RBE for LDR Cf-252 NT was observed with a RBE(n) of -- 5.0. The effect was not greatly sensitive to sequence in which photons were used. Comparison studies were also tested relative to LDR Cs-137 photon radiation. The results support the high efficacy of LDR NT for destruction of hypoxic tumor in vivo

  16. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Isomura

    Full Text Available Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  17. Survival rates and lifetime reproduction of breeding male Cooper’s Hawks in Wisconsin, 1980-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n  =  105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.

  18. Comparison of peritonitis rates and patient survival in automated and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a 10-year single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Reshaid, Wael; Al-Disawy, Hanan; Nassef, Hossameldeen; Alhelaly, Usama

    2016-09-01

    Peritonitis is a common complication in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). In this retrospective study, peritonitis rates and patient survival of 180 patients on CAPD and 128 patients on APD were compared in the period from January 2005 to December 2014 at Al-Nafisi Center in Kuwait. All patients had prophylactic topical mupirocin at catheter exit site. Patients on CAPD had twin bag system with Y transfer set. The peritonitis rates were 1 in 29 months in CAPD and 1 in 38 months in APD (p peritonitis free patients over 10-year period in CAPD and APD were 49 and 60%, respectively (p peritonitis was 10.25 ± 3.1 months in CAPD compared to 16.1 ± 4 months in APD (p peritonitis was 13.1 ± 1 and 14 ± 1.4 months respectively (p = 0.3) whereas in peritonitis free patients it was 15 ± 1.4 months in CAPD and 23 ± 3.1 months in APD (p = 0.025). APD had lower incidence rate of peritonitis than CAPD. Patient survival was better in APD than CAPD in peritonitis free patients but was similar in patients who had peritonitis.

  19. Germinação de sementes e sobrevivência de plântulas de Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce Wood. em resposta ao alagamento, nas várzeas da Amazônia Central Seed germination and seedling survival of Himatanthus sucuuba(Spruce Wood., in response to flooding in the varzeas of the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Silva Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Amazonia. The present work was carried out in order to analyze the adaptive strategies of the species to cope with the long periods of flooding common in the várzea. Seeds were accompanied from germination until the seedling stage, in experimental conditions simulating natural field conditions (terrestrial phase and flooding period. Germination was tested in two substrates: sand + sawdust (only irrigated, and in water (submergence. The seedlings produced were then subjected, for 120 days, to three treatments: control (daily irrigation, partial submersion (root system and total submersion (whole seedling. Alterations in the morphology of seedlings and in root anatomy were examined, together with the activity of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after the start of the treatments. Irrespective of the flooding regime, germination rates and seedling formation were high, both above 80%. Under partial submersion, hypertrophic lenticels, adventitious roots and aerenchyma were formed in the roots while ADH activity remained high until the 60th day of flooding, declining afterwards. Seedlings under total submersion lost all leaves, did not form adventitious roots or lenticels, but developed aerenchyma. These seedlings showed the highest values of ADH, which remained high until the end of the experiment, indicating the diversion of the aerobic metabolism to the production of ethanol as the main pathway to maintain the energetic balance. Although some totally submersed seedlings died, 70% of them survived the 120 days of flooding. Seedlings of H. sucuuba modulate morpho-physiologically the tolerance to flooding according to the time of exposure to the stress and the height of the water column.

  20. Daily survival rates for nests of Black Skimmers from a core breeding area of the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive success of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of undisturbed beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rates (DSR) of nests were examined at three nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), South Carolina, USA, 2009–2010. The percent of successful nests (n  =  346 nests) ranged from 42–69% among colony sites when data were pooled across both years. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, predation risk, height of high tide, and clutch size. Predation and overwash were the principal causes of identifiable nest loss, each accounting for ∼33% of nest failures during the two study years. Because of the challenges of resighting skimmer chicks, we were not able to measure chick survival effectively and therefore accurate measures of productivity remain elusive. High variability in nest success among sites within close proximity to each other (stressors such as tropical storms or food availability. Although time-intensive techniques to control predators do exist, management options to limit flooding and overwash are far more limited. Conservation of Black Skimmers in the southeastern USA would benefit from coordinated, multi-state efforts to measure nest and chick survival.

  1. Lovastatin delays infection and increases survival rates in AG129 mice infected with dengue virus serotype 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Martinez-Gutierrez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been reported that treatment of DENV-infected cultures with Lovastatin (LOV, can affect viral assembly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of LOV on the survival rate and viremia levels of DENV-2-infected AG129 mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were inoculated with 1 × 10(6 plaque-forming units (PFU/ml of DENV-2 and treated with LOV (200 mg/kg/day. Pre-treatment with one or three doses of LOV increased the survival rate compared to untreated mice (7.3 and 7.1 days, respectively, compared to 4.8 days. Viremia levels also decreased by 21.8% compared to untreated mice, but only in the group administered three doses prior to inoculation. When LOV was administered after viral inoculation, the survival rate increased (7.3 days in the group treated at 24 hpi, 6.8 days in the group treated at 48 hpi and 6.5 days in the group treated with two doses compared to the untreated group (4.8 days. Interestingly, the serum viral titer increased by 24.6% in mice treated at 48 hpi with a single dose of LOV and by 21.7% in mice treated with two doses (at 24 and 48 hpi of LOV compared to untreated mice. Finally histopathological changes in the liver and spleen in infected and untreated mice included massive extramedullary erythropoiesis foci and inflammatory filtration, and these characteristics were decreased or absent in LOV-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the effect of LOV on viremia depends on the timing of treatment and on the number of doses administered. We observed a significant increase in the survival rate in both schemes due to a delay in the progression of the disease. However, the results obtained in the post-treatment scheme must be handled carefully because this treatment scheme increases viremia and we do not know how this increase could affect disease progression in humans.

  2. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Gang, E-mail: xg335300@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Research and Development of Fine Chemicals, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Wang Xiaoteng [Department of Agricultural Resources and Environment, College of Agricultural, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Gan Cailing; Fang Yanqiong; Zhang Meng [College of Life Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed biological effects of N{sup +} implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sup +} implantation greatly decreased seedling survival rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At doses beyond 15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ion cm{sup -2}, biological repair took place. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CAT was essential for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal. POD mainly functioned as seed was severely hurt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAsA-GSH cycle mainly contributed to the regeneration of HAsA. - Abstract: To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N{sup +} with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N{sup +} beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} to 15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ion cm{sup -2}, biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA-GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  3. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and World War I veterans. The applicable maximum annual rate payable to a Mexican border period or World War I veteran under this section shall be increased by the amount specified in 38 U.S.C. 1521(g...(d)) (3) Veterans who are housebound. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1521(e)) (4) Two veterans married to one...

  4. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.; Kremer, Shelly R.; Mason, Corey D.; Peterson, Markus J.; Calhoun, Kirby W.

    2012-01-01

    the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band

  5. Growth rates and post-release survival of captive neonate timber rattlesnakes Crotalus horridus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    2003-01-01

    The need for conservation and management of rare species is becoming increasingly important as wildlife species and their habitat continue to decline. Translocation of wild captured adults to augment and reintroduce populations has been successfully used for some endangered avian species (see Carrie et al. 1999; Rudolph et al. 1992). In general, success rates for...

  6. Effect of Formalin on the Hatching Rate of eggs and Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    1, and 1000 mgl-1 of formalin resulted in total egg mortality (0% hatching rate). In the definitive ... treatment of fish disease, particularly fungi, as in this study, where it effectively reduced fungi on eggs and larvae of ... salmon held for spawning).

  7. Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth between storage ... for up to 1 year and the second group was used for un-stored germination test. ... seed germination performance without loss of longevity of tall fescue species, ...

  8. Germination of Afrocarpus usambarensis and Podocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    farm planting. Seed germination of .... 235. Germination of Afrocarpus usambarensis and Podocarpus milanjianus seeds. Table 2. Mean seed germination of A. usambarensis and P. milanjianus. Species .... National Forestry Authority and District.

  9. Impact of point A asymmetry on local control and survival for low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfermann, Krisha J; Wahlquist, Amy; Watkins, John; Kohler, Matthew; Jenrette, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate whether Point A asymmetry in low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy is associated with local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS) and/or overall survival (OS). A retrospective analysis of disease control and survival outcomes was conducted for patients who underwent LDR brachytherapy for advanced cervical cancer. Institutional protocol entailed concurrent chemotherapy and whole pelvis radiotherapy (WPRT) over 5 weeks, followed by placement of Fletcher-Suit tandem and colpostat applicators at weeks 6 and 8. Objective Point A doses, 80-85 Gy, were accomplished by placement of Cesium-137 (Cs-137) sources. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess associations between disease control and survival endpoints with variables of interest. The records of 50 patients with FIGO stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer undergoing LDR brachytherapy at our institution were identified. Thirty of these patients had asymmetry > 2.5%, and 11 patients had asymmetry > 5%. At a median survivor follow-up of 20.25 months, 15 patients had experienced disease failure (including 5 cervical/vaginal apex only failures and 2 failures encompassing the local site). Right/left dose asymmetry at Point A was associated with statistically significantly inferior LC (p = 0.035) and inferior DFS (p = 0.011) for patients with mean Point A dose of > 80 Gy. Insufficient evidence existed to conclude an association with OS. LDR brachytherapy may be associated with clinically significant dose asymmetry. The present study demonstrates that patients with Point A asymmetry have a higher risk of failure for DFS and LC.

  10. Effects of crude oil pollution on the germination of Zea mays and Capsicum frutescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakiri, J.O.; Onofeghara, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of crude oil pollution on the germination of Zea mays F7 and F27 and Capsicum frutescens were investigated. Crude oil was found to inhibit the germination of all the seed types used. The rate of germination decreased signficantly with increase in the length of the period of presoaking. The germination percentage of oil-soaked seeds of Zea mays also fell significantly with time. Seeds of Capsicum frutescens are most tolerant of crude oil in their germination response. The seeds were found to retain almost 100% viability after nearly 1 year of presoaking in crude oil. The lag phase preceding the germination of such seeds, however, increased threefold. Germination inhibition is attributed primarily to the physical surface characteristics of soil, which make it function as a physical barrier to water and oxygen. However, crude oil, where it penetrates, may be toxic to the embryos.

  11. Optimization of jenipapo in vitro seed germination process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Ribeiro de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The in vitro seed germination is an effective alternative for quickly obtaining explants with sanitary quality. However, jenipapo seeds present slow and uneven germination. Therefore, internal and external factors to seed which directly interfere in the process, they must be identified, in order to adapt better techniques to obtain seedlings. In this sense, this work aimed to optimize the in vitro germination of Genipa americana L. seeds by evaluating different factors (light quality, GA3 treatment, pre-soaking in distilled water, growing media and stratification in the dark. It was found that the seed germination of G. americana was indifferent to light, however, the best results were obtained under conditions of continuous darkness; There was no effect of the application of exogenous GA3; The pre-soaking in distilled water for 48 h contributes to obtaining better germination rates; And the reduction in MS medium salts, and laminating the pretreatment in the dark maximizes the germination potential of seeds.Therefore, the optimal conditions for in vitro germination of G. americana L. seeds requires pre-soaking in distilled water for 48 hours and inoculation into culture media consisting of 1/2 MS + 15 g L-1 sucrose, with stratification in the dark for 16 days, followed by the transfer to growth chambers with lighting provided by white fluorescent lamps.

  12. A Clostridium difficile alanine racemase affects spore germination and accommodates serine as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ritu; Lockless, Steve W; Sorg, Joseph A

    2017-06-23

    Clostridium difficile has become one of the most common bacterial pathogens in hospital-acquired infections in the United States. Although C. difficile is strictly anaerobic, it survives in aerobic environments and transmits between hosts via spores. C. difficile spore germination is triggered in response to certain bile acids and glycine. Although glycine is the most effective co-germinant, other amino acids can substitute with varying efficiencies. Of these, l-alanine is an effective co-germinant and is also a germinant for most bacterial spores. Many endospore-forming bacteria embed alanine racemases into their spore coats, and these enzymes are thought to convert the l-alanine germinant into d-alanine, a spore germination inhibitor. Although the C. difficile Alr2 racemase is the sixth most highly expressed gene during C. difficile spore formation, a previous study reported that Alr2 has little to no role in germination of C. difficile spores in rich medium. Here, we hypothesized that Alr2 could affect C. difficile l-alanine-induced spore germination in a defined medium. We found that alr2 mutant spores more readily germinate in response to l-alanine as a co-germinant. Surprisingly, d-alanine also functioned as a co-germinant. Moreover, we found that Alr2 could interconvert l- and d-serine and that Alr2 bound to l- and d-serine with ∼2-fold weaker affinity to that of l- and d-alanine. Finally, we demonstrate that l- and d-serine are also co-germinants for C. difficile spores. These results suggest that C. difficile spores can respond to a diverse set of amino acid co-germinants and reveal that Alr2 can accommodate serine as a substrate. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Effect of gamma ray irradiation on seed germination of Ardisia crenata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Donghua; Xu Hong; Huang Yanping; Song Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of Ardisia crenata were used as experimental material and treated with gamma ray under the irradiative doses ranging from 50 to 500 Gy. The results showed that the seed germination rates were not affected under the irradiative dose of 150 Gy and below. The germination potentiality turned to reduce while the irradiative dose was higher than 250 Gy. And in the range of 300 to 500 Gy the germination rates were decreased with the increase of the irradiative dose. (authors)

  14. The Effect of Different Feed and Stocking Densities on Growth And Survival Rate Of Blue Swimming Crablets (Portunus pelagicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyati, R. W.; Rejeki, S.; Bosma, R. H.

    2018-02-01

    Blue swimming crab is targeted by commercial fisheries because of the high economic value, good taste, and attractive colors. As a result, the stock is overexploited and fisherman catch market also juveniles. The most sustainable solution would be to stop fishing for commercial trade and to culture this crab from brood to market size. This study aimed to find the best feed and stocking density for the on-growing of crablets. In 20 tanks juvenile crabs with a carapace width±1 cm were stocked in three densities; 40, 60 and 80 crablets / m2, and fed ad-libitum twice a day with either trash fish or pellets of shrimp feed, for 8 weeks. The circular (ᴓ 1.6 m x 1 m) tanks with 1 m3 of water were aerated, and temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH recorded daily. In the end, growth and survival rates were determined. In general, feeding the crablets at a density of 40 m-2 gave the highest growth. For crablest fed with pellets, the density of 40 m-2 gave significantly better growth than 80 m-2. The crablets at a density 40 m-2 having a fish diet with the density 40 m-2 grew better than 60 and 80 m-2. There was no significant difference between fed used among different densities. The lower densities resulted in higher survival, either on crablets fed with pellets or fish. But, crablets fed the fish diet and cultured in the lowest density (40 m-2) had the highest survival rate.

  15. Effect of low-energy coherent radiation with lambda=6328 A on the survival rate of Saccharomyces cerevisial of strain 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the continuous monochromatic coherent laser radiation on the survival rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae of strain 14 is studied. The effect of laser radiation is judged by the change in the survival rate of the yeast culture before and after the irradiation. The decrease of the number of the yeast cells in the initial moments of the irradiation was observed as a result of the laser irradiation. Then the rapid decrease of the number of cells with time changes into their constant number. It is established that the low-energy coherent radiation decreases the survival rate by 30-40%

  16. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SURVIVAL RATE, GROWTH, AND PRODUCTION OF WHITELEG SHRIMP IN TRADITIONAL-PLUS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharijadi Atmomarsono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Instead of culturing tiger shrimp that is frequently burdened by mass mortality, whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is then considered as an alternative commodity in Indonesian brackishwater ponds. To prevent the whiteleg shrimp from diseases, different probiotic bacteria were tested in completely randomized design experiment using nine 250 m2 experimental ponds stocked with 10 PLs of whiteleg shrimp fry/m2. Three treatments were applied, namely A alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-1, RICA-2, RICA-3; B alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-4, RICA-5, RICA-3, and C control (without probiotic bacteria; each with three replications. After 11-week application, the results showed that the best survival rate of whiteleg shrimp was achieved by treatment B 98.83% and the best production was achieved by treatment A (23.52 kg/250 m2. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the three treatments tested for the shrimp survival rate. The whiteleg shrimp production in treatment A and B were signicantly better (P<0.05 than that in treatment C (control. These high shrimp production in treatment A and B were mainly caused by the capability of the applied probiotics in controlling some water quality variables and Vibrio numbers.

  17. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI, survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients’ hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p=0.230. The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.. Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor.

  18. Germination and storage of pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.

    1955-01-01

    Germination of pear pollen markedly improved when boric acid was added to the medium. The pollen was more sensitive to boron in water than in 10 % sugar solution. Supplying weak solutions of boron to pear branches before flowering resulted in a good germination of the pollen in sugar solution

  19. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  20. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the LD 50 in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD 50 s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively

  1. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L 50 in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD 50 s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively

  2. Environmental and genetic effects on tomato seed metabolic balance and its association with germination vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosental, Leah; Perelman, Adi; Nevo, Noa; Toubiana, David; Samani, Talya; Batushansky, Albert; Sikron, Noga; Saranga, Yehoshua; Fait, Aaron

    2016-12-19

    The metabolite content of a seed and its ability to germinate are determined by genetic makeup and environmental effects during development. The interaction between genetics, environment and seed metabolism and germination was studied in 72 tomato homozygous introgression lines (IL) derived from Solanum pennelli and S. esculentum M82 cultivar. Plants were grown in the field under saline and fresh water irrigation during two consecutive seasons, and collected seeds were subjected to morphological analysis, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolic profiling and germination tests. Seed weight was under tight genetic regulation, but it was not related to germination vigor. Salinity significantly reduced seed number but had little influence on seed metabolites, affecting only 1% of the statistical comparisons. The metabolites negatively correlated to germination were simple sugars and most amino acids, while positive correlations were found for several organic acids and the N metabolites urea and dopamine. Germination tests identified putative loci for improved germination as compared to M82 and in response to salinity, which were also characterized by defined metabolic changes in the seed. An integrative analysis of the metabolite and germination data revealed metabolite levels unambiguously associated with germination percentage and rate, mostly conserved in the different tested seed development environments. Such consistent relations suggest the potential for developing a method of germination vigor prediction by metabolic profiling, as well as add to our understanding of the importance of primary metabolic processes in germination.

  3. Seed germination of three species of Fabaceae typical of seasonally dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meira Arruda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seeds germination of Anadenanthera colubrina, Acacia polyphylla and Bauhinia cheilantha, typical species of deciduous forests. Seeds were submitted to pre-germination treatments and attack of native insects. The seeds of each species were grouped in: seeds scarified with sandpaper; seeds immersed in water heated to 70 °C, seeds with signs of attack by herbivore insects and the control group. The largest proportion of germinated seeds occurred in the first week of incubation and germination peak, ranged from first to third day. All groups of A. polyphylla and B.cheilantha showed high germination rate (> 90%, being reduced only when seeds were attacked by insects (< 25%. Mechanic scarification was efficient in A. polyphylla by enhancing germination to maximum (100% and accelerating germination. A. colubrina showed no difference among groups, and germination rate was lower (< 50%, which was attributed to infestation by fungi, commonly reported in this species and apparently independent of usual hygiene procedures. Finally, except the fungi infestation in A. colubrina, evaluated species were independent of pre-germination treatment to obtain a high rate of germination.

  4. Survival of tumor cells after proton irradiation with ultra-high dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Susanne; Hable, Volker; Greubel, Christoph; Drexler, Guido A; Schmid, Thomas E; Belka, Claus; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2011-01-01

    Laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may in the future be used in radiation therapy. Laser-driven particle beams are pulsed and ultra high dose rates of >10 9 Gy s -1 may be achieved. Here we compare the radiobiological effects of pulsed and continuous proton beams. The ion microbeam SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator was used to directly compare a pulsed and a continuous 20 MeV proton beam, which delivered a dose of 3 Gy to a HeLa cell monolayer within < 1 ns or 100 ms, respectively. Investigated endpoints were G2 phase cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and colony formation. At 10 h after pulsed irradiation, the fraction of G2 cells was significantly lower than after irradiation with the continuous beam, while all other endpoints including colony formation were not significantly different. We determined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for pulsed and continuous proton beams relative to x-irradiation as 0.91 ± 0.26 and 0.86 ± 0.33 (mean and SD), respectively. At the dose rates investigated here, which are expected to correspond to those in radiation therapy using laser-driven particles, the RBE of the pulsed and the (conventional) continuous irradiation mode do not differ significantly

  5. Germination and seedling frost tolerance differ between the native and invasive range in common ragweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiblein-Wild, Marion Carmen; Kaviani, Rana; Tackenberg, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    Germination characteristics and frost tolerance of seedlings are crucial parameters for establishment and invasion success of plants. The characterization of differences between populations in native and invasive ranges may improve our understanding of range expansion and adaptation. Here, we investigated germination characteristics of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., a successful invader in Europe, under a temperature gradient between 5 and 25 °C. Besides rate and speed of germination we determined optimal, minimal and maximal temperature for germination of ten North American and 17 European populations that were sampled along major latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. We furthermore investigated the frost tolerance of seedlings. Germination rate was highest at 15 °C and germination speed was highest at 25 °C. Germination rate, germination speed, frost tolerance of seedlings, and the temperature niche width for germination were significantly higher and broader, respectively, for European populations. This was partly due to a higher seed mass of these populations. Germination traits lacked evidence for adaptation to climatic variables at the point of origin for both provenances. Instead, in the native range, seedling frost tolerance was positively correlated with the risk of frosts which supports the assumption of local adaptation. The increased frost tolerance of European populations may allow germination earlier in the year which may subsequently lead to higher biomass allocation--due to a longer growing period--and result in higher pollen and seed production. The increase in germination rates, germination speed and seedling frost tolerance might result in a higher fitness of the European populations which may facilitate further successful invasion and enhance the existing public health problems associated with this species.

  6. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L/sub 50/ in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

  7. [Preliminary Study of Lonicera hypoglauca on Germination Conditions of Sand Culture Seeds and Sterilization Method of Sand Culture Seedling Sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mu-xiu; Zeng, Wen-wen; Wei, Peng-xiao; Mo, Qiao-cheng; Pu, Zu-ning; Cen, Xiu-fen; Shi, Feng-hua

    2015-05-01

    To explore the germination conditions of Lonicera hypoglauca sand culture seeds and the effects of sand culture seedlings sterilization. 0.1% HgCl2 with different sterilization time, different illumination time and temperature culture condition were adopted to study the germination conditions of sand culture seeds. Different sterilization treatments and different hardening-seedling days were used to test the sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings. The sterilization effect of the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min on Lonicera hypoglauca seeds was the optimum,with the average pollution rate of 15.56%, and the average germination rate reached 51.11%. The combination of varied temperature-room temperature under light for 12 h/d was the best, with the average germination rate peaked at 75.49%, and the average germination potential reached 68.36%. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash on the part above the hypocotyl, which was sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, showed the best sterilization effect, with the average pollution rate was zero, and the average survival rate peaked at 100.00%. The sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings, which was disinfected after cleaning by detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash after hardening-seeding for 30 days, was the best, with the average pollution rate of 50.00%, and the average survival rate of 100.00%. The best sterilization effect is the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min; Lighting for 12 h/d of varied temperature-room temperature is regarded as the optimum culture condition. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash treatment on the part above the hypocotyl,which is sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, shows the best sterilization effect. For the sand culture seedlings, before inoculated in subculture medium, should be hardening-seedling for some days and sterilized after detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash.

  8. WATER QUALITY AND ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE OF LOBSTER REARED IN FLOATING NET CAGE IN EKAS BAY, WEST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Junaidi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of lobster farming in floating net cage in Ekas Bay caused an environmental degradation such as decrease water quality due to some aquaculture wastes. The purposes of this study were to determine the status of water quality and their effect on growth and survival rate of lobster reared in floating net cages (FNC in the Ekas Bay, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Water sample collection and handling referred to the APHA (1992. Analyses of water quality data were conducted using Principal Component Analysis. Determination of the water quality status of Ekas Bay was performed with STORET system. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the relationship between water quality, growth, and survival rate of lobster reared in FNC. Results showed that Ekas Bay water quality status was categorized in class C (medium contaminated, which exceeded some quality standard parameters such as ammonia (0.3 mg/l, nitrate (0.008 mg/l, and phosphate (0.015 mg/l. During lobster farming activities feeding with trash fish for 270 days, we obtained daily growth rate of  0.74% (lower than normal growth rate of 0.86%, survival rate of 66% (lower than normal survival rate of 86.7%, and feed conversion ratio of 11.15. Ammonia was found as a dominant factor reducing growth  and survival rate of lobster reared in FNC. Keywords: water quality, lobsters, growth, survival, Ekas Bay

  9. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    2006-01-01

    and after the experiments and evaporative water losses (EWL) were calculated. When exposed to L temperature, single kits responded with a very low HE until 29 days of age, and groups of kits until 14 days of age. It was not until they reached an age of approximately 6 weeks that single kits showed a clear...... thermoregulatory response to the L temperature by increased HE, whereas groups of kits showed increased HE from 29th day onwards. When kept at H temperature, HE was low initially, but all kits showed elevated HE at 8 days of age, and the metabolic rate was similar for single kits and kits huddling in groups....... Evaporative water losses was higher among single than among groups of kits and slightly lower but more variable for animals at L than at H temperature. It was concluded that mink kits develop functional homoeothermy at an age of close to 6 weeks and that the failure of very young kits to thermoregulate...

  10. Study of Seed Germination by Soaking Methode of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of germination methods conduct to get information about seed viability based on germination rate, percentage of germination and vigority. Germination methods was studied to get the efficiency and effectivity of germination, easy to handle, low costs with high vigority. Sand and gunny sack methods  for germination, need extensive place  and 3-4 days germination period after planting. This research will study the alternative of germination method with soaking. This method can be accelerating  germination rate and effectively place usage without decreasing the quality of cacao seedling.The research was done at Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institue. This research consist of two experiment was arranged based on factorial completely random design. First experiment will observed to compared germination rate and the second experiment will observed seedling quality between soaking and wet gunny sack germination method.The results showed that length of radicel on soaking method longer than wet gunny sack method. Growth of radicel started from 2 hours after soaking, moreover length of radicel at 4 hours after soaking have significant different value with gunny sack method. On 24 hours after soaking have 3,69 mm and 0,681 mm on wet gunny sack treatment. Except lengt of hipocotyl, there is not different condition between seedling that out came  from soaking and wet gunny sack method. Length of hipocotyl on 36 hours after soaking have 9,15 cm and significant different between wet gunny sack germination method that have 5,40 cm. Keywords : seed germination, soaking method, Theobroma cacao L., cocoa seedlings

  11. Effects of functionalized fullerenes on bifenthrin and tribufos toxicity to Daphnia magna: Survival, reproduction, and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Kathryn A; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Maul, Jonathan D

    2010-11-01

    Incorporation of carbon nanomaterials into industrial and consumer products is increasing, yet their impact on aquatic ecosystems alone and in chemical mixtures is largely unknown. Carbon nanomaterials may be found in the aquatic environment as mixtures with pesticides because of their proposed use in agriculture as smart delivery systems and nanosensors. The interaction effects of a functionalized fullerene ([1,2-methanofullerene C₆₀]-61-carboxylic acid) (fC₆₀) at 52.8 µg/L and the hydrophobic pesticides bifenthrin and tribufos were examined. The test organism was Daphnia magna, and response variables included 48-h survival, reproduction (bifenthrin, 70-d; tribufos, 21-d), and 10-d growth. Both pesticides reduced D. magna survival and reproduction (p bifenthrin acute toxicity but did not significantly affect chronic endpoints or growth (p > 0.05). Median lethal concentrations (LC50s), median inhibition concentrations (IC50s) for days surviving, and IC50s for reproduction were 0.86, 0.55, and 0.49 µg/L for bifenthrin; 0.22, 0.39, and 0.77 µg/L for fC₆₀-bifenthrin mix; 6.63, 9.89, and 5.79 µg/L for tribufos; and 9.17, 8.17, and 6.59 µg/L for fC₆₀-tribufos mix. Mixtures did not affect instantaneous growth rate (p > 0.05). These results suggest that fC₆₀ had little effect on pesticide chronic toxicity but influenced acute toxicity. Given the widespread application of nanotechnology, the influence of nanomaterials on environmental contaminants is an important consideration. Thus, our results may be useful in the development and use of nanotechnology in agricultural practices. © 2010 SETAC.

  12. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  13. Desiccation effects on germination and vigor of King palm seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cibele C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation tolerance of Archontophoenix alexandrae (Wendl. & Drude seeds was determined and the most sensitive vigor test for assessing seed deterioration of this species was identified. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection of the Instituto Agronomico in Campinas, Brazil. Depulped fruits were transported in impermeable packages to the Faculdade de Agronomia in Botucatu, where the seeds were dried. As the seed moisture decreased, germination, seedling length, electrical conductivity and moisture were measured. The seeds of A. alexandrae are recalcitrant, with high germination percentage (over 67% when undried (47% seed moisture. Lowering seed moisture below 31.5% reduced the germination rate significantly (<52.5%. Total germination failure was observed when seed moisture reached 15.1%. The electrical conductivity was the most sensitive vigor test to identify seed deterioration.

  14. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Bozena; Stranak, Vitezslav; Sery, Michal; Spatenka, Petr; Tichy, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  15. Effect of clearcutting operations on the survival rate of a small mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín A H Escobar

    Full Text Available Clearcutting is a common timber harvesting technique that represents a significant and abrupt change in habitat conditions for wildlife living in industrial forests. Most research on this type of impact has focused on comparing populations or communities in mature forests/plantations and the resulting clearcut stands. However, this approach does not separate the effect of changes in habitat attributes from direct mortality produced by the intensive use of heavy machinery required for cutting down trees and dragging them to a road. Because knowing the fate of individuals after a disturbance is important for modelling landscape-scale population dynamics in industrial forests, we conducted a study in South-Central Chile to understand the short-term response to clearcutting operations of the long-haired Akodont (Abrothrix longipillis, a forest specialist mouse. Between 2009 and 2013 we radiotracked a total of 51 adult male Akodonts, before, during and after the clearcutting of the pine plantations in which they lived. A minimum of 52.4% of the individuals died as a direct cause of the timbering operations, being crushed by vehicles or logs during logging operations. Our observations suggest that, instead of fleeing the area, the response of long-haired Akodonts to the approaching machinery is to hide under the forest litter or in burrows, which exposes them to a serious risk of death. The real mortality rate associated to clearcutting may be higher than that estimated by us because of some methodological biases (i.e. individuals with crushed radiotransmitters not recorded and the fact that additional mortality sources may affect the population in the weeks following logging operations (e.g., higher exposure to predation, effects of site preparation for the new plantation, etc.

  16. Effect of oxaliplatin on the survival rate of human Y79 cells after down-regulation of Mcl-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of oxaliplatin on the survival rate of Y79 after down-regulation of Mcl-1 by SiRNA. METHODS: Y79 cells were cultured in RPMI1640. The cultured cells were stimulated with 0.25μmol/L of oxaliplatin. The expression of Mcl-1 protein was detected by Western blot after 6, 16 and 24h respectively. Cells in logarithmic phase were collected and used for single-cell suspension. Then they were transfected with empty plasmid, Mcl-1-homo-991, Mcl-1-homo-1114 and Mcl-1-homo-1235. After 6h, fluorescence microscope was used to observe the transfection efficiency and the optimal one was selected. The cells were divided into Group A and transfected with empty plasmids. The cells transfected with Mcl-1 were divided into Group B and Group C. Group A and Group C were treated with 0.25μmol/L oxaliplatin for stimulating induction, and the apoptotic rate was compared after 24h.RESULTS: The expression of Mcl-1 in Y79 stimulated by oxaliplatin was the most after 24h of culture. Mcl-1-homo-991 significantly inhibited the expression of Mcl-1 in Y79 after transfection. There was no significant difference in the apoptosis rate in Group A(11.1%±1.2%and in the control group(6.1%±0.6%(P>0.05. The apoptotic rate of Group C(49.2%±2.7%was significantly higher than that of Group B(20.8%±1.9%. At the same time, the apoptotic rates of these two groups were significantly higher than those of Group A and control group, the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION:Downregulation of Mcl-1 by siRNA can reduce the drug resistance of Y79, thereby enhancing the apoptosis of Y79, and reducing the survival rate of Y79.

  17. The effect of retraining of nurses on cardiopulmonary resuscitationsuccess rate and short-term and long-term survival in patients revived

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahi M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is performed in order to restore the functioning of two most important body organs the heart and brain. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of retraining of nurses on CPR success rate and short-term and long-term CPR survival. Materials and Method: The study population of the present quasi-experimental study consisted of all nurses of Taleghani Hospital affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, in 2011. The study subjects (n = 400 were selected using convenience and purposive sampling method. The patient survival rate during the first 24 hours (short-term survival and discharge from the hospital (long-term survival after CPR were reported. Then, the study subjects, in groups of 20, participated in CPR training courses. Short-term (24 hours and long-term (discharge from hospital in good mental status survival subsequent to CPR were reevaluated and compared with pre-training results. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20, and t-test and chi-square test. Results: Retraining promoted CPR success rates. This increase in the short-term success rate was not significant, but the increase in long-term success rate was statistically significant (P = 0.007. Conclusion: Periodic retraining of nurses may improve CPR success rate particularly long-term survival or discharge from hospital. Therefore, further studies on long-term success of CPR considering confounding factors are recommended

  18. PENGARUH VARIASI PERSENTASE EKSTRAK JANGKRIK (Gryllus sp Walk YANG BERBEDA TERHADAP TINGKAT SURVIVAL RATE BENIH IKAN MAS KOKI (Carrasius auratus L

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    Elrifadah Elrifadah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study Aims to Determine the effect of different variations on survival seed cicada goldfish. The method used in this study is completely randomized design with 3 treatments (A = 3%, B = 5%, and C = 7% and three replications. From these results Obtained survival rate to 83.0% Obtained treatment A, B Obtained 88.33% and 80.0% Obtained C treatment. Then the results of analysis of variance accept the hypothesis Ho that the percentage variation of different cicada extract (3%, 5% and 7% did not Affect the survival rate of seedlings goldfish. During the last condition of water quality research support for seed viability parameters goldfish.

  19. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  20. Influence de quelques facteurs environnementaux sur la germination d'Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae

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    Ipou Ipou, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of some Environmental Factors on Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae Seeds Germination. In Ivory Coast, Euphorbia heterophylla appears as a weed in cotton fields. Effects of temperature, light and burying levels on its seed germination were tested. Temperature effects were monitored by means of 4 procedures, using a range of temperatures between 20 and 35 °C. The germination latency period can vary between 1 and 2 days, according to the temperature. After 4 days, germination rates were not longer related to temperature and were very similar. Germination can not happen without light. In order to measure the effect of burying levels, six series of 100 seeds were buried; the first at ground level, the others respectively 2, 4, 6, 8 and 9 cm deeper. Optimal germination rates were found for seeds that were buried between 0 and 6 cm.

  1. Arabidopsis MADS-Box Transcription Factor AGL21 Acts as Environmental Surveillance of Seed Germination by Regulating ABI5 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Zi-Sheng; Miao, Zi-Qing; Zhao, Ping-Xia; Wang, Zhen; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2017-06-05

    Seed germination is a crucial checkpoint for plant survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays a vital role in integrating environmental information to regulate seed germination. It has been well known that MCM1/AGAMOUS/DEFICIENS/SRF (MADS)-box transcription factors are key regulators of seed and flower development in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about their functions in seed germination. Here we report that MADS-box transcription factor AGL21 is a negative regulator of seed germination and post-germination growth by controlling the expression of ABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) in Arabidopsis. The AGL21-overexpressing plants were hypersensitive to ABA, salt, and osmotic stresses during seed germination and early post-germination growth, whereas agl21 mutants were less sensitive. We found that AGL21 positively regulated ABI5 expression in seeds. Consistently, genetic analyses showed that AGL21 is epistatic to ABI5 in controlling seed germination. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated that AGL21 could directly bind to the ABI5 promoter in plant cells. Moreover, we found that AGL21 responded to multiple environmental stresses and plant hormones during seed germination. Taken together, our results suggest that AGL21 acts as a surveillance integrator that incorporates environmental cues and endogenous hormonal signals into ABA signaling to regulate seed germination and early post-germination growth. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING THE CERVICAL MUCUS CRYSTALLIZATION, THE SPERM SURVIVAL IN CERVICAL MUCUS, AND PREGNANCY RATES OF HOLSTEIN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena JEŽKOVÁ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between calving year and season, parity, number of AI, day of lactation, milk production in the 1st 100 lactation days or diseases occurrence (retained placenta, endometritis or cysts, sperm motility (SM during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the cervical mucus survival test, cervical mucus crystallization (CMC and their infl uence on days to fi rst insemination (interval, open days (SP, inseminations number for pregnancy (index, and pregnancy rates (PR in Holstein cows (n=284. Signifi cant differences of interval, SP and index were detected also in relation to number of AI and day of lactation (P < 0.001. Cows without reproduction diseases (healthy had better results of interval, SP (P < 0.01, index and PR. Pregnancy rate of healthy cows was by 11.43% higher, but without statistical signifi cance. The higher results of PR (62.74% were discovered in relation to ferny-like crystallization of cervical mucus (P < 0.001. CMC affected results of cervical mucus survival test, the highest motility of sperms after the 60 and 90 minutes was assumed in the case of club moss – ferny (14.80% and 7.96% and ferny-like crystallization (13.82% and 8.47% with statistical signifi cance (P < 0.05. The choice of these characteristics and defi nition of their relations allows assuming their using for detailed study and determination of the cows´ biological ability to conceive, the one of the main components of effi ciency of cows´ reproduction.

  3. Improved survival and complete response rates in patients with advanced melanoma treated with concurrent ipilimumab and radiotherapy versus ipilimumab alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Kristian M; Mackley, Heath B; Liu, Jason; Wagner, Henry; Talamo, Giampaolo; Schell, Todd D; Pameijer, Colette; Neves, Rogerio I; Anderson, Bryan; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Mallon, Carol A; Drabick, Joseph J

    2017-01-02

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting the synergistic roles of radiotherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of malignancy. Published case studies of the abscopal effect have been reported with the use of ipilimumab and radiotherapy in metastatic melanoma, but evidence supporting the routine use of this combination of therapy is limited. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate patients treated with ipilimumab for advanced melanoma at a single institution from May 2011 to June 2015. Patients were grouped into those who had received concurrent radiotherapy while on ipilimumab (Ipi-RT), and those who did not. We then evaluated the treatment response following completion of ipilimumab. A total of 101 patients received ipilimumab in the prespecified time frame. 70 received Ipi-RT and 31 received ipilimumab without concurrent radiotherapy. Median overall survival (OS) was significantly increased in the concurrent Ipi-RT arm at 19 months vs. 10 months for ipilimumab alone (p = 0.01). Median progression free survival (PFS) was marginally increased in the Ipi-RT group compare with the ipilimumab alone group (5 months vs. 3 months, p = 0.20). Rates of complete response (CR) were significantly increased in the Ipi-RT group vs. ipilimumab alone (25.7% vs. 6.5%; p = 0.04), and rates of overall response (OR) in the groups were 37.1% vs. 19.4% (p = 0.11). No increase in toxicities was observed in the Ipi-RT group compare with ipilimumab alone. Prospective trials are needed to further clarify the role of radiotherapy with ipilimumab, but these encouraging preliminary observations suggest that this combination can induce more durable responses to immunotherapy.

  4. 7 CFR 201.63 - Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination. 201.63 Section 201.63 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.63 Germination. The following tolerances are applicable to the percentage of germination and also to the sum of the germination plus the hard seed when 400 or more seeds are tested. Mean...

  5. In vitro germination of desert rose varieties(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Lemos Varella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The drought stress resistance is a characteristic of the desert rose and its estimable beauty flowers, which gave it great relevance in the ornamental market. However, the desert rose production and germination is hampered by possible sterility of their male and female flowers and frequent problems in pollination, so the tissue culture is a promising alternative to the propagation of these plants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on four commercial varieties of desert rose (Adenium obesum cultivated in vitro. The seeds of the varieties ‘Orange Pallet’, ‘Carnation violet’, ‘Diamond ring’ and ‘Vermiliont’ were sterilized and inoculated on Water + Agar (T0, medium MS (T1, ½ MS (T2, MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T3, MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T4, ½ MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T5, ½ MS 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T6. The seeds germination of A. obesum was initiated on the fourth day of cultivation and on the tenth day was possible to observe the expansion of the cotyledons and leaf expansion with subsequent development of early secondary root. The ‘Orange pallet’ variety germinated 100% of seeds on water + agar and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 of GA3. For ‘Diamond Ring’ and ‘Carnation violet’ the highest rate of germination occurred in treatments MS ½; 0.25 mg L-1 GA3; MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 averaging 80% and 70%, respectively. For ‘Vermiliont’ the best response was in MS and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 ranging between 70-90% germinated embryos. It was registered different malformations in all treatments like absence of roots and apexes during seedling development. The concentrations of GA3 did not affect significantly the seed germination.

  6. Multivariate analyses to assess the effects of surgeon and hospital volume on cancer survival rates: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Positive results between caseloads and outcomes have been validated in several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is limited information available on the combined effects of surgeon and hospital caseloads. We used nationwide population-based data to explore the association between surgeon and hospital caseloads and survival rates for major cancers. METHODOLOGY: A total of 11,677 patients with incident cancer diagnosed in 2002 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity scores were used to assess the relationship between 5-year survival rates and different caseload combinations. RESULTS: Based on the Cox proportional hazard model, cancer patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals had poorer survival rates, and hazard ratios ranged from 1.3 in head and neck cancer to 1.8 in lung cancer after adjusting for patients' demographic variables, co-morbidities, and treatment modality. When analyzed using the propensity scores, the adjusted 5-year survival rates were poorer for patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals, compared to those treated by high-volume surgeons in high-volume hospitals (P<0.005. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for differences in the case mix, cancer patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals had poorer 5-year survival rates. Payers may implement quality care improvement in low-volume surgeons.

  7. Approaches to the indirect evaluation of germination and vigour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparisons of six seed lots of different F1 hybrid cultivars of cauliflower with similarly high laboratory germinations (above 90% separation in germination was achieved after controlled deterioration (C.D. at 24% moisture content (m.c. and 45 0C for 24 hours. This measure of vigour was related to the position of the lots on the seed survival curve and was highly predictive of the longevity of the lots when stored at 15% m.c. and 20 0C for 12 and 16 weeks. When each seed lot was deteriorated at 24% m.c. for increasing times (from 0 to 36 hours a reduction in the subsequent percentage germination was seen, which, using probit transformed percentages, was significantly and linearly related to the leakage of electrolytes into seed soak water over 24 hours. The case is made for an approach to the indirect evaluation of germination and vigour using C.D. followed by measurements of leakage that could be more discerning and rapid than the present laboratory germination test.

  8. Fluridone: a combination germination stimulant and herbicide for problem fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Danica E; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Problem weeds in agriculture, such as Lolium rigidum Gaud., owe some of their success to their large and dormant seed banks, which permit germination throughout a crop-growing season. Dormant weed seed banks could be greatly depleted by application of a chemical that stimulates early-season germination and then kills the young seedlings. Fluridone, a phytoene desaturase-inhibiting herbicide that can also break seed dormancy, was assessed for its efficacy in this regard. The germination of fluridone-treated Lolium rigidum seeds was stimulated on soils with low organic matter, and almost 100% seedling mortality was observed, while the treatment was only moderately effective on a high-organic-matter potting mix. Seedlings from wheat, canola, common bean and chickpea seeds sown on fluridone-treated sandy loam were bleached and did not survive, but lupins and field peas grew normally. This proof-of-concept study with fluridone suggests that it may be possible to design safe and effective molecules that act as germination stimulants plus herbicides in a range of crop and soil types: a potentially novel way of utilising herbicides to stimulate seed bank germination and a valuable addition to an integrated weed management system. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. [A comparative study on seed germination of 15 grass species in Keeqin Sandyland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Li, Xuehua; Li, Rongping; Jiang, Deming; Cao, Chengyou

    2003-09-01

    A laboratory study was made on the germination characteristics of freshly-collected seeds of grass species at the Wulanaodu area of Keeqin Sandyland in Eastern Inner-Mongolia. Of the 15 species examined, 8 species including Clinelymus dahuricus, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Pappophorum boreale, Spodiopogon sibiricus, Phragmites communis, Chloris virgata, Arundinella hirta, Pennisetum alopecuroides had a germination rate of over 80%, but 4 species including Echinochloa hispidula, Hemarthria compressa, Tragus berteronianus and Setaria viridis had a value of less than 10%. Spodiopogon sibiricus, Eragrostis pilosa, Phragmites communis, Chloris virgata, Clinelymus dahuricus, Pappophorum boreale, Digitaria cilliaris and Cleistogenes squrrosa began to germinate within 1-3 days after the test began, while Setaria viridis, Tragus berteronianus and Hemarthria compressa failed to germinate in a period of more than 10 days. For the species such as Digitaria cilliaris, Echinochloa hispidula, Phragmites communis, Eragrostis pilosa and Spodiopogon sibiricus, their germination period was less than 10 days, while Clinelymus dahuricus and Pappophorum boreale had a germination period of more than 20 days. The days required for half the final germination rate to be reached were: 2 days for Chloris virgata, 3 days for Phragmites communis, 4 days for Spodiopogon sibiricus, 5 days for Clinelymus dahuricus and Cleistogenes squarrosa, 7 days for Arundinella hirta and Pappophorum boreale, and 10 days for Pennisetum alopecuriodes. Compared with the Sheffield region in Britain, the Wulanaodu area of Kerqin Sandyland had a higher proportion of annul grasses with a low germination rate and a longer germination period, and the perennial grasses at the Wulanaodu area had an approximately same germination rate, but a longer germination period. During germination, ruderals showed the potential for risk-sharring, and thus, they had a relatively higher disturbance-resistance capacity.

  10. Implant and prosthodontic survival rates with implant fixed complete dental prostheses in the edentulous mandible after at least 5 years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Mokti, Muizzaddin; Chen, Chun-Jung; Benic, Goran I; Gallucci, German O; Chronopoulos, Vasilios

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of mandibular edentulism with implant fixed complete dental prostheses (IFCDPs) is a routinely used treatment option. The study aims to report the implant and prosthodontic survival rates associated with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible after an observation period of a minimum 5 years. An electronic MEDLINE/PubMED search was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials and prospective studies with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible. Clinical studies with at least 5-year follow-up were selected. Pooled data were statistically analyzed and cumulative implant- and prosthesis survival rates were calculated by meta-analysis, regression, and chi-square statistics. Implant-related and prosthesis-related factors were identified and their impact on survival rates was assessed. Seventeen prospective studies, including 501 patients and 2,827 implants, were selected for meta-analysis. The majority of the implants (88.5% of all placed implants) had been placed in the interforaminal area. Cumulative implant survival rates for rough surface ranged from 98.42% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 97.98-98.86) (5 years) to 96.86% (95% CI: 96.00-97.73) (10 years); smooth surface implant survival rates ranged from 98.93% (95% CI: 98.38-99.49) (5 years) to 97.88% (95% CI: 96.78-98.98) (10 years). The prosthodontic survival rates for 1-piece IFCDPs ranged from 98.61% (95% CI: 97.80-99.43) (5 years) to 97.25% (95% CI: 95.66-98.86) (10 years). Treatment with mandibular IFCDPs yields high implant and prosthodontic survival rates (more than 96% after 10 years). Rough surface implants exhibited cumulative survival rates similar to the smooth surface ones (p > .05) in the edentulous mandible. The number of supporting implants and the antero-posterior implant distribution had no influence (p > .05) on the implant survival rate. The prosthetic design and veneering material, the retention type, and the loading protocol (delayed, early, and immediate) had no

  11. Germination and establishment of Tillandsia eizii (Bromeliaceae) in the canopy of an oak forest in Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo-Aceves, T.; Wolf, J.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of repopulating the inner canopy and middle canopy of oak trees with seeds and seedlings of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia eizii. Canopy germination was 4.7 percent, considerably lower than in vitro (92%). Of the tree-germinated seedlings, only 1.5 percent survived

  12. Seed Hydropriming and Smoke Water Significantly Improve Low-Temperature Germination of Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Płażek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed imbibition under cold temperature is dangerous when dry seeds have relatively low water content. The aim of this study was to investigate germination of 20 lines/cultivars of narrow-leaf lupine at 7 °C (cold and 13 °C (control under the influence of smoke water and following seed hydropriming for 3 h at 20 °C. The efficacy of individual treatments was examined with regard to seed protection during low-temperature germination. Based on seed germination, vigour at cold was evaluated four days after sowing by means of hypocotyl length, the studied lines/cultivars were divided into three groups with low, high and very high germination rates. Germination vigour correlated with cell membrane permeability, dehydrogenase activity and abscisic acid (ABA content and was analysed in the seeds one day after sowing. Gibberellin content did not correlate with germination vigour. The seeds of weakly germinating lines/cultivars had the highest cell permeability and ABA content as well as the lowest amylolytic activity at both studied temperatures. Additionally, the vigour of weakly germinating seeds at 7 °C correlated with dehydrogenase activity. Three-hour hydropriming was the most effective for seed germination under cold due to reduced cell membrane permeability and ABA level. Stimulating effects of smoke water on germination under cold could be explained by enhanced dehydrogenase activity.

  13. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayer, Kimran

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a black-spored filamentous fungus that forms asexual spores called conidospores (‘conidia’). Germination of conidia, leading to the formation of hyphae, is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilisation of endogenous carbon and energy stores, followed by polarisation and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. These morphological and biochemical changes which define the model of germination have been studied with the aim of understanding how conidia sense and utilise different...

  14. Effect of a Shortened Duration of FOLFOX Chemotherapy on the Survival Rate of Patients with Stage II and III Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Woong Bae; Hong, Kwang Dae; Kim, Jung-Sik; Joung, Sung-Yup; Um, Jun Won; Min, Byung-Wook

    2018-01-01

    FOLFOX chemotherapy is widely used as an adjuvant treatment for advanced colon cancer. The duration of adjuvant chemotherapy is usually set to 6 months, which is based on a former study of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin chemotherapy. However, the FOLFOX regimen is known to have complications, such as peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to compare the survival rates and complications experienced by patients receiving either 4 or 6 months of FOLFOX chemotherapy. Retrospective data analysis was performed for stage II and III patients who underwent radical resection of colon cancer. We compared the 5-year survival rates and the occurrence of complications in patients who completed only 8 cycles of FOLFOX chemotherapy with patients who completed 12 cycles of chemotherapy. Among 188 patients who underwent adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy for stage II or III colon cancer, 83 (44.1%) completed 6 months of FOLFOX chemotherapy and 64 (34.0%) patients discontinued after 4 months of chemotherapy. The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates did not show a significant difference. Patients in the 6-month group had peripheral neuropathy more frequently (p = 0.028). Five-year overall and disease-free survival were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Large-scale prospective studies are necessary for the analysis of complications and survival rates. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Six-Year Survival and Early Failure Rate of 2918 Implants with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Enossal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Le Gac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this chart review was to obtain an objective, quantitative assessment of the clinical performance of an implant line used in an implantological office setting. Implants with hydrophilic (INICELL and hydrophobic (TST; both: Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland enossal surfaces were compared and the cumulative implant survival rate was calculated. The data of 1063 patients that received 2918 implants (1337 INICELL, 1581 TST was included. The average follow up time was 2.1 (1.1–5.4 years for INICELL and 4.5 (1.3–5.9 years for TST implants (Thommen Medical AG, Switzerland. In the reported period 7 implants with INICELL (0.5% and 23 TST implants (1.5% failed. This difference was statistically significant. The analysis of cases treated and followed up in a single implantological office for 6 years confirmed the very good clinical outcome that was achieved with both used implant lines. Within the limitations of this retrospective analysis, the overall early failure rate of the hydrophilic implants was significantly lower than that of hydrophobic implants. The use of hydrophilic implants allows the clinician to obtain less early failures, hence the interest of an up-to-date surface for the daily work of an implant practice.

  16. Six-Year Survival and Early Failure Rate of 2918 Implants with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Enossal Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, Olivier Le; Grunder, Ueli

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this chart review was to obtain an objective, quantitative assessment of the clinical performance of an implant line used in an implantological office setting. Implants with hydrophilic (INICELL) and hydrophobic (TST; both: Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland) enossal surfaces were compared and the cumulative implant survival rate was calculated. The data of 1063 patients that received 2918 implants (1337 INICELL, 1581 TST) was included. The average follow up time was 2.1 (1.1-5.4) years for INICELL and 4.5 (1.3-5.9) years for TST implants (Thommen Medical AG, Switzerland). In the reported period 7 implants with INICELL (0.5%) and 23 TST implants (1.5%) failed. This difference was statistically significant. The analysis of cases treated and followed up in a single implantological office for 6 years confirmed the very good clinical outcome that was achieved with both used implant lines. Within the limitations of this retrospective analysis, the overall early failure rate of the hydrophilic implants was significantly lower than that of hydrophobic implants. The use of hydrophilic implants allows the clinician to obtain less early failures, hence the interest of an up-to-date surface for the daily work of an implant practice.

  17. Mechanisms of combined effects of salt and alkaline stresses on seed germination and seedlings of melilotus officials (fabaceae) in northeast of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VU, T. S.; Zhang, D.; Xiao, W.; Chi, C.; Xing, Y.; Fu, D.; Yuan, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In line with the salt-alkalinized soils found in the northeast of China, the conditions were simulated to investigate the mechanisms associated with this combination of stresses on Melilotus officinalis. The effects of salinity (NaCl: 0-300mM) in combination with alkali (pH: 7.1-9.8) on the seed germination and seedlings of M. officinalis were investigated. The results showed that germination was not inhibited completely by the salt-alkali conditions tested. The recovery germinations were significant higher than the control or had no significant differences with the control under the conditions of NaCl less than 200mM and pH=9.0, suggesting that non-germinated seeds may have a strategy to get through and resist the stress during germination stage. For the seedling growth, M. officinalis was capable of surviving at high pH (pH=9.8) and the salinity (NaCl=200mM) (seedling survival rate: 84.77 ± 8.62 percentage). The characteristic feature for combined salt-alkali stresses is the reciprocal enhancement between salt and alkali stresses. The combined action of salinity and pH should be considered when evaluating the effects of salt-alkali stresses. Correlation and regression analyses showed that salinity was the dominant stress factor, while pH was a secondary factor. From the physiological and ecological parameters, we suggested that M. officinalis is a salt-alkali tolerant species which can be used in vegetative restoration of saline soils in the northeast of China. (author)

  18. Oral intake of Lactobacillus rhamnosus M21 enhances the survival rate of mice lethally infected with influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hee Joo; Hong, Seong Keun; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lee, Sang Won; Song, Chang Seon; Kim, Ki Taek; Choi, In Soo; Lee, Joong Bok; Park, Seung Yong

    2016-02-01

    Influenza viruses cause acute respiratory disease. Because of the high genetic variability of viruses, effective vaccines and antiviral agents are limited. Considering the fact that the site of influenza virus entry is the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, probiotics that can enhance mucosal immunity as well as systemic immunity could be an important source of treatment against influenza infection. Mice were fed with Lactobacillus rhamnosus M21 or skim milk and were challenged with influenza virus. The resulting survival rate, lung inflammation, and changes in the cytokine and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels were examined. Because of infection (influenza virus), all the mice in the control group and 60% of the mice in the L. rhamnosus M21 group died; however, the remaining 40% of the mice fed with L. rhamnosus M21 survived the infection. Pneumonia was severe in the control group but moderate in the group treated with L. rhamnosus M21. Although there were no significant changes in the proinflammatory cytokines in the lung lysates of mice collected from both groups, levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-2, which are representative cytokines of type I helper T cells, were significantly increased in the L. rhamnosus M21-treated group. An increase in sIgA as well as the diminution of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was also observed in the L. rhamnosus M21-treated group. These results demonstrate that orally administered L. rhamnosus M21 activates humoral as well as cellular immune responses, conferring increased resistance to the host against influenza virus infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effects of low dose rate γ-rays on cell proliferation and survival in exponentially growing and plateau phase cultures of normal rat kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays on cell clonogenicity and cell proliferation were examined in NRK cells in exponential and plateau growth phases during and after irradiation at various dose rates. The typical dese rate effect for the survival responses was observed between acute irradiation and continuous irradiation at dose rates of 9.6-44 rads/h. Similar dose rate effect for the perturbation of the proliferation was observed in exponentially growing cells during irradiation. Some differences were found in survival when the cells were exposed to γ-rays at 9.6 rads/h or at 13.7 rads/h. The survival curves of exponential phase cells irradiated at these dose rates showed a shape different from that observed in plateau phase cells. Namely, a steady state of survival appeared around an accumulated dose of 1000 rads (dose-rate of 9.6 rads/h) and an accumulated dose of 1500 rads (dose-rate of 13.7 rads/h) in the exponential phase cells, while such a steady state of survival was not detected in plateau phase cells after similar conditions of irradiation. Moreover, the extrapolation number of the survival curve was much larger at the lower dose rate in exponential phase cells, in contrast to a value of the unity oberved in plateau phase cells, The radiosensitivity of plateau phase cells was somewhat lower compared to exponential phase cells over the range of accumulated doses at the dose rates used. These differences in cellular responses to the radiation between the two phases could be explained by changes in cell proliferation, the redistribution of the cell cycle compartments and the repair capacity of cellular damage during irradiation. (author)

  20. [Study on morphology, quality and germination characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan

    2014-05-01

    To preliminary explore the difference of the morphological, quality and germinal characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats. Collect the wild seeds from different habitats in West Mountain, and then observe their external appearances and internal structure, and test the thousand seeds weight,water content and seed vigor. What's more, the influence to germination rates of the seeds from different temperatures and light intensities in artificial bioclimatic chamber was studied. Orthogonal test in experimental plots was carried out to screen the different sowing dates, matrix types and soil depths which may influence germination rate. The external appearances and quality characteristics of wild seeds from three habitats were different. Seeds could germinate in the both light and dark, the germination rate of the habitat II was as high as 70.5% at the optimum temperature 20 degrees C in artificial bioclimatic chamber. The optimal combination A1, B1, C1 was screened out through orthogonal test, namely, the germination rate would be the highest when the seeds sowed in autumn covering with 2 cm depth of matrix type which component of the ratio of soil, sand and organic fertilizer was 6: 3: 1. There was significant difference in the morphology and germination rate of the three habitats seeds. The habitat II seeds were the optimal choice when culture seedling. The influences of different temperatures on germination rate were different, and the dried seeds should sow in current autumn, better than the next spring.

  1. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa.

  2. Survival Rates from Fracture of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Full-coverage Crowns or Direct Resin Composite Restorations: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksaphar, Warattama; Banomyong, Danuchit; Jirathanyanatt, Titalee; Ngoenwiwatkul, Yaowaluk

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the survival rates against fracture of premolar endodontically treated teeth (ETT) restored with resin composite or crowns and to identify risk factors associated with the fracture. Data from dental records and radiographs of premolar ETT with postendodontic restorations (ie, resin composite or crowns) were collected between 2012 and 2016 and selected following selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Tooth location, type of restoration, number of proximal contacts, and amount of tooth surface loss were recorded. The incidence and restorability of postendodontic fractures were identified. Survival rates against fracture of the 2 restoration types were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Any potential factors associated with fractures were identified using Cox proportional hazards models. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns (95.1%) was higher than resin composite (77.0%). ETT restored with resin composite with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts had a high survival rate of 88.5% that was not significantly different from ETT with crowns. A higher incidence of restorability after fracture was observed in teeth restored with resin composite than crowns. The type of restoration and number of proximal contacts were identified as potential risk factors associated with fracture incidence. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns was higher than resin composite. However, ETT with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts and restored with resin composite showed a high survival rate that was comparable with ETT restored with crowns. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Larvae Fed by Daphnia magna Cultured With Organic Fertilizer Resulted From Probiotic Bacteria Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Endar Herawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a potential feed for fish. The aim of this research was to find the best treatment and effect of D. magna culture addition from fermented organic fertilizer, to growth and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus larvae. There were five treatments, each with three repetitions used in the study. All treatments used chicken dung, and different combinations of rice bran, coconut oilcake waste and tilapia larvae. Feeding on tilapia was given by ad libitum method for five times a day until 14 days. Water quality during the research was maintained at temperature 28–29°C, DO 0.3 ppm and pH 8.1–8.2. Observed variables include relative growth rate, survival rate, food consumption rate and water quality. Our results showed that D. magna cultured by fermented organic fertilizer for tilapia larvae (O. niloticus had high significant effect (p < 0.01 on the relative growth rate and survival rate. Treatment of D. magna cultured by 1.2 g/L chicken manure, 0.9 g/L rice bran and 0.3 g/L coconut oilcake showed the highest value on the relative growth rate (10.86%; survival rate (98.46% and food consumption at first week (106.43% and second week (152.76%.

  4. Specificity of germination of heteromorphic seeds in four annuals (Salsola L.) at different temperatures in the Junggar basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, L.; Feng, L.H.; Chi, L.Z.; Xia, C.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Salsola L. is a large genus of arid desert plants that are primarily distributed in the Junggar Basin, China. We analysed their ability to adapt to arid habitats by comparing differences in germination characteristics of the species and populations of Salsola affinis C. A. Mey, Salsola korshinskyi Drob., Salsola brachiata Pall. and Salsola nitraria Pall. We classified the 4 species into four types (A, B, C and D) according to seed wing and seed size, and the heteromorphic seeds were incubatedunder different temperature regimes (0/10 degree C, 5/15 degree C, 10/25 degree C and 20/35 degree C). The 4 species had the highest germination rates and germination potential at 0/1 C. Germination rates and potential decreased with increasing temperature. However, the change range of the germination rate among the four species was different. Type A and B seeds of S. affinis, S. nitraria and S. korshinskyi were dominant at all temperatures and decreased with increasing temperature. The germination rate of type C seeds was between that of type A, B and D seeds. D-type seeds had the lowest germination rate and the lowest germination potential under the four temperature regimes among the four species but the differences were not significant. The germination rates of the four types of S. brachiata seeds did not significantly change with temperature. These results suggest that Salsola spp. can germinate continuously from spring to autumn to adapt to moisture fluctuations in the desert. (author)

  5. The effect of frequency-specific sound signals on the germination of maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicient, Carlos M

    2017-07-25

    The effects of sound treatments on the germination of maize seeds were determined. White noise and bass sounds (300 Hz) had a positive effect on the germination rate. Only 3 h treatment produced an increase of about 8%, and 5 h increased germination in about 10%. Fast-green staining shows that at least part of the effects of sound are due to a physical alteration in the integrity of the pericarp, increasing the porosity of the pericarp and facilitating oxygen availability and water and oxygen uptake. Accordingly, by removing the pericarp from the seeds the positive effect of the sound on the germination disappeared.

  6. Reintroduction of the highly endangered mollusk Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 in an MPA: A novel approach to achieve high survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Anis; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Espinosa, Free

    2018-03-01

    Patella ferruginea is the most endangered marine invertebrate of western Mediterranean rocky shores. After a study of one of its most important populations in the Zembra Archipelago National Park (Tunisia), a new protocol for the translocation of the species (size: 4-8 cm) was adopted. The first translocation was made in June 2014 in the same archipelago, where 94 specimens were moved from Zembretta to Zembra Island and marked (62 protected by cages, 20 with no cages and 60 as controls). The second translocation was performed in August 2014 (110 specimens) from Zembra to La Galite Island (185 km away). High mortality was registered during transport. The remaining individuals (39) were marked and placed in cages on the rocky shores of Galite Island, then monitored until November 2015. Growth and survival rates were measured in both translocated and control populations. The highest mortality rates were observed during the initial three days after translocation, especially for individuals with no cage protection. After a 697-day survey on Zembra Island, survival rates of 58%, 25% and 85% were observed for cage, no-cage and control populations, respectively. After a 457-day survey on La Galite Island, the survival rate was 18%. Limpets>6 cm in size had the highest survival rate among Zembra-translocated populations, whereas translocated limpets of 4-6 cm in size showed the highest survival rate in La Galite. The growth rates for both translocated populations were higher than the rate observed for controls. Our translocation experiment shows the importance of cage protection and initial limpet size for survival.

  7. Gene activation of heavy ion treated bacillus subtilis 168 endospores during germination involved DNA-repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, R.; Berger, T.; Reitz, G.; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2006-01-01

    This research project is aimed at correlating radiation effects induced DNA damage in Bacillus subtilis endospores with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the used radiation by investigating survival and gene activation after irradiation with high-LET particles. During the stationary growth phase Bacillus subtilis change their metabolic active state from the vegetative cells to the metabolic inactive but even more resistant endospores. If spores find optimal conditions, they could germinate and switch to the vegetative growth. With these outgrowth spores can and/or must repair the induced formed DNA damage. During germination spores lose their most resistance. In more detail, DNA repair and mutation induction events investigated will include the survivability, behaviour against specific antibiotics and their germination. DNA repair pattern will be detected during germination by using DNA microarrays, which contain the whole genome of Bacillus subtilis 168. (author)

  8. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yong Hoon [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Sang Jun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  9. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  10. Germination and seedling morphology of four South American Smilax (Smilacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Redondo Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of Smilax, also known as greenbrier, are widely distributed in Brazil and their commercial trades are carried out by the extractivism of native species. We the aim to provide information about the germination and development of seedlings in four Smilax species, different experiments were developed under controlled conditions. We evaluated two germination treatments: temperature (30ºC and 20-30ºC and light (presence/ absence, and for few cases the tetrazolium treatment was applied. A different treatment response was observed among the studied species. Light had a significant influence in S. brasiliensis, with the highest germination rates at 20-30ºC in dark conditions. S. campestris showed significant differences among temperature treatments, but not to light; while S. cissoides showed high germination rates (66-78%, independently of treatment. However, S. polyantha had low germination rates (19-24%. After one year, the expanded leaves showed different characteristics among the studied species. Leaves of S. brasiliensis were ovate, coriaceous, three main veins and prickle-like structures only on the midrib on abaxial face. S. campestris leaves were oblong, coriaceous and prickle-like structures were located at the leaf midrib and margin. S. cissoides had ovate-elliptic, membranaceous leaves, with three main veins with prickle-like structures on the abaxial face. S. polyantha leaves showed ovateelliptic, coriaceous leaves, with three main veins, translucent secondary veins and no prickle-like structures. A seedling identification key was elaborated based on morphological characteristics.

  11. Germination and seedling morphology of four South American Smilax (Smilacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline Redondo; Soares, Anielca Nascimento; Bombo, Aline Bertolosi; Fidelis, Alessandra; Novembre, Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho; da Glória, Beatriz Appezzato

    2012-03-01

    Species of Smilax, also known as greenbrier, are widely distributed in Brazil and their commercial trades are carried out by the extractivism of native species. We the aim to provide information about the germination and development of seedlings in four Smilax species, different experiments were developed under controlled conditions. We evaluated two germination treatments: temperature (30 degrees C and 20-30 degrees C) and light (presence/ absence), and for few cases the tetrazolium treatment was applied. A different treatment response was observed among the studied species. Light had a significant influence in S. brasiliensis, with the highest germination rates at 20-30 degrees C in dark conditions. S. campestris showed significant differences among temperature treatments, but not to light; while S. cissoides showed high germination rates (66-78%), independently of treatment. However, S. polyantha had low germination rates (19-24%). After one year, the expanded leaves showed different characteristics among the studied species. Leaves of S. brasiliensis were ovate, coriaceous, three main veins and prickle-like structures only on the midrib on abaxial face. S. campestris leaves were oblong, coriaceous and prickle-like structures were located at the leaf midrib and margin. S. cissoides had ovate-elliptic, membranaceous leaves, with three main veins with prickle-like structures on the abaxial face. S. polyantha leaves showed ovate-elliptic, coriaceous leaves, with three main veins, translucent secondary veins and no prickle-like structures. A seedling identification key was elaborated based on morphological characteristics.

  12. Effect of priming with potassium nitrate and dehusking on seed germination of gladiolus (gladiolus alatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, A.; Hafiz, I.A.; Ahmad, T.; Abbasi, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Gladiolus (Gladiolus alatus), belonging to the family Iridaceae is rated as the most popular flower in the world at commercial scale. The effect of different concentrations of KNO/sub 3/ (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 0 %) on seed germination percentage, time required for 50% germination and on mean germination time (MGT) was studied under controlled conditions. Best germination rate of 92% was achieved in T6 (distilled water) followed by 80% in T1 (1% KNO/sub 3/) and 70% in T2 (2% KNO/sub 3/). Minimum time required for 50% germination i.e., 8 days was obtained with T6 (distilled water) and in the same way shortest mean germination time required by seeds was 15 days in T6. Bulb gained maximum weight (0.6467 g) and diameter (9.49 mm) in T3 (3% KNO/sub 3)/. Likewise, this treatment also resulted in an acquisition of 14 cm seedling length and a positive correlation was found between seedling length and growth parameters of bulb i.e., weight and diameter. In another experiment, effect of de husking on seed germination was tested. Seed without husk gave the promising outcome of 74% germination while seeds with husk merely acquired 63% germination after 30 days. (author)

  13. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  14. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  15. Reduced germination success of temperate grassland seeds sown in dung: consequences for post-dispersal seed fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotić, T; Hoffmann, M

    2016-11-01

    Endozoochory is one of the main drivers shaping temperate grassland communities by maintaining plant populations of its constituents and enabling plants to colonize new habitats. Successful endozoochorous dispersal implies that seeds not only get consumed and survive the digestive tract but are also able to develop into viable seedlings in a dung environment. We experimentally assessed the germination probability and timing of 15 annual and perennial temperate European grassland species in cattle and horse dung and in different climatic conditions (greenhouse and outdoor conditions). Interspecific variation in germinability and germination timing are found, while life strategy had only an effect on germination timing. We found adverse effects of both cattle and horse dung on the germination characteristics of all tested grassland species, but the effects of cattle dung were more pronounced. In comparison with the control treatment, fewer seeds emerged in dung and more time was needed to germinate. Also, germination metrics clearly differed between the artificial greenhouse and outdoor conditions, with generally a lower germinability in outdoor conditions. According to our results, a large cost seems to be associated with endozoochorous dispersal in this stage of the life cycle, as seed dispersal effectiveness strongly depends on the quality of the deposition site with a lowered survival and germination probability when seeds are deposited in dung. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Disentangling the role of heat and smoke as germination cues in Mediterranean Basin flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, B; Tormo, J; Estrelles, E; Pausas, J G

    2010-04-01

    The role of fire as a germination cue for Mediterranean Basin (MB) plants is still unclear. The current idea is that heat stimulates germination mainly in Cistaceae and Fabaceae and that smoke has a limited role as a post-fire germination cue, in comparison with other Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs), suggesting that fire-stimulated germination is less relevant in the MB than in other MTEs. However, recent studies showed that the assembly of Mediterranean plant communities is strongly driven by post-fire germination, suggesting an important role for fire as a germination cue. We hypothesize that both heat and smoke have important effects on the different post-fire recruitment processes of MB species (e.g. level and rate of germination and initial seedling growth). To ascertain the role of heat and smoke in the post-fire germination response of MB woody plants, a germination experiment was performed with seven heat and two smoke treatments on 30 MB woody species from seven different families, including species with water-permeable seeds and species with water-impermeable seeds. Heat stimulated the germination (probability and rate) of 21 species and smoke in eight species, out of the 30 species studied. In addition, six species showed enhanced initial seedling growth after the smoke treatments. The results suggest that both heat and smoke are important germination cues in a wide range of MB woody species and that fire-cued germination in woody plants of the MB may be as important as in other MTEs.

  17. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  18. Active smoking may negatively affect response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizman, Daniel; Gottfried, Maya; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Maimon, Natalie; Peer, Avivit; Neumann, Avivit; Hammers, Hans; Eisenberger, Mario A; Sinibaldi, Victoria; Pili, Roberto; Hayat, Henry; Kovel, Svetlana; Sella, Avishay; Boursi, Ben; Weitzen, Rony; Mermershtain, Wilmosh; Rouvinov, Keren; Berger, Raanan; Carducci, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma development. Their presence has been associated with a worse outcome in various cancers. We sought to determine their association with outcome of sunitinib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). An international multicenter retrospective study of sunitinib-treated mRCC patients was performed. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between outcome and the pretreatment status of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and other known prognostic factors. Between 2004 and 2013, 278 mRCC patients were treated with sunitinib: 59 were active smokers, 67 were obese, 73 were diabetic, and 165 had pretreatment hypertension. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 months, and overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Factors associated with PFS were smoking status (past and active smokers: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.17, p = .39; never smokers: HR: 2.94, p non-clear cell histology (HR: 1.62, p = .011), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 3.51, p smoking status (past and active smokers: HR: 1.25, p = .29; never smokers: HR: 2.7, p 3 (HR: 2.95, p smoking may negatively affect the PFS and OS of sunitinib-treated mRCC. Clinicians should consider advising patients to quit smoking at initiation of sunitinib treatment for mRCC.

  19. Mobilization and Role of Starch, Protein, and Fat Reserves during Seed Germination of Six Wild Grassland Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Hongxiang; Yan, Hong; Qiu, Lu; Baskin, Carol C

    2018-01-01

    Since seed reserves can influence seed germination, the quantitative and qualitative differences in seed reserves may relate to the germination characteristics of species. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between germination and seed reserves, as well as their mobilization during germination of six grassland species ( Chloris virgata , Kochia scoparia , Lespedeza hedysaroides , Astragalus adsurgens , Leonurus artemisia , and Dracocephalum moldavica ) and compare the results with domesticated species. We measured starch, protein, and fat content in dry seeds and the initial absorption of water during imbibition. Starch, soluble protein, fat, and soluble sugar content also were determined at five stages during germination. Starch, protein, and fat reserves in dry seeds were not significantly correlated with germination percentage and rate (speed), but soluble sugar and soluble protein contents at different germination stages were positively significantly correlated with germination rate for the six species. Starch was mainly used during seed imbibition, and soluble protein was used from the imbibition stage to the highest germination stage. Fat content for all species remained relatively constant throughout germination for six species, regardless of the proportion of other seed reserves in the seeds. Our results for fat utilization differ from those obtained for cultivated grasses and legumes. These results provide new insight on the role of seed reserves as energy resources in germination for wild species.

  20. Mobilization and Role of Starch, Protein, and Fat Reserves during Seed Germination of Six Wild Grassland Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since seed reserves can influence seed germination, the quantitative and qualitative differences in seed reserves may relate to the germination characteristics of species. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between germination and seed reserves, as well as their mobilization during germination of six grassland species (Chloris virgata, Kochia scoparia, Lespedeza hedysaroides, Astragalus adsurgens, Leonurus artemisia, and Dracocephalum moldavica and compare the results with domesticated species. We measured starch, protein, and fat content in dry seeds and the initial absorption of water during imbibition. Starch, soluble protein, fat, and soluble sugar content also were determined at five stages during germination. Starch, protein, and fat reserves in dry seeds were not significantly correlated with germination percentage and rate (speed, but soluble sugar and soluble protein contents at different germination stages were positively significantly correlated with germination rate for the six species. Starch was mainly used during seed imbibition, and soluble protein was used from the imbibition stage to the highest germination stage. Fat content for all species remained relatively constant throughout germination for six species, regardless of the proportion of other seed reserves in the seeds. Our results for fat utilization differ from those obtained for cultivated grasses and legumes. These results provide new insight on the role of seed reserves as energy resources in germination for wild species.

  1. Germination Response of MR 219 Rice Variety to Different Exposure Times and Periods of 2450 MHz Microwave Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryush Talei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination is a key process in plants' phenological cycles. Accelerating this process could lead to improvment of the seedling growth as well as the cultivation efficiency. To achieve this, the effect of microwave frequency on the germination of rice seeds was examined. The physiological feedbacks of the MR 219 rice variety in terms of seed germination rate (GR, germination percentage (GP, and mean germination time (MGT were analyzed by exposing its seeds to 2450 MHz of microwave frequency for one, four, seven, and ten hours. It was revealed that exposing the seeds to the microwave frequency for 10 hours resulted in the highest GP. This treatment led to 100% of germination after three days with a mean germination time of 2.1 days. Although the other exposure times of microwave frequency caused the moderate effects on germination with a GPa3 ranged from 93% to 98%, they failed to reduce the MGTa3. The results showed that ten-hour exposure times of microwave frequency for six days significantly facilitated and improved the germination indices (primary shoot and root length. Therefore, the technique is expected to benefit the improvement of rice seed germination considering its simplicity and efficacy in increasing the germination percentage and rate as well as the primary shoot and root length without causing any environmental toxicity.

  2. Effects of growth rate, size, and light availability on tree survival across life stages: a demographic analysis accounting for missing values and small sample sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Aristides; Evans, Matthew R

    2015-02-28

    Plant survival is a key factor in forest dynamics and survival probabilities often vary across life stages. Studies specifically aimed at assessing tree survival are unusual and so data initially designed for other purposes often need to be used; such data are more likely to contain errors than data collected for this specific purpose. We investigate the survival rates of ten tree species in a dataset designed to monitor growth rates. As some individuals were not included in the census at some time points we use capture-mark-recapture methods both to allow us to account for missing individuals, and to estimate relocation probabilities. Growth rates, size, and light availability were included as covariates in the model predicting survival rates. The study demonstrates that tree mortality is best described as constant between years and size-dependent at early life stages and size independent at later life stages for most species of UK hardwood. We have demonstrated that even with a twenty-year dataset it is possible to discern variability both between individuals and between species. Our work illustrates the potential utility of the method applied here for calculating plant population dynamics parameters in time replicated datasets with small sample sizes and missing individuals without any loss of sample size, and including explanatory covariates.

  3. Decrease in Survival Rate of Colorectal Cancer Patients Due to Insertion of a Single Guanine Base in Promoter Sequences of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Gene (in Tehran Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Hojati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insertion or deletion of a guanine in -1607 at promoter region of matrix metalloproteinase-1 enzyme creates two allelic types for this gene in the population: 2G and 1G, respectively. 2G allele contains an extra binding site for ETS transcription factors that this may increase the level of gene expression. Therefore, aim of this study was investigation of the single Guanine insertion in the promoter gene and its association with colorectal cancer patient survival rate and tumor progression. Methods: Blood samples from 150 colorectal patients and 100 cases were extracted. The mean follow-up was 25 months (12-36 months. Cases and patients were genotyped using genomic DNA extraction and PCR-RFLP. Results: Colorectal cancer patients were divided in two groups; with activity of metastasis (M+ and without activity of metastasis (M-. 2G allele in metastasis group (55% showed more frequency rather than controls (23%. Survival analyses showed that 3 years survival patients rate in the patients without metastasis activity carrying 1G allele (homo and heterozygote was 81% and for 2G homozygote is 66% (p=0.04. The survival rate dependent to cancer was 90% and 71%, respectively (P=0.01. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that patients carrying 1G allele show a better survival rate dependent on cancer as compared to patients who do not carry this allele.

  4. Effects of hydroperiod duration on survival, developmental rate, and size at metamorphosis in boreal chorus frog tadpoles (Pseudacris maculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey, Staci; Funk, W. Chris; Murphy, Melanie; Muths, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate-driven habitat conditions and survival is key to preserving biodiversity in the face of rapid climate change. Hydroperiod—the length of time water is in a wetland—is a critical limiting habitat variable for amphibians as larvae must metamorphose before ponds dry. Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns are affecting hydroperiod globally, but the impact of these changes on amphibian persistence is poorly understood. We studied the responses of Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., water level reductions) in the laboratory using individuals collected from ponds spanning a range of natural hydroperiods (Colorado Front Range, USA). To assess the effects of experimental hydroperiod reduction, we measured mortality, time to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. We found that tadpoles grew at rates reflecting the hydroperiods of their native ponds, regardless of experimental treatment. Tadpoles from permanent ponds metamorphosed faster than those from ephemeral ponds across all experimental treatments, a pattern which may represent a predation selection gradient or countergradient variation in developmental rates. Size at metamorphosis did not vary across experimental treatments. Mortality was low overall but varied with pond of origin. Our results suggest that adaptation to local hydroperiod and/or predation and temperature conditions is important in P. maculata. Moreover, the lack of a plastic response to reduced hydroperiods suggests that P. maculata may not be able to metamorphose quickly enough to escape drying ponds. These results have important implications for amphibian persistence in ponds predicted to dry more quickly due to rapid climate change.

  5. Alexandrium fundyense cyst viability and germling survival in light vs. dark at a constant low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahtera, Emil; Crespo, Bibiana G.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Olli, Kalle; Anderson, Donald M.

    2014-05-01

    Both observations and models suggest that large-scale coastal blooms of Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine are seeded by deep-bottom cyst accumulation zones (“seed beds”) where cysts germinate from the sediment surface or the overlying near-bottom nepheloid layers at water depths exceeding 100 m. The germling cells and their vegetative progeny are assumed to be subject to mortality while in complete darkness, as they swim to illuminated surface waters. To test the validity of this assumption we conducted laboratory investigations of cyst viability and the survival of the germling cells and their vegetative progeny during prolonged exposure to darkness at a temperature of 6 °C, simulating the conditions in deep Gulf of Maine waters. We isolated cysts from bottom sediments collected in the Gulf of Maine under low red light and incubated them in 96-well tissue culture-plates in culture medium under a 10:14 h light:dark cycle and under complete darkness. Cyst viability was high, with excystment frequency reaching 90% in the illuminated treatment after 30 days and in the dark treatment after 50 days. Average germination rates were 0.062 and 0.038 d-1 for light and dark treatments, respectively. The dark treatment showed an approximately 2-week time lag in maximum germination rates compared to the light treatment. Survival of germlings was considerably lower in the dark treatment. In the light treatments, 47% of germinated cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for 7 days and produce vegetative progeny, i.e., there were live cells in the well along with an empty cyst at least once during the experiment. In the dark treatments 12% of the cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for the same length of time. When dark treatments are scaled to take into account non-darkness related mortality, approximately 28% of the cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for at least 7 days. Even though cysts are able to germinate in darkness

  6. Whole body irradiation in paediatrics: in vivo dose heterogeneity and relationship with survival and the complications rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoli, J.B.; Pignon, T.; Porcheron, D.; Juin, P.; Coze, C.; Bernard, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    No relationship has been found between the in vivo measured dose and the survival, neither relationship between the measured dose and the toxicity. The only organ for which an inter patients heterogeneity has been found was the lung. The reduction of the lung radiation dose allows to avoid any interstitial pneumopathy, but is significantly associated to a shortening of the survival. (N.C.)

  7. The Risk of Growing Fast: Does fast growth have a negative impact on the survival rates of firms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Haibo; van der Zwan, Peter; de Kok, Jan; Hartog, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing firms are considered as the central drivers of job creation in the economy. There is an abundance of literature on the separate subjects of firm growth and firm survival. However, the relationship between survival and growth is neglected. Using the Dutch Longitudinal Enterprise Database

  8. Development of a Threshold Model to Predict Germination of Populus tomentosa Seeds after Harvest and Storage under Ambient Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Song, Song-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Effects of temperature, storage time and their combination on germination of aspen (Populus tomentosa) seeds were investigated. Aspen seeds were germinated at 5 to 30°C at 5°C intervals after storage for a period of time under 28°C and 75% relative humidity. The effect of temperature on aspen seed germination could not be effectively described by the thermal time (TT) model, which underestimated the germination rate at 5°C and poorly predicted the time courses of germination at 10, 20, 25 and 30°C. A modified TT model (MTT) which assumed a two-phased linear relationship between germination rate and temperature was more accurate in predicting the germination rate and percentage and had a higher likelihood of being correct than the TT model. The maximum lifetime threshold (MLT) model accurately described the effect of storage time on seed germination across all the germination temperatures. An aging thermal time (ATT) model combining both the TT and MLT models was developed to describe the effect of both temperature and storage time on seed germination. When the ATT model was applied to germination data across all the temperatures and storage times, it produced a relatively poor fit. Adjusting the ATT model to separately fit germination data at low and high temperatures in the suboptimal range increased the models accuracy for predicting seed germination. Both the MLT and ATT models indicate that germination of aspen seeds have distinct physiological responses to temperature within a suboptimal range. PMID:23658654

  9. Performance of seeds Crambe exposed to pre-germination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha Cardoso, Rebeca; Costa Nobre, Danubia Aparecida; Santos de Souza David, Andreia Marcia; Ribeiro Amaro, Hugo Tiago; Borghetti, Renato Antonio; Costa, Marcia Regina

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging the production and use of biodiesel, seeds of crambe today constitute one of the best options for the supply of raw material, is also an excellent alternative for autumn-winter crop rotation order. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of combined pre-germination treatments on the seed behavior of Crambe. From a seed sample of FMS Brilhante cultivar, an experimental design completely randomized with a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement was performed. it was formed from combination of two structural conditions, seeds with or without pericarp, and treatments with or without giberelic acid, being: control (no treatment); seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 24 hours as control; and seeds pre-soaked in gibberellic acid at 4 % at different concentrations (400, 500 and 600 mg.L"-1). Water content, first count germination, germination, seedling emergence and emergence rate index were determined. From these results it is concluded that removal of the pericarp in seed of Crambe, cultivar FMS brilhante, accelerated the germination rate, however, decreased your final percentage. The pre-soaking in gibberellic acid (400, 500 and 600 mg L"-1) for 24 hours, increased the germination and seed vigor crambe with pericarp.

  10. Seed Germination and Cuttings Growth of Piper Aduncum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, D.; Sudrajat; Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.

    2018-04-01

    Sirih hutan (Piper aduncum L) is one of group shurbs tropical species, has potential to be developed as raw material of biomass based electricity. The aim of this research was to know seed germination and cuttings growth of P. aduncum plant as the first step in cultivation of this plant. Observation of flowers and fruits were done in secondary forest, while seed germination and growth of shoot cuttings were done in the laboratory. The results showed that P. aduncum seeds can be germinated in a relatively short time of 17 to 25 days with a fairly high germination percentage of 90 ± 8.16% and germination rate of 4.7 ± 0.34%. The growth of seedlings at 2 months old was 4.78 ± 0.42 cm, plant height 3.97 ± 0.27 cm, and relative growth rate 0.33 ± 0.14%. The treatment of synthetic growth regulator had significant effect on shoot growth and root number on the plant stem cuttings. Preparation of seedlings ready to plant in a generative and vegetative for cultivation of these plants in the experimental plot.

  11. The orphan germinant receptor protein GerXAO (but not GerX3b) is essential for L-alanine induced germination in Clostridium botulinum Group II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Jason; Carter, Andrew T; Pye, Hannah V; Peck, Michael W

    2018-05-04

    Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic spore forming bacterium that produces the potent botulinum neurotoxin that causes a severe and fatal neuro-paralytic disease of humans and animals (botulism). C. botulinum Group II is a psychrotrophic saccharolytic bacterium that forms spores of moderate heat resistance and is a particular hazard in minimally heated chilled foods. Spore germination is a fundamental process that allows the spore to transition to a vegetative cell and typically involves a germinant receptor (GR) that responds to environmental signals. Analysis of C. botulinum Group II genomes shows they contain a single GR cluster (gerX3b), and an additional single gerA subunit (gerXAO). Spores of C. botulinum Group II strain Eklund 17B germinated in response to the addition of L-alanine, but did not germinate following the addition of exogenous Ca 2+ -DPA. Insertional inactivation experiments in this strain unexpectedly revealed that the orphan GR GerXAO is essential for L-alanine stimulated germination. GerX3bA and GerX3bC affected the germination rate but were unable to induce germination in the absence of GerXAO. No role could be identified for GerX3bB. This is the first study to identify the functional germination receptor of C. botulinum Group II.

  12. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  13. Genetic variation of transgenerational plasticity of offspring germination in response to salinity stress and the seed transcriptome of Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Wendy T; Chang, Peter L; Moriuchi, Ken S; Friesen, Maren L

    2015-04-01

    Transgenerational plasticity provides phenotypic variation that contributes to adaptation. For plants, the timing of seed germination is critical for offspring survival in stressful environments, as germination timing can alter the environmental conditions a seedling experiences. Stored seed transcripts are important determinants of seed germination, but have not previously been linked with transgenerational plasticity of germination behavior. In this study we used RNAseq and growth chamber experiments of the model legume M. trucantula to test whether parental exposure to salinity stress influences the expression of stored seed transcripts and early offspring traits and test for genetic variation. We detected genotype-dependent parental environmental effects (transgenerational plasticity) on the expression levels of stored seed transcripts, seed size, and germination behavior of four M. truncatula genotypes. More than 50% of the transcripts detected in the mature, ungerminated seed transcriptome were annotated as regulating seed germination, some of which are involved in abiotic stress response and post-embryonic development. Some genotypes showed increased seed size in response to parental exposure to salinity stress, but no parental environmental influence on germination timing. In contrast, other genotypes showed no seed size differences across contrasting parental conditions but displayed transgenerational plasticity for germimation timing, with significantly delayed germination in saline conditions when parental plants were exposed to salinity. In genotypes that show significant transgenerational plastic germination response, we found significant coexpression networks derived from salt responsive transcripts involved in post-transcriptional regulation of the germination pathway. Consistent with the delayed germination response to saline conditions in these genotypes, we found genes associated with dormancy and up-regulation of abscisic acid (ABA). Our results

  14. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sund Björn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. Methods and results This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. Conclusion We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1 static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2 dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  15. Salinity on the germination of seed and index of germination speed of three ornamental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vieira Ferraz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a factor that interferes on seed germination in most species. The objective of this work was to study the effects of different concentrations of NaCl on the emergence and vigor of Petunia x hybrida hort. Vilm E. ex., Torenia fournieri Lind and Tagetes patula L. seedlings. The experimental design was entirely randomized with five treatments (five concentrations of NaCl: zero, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM and four replications of 50 seeds, for each species. The seeds were germinated in germitest paper at the alternating temperature of 20-30°C. Emergence (% and Emergence Rate (ER were performed daily until 14 days. Salt stress caused negative effects on the emergence and vigor on seedlings of these three ornamentals species.

  16. Better Rooting Procedure to Enhance Survival Rate of Field Grown Malaysian Eksotika Papaya Transformed with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  17. Better rooting procedure to enhance survival rate of field grown malaysian eksotika papaya transformed with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid oxidase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets.

  18. Effects of stress temperatures of germination on polyamine titers of soybean seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Mejia, Renan

    High and low stress temperatures during seed germination and seedling development limit total germination and the rate of germination and growth. Changes in polyamine (PA) concentrations in seeds of different species have been associated with germination, growth and environmental stresses such as temperature, drought, oxygen, chilling injury and osmotic conditions. Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of stress temperatures during germination and seedling development on polyamine titers in soybean seeds. Three germination temperatures, 25, 30, and 36°C were used in the first study to evaluate their influence on changes in polyamine concentrations in soybean seeds germinated at 76 and 90 hours. The polyamines (PAs), cadaverine (Cad), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), agmatine (Agm), and spermine (Spin) were quantified by HPLC using a cation exchange column and an electrochemical detector. Cad, Put, Agm, and Spd declined as the germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Conversely, Spin increased considerably with an increase in temperature. Total germination was reduced from 97.2 to 92.5% as germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Germination time did not affect Cad, Agm and Spm, and total germination, however, the interaction between temperature and germination time for Put and Spd concentrations was significant. In the second study, changes in PA concentrations, seedling growth, germination time (t50), fresh and dry weight, and moisture content were measured in the embryonic axis and cotyledons of soybean seeds germinated at 10 and 25°C through six stages of germination dry seed (DS), testa split (TS), radicle at 10 mm (Ra-10), root hairs visible (RHV), secondary root primordia (SRP), and complete seedling (CS). The concentrations of Cad and Put in the embryonic axis, were significantly higher in seeds germinated under low temperature than in seeds at 25°C (approximately 10 and 3 fold respectively). However, this

  19. COMPARATIVE GERMINATION RESPONSES OF COWPEA AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    inadequate soil moisture (25%) in both cowpea and maize with greater effect on ... Of all factors controlling productivity, seed germination and vigour are pre- .... depth and date of first irrigation on seed cane germination of two commercial.

  20. (+)-Nootkatone and (+)-valencene from rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus increase survival rates in septic mice due to heme oxygenase-1 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoyi, Konstantin; Jang, Hwa Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Hye Jung; Seo, Han Geuk; Lee, Jae Heun; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Dong-Ung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2011-10-11

    The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus have been used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism by which extract of rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (ECR) elicits anti-inflammation has not been extensively investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to test whether heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction is involved in the anti-inflammatory action of ECR. Induction of HO-1 and inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/NO production by ECR and its 12 constituents (3 monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes, and 4 aromatic compounds) were investigated using RAW264.7 cells in vitro. In addition, anti-inflammatory action of ECR and its two active ingredients (nookkatone, valencene) were confirmed in sepsis animal model in vivo. ECR increased HO-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, which was correlated with significant inhibition of iNOS/NO production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Among 12 compounds isolated from ECR, mostly sesquiterpenes induced stronger HO-1 expression than monoterpenes in macrophage cells. Nootkatone and valencene (sesquiterpenes) significantly inhibited iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-simulated RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of iNOS expression by nootkatone, valencene, and ECR were significantly reduced in siHO-1 RNA transfected cells. Furthermore, all three showed marked inhibition of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in LPS-activated macrophages and increased survival rates in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Taken together, we concluded that possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ECR is, at least, due to HO-1 induction, in which sesquiterpenes such as nootkatone and valencene play a crucial role. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Cardinal Temperatures and Germination Respond to Different Temperature for Five Lawns Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hadi khavari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Germination of every plant species respond to temperature variation in particular way. Germination is critical stage in plant life cycle. Seed germination is a complex biological process that is influenced by various environmental and genetic factors. The effects of temperature on plant development are the basis for models used to predict the timing of germination. Estimation of the cardinal temperatures, including base, optimum, and maximum, is essential because rate of development increases between base and optimum, decreases between optimum and maximum, and ceases above the maximum and below the base temperatures. Usually, a linear increase in germination rate is associated with an increase in temperature from base temperature (Tb to an optimum. An increase of temperature from the optimum will reduce the germination rate to zero. To determine the best planting date for plants, it is necessary to find the base (Tb, optimum (To and maximum temperatures (Tc for seed germination. These are known as cardinal temperatures. Modelling of seed germination is considered an effective approach to determining cardinal temperatures for most plant species, although these methods have some limitations due to unpredictable biological changes. The results of fitting mechanical models are useful for evaluating seed quality, germination rate, germination percentage, germination uniformity and seed performance under different environmental stresses such as salinity, drought, and freezing. Regression models incorporating more parameters can produce more precise estimates. Cardinal temperature was determined using segmented and logistic models in millet varieties and seedling emergence of wheat. In the dent-like model at lower-than-optimum temperature, a linear relationship holds between temperature and germination rate. This relationship remains linear at higher-than-optimum temperatures, but with a reducing trend. With increasing temperature

  2. Kinetics of the inhibition of cotton seeds germination by lucerne saponins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaim, U.; Birk, Y.; Dovrat, A.; Berman, T.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of inhibition of cotton-seed germination by lucerne saponins depends upon the period of pre-immersion in the saponin solution prior to germination. After 5 hr of pre-immersion in a 0.5% lucerne saponin solution, a 40% drop in germination was noted. The respiration rate decreased after 3hr of pre-immersion. The diffusion of oxygen through the membranes of seeds pre-immersed in saponins also decreased with an increasing pre-immersion time. Inhibition of germination was irreversible after pre-immersion in saponins for 6 hr or more. The effect of saponins does not appear to be biochemically specific because the germination and respiration rates of the cotton seeds which were immersed in aqueous solutions of anionic, nonionic or cationic commercial surfactants were similarly inhibited. (auth.)

  3. Germination in vitro embryo of Walnut (Juglans boliviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Guzmán Jheanete

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bolivian Juglans is an important forest species found in the rain forests of Bolivia. The seed of this species is recalcitrant with hardened cover, which hinders germination and propagation of the species. The aim of this study was to determine the culture medium for in vitro germination of mature embryos of Bolivian Juglans. Technique initially scarification and disinfection process was determined. Subsequently in vitro culture was performed using the culture medium Woody Plant Medium (WPM with the addition of plant growth regulators (indole butyric acid and 6-benzyl aminopurine in different concentrations. As control WPM, culture medium was used 100%. Response variables evaluated were percentage of contamination and germination; vitroplant length, number of leaves, number of shoots, number of roots per vitroplant, root length and percentage of survival. The plantlets in vitro germination in treatments and the control in the middle l culture WPM supplemented with 0.15 mg / l of IBA and 1.5 mg / l BAP was 90%; other treatments inhibit the growth of the stem and roots of plantlets.

  4. Evaluation of Oxygen Deficit Stress on Germination Indicators and Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hoseini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship oxygen deficit stress on germination indicators and seedling growth of five wheat cultivars in laboratory condition, an experiment with Randomized Complete Block design in factorial arrangement with three replications was conducted in 2008. The treatments consisted of five wheat cultivars (Chamran, Flat, Roshan, Stare and Shole as A factor, and two oxygen level (normal seed and seed under oxygen deficit stress conditions as B factor in each of these figures was done. Results showed that oxygen deficit stress caused to decrease for various cultivars germination percentage, germination rate, allometric coefficient, seed vigor index and other germination indicators. Therefore, this test as a suitable method for determining the quality of various seed lot can be used in the water logging condition. In addition, among different cultivars characterized that Roshan cultivar was more resistant to oxygen deficit stress than Chamran, Flat and Star cultivars. Although Chamran cultivar is common cultivar in Khouzestan, but of look most germination indicators arranged as weak seed class. The highest correlation coefficients among the tested cultivars have been related to seed vigor with seedling length and dry weight of radicle with seedling with 0.92 and 0.90, respectively.

  5. Retrospective comparative ten-year study of cumulative survival rates of remaining teeth in large edentulism treated with implant-supported fixed partial dentures or removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Seiya; Arakawa, Hikaru; Maekawa, Kenji; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Noda, Kinji; Minakuchi, Hajime; Sonoyama, Wataru; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Kuboki, Takuo

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the survival rates of remaining teeth between implant-supported fixed dentures (IFDs) and removable partial dentures (RPDs) in patients with large edentulous cases. The second goal was to assess the risk factors for remaining tooth loss. The study subjects were selected among those who received prosthodontic treatment at Okayama University Dental Hospital for their edentulous space exceeding at least four continuous missing teeth. Twenty-one patients were included in the IFD group and 82 patients were included in the RPD group. Survival rates of remaining teeth were calculated in three subcategories: (1) whole remaining teeth, (2) adjacent teeth to intended edentulous space, and (3) opposing teeth to intended edentulous space. The ten-year cumulative survival rate of the whole remaining teeth was significantly higher in the IFD group (40.0%) than in the RPD group (24.4%). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between two groups in the survival rate of teeth adjacent or opposing to intended edentulous space. A Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that RPD restoration and gender (male) were the significant risk factors for remaining tooth loss (whole remaining teeth). These results suggest that IFD treatment can reduce the incidence of remaining tooth loss in large edentulous cases. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-year survival rates of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment restorations in relation to glass ionomer cements and postrestoration meals consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; Opinya, G.N.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Mwalili, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 glass ionomer cement (GIC) brands and the postrestoration meal consumed on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Methods: A total of 804 proximal restorations were placed in primary

  7. Methods for assessing Phytophthora ramorum chlamydospore germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce Eberhart; Elilzabeth Stamm; Jennifer Parke

    2013-01-01

    Germination of chlamydospores is difficult to accurately assess when chlamydospores are attached to remnants of supporting hyphae. We developed two approaches for closely observing and rigorously quantifying the frequency of chlamydospore germination in vitro. The plate marking and scanning method was useful for quantifying germination of large...

  8. 7 CFR 201.20 - Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination. 201.20 Section 201.20 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.20 Germination. The label shall show the percentage of germination each kind, or kind and variety, or kind and type, or kind and hybrid of agricultural seed present...

  9. Efficacy of Various Scoring Systems for Predicting the 28-Day Survival Rate among Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Requiring Emergency Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients. Compared to the survival group, the death group had a significantly higher GCS score, frequency of comorbidities including hypertension and heart failure, and age (P<0.05 for all. With all four systems, scores of age, gender, renal inadequacy, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, anemia, fracture leading to bedridden status, tumor, and the GCS were significantly higher in the death group than the survival group. The prediction efficacy of the APACHE II and SAPS II scores was 88.4%. The survival rates did not differ significantly between APACHE II and SAPS II (P=1.519. Our results may guide triage for early identification of critically ill patients with AECOPD in the emergency department.

  10. Ameliorating influence of sulfur on germination attributes of canola (brassica napus l.) under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, S.; Iqbal, S.; Jabeen, K.; Sadaf, S.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was performed to evaluate the role of sulfur to induce tolerance in Brassica napus L. against chromium stress by estimating the changes in germination parameters. Petriplates were assembled in Randomized Complete Block Design. A total 9 sets of treatments viz., control, chromium treated (40 and 160ppm), sulfur treated (50 and 150ppm) and sulfur (50 and 150ppm) combined with chromium (40 and 160ppm) with three replicates was used. Chromium under both concentrations was responsible for significant decline in germination parameters i.e. germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings. Sulfur application under chromium stress resulted in improvement of germination parameters such as germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings in contrast to chromium treatment. So, it can be concluded that sulfur in appropriate dose can be used to ameliorate the negative effects of chromium by increasing the germination potential of canola. (author)

  11. Germination Shifts of C3 and C4 Species under Simulated Global Warming Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei

    2014-01-01

    Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night) and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night), simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature), maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies. PMID:25137138

  12. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night, simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature, maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  13. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei

    2014-01-01

    Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night) and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night), simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature), maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  14. Seed dormancy and germination of Halophila ovalis mediated by simulated seasonal temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, John; Sellers, Robert; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Kilminster, Kieryn; Merritt, David J.; Kendrick, Gary A.

    2017-11-01

    The seagrass, Halophila ovalis plays an important ecological and sediment stability role in estuarine systems in Australia with the species in decline in many sites. Halophila ovalis is a facultative annual, relying mainly on recruitment from the sediment seed bank for the annual regeneration of meadows. Despite this, there is little understanding of seed dormancy releasing mechanisms and germination cues. Using H. ovalis seed from the warm temperate Swan River Estuary in Western Australia, the germination ecology of H. ovalis was investigated by simulating the natural seasonal variation in water temperatures. The proportion of germinating seeds was found to be significantly different among temperature treatments (p < 0.001). The treatment with the longest period of cold exposure at 15 °C followed by an increase in temperature to 20-25 °C (i.e. cold stratification) had the highest final mean germination of 32% and the fastest germination rate. Seeds exposed to constant mean winter temperatures of 15 °C had the slowest germination rate with less than two seeds germinating over 118 days. Thus temperature is a key germination cue for H. ovalis seeds and these data infer that cold stratification is an important dormancy releasing mechanism. This finding has implications for recruitment in facultative annual species like H. ovalis under global warming since the trend for increasing water temperatures in the region may limit seed-based recruitment in the future.

  15. Habitat specialization through germination cueing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently...

  16. A Century of Germinal Matrix Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Autopsied Premature Infants: A Historical Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Marco M; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Haynes, Robin L; Hassett, Catherine; Volpe, Joseph J; Kinney, Hannah C

    2016-01-01

    The care of premature infants in the 20th century is remarkable for technical advances that have dramatically improved survival, but little is known about temporal changes in the neuropathology of the premature infant over this time frame. We hypothesize that the autopsy rate of germinal matrix hemorrhage changed in the 20th century relative to combined influences of clinical interventions that were both harmful and helpful. We examined germinal matrix hemorrhage with intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) in 345 premature infants (gestational age 25-36 weeks) autopsied at Boston Children's Hospital from 1914 to 2015. There was a median of 19 cases/decade (range 7-68). Over the course of the study median gestational age decreased from 33 to 27 gestational weeks (P3-fold around the time of the introduction of positive pressure ventilation into premature intensive care in the mid-1960s. The increased incidence of GMH-IVH in the 1970s-1980s likely reflects respiratory and hemodynamic imbalances complicating mechanical ventilation. We speculate that the subsequent decreased incidence of GMH-IVH likely reflects stabilization of respiratory function with improvements in ventilators and in ventilator management beginning in the 1970s and the use of surfactant and antenatal steroids in the 1980s.

  17. All-ceramic or metal-ceramic tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs)? A systematic review of the survival and complication rates. Part I: Single crowns (SCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Irena; Makarov, Nikolay Alexandrovich; Thoma, Daniel Stefan; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pjetursson, Bjarni Elvar

    2015-06-01

    To assess the 5-year survival of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic tooth-supported single crowns (SCs) and to describe the incidence of biological, technical and esthetic complications. Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) searches (2006-2013) were performed for clinical studies focusing on tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a mean follow-up of at least 3 years. This was complimented by an additional hand search and the inclusion of 34 studies from a previous systematic review [1,2]. Survival and complication rates were analyzed using robust Poisson's regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5-year proportions. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 4663 metal-ceramic and 9434 all-ceramic SCs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventeen studies reported on metal-ceramic crowns, and 54 studies reported on all-ceramic crowns. Meta-analysis of the included studies indicated an estimated survival rate of metal-ceramic SCs of 94.7% (95% CI: 94.1-96.9%) after 5 years. This was similar to the estimated 5-year survival rate of leucit or lithium-disilicate reinforced glass ceramic SCs (96.6%; 95% CI: 94.9-96.7%), of glass infiltrated alumina SCs (94.6%; 95% CI: 92.7-96%) and densely sintered alumina and zirconia SCs (96%; 95% CI: 93.8-97.5%; 92.1%; 95% CI: 82.8-95.6%). In contrast, the 5-year survival rates of feldspathic/silica-based ceramic crowns were lower (pceramic and zirconia crowns exhibited significantly lower survival rates in the posterior region (pceramic fractures than metal-ceramic SCs (pceramic SCs than for metal-ceramic SCs. Survival rates of most types of all-ceramic SCs were similar to those reported for metal-ceramic SCs, both in anterior and posterior regions. Weaker feldspathic/silica-based ceramics should be limited to applications in the anterior region. Zirconia-based SCs should not be considered as primary option due to their high incidence of technical problems. Copyright © 2015 Academy

  18. A Modified Thermal Time Model Quantifying Germination Response to Temperature for C3 and C4 Species in Temperate Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-based germination models are widely used to predict germination rate and germination timing of plants. However, comparison of model parameters between large numbers of species is rare. In this study, seeds of 27 species including 12 C4 and 15 C3 species were germinated at a range of constant temperatures from 5 °C to 40 °C. We used a modified thermal time model to calculate germination parameters at suboptimal temperatures. Generally, the optimal germination temperature was higher for C4 species than for C3 species. The thermal time constant for the 50% germination percentile was significantly higher for C3 than C4 species. The thermal time constant of perennials was significantly higher than that of annuals. However, differences in base temperatures were not significant between C3 and C4, or annuals and perennial species. The relationship between germination rate and seed mass depended on plant functional type and temperature, while the base temperature and thermal time constant of C3 and C4 species exhibited no significant relationship with seed mass. The results illustrate differences in germination characteristics between C3 and C4 species. Seed mass does not affect germination parameters, plant life cycle matters, however.

  19. RBE comparison between rapid electrons of 20 MeV and 45 MeV with survival rate, DNA synthesis, DNA reparation and nucleoid sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alth, G.; Weniger, P.; Turtzer, K.; Klein, W.; Kocsis, F.; Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien-Lainz; Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf G.m.b.H. Inst. fuer Biologie)

    1982-01-01

    In order to find out possible differences of the biologic efficacy of rapid electrons of different energies, the authors examined the influence of rapid electrons of 20 MeV and 45 MeV upon the survival rate of Hela cells S3, their cell growth, DNA synthesis, DNA reparation, and sedimentation of nucleoids. The results show a difference only for the nucleoid sedimentation, i.e. there are more fractured DNA cords after 45 MeV irradiation. No significant differences could be demonstrated for the parameters of the survival curve, DNA synthesis and DNA reparation. Four double tests were carried out corresponding to the indicated types of examination. (orig.) [de

  20. Main Clinical Outcomes of Feldspathic Porcelain and Glass-Ceramic Laminate Veneers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Survival and Complication Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Susana; Albanesi, Rafael Borges; Sesma, Newton; Agra, Carlos Martins; Braga, Mariana Minatel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis based on clinical trials that evaluated the main outcomes of glass-ceramic and feldspathic porcelain laminate veneers. A systematic search was carried out in Cochrane and PubMed databases. From the selected studies, the survival rates for porcelain and glass-ceramic veneers were extracted, as were complication rates of clinical outcomes: debonding, fracture/chipping, secondary caries, endodontic problems, severe marginal discoloration, and influence of incisal coverage and enamel/dentin preparation. The Cochran Q test and the I(2) statistic were used to evaluate heterogeneity. Out of the 899 articles initially identified, 13 were included for analysis. Metaregression analysis showed that the types of ceramics and follow-up periods had no influence on failure rate. The estimated overall cumulative survival rate was 89% (95% CI: 84% to 94%) in a median follow-up period of 9 years. The estimated survival for glass-ceramic was 94% (95% CI: 87% to 100%), and for feldspathic porcelain veneers, 87% (95% CI: 82% to 93%). The meta-analysis showed rates for the following events: debonding: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 4%); fracture/chipping: 4% (95% CI: 3% to 6%); secondary caries: 1% (95% CI: 0% to 3%); severe marginal discoloration: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 10%); endodontic problems: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 3%); and incisal coverage odds ratio: 1.25 (95% CI: 0.33 to 4.73). It was not possible to perform meta-analysis of the influence of enamel/dentin preparation on failure rates. Glass-ceramic and porcelain laminate veneers have high survival rates. Fracture/ chipping was the most frequent complication, providing evidence that ceramic veneers are a safe treatment option that preserve tooth structure.

  1. Re-induction of desiccation tolerance after germination of Cedrela fissilis Vell. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetto, Tathiana E; Faria, Jose M; Fraiz, Ana C R

    2014-09-01

    This work aimed to characterize the re-induction of desiccation tolerance (DT) in germinated seeds, using polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000). Cell changes were investigated through cytological assays (cell viability and transmission electronic microscopy) as well as DNA integrity during loss and re-establishment of DT. The loss of DT was characterized by drying germinated seeds with different radicle lengths (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm) in silica gel, decreasing the moisture content to ten percentage points intervals, followed by pre-humidification (100% RH / 24 h) and rehydration. To re-induce DT, germinated seeds were treated for 72 h with PEG (-2.04 MPa) and PEG (-2.04 MPa) + ABA (100 µM) before dehydration. Germinated seeds did not tolerate desiccation to 10% moisture content, irrespectively of the radicle length. However, when incubated in PEG, those with 1 and 2 mm long radicle attained 71% and 29% survival, respectively. The PEG+ABA treatment was efficient to re-establish DT in seeds with 1 mm long radicles (100% survival). The ultrastructural assays of the cells of germinated seeds with 2 and 5 mm length confirmed the obtained physiological results. Germinated seeds of C. fissilis constitute a useful tool for desiccation tolerance investigations.

  2. Re-induction of desiccation tolerance after germination of Cedrela fissilis Vell. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATHIANA E. MASETTO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize the re-induction of desiccation tolerance (DT in germinated seeds, using polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000. Cell changes were investigated through cytological assays (cell viability and transmission electronic microscopy as well as DNA integrity during loss and re-establishment of DT. The loss of DT was characterized by drying germinated seeds with different radicle lengths (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm in silica gel, decreasing the moisture content to ten percentage points intervals, followed by pre-humidification (100% RH / 24 h and rehydration. To re-induce DT, germinated seeds were treated for 72 h with PEG (-2.04 MPa and PEG (-2.04 MPa + ABA (100 µM before dehydration. Germinated seeds did not tolerate desiccation to 10% moisture content, irrespectively of the radicle length. However, when incubated in PEG, those with 1 and 2 mm long radicle attained 71% and 29% survival, respectively. The PEG+ABA treatment was efficient to re-establish DT in seeds with 1 mm long radicles (100% survival. The ultrastructural assays of the cells of germinated seeds with 2 and 5 mm length confirmed the obtained physiological results. Germinated seeds of C. fissilis constitute a useful tool for desiccation tolerance investigations.

  3. Comparing seeds germination of some local plant species on two hydroseeding mulches for post mining revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Anshari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine seed germination rate of some local plant species in two hydroseeding mulches containing different tackifier concentration, as well as to determine the optimal hydroseeding mulch media composition for germinating seeds. This study used seeds of 13 local plant species: two species of Cyperaceae (Cyperus brevifolius, C. javanicus, five species of Leguminosae (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria pallida, Sesbania grandiflora, S. sesban, Tephrosia purpurea, and six species of Poaceae (Eleusine indica, Paspalum conjugatum, Sorghum timorense, S. bicolor, Sporobolus indicus, Themeda arundinaceae. Two hydroseeding mulch media with different tackifier composition were mixed with seeds of each species and then sowed in pots. Each treatment was repeated three times. Moistened cotton wool was used as control and comparative media for observing seed viability. Seed germination in mulch media was observed during 13 days. The results showed that only 8 of 13 species could be germinated: S. indicus, S. timorense, T. arundinaceae, C. cajan, C. pallida, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, and T. purpurea. The highest germination rate was shown by S. sesban (67% in M2 medium and the lowest one was shown by T. arundinaceae (2% in both media. The fastest germination time was recorded for C. pallida and S. sesban seeds that germinated in 2 days after sowing (DAS in both media, while S. timorense and T. arundinaceae seeds showed the lowest ones in 11 DAS. The fluid M1 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (50% and S. grandiflora (35%, while the thicker M2 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (67% and S. timorense (50% in 13 DAS. The maximum germination rate was generally reached in 11 DAS.

  4. Thermal buffering capacity of the germination phenotype across the environmental envelope of the Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Charlotte E; Daws, Matthew I; Flores, Joel; Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Galíndez, Guadalupe; León-Lobos, Pedro; Sandoval, Ana; Ceroni Stuva, Aldo; Ramírez Bullón, Natali; Dávila-Aranda, Patricia; Ordoñez-Salanueva, Cesar A; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Ulian, Tiziana; Amosso, Cecilia; Zubani, Lino; Torres Bilbao, Alberto; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2017-12-01

    Recruitment from seeds is among the most vulnerable stage for plants as global temperatures change. While germination is the means by which the vast majority of the world's flora regenerate naturally, a framework for accurately predicting which species are at greatest risk of germination failure during environmental perturbation is lacking. Taking a physiological approach, we assess how one family, the Cactaceae, may respond to global temperature change based on the thermal buffering capacity of the germination phenotype. We selected 55 cactus species from the Americas, all geo-referenced seed collections, reflecting the broad environmental envelope of the family across 70° of latitude and 3700 m of altitude. We then generated empirical data of the thermal germination response from which we estimated the minimum (T b ), optimum (T o ) and ceiling (T c ) temperature for germination and the thermal time (θ 50 ) for each species based on the linearity of germination rate with temperature. Species with the highest T b and lowest T c germinated fastest, and the interspecific sensitivity of the germination rate to temperature, as assessed through θ 50 , varied tenfold. A left-skewed asymmetry in the germination rate with temperature was relatively common but the unimodal pattern typical of crop species failed for nearly half of the species due to insensitivity to temperature change at T o . For 32 fully characterized species, seed thermal parameters correlated strongly with the mean temperature of the wettest quarter of the seed collection sites. By projecting the mean temperature of the wettest quarter under two climate change scenarios, we predict under the least conservative scenario (+3.7°C) that 25% of cactus species will have reduced germination performance, whilst the remainder will have an efficiency gain, by the end of the 21st century. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The effects of achene type and germination time on plant performance in the heterocarpic Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Ana; Castro, Sílvia; Loureiro, João; Mota, Lucie; Cerca de Oliveira, José; Torices, Rubén

    2014-05-01

    • In heterocarpy, fruits with different morphologies have been associated with alternative strategies of dispersal, germination, dormancy, and seedling competitive ability. In heterocarpic species, it is common to find fruits with competitive or dispersal syndromes. The competitive advantage of nondispersing fruits has been frequently attributed to their larger size, but recent studies have suggested that this could also be mediated by germination time. The main objective of our study was to investigate which factor, fruit type or germination time, most affects plant performance and, consequently, competitive ability, using the heterocarpic species Anacyclus clavatus• To explore the effects of achene type and germination time on plant performance, we followed an innovative experimental approach including two experiments: one allowing for differences in germination time, and the other evaluating the effect of achene type alone by synchronizing germination time.• A significant effect of germination time on several postdispersal life-history traits was observed: Achenes that germinated earlier produced plants with higher biomass and reproductive effort. When germination time was controlled, no significant differences were observed in any of the traits.• The competitive advantage of achenes with different morphologies was mainly mediated by germination time and not by differences in size or other intrinsic traits. The consequences of these results are discussed in light of the dispersal-competition trade-off. Our experimental approach (i.e., the synchronization of germination time) revealed the importance of manipulative experiments for testing the effects of germination time on plant survival and performance. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  6. Influence of heat and radiation on the germinability and viability of B. cereus BIS-59 spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamat, A.S.; Lewis, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    Spores of Bicillus cereus BIS-59, isolated in this laboratory from shrimps, exhibited an exponential gamma radiation survival curve with a d 10 value of 400 krad as compared with a D 10 value of 30 krad for the vegetative cells. The D 10 value of DPA-depleted spores was also 400 krad indicating that DPA does not influence the radiation response of these spores. Maximum germination monitored with irradiated spores was 60 percent as compared with 80 percent in case of unirradiated spores. Radiation-induced inhibition of the germination processes was not dose dependent. Heat treatment (15 min at 80 C) to spores resulted in activation of the germination process; however, increase in heating time (30 min and 60 min) increased the germination lag period. DPA-depleted spores were less heat resistant than normal spores and exhibited biphasic exponential inactivation. (author)

  7. Effects of High Pressure on Bacillus licheniformis Spore Germination and Inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch-Pedersen, Kristina; Mellegård, Hilde; Reineke, Kai; Boysen, Preben; Sevenich, Robert; Lindbäck, Toril; Aspholm, Marina

    2017-07-15

    Bacillus and Clostridium species form spores, which pose a challenge to the food industry due to their ubiquitous nature and extreme resistance. Pressurization at 300 MPa likely triggers germination by opening dipicolinic acid (DPA) channels present in the inner membrane of the spores. In this work, we expose spores of Bacillus licheniformis , a species associated with food spoilage and occasionally with food poisoning, to high pressure (HP) for holding times of up to 2 h. By using mutant spores lacking one or several GRs, we dissect the roles of the GerA, Ynd, and GerK GRs in moderately HP (mHP; 150 MPa)-induced spore germination. We show that Ynd alone is sufficient for efficient mHP-induced spore germination. GerK also triggers germination with mHP, although at a reduced germination rate compared to that of Ynd. GerA stimulates mHP-induced germination but only in the presence of either the intact GerK or Ynd GR. These results suggests that the effectiveness of the individual GRs in mHP-induced germination differs from their effectiveness in nutrient-induced germination, where GerA plays an essential role. In contrast to Bacillus subtilis spores, treatment with very HP (vHP) of 550 MPa at 37°C did not promote effective germination of B. licheniformis spores. However, treatment with vHP in combination with elevated temperatures (60°C) gave a synergistic effect on spore germination and inactivation. Together, these results provide novel insights into how HP affects B. licheniformis spore germination and inactivation and the role of individual GRs in this process. IMPORTANCE Bacterial spores are inherently resistant to food-processing regimes, such as high-temperature short-time pasteurization, and may therefore compromise food durability and safety. The induction of spore germination facilitates subsequent inactivation by gentler processing conditions that maintain the sensory and nutritional qualities of the food. High-pressure (HP) processing is a nonthermal

  8. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Royen, E.A. van [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbeeten, B. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer`s disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 44 refs.

  9. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van; Royen, E.A. van; Verbeeten, B. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer's disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.)

  10. Effects of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuifeng; Wang Bingliang; Guan Xueyu; Zhang Yan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed was studied. The results showed that the germination potentiality and germination rate of hot pepper seed after boarding return satellite were increased by 3.5% and 5.3%, respectively. During seed germination, soluble protein and MDA contents decreased, however, the SOD activities increased. SOD activity of treated seeds was higher than that of the control especially during the initial period of germination, while the content of soluble and MDA contents were much lower than those of control. The activities of SOD, G-POD, APX and CAT in 13d seedlings of treated seeds were increased by 14.29%, 25.23%, 1.84% and 21.52%, respectively. It was concluded that space flight enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities of seeds and seedlings, which were very important to prevent membrane lipid superoxide. (authors)

  11. Asymbiotic germination, seedling development and plantlet propagation of Encyclia aff. oncidioides - an endangered orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Łojkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the best germination conditions of Encyclia aff. oncidioides seeds, five different media (Fast, Knudson C modified by Vajrabhaya, Murashige and Skoog, PB2 and modified Vacin and Went with different concentrations of plant growth regulators such as benzyladenine (BA, naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and gibberellic acid (GA3 were tested. No beneficial effect was observed when BA and NAA were applied to the germination medium and GA3 inhibited germination. The effect of light, activated charcoal, coconut water and casein hydrolysate on seed germination was also studied. The growth rate of seedlings on three different media supplemented with activated charcoal and plant growth regulators was checked. The applied plant growth regulators had no beneficial effect on the further growth of seedlings. Fast and PB2 media with 0.2% activated charcoal proved to be the best for E. aff. oncidioides seed germination, seedling development and plantlet propagation.

  12. Influences of Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide Nanobubbles on Seed Germination and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Khaled Abdella; Shi, Xiaonan; Hua, Likun; Manzueta, Leidy; Qing, Weihua; Marhaba, Taha; Zhang, Wen

    2018-05-23

    Nanobubbles (NBs) hold promise in green and sustainable engineering applications in diverse fields (e.g., water/wastewater treatment, food processing, medical applications, and agriculture). This study investigated the effects of four types of NBs on seed germination and plant growth. Air, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide NBs were generated and dispersed in tap water. Different plants, including lettuce, carrot, fava bean, and tomato, were used in germination and growth tests. The seeds in water-containing NBs exhibited 6-25% higher germination rates. Especially, nitrogen NBs exhibited considerable effects in the seed germination, whereas air and carbon dioxide NBs did not significantly promote germination. The growth of stem length and diameter, leave number, and leave width were promoted by NBs (except air). Furthermore, the promotion effect was primarily ascribed to the generation of exogenous reactive oxygen species by NBs and higher efficiency of nutrient fixation or utilization.

  13. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles reduce the survival rate of osteocytes in bone-tendon constructs without affecting the mechanical properties of tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Kaori; Urabe, Ken; Naruse, Kouji; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsuura, Terumasa; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Noriko; Kamiya, Kentaro; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2012-03-01

    Frozen bone-patellar tendon bone allografts are useful in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as the freezing procedure kills tissue cells, thereby reducing immunogenicity of the grafts. However, a small portion of cells in human femoral heads treated by standard bone-bank freezing procedures survive, thus limiting the effectiveness of allografts. Here, we characterized the survival rates and mechanisms of cells isolated from rat bones and tendons that were subjected to freeze-thaw treatments, and evaluated the influence of these treatments on the mechanical properties of tendons. After a single freeze-thaw cycle, most cells isolated from frozen bone appeared morphologically as osteocytes and expressed both osteoblast- and osteocyte-related genes. Transmission electron microscopic observation of frozen cells using freeze-substitution revealed that a small number of osteocytes maintained large nuclei with intact double membranes, indicating that these osteocytes in bone matrix were resistant to ice crystal formation. We found that tendon cells were completely killed by a single freeze-thaw cycle, whereas bone cells exhibited a relatively high survival rate, although survival was significantly reduced after three freeze-thaw cycles. In patella tendons, the ultimate stress, Young's modulus, and strain at failure showed no significant differences between untreated tendons and those subjected to five freeze-thaw cycles. In conclusion, we identified that cells surviving after freeze-thaw treatment of rat bones were predominantly osteocytes. We propose that repeated freeze-thaw cycles could be applied for processing bone-tendon constructs prior to grafting as the treatment did not affect the mechanical property of tendons and drastically reduced surviving osteocytes, thereby potentially decreasing allograft immunogenecity.

  14. A mathematical model resolving normal human blood lymphocyte population X-ray survival curves into six components: radiosensitivity, death rate and size of two responding sub-populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, A.E.R.; Vaughan-Smith, S.; Peel, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis was based on observations of survival decrease as a function of dose (range 0-5 Gy (= 500 rad)) and time after irradiation in vitro. Since lymphocyte survival is also sensitive to culture conditions the effects of radiation were examined daily up to 3 days only, while survival of control cells remained ca. 90 per cent. The time-dependent changes were resolved as the death rates (first-order governed) of lethally-hit cells (apparent survivors), so rendering these distinguishable from the morphologically identical, true (ultimate) survivors. For 12 blood donors the estimated dose permitting 37 per cent ultimate survival (D 37 value) averaged 0.72 +- 0.18 (SD) Gy for the more radiosensitive lymphocyte fraction and 2.50 +- 0.67 Gy for the less radiosensitive, each fraction proving homogeneously radiosensitive and the latter identifying substantially in kind with T-type (E-rosetting lymphocytes). The half-life of lethally-hit members of either fraction varied widely among the donors (ranges, 25-104 hours and 11-40 hours, respectively). Survival curves reconstructed by summating the numerical estimates of the six parameters according to the theoretical model closely matched those observed experimentally (ranged in multiple correlation coefficient, 0.9709-0.9994) for all donors). This signified the absence of any additional, totally radioresistant cell fraction. (author)

  15. Germination response of Hylocereus setaceus (Salm-Dyck ex DC: ) Ralf Bauer (Cactaceae) seeds to temperature and reduced water potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, E; Takaki, M; Cardoso, V J M

    2010-02-01

    The germination response of Hylocereus setaceus seeds to isothermic incubation at different water potentials was analysed by using the thermal time and hydrotime models, aiming to describe some germination parameters of the population and to test the validity of the models to describe the response of the seeds to temperature and water potential. Hylocereus setaceus seeds germinated relatively well in a wide range of temperatures and the germination was rate limited from 11 to 20 degrees C interval and beyond 30 degrees C until 40 degrees C, in which the germination rate respectively shifts positively and negatively with temperature. The minimum or base temperature (T(b)) for the germination of H. setaceus was 7 degrees C, and the ceiling temperature varied nearly from 43.5 to 59 degrees C depending on the percent fraction, with median set on 49.8 degrees C. The number of degrees day necessary for 50% of the seeds to germinate in the infra-optimum temperature range was 39.3 degrees C day, whereas at the supra-optimum interval the value of theta = 77 was assumed to be constant throughout. Germination was sensitive to decreasing values of psi in the medium, and both the germinability and the germination rate shift negatively with the reduction of psi, but the rate of reduction changed with temperature. The values of base water potential (psi(b)) shift to zero with increasing temperatures and such variation reflects in the relatively greater effect of low psi on germination in supra optimum range of T. In general, the model described better the germination time courses at lower than at higher water potentials. The analysis also suggest that Tb may not be independent of psi and that psi(b(g)) may change as a function of temperature at the infra-otimum temperature range.

  16. Germination responses of limonium insigne (coss.) kuntze to salinity and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isabel, C.; Fernandez, D.; Luque, E.G.; Mercado, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Limonium insigne (Plumbaginaceae) is a perennial halophyte endemic to the SE of the Iberian Peninsula. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different salinities (0, 100, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) on the seed germination of L. insigne under different temperature regimes (20/10, 25/15, 30/20 and 35/25 degree C), both in a 14 h light and 10 h dark photoperiod. Seed germination of L. insigne was affected significantly by salinity levels, temperature and their interaction. Maximum germination was observed in the least saline media (100 mM NaCl) and distilled water (0 mM NaCl) at 20/10 degree C temperature. No seeds germinated at concentrations higher than 200 mM NaCl at the highest temperature (35/25 degree C). The increase in salinity delayed the beginning and ending of germination, reduced final germination percentage and increased mean time to germination. The rate of germination decreased with an increase in salinity and temperature. (author)

  17. Incorporation of 15N-inorganic nitrogen into free-amino acids in germinating corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samukawa, Kisaburo; Yamaguchi, Masuro

    1979-01-01

    Incorporation of 15 N-labeled compounds, (K 15 NO 3 ) and ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , into free-amino acids was measured in germinating corn. Sterilized seeds of sweet corn (Choko No. 865) were sown on the filter papers soaked in 10 ml of the solution containing one of the labeled compounds (40 ppm N, 99 atom % excess) in petri dishes and germinated at 30 deg C. After 48 hours and 72 hours, 15 N-incorporation was measured in 5 seedlings selected owing to uniform growth. A GC-MS was used for measuring the ratio of 15 N isotopes present in free-amino acids. 15 N incorporation into free-amino acids hardly occurred when corn was germinated in the solution containing K 15 NO 3 , which suggested that endogenous nitrogen was used during the early germination stage of corn when nitrate is present. Incorporation into amino acids was greater when corn was germinated in the medium containing ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , than the case of the solution containing K 15 NO 3 . When corn was germinated in the solution containing ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , assimilation of 15 N into asparagine or aspartic acid was comparatively higher than that into the other amino acids, though the incorporation rate was low. Thus, in intact