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Sample records for germfree athymic nude

  1. Resistance of germfree athymic nude mice to two-stage skin carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, J.M.; Perkins, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    Germfree athymic and normal littermate mice were compared with respect to their relative sensitivity to single skin application of dimethylbenzanthacine followed either by croton oil or TPA applied as a co-carcinogen. In separate experiments the acute response of both phenotypes to TPA was assessed by histologic examination of skin as well as the incorporttion of tritiated thymidine into acid insoluble material obtained from the isolated epidermis. Nude mice were observed to be less, equal, or more sensitive than normal littermate to topical skin carcinogenesis depending upon experimental variables. The tendency of solvent to spread rapidly on the skin of nude mice appeared to have the greatest influence on susceptibility to papilloma induction. Other factors of potential, although unproven importance, include differences in skin structure, possibly associated with accelerated activity of hair follicles as well as resistance to both the inflammatory and hyperplasiogenic effects of TPA.

  2. Quantitative studies of lymphoid organs, blood and lymph in inbred athymic and euthymic LEW rats under germfree and specified-pathogen-free conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, B; Hougen, H P

    1987-01-01

    Four groups of inbred male LEW rats were examined: A, germfree athymic; B, specified pathogen free (SPF) athymic; C, germfree euthymic; D, SPF euthymic. All animals were killed at 18 weeks and compared with respect to body weight, histological appearance and cell density of the lymphoid organs, h...

  3. A bone metastases model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in athymic nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, H.; Liang, S.; Ma, C.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), an aggressive form of thyroid cancer, represents less than 2% of all thyroid cancers. The survival of patients with ATC remains low especially when accompanied with bone metastasis. This study aims to establish a reproducible animal model of bone metastasis of ATC which may be useful for further research on novel treatment strategy. Eight 6-8 week old female athymic nude mice were randomly selected. ATC cell line ARO cells were injected into the left ventricular cavity of each mouse respectively. Each mouse was imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET/CT scanner after successful injection of [18F]-FDG under deep anesthesia. Pathological examination was carried out to confirm the bone metastases of ATC. Histopathology established ATC bone metastases in five nude mice’s tibia. Similarly, PET image displayed significantly increased radioactivity (P<0.01) in the established bone metastasis compared with the control normal tibia. Both micro-PET/CT and histomorphometric measurement confirmed the bone metastases model of ATC in nude mice by left ventricular cavity injection of ARO cell line. The bone metastases model of ATC will thus facilitate the understanding of its pathogenesis and aid in the development of novel therapies.

  4. Optimized protocols for Mycobacterium leprae strain management: frozen stock preservation and maintenance in athymic nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombone, Ana Paula Fávaro; Pedrini, Sílvia Cristina Barbosa; Diório, Suzana Madeira; Belone, Andréa de Faria Fernandes; Fachin, Luciana Raquel Vicenzi; do Nascimento, Dejair Caitano; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco

    2014-03-23

    Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is an important infectious disease that is still endemic in many countries around the world, including Brazil. There are currently no known methods for growing M. leprae in vitro, presenting a major obstacle in the study of this pathogen in the laboratory. Therefore, the maintenance and growth of M. leprae strains are preferably performed in athymic nude mice (NU-Foxn1(nu)). The laboratory conditions for using mice are readily available, easy to perform, and allow standardization and development of protocols for achieving reproducible results. In the present report, we describe a simple protocol for purification of bacilli from nude mouse footpads using trypsin, which yields a suspension with minimum cell debris and with high bacterial viability index, as determined by fluorescent microscopy. A modification to the standard method for bacillary counting by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and light microscopy is also demonstrated. Additionally, we describe a protocol for freezing and thawing bacillary stocks as an alternative protocol for maintenance and storage of M. leprae strains.

  5. A Novel Dietary Flavonoid Fisetin Inhibits Androgen Receptor Signaling and Tumor Growth in Athymic Nude Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Asim, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh; Zaid, Mohammad Abu; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR)–mediated signaling plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Hormonal therapies, mainly with combinations of antiandrogens and androgen deprivation, are the mainstay treatment for advanced disease. However, emergence of androgen resistance largely due to inefficient antihormone action limits their therapeutic usefulness. Here, we report that fisetin, a novel dietary flavonoid, acts as a novel AR ligand by competing with the high-affinity androgen to interact with the ligand binding domain of AR. We show that this physical interaction results in substantial decrease in AR stability and decrease in amino-terminal/carboxyl-terminal (N-C) interaction of AR. This results in blunting of AR-mediated transactivation of target genes including prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In addition, treatment of LNCaP cells with fisetin decreased AR protein levels, in part, by decreasing its promoter activity and by accelerating its degradation. Fisetin also synergized with Casodex in inducing apoptosis in LNCaP cells. Treatment with fisetin in athymic nude mice implanted with AR-positive CWR22Rυ1 human PCa cells resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and reduction in serum PSA levels. These data identify fisetin as an inhibitor of AR signaling axis and suggest that it could be a useful chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent to delay progression of PCa. PMID:18922931

  6. Radioimmunotherapy of human lymphoma in athymic, nude mice as monitored by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; DeNardo, S.J.; Matson, G.B.; Epstein, A.L.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Human B cell lymphoma (Raji) growing in athymic, nude mice has been successfully treated with a single pulse dose of 131 I-labeled monoclonal antibody (Lym-1) specific for this tumor. Sequential in vivo measurements of phosphate metabolites in the tumors by 31 P surface coil nuclear magnetic resonance showed a significant initial decrease of phosphocreatine following radioimmunotherapy. Diminution of relative ATP to Pi peak area ratio suggesting tissue damage occurred within 3-4 days. The sequence of alterations of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra from tumors of treated mice were strikingly different from sequential nuclear magnetic resonance spectra obtained from tumors of control mice. These observations lead us to conclude that 31 P surface coil nuclear magnetic resonance is a promising non-invasive method for assessing and predicting the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy. Further spatial discrimination of the region of tissue observed by the surface coil nuclear magnetic resonance experiment is under exploration in an effort to increase the utility of these methods

  7. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

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    Ming-Che Shen

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (C18:0 is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil, or oleic acid (corn oil enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2 and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes.

  8. Inconsistent formation and nonfunction of insulin-positive cells from pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells in athymic nude rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V.; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil; Butler, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in ...

  9. Qualitative and semi quantitative analysis in the healing area of athymic nude mice skin engrafted with human skin sterilized with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Jurandir Tomaz de; Bringel, Fabiana; Alves, Nelson Mendes; Antebi, Uri; Funari, Ana Paula; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: tomaz_ju@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades there has been a great interest in the radio-sterilized grafts for human skin grafts. This tissue is taken from a cadaver or multi-organ donor and samples are processed and stored in glycerol at concentrations above 85%. Although this procedure is carried out under aseptic conditions, after the final packaging one can sterilize the tissues with ionizing radiation in order to increase the safety level of sterility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the healing repair process that occurs between the graft and the skin of athymic NUDE mice. The samples of human skin treated with glycerol were divided into three groups: the control group 1 (non-irradiated), irradiated group 2 at 25 kGy and irradiated group 3, at 50 kGy. These tissues were grafted onto athymic NUDE mice which were sacrificed after 3, 7 and 21 days. After the sacrifice, part of the back fur of the animals containing human skin graft was removed with hematoxylin and eosin (H/E). The histological sections were analyzed for the integrity of tissue, presence and location of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, defense cells and blood vessels. Thus it was examined whether over time the graft was incorporated into the body or if there was a process of healing by secondary intention. (author)

  10. Qualitative and semi quantitative analysis in the healing area of athymic nude mice skin engrafted with human skin sterilized with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Jurandir Tomaz de; Bringel, Fabiana; Alves, Nelson Mendes; Antebi, Uri; Funari, Ana Paula; Mathor, Monica B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a great interest in the radio-sterilized grafts for human skin grafts. This tissue is taken from a cadaver or multi-organ donor and samples are processed and stored in glycerol at concentrations above 85%. Although this procedure is carried out under aseptic conditions, after the final packaging one can sterilize the tissues with ionizing radiation in order to increase the safety level of sterility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the healing repair process that occurs between the graft and the skin of athymic NUDE mice. The samples of human skin treated with glycerol were divided into three groups: the control group 1 (non-irradiated), irradiated group 2 at 25 kGy and irradiated group 3, at 50 kGy. These tissues were grafted onto athymic NUDE mice which were sacrificed after 3, 7 and 21 days. After the sacrifice, part of the back fur of the animals containing human skin graft was removed with hematoxylin and eosin (H/E). The histological sections were analyzed for the integrity of tissue, presence and location of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, defense cells and blood vessels. Thus it was examined whether over time the graft was incorporated into the body or if there was a process of healing by secondary intention. (author)

  11. Intratracheal injection of adenovirus containing the human MNSOD transgene protects athymic nude mice from irradiation-induced organizing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, Michael W.; Bray, Jenifer A.; Krager, Stephen; Berry, Luann M.; Gooding, William; Engelhardt, John F.; Zwacka, Ralf; Travis, Elizabeth L.; Greenberger, Joel S.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A dose and volume limiting factor in radiation treatment of thoracic cancer is the development of fibrosis in normal lung. The goal of the present study was to determine whether expression prior to irradiation of a transgene for human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) protects against irradiation-induced lung damage in mice. Methods and Materials: Athymic Nude (Nu/J) mice were intratracheally injected with 10 9 plaque-forming units (PFU) of a replication-incompetent mutant adenovirus construct containing the gene for either human MnSOD, human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) or LacZ. Four days later the mice were irradiated to the pulmonary cavity to doses of 850, 900, or 950 cGy. To demonstrate adenoviral infection, nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out with primers specific for either human MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD transgene on freshly explanted lung, trachea, or alveolar type II cells, and immunohistochemistry was used to measure LacZ expression. RNA was extracted on day 0, 1, 4, or 7 after 850 cGy of irradiation from lungs of mice that had previously received adenovirus or had no treatment. Slot blot analysis was performed to quantitate RNA expression for IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TGF-β, MnSOD, or Cu/ZnSOD. Lung tissue was explanted and tested for biochemical activity of MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD after adenovirus injection. Other mice were sacrificed 132 days after irradiation, lungs excised, frozen in OCT, (polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol mixture) sectioned, H and E stained, and evaluated for percent of the lung demonstrating organizing alveolitis. Results: Mice injected intratracheally with adenovirus containing the gene for human MnSOD had significantly reduced chronic lung irradiation damage following 950 cGy, compared to control mice or mice injected with adenovirus containing the gene for human Cu/ZnSOD or LacZ. Immunohistochemistry

  12. Inconsistent formation and nonfunction of insulin-positive cells from pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells in athymic nude rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil; Butler, Peter C

    2010-11-01

    Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in development of viable glucose-responsive pancreatic endocrine tissue. Athymic nude rats were implanted with PE derived from hESC either via implantation into the epididymal fat pads or by subcutaneous implantation into TheraCyte encapsulation devices for 20 wk. Blood glucose, weight, and human insulin/C-peptide secretion were monitored by weekly blood draws. Graft β-cell function was assessed by a glucose tolerance test, and graft morphology was assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. At 20 wk postimplantation, epididymal fat-implanted PE progressed to develop islet-like structures in 50% of implants, with a mean β-cell fractional area of 0.8 ± 0.3%. Human C-peptide and insulin were detectable, but at very low levels (C-peptide = 50 ± 26 pmol/l and insulin = 15 ± 7 pmol/l); however, there was no increase in human C-peptide/insulin levels after glucose challenge. There was no development of viable pancreatic tissue or meaningful secretory function when human PE was implanted in the TheraCyte encapsulation devices. These data confirm that islet-like structures develop from hESC differentiated to PE by the protocol developed by NovoCell. However, the extent of endocrine cell formation and secretory function is not yet sufficient to be clinically relevant.

  13. Radionecrosis skin model induced an athymic mouse nude (Nu/Nu) for development of dermal-epidermal human substitute based regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, Rodrigo Crespo

    2014-01-01

    The neoplasms incidence has increased significantly in recent years and continued population growth and aging will increase the statistics of this illness in the world's diseases. The cancer treatment usually consists in individual or combined use of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy depending on the etiology of the tumor. In cases where radiotherapy is used in addition to the therapeutic effects of radiation, specific complications can occur, and in the skin, these complications can be present with a clinical expression ranging from erythema to radionecrosis, and this latter being the adverse effect with greater severity. The radionecrosis treatment consists in debridement necrotic areas and covering the surgical wounds. Autologous grafts are most commonly used for this covering, however when large areas are affected, allografts can be used for occlusive treatment and the keratinocytes and adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) addition becomes an alternative, due to the knowing for immunomodulatory and regenerative response. For that reason, aiming to simulate the radionecrosis adverse effects, an animal model of induced cutaneous radionecrosis was created, in athymic mouse Nude (Nu/Nu), for developing regenerative therapies based on human dermal-epidermal substitutes containing keratinocytes and ADSC, which proved occlusive as an efficient treatment, furthermore, having this radionecrosis animal model established, new possibilities for treatment of diseases involving dermal regeneration, can be tested. (author)

  14. Optimal gadolinium dose level for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement of U87-derived tumors in athymic nude rats for the assessment of photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Nathan; Varghai, Davood; Flask, Chris A.; Feyes, Denise K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2009-02-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of varying gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) dose on Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) tracking of brain tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) outcome. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells (derived from human malignant glioma) into the brains of six athymic nude rats. After 9, 12, and 13 days DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 9.4 T micro-MRI scanner before and after administration of 100, 150, or 200 μL of Gd-DTPA. Results: Tumor region normalized DCE-MRI scan enhancement at peak was: 1.217 over baseline (0.018 Standard Error [SE]) at the 100 μL dose, 1.339 (0.013 SE) at the 150 μL dose, and 1.287 (0.014 SE) at the 200 μL dose. DCE-MRI peak tumor enhancement at the 150 μL dose was significantly greater than both the 100 μL dose (p DTPA dose provided the greatest T1 weighted contrast enhancement, while minimizing negative T2* effects, in DCE-MRI scans of U87-derived tumors. Maximizing Gd-DTPA enhancement in DCE-MRI scans may assist development of a clinically robust (i.e., unambiguous) technique for PDT outcome assessment.

  15. Fisetin, a phytochemical, potentiates sorafenib-induced apoptosis and abrogates tumor growth in athymic nude mice implanted with BRAF-mutated melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Baxter, Ronald D; Hunt, Katherine M; Agarwal, Jyoti; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2015-09-29

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of cutaneous malignancy, and its incidence rates are rising worldwide. In melanoma, constitutive activation of the BRAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PI3K) signaling pathways plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation, survival and tumorigenesis. A combination of compounds that lead to an optimal blockade of these critical signaling pathways may provide an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of melanoma. The phytochemical fisetin is known to possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. We found that fisetin treatment inhibited PI3K signaling pathway in melanoma cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of fisetin and sorafenib (an RAF inhibitor) alone and in combination on cell proliferation, apoptosis and tumor growth. Combination treatment (fisetin + sorafenib) more effectively reduced the growth of BRAF-mutated human melanoma cells at lower doses when compared to individual agents. In addition, combination treatment resulted in enhanced (i) apoptosis, (ii) cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, (iii) expression of Bax and Bak, (iv) inhibition of Bcl2 and Mcl-1, and (v) inhibition of expression of PI3K, phosphorylation of MEK1/2, ERK1/2, AKT and mTOR. In athymic nude mice subcutaneously implanted with melanoma cells (A375 and SK-MEL-28), we found that combination therapy resulted in greater reduction of tumor growth when compared to individual agents. Furthermore, combination therapy was more effective than monotherapy in: (i) inhibition of proliferation and angiogenesis, (ii) induction of apoptosis, and (iii) inhibition of the MAPK and PI3K pathways in xenograft tumors. These data suggest that simultaneous inhibition of both these signaling pathways using combination of fisetin and sorafenib may serve as a therapeutic option for the management of melanoma.

  16. Modulation of total IgE levels in serum of normal and athymic nude BALB/c mice by cells and exogenous antigenic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Akker, van den T.W.; Soeting, P.W.C.; Oudenaren, van A.; Benner, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several different grades of T-system impairment were studied for their effects on the total serum IgE concentration in BALB/c mice. Homozygous athymic nu/nu mice and their heterozygous nu/ littermates were compared for serum IgE levels while kept under either barrier-maintained or conventional

  17. Dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the assessment of Pc 4-sensitized photodynamic therapy of a U87-derived glioma model in the athymic nude rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka, Ali; Thompson, Paul; Mott, Eric; Sharma, Rahul; Zhang, Ruozhen; Cross, Nathan; Sun, Jiayang; Flask, Chris A.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2010-02-01

    Introduction: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) may provide a means of tracking the outcome of Pc 4-sensitized photodynamic therapy (PDT) in deeply placed lesions (e.g., brain tumors). We previously determined that 150 μL of gadolinium (Gd-DTPA) produces optimal enhancement of U87-derived intracerebral tumors in an athymic nude rat glioma model. We wish to determine how consistently DCE-MRI enhancement will detect an increase in Gd-enhancement of these tumors following Pc 4-PDT. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells into the brains of 6 athymic nude rats. After 7-8 days pre-Pc 4 PDT peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7.0T microMRI scanner before and after administration of 150 μL Gd. DCE-MRI scans were repeated on Days 11, 12, and 13 following Pc 4-PDT (Day 8 or 9). Results: Useful DCE-MRI data were obtained for these animals before and after Pc 4- PDT. In the pre-Pc 4-PDT DCE-MRI scans an average normalized peak Gd enhancement was observed in tumor tissue that was 1.297 times greater than baseline (0.035 Standard Error [SE]). The average normalized peak Gd enhancement in the tumor tissue in the scan following PDT (Day 11) was 1.537 times greater than baseline (0.036 SE), a statistically significant increase in enhancement (p = 0.00584) over the pre-PDT level. Discussion: A 150 μL Gd dose appears to provide an unambiguous increase in signal indicating Pc 4-PDT-induced necrosis of the U87-derived tumor. Our DCEMRI protocol may allow the development of a clinically robust, unambiguous, non-invasive technique for the assessment of PDT outcome.

  18. Immunobiology of congenitally athymic-asplenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershwin, M.E.; Ahmed, A.; Ikeda, R.M.; Shifrine, M.; Wilson, F.

    1978-01-01

    A study has been made of congenitally athymic-asplenic mice obtained by the mating of nude by hereditarily asplenic (Dh/+) mice. The mice survived for up to 9 months, under specific pathogen-free conditions, with no evidence for increased risk of spontaneous neoplasia. Although lymphocyte surface markers and sera immunoglobulin levels of athymic-asplenic mice were similar to those of their nude and asplenic littermates, there were a number of major immunologic differences. The athymic-asplenic mice appeared more immunologically compromised than nude mice. There was an elevated rate of growth and a lower inoculated cell threshold needed for successful transplantation of a human malignant melanoma. There was no evidence for auto-antibody production in mice up to 9 months of age. Congenitally athymic-asplenic mice can be used for a variety of studies in which other immunologically deprived mouse mutants are desired. (author)

  19. Dissemination in athymic nude mice of lacZ transfected small cell lung cancer cells identified by X-gal staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, M U; Christiansen, J; Brünner, N

    1995-01-01

    The small cell lung cancer cell lines GLC-2 and DMS 456 were genetically labeled with the lacZ gene and examined for invasive and metastatic potential in META/Bom nude mice. The lacZ gene encodes the enzyme beta-D- galactosidase, and cells expressing this enzyme were identified by staining...... with the chromogenic substrate X-gal. lacZ expressing cells were investigated after subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation and intravenous (i.v.) injection. The X-gal detection of beta-D-galactosidase activity proved to be a rapid and easy means for specific and highly sensitive identification of metastases. All primary s.......c. tumors stained by X-gal. The primary tumors of GLC-2 regularly demonstrated local invasive growth and produced multiple metastases in several organs. In contrast, primary DMS 456 tumors only occasionally demonstrated local invasion and very rarely generated secondary foci. No experimental metastases were...

  20. Radionecrosis skin model induced an athymic mouse nude (Nu/Nu) for development of dermal-epidermal human substitute based regenerative therapy; Modelo de radionecrose cutanea induzida em camundongos Nude (Nu/Nu) para desenvolvimento de terapias regenerativas baseadas em substitutos dermo-epidermicos humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, Rodrigo Crespo

    2014-07-01

    The neoplasms incidence has increased significantly in recent years and continued population growth and aging will increase the statistics of this illness in the world's diseases. The cancer treatment usually consists in individual or combined use of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy depending on the etiology of the tumor. In cases where radiotherapy is used in addition to the therapeutic effects of radiation, specific complications can occur, and in the skin, these complications can be present with a clinical expression ranging from erythema to radionecrosis, and this latter being the adverse effect with greater severity. The radionecrosis treatment consists in debridement necrotic areas and covering the surgical wounds. Autologous grafts are most commonly used for this covering, however when large areas are affected, allografts can be used for occlusive treatment and the keratinocytes and adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) addition becomes an alternative, due to the knowing for immunomodulatory and regenerative response. For that reason, aiming to simulate the radionecrosis adverse effects, an animal model of induced cutaneous radionecrosis was created, in athymic mouse Nude (Nu/Nu), for developing regenerative therapies based on human dermal-epidermal substitutes containing keratinocytes and ADSC, which proved occlusive as an efficient treatment, furthermore, having this radionecrosis animal model established, new possibilities for treatment of diseases involving dermal regeneration, can be tested. (author)

  1. Endocrine therapy of human breast cancer grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Osborne, C K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1987-01-01

    mice bearing transplanted human breast tumors have been proposed as such a model. This review therefore discusses the use of the athymic nude mouse model of the study of human breast cancer biology, and focuses on four subjects: 1. biological characteristics of heterotransplanted breast tumors; 2...

  2. Athymic experimental animals in pharmaco-immonological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, P.; Christensen, H.B.; Hougen, Hans Petter

    1992-01-01

    Nude mice, nude rats, streptozotocin, diabetes mellitus, guanethidine, sympathectomy, toxicology......Nude mice, nude rats, streptozotocin, diabetes mellitus, guanethidine, sympathectomy, toxicology...

  3. Some quantitative studies on the transplantation of human tissues into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietman, A.; Suit, H.D.; Sedlacek, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative cell transplantation assays (TD/sub 50/) were performed for human tumors xenografted into athymic NCr(nμ/nμ) nude mice. Transplantation assays for FaDu when transplanted into brain and when transplanted into subcutaneous tissues are compared. Effects of immunization are discussed and results are given

  4. Intestinal obstruction in germ-free dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, J B; Robinson, J W; Menge, H; Winistörfer, B

    1981-08-01

    Mechanical occlusions were created in the intestines of four germ-free dogs. At the time of the operation, a control loop of mid-intestine was perfused in vivo and then excised for examinations in vitro, which included the determination of the equilibrium uptake of phenylalanine and of beta-methyl-glucoside, the influx kinetics of phenylalanine and morphometric analysis of the mucosa by microdissection and stereological techniques. Seven days after establishment of the occlusion the abdomen was reopened, and loops above and below the occlusion were perfused, and then excised for the same tests in vitro. Unlike occluded loops of conventional dogs, the intestine of the germ-free animal above the occlusion does not secrete water and electrolytes into the lumen. Its transport properties in vitro do not differ from those of the control loop, and the morphometric analyses reveal only slight changes in villus structure. The loop below the obstruction undergoes marked atrophy, as has been observed in conventional dogs. The results suggest that the copious secretion that occurs above an intestinal obstruction in normal animals is due to the presence of an abundant bacterial population in the obstruction fluid.

  5. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice with 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Takatoshi; Koshiba, H.; Usui, T.; Kubota, M.; Kikuchi, Kokichi; Morita, Kazuo

    1990-01-01

    Encouraged by reports of radioimmunoimaging of colorectal carcinomas and by examining an immunohistochemical report on resected pancreas cancer tissues, we studied the diagnostic potential of radioimmunoimaging with the radioiodinelabeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb; HC-1) to a human pancreas cancer cell line (HGC25) was labeled with radioiodine and injected into athymic nude mice implanted with human pancreas cancer cells. Antibody HC-1 was cleared from the circulation and accumulated significantly in the implanted tumor sites. (author)

  6. Reversal of multidrug resistance by magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle copolymerizating daunorubicin and 5-bromotetrandrine in xenograft nude-mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Baoan; Cheng, Jian; Wu, Yanan; Gao, Feng; Xu, Wenlin; Shen, Huilin; Ding, Jiahua; Gao, Chong; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xinchen; Cheng, Hongyan; Li, Guohong; Chen, Wenji; Chen, Ningna; Liu, Lijie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we establish the xenograft leukemia model with stable multidrug resistance in nude mice and to investigate the reversal effect of 5-bromotetrandrine (5-BrTet) and magnetic nanoparticle of Fe3O4 (MNP-Fe3O4) combined with daunorubicin (DNR) in vivo. Two subclones of K562 and K562/A02 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the back of athymic nude mice (1 × 107 cells/each) respectively to establish leukemia xenograft models. Drug-resistant and sensitive tumor-bearing nude mice w...

  7. Leucine and valine requirements of the growing germfree chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Teru; Kametaka, Masao; Ozaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Mitsuoka, Tomotari.

    1977-01-01

    To compare the requirements of leucine and valine of the growing germfree and conventional chicks, 7-day-old chicks were fed a diet with graded levels of leucine or valine for 7 days. Daily gains of body weight of the germfree chicks were greater than those of the conventional chicks when the dietary leucine or valine level was higher than the requirement level. Adversely, daily gains of body weight of the germfree chicks were less than those of the conventional chicks when the dietary leucine or valine level was very low. Leucine and valine requirements for maximum growth, however, was the same and estimated to be 0.95 and 0.78%, repectively, of the diet for both groups. After the feeding test, the chicks were injected with L-leucine- and L-valine-U- 14 C and expired carbon dioxide was collected for 2 and 3 hours, respectively. From the percentage of recovery of 14 C in the expired carbon dioxide, the leucine and valine requirements were found to be 0.80 and 0.53% of the diet for both groups, respectively. Three hours after feeding test, the plasma free valine concentration was estimated in the chicks which was not injected the isotope. The requirement of valine was estimated to be 0.59% for the germfree chicks and 0.54% for the conventional chicks. From the above data, it may be concluded that no difference, or very small if any, is found in the requirements of leucine and valine between the germfree chicks and those of the conventional chicks. (auth.)

  8. Orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats for evaluation of stereotactic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Anthony L; Custis, James T; Harmon, Joseph F; Powers, Barbara E; Chubb, Laura S; LaRue, Susan M; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Ryan, Stewart D

    2013-03-01

    To develop an orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats as a model for evaluating the effects of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) on osteosarcoma cells. 26 athymic nude rats. 3 experiments were performed. In the first 2 experiments, rats were injected with 1 × 10(6) Abrams canine osteosarcoma cells into the proximal aspect of the tibia (n = 12) or distal aspect of the femur (6). Tumor engraftment and progression were monitored weekly via radiography, luciferase imaging, and measurement of urine pyridinoline concentration for 5 weeks and histologic evaluation after euthanasia. In the third experiment, 8 rats underwent canine osteosarcoma cell injection into the distal aspect of the femur and SRT was administered to the affected area in three 12-Gy fractions delivered on consecutive days (total radiation dose, 36 Gy). Percentage tumor necrosis and urinary pyridinoline concentrations were used to assess local tumor control. The short-term effect of SRT on skin was also evaluated. Tumors developed in 10 of 12 tibial sites and all 14 femoral sites. Administration of SRT to rats with femoral osteosarcoma was feasible and successful. Mean tumor necrosis of 95% was achieved histologically, and minimal adverse skin effects were observed. The orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in rats developed in this study was suitable for evaluating the effects of local tumor control and can be used in future studies to evaluate optimization of SRT duration, dose, and fractionation schemes. The model could also allow evaluation of other treatments in combination with SRT, such as chemotherapy or bisphosphonate, radioprotectant, or parathyroid hormone treatment.

  9. Role of neutralizing antibodies and T-cells in pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus infection in congenitally athymic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, A K; Buckmaster, A; Nash, A A; Field, H J; Wildy, P

    1982-11-01

    Congenitally athymic nude mice were infected with 10(4) p.f.u. herpes simplex type 1 (strain SC16). Following the passive transfer of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (AP7, AP8 and AP12) it was observed that AP7 alone reduced the virus infectivity in the nervous system; AP8 and AP12 failed to protect mice probably due to poor in vivo binding to the neutralization site on the virus. Latent ganglionic infection could be established in nude mice following adoptive transfer of optimum number (2 x 10(7) cells/mouse) of immune lymph node cells from day 7 herpes virus-infected hairy immunocompetent donor mice. Moreover, in some of the immune lymph node cell protected nudes, latency could be maintained even in complete absence of neutralizing antibodies. Results of ear-ablation experiments revealed that removal of primary source of infection after day 5 of infection reduced the amount of virus in the ganglia and spinal cord. Acute neurological infection was not detected following transfer of protective anti-gp-D neutralizing antibody (LP2) in combination with removal of infected pinna. These data suggest that continuous seeding of virus occurs in related ganglia via the axonal route from infected ear pinna. It appears that local T-cell-mediated immune mechanisms are involved in maintenance of latency.

  10. Rearing of germfree chicks in a vinyl isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Teru; Kametaka, Masao; Ozaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Kaneuchi, Choji.

    1977-01-01

    A method of rearing germfree chicks in a vinyl isolator was developed, Hatchability of eggs was higher than 95% when eggs were sterilized in a 1.5% mercuric chloride solution on the 2nd day before hatching. Sterility was 93% when 5 to 10 chicks were reared in a vinyl isolator for 2 weeks. Depression of body weight gain was observed in chicks fed diet irradiated at higher than 4 Mrad. However, no effects of irradiation on chick growth were observed when fat and the other components were sterilized separately and mixed before feeding. The growth rates of germfree chicks were higher than those of the conventional chicks which were supplied a diluted solution of fresh cecum feces of young hens with a normal intestinal flora pattern at the first feeding. (auth.)

  11. Kinetics of small lymphocytes in normal and nude mice after splenectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Hansen, F; Jensen, E K

    1977-01-01

    Autoradiography and various quantitations on lymphoid tissues have been used to evaluate the kinetics of small lymphocytes in normal (+/nu or +/+) and congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) NMRI mice 1 month after splenectomy or sham-splenectomy. The results indicate that splenectomy causes depressed...... thymic activity and diminished numbers of T lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid tissues. The total number of cells in these tissues as well as the blast cell activity, were within normal limits. Bone marrow lymphocyte numbers and kinetics as well as blood lymphocyte levels in splenectomized and sham......-splenectomized normal animals were comparable. Blood lymphocyte numbers were at normal levels in splenectomized nude mice, in spite of reduced numbers of bone marrow and thoracic duct lymphocytes. It is suggested that increased number of newly-formed lymphocytes, found in lymph nodes and blood of splenectomized mice...

  12. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in normal and athymic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Espersen, F; Pedersen, S S

    1993-01-01

    We have compared a chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in alginate beads in normal and athymic rats with an acute infection with free live P. aeruginosa bacteria. The following parameters were observed and described: mortality, macroscopic and microscopic pathologic changes...

  13. Prevention of airborne contamination and cross-contamination in germ-free mice by laminar flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, D. van der; Andres, A.H.

    1971-01-01

    The efficacy of horizontal and vertical laminar flow units (equipped with high-efficiency air filters) in the prevention of cross-contamination between cages and of contamination from outside has been demonstrated. With germ-free mice and using germ-free standard techniques for sterilization and for

  14. Thoughts on the nude body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Fabbri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The image of nude appears to have ‘moved’, both because of the shift in our gaze and its point of reference. That is, unless this ‘negative emphasis’ is seen only as the uncri­ti­cal acceptance of that ‘polarizing question’ that declared the end of Clas­sical art and the decisive advent of modernity or as the effect of an hermeneutic excess ‒ of a philosophical definition of the nude impli­cit in our figurative culture – is it now the moment to go beyond the observation of the canonic nude and to develop new approaches to nudity? Despite its obviousness, the nude, too, is difficult to define. Where does the garment begin and the gown end? The skin and the flesh? How are we to describe the for­ces, movements and gestures of the body and its involucres? I will argue that the nude should be neither a pictorial genre nor a philosophical concept, but a «thought of the body» (De Chirico. It is an aesthetic figure with the power of affection and perception, but also a conceptual figure. It is not a ‘critical operator’ ‒ a cognitive ‘walk-on’ or extra ‒ but an actor with the power of speech, capable of forming and transforming new relationships with observers.

  15. Morphological restoration of gonadotrope population by thymulin gene therapy in nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, Paula; Martines, Eliana; Ferese, Celia; Goya, Rodolfo; Cónsole, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Summary The integrity of the thymus during the first week of life is necessary for a proper maturation of the pituitary-gonadal axis as revealed by the significantly reduced levels of circulating gonadotropins in congenitally athymic (nude) mice. In the present work we studied the impact of athymia and the effect of neonatal thymulin gene therapy on the pituitaries of adult nude mice. Also circulating thymulin and gonadotropin levels were evaluated. We used an adenoviral vector expressing a synthetic gene for the thymic peptide thymulin (metFTS) termed RAd-FTS. On postnatal day 1, each experimental heterozygous (nu/+) and homozygous (nu/nu) pup of both sexes received a single bilateral i.m. injection of RAd-FTS or RAd-GFP/TK, a control vector expressing green fluorescent protein. On postnatal days 51-52, mice were bled and sacrificed, their pituitaries were immediately dissected, fixed and immunostained. Morphometry was performed by means of an image analysis system. The following parameters were calculated: volume density (VD: cell area/reference area), cell density (CD: number of cells/reference area), and cell size (expressed in μm2). Serum thymulin levels were measured by a bioassay and gonadotropin levels were assayed by RIA. It was observed that neonatal thymulin gene therapy in the athymic mice restored their serum thymulin levels and prevented the reduction in circulating gonadotropin levels. The histometrical analysis revealed that the treatment prevented the reduction in gonadotrope CD and the VD in athymic mice. Our data suggest that thymulin gene therapy may be an effective strategy to approach reproductive deficits associated with endocrine thymus dysfunction. PMID:19337971

  16. Fat absorption in germ-free and conventional rats artificially deprived of bile secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Demarne, Y.; Corring, T.; Pihet, A.; Sacquet, E.

    1982-01-01

    Bile duct ligation was performed in germ-free and conventional rats in order to study the effects of bile deprivation on the absorption of dietary lipids and the excretion of faecal lipids in the presence or the absence of gastrointestinal flora. The main consequence of bile duct ligation in conventional rats was decrease of about 50% in the apparent absorption of dietary lipids (peanut oil). In germ-free rats, absorption decreased by only about 25%.In conventional as well as in germ-free con...

  17. Effect of bevacizumab on angiogenesis and growth of canine osteosarcoma cells xenografted in athymic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Valery F; Farese, James P; Coomer, Alastair R; Milner, Rowan J; Taylor, David P; Salute, Marc E; Chang, Myron N; Neal, Dan; Siemann, Dietmar W

    2013-05-01

    Objective-To investigate the effects of bevacizumab, a human monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, on the angiogenesis and growth of canine osteosarcoma cells xenografted in mice. Animals-27 athymic nude mice. Procedures-To each mouse, highly metastasizing parent osteosarcoma cells of canine origin were injected into the left gastrocnemius muscle. Each mouse was then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatment groups: high-dose bevacizumab (4 mg/kg, IP), low-dose bevacizumab (2 mg/kg, IP), or control (no treatment). Tumor growth (the number of days required for the tumor to grow from 8 to 13 mm), vasculature, histomorphology, necrosis, and pulmonary metastasis were evaluated. Results-Mice in the high-dose bevacizumab group had significantly delayed tumor growth (mean ± SD, 13.4 ± 3.8 days; range, 9 to 21 days), compared with that for mice in the low-dose bevacizumab group (mean ± SD, 9.4 ± 1.5 days; range, 7 to 11 days) or control group (mean ± SD, 7. 2 ± 1.5 days; range, 4 to 9 days). Mice in the low-dose bevacizumab group also had significantly delayed tumor growth, compared with that for mice in the control group. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that bevacizumab inhibited growth of canine osteosarcoma cells xenografted in mice, which suggested that vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors may be clinically useful for the treatment of osteosarcoma in dogs. Impact for Human Medicine-Canine osteosarcoma is used as a research model for human osteosarcoma; therefore, bevacizumab may be clinically beneficial for the treatment of osteosarcoma in humans.

  18. HeLa cell tumor response to 60Co, Cs-137, Cf-252 radiations and cisplatin chemotherapy in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Beach, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    HeLa cells were implanted into athymic nude mice from tissue culture and solid tumors established (HeLa cell tumor or HCT). Large cell numbers of 1 X 10 7 were required to obtain consistent and progressive growth, and tumor growth followed a Gompertzian mode. Irradiation studies were carried out using acute Cobalt-60 (60Co), low-dose-rate (LDR) Cs-137 and LDR Cf-252. Cf-252, a neutron-emitting radioisotope, produced an immediate tumor shrinkage and regression response after a dose of 279 cGy. Acute 60Co or LDR Cs-137 irradiation with 1000 cGy had little effect on the HCT. After a dose of 2000 cGy of 60Co radiation tumor shrinkage followed a latent period of approximately 5 days. Cisplatin had no effect on the HCT in nude mice in stationary or late exponential growth

  19. Radiosensitivity of lymph node metastases versus initial subcutaneous tumors in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichard, M.; Courdi, A.; Fertil, B.; Malaise, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    The in vivo and in vitro radiosensitivity of EMT6 tumor cells growing subcutaneously and metastasizing to the regional lymph nodes has been studied in congenitally athymic nude mice. The fraction of hypoxic cells was determined using an in vitro colony method to assay cell survival after irradiation of both air-breathing and nitrogen-asphyxiated animals. In air-breathing animals, lymph node metastases contained a significantly higher fraction of hypoxic cells than subcutaneous tumors of the same size (61 and 36% respectively). Survival curves did not differ under hypoxic conditions (nitrogen-asphyxiated animals). Likewise, survival curves of cells extracted from tumors at both sites and irradiated in vitro were identical

  20. Metabolism of UC-labelled urea in conventional, germ-free and mono-associated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhr, N.C.; Franke, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report deals with the utilization of UC-labelled urea in conventional, defined associated and germ-free rats. With conventional animals 71.44% of the administered UC dose can be demonstrated in the exhaled air, 0.47% in organs and 27.35% in the urine. 1.04% was found in the intestinal and fecal contents. Animals mono-associated with Proteus mirabilis have nearly the same utilization rate (59.15, 0.34, 35.98, 2% resp.). In germ-free animals 1.21% of the activity appeared in the exhaled air and showed a small part of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The excretion of 97.70% in the urine shows that urea is absorbed from the intestine in germ-free animals.

  1. Self-recognition specificity expressed by T cells from nude mice. Absence of detectable Ia-restricted T cells in nude mice that do exhibit self-K/D-restricted T cell responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisbeek, A.M.; Davis, M.L.; Matis, L.A.; Longo, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The presence in athymic nude mice of precursor T cells with self-recognition specificity for either H-2 K/D or H-2 I region determinants was investigated. Chimeras were constructed of lethally irradiated parental mice receiving a mixture of F1 nude mouse (6-8 wk old) spleen and bone marrow cells. The donor inoculum was deliberately not subjected to any T cell depletion procedure, so that any potential major histocompatibility complex-committed precursor T cells were allowed to differentiate and expand in the normal parental recipients. 3 mo after reconstitution, the chimeras were immunized with several protein antigens in complete Freund's adjuvant in the footpads and their purified draining lymph node T cells tested 10 d later for ability to recognize antigen on antigen-presenting cells of either parental haplotype. Also, their spleen and lymph node cells were tested for ability to generate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified stimulator cells of either parental haplotype. It was demonstrated that T cell proliferative responses of these F1(nude)----parent chimeras were restricted solely to recognizing parental host I region determinants as self and expressed the Ir gene phenotype of the host. In contrast, CTL responses could be generated (in the presence of interleukin 2) to TNP-modified stimulator cells of either parental haplotype. Thus these results indicate that nude mice which do have CTL with self-specificity for K/D region determinants lack proliferating T cells with self-specificity for I region determinants. These results provide evidence for the concepts that development of the I region-restricted T cell repertoire is strictly an intrathymically determined event and that young nude mice lack the unique thymic elements responsible for education of I region-restricted T cells

  2. Preterm life in sterile conditions: a study on Preterm, germ-Free Piglets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchalová, Alla; Slavíková, Renata; Šplíchalová, Zdislava; Šplíchal, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, FEB 14 (2018), č. článku 220. ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14736S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : preterm * enterocyte * germ-free Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 6.429, year: 2016

  3. Disposition of 14C-erythritol in germfree and conventional rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Bie, B. de; Bar, A.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolism and disposition of U-14C-erythritol was examined in four groups of three male and three female, nonfasted rats each. The rats of groups A and D were germfree; the rats of groups B and C were kept under conventional conditions. The rats of group B received an erythritol-supplemented

  4. Antibiotic-treated versus germ-free rodents for microbiota transplantation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Randi; Toft, Martin Fitzner; August, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We recently investigated the applicability of antibiotic-treated recipient mice for transfer of different gut microbiota profiles. With this addendum we elaborate on perspectives and limitations of using antibiotics as an alternative to germ-free (GF) technology in microbial transplantation studies...

  5. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Po; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8) CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  6. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Po Chen

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8 CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  7. Involvement of Indian hedgehog signaling in mesenchymal stem cell-augmented rotator cuff tendon repair in an athymic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Jian-Chun; Mosca, Michael J; Degen, Ryan M; Lebaschi, Amir; Carballo, Camila; Carbone, Andrew; Cong, Guang-Ting; Ying, Liang; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Rodeo, Scott A

    2017-04-01

    Bone marrow aspirate has been used in recent years to augment tendon-to-bone healing, including in rotator cuff repair. However, the healing mechanism in cell-based therapy has not been elucidated in detail. Sixteen athymic nude rats were randomly allocated to 2 groups: experimental (human mesenchymal stem cells in fibrin glue carrier) and control (fibrin glue only). Animals were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling and SOX9 signaling in the healing enthesis. Macrophages were identified using CD68 and CD163 staining, and proliferating cells were identified using proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining. More organized and stronger staining for collagen II and a higher abundance of SOX9 + cells were observed at the enthesis in the experimental group at 2 weeks. There was significantly higher Gli1 and Patched1 expression in the experimental group at the enthesis at 2 weeks and higher numbers of Ihh + cells in the enthesis of the experimental group vs control at both 2 weeks and 4 weeks postoperatively. There were more CD68 + cells localized to the tendon midsubstance at 2 weeks compared with 4 weeks, and there was a higher level of CD163 staining in the tendon midsubstance in the experimental group than in the control group at 4 weeks. Stem cell application had a positive effect on fibrocartilage formation at the healing rotator cuff repair site. Both SOX9 and Ihh signaling appear to play an important role in the healing process. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumorigenicity and Validity of Fluorescence Labelled Mesenchymal and Epithelial Human Oral Cancer Cell Lines in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xin Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenicity and metastatic activity can be visually monitored in cancer cells that were labelled with stable fluorescence. The aim was to establish and validate local and distant spread of subcutaneously previously injected fluorescence transduced human tongue cancer cell lines of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype in nude mice. A total of 32 four-week-old male athymic Balb/c nude mice were randomly allocated into 4 groups (n=8. A single dose of 0.3 mL PBS containing 1 × 107 of four different cancer cell-lines (UM1, UM1-GFP, UM2, and UM2-RFP was injected subcutaneously into the right side of their posterolateral back. Validity assessment of the labelled cancer cells’ tumorigenicity was assessed by physical examination, imaging, and histology four weeks after the injection. The tumor take rate of cancer cells was similar in animals injected with either parental or transduced cancer cells. Transduced cancer cells in mice were easily detectable in vivo and after cryosection using fluorescent imaging. UM1 cells showed increased tumor take rate and mean tumor volume, presenting with disorganized histopathological patterns. Fluorescence labelled epithelial and mesenchymal human tongue cancer cell lines do not change in tumorigenicity or cell phenotype after injection in vivo.

  9. Diet Matters: Endotoxin in the Diet Impacts the Level of Allergic Sensitization in Germ-Free Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schwarzer

    Full Text Available Germ-free animals have been used to define the vital role of commensal bacteria on the maturation of the host immune system. However, the role of bacterial residues in diet in this setting is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of bacterial contamination in sterile diet on the level of allergic sensitization in germ-free mice. Sterile grain-based diets ST1 and R03 were tested for the level of bacterial contamination. ST1 contained higher amount of bacterial DNA, approximately ten times more endotoxin, and induced higher, TLR4-dependent, cytokine production in dendritic cells compared to R03. In a germ-free mouse model of sensitization to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, feeding on ST1 for at least two generations was associated with decreased production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 antibodies in sera in comparison to R03. Furthermore, reduced levels of allergen-specific and ConA-induced cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 accompanied by increased levels of IFN-γ were detected in splenocytes cultures of these mice. Our results show that contamination of experimental diet with bacterial residues, such as endotoxin, significantly affects the development of allergic sensitization in germ-free mice. Therefore, careful selection of sterile food is critical for the outcomes of germ-free or gnotobiotic experimental models of immune-deviated diseases.

  10. Split tolerance in nude mice transplanted with 2'-deoxyguanosine-treated allogeneic thymus lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, G.; Moriyama, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kawase, Y.; Habu, S.

    1989-01-01

    To elucidate the acquisition of self tolerance in the thymus, full-allogeneic thymic chimeras were constructed. Athymic C3H and BALB/c nude mice were reconstituted with the thymic lobes of BALB/c and B10.BR fetuses, respectively, that were organ cultured for 5 days in the presence of 2'-deoxyguanosine. T cells in these chimeras were tolerized to the host MHC in both MLR and CTL assays. In contrast, T cells in the chimeras exhibited split tolerance for the thymic MHC haplotype. CTL specific for class I MHC of the thymic haplotype were generated not only from the peripheral T cells of the chimeras but also from thymocytes re-populated in the engrafted thymic lobes. However, T cells in these chimeras responded poorly to the class II MHC of the thymic haplotype in a standard MLR assay. In a syngeneic MLR culture upon stimulation with enriched APC of the thymic haplotype, only 22 to 48% of the responses were mediated by CD4+ cells, and proliferations of CD4- cells were prominent. There were no haplotype-specific suppressor cells detected which would cause the unresponsiveness to the thymic class II MHC. These results indicated that the thymic lobes treated with 2'-deoxyguanosine were defective in the ability to induce the transplantation tolerance for the class I MHC expressed on the thymus, although the same thymic lobes were able to induce the transplantation tolerance for the thymic class II MHC

  11. Developmental plasticity of bacterial colonies and consortia in germ-free and gnotobiotic settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pátková Irena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria grown on semi-solid media can build two types of multicellular structures, depending on the circumstances. Bodies (colonies arise when a single clone is grown axenically (germ-free, whereas multispecies chimeric consortia contain monoclonal microcolonies of participants. Growth of an axenic colony, mutual interactions of colonies, and negotiation of the morphospace in consortial ecosystems are results of intricate regulatory and metabolic networks. Multicellular structures developed by Serratia sp. are characteristically shaped and colored, forming patterns that reflect their growth conditions (in particular medium composition and the presence of other bacteria. Results Building on our previous work, we developed a model system for studying ontogeny of multicellular bacterial structures formed by five Serratia sp. morphotypes of two species grown in either "germ-free" or "gnotobiotic" settings (i.e. in the presence of bacteria of other conspecific morphotype, other Serratia species, or E. coli. Monoclonal bodies show regular and reproducible macroscopic appearance of the colony, as well as microscopic pattern of its growing margin. Standard development can be modified in a characteristic and reproducible manner in close vicinity of other bacterial structures (or in the presence of their products. Encounters of colonies with neighbors of a different morphotype or species reveal relationships of dominance, cooperation, or submission; multiple interactions can be summarized in "rock – paper – scissors" network of interrelationships. Chimerical (mixed plantings consisting of two morphotypes usually produced a “consortium” whose structure is consistent with the model derived from interaction patterns observed in colonies. Conclusions Our results suggest that development of a bacterial colony can be considered analogous to embryogenesis in animals, plants, or fungi: to proceed, early stages require thorough

  12. Metabolism of 14C-labelled urea in conventional, germ-free and mono-associated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhr, N.C.; Franke, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report deals with the utilization of 14 C-labelled urea in conventional, defined associated and germ-free rats. With conventional animals 71.44% of the administered 14 C dose can be demonstrated in the exhaled air, 0.47% in organs and 27.35% in the urine. 1.04% were found in the intestinal and fecal contents. Animals mono-associated with Proteus mirabilis have nearly the same utilization rate (59.15, 0.34, 35.98, 2% resp.). In germ-free animals 1.21% of the activity appeared in the exhaled air and showed a small part of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The excretion of 97.70% in the urine shows, that urea is absorbed from the intestine in germ-free animals. (author)

  13. An athymic mouse model to mimic cobalt-60 cutaneous radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, Rodrigo Crespo; Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto; Napolitano, Celia Marina; Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Dornelles, Leonardo Dalla Porta; Alvarenga, Eluara Ortigoso; Mathor, Monica Beatriz, E-mail: rcmosca@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Propose: Cutaneous wound from irradiation is the most common complication in radiotherapy treatment, and can be lead to mortality. We describe an athymic mouse model to mimic cutaneous radiation injury by Cobalt-60. Methods: A protocol was including dosimetry with silicon diodes,10x10x5 cm arrangement made by four lead bricks and PVC pipe designed to immobilize the athymic mouse in order to irradiate one clamped back skin point that was subdivided in four parts. To get the measurements of dose rates on the arrangement in Panoramic Irradiator, it was used a silicon diode encased in an opaque protection for ambient light and connected to an electric cable, forming a dosing probe. The currents generated in diode sensitive volume as a function of time of exposure to gamma radiation coming from the radiator, with dose rate of 0,015 Gy/min in positions 1, 0,021 Gy/min in position 2, 0,55 Gy/min in position 3 and 1,45 Gy/min in position four. After the dosimetry, each athymic mouse was anesthetized using Xylazine and Ketamine dilution and entered into a PVC pipe and a small portion of skin (1 cm{sup 3}) was clamped. This tube was then fixed to arrangement and the athymic mouse was irradiate for 60 min, than it was being returned to its cage. Results: The wound was visualized in all animals and photographed after 5 days of irradiation, with the emergence of ulceration after 9 days. No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred or visualized in any animals. Late clinical signs included a wound healing after 22 days. Conclusion: While still being a baseline study, we created a new functional preclinical animal model that can be used for new therapies and may improve radiotherapy management. (author)

  14. An athymic mouse model to mimic cobalt-60 cutaneous radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, Rodrigo Crespo; Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto; Napolitano, Celia Marina; Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Dornelles, Leonardo Dalla Porta; Alvarenga, Eluara Ortigoso; Mathor, Monica Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Propose: Cutaneous wound from irradiation is the most common complication in radiotherapy treatment, and can be lead to mortality. We describe an athymic mouse model to mimic cutaneous radiation injury by Cobalt-60. Methods: A protocol was including dosimetry with silicon diodes,10x10x5 cm arrangement made by four lead bricks and PVC pipe designed to immobilize the athymic mouse in order to irradiate one clamped back skin point that was subdivided in four parts. To get the measurements of dose rates on the arrangement in Panoramic Irradiator, it was used a silicon diode encased in an opaque protection for ambient light and connected to an electric cable, forming a dosing probe. The currents generated in diode sensitive volume as a function of time of exposure to gamma radiation coming from the radiator, with dose rate of 0,015 Gy/min in positions 1, 0,021 Gy/min in position 2, 0,55 Gy/min in position 3 and 1,45 Gy/min in position four. After the dosimetry, each athymic mouse was anesthetized using Xylazine and Ketamine dilution and entered into a PVC pipe and a small portion of skin (1 cm 3 ) was clamped. This tube was then fixed to arrangement and the athymic mouse was irradiate for 60 min, than it was being returned to its cage. Results: The wound was visualized in all animals and photographed after 5 days of irradiation, with the emergence of ulceration after 9 days. No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred or visualized in any animals. Late clinical signs included a wound healing after 22 days. Conclusion: While still being a baseline study, we created a new functional preclinical animal model that can be used for new therapies and may improve radiotherapy management. (author)

  15. Dying and regeneration of human tumor cells after heterotransplantation to athymic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Köpf-Maler, P.

    1986-01-01

    The histologic phenomena occurring immediately after heterotransplantation of two human colon adenocarcinomas to athymic mice have been studied. The tumors differed with respect to velocity of growth and passage age. Three phases were discernible in both cases. (1) During the first phase, most inoculated tumor cells died. (2) The second phase was characterized by removal of the necrotic tumor cells by immigrated inflammatory cells and by penetration of the conn...

  16. Prevention of diarrhoea using pathogen specific monoclonal antibodies in an experimental enterotoxigenic E. coli infection in germfree piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, de B.; Harmsen, M.; Zijderveld, van F.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effect of oral application of mAB specific for ETEC F4(ac) fimbriae in an experimental ETEC challenge model in neonatal germfree piglets. The results show that mAB, specific for different F4(ac) epitopes protect animals against ETEC specific pathology. Moreover,

  17. Suppression of cellular immunity in obstructive jaundice is caused by endotoxins: a study with germ-free rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve, J. W.; Gouma, D. J.; Soeters, P. B.; Buurman, W. A.

    1990-01-01

    The increased susceptibility to infections after surgery in jaundiced patients is considered to be caused by an impairment of cellular immunity and/or nutritional status. Endotoxins are suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis. However, the mechanism of action is unknown. Germ-free rats were

  18. Combined effects of porous hydroxyapatite and demineralized bone matrix on bone induction: in vitro and in vivo study using a nude rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Kyung-Mee; Baek, Hae-Ri; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Ho; Ryu, Hyun-Seung

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factors. A combination of DBM and HA is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of DBM and HA on osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo using an athymic nude rat abdominal muscle pouch model, and evaluated the possibility of HA as a carrier of DBM. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP assay and measurements of the mRNA expression of ALP and Runx2 by RT-PCR were performed by transplanting human mesenchymal stem cells onto a plate. Five athymic nude rats each were assigned to one of two experimental groups (DBM/HA putty and only HA, i.e. 15 pouches per group). The muscle pouches were filled with DBM/HA putty or only HA. Radiographs were obtained at weeks 4 and 8, postoperatively. The animals were sacrificed at week 8 postoperatively and high resolution microCT was used to confirm the newly formed mineralized tissue. Each pouch was fixed, embedded, sectioned and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. The ALP value of the DBM/HA putty was higher than those of HA and control (p < 0.05, each). The expression of ALP mRNA appeared higher on the DBM/HA putty than on HA and control. MicroCT and histology examinations of the DBM/HA putty demonstrated the presence of newly generated mineralized tissues but there was no mineralized tissue in the HA cases. In conclusion, the DBM/HA putty indicated osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and showed ectopic mineralized tissue formation in the rat abdominal pouch model. These findings indicate that the DBM/HA putty can retain its oteoinductivity and HA can be used as a carrier of DBM.

  19. Combined effects of porous hydroxyapatite and demineralized bone matrix on bone induction: in vitro and in vivo study using a nude rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Kyung-Mee; Baek, Hae-Ri; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Ho [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University School of Medicine, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyun-Seung, E-mail: spinelee@snu.ac.kr [Research and Development Center, CGBio Inc., Seong-Nam 462-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factors. A combination of DBM and HA is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of DBM and HA on osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo using an athymic nude rat abdominal muscle pouch model, and evaluated the possibility of HA as a carrier of DBM. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP assay and measurements of the mRNA expression of ALP and Runx2 by RT-PCR were performed by transplanting human mesenchymal stem cells onto a plate. Five athymic nude rats each were assigned to one of two experimental groups (DBM/HA putty and only HA, i.e. 15 pouches per group). The muscle pouches were filled with DBM/HA putty or only HA. Radiographs were obtained at weeks 4 and 8, postoperatively. The animals were sacrificed at week 8 postoperatively and high resolution microCT was used to confirm the newly formed mineralized tissue. Each pouch was fixed, embedded, sectioned and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. The ALP value of the DBM/HA putty was higher than those of HA and control (p < 0.05, each). The expression of ALP mRNA appeared higher on the DBM/HA putty than on HA and control. MicroCT and histology examinations of the DBM/HA putty demonstrated the presence of newly generated mineralized tissues but there was no mineralized tissue in the HA cases. In conclusion, the DBM/HA putty indicated osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and showed ectopic mineralized tissue formation in the rat abdominal pouch model. These findings indicate that the DBM/HA putty can retain its oteoinductivity and HA can be used as a carrier of DBM.

  20. [Anatomy and histology characteristics of lymph node in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R; Gao, B; Guo, C B

    2017-10-18

    To compare the differences of anatomical and histological characteristics of lymph nodes between BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. Firstly, twenty BALB/c nude mice and twenty BALB/c mice were dissected by using a surgical microscope. Secondly, the differences of T cells and B cells at the lymph node were compared by the expressions of CD 3 and CD 20 immunohistochemistry dyes. There were, on average, 23 nodes per mouse contained within the large lymph node assembly in the BALB/c nude mouse. The anatomical features of the lymph node distribution in the nude mice were mainly found in the neck with relatively higher density. There were two lymph nodes both in the submandible lymph nodes group and in the superficial cervical lymph nodes group (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c nude mice, but there were four lymph nodes (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c mice. There were significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Mostly there were two lymph nodes of deep cervical lymph nodes both in the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice (the constituent ratios were 95% and 100%, respectively). There were no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. We confirmed that the number of CD 3 -positive T lymphocytes in lymph nodes of the nude mice decreased greatly as compared with the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD3 in T cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There were significant differences between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD20 in B cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There was no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. The anatomical pictures of lymph node distribution in the nude mouse will be benefit to those who are interested. The anatomical features of the lymph node local higher density in neck of

  1. Induction of farnesoid X receptor signaling in germ-free mice colonized with a human microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Annika; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota influences the development and progression of metabolic diseases partly by metabolism of bile acids (BAs) and modified signaling through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). In this study, we aimed to determine how the human gut microbiota metabolizes murine BAs and affects FXR...... signaling in colonized mice. We colonized germ-free mice with cecal content from a mouse donor or feces from a human donor and euthanized the mice after short-term (2 weeks) or long-term (15 weeks) colonization. We analyzed the gut microbiota and BA composition and expression of FXR target genes in ileum...... and liver. We found that cecal microbiota composition differed between mice colonized with mouse and human microbiota and was stable over time. Human and mouse microbiota reduced total BA levels similarly, but the humanized mice produced less secondary BAs. The human microbiota was able to reduce the levels...

  2. Radiation-induced life shortening in neonatally thymectomized germ-free mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Howarth, J.L.; Troup, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation in sufficient amounts is carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, and results in a reduced life span. Similar consequences follow neonatal thymectomy (nTx) in some strains of rodents. The tumorigenic effects of irradiation appear to be partly mediated via suppression of the thymus-dependent portion of the immune response. Our purpose was to determine whether a similar relationship exists for radiation-induced accelerated aging. Female germ-free Charles River mice had neonatal or sham thymectomies within 24 hours of birth. Half of each group was exposed to 700 rads at 6 weeks of age. When mice with histologically malignant tumors were excluded, the combined life-shortening effects of nTx and irradiation were less pronounced than the sum of the individual effects. This suggests that some of the decreased longevity associated with irradiation may be mediated by T-cell injury

  3. Reduced incidence of stress ulcer in germ-free Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, W P; Burken, M I; Allen, E D; Kluczynski, J M

    1993-01-01

    Recent findings with respect to the role of spiral gram-negative bacteria in peptic ulcer disease have stimulated interest in discerning the role of these agents in stress ulcer disease. We tested the hypothesis that a standard restraint-cold ulcerogenic procedure would fail to produce ulcers in axenic rats. Axenic, as well as normal Sprague Dawley rats, were exposed to a cold-restraint procedure. The germ-free condition was maintained throughout the study in the axenic rats. Axenic rats had significantly fewer ulcers as compared to normal rats exposed to the standard cold-restraint procedure, as well as handling control rats. The data represent the first report suggesting a microbiologic component in the development of stress ulcer using the rat model.

  4. Withaferin A Suppresses Liver Tumor Growth in a Nude Mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of withaferin A on tumor growth and metastasis in liver in a nude mouse model. Methods: Withaferin A was injected through a portal vein to the orthotopic liver tumor in a nude mice model. Xenogen in vivo imaging system was used to monitor tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of ...

  5. A nude mouse model of obesity to study the mechanisms of resistance to aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schech, Amanda; Yu, Stephen; Goloubeva, Olga; McLenithan, John; Sabnis, Gauri

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer progression. Breast cancer patients who are overweight or obese or have excess abdominal fat have an increased risk of local or distant recurrence and cancer-related death. Hormone depletion therapies can also cause weight gain, exacerbating the risk for these patients. To understand the effect of obesity on hormone-dependent human breast cancer tumors, we fed ovariectomized athymic nude mice a diet containing 45% kcal fat and 17% kcal sucrose (high fat sucrose diet (HFSD)), 10% kcal fat (low fat diet (LFD)), or a standard chow diet (chow). The mice fed the HFSD developed metabolic abnormalities consistent with the development of obesity such as weight gain, high fasting blood glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance. These mice also developed hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. The obese mice also had a higher tumor growth rate compared to the lean mice. Furthermore, the obese mice showed a significantly reduced responsiveness to letrozole. To understand the role of obesity in this reduced responsiveness, we examined the effect of insulin on the growth of MCF-7Ca cells in response to estrogen or letrozole. The presence of insulin rendered MCF-7Ca cells less responsive to estrogen and letrozole. Exogenous insulin treatment of MCF-7Ca cells also resulted in increased p-Akt as well as ligand-independent phosphorylation of ERα. These findings suggest that diet-induced obesity may result in reduced responsiveness of tumors to letrozole due to the development of hyperinsulinemia. We conclude that obesity influences the response and resistance of breast cancer tumors to aromatase inhibitor treatment. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. The LDsub(50/30) and the survival time in whole-body gamma-irradiated conventional and germfree Minnesota miniature piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, L.; Travnicek, J.; Talafantova, M.; Zahradnickova, M.

    1980-01-01

    The median lethal exposure causing the death in 30 days after single whole-body gamma-irradiation (the LD 50/30) was found to be 2731 MBq (73.8 mC/kg) for conventional piglets, but 3226 MBq (87.2 mC/kg) for germ-free piglets both irradiated 14 days after birth. After lethal exposures, the survival time in germ-free piglets was prolonged for 7 days in comparison with conventional piglets. (author)

  7. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jit Kong; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Yang, Christopher M; Sun, Xiaoming; Nasr, Susan L; Sim, Khe Guan; Peh, Bee Keow; Rashid, Suhaimi Bin Abdul; Bonventre, Joseph V; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Hsu, Stephen I

    2009-01-20

    Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2). Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1) inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2) comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA) knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  8. Targeted radiotherapy with 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez C, J.; Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M.; Ferro F, G.; Murphy S, E.

    2006-01-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses after administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE in mice as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (n=18) to obtain the 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE biokinetics and dosimetry. To estimate its therapeutic efficacy 87 MBq were injected in a tail vein of 3 mice and 19 days p.i. there were a partial relapse. There was an epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidneys of mouse III. The absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 50.5 ± 7.2 Gy, 17.5 ± 2.5 Gy and 12.6 ± 2.3 Gy respectively. These studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man considering its kidney radiotoxicity. (Author)

  9. Targeted radiotherapy with 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M. A de; Pedraza L, M.; Rodriguez C, J.; Ferro F, G.; Murphy S, E.

    2006-01-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses and to evaluate 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells, which over-express somatostatin receptors, were injected in athymic mice and 20 days later the mean tumour size was 3.08 square cm (n=3). A mean of 86.3 MBq 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE, was injected in a tail vein and 19 days after therapy the size of the tumours was 0.81 square cm. There was a partial relapse and after 16 days, when sacrificed, the mean tumour size was 8.28 cubic cm. An epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidney of one treated mouse was found. The tumour of the control mouse was 8.61 cubic cm when sacrificed 14 days after tumour induction. Radiotherapy estimates to the tumours was 35.9-39.7 Gy and the tumours might have been completely reduced with a second therapy dose. These preliminary studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that Lu- 177 -DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man, considering kidney radiation. (Author)

  10. Alpinia pricei Rhizome Extracts Induce Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Squamous Carcinoma KB Cells and Suppress Tumor Growth in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Cheng Hseu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia pricei has been shown to induce apoptosis in human squamous carcinoma (KB cells. In this study, we report the effectiveness of the ethanol (70% extracts of A. pricei rhizome (AP extracts in terms of tumor regression as determined using both in vitro cell culture and in vivo athymic nude mice models of KB cells. We found that the AP extract (25–200 μg/mL treatment decreased the proliferation of KB cells by arresting progression through the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. This cell cycle blockade was associated with reductions in cyclin A and B1, Cdc2, and Cdc25C, and increased p21/WAF1, Wee1, p53 and phospho-p53 (p-p53 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that AP extract treatment decreased metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA expression, while expression of their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 (TIMP-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, were increased in KB cells. Furthermore, AP extract treatment effectively delayed tumor incidence in nude mice inoculated with KB cells and reduced the tumor burden. AP extract treatment also induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation, as detected by in situ TUNEL staining. Thus, A. pricei may possess antitumor activity in human squamous carcinoma (KB cells.

  11. Utilization of 14C-labelled cellulose in conventional, germ-free and mono-associated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhr, N.C.; Franke, J.; Ratsch, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report deals with the ultilization of 14 C-labelled cellulose in conventional, defined associated, and germ-free rats. With conventional animals 35.8% of the administered 14 C dose can be demonstrated in the exhaled air, 5.9% in organs, and 3.9% in the urine. 58.6% could be identified as not utilized in the intestinal and fecal contents. Animals mono-associated with Bacteroides succinogenes have about the same utilization rate. The appearance of 14 C in the exhaled air, in organs and the urine of germ-free animals is caused by a part of 14 C-labelled starch in the used test material. (author)

  12. The effect of 2 different housing systems on germ-free mice colonized with a complex gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Randi; Toft, Martin Fitzner; August, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Translational animal models are essential prerequisites in exploring functions and causality of the microbiome in human health and disease. Animal models targeted at microbiome research can be germ-free mice inoculated either with a monoculture or with defined (gnotobiotic) or undefined bacterial......, but there is a lack of knowledge on the stability of complex bacterial communities in IVCs. Germ-free SW mice were inoculated with a complex murine microbiota, housed in an isolator or in IVCs and bred for two generations, corresponding to a time course of 5 months. The gut microbiota was characterized by 16S...... Biosciences and Innovation Fund Denmark. The project is a collaboration between Taconic Biosciences, University of Copenhagen and the 3G Centre (Gut, Grain and Greens)....

  13. Ectopic bone formation in nude rats using human osteoblasts seeded poly(3)hydroxybutyrate embroidery and hydroxyapatite-collagen tapes constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ronald; Hagedorn, Manolo Gunnar; Gelinsky, Michael; Werner, Carsten; Turhani, Dritan; Späth, Heike; Gedrange, Tomas; Lauer, Günter

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ectopic bone formation using tissue engineered cell-seeded constructs with two different scaffolds and primary human maxillary osteoblasts in nude rats over an implantation period of up to 96 days. Collagen I-coated Poly(3)hydroxybutyrate (PHB) embroidery and hydroxyapatite (HAP) collagen tapes were seeded with primary human maxillary osteoblasts (hOB) and implanted into athymic rnu/run rats. A total of 72 implants were placed into the back muscles of 18 rats. 24, 48 and 96 days after implantation, histological and histomorphometric analyses were made. The osteoblastic character of the cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR for osteocalcin. Histological analysis demonstrated that all cell-seeded constructs induced ectopic bone formation after 24, 48 and 96 days of implantation. There was more mineralized tissue in PHB constructs than in HAP-collagen tapes (at day 24; p embroidery or HAP-collagen tapes can induce ectopic bone formation. However, the amount of bone formed decreased with increasing length of implantation.

  14. Human malignant melanomas in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, S.W.; Braffman, B.H.; Lo Brutto, R.; Elder, D.E.; Herlyn, D.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate signal intensities and relaxation times on MR images in malignant melanomas with histopathologic features and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. Cell lines from human malignant melanomas in tissue culture were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. MR imaging was performed in vivo at 1.9 T to assess 12 separate lesions in ten mice using spin-echo and inversion-recovery techniques. T1,T2, and N(H) were calculated in all cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on specimens resected immediately after imaging, using hematoxylin and eosin, Prussian blue, and Fontan stains to assess for tumor necrosis, iron, and melanin content. EPR spectra were also obtained on four resected specimens. The authors' results indicate that the relaxation behavior of nonhemorrhagic malignant melanomas cannot be explained solely by the presence of necrosis, water content, or iron content. The degree of melanin within these tumors did correlate with T1 relaxation enhancement. T2 relaxation times did not correlate with the sole presence of either iron, melanin, or necrosis. Although the unique relaxation behavior of nonhemorrhagic malignant melanoma seems to have many causes, their data suggest that, contrary to previous investigations, it is influenced by the presence of melanin rather than iron

  15. Reversal of multidrug resistance by magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle copolymerizating daunorubicin and 5-bromotetrandrine in xenograft nude-mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoan; Cheng, Jian; Wu, Yanan; Gao, Feng; Xu, Wenlin; Shen, Huilin; Ding, Jiahua; Gao, Chong; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xinchen; Cheng, Hongyan; Li, Guohong; Chen, Wenji; Chen, Ningna; Liu, Lijie; Li, Xiaomao; Wang, Xuemei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we establish the xenograft leukemia model with stable multidrug resistance in nude mice and to investigate the reversal effect of 5-bromotetrandrine (5-BrTet) and magnetic nanoparticle of Fe(3)O(4) (MNP-Fe(3)O(4)) combined with daunorubicin (DNR) in vivo. Two subclones of K562 and K562/A02 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the back of athymic nude mice (1 x 10(7) cells/each) respectively to establish leukemia xenograft models. Drug-resistant and sensitive tumor-bearing nude mice were assigned randomly into five groups which were treated with normal saline; DNR; NP-Fe(3)O(4) combined with DNR; 5-BrTet combined with DNR; 5-BrTet and MNP-Fe(3)O(4) combined with DNR, respectively. The incidence of formation, growth characteristics, weight, and volume of tumors were observed. The histopathologic examination of tumors and organs were detected. For resistant tumors, the protein levels of Bcl-2, and BAX were detected by Western blot. Bcl-2, BAX, and caspase-3 genes were also detected. For K562/A02 cells xenograft tumors, 5-BrTet and MNP-Fe(3)O(4) combined with DNR significantly suppressed growth of tumor. A histopathologic examination of tumors clearly showed necrosis of the tumors. Application of 5-BrTet and MNP-Fe(3)O(4) inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 protein and upregulated the expression of BAX and caspase-3 proteins in K562/A02 cells xenograft tumor. It is concluded that 5-BrTet and MNP-Fe(3)O(4) combined with DNR had a significant tumor-suppressing effect on a MDR leukemia cells xenograft model.

  16. Reversal of multidrug resistance in xenograft nude-mice by magnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles combined with daunorubicin and 5-bromotetrandrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Nan; Chen, Bao-An; Cheng, Jian; Gao, Feng; Xu, Wen-Lin; Ding, Jia-Hua; Gao, Chong; Sun, Xin-Chen; Li, Guo-Hong; Chen, Wen-Ji; Liu, Li-Jie; Li, Xiao-Mao; Wang, Xue-Mei

    2009-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the reversal effect of 5-bromotetrandrine (5-BrTet) and magnetic nanoparticle of Fe(3)O(4) (Fe(3)O(4)-MNPs) combined with DNR in vivo. The xenograft leukemia model with stable multiple drug resistance in nude mice was established. The two sub-clones of K562 and K562/A02 cells were respectively inoculated subcutaneously into back of athymic nude mice (1 x 10(7) cells/each) to establish the leukemia xenograft models. Drug resistant and the sensitive tumor-bearing nude mice were both assigned randomly into 5 groups: group A was treated with NS; group B was treated with DNR; group C was treated with nanoparticle of Fe(3)O(4) combined with DNR; group D was treated with 5-BrTet combined with DNR; group E was treated with 5-bromotetrandrine and magnetic nanoparticle of Fe(3)O(4) combined with DNR. The incidence of tumor formation, growth characteristics, weight and volume of tumor were observed. The histopathologic examination of tumors and organs were carried out. The protein levels of BCL-2, BAX, and Caspase-3 in resistant tumors were detected by Western blot. The results indicated that 5-BrTet and magnetic nanoparticle of Fe(3)O(4) combined with DNR significantly suppressed growth of K562/A02 cell xenograft tumor, histopathologic examination of tumors showed the tumors necrosis obviously. Application of 5-BrTet and magnetic nanoparticle of Fe(3)O(4) inhibited the expression of BCL-2 protein and up-regulated the expression of BAX, and Caspase-3 protein in K562/A02 cell xenograft tumor. It is concluded that 5-bromotetrandrine and magnetic nanoparticle of Fe(3)O(4) combined with DNR have significant tumor-suppressing effect on MDR leukemia cell xenograft model.

  17. Influence of indigenous microbiota on experimental toxoplasmosis in conventional and germ-free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Bruna B; Cartelle, Christiane T; Noviello, Maria de L; Pinheiro, Breno V; de Almeida Vitor, Ricardo W; Souza, Danielle da G; de Vasconcelos Generoso, Simone; Cardoso, Valbert N; Martins, Flaviano Dos S; Nicoli, Jacques R; Arantes, Rosa M E

    2017-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis represents one of the most common zoonoses worldwide. Its agent, Toxoplasma gondii, causes a severe innate pro-inflammatory response. The indigenous intestinal microbiota promotes host animal homoeostasis and may protect the host against pathogens. Germ-free (GF) animals provide an important tool for the study of interactions between host and microbiota. In this study, we assessed the role of indigenous microorganisms in disease development utilizing a murine toxoplasmosis model, which includes conventional (CV) and GF NIH Swiss mice. CV and GF mice orally inoculated with T. gondii had similar survival curves. However, disease developed differently in the two animal groups. In CV mice, intestinal permeability increased and levels of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines were altered. In GF animals, there were discrete epithelial degenerative changes and mucosal oedema, but the liver and lungs displayed significant lesions. We conclude that, despite similar survival curves, CV animals succumb to an exaggerated inflammatory response, whereas GF mice fail to produce an adequate systemic response. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2017 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  18. Radiolabeled porphyrin versus gallium-67 citrate for the detection of human melanoma in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maric, N.; Chan, S. Ming; Hoffer, P.B.; Duray, P.

    1987-01-01

    We performed the biodistribution and imaging studies of 111 In and 67 Ga labeled tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphine, (T4NMPYP), and compared it to that of 67 Ga citrate in athymic mice bearing a human melanoma xenograft. The biodistribution results of both 111 In and 67 Ga labeled T4NMPYP (3, 6, 24, and 48 hours) were similar but differed from that of 67 Ga citrate (48 hours). The optimum tumor uptake of both radiolabeled porphyrins was at 6 hours postinjection and was lower than the tumor uptake of 67 Ga citrate at 48 hours postinjection. Kidney was the only organ showing higher uptake of radiolabeled porphyrin compared to that of 67 Ga citrate. The imaging studies performed with 111 In T4NMPYP and 67 Ga citrate correspond to the biodistribution results. Osteomyelitis present in one mouse showed good localization of 111 In T4NMPYP. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Increased intestinal mucosal turnover and radiosensitivity to supralethal whole-body irradiation resulting from cholic acid-induced alterations of the intestinal microecology of germfree CFW mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastromarino, A.J.; Wilson, R.

    1976-01-01

    The prolonged mean survival time of germfree mice, compared to conventional mice, after exposure to 1000-10,000 rad whole-body irradiation has been postulated to be a function of an increased turnover time of the intestinal mucosal cells caused by the absence of free bile acids. To test this hypothesis, the diet of germ-free CFW mice was supplemented with 0.15 percent cholic acid for 2 weeks. The turnover of thymidine-labeled intestinal mucosal cells and the radiosensitivity to supralethal whole-body irradiation were significantly increased compared to germfree controls. There was a positive correlation between increased survivial time after supralethal whole-body irradiation and slower intestinal mucosal turnover time. Germfree mice supplemented with cholic acid had intestinal mucosal turnover times comparable to those of conventionalized controls. Although cholic acid reduces the mean survival time of germfree mice after suppralethal whole-body irradiation, the mean survival value is significantly greater than the conventionalized controls. Supplementing the diet of conventionalized CFW mice with cholic acid did not significantly decrease the intestinal mucosal turnover time nor did it significantly alter their radiosensitivity to supralethal whole-body irradiation. The data suggest that cholic acid is one of the microecological factors responsible for controlling the mucosal renewal rate and the mean survival time after whole-body irradiation

  20. Role of intestinal microbes on body nitrogen accumulation in germfree, gnotobiotic and conventional mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, M; Nomura, T [Central Inst. for Experimental Animals, Tokyo (Japan); Kametka, M

    1974-10-01

    In order to observe the influence of intestinal microbes, nitrogen (N) of the carcasses and of the gut contents of 80-day-old germfree (GF), Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus epidermidis (Staph.) monocontaminated (at 56 days of age) gnotobiotic (GB) and conventional (CV) mice was estimated. The body weight of CV mice was greater than that of GF and both GB mice. The same tendencies were also shown in the weights of liver and kidney. However, there were no remarkable differences between GF and GB mice. Total N of the whole carcass per 100 g of body weight (except for intestinal contents) of CV mice was higher than that of other mice. The rank was CV, Staph., E. coli and GF mice. There was no major difference in /sup 15/N accumulation in the whole carcass, liver and leg muscles of three mice in each group two days after they were given a 0.2% /sup 15/N-labelled secondary ammonium phosphate-supplemented diet in any group, but accumulation in CV mice tended to be higher than in GF and GB mice. Total N of the whole intestinal contents per 100 g of body weight was high in GF, E. coli, Staph. and CV mice in that order. N in cecal contents in GF and both GB mice was remarkably higher than that in CV mice. The ratio of protein N to total N of gut contents showed almost the same tendencies in all groups until the lower part of the small intestine, however from the cecum the tendencies were different. CV mice showed an especially high protein N ratio and high total N per unit chromic oxide of intestinal contents until the cecum, but they decreased in the colon and rectum, which might suggest more reabsorption of non-protein N in the cecum, colon and rectum than in GF and both GB mice.

  1. Role of intestinal microbes on body nitrogen accumulation in germfree, gnotobiotic and conventional mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanori; Nomura, Tatsuji; Kametka, Masao.

    1974-01-01

    In order to observe the influence of intestinal microbes, nitrogen (N) of the carcasses and of the gut contents of 80-day-old germfree (GF), Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus epidermidis (Staph.) monocontaminated (at 56 days of age) gnotobiotic (GB) and conventional (CV) mice was estimated. The body weight of CV mice was greater than that of GF and both GB mice. The same tendencies were also shown in the weights of liver and kidney. However, there were no remarkable differences between GF and GB mice. Total N of the whole carcass per 100 g of body weight (except for intestinal contents) of CV mice was higher than that of other mice. The rank was CV, Staph., E. coli and GF mice. There was no major difference in 15 N accumulation in the whole carcass, liver and leg muscles of three mice in each group two days after they were given a 0.2% 15 N-labelled secondary ammonium phosphate-supplemented diet in any group, but accumulation in CV mice tended to be higher than in GF and GB mice. Total N of the whole intestinal contents per 100 g of body weight was high in GF, E. coli, Staph. and CV mice in that order. N in cecal contents in GF and both GB mice was remarkably higher than that in CV mice. The ratio of protein N to total N of gut contents showed almost the same tendencies in all groups until the lower part of the small intestine, however from the cecum the tendencies were different. CV mice showed an especially high protein N ratio and high total N per unit chromic oxide of intestinal contents until the cecum, but they decreased in the colon and rectum, which might suggest more reabsorption of non-protein N in the cecum, colon and rectum than in GF and both GB mice. (auth.)

  2. Mono-colonization with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects the intestinal metabolome as compared to germ-free mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper

    Every single species of the gut microbiota produce low-molecular-weight compounds that are absorbed constantly from the intestinal lumen and carried to systemic circulation where they play a direct role in health and disease. However, very few studies address the host metabolome as a function...... of colonizing bacteria. In this study the effect of the Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM strain was investigated by comparing the metabolome of mono-colonized and germ-free mice in several compartments. By liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we were able to show that the metabolome differed...

  3. Baring the soul: Paul Bindrim, Abraham Maslow and 'nude psychotherapy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Nude psychotherapy is one of the most flamboyant therapeutic techniques ever developed in American psychology. Largely forgotten today, the therapy was an academic and popular sensation upon its introduction in 1967. Developed by psychologist Paul Bindrim, the therapy promised to guide clients to their authentic selves through the systematic removal of clothing. This paper explores the intellectual, cultural and ethical context of nude therapy and its significance as a form of unchurched spirituality. Although nude therapy has an indisputable tabloid character, it is also rooted in a long-standing academic search for authenticity and ultimate meaning through science. Bindrim's career demonstrates the historically long-standing interweaving of spirituality and science within American psychology while simultaneously highlighting the field's extraordinary capacity for adaptive reinvention.

  4. Radiolocalization of bovine lymphosarcoma cells in athymic mice, using a monoclonal antibody against tumor-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aida, Y.; Ochiai, K.; Ito, K.; Onuma, M.; Fujimori, F.; Fujimoto, Y.; Izawa, H.

    1987-01-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibody c 143 was purified and F(ab')2 fragments were generated by pepsin digestion and then radiolabeled with 125 I. The 125 I-labeled c 143 F(ab')2 fragments were injected into athymic mice bearing bovine lymphoid tumor cells. The fragments became preferentially localized in tumor tissues, but not in normal tissues, as determined by differential counting of tissue radioactivity. The fragments became localized specifically in those tumors that were reactive with c 143 in vitro, but did not become localized in unrelated tumors. Localization of labeled F(ab')2 fragments of a monoclonal antibody of the same isotype directed against Taka virus (a variant of Newcastle disease virus) was not observed in athymic mice bearing bovine lymphoid tumor cells. Tumors were detectable by radioimmunoscintigraphy, using radiolabeled c 143 F(ab')2 fragments, without background subtraction, and by use of silver-grain scattering in light microscopic autoradiography

  5. Differentiation and functional maturation of bone marrow-derived intestinal epithelial T cells expressing membrane T cell receptor in athymic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.L.; Styre, D.; Klein, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The thymus dependency of murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) was studied in an athymic F1----parent radiation chimera model. IEL, although not splenic or lymph node lymphocytes, from athymic chimeras displayed normal levels of cells bearing the class-specific T cell Ag, CD4 and CD8; the TCR-associated molecule, CD3; and the Thy-1 Ag. Moreover, two-color flow cytometric analyses of IEL from athymic mice demonstrated regulated expression of T cell Ag characteristic of IEL subset populations from thymus-bearing mice. In immunoprecipitation experiments, surface TCR-alpha beta or TCR-gamma delta were expressed on IEL, although not on splenic lymphocytes, from athymic chimeras. That IEL from athymic chimeras constituted a population of functionally mature effector cells activated in situ, similar to IEL from thymus-bearing mice, was demonstrated by the presence of CD3-mediated lytic activity of athymic lethally irradiated bone marrow reconstituted IEL. These data provide compelling evidence that intestinal T cells do not require thymic influence for maturation and development, and demonstrate that the microenvironment of the intestinal epithelium is uniquely adapted to regulate IEL differentiation

  6. Correlation of MRI Biomarkers with Tumor Necrosis in Hras5 Tumor Xenograft in Athymic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Bradley

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can measure the effects of therapies targeting the tumor vasculature and has demonstrated that vascular-damaging agents (VDA induce acute vascular shutdown in tumors in human and animal models. However, at subtherapeutic doses, blood flow may recover before the induction of significant levels of necrosis. We present the relationship between changes in MRI biomarkers and tumor necrosis. Multiple MRI measurements were taken at 4.7 T in athymic rats (n = 24 bearing 1.94 ± 0.2-cm3 subcutaneous Hras5 tumors (ATCC 41000 before and 24 hours after clinically relevant doses of the VDA, ZD6126 (0-10 mg/kg, i.v.. We measured effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*, initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve (IAUGC60/150, equivalent enhancing fractions (EHF60/150, time constant (Ktrans, proportion of hypoperfused voxels as estimated from fit failures in Ktrans analysis, and signal intensity (SI in T2-weighted MRI (T2W. ZD6126 treatment induced < 90% dose-dependent tumor necrosis at 10 mg/kg; correspondingly, SI changes were evident from T2W MRI. Although R2* did not correlate, other MRI biomarkers significantly correlated with necrosis at doses of ≥ 5 mg/kg ZD6126. These data on Hras5 tumors suggest that the quantification of hypoperfused voxels might provide a useful biomarker of tumor necrosis.

  7. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance. (author)

  8. Anti-asialo GM1 antibodies prevents guanethidine-induced sympathectomy in athymic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Hougen, H P; Christensen, H B

    1992-01-01

    Guanethidine sulphate induces destruction of peripheral sympathetic neurons and infiltration of mononuclear cells in rat sympathetic ganglia. The effect of guanethidine is believed to be an autoimmune reaction. In order to determine the effect of anti-asialo GM1, an antibody that binds to the gly......Guanethidine sulphate induces destruction of peripheral sympathetic neurons and infiltration of mononuclear cells in rat sympathetic ganglia. The effect of guanethidine is believed to be an autoimmune reaction. In order to determine the effect of anti-asialo GM1, an antibody that binds...... to the glycolipid asialo GM1 expressed on rodent natural killer cells, athymic Lewis rats received guanethidine 40 mg/kg i.p. daily from day 1 to 14 and anti-asialo GM1 i.p. 1 mg/rat on day -2, 0, 2, 6, and 10 in the study period. Saline and anti-asialo GM1 were given alone in the same doses as control. The number...... of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia were counted and the ganglionic volume determined. The presence of natural killer cells in the ganglia were determined by immunohistochemical methods. Our results shows that anti-asialo GM1 can prevent guanethidine-induced reduction of sympathetic neurons...

  9. Dual isotope study of iodine-125 and indium-111-labeled antibody in athymic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, P.L.; Rogers, P.E.; Johnson, D.K. (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was coupled to a benzylisothiocyanate derivative of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The maximum substitution achievable without loss of immunoreactivity was three DTPA groups per immunoglobulin molecule. The resulting conjugate was labeled with {sup 111}In by brief incubation with {sup 111}InCl{sub 3}, giving a mean radiochemical yield of {sup 111}In-labeled antibody of 96%. The ({sup 111}In)B72.3 preparation was mixed with an ({sup 125}I) B72.3 preparation, obtained by the chloramine-T method, and the mixture administered to athymic mice bearing subcutaneous LS174T colon carcinoma xenografts. There were no significant differences (p greater than 0.1) in the biodistributions of the two labels at 1, 2, 5, and 7 days postinjection. These results are contrasted with prior studies showing elevated levels of {sup 111}In in liver, spleen, and kidneys using B72.3-DTPA conjugates prepared via the bicyclic anhydride. It is concluded that protein cross-linking and/or the formation of unstable chelate sites in anhydride coupled conjugates underlie these disparities.

  10. Dual isotope study of iodine-125 and indium-111-labeled antibody in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, P.L.; Rogers, P.E.; Johnson, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was coupled to a benzylisothiocyanate derivative of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The maximum substitution achievable without loss of immunoreactivity was three DTPA groups per immunoglobulin molecule. The resulting conjugate was labeled with 111 In by brief incubation with 111 InCl 3 , giving a mean radiochemical yield of 111 In-labeled antibody of 96%. The [ 111 In]B72.3 preparation was mixed with an [ 125 I] B72.3 preparation, obtained by the chloramine-T method, and the mixture administered to athymic mice bearing subcutaneous LS174T colon carcinoma xenografts. There were no significant differences (p greater than 0.1) in the biodistributions of the two labels at 1, 2, 5, and 7 days postinjection. These results are contrasted with prior studies showing elevated levels of 111 In in liver, spleen, and kidneys using B72.3-DTPA conjugates prepared via the bicyclic anhydride. It is concluded that protein cross-linking and/or the formation of unstable chelate sites in anhydride coupled conjugates underlie these disparities

  11. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-04-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance.

  12. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peh Bee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2. Methods Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1 inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2 comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs. Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Results Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. Conclusion This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  13. In vivo effects of human adipose-derived stem cells reseeding on acellular bovine pericardium in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingkai; Dai, Miao; Xu, Peirong; Hou, Min; Teng, Yincheng; Feng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered biologic products may be a viable option in the reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study was based on the hypothesis that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are viable in acellular bovine pericardium (ABP), when reseeded by two different techniques, and thus, aid in the reconstruction. To investigate the reseeding of hASCs on ABP grafts by using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and to identify the effective hASCs-scaffold combinations that enabled regeneration. Thirty female athymic nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: In the VIVO group, ABPs were implanted in the subcutaneous pockets and enhanced green fluorescent protein luciferase (eGFP·Luc)-hASCs (1 × 10(6) cells/50 µL) were injected on the ABP at the same time. In the VITRO group, the mice were implanted with grafts that ABP were co-cultured with eGFP·Luc-hASCs in vitro. The BLANK group mice were implanted with ABP only. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP were analyzed by BLI, histology, and immunohistochemistry. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP could be visualized at 12 weeks in vivo. Histology revealed that the VIVO group displayed the highest cell ingrowths, small vessels, and percent of collagen content per unit area. Desmin and α-smooth muscle actin were positive at the same site in the VIVO group cells. However, few smooth muscles were observed in the VITRO and BLANK groups. These results suggest that hASCs reseeded on ABP in vivo during surgery may further enhance the properties of ABP and may promote regeneration at the recipient site, resulting in a promising treatment option for POP. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. The microbiota and the gut-brain axis: insights from the temporal and spatial mucosal alterations during colonisation of the germfree mouse intestine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidy, El S.F.; Kunze, W.; Bienenstock, J.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the gut microbiota on the nervous system, brain development and behaviour, in particular during microbial colonisation of the host, has recently been receiving profound interest. Our time-resolved mining of combined data analyses of the ex-germfree mouse intestine during a 30-day

  15. HUMORAL IMMUNE-RESPONSE TO 2,4-DINITROPHENYL KEYHOLE LIMPET HEMOCYANIN IN ANTIGEN-FREE, GERM-FREE AND CONVENTIONAL BALB/C MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOS, NA; PLOPLIS, VA

    The B cell immune response to 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) keyhole limpet hemocyanin was compared in antigen-free, germ-free and conventional BALB/c mice. The numbers of total and of DNP-specific IgM-, IgG- and IgA-secreting cells in the spleen were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent plaque assays

  16. Neonatal colonization of germ-free mice with Bifidobacterium longum prevents allergic sensitization to major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarzer, Martin; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Schabussova, I.; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Akgün, J.; Wiedermann, U.; Kozáková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 46 (2013), s. 5405-5412 ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0449; GA MŠk 7AMB12AT020 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Allergy * Bifidobacterium * Germ-free mice Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.485, year: 2013

  17. Biochemical Intestinal Parameters in Germ-free Minipigs and Rats and in Ex-germ-free Minipigs and Rats Monoassociated with Escherichia coli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cardona, M.,E.; Kozáková, Hana; Collinder, E.; Persson, A.-K.; Midtvedt, T.; Norin, E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2005), s. 109-113 ISSN 1548-9213 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : germ-free * minipigs * ex-germ-free Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2005

  18. Negligible colon cancer risk from food-borne acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats and nude (nu/nu mice-bearing human colon tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Raju

    Full Text Available Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a "complete carcinogen", but acts as a "co-carcinogen" by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters.

  19. Role of CXC chemokine ligand 13 in oral squamous cell carcinoma associated osteolysis in athymic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandruvada, Subramanya N M; Yuvaraj, Sambandam; Liu, Xiang; Sundaram, Kumaran; Shanmugarajan, Srinivasan; Ries, William L; Norris, James S; London, Steven D; Reddy, Sakamuri V

    2010-05-15

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are malignant tumors with a potent activity of local bone invasion; however, the molecular mechanisms of tumor osteolysis are unclear. In this study, we identified high level expression of chemokine ligand, CXCL13 and RANK ligand (RANKL) in OSCC cells (SCC1, SCC12 and SCC14a). OSCC cell-conditioned media (20%) induced osteoclast differentiation which was inhibited by OPG in peripheral blood monocyte cultures indicating that OSCC cells produce soluble RANKL. Recombinant hCXCL13 (10 ng/ml) significantly enhanced RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation in these cultures. Trans-well migration assay identified that CXCL13 induces chemotaxis of peripheral blood monocytes in vitro which was inhibited by addition of anti-CXCR5 receptor antibody. Zymogram analysis of conditioned media from OSCC cells revealed matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity. Interestingly, CXCL13 treatment to OSCC cells induced CXCR5 and MMP-9 expression suggesting an autocrine regulatory function in OSCC cells. To examine the OSCC tumor cell bone invasion/osteolysis, we established an in vivo model for OSCC by subcutaneous injection of OSCC cells onto the surface of calvaria in NCr-nu/nu athymic mice, which developed tumors in 4-5 weeks. muCT analysis revealed numerous osteolytic lesions in calvaria from OSCC tumor-bearing mice. Histochemical staining of calvarial sections from these mice revealed a significant increase in the numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the tumor-bone interface. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed CXCL13 and MMP-9 expression in tumor cells. Thus, our data implicate a functional role for CXCL13 in bone invasion and may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent osteolysis associated with OSCC tumors in vivo.

  20. Photochemical internalization (PCI) of bleomycin is equally effective in two dissimilar leiomyosarcoma xenografts in athymic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellevold, Simen; Peng, Qian; Fremstedal, Ane Sofie Viset; Berg, Kristian

    2017-12-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a novel technique for delivery of active macromolecules into cancerous cells, via light activation of a specific photosensitizer and a low dose systemic drug. Numerous pre-clinical studies and one clinical trial have confirmed the treatment potential in carcinomas. Soft tissue sarcomas are rare and generally resistant to radio- and chemotherapy. Due to treatment resistance and surgical morbidity in sarcoma care, we seek to increase knowledge on PCI effects in sarcomas by studying two different, but closely related leiomyosarcomas. MES-SA and SK-LMS-1 tumours were established in the leg muscles of athymic mice. Treatment effects after AlPcS 2a -PCI of bleomycin, PCI with no drug (photodynamic therapy, PDT) and control groups were evaluated by: 1) assessment of tumour growth, 2) uptake of contrast agent during MRI and 3) histopathology. PCI of bleomycin induced a similar and significant increase in time to reach the end point in both tumour models, while neither responded to AlPcS 2a -PDT. In the MES-SA tumours PCI reduced the growth rate, while in the SK-LMS-1 tumours the growth was blocked for 12days followed by exponential growth close to that of untreated tumours. SK-LMS-1 tumours were more homogenously and better vascularized than MES-SA. After PCI the vascular shutdown was more complete in the SK-LMS-1 tumours than in the MES-SA tumours. AlPcS2a-based PCI, but not PDT, induced significant tumour growth delay in the evaluated sarcomas. Cellular responsiveness to bleomycin and tumour vascularity are identified as predictive markers for PCI treatment effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gut microbiota and lipopolysaccharide content of the diet influence development of regulatory T cells: studies in germ-free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncir, Tomas; Stepankova, Renata; Kozakova, Hana; Hudcovic, Tomas; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena

    2008-11-06

    Mammals are essentially born germ-free but the epithelial surfaces are promptly colonized by astounding numbers of bacteria soon after birth. The most extensive microbial community is harbored by the distal intestine. The gut microbiota outnumber ~10 times the total number of our somatic and germ cells. The host-microbiota relationship has evolved to become mutually beneficial. Studies in germ-free mice have shown that gut microbiota play a crucial role in the development of the immune system. The principal aim of the present study was to elucidate whether the presence of gut microbiota and the quality of a sterile diet containing various amounts of bacterial contaminants, measured by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content, can influence maturation of the immune system in gnotobiotic mice. We have found that the presence of gut microbiota and to a lesser extent also the LPS-rich sterile diet drive the expansion of B and T cells in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. The most prominent was the expansion of CD4+ T cells including Foxp3-expressing T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes. Further, we have observed that both the presence of gut microbiota and the LPS-rich sterile diet influence in vitro cytokine profile of spleen cells. Both gut microbiota and LPS-rich diet increase the production of interleukin-12 and decrease the production of interleukin-4. In addition, the presence of gut microbiota increases the production of interleukin-10 and interferon-gamma. Our data clearly show that not only live gut microbiota but also microbial components (LPS) contained in sterile diet stimulate the development, expansion and function of the immune system. Finally, we would like to emphasize that the composition of diet should be regularly tested especially in all gnotobiotic models as the LPS content and other microbial components present in the diet may significantly alter the outcome of experiments.

  2. Reversal of multidrug resistance by magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle copolymerizating daunorubicin and 5-bromotetrandrine in xenograft nude-mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoan Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Baoan Chen1,* Jian Cheng1,* Yanan Wu1, Feng Gao1, Wenlin Xu2, et al 1Department of Hematology;2Department of Hematology, The Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, PR China *These authors have contributed equally to this workAbstract: In this paper we establish the xenograft leukemia model with stable multidrug resistance in nude mice and to investigate the reversal effect of 5-bromotetrandrine (5-BrTet and magnetic nanoparticle of Fe3O4 (MNP-Fe3O4 combined with daunorubicin (DNR in vivo. Two subclones of K562 and K562/A02 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the back of athymic nude mice (1 × 107 cells/each respectively to establish leukemia xenograft models. Drug-resistant and sensitive tumor-bearing nude mice were assigned randomly into five groups which were treated with normal saline; DNR; NP-Fe3O4 combined with DNR; 5-BrTet combined with DNR; 5-BrTet and MNP-Fe3O4 combined with DNR, respectively. The incidence of formation, growth characteristics, weight, and volume of tumors were observed. The histopathologic examination of tumors and organs were detected. For resistant tumors, the protein levels of Bcl-2, and BAX were detected by Western blot. Bcl-2, BAX, and caspase-3 genes were also detected. For K562/A02 cells xenograft tumors, 5-BrTet and MNP-Fe3O4 combined with DNR significantly suppressed growth of tumor. A histopathologic examination of tumors clearly showed necrosis of the tumors. Application of 5-BrTet and MNP-Fe3O4 inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 protein and upregulated the expression of BAX and caspase-3 proteins in K562/A02 cells xenograft tumor. It is concluded that 5-BrTet and MNP-Fe3O4 combined with DNR had a significant tumor-suppressing effect on a MDR leukemia cells xenograft model.Keywords: 5-bromotetrandrine, magnetic nanoparticle of Fe3O4, multidrug-resistance, xenograft model

  3. Proteínas do feijão preto sem casca: digestibilidade em animais convencionais e isentos de germes (germ-free Proteins of dehulled black beans: digestibility in conventional and germ-free animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Angelina dos Santos PEREIRA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. é uma leguminosa de grande importância para a dieta da população brasileira. No entanto, um de seus maiores problemas é representado pelo baixo valor nutricional de suas proteínas, decorrente, por um lado, da sua baixa digestibilidade e, de outro, do teor e biodisponibilidade reduzidos de aminoácidos sulfurados. Com o objetivo de avaliar a digestibilidade das proteínas albumina e globulina do feijão preto sem casca, foram realizados ensaios biológicos com camundongos isentos de germes e convencionais e com ratos (Wistar, recém-desmamados, com idade de 21 a 25 dias. Avaliou-se ainda o Escore Químico Corrigido pela Digestibilidade da Proteína. A digestibilidade verdadeira no experimento com camundongos isentos de germes foi de 90,21 e 90,00%, no teste com camundongos convencionais foi de 85,53 e 86,73%, e no experimento com ratos foi de 82,62 e 68,53%, para albumina e globulina, respectivamente. O Escore Químico Corrigido pela Digestibilidade da Proteína foi de 61,00% para a albumina e 51,00% para a globulina. A digestibilidade determinada em animais isentos de germes foi superior aos valores encontrados em animais convencionais, sugerindo que a flora intestinal esteja contribuindo para elevar o teor de nitrogênio nas fezes dos animais convencionais, e, portanto, esteja sendo subestimada a digestibilidade verdadeira do feijão.The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. is a legume of great importance in the Brazilian typical diet. Nevertheless, it presents a low protein quality due to its poor digestibility and low levels and bioavailability of its sulfur aminoacids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility of albumin and globulin protein fractions of dehulled black beans in conventional and germ-free mice and also in weaning rats (Wistar of 21 to 25 days of age. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score was also determined. True digestibility values in germ-free mice were 90.21 and 90

  4. Targeted radiotherapy with {sup 177} Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M. A de; Pedraza L, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez C, J. [Faculty of Medicine, UAEM, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy S, E. [Hospital Santelena, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses and to evaluate {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells, which over-express somatostatin receptors, were injected in athymic mice and 20 days later the mean tumour size was 3.08 square cm (n=3). A mean of 86.3 MBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE, was injected in a tail vein and 19 days after therapy the size of the tumours was 0.81 square cm. There was a partial relapse and after 16 days, when sacrificed, the mean tumour size was 8.28 cubic cm. An epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidney of one treated mouse was found. The tumour of the control mouse was 8.61 cubic cm when sacrificed 14 days after tumour induction. Radiotherapy estimates to the tumours was 35.9-39.7 Gy and the tumours might have been completely reduced with a second therapy dose. These preliminary studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that Lu-{sup 177}-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man, considering kidney radiation. (Author)

  5. Targeted radiotherapy with {sup 177} Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez C, J.; Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy S, E. [Hospital Santelena, 06000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Malignant pancreas tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to estimate pancreatic tumour absorbed radiation doses after administration of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE in mice as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that could be used in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (n=18) to obtain the {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE biokinetics and dosimetry. To estimate its therapeutic efficacy 87 MBq were injected in a tail vein of 3 mice and 19 days p.i. there were a partial relapse. There was an epithelial and sarcoma mixed tumour in the kidneys of mouse III. The absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 50.5 {+-} 7.2 Gy, 17.5 {+-} 2.5 Gy and 12.6 {+-} 2.3 Gy respectively. These studies justify further therapeutic and dosimetry estimations to ensure that {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in man considering its kidney radiotoxicity. (Author)

  6. External fixation of femoral defects in athymic rats: Applications for human stem cell implantation and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasa Foo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate animal model is critical for the research of stem/progenitor cell therapy and tissue engineering for bone regeneration in vivo. This study reports the design of an external fixator and its application to critical-sized femoral defects in athymic rats. The external fixator consists of clamps and screws that are readily available from hardware stores as well as Kirschner wires. A total of 35 rats underwent application of the external fixator with creation of a 6-mm bone defect in one femur of each animal. This model had been used in several separate studies, including implantation of collagen gel, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, or bone morphogenetic protein-2. One rat developed fracture at the proximal pin site and two rats developed deep tissue infection. Pin loosening was found in nine rats, but it only led to the failure of external fixation in two animals. In 8 to 10 weeks, various degrees of bone growth in the femoral defects were observed in different study groups, from full repair of the bone defect with bone morphogenetic protein-2 implantation to fibrous nonunion with collagen gel implantation. The external fixator used in these studies provided sufficient mechanical stability to the bone defects and had a comparable complication rate in athymic rats as in immunocompetent rats. The external fixator does not interfere with the natural environment of a bone defect. This model is particularly valuable for investigation of osteogenesis of human stem/progenitor cells in vivo.

  7. Biokinetics and dosimetry with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; de Murphy, C. Arteaga; Ferro-Flores, Ge; Pedraza-López, M.; Murphy-Stack, E.

    Malignant pancreatic tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to determine biokinetic parameters in mice, in order to estimate the induced pancreatic tumour absorbed doses and to evaluate an `in house' 177Lu-DOTA-TATE radiopharmaceutical as part of preclinical studies for targeted therapy in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (nD22) to obtain biokinetic and dosimetric data of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. The mean tumour uptake 2 h post injection was 14.76±1.9% I.A./g; kidney and pancreas uptake, at the same time, were 7.27±1.1% I.A./g (1.71±0.90%/organ) and 4.20±0.98% I.A./g (0.42±0.03%/organ), respectively. The mean absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 0.58±0.02 Gy/MBq; 0.23±0.01 Gy/MBq and 0.14±0.01 Gy/MBq, respectively. These studies justify further dosimetric estimations to ensure that 177Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in humans.

  8. Colonization of germ-free mice with a mixture of three lactobacillus strains enhances the integrity of gut mucosa and ameliorates allergic sensitization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana; Schwarzer, Martin; Tučková, Ludmila; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Czarnowska, E.; Rosiak, I.; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Schabussova, I.; Hermanová, Petra; Zákostelská, Zuzana; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, T.; Koryszewska-Baginska, A.; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Cukrowska, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 251-262 ISSN 1672-7681 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/1252; GA ČR GA303/09/0449; GA MŠk 7AMB15AT025 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : allergic sensitization * germ-free * intestinal barrier Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.897, year: 2016

  9. Effect of Lactobacillus delbrueckii on cholesterol metabolism in germ-free mice and on atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E knock-out mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portugal L.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated blood cholesterol is an important risk factor associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Several studies have reported a decrease in serum cholesterol during the consumption of large doses of fermented dairy products or lactobacillus strains. The proposed mechanism for this effect is the removal or assimilation of intestinal cholesterol by the bacteria, reducing cholesterol absorption. Although this effect was demonstrated in vitro, its relevance in vivo is still controversial. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of lactobacilli in atherogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Lactobacillus delbrueckii on cholesterol metabolism in germ-free mice and the possible hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic action of these bacteria using atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E (apo E knock-out (KO mice. For this purpose, Swiss/NIH germ-free mice were monoassociated with L. delbrueckii and fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for four weeks. In addition, apo E KO mice were fed a normal chow diet and treated with L. delbrueckii for 6 weeks. There was a reduction in cholesterol excretion in germ-free mice, which was not associated with changes in blood or liver cholesterol concentration. In apo E KO mice, no effect of L. delbrueckii was detected in blood, liver or fecal cholesterol. The atherosclerotic lesion in the aorta was also similar in mice receiving or not these bacteria. In conclusion, these results suggest that, although L. delbrueckii treatment was able to reduce cholesterol excretion in germ-free mice, no hypocholesterolemic or antiatherogenic effect was observed in apo E KO mice.

  10. Adaptation to statins restricts human tumour growth in Nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follet, Julie; Rémy, Lionel; Hesry, Vincent; Simon, Brigitte; Gillet, Danièle; Auvray, Pierrick; Corcos, Laurent; Le Jossic-Corcos, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Statins have long been used as anti-hypercholesterolemia drugs, but numerous lines of evidence suggest that they may also bear anti-tumour potential. We have recently demonstrated that it was possible to isolate cancer cells adapted to growth in the continuous presence of lovastatin. These cells grew more slowly than the statin-sensitive cells of origin. In the present study, we compared the ability of both statin-sensitive and statin-resistant cells to give rise to tumours in Nude mice. HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells and L50 statin-resistant derivatives were injected subcutaneously into Nude mice and tumour growth was recorded. At the end of the experiment, tumours were recovered and marker proteins were analyzed by western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. L50 tumours grew more slowly, showed a strong decrease in cyclin B1, over-expressed collagen IV, and had reduced laminin 332, VEGF and CD34 levels, which, collectively, may have restricted cell division, cell adhesion and neoangiogenesis. Taken together, these results showed that statin-resistant cells developed into smaller tumours than statin-sensitive cells. This may be reflective of the cancer restricting activity of statins in humans, as suggested from several retrospective studies with subjects undergoing statin therapy for several years

  11. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-β endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I 125 h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  12. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Polyphenolics from mango (Mangifera indica L.) suppress breast cancer ductal carcinoma in situ proliferation through activation of AMPK pathway and suppression of mTOR in athymic nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Matthew J; Kim, Hyemee; Marciante, Alexandria B; Barnes, Ryan C; Hendrick, Erik D; Bisson, William H; Talcott, Stephen T; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the underlying mechanisms of mango polyphenol decreased cell proliferation and tumor volume in ductal carcinoma in situ breast cancer. We hypothesized that mango polyphenols suppress signaling along the AKT/mTOR axis while up-regulating AMPK. To test this hypothesis, mango polyphenols (0.8 mg gallic acid equivalents per day) and pyrogallol (0.2 mg/day) were administered for 4 weeks to mice xenografted with MCF10DCIS.com cells subcutaneously (n=10 per group). Tumor volumes were significantly decreased, both mango and pyrogallol groups displayed greater than 50% decreased volume compared to control. There was a significant reduction of phosphorylated protein levels of IR, IRS1, IGF-1R, and mTOR by mango; while pyrogallol significantly reduced the phosphorylation levels of IR, IRS1, IGF-1R, p70S6K, and ERK. The protein levels of Sestrin2, which is involved in AMPK-signaling, were significantly elevated in both groups. Also, mango significantly elevated AMPK phosphorylation and pyrogallol significantly elevated LKB1 protein levels. In an in vitro model, mango and pyrogallol increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and arrested cells in S phase. In silico modeling indicates that pyrogallol has the potential to bind directly to the allosteric binding site of AMPK, inducing activation. When AMPK expression was down-regulated using siRNA in vitro, pyrogallol reversed the reduced expression of AMPK. This indicates that pyrogallol not only activates AMPK, but also increases constitutive protein expression. These results suggest that mango polyphenols and their major microbial metabolite, pyrogallol, inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells through ROS-dependent up-regulation of AMPK and down-regulation of the AKT/mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytolytic T lymphocyte precursor cells in congenitally athymic C57BL/6 nu/nu mice: Quantitation, enrichment, and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryanski, J.L. (Ludwig Inst. for Cancer Research, Epalinges, Switzerland); MacDonald, H.R.; Sordat, B.; Cerottini, J.C.

    1981-03-01

    A sensitive limiting dilution microculture system was used to obtain minimal estimates of the frequency of CTL precursor cells (CTL-P) in spleens from 5- to 14-mo-old C57BL/6 nu/nu mice. Frequency determinations of CTL-P directed against H-2delta alloantigens ranged from 1/159,000 to 1/12,400. The relatively low frequency of CTL-P was enriched nearly 10-fold (to 1/2300) by passage of nude spleen cells over a column of nylon wool. After priming nude spleen cells for 7 days in conventional MLC, 1 to 3% of the MLC cells could be operationally identified as CTL-P. Furthermore, the progeny of MLC-primed nude CTL-P were specifically cytolytic for target cells of the strain used for priming. Such a system may be useful for analyzing the specificity repertoires of cells of the T cell lineage that have not undergone thymic influence.

  15. Induction of plaque-forming cell response in adrenalectomized nude rats using Thymosin fraction 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, B; Hougen, H P; Rygaard, J

    1982-01-01

    In adrenalectomized nude rats treated with Thymosin fraction 5 a plaque-forming cell (PFC) response comparable to that found in normal rats was obtained. The PFC response found after adrenalectomy alone or thymosin-treatment in unoperated animals was comparable to that of untreated nude rats....

  16. Characterization of casein kinase II in human colonic carcinomas after heterotransplantation into nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitz, G; Münstermann, U; Schneider, H R

    1989-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity in colorectal tumours was compared before and after heterotransplantation onto nude mice. The test revealed that the enzyme activity was about two-fold enhanced in the tumours isolated from the nude mice when compared to the respective primary tumours from which...

  17. Immersion infection of germ-free zebrafish with Listeria monocytogenes induces transient expression of innate immune response genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eShan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish, Denio rerio, could be an alternative to other classic animal models for human infectious diseases to examine the processes of microbial infections and host-pathogen interactions in vivo because of their small body dimension but large clutch size. We established germ-free zebrafish infection models of Listeria monocytogenes through different routes of infection: oral immersion and injection via yolk sac, brain ventricle and blood island. Immersion of zebrafish larva even with 1010CFU/mL L. monocytogenes EGDe strain in egg water was unable to cause mortality, but GFP-expressing bacteria in the gut lumen could be observed in frozen sections. Several selected maker genes of the innate immune system, including cyp1a, irg1l, il1b and mmp9, were significantly induced by oral immersion not only with strain EGDe, but also with strain M7 and L. innocua, though to a lesser degree (P < 0.01. Such induction appears to be transient with peak at 48 h post-infection, but returned to basal level at 72 h post-infection. Of the three injection routes, mortality after infection by yolk sac was 80% in early stage of infection. Few eggs could survive and hatch. Injection into zebrafish embryos via brain ventricle or blood island led to progressive lethal infection. L. mocytogenes EGDe showed steady replication in the fish embryos and was far more pathogenic than strain M7, which is consistent with findings in the murine model. We conclude that zebrafish could serve as susceptible and microscopically visible infection models for L. monocytogenes via different routes and could be applied to further studies on the interactions between bacterial virulence factors and host immune responses.

  18. The gut microbiome restores intrinsic and extrinsic nerve function in germ-free mice accompanied by changes in calbindin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey Neufeld, K A; Perez-Burgos, A; Mao, Y K; Bienenstock, J; Kunze, W A

    2015-05-01

    The microbiome is essential for normal myenteric intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN) excitability. These neurons control gut motility and modulate gut-brain signaling by exciting extrinsic afferent fibers innervating the enteric nervous system via an IPAN to extrinsic fiber sensory synapse. We investigated effects of germ-free (GF) status and conventionalization on extrinsic sensory fiber discharge in the mesenteric nerve bundle and IPAN electrophysiology, and compared these findings with those from specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. As we have previously shown that the IPAN calcium-dependent slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) is enhanced in GF mice, we also examined the expression of the calcium-binding protein calbindin in these neurons in these different animal groups. IPAN sAHP and mesenteric nerve multiunit discharge were recorded using ex vivo jejunal gut segments from SPF, GF, or conventionalized (CONV) mice. IPANs were excited by adding 5 μM TRAM-34 to the serosal superfusate. We probed for calbindin expression using immunohistochemical techniques. SPF mice had a 21% increase in mesenteric nerve multiunit firing rate and CONV mice a 41% increase when IPANs were excited by TRAM-34. For GF mice, this increase was barely detectable (2%). TRAM-34 changed sAHP area under the curve by -77 for SPF, +3 for GF, or -54% for CONV animals. Calbindin-immunopositive neurons per myenteric ganglion were 36% in SPF, 24% in GF, and 52% in CONV animals. The intact microbiome is essential for normal intrinsic and extrinsic nerve function and gut-brain signaling. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Role of intestinal bacteria in gliadin-induced changes in intestinal mucosa: study in germ-free rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Cinova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Celiac disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that is induced by dietary wheat gluten proteins (gliadins in genetically predisposed individuals. The overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and infections has been suggested to contribute to CD pathogenesis. We aimed to study the effects of gliadin and various intestinal bacterial strains on mucosal barrier integrity, gliadin translocation, and cytokine production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Changes in gut mucosa were assessed in the intestinal loops of inbred Wistar-AVN rats that were reared under germ-free conditions in the presence of various intestinal bacteria (enterobacteria and bifidobacteria isolated from CD patients and healthy children, respectively and CD-triggering agents (gliadin and IFN-γ by histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and a rat cytokine antibody array. Adhesion of the bacterial strains to the IEC-6 rat cell line was evaluated in vitro. Gliadin fragments alone or together with the proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN-γ significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the small intestine; this effect was more pronounced in the presence of Escherichia coli CBL2 and Shigella CBD8. Shigella CBD8 and IFN-γ induced the highest mucin secretion and greatest impairment in tight junctions and, consequently, translocation of gliadin fragments into the lamina propria. Shigella CBD8 and E. coli CBL2 strongly adhered to IEC-6 epithelial cells. The number of goblet cells in small intestine increased by the simultaneous incubation of Bifidobacterium bifidum IATA-ES2 with gliadin, IFN-γ and enterobacteria. B. bifidum IATA-ES2 also enhanced the production of chemotactic factors and inhibitors of metalloproteinases, which can contribute to gut mucosal protection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the composition of the intestinal microbiota affects the permeability of the intestinal mucosa

  20. Absence of Microbiota (Germ-Free Conditions) Accelerates the Atherosclerosis in ApoE-Deficient Mice Fed Standard Low Cholesterol Diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánková, Renata; Tonar, Z.; Bártová, J.; Nedorost, L.; Rossmann, Pavel; Poledne, R.; Schwarzer, Martin; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 8 (2010), s. 796-804 ISSN 1340-3478 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9775; GA ČR GA303/08/0367; GA ČR GA305/08/0535; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Germ-free mice * Commensal bacteria * Atherogenesis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.293, year: 2010

  1. The naked truth: the face and body sensitive N170 response is enhanced for nude bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari K Hietanen

    Full Text Available Recent event-related potential studies have shown that the occipitotemporal N170 component--best known for its sensitivity to faces--is also sensitive to perception of human bodies. Considering that in the timescale of evolution clothing is a relatively new invention that hides the bodily features relevant for sexual selection and arousal, we investigated whether the early N170 brain response would be enhanced to nude over clothed bodies. In two experiments, we measured N170 responses to nude bodies, bodies wearing swimsuits, clothed bodies, faces, and control stimuli (cars. We found that the N170 amplitude was larger to opposite and same-sex nude vs. clothed bodies. Moreover, the N170 amplitude increased linearly as the amount of clothing decreased from full clothing via swimsuits to nude bodies. Strikingly, the N170 response to nude bodies was even greater than that to faces, and the N170 amplitude to bodies was independent of whether the face of the bodies was visible or not. All human stimuli evoked greater N170 responses than did the control stimulus. Autonomic measurements and self-evaluations showed that nude bodies were affectively more arousing compared to the other stimulus categories. We conclude that the early visual processing of human bodies is sensitive to the visibility of the sex-related features of human bodies and that the visual processing of other people's nude bodies is enhanced in the brain. This enhancement is likely to reflect affective arousal elicited by nude bodies. Such facilitated visual processing of other people's nude bodies is possibly beneficial in identifying potential mating partners and competitors, and for triggering sexual behavior.

  2. Monoassociation with probiotic Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 stimulates the immune system and protects germfree mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Liliane Martins; Santos, Mônica Morais; de Souza Silva, Humberto Pereira; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Vieira, Leda Quercia

    2011-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 on the resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection in gnotobiotic mice. Germfree mice or monoassociated mice were infected with L. monocytogenes, and the microbiological and immunological responses were evaluated after 1, 3, and 5 days of infection. Monoassociation with L. delbrueckii was capable of protecting mice against death caused by L. monocytogenes and induced a faster clearance of the bacteria in the liver, spleen, and peritoneal cavity at days 1, 3, and 5 post-infection. Also, monoassociated mice displayed less liver injury than germfree mice. The production of TNF-α in the serum, peritoneal cavity, and gut was augmented in monoassociated mice. Likewise, the levels of IFN-γ found on supernatants of spleen cells cultures were higher after the monoassociation. In addition, increased production of nitric oxide in peritoneal cell cultures supernatants and in serum was observed in mice that received L. delbrueckii. The monoassociation with L. delbrueckii induced higher production of IL-10 in the mucosal immune system. We conclude that monoassociation with L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 protects mice from death caused by L. monocytogenes infection by favoring effector responses while preventing their immunopathological consequences.

  3. gamma-Aminobutyric acid production in small and large intestine of normal and germ-free Wistar rats. Influence of food intake and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlo, C L; de Jonge, H R; van den Bogaard, A E; van Eijk, H M; Janssen, M A; Soeters, P B

    1987-09-01

    In recent hypotheses concerning the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is claimed to be produced by the colonic flora, although enzymes necessary to generate GABA have been reported to be present in intestinal mucosa. In this study, using normal and germ-free Wistar rats, we determined GABA levels and amino-grams of arterial blood and of venous effluent from small and large bowel. The data indicate that large and small intestinal mucosa significantly contribute to GABA production. In the fasted state GABA concentrations are greater in the venous effluent of the small bowel than in the venous effluent of the large bowel. Feeding increases the arterioportal differences, and uptake in the small bowel is still significantly higher than in the large bowel. This process is not, or can only be to a minor degree, bacterially mediated, because GABA production in the gut both in the fed and fasted state is of similar magnitude in germ-free and normal animals. gamma-Aminobutyric acid release correlates significantly with glutamine uptake in the small bowel of fasted rats. Only a small fraction of the glutamine taken up is needed to account for GABA release, so that conclusions concerning which amino acids may serve as precursors of GABA cannot be drawn. Further studies are needed to delineate the metabolic pathways leading to GABA synthesis.

  4. Effect of thumus cell injections on germinal center formation in lymphoid tissues of nude (thymusless) mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E.B.; Caporale, L.H.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1974-01-01

    Nude mice, partially backcrossed to Balb/c or DBA/2, were injected iv with 5 x 10 7 thymus cells from the respective inbred strain. The response of these mice to immunization with Brucella abortus antigen was studied, with respect to both antibody production and the formation of germinal centers in their lymphoid tissues. The results were compared to those obtained with nude mice to which no thymus cells were given, as well as to Balb/c, DBA/2, or +/question litter mate controls. Nude mice formed less 19S as well as 7S antibody than did litter mate controls and completely lacked germinal centers in lymph nodes and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Those nude mice which had been injected with thymus cells made a much better secondary response, both for 19S and for 7S antibody, and had active germinal centers in their lymph nodes as early as 3 wk after thymus cell injection. Intestinal lymphoid tissue in nude mice showed only slight reconstitution of germinal center activity several months after thymus cell injection and none at earlier times. Irradiated (3000 R) thymus cells appeared as effective as normal cells in facilitating germinal center appearance and 7S antibody production in the nude mice

  5. MEASUREMENT OF AFFINITY IN SERUM SAMPLES OF ANTIGEN-FREE, GERM-FREE AND CONVENTIONAL MICE AFTER HYPERIMMUNIZATION WITH 2,4-DINITROPHENYL KEYHOLE LIMPET HEMOCYANIN, USING SURFACE-PLASMON RESONANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAKKER, R; LASONDER, E; BOS, NA

    We previously investigated the primary and secondary responses and hyperimmunization to the T cell-dependent antigen 2,4-dinitrophenyl keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH) in antigen-free (AF), germ-free (GF) and conventional (CV) mice. Both the absolute and relative numbers of DNP-specific

  6. Experimental infection of Balb/c nude mice with Hepatitis E virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jianguo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several animal species can reportedly act as reservoirs for Hepatitis E virus (HEV, a zoonotic pathogen. HEV and antibody to the virus have been detected in a variety of animals including rodents. Pig and rat models for HEV have been established for HEV, but a nude mouse has not yet been developed. Methods Balb/c nude mice were inoculated with swine HEV, both orally and via intravenous injection to insure infection. Negative control and experimental contact-exposed groups of mice were also included in the study. The liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon of each mouse from all three groups were collected for reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR detection, indirect immunofluorescence observation and histopathologic examination. The sera from nude mice were tested for anti-HEV IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Activities of liver enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as total bilirubin (TBIL were also measured in the sera of the nude mice. Results HEV antigens and HEV RNA were detected in liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum and colon both by indirect immunofluorescence and by RT-nPCR in all of the inoculated and in one of the contact-exposed nude mice. Histopathological changes were observed in the liver and spleen of these mice. Infected mice showed increased levels of AST, ALP, and anti-HEV IgG in sera. The livers of contact-exposed mice showed obvious histopathological damage. Conclusion Nude mice could be readily infected by HEV isolated from pigs. The nude mouse may therefore be a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of HEV.

  7. Sugar industry sponsorship of germ-free rodent studies linking sucrose to hyperlipidemia and cancer: An historical analysis of internal documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin E Kearns

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD. SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W.F.R. Pover at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, between 1967 and 1971. A narrative case study method was used to assess SRF Project 259 from 1967 to 1971 based on sugar industry internal documents. Project 259 found a statistically significant decrease in serum triglycerides in germ-free rats fed a high sugar diet compared to conventional rats fed a basic PRM diet (a pelleted diet containing cereal meals, soybean meals, whitefish meal, and dried yeast, fortified with a balanced vitamin supplement and trace element mixture. The results suggested to SRF that gut microbiota have a causal role in carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. A study comparing conventional rats fed a high-sugar diet to those fed a high-starch diet suggested that sucrose consumption might be associated with elevated levels of beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme previously associated with bladder cancer in humans. SRF terminated Project 259 without publishing the results. The sugar industry did not disclose evidence of harm from animal studies that would have (1 strengthened the case that the CHD risk of sucrose is greater than starch and (2 caused sucrose to be scrutinized as a potential carcinogen. The influence of the gut microbiota in the differential effects of sucrose and starch on blood lipids, as well as the influence of carbohydrate quality on beta-glucuronidase and cancer activity, deserve further scrutiny.

  8. Sugar industry sponsorship of germ-free rodent studies linking sucrose to hyperlipidemia and cancer: An historical analysis of internal documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Cristin E.; Apollonio, Dorie

    2017-01-01

    In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose’s CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled “Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats,” led by Dr. W.F.R. Pover at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, between 1967 and 1971. A narrative case study method was used to assess SRF Project 259 from 1967 to 1971 based on sugar industry internal documents. Project 259 found a statistically significant decrease in serum triglycerides in germ-free rats fed a high sugar diet compared to conventional rats fed a basic PRM diet (a pelleted diet containing cereal meals, soybean meals, whitefish meal, and dried yeast, fortified with a balanced vitamin supplement and trace element mixture). The results suggested to SRF that gut microbiota have a causal role in carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. A study comparing conventional rats fed a high-sugar diet to those fed a high-starch diet suggested that sucrose consumption might be associated with elevated levels of beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme previously associated with bladder cancer in humans. SRF terminated Project 259 without publishing the results. The sugar industry did not disclose evidence of harm from animal studies that would have (1) strengthened the case that the CHD risk of sucrose is greater than starch and (2) caused sucrose to be scrutinized as a potential carcinogen. The influence of the gut microbiota in the differential effects of sucrose and starch on blood lipids, as well as the influence of carbohydrate quality on beta-glucuronidase and cancer activity, deserve further scrutiny. PMID:29161267

  9. Sugar industry sponsorship of germ-free rodent studies linking sucrose to hyperlipidemia and cancer: An historical analysis of internal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Cristin E; Apollonio, Dorie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-11-01

    In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W.F.R. Pover at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, between 1967 and 1971. A narrative case study method was used to assess SRF Project 259 from 1967 to 1971 based on sugar industry internal documents. Project 259 found a statistically significant decrease in serum triglycerides in germ-free rats fed a high sugar diet compared to conventional rats fed a basic PRM diet (a pelleted diet containing cereal meals, soybean meals, whitefish meal, and dried yeast, fortified with a balanced vitamin supplement and trace element mixture). The results suggested to SRF that gut microbiota have a causal role in carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. A study comparing conventional rats fed a high-sugar diet to those fed a high-starch diet suggested that sucrose consumption might be associated with elevated levels of beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme previously associated with bladder cancer in humans. SRF terminated Project 259 without publishing the results. The sugar industry did not disclose evidence of harm from animal studies that would have (1) strengthened the case that the CHD risk of sucrose is greater than starch and (2) caused sucrose to be scrutinized as a potential carcinogen. The influence of the gut microbiota in the differential effects of sucrose and starch on blood lipids, as well as the influence of carbohydrate quality on beta-glucuronidase and cancer activity, deserve further scrutiny.

  10. Thymol and Carvacrol Affect Hybrid Tilapia through the Combination of Direct Stimulation and an Intestinal Microbiota-Mediated Effect: Insights from a Germ-Free Zebrafish Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Liu, Wenshu; Liu, Zhi; He, Suxu; Dan, Bui Chau Truc; Diem, Nguyen Ngoc; Ooi, Ei Lin; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-05-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are commonly used as animal feed additives. Information is lacking on the mechanisms driving the beneficial effects of EOs in animals, especially the role played by the intestinal microbiota of the host. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of direct effects of EOs on the physiology and immune system of tilapia and indirect effects mediated by the intestinal microbiota by using a germ-free zebrafish model. Juvenile hybrid tilapia were fed a control diet or 1 of 4 treatment diets containing 60-800 mg Next Enhance 150 (NE) (an EO product containing equal levels of thymol and carvacrol)/kg for 6 wk. The key humoral and cellular innate immune parameters were evaluated after the feeding period. In another experiment, the gut microbiota of tilapia fed a control or an NE diet (200 mg/kg) for 2 wk were transferred to 3-d postfertilization (dpf) germ-free (GF) zebrafish, and the expression of genes involved in innate immunity and tight junctions was evaluated in zebrafish at 6 dpf. Lastly, NE was directly applied to 3-dpf GF zebrafish at 3 doses ranging from 0.2 to 20 mg/L, and the direct effect of NE on zebrafish was evaluated after 1 and 3 d. NE supplementation at 200 mg/kg enhanced phagocytosis activity of head kidney macrophages (×1.36) (P tilapia compared with the control (P tilapia through a combination of factors, i.e., primarily through a direct effect on host tissue (immune-stimulating) but also an indirect effect mediated by microbial changes (immune-relieving). © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Radioimmunoimaging of nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts after injecting 131I-McAbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liang

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Lc86a-C5, Lc86a-H8) directed against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line LTEP-a-2 and normal BALB/c IgG were labelled with iodine-131 by chloramine T. The 131 I-McAbs and 131 I-IgG were respectively injected into the peritoneal cavities of nude mice bearing transplanted human lung adenocarcinoma cell line LTEP-a-2. After 72 h, the tumor tissue in nude mice injected with 131 I-McAbs was distinguishable from normal tissues as a very clear image obtained during gamma scintigraphy. No difference was found between tumor and normal tissues in the nude mice injected with 131 I-IgG. The tumor: blood ration was 3.1:1 in nude injected with 131 I McAb(H8) and 0.9:1 in nude mice injected with 131 I-IgG respectively. This indicates that the tumor tissue image was the result of specific binding of the 131 I-McAbs, which have high specificity and affinity both in vitro and in vivo, to tumor cells, and these monoclonal antibodies may serve as potential agents in tumor diagnosis and treatment

  12. Establishment of an orthotopic lung cancer model in nude mice and its evaluation by spiral CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Liu, Jun; Guan, Yubao; Li, Huiling; Huang, Liyan; Tang, Hailing; He, Jianxing

    2012-04-01

    To establish a simple and highly efficient orthotopic animal model of lung cancer cell line A549 and evaluate the growth pattern of intrathoracic tumors by spiral CT. A549 cells (5×10(6) mL(-1)) were suspended and inoculated into the right lung of BALB/c nude mice via intrathoracic injection. Nude mice were scanned three times each week by spiral CT after inoculation of lung cancer cell line A549. The survival time and body weight of nude mice as well as tumor invasion and metastasis were examined. Tissue was collected for subsequent histological assay after autopsia of mice. The tumor-forming rate of the orthotopic lung cancer model was 90%. The median survival time was 30.7 (range, 20-41) days. The incidence of tumor metastasis was 100%. The mean tumor diameter and the average CT value gradually increased in a time-dependent manner. The method of establishing the orthotopic lung cancer model through transplanting A549 cells into the lung of nude mice is simple and highly successful. Spiral CT can be used to evaluate intrathoracic tumor growth in nude mice vividly and dynamically.

  13. Improvement of Radiation-Mediated Immunosuppression of Human NSCLC Tumour Xenografts in a Nude Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Tokalov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tumour xenografts in a nude rat model have consistently been used as an essential part of preclinical studies for anticancer drugs activity in human. Commonly, these animals receive whole body irradiation to assure immunosuppression. But whole body dose delivery might be inhomogeneous and the resulting incomplete bone marrow depletion may modify tumour behaviour. To improve irradiation-mediated immunosuppression of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC xenografts in a nude rat model irradiation (2 + 2 Gy from opposite sides of animals has been performed using a conventional X-ray tube. The described modification of whole body irradiation improves growth properties of human NSCLC xenografts in a nude rat model. The design of the whole body irradiation mediated immunosuppression described here for NSCLC xenografts may be useful for research applications involving other types of human tumours.

  14. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment

  15. Growth curves of three human malignant tumors transplanted to nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spang-Thomsen, M; Nielsen, A; Visfeldt, J

    1980-01-01

    Experimental growth data for three human malignant tumors transplanted to nude mice of BALB/c origin are analyzed statistically in order to investigate whether they can be described according to the Gompertz function. The aim is to set up unequivocal standards for planned therapeutic experiments...... as a standard, e.g. in therapeutic experiments. The course of tumor growth is independent of the size of the transplant, and whether tumors are transplanted in the right or left or both flanks of the recipient mice. Furthermore, the growth does not vary in a systematic way with the number of passages in nude...

  16. Morphofunctional evaluation of human skin preserved in glycerol and exposed to gamma radiation: a study in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringel, Fabiana de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for autograft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, induces alterations in skin preserved in glycerol at 85%, reducing the tensile strength of irradiated tissue. Clinical observation also suggests faster integration of such graft with the receptors tissue. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. The skin of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis, optical coherence tomography imaging, histological and biomechanical assays. It was possible to conclude that grafts irradiated with 25 kGy promoted greater initial contraction, without alteration of the final dimensions of the repair area, also displaying a faster closing of the wound. Moreover, the use of irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) enabled the formation of a more organized healing process without significant effects on biomechanical properties. (author)

  17. Characterization and uptake of radiolabelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in a human neuroblastoma heterotransplant model in athymic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.; Paahlman, S.; Arnberg, H.; Letocha, H.; Westlin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Cells from an established human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, were demonstrated to grow and form solid tumours in nude rats. This cell line, which is an adrenergic subclone of the SK-N-SH cell line, has previously been used in differentiation model studies. The tumours retained the neuronal phenotype of the cultured cells, as evidenced by the expression of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and chromogranin A + B. The transcription factor Isl-1, a protein expressed in subsets of neurons and endocrine cells as well as in neuroblastoma cells, was also expressed in the transplanted tumours, thus further verifying the retained phenotype of the cells under in vivo conditions. At scintigraphy utilizing 123 I-MIBG the optimal tumour/background ratio was obtained 20 h after injection. The assessment of tissue/serum ratios showed the highest uptake in the spleen (0.067% per gram of inj. activity), neuroblastoma tumours (0.067% per gram of inj. activity) and in the adrenals (0.065% per gram of inj. activity). (orig.)

  18. Characterization and uptake of radiolabelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in a human neuroblastoma heterotransplant model in athymic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, S. (Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Paahlman, S. (Dept. of Pathology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Arnberg, H. (Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Letocha, H. (Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Westlin, J.E. (Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    Cells from an established human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, were demonstrated to grow and form solid tumours in nude rats. This cell line, which is an adrenergic subclone of the SK-N-SH cell line, has previously been used in differentiation model studies. The tumours retained the neuronal phenotype of the cultured cells, as evidenced by the expression of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and chromogranin A + B. The transcription factor Isl-1, a protein expressed in subsets of neurons and endocrine cells as well as in neuroblastoma cells, was also expressed in the transplanted tumours, thus further verifying the retained phenotype of the cells under in vivo conditions. At scintigraphy utilizing [sup 123]I-MIBG the optimal tumour/background ratio was obtained 20 h after injection. The assessment of tissue/serum ratios showed the highest uptake in the spleen (0.067% per gram of inj. activity), neuroblastoma tumours (0.067% per gram of inj. activity) and in the adrenals (0.065% per gram of inj. activity). (orig.).

  19. Serum steroid levels in intact and endocrine ablated BALB/c nude mice and their intact littermates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Svenstrup, B; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was made of the serum steroid levels found in intact and endocrine ablated nude mice of both sexes and in their intact homozygous littermates. The results showed that nude mice have a normal steroidogenesis, but with decreased levels of circulating steroids compared to those...

  20. Mendelian analysis of a metastasis-prone substrain of BALB/c nude mice using a subcutaneously inoculated human tumour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, M; Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M

    2006-01-01

    Most nude mice do not allow the formation of metastases after heterotransplantation of human malignant tumours. Here we describe a substrain of BALB/c nude mice (BALB/c/AnNCr) that reproducibly allows some human cancers to metastasize. By Mendelian analysis of hybrids between this substrain and C57...

  1. Inhibitory effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide on human gastric cancer cell xenografts in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying ZHANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the inhibitory effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (DOPA on human gastric cancer cell SGC-7901 xenografts in nude mice. The nude mice with SGC-7901 xenografts were randomly divided into model, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu, low-dose DOPA, middle-dose DOPA and high-dose DOPA group. The later four groups were intragastrically administrated with 100, 200 and 400 mg·kg–1·day–1 DOPA, 400 mg·kg–1·day–1 5-Fu and normal saline, respectively. After treatment for 20 days, the tumor inhibition rate of in high-dose DOPA group was basically equivalent to 5-Fu group. Compared with 5-Fu, DOPA had no obvious toxic side effect on spleen or thymus indexes, routine blood indexes or liver and kidney functions of nude mice. Compared with model group, the serum tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2 levels in middle- and high-dose DOPA group were significantly increased (P < 0.05, Bax protein expression was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly decreased (P < 0.05. DOPA can inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 cell xenografts in nude mice. The mechanism may be related to its increase of serum TNF-α and IL-2 levels, up-regulation of Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression.

  2. PIXE analysis of tumors and localization behavior of a lanthanide in nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Jiun; Yang, Czau-Siung; Chou, Ming-Ji; Wei, Chau-Chin; Hsu, Chu-Chung; Wang, Chia-Yu

    1984-04-01

    We have used particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to analyze the elemental compositions and uptakes of a lanthanide, yttrium in this report, in tumors and normal tissues of nude mice. A small amount of yttrium nitrate was injected into nude mice with tumors. Samples of normal and malignant tissues taken from these mice were bombarded by the 2 MeV proton beam from a 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator with a Ge detector system to determine the relative elemental compositions of tissues and the relative concentrations of yttrium taken up by these tissues. We found that the uptakes of yttrium by tumors were at least five times more than those by normal tissues. Substantial differences were often observed between the trace element weight (or concentration) pattern of the cancerous and normal tissues. The present result is compared with human tissues.

  3. Growth kinetics of four human breast carcinomas grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spang-Thomsen, M; Rygaard, K; Hansen, L

    1989-01-01

    with cell generation times of 42 to 60 hours. The three receptor-positive tumors had slower growth rate, larger tumor volume doubling time, and smaller growth fraction and labelling index than the receptor-negative tumor. However, no single proliferation parameter was sufficient to characterize the growth......The immune-deficient nude mouse with human tumor xenografts is an appropriate model system for performing detailed growth kinetic examinations. In the present study one estrogen and progesterone receptor-negative (T60) and three receptor-positive (Br-10, MCF-7, T61) human breast cancer xenografts...... in nude mice were investigated. The proliferative tumor characteristics were examined by growth curves, thymidine labelling technique, and flow cytometric DNA analysis performed on fine-needle aspirations. The results showed that the tumors had growth kinetics comparable to other human tumor types...

  4. Clonal dominance between subpopulations of mixed small cell lung cancer xenografts implanted ectopically in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, K; Vindeløv, L L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1995-01-01

    Clonal evolution of neoplastic cells during solid tumour growth leads to the emergence of new tumour cell subpopulations with diverging phenotypic characteristics which may alter the behaviour of a malignant disease. Cellular interaction was studied in mixed xenografts in nude mice and during...... clone 54B was found to dominate the parent 54A clone when grown as mixed subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice, whereas no dominance was exerted during in vitro growth. The in vivo dominance could not be explained by differences in growth kinetics between the two tumour cell lines, and the interaction...... was not dependent on 54B being in excess in mixed tumours. The dominance was dependent on close in vivo contact as no remote effect on the growth of 54A was found when the dominating 54B cells were growing in the opposite flank of tumour-bearing mice. Irradiation inactivated 54B cells were unable to exert...

  5. Radiosensitivity and cell kinetics of the human solid cancer transplanted to nude mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeuchi, Shunji

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse the relationship between radiosensitivity and cell kinetics of human solid cancer in experimental nude mouse system. Four strains of tumors used for the experiment were poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (Lu-9), oat cell carcinoma of the lung (Lu-24), well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (To-1) and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (Es-4) which were serially transplantable to BALB/c nude mice. Radiosensitivity was evaluated by tumor growth in terms of inhibition rate, histological change and host reaction after irradiation. Cell kinetics were studied by autoradiography with pulse administration of 3 H-thymidine to mice. Although Lu-24 was most radiosensitive, followed by To-1, Es-4 and Lu-9 in the order of sensitivity, it was suggested that they might be more radioresistant in nude mice without T-cell function than in human. Regarding squamous cell carcinomas, well differentiated type was more radiosensitive than poorly differentiated one. All of these tumors in nude mouse revealed distinct percent labeled mitosis curves with two clear peaks which were quite different from those in human body. Lu-24 showed a characteristic pattern with a long time lag before visible growth, short G 1 , and low growth fraction, compared to other three tumors. Three strains of squamous cell carcinoma demonstrated similar cell kinetic factors which were almost the same as those in human body reported previously. The differences in volume doubling time of tumor, growth fraction and cell loss factor were partially related to those of radiosensitivities among tumors except for Lu-24. The theoretical volume doubling time was proved to be most reliable for estimation of effectiveness of irradiation, but the labeling index was not a valuable indicator for it. (author)

  6. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba (L. Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq. F. Maek (Asiasari radix, and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly P>0.001 than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  7. Time response of protection in event of vacuum failure based on Nude ionization gauge controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Wang, Qiuping; Wang, Weibin; Wu, Qinglin; Chen, Wentong; Sheng, Liusi; Zhang, Yunwu

    2001-10-01

    This article describes the design and application of fast-response vacuum protection sensor module, based on the Nude ionization gauge and a homemade controller named GH07X. A simulative test indicated that the controller's response time was less than 200 μs when 1 atm air rushed into the vacuum system through a pulsed valve with 0.8 mm orifice nozzle and the emitting current of the Nude gauge was 4 mA. The experiment result showed that the response time mainly depended on the gas density as well as the electron emitting current of the Nude gauge filament. Compared with the vacuum protection sensors based on sputter ion pump and cold-cathode gauge, GH07X is faster and reliable besides, GH07X can be used as an ultrahigh-vacuum slow valve interlock controller with response time of 100 ms, which is faster than other gauge controllers. The widely used field-bus interface CAN and common serial interface RS232/RS485 are embedded in GH07X controller system.

  8. Effects of curcumin on growth of human cervical cancer xenograft in nude mice and underlying mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixue LIU

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the effects of curcumin (Cur on growth of human cervical cancer xenograft in nude mice and underlying mechanism. The nude mice modeled with human cervical cancer HeLa cell xenograft were treated with normal saline (control, 3 mg/kg Cisplatin, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur, respectively. The animal body weight and growth of tumor were measured. The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, p21, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue were determined. Results showed that, after treatment for 20 days, the tumor mass and tumor volume in 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05. The expressions of Bax, p53 and p21 protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05, and the expressions of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05. Cur can inhibit the growth of HeLa cell xenograft in nude mice. The possible mechanism may be related to its up-regulation of Bax, p53 and p21 protein expression in tumor tissue, and down-regulation of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein expression.

  9. Anti-EGFR therapy radiosensitizes human lung adenocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Li Tianran; Tian Jiahe; Qu Baolin; Zhu Hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Gefitinib on radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse. Methods: Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was used to establish nude mouse xenograft tumor model. The mice were derided into 4 groups: control, irradiation alone, Gefinitib alone and radiation combined with Genifitib. Radiation schedule was 3 fractions of 5 Gy, once daily. Gefitinib was daily administered by gavage at 100 mg/(kg·day -1 ) for 14 days. In the combination group, radiotherapy was performed 2 hours after Gefitinib administration. Tumor diameter was measured every other day. Percentage of tumor growth inhibition, growth delay time and regrowth delay time were evaluated. Results: For A549 xenografts in radiation alone, gefitinib alone and combination therapy groups, the percentage of tumor growth inhibition was 22.7%, 12.4% and 38.2%, respectively (F=25.75, P=0.000). Tumor growth delay time was 6.0, 7.8 and 21.6 days, respectively (F=70.49, P=0.000). Tumor regrowth delay time in combination therapy and irradiation alone groups was 23.4 and 10.2 days. (F=174.24, P= 0.000). Sensitizing enhancement ratio of combination group was 1.5 in growth and 1.7 in regrowth. Conclusions: Anti-EGFR therapy enhances the radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse. (authors)

  10. Interleukin 1-induced augmentation of experimental metastases from a human melanoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giavazzi, R.; Garofalo, A.; Bani, M.R.; Abbate, M.; Ghezzi, P.; Boraschi, D.; Mantovani, A.; Dejana, E.

    1990-01-01

    This study has examined the effect of the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) on metastasis formation by the human melanoma A375M in nude mice. We have found that human recombinant IL-1 beta (a single injection greater than 0.01 micrograms per mouse i.v. given before tumor cells) induced an augmentation of experimental lung metastases from the A375M tumor cells in nude mice. This effect was rapidly induced and reversible within 24 h after IL-1 injection. A similar effect was induced by human recombinant IL-1 alpha and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor, but not by human recombinant interleukin 6. 5-[125I]odo-2'-deoxyuridine-radiolabeled A375M tumor cells injected i.v. remained at a higher level in the lungs of nude mice receiving IL-1 than in control mice. In addition, IL-1 injected 1 h, but not 24 h, after tumor cells enhanced lung colonization as well, thus suggesting an effect of IL-1 on the vascular transit of tumor cells. These findings may explain the observation of enhanced secondary localization of tumor cells at inflammatory sites and suggest that modulation of secondary spread should be carefully considered when assessing the ability of this cytokine to complement cytoreductive therapies

  11. Immunohistochemical investigations of xenotransplanted human adenocarcinomas on nude mice: Correlation to radioimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejkova, E.

    1987-01-01

    Immunohistochemical investigations of xenotransplanted human adenocarcinomas on nude mice; correlation to radioimaging Human carcinomas were subcutanously grafted to nude mice (Balb/c-nu/nu) and were investigated in four passages by immunohistochemical methods and by the fluorochrome bisbenzimid. In this way there could be observed a successful differentiation between the nourishing murine stroma and the human tumor parenchym. Especially the use of a monoclonal antibody (rat/mouse fusion) directed against human tissue turned out to be a suitable method. Four adenocarcinomas were tested: Colon-, mamma-, stomach- and testicle carcinoma. During the first four passages atypical parts of murine connective tissue and some changes in the human parenchyma could be seen. These results demonstrate that also in nude mice variations of the transplanted tumor material could happen. They could be detected in time with a routine immunohistochemical test. The consequences of tumor morphological variations for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic tools were studied with the help of radioimaging by external scintigraphy. Furthermore the biodistribution, tumoruptake and the whole body counting were studied by means of radionuclid marked monoclonal antibodies. The morphological variations of the passages of mammary, testicle and colon carcinomas were not big enough to influence the results in a certain way. Therefore especially the relation between the activity uptake in the tissue, the size of the tumor and the whole body uptake was studied in view of immunoscintigraphy. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Effect of thumus cell injections on germinal center formation in lymphoid tissues of nude (thymusless) mice. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, E.B.; Caporale, L.H.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1974-09-01

    Nude mice, partially backcrossed to Balb/c or DBA/2, were injected iv with 5 x 10/sup 7/ thymus cells from the respective inbred strain. The response of these mice to immunization with Brucella abortus antigen was studied, with respect to both antibody production and the formation of germinal centers in their lymphoid tissues. The results were compared to those obtained with nude mice to which no thymus cells were given, as well as to Balb/c, DBA/2, or +/question litter mate controls. Nude mice formed less 19S as well as 7S antibody than did litter mate controls and completely lacked germinal centers in lymph nodes and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Those nude mice which had been injected with thymus cells made a much better secondary response, both for 19S and for 7S antibody, and had active germinal centers in their lymph nodes as early as 3 wk after thymus cell injection. Intestinal lymphoid tissue in nude mice showed only slight reconstitution of germinal center activity several months after thymus cell injection and none at earlier times. Irradiated (3000 R) thymus cells appeared as effective as normal cells in facilitating germinal center appearance and 7S antibody production in the nude mice.

  13. Colonization by non-pathogenic bacteria alters mRNA expression of cytochromes P450 in originally germ-free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourová, L; Anzenbacher, P; Lišková, B; Matušková, Z; Hermanová, P; Hudcovic, T; Kozáková, H; Hrnčířová, L; Anzenbacherová, E

    2017-11-01

    Gut microbiota provides a wide range of beneficial function for the host and has an immense effect on the host's health state. It has also been shown that gut microbiome is often involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics; however, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the gut bacteria and the metabolism of drugs by the host are still unclear. To investigate the effect of microbial colonization on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of liver cytochromes P450 (CYPs), the main drug-metabolizing enzymes, we used germ-free (GF) mice, lacking the intestinal flora and mice monocolonized by non-pathogenic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum NIZO2877 or probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. Our results show that the mRNA expression of Cyp1a2 and Cyp2e1 was significantly increased, while the expression of Cyp3a11 mRNA was decreased under GF conditions compared to the SPF mice. The both bacteria L. plantarum NIZO2877 and E. coli Nissle 1917 given to the GF mice decreased the level of Cyp1a2 mRNA and normalized it to the control level. On the other hand, the colonization by these bacteria had no effect on the expression of Cyp3a11 mRNA in the liver of the GF mice (which remained decreased). Surprisingly, monocolonization with chosen bacterial strains has shown a different effect on the expression of Cyp2e1 mRNA in GF mice. Increased level of Cyp2e1 expression observed in the GF mice was found also in mice colonized by L. plantarum NIZO2877 ; however, the colonization with probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 caused a decrease in Cyp2e1 expression and partially restored the SPF mice conditions.

  14. Associations between the uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, HER2 density and response to trastuzumab (Herceptin) in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous human tumour xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLarty, Kristin; Cornelissen, Bart; Scollard, Deborah A. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toronto, ON (Canada); Done, Susan J. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Biophysics, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University Health Network, Department of Pathology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chun, Kathy [North York General Hospital, Genetics Program, Toronto, ON (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University Health Network, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the associations between uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, tumour HER2 density and response to trastuzumab (Herceptin) of human breast cancer (BC) xenografts in athymic mice. The tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab in athymic mice bearing BC xenografts with increasing HER2 density (0 to 3+) was evaluated. Specific uptake ratios were established in biodistribution (SUR) and imaging studies (ROI-SUR) using {sup 111}In-labeled mouse IgG ({sup 111}In-DTPA-mIgG). Further corrections were made for circulating radioactivity using tumour-to-blood ratios defined as a localization index (LI) and region-of-interest localization index (ROI-LI), respectively. Mice were treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin). A tumour growth inhibition index (TGI) was calculated and relative TGIs calculated by dividing the TGI of control by that of trastuzumab-treated mice. Strong, nonlinear associations with HER2 density were obtained if the uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab was corrected for nonspecific IgG localization (i.e., SUR; r{sup 2}=0.99) and circulating radioactivity (i.e., LI; r{sup 2} =0.87), but without these corrections, the association between HER2 density and tumour uptake was poor (r{sup 2}=0.22). There was a strong association between ROI-SUR and ROI-LI values and HER2 expression (r{sup 2}=0.90 and r{sup 2}=0.95), respectively. All tumours were imaged. Relative TGI values were associated with increasing uncorrected tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab but not always with HER2 density (i.e., MCF-HER2-18 cells with trastuzumab-resistance). HER2 expression (0 to 3+) can be differentiated using {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, but requires correction of tumour uptake for nonspecific IgG localization and circulating radioactivity. The uncorrected uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab was associated with tumour response to trastuzumab. (orig.)

  15. 'Obligate' anaerobic Salmonella strain YB1 suppresses liver tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Xian; Yu, Bin; Shi, Lei; Geng, Wei; Lin, Qiu-Bin; Ling, Chang-Chun; Yang, Mei; Ng, Kevin T P; Huang, Jian-Dong; Man, Kwan

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor properties of bacteria have been demonstrated over the past decades. However, the efficacy is limited and unclear. Furthermore, systemic infection remains a serious concern in bacteria treatment. In this study, the effect of YB1, a rationally designed 'obligate' anaerobic Salmonella typhimurium strain, on liver tumor growth and metastasis in a nude mouse orthotopic liver tumor model was investigated. The orthotopic liver tumor model was established in nude mice using the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line MHCC-97L. Two weeks after orthotopic liver tumor implantation, YB1, SL7207 and saline were respectively administered through the tail vein of the mice. Longitudinal monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis was performed using Xenogen IVIS, and direct measurements of tumor volume were taken 3 weeks after treatment. In vitro , MHCC-97L and PLC cells were incubated with YB1 or SL7207 under anaerobic conditions. YB1 was observed to invade tumor cells and induce tumor cell apoptosis and death. The results revealed that all mice in the YB1 group were alive 3 weeks after YB1 injection while all mice in the SL7207 group died within 11 days of the SL7207 injection. The body weight decreased by ~9% on day 1 after YB1 injection and but subsequently recovered. Liver tumor growth and metastases were significantly inhibited following YB1 treatment. By contrast to the control group, a large number of Gr1-positive cells were detected on days 1 to 21 following YB1 treatment. Furthermore, YB1 also effectively invaded tumor cells and induced tumor cell apoptosis and death. In conclusion, YB1 suppressed liver tumor growth and metastasis in a nude mice liver tumor model. The potential mechanism may be through enhancing innate immune response and inducing tumor cell apoptosis and cell death.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of Erufosine in nude mice - implications for combination with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, Guido; Jendrossek, Verena; Lindner, Lars H; Vogeser, Michael; Eibl, Hans-Jörg; Wörner, Jürgen; Müller, Arndt C; Bamberg, Michael; Wachholz, Kirsten; Belka, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alkylphosphocholines represent promising antineoplastic drugs that induce cell death in tumor cells by primary interaction with the cell membrane. Recently we could show that a combination of radiotherapy with Erufosine, a paradigmatic intravenously applicable alkylphosphocholine, in vitro leads to a clear increase of irradiation-induced cell death. In view of a possible combination of Erufosine and radiotherapy in vivo we determined the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability as well as the tolerability of Erufosine in nude mice. NMRI (nu/nu) nude mice were treated by intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injections of 5 to 40 mg/kg body weight Erufosine every 48 h for one to three weeks. Erufosine-concentrations were measured in brain, lungs, liver, small intestine, colon, spleen, kidney, stomach, adipoid tissue, and muscle by tandem-mass spectroscopy. Weight course, blood cell count and clinical chemistry were analyzed to evaluate general toxicity. Intraperitoneal injections were generally well tolerated in all dose groups but led to a transient loss of the bodyweight (<10%) in a dose dependent manner. Subcutaneous injections of high-dose Erufosine caused local reactions at the injection site. Therefore, this regimen at 40 mg/kg body weight Erufosine was stopped after 14 days. No gross changes were observed in organ weight, clinical chemistry and white blood cell count in treated compared to untreated controls except for a moderate increase in lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate-aminotransferase after intensive treatment. Repeated Erufosine injections resulted in drug-accumulation in different organs with maximum concentrations of about 1000 nmol/g in spleen, kidney and lungs. Erufosine was well tolerated and organ-concentrations surpassed the cytotoxic drug concentrations in vitro. Our investigations establish the basis for a future efficacy testing of Erufosine in xenograft tumor models in nude mice alone and in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy

  17. Imaging of HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice using 111In-trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ying; Wang, Judy; Scollard, Deborah A.; Mondal, Hridya; Holloway, Claire; Kahn, Harriette J.; Reilly, Raymond M.

    2005-01-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab were prepared by digestion of intact IgG with immobilized papain, derivatized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with 111 In. The dissociation constant (K d ) for binding of Fab to HER2/neu-positive SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells was two- to threefold higher than for intact IgG (14-36 vs. 8-14 nM). The binding affinity was not significantly decreased after DTPA derivatization (K d =47 nM). 111 In-trastuzumab Fab localized specifically in HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice with tumor uptake of 7.8±0.7% injected dose (ID)/g and tumor/blood ratio of 25.2±1.6 at 72 h postinjection compared with 2.7±0.7% ID/g and 7.0±0.9 for 111 In-HuM195 anti-CD33 Fab (significantly different, P 111 In-trastuzumab Fab as early as 24 h postinjection

  18. Pharmacokinetics of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys-D-Phe-RGD in athymic mice with induced malignant tumors for integrin imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez D, F.A.; Pedraza L, M.; Murphy, C.A. de; Ferro F, G.; Hernandez H, E.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine imaging techniques are non-invasive and monitor the spatiotemporal distribution of molecular events. Radiolabeled RGD-peptides are currently investigated to target integrin receptors for in vivo tumor imaging. The α v β 3 integrin is a target structure involved in the angio genesis process which mediates the binding to extracellular matrix via different proteins such as vitronectin, fibronectin and von Willebrand factor. The aim of this research was to prepare [ 99m Tc]-Lys-D-Phe-RGD and to evaluate its pharmacokinetics in athymic mice with three different induced malignant tumors. Tumor uptake values of 99m Tc-Lys-D-Phe-RGD labeled via HYNIC and EDDA showed good ability to target α v β 3 integrin receptors in the three different kinds of tumors (breast, prostate and neuroendocrine). A high in vivo stability and favorable pharmacokinetic properties such as fast blood clearance, rapid renal excretion, low liver and muscle uptake and low intestinal excretion were observed. This study demonstrated that 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys-D-Phe-RGD is a specific and potential radiopharmaceutical to image α v β 3 integrin receptors in a variety of tumors. (Author)

  19. Imaging of HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice using {sup 111}In-trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Ying [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2C4 (Canada); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2S2 (Canada); Wang, Judy [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2C4 (Canada); Scollard, Deborah A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2C4 (Canada); Mondal, Hridya [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2C4 (Canada); Holloway, Claire [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Kahn, Harriette J. [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2C4 (Canada) and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2S2 (Canada) and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E2 (Canada)]. E-mail: raymond.reilly@utoronto.ca

    2005-01-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab were prepared by digestion of intact IgG with immobilized papain, derivatized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with {sup 111}In. The dissociation constant (K{sub d}) for binding of Fab to HER2/neu-positive SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells was two- to threefold higher than for intact IgG (14-36 vs. 8-14 nM). The binding affinity was not significantly decreased after DTPA derivatization (K{sub d}=47 nM). {sup 111}In-trastuzumab Fab localized specifically in HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice with tumor uptake of 7.8{+-}0.7% injected dose (ID)/g and tumor/blood ratio of 25.2{+-}1.6 at 72 h postinjection compared with 2.7{+-}0.7% ID/g and 7.0{+-}0.9 for {sup 111}In-HuM195 anti-CD33 Fab (significantly different, P<.001). Small (3-5 mm in diameter) BT-474 tumors were imaged with {sup 111}In-trastuzumab Fab as early as 24 h postinjection.

  20. ATP-ase positive cells in human oral mucosa transplanted to nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, E; Kirkeby, S

    1981-01-01

    A model to study the differentiation of human oral epithelium in vivo utilizing transplantation of human tissue to nude mice has been described. Previous studies have described the epithelial cells in this model. In this study we demonstrate that 8 d after transplantation, Langerhans cells, ident......, identified as ATP-ase positive dendritic cells, have almost disappeared from the transplanted epithelium whereas at day 21 after transplantation such cells were abundant. It is suggested that the ATP-ase positive cells which reappear in the transplanted epithelium are of mouse origin....

  1. 31-P Relaxation times of metabolic compounds in tumors grafted in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, C.; Benabid, A.L.; Jacrot, M.; Riondel, J.; Albrand, J.P.; Decorps, M.

    1985-08-01

    The observation that water proton relaxation rates were longer in tumors than in normal tissues provided a basis for the detection of human tumors by the NMR imaging technique. To evaluate the potentiality of 31-P NMR spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool of the pathological state of tissues, T1 and T2 relaxation times have been measured for the phosphates of ATP, inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphomonoesters (PME) and phosphocreatine (PCr) in the 31-P NMR spectra obtained in vivo for normal rat brain and rat brain tumors implanted in nude mice

  2. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibits human gastric cancer tumor growth in nude mice via the inhibition of glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Shu-Lin; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2015-02-01

    Tumor cells primarily depend upon glycolysis in order to gain energy. Therefore, the inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. Our previous study demonstrated that 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in vitro . However, the ability of 3-BrPA to suppress tumor growth in vivo, and its underlying mechanism, have yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of 3-BrPA in an animal model of gastric cancer. It was identified that 3-BrPA exhibited strong inhibitory effects upon xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, the antitumor function of 3-BrPA exhibited a dose-effect association, which was similar to that of the chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil. Furthermore, 3-BrPA exhibited low toxicity in the blood, liver and kidneys of the nude mice. The present study hypothesized that the inhibitory effect of 3-BrPA is achieved through the inhibition of hexokinase activity, which leads to the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein expression and the subsequent activation of caspase-3. These data suggest that 3-BrPA may be a novel therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  3. Cyclophosphamide Enhances Human Tumor Growth in Nude Rat Xenografted Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjen Jeffrey Wu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide (CTX on tumor growth was investigated in primary and metastatic intracerebral and subcutaneous rat xenograft models. Nude rats were treated with CTX (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally 24 hours before human ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3, small cell lung carcinoma (LX-1 SCLC, and glioma (UW28, U87MG, and U251 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or in the right cerebral hemisphere or were infused into the right internal carotid artery. Tumor development was monitored and recorded. Potential mechanisms were further investigated. Only animals that received both CTX and Matrigel showed consistent growth of subcutaneous tumors. Cyclophosphamide pretreatment increased the percentage (83.3% vs 0% of animals showing intraperitoneal tumors. In intracerebral implantation tumor models, CTX pretreatment increased the tumor volume and the percentage of animals showing tumors. Cyclophosphamide increased lung carcinoma bone and facial metastases after intra-arterial injection, and 20% of animals showed brain metastases. Cyclophosphamide transiently decreased nude rat white blood cell counts and glutathione concentration, whereas serum vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly elevated. Cyclophosphamide also increased CD31 reactivity, a marker of vascular endothelium, and macrophage (CD68-positive infiltration into glioma cell-inoculated rat brains. Cyclophosphamide may enhance primary and metastatic tumor growth through multiple mechanisms, including immune modulation, decreased response to oxidative stress, increased tumor vascularization, and increased macrophage infiltration. These findings may be clinically relevant because chemotherapy may predispose human cancer subjects to tumor growth in the brain or other tissues.

  4. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P tissue (P tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  5. Local control of murine melanoma xenografts in nude mice by neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Corderoy-Buck, S.; Moore, D.E.; Mishima, Y.; Ichihashi, M.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years considerable progress has been made in the development and implementation of neutron capture therapy (NCT) for the treatment of cancer. In particular, the boron analogue of the melanin precursor phenylalanine, i.e., DL-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used to demonstrate the regression and cure of Harding-Passey (HP) melanoma in syngeneic mice. However, 18 to 25% cures were obtained for neutron irradiations without boron, suggesting that the neutron dose alone plays an important role. Neutron capture therapy of B-16 melanoma xenografts in nude mice showed substantial tumor regression over 35 days, but the survival rate of NCT treated mice after 7 weeks was only 40-60%. In this paper the authors demonstrate the equivalence of the nude mouse model with a syngeneic model, using the same Harding-Passey murine melanoma line, and delineate the conditions required for maximum differential response between neutron irradiation with and without BPA administration, with complete local control as the end point

  6. Localization of 131I-chTNT in a nude mice model with human hepatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoliang; Sun Xiaoguang; Xiu Yan; Zhong Gaoren; Qiao Weiwei; Xu Lanwen; Li Wenzheng

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In order to evaluate the targeting activity in the animal model with human hepatoma, the 131 I-chTNT radioimmunoimaging was explored. Methods: Radioimmunoimages were taken on different intervals after injection of 131 I-chTNT 5.55 MBq to the nude mice, and tissue distribution was measured. The results of 131 I-chTNT monoclonal antibody group were compared with that of 131 I control group. Results: The experimental group developed tumor positive images after one day of radio-labelled monoclonal antibodies injection and held on until the end of the experiment. The radioactivity in tumor mass was stable, and the half life of 131 I-chTNT in hepatoma mass was 6.0 +- 1.6 days. there was no special radioactivity accumulation in normal liver tissue in the nude mice and the radioactivity in it disappeared rapidly. Statistics indicated the tumor/liver ratio in 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 days were 1.03, 2.43, 5.71, 7.96, 10.67, respectively. Conclusions: The results suggest that 131 I-chTNT monoclonal antibody has a considerable targeting activity, and provide an evidence for that it can be used as a new radiopharmaceutical agent for the imaging and radio therapy of hepatoma

  7. Erythropoietin improves the survival of fat tissue after its transplantation in nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Hamed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autologous transplanted fat has a high resorption rate, providing a clinical challenge for the means to reduce it. Erythropoietin (EPO has non-hematopoietic targets, and we hypothesized that EPO may improve long-term fat graft survival because it has both pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic properties. We aimed to determine the effect of EPO on the survival of human fat tissue after its transplantation in nude mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human fat tissue was injected subcutaneously into immunologically-compromised nude mice, and the grafts were then treated with either 20 IU or 100 IU EPO. At the end of the 15-week study period, the extent of angiogenesis, apoptosis, and histology were assessed in the fat grafts. The results were compared to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-treated and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS-treated fat grafts. The weight and volume of the EPO-treated grafts were higher than those of the PBS-treated grafts, whose weights and volumes were not different from those of the VEGF-treated grafts. EPO treatment also increased the expression of angiogenic factors and microvascular density, and reduced inflammation and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in the fat grafts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that stimulation of angiogenesis by a cluster of angiogenic factors and decreased fat cell apoptosis account for potential mechanisms that underlie the improved long-term survival of fat transplants following EPO treatment.

  8. Erythropoietin improves the survival of fat tissue after its transplantation in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Egozi, Dana; Kruchevsky, Danny; Teot, Luc; Gilhar, Amos; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2010-11-15

    Autologous transplanted fat has a high resorption rate, providing a clinical challenge for the means to reduce it. Erythropoietin (EPO) has non-hematopoietic targets, and we hypothesized that EPO may improve long-term fat graft survival because it has both pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic properties. We aimed to determine the effect of EPO on the survival of human fat tissue after its transplantation in nude mice. Human fat tissue was injected subcutaneously into immunologically-compromised nude mice, and the grafts were then treated with either 20 IU or 100 IU EPO. At the end of the 15-week study period, the extent of angiogenesis, apoptosis, and histology were assessed in the fat grafts. The results were compared to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-treated and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated fat grafts. The weight and volume of the EPO-treated grafts were higher than those of the PBS-treated grafts, whose weights and volumes were not different from those of the VEGF-treated grafts. EPO treatment also increased the expression of angiogenic factors and microvascular density, and reduced inflammation and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in the fat grafts. Our data suggest that stimulation of angiogenesis by a cluster of angiogenic factors and decreased fat cell apoptosis account for potential mechanisms that underlie the improved long-term survival of fat transplants following EPO treatment.

  9. Transgenic nude mouse with green fluorescent protein expression-based human glioblastoma multiforme animal model with EGFR expression and invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guo-Wei; Lan, Fo-Lin; Gao, Jian-Guo; Jiang, Cai-Mou; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Ma, Yue-Hong; Shao, He-Dui; He, Xue-Yang; Chen, Jin-Long; Long, Jian-Wu; Xiao, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Zhi-Tong; Diao, Yi

    2012-08-01

    Previously, we developed an orthotopic xenograft model of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with high EGFR expression and invasiveness in Balb/c nu/nu nude mice. Now we also developed the same orthotopic xenograft model in transgenic nude mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. The present orthotopic xenografts labeled by phycoerythrin fluorescing red showed high EGFR expression profile, and invasive behavior under a bright green-red dual-color fluorescence background. A striking advantage in the present human GBM model is that the change of tumor growth can be observed visually instead of sacrificing animals in our further antitumor therapy studies.

  10. Polyphenol-rich extract of Pimenta dioica berries (Allspice) kills breast cancer cells by autophagy and delays growth of triple negative breast cancer in athymic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K.; Patil, Bhimu S.; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from edible plants have limited efficacy in treating advanced cancers, but they have potential to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs in a combined treatment. An aqueous extract of berries of Pimenta dioica (Allspice) shows promise as one such candidate for combination therapy or chemoprevention. An aqueous extract of Allspice (AAE) was tested against human breast cancer (BrCa) cells in vitro and in vivo. AAE reduced the viability and clonogenic growth of several types of BrCa cells (IC50 ≤ 100 μg/ml) with limited toxicity in non-tumorigenic, quiescent cells (IC50 >200 μg/ml). AAE induced cytotoxicity in BrCa was inconsistent with apoptosis, but was associated with increased levels of autophagy markers LC3B and LC3B-positive puncta. Silencing the expression of autophagy related genes (ATGs) prevented AAE-induced cell death. Further, AAE caused inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling, and showed enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with rapamycin, a chemotherapy drug and an inhibitor of mTOR signaling. Oral administration (gavage) of AAE into athymic mice implanted with MDA-MB231 tumors inhibited tumor growth slightly but not significantly (mean decrease ~ 14%, p ≥ 0.20) if mice were gavaged post-tumor implant. Tumor growth showed a significant delay (38%) in tumor palpability and growth rate (time to reach tumor volume ≥ 1,000 mm3) when mice were pre-dosed with AAE for two weeks. Analysis of tumor tissues showed increased levels of LC3B in AAE treated tumors, indicating elevated autophagic tumor cell death in vivo in treated mice. These results demonstrate antitumor and chemo-preventive activity of AAE against BrCa and potential for adjuvant to mTOR inhibition. PMID:25945840

  11. Mesenchymal stem cell-based NK4 gene therapy in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yin Zhu,1,* Ming Cheng,2,* Zhen Yang,3 Chun-Yan Zeng,3 Jiang Chen,3 Yong Xie,3 Shi-Wen Luo,3 Kun-He Zhang,3 Shu-Feng Zhou,4 Nong-Hua Lu1,31Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Orthopedics, 3Institute of Digestive Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been recognized as promising delivery vehicles for gene therapy of tumors. Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of worldwide cancer mortality, and novel treatment modalities are urgently needed. NK4 is an antagonist of hepatocyte growth factor receptors (Met which are often aberrantly activated in gastric cancer and thus represent a useful candidate for targeted therapies. This study investigated MSC-delivered NK4 gene therapy in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts. MSCs were transduced with lentiviral vectors carrying NK4 complementary DNA or enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP. Such transduction did not change the phenotype of MSCs. Gastric cancer xenografts were established in BALB/C nude mice, and the mice were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, MSCs-GFP, Lenti-NK4, or MSCs-NK4. The tropism of MSCs toward gastric cancer cells was determined by an in vitro migration assay using MKN45 cells, GES-1 cells and human fibroblasts and their presence in tumor xenografts. Tumor growth, tumor cell apoptosis and intratumoral microvessel density of tumor tissue were measured in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts treated with PBS, MSCs-GFP, Lenti-NK4, or MSCs-NK4 via tail vein injection. The results showed that MSCs migrated preferably to gastric cancer cells in vitro. Systemic MSCs-NK4 injection significantly suppressed the growth of gastric cancer xenografts. MSCs-NK4 migrated and accumulated in tumor

  12. Mueller matrix polarimetry for characterizing microstructural variation of nude mouse skin during tissue optical clearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Zeng, Nan; Xie, Qiaolin; He, Honghui; Tuchin, Valery V; Ma, Hui

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the polarization features corresponding to changes in the microstructure of nude mouse skin during immersion in a glycerol solution. By comparing the Mueller matrix imaging experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, we examine in detail how the Mueller matrix elements vary with the immersion time. The results indicate that the polarization features represented by Mueller matrix elements m22&m33&m44 and the absolute values of m34&m43 are sensitive to the immersion time. To gain a deeper insight on how the microstructures of the skin vary during the tissue optical clearing (TOC), we set up a sphere-cylinder birefringence model (SCBM) of the skin and carry on simulations corresponding to different TOC mechanisms. The good agreement between the experimental and simulated results confirm that Mueller matrix imaging combined with Monte Carlo simulation is potentially a powerful tool for revealing microscopic features of biological tissues.

  13. The catabolism of radioiodinated anti-lung-cancer monoclonal antibodies in tumor-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xubao

    1991-01-01

    Nude mice bearing humor lung cancer xenografts were injected intravenously or intraperitoneally with a mixture of radioiodinated anti-lung-cancer monoclonal antibodies, 2E3 and 6D1. The blood radioactivity versus time curve was fitted to a two-compartment open model with a 3.4 day blood radioactivity clearance half-life and a 636 ml/kg apparent distribution volume. Radioiodinated 2E3 and 6D1 given intraperitoneally were rapidly absorbed, with a 2.08 absorption half-life and 89% bioavailability. The highest radioactivity levels were found in the tumor, blood, liver and spleen 1-3 days after injection; next came the lung, kidney, stomach and intestine. The relative radioactivity increased in the tumor as levels in blood and normal tissues decreased. The in vivo deiodination of radioiodinated 2E3 and 6D1 was about 18.6% and free radioiodine was excreted in the urine

  14. Distribution of a boronated porphyrin (BTPP) in osteosarcoma bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Akira; Ojima, N.; Kadosawa, T.; Hatanaka, H.

    1992-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is known as one of the malignant tumor which is highly resistant to the ordinary irradiation therapy, and amputation of the affected limb at an early stage has been a treatment of choice for long years. The authors final goal in this study is to find out a possibility to treat the osteosarcoma conserving the affected limb by irradiating high dose to the tumor specifically using the characteristics of boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT). For the success of this study, the development of the boron carrier with specific affinity to tumor or osteosarcoma is essential. In this paper, a recently developed boronated derivative, boronotetraphenylporphyrin (BTPP) was studied for its distribution in osteosarcoma bearing nude mice by means of whole body alfa-track autoradiography

  15. Utilizing nonlinear optical microscopy to investigate the development of early cancer in nude mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Li, Feng-Chieh; Lin, Sung-Jan; Lo, Wen; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    In this investigation, we used in vivo nonlinear optical microscopy to image normal and carcinogen DMBA treated skin tissues of nude mice. We acquired two-photon autofluroescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) images of the skin tissue, and applied the ASI (Autofluorescence versus SHG Index) to the resulting image. This allows us to visualize and quantify the interaction between mouse skin cells and the surrounding connective tissue. We found that as the imaging depth increases, ASI has a different distribution in the normal and the treated skin tissues. Since the DMBA treated skin eventually became squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), our results show that the physiological changes to mouse skin en route to become cancer can be effectively tracked by multiphoton microscopy. We envision this approach to be effective in studying tumor biology and tumor treatment procedures.

  16. Biokinetic and therapeutic use of 131I-MIBG in nude mice hosting human neuroblastoma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laubenbacher, C.; Kriegel, H.; Moellenstaedt, S.; Senekowitsch, R.; Technische Univ. Muenchen

    1988-01-01

    The biological halflife of 131 I-MIBG in nude mice with xenotransplanted human neuroblastoma derived from the SK-N-SH cell line comes to 6 h. The adrenal gland and the neuroblastoma show the highest uptake of MIBG. Based on these datas it could be calculated that 185 MBq would be necessary to get 60 Gy radiation absorbed dose in the tumor. 15-20 days after injection of this activity the tumors could no longer be palpated and they remained missing over the whole observation period. 92.5 MBq weren't enough getting a stable remission. Eleven days p.i. neuroblastoma started growing again. For the first time it could be shown that only high activity of 131 I-MIBG is able to restrain neuroblastoma totally. (orig.)

  17. Establishment and characterization of human uveal malignant melanoma xenografts in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S; Spang-Thomsen, M; Prause, J U

    2003-01-01

    the characteristic properties of malignant melanoma. However, the transplanted cells demonstrated vimentin reactivity, whereas the primary tumour cells were negative for vimentin. It can be concluded that a new experimental model of malignant uveal melanoma with tumours that were easy to observe and access...... model. Tumour tissue blocks (2 x 2 x 2 mm) from enucleated eyes with choroidal malignant melanoma were transplanted subcutaneously into the flanks of nude mice. The growing tumours were measured and serially transplanted. The tumour samples were investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry....... The transplanted tumour cells were epithelioid and slightly larger than the primary tumour cells and had prominent nucleoli. However, the transplanted tumour retained a morphological appearance similar to that of the primary tumour. Immunohistochemical examinations demonstrated that the cells preserved...

  18. Inhibitory effects of 3-bromopyruvate on human gastric cancer implant tumors in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Shu-Lin; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a common malignant tumor. Our previous study demonstrated inhibitory effects of 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) on pleural mesothelioma. Moreover, we found that 3-BrPA could inhibit human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 proliferation in vitro, but whether similar effects might be exerted in vivo have remained unclear. To investigate the effect of 3-BrPA to human gastric cancer implant tumors in nude mice. Animals were randomly divided into 6 groups: 3-BrPA low, medium and high dose groups, PBS negative control group 1 (PH7.4), control group 2 (PH 6.8-7.8) and positive control group receiving 5-FU. The TUNEL method was used to detect apoptosis, and cell morphology and structural changes of tumor tissue were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). 3-BrPA low, medium, high dose group, and 5-FU group, the tumor volume inhibition rates were 34.5%, 40.2%, 45.1%, 47.3%, tumor volume of experimental group compared with 2 PBS groups (p0.05). TEM showed typical characteristics of apoptosis. TUNEL demonstrated apoptosis indices of 28.7%, 39.7%, 48.7% for the 3-BrPA low, medium, high dose groups, 42.2% for the 5-FU group and 5% and 4.3% for the PBS1 (PH7.4) and PBS2 (PH6.8-7.8) groups. Compared each experimental group with 2 negative control groups, there was significant difference (p0.05), but there was between the 5-FU and high dose groups (p<0.05). This study indicated that 3-BrPA in vivo has strong inhibitory effects on human gastric cancer implant tumors in nude mice .

  19. Radioimaging of human mammary carcinoma xenografts in nude mice with a new monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senekowitsch, R.; Bode, W.; Kriegel, H.; Reidel, G.; Pabst, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    A female Wistar rat aged 33 days was immunized by repeated intraperitoneal injections of a cell suspension of mammary carcinoma for eight months. Spleen cells of the immunized rat were then fused with X63-Ag8.653, a mouse myeloma line. Hybridoma supernatants were screened by ELISA using cells of mammary carcinoma (MaCa) as target cells. Initially 72 hybridomas showed positive response with MaCa cells, but no cross-reaction with normal mammary tissue was seen. Clone Ma 10-11 was chosen for its stable growth in vitro and in ascitic fluid. Monoclonal antibody obtained from ascitic fluid induced by intraperitoneal injection of 10 7 hybridoma cell into BALB/c-nu/nu mice was separated from albumin and transferrin. After separation only one band positioned at 155000 MW on SDS-PAGE slabs was detected. Radiolabeling with 131 I was achieved with the Iodogen method, the efficiency of labeling was 88%. 1.85 MBq of the intact labeled rat antibody were injected into nude mice xenografted with human mammary carcinoma and scintigrams were obtained every 48 hours p.i. up to 15 days. Scintigraphic images permitted tumor detection at 3 days p.i., but good tumor localization needed 8 days p.i.. The tumor-to-blood ratios calculated after dissection of tumor-bearing mice in groups of 3 increased from 0.97 at day 3 to 3 at day 15 p.i.. No uptake of the antibody in other organs was found. The half-life of the whole body clearance of the rat immunoglobulin was 36 h. This is significantly shorter than the half-life found for mouse immunoglobulin in nude mice. (Author)

  20. Radioimmunoimaging of osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice using monoclonal antibodies to osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakashima, T.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have developed several monoclonal antibodies against human osteogenic sarcoma, one of which; OST7 (IgGl) selectively localized in osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice. In the present study, F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment was compared with whole IgG and those labeled with In-111 as well as I-131 were used as a radiotracer for the scintigraphic imaging of tumors. IgC and F(ab')/sub 2/ were labeled with I-131 using chloramine-T method and injected into nude mice bearing human osteogenic sarcoma. Scintigrams at day 2 clearly delineated the site of tumors with almost no radioactivity in other organs with F(ab')/sub 2/, which yielded much better images than whole IgG. Tumor-to-blood ratio of 6.09-27.87 was obtained at day 2 using F(ab')/sub 2/, whereas it was 0.76-1.12 at day 2 and 2.05-3.27 at day 7 with IgG. I-131 labeled nonspecific F(ab')/sub 2/ or IgG resulted in no or very low tumor uptake with tumor-to-blood ratio of 0.94-1.18 at day 2 for F(ab')/sub 2/ and 0.67-0.76 at day 7 for IgG, respectively. In-111 labeled F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of OST7, which was prepared using DTPA as a bifunctional chelate, also showed a high tumor accumulation with tumor-to-blood ratio of 11.67-17.54 at day 2, but higher background activity in the liver and kidney was observed than I-131 labeled one. These results indicate that F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of OST7 labeled with either I-131 or In-111, has a great potential for the radioimmunoimaging of osteogenic sarcoma

  1. Pharmacokinetic study of radiolabeled anti-colorectal carcinoma monoclonal antibodies in tumor-bearing nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douillard, J.Y.; Chatal, J.F.; Curtet, C.; Kremer, M.; Saccavini, J.C.; Peuvrel, P.; Koprowski, H.

    1985-09-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) 17-1A and 19-9, which specifically bind human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells, were tested for their usefulness in localizing colorectal tumors in nude mice. One of the /sup 131/I-labeled MoAbs and an irrelevant /sup 125/I-labeled immunoglobulin of the same isotype were injected into nude mice simultaneously bearing a human CRC and a human melanoma. The percentage of the injected dose of antibody per gram of tissue, the CRC/tissue ratios of antibody distribution, and the localization indicees were calculated at various time intervals (2 h to 10 days). For both MoAbs, labeling to a specific activity of 10 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g by the iodogen method gave optimum immunoreactivity. The accumulation of MoAb 17-1A in CRC reached its maximum at 5 days and remained at this level for up to 9 days postinjection. For MoAb 19-9, which detects a circulating antigen shed by the tumor into the serum, the accumulation in the CRC was maximum at 24 h, and decreased thereafter. The CRC/organ ratios and localization indices for-both MoAbs increased with time in the CRC tissue, but remained low and unchanged in the melanoma and normal tissue. Using F(ab')/sub 2/ antibody fragments, faster kinetics with earlier maximum accumulation, higher tumor/organ ratios, and better localization indices were achieved than with intact MoAbs. The data obtained was useful in defining parameters which must be considered before radiolabeled MoAbs are used in cancer patients for diagnostic purposes.

  2. Radiosensitizing effect of artesunate on nude mice transplanted with HeLa cells of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanyuan; Feng Yang; Zhang Xuguang; Zhu Wei; Ni Qianying; Geng Chong; Chen Guanglie; Luo Judong; Fan Saijun; Cao Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitization of artesunate on nude mouse transplanted with HeLa cells,and to explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: HeLa cells were inoculated into the nude mice to establish tumor model. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups as blank control,artesunate group, radiation group and artesunate + radiation group when average volume of tumor were about 5 mm × 5 mm× 5 mm. During the term of treatment, the volume of tumors were measured every 2 days. After 14 days treatment, the mice were killed and tumor tissues were harvested for flow cytometry to detect the alteration of cell cycle. Meanwhile, the pathological change of the tumor tissue was observed with HE staining method, and the change of expression of cycle regulatory protein Cyclin B1, Cdc2 and Wee1 were detected by Western blot. Results: The growth of tumor was significantly inhibited by artesunate combined with radiation and its inhibition rate was 72.34%. Flow cytometry results showed that the percent of cells in G 1 phase increased and G 2 phase decreased in the artesunate + radiation group compared with those in irradiation group (t=4.41, 4.12, P<0.05). The expression level of Cyclin B1 was obviously increased while that of Wee1 decreased in the artesunate + radiation compared with irradiation group. There was no difference in the expression of Cdc2 among the four groups. Conclusions: Artesunate can dramatically increase the radiosensitivity of transplanted tumor of HeLa cells. The possible mechanism might be related to the decreasing G 2 phase by regulating the expression of Cyclin B1 and Wee1. (authors)

  3. Experimental study of 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle on human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lizhen; Yang Min; Xu Yuping; Pan Donghui; Huang Peilin; Liu Lu; Shao Guoqiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapeutic and toxic effects of 32 P-chromic phosphate-poly (L-lactic) acid ( 32 P-CP-PLLA) microparticle intratumoral administration into BALB/c nude mice bearing BxPc-3 human pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: Twenty four nude mice bearing tumors were injected with 0, 9.3, 18.5 and 37.0 M Bq 32 P-CP-PLLA microparticle, respectively. The relative tumor growth rates were observed every day, and white blood cells, platelets and body weight were measured. At 14 d after administration, the tumors were removed, histological examination and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Results: The relative tumor growth rates of each treatment group was lower than 40%. Histological examination showed the degenerative necrosis at the site nearby the microparticle. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the Microvessel density (MVD) and the expression of Bcl-2 in treated group were lower than those in control group.In contrast, the expression of bax in treated group were higher than those in control group. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein significantly decreased in the treatment group,which were 3.83 ± 0.43, 0.47 ± 0.13, 1.10 ± 0.32, 2.19 ± 0.57 for 0, 9.3, 18.5 and 37.0 MBq 32 P-CP-PLLA microparticle, respectively (t=2.36-2.77, P<0.05). MVD were 31.2 ± 2.3, 23.8 ± 1.5, 14.8 ±0.8, 11.0 ± 1.2, respectively. Dose dependence was observed in both HE and IHC staining after 14 d treatment (t=2.30-2.57, P<0.05). Conclusions: Intratumoral injection of 32 P-CP-PLLA microparticle might be a safe, easy and effective radionuclide interventional therapy for pancreatic carcinoma. (authors)

  4. Comparison of characteristics of human small cell carcinoma of the lung in patients, in vitro and transplanted into nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, S A; Spang-Thomsen, M; Vindeløv, L L

    1986-01-01

    Specimens from 24 patients with metastatic small cell carcinoma of the lung were explanted in vitro as well as transplanted directly into nude mice. A method to obtain fibroblast-free cultures is described. This method resulted in cell lines which could be grown for more than one year in 79% of t...

  5. Comparison of rearing performances and intermuscular bone number in the mirror and nude genotypes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in a controlled field test in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Edithe Andria-Mananjara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nude carps, a genotype of common carp which are devoid of scales, have been banned from farmed populations of carp in Europe due to both the lethal effect of the N (nude gene when in homozygous state, and to the negative pleiotropic effects on growth and survival (especially in harsh conditions of this same gene in the heterozygous state, which produces the nude phenotype. In Madagascar, where climatic variations are less extreme than in Eastern Europe, the nude phenotype is valued both by farmers and consumers, for its good growth and supposed low number of intermuscular bones. We performed an on-farm experiment using a “common garden” design to control environmental variation, in order to compare the growth and survival, as well as the number of intermuscular bones of nude carp to two other common scale cover phenotypes of the same species, the mirror and scaly carps. We found that survival of nude carps was lower or equal to that of mirror carps at all stages of the farming process, while growth performance was lower than that of mirror carps in some ponds only. Globally, the biomass production per fish stocked was always lower in nude carp compared to mirror carp. The number of intermuscular bones was the same in nude, mirror and scaly carps. We conclude that as in Europe, it would be valuable to farm mirror rather than nude carps, as the supposed benefits of the latter are not supported by our experiment in typical Malagasy farming conditions. Keywords: Nude carp, Growth, Survival, Pleiotropy, Intermuscular bones

  6. Skin graft influence in human tissue radiated in nude mice regeneration; Influencia do enxerto de pele humana irradiada na regeneracao tecidual de camundongos nude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Jurandir Tomaz de

    2016-07-01

    Over the last few years it has increased the interest in the human skin grafts radio sterilized for application mainly in extensive and deep burns. Because these grafts quickly grip and present antigenic lower potential, compared with other treatments used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histoarchitecture of human skin grafts irradiated with doses 25 kGy, 50 kGy and non-irradiated during the repair tissue process in nude mice submitted by skin grafting in the dorsal region. Three groups of animals received irradiated human skin grafts (25 kGy and 50 kGy) and non-irradiated and were euthanized on the 3{sup rd}, 7{sup th} and 21{sup th} day after the surgery. Indeed, routine histologic procedures, tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for quantification of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, immune cells and blood vessels and immunofluorescence (IF) was performed to determine the expression human collagen type I and collagen type I and III mouse. Therefore, quantification of both the cells and the collagen types was performed by image analysis using Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. Histologic results demonstrated at a dose of 25 kGy that human skin irradiation when grafted influences the increase in the number of cells in wound site over time and it provides better dispersion of these cells. In addition, on the 21{sup st} day, three groups of animals with human skin graft were embedded part of the graft in the healing process. On the other hand, the group not irradiated showed greater incorporation of the graft (43 %), but less production of collagen type III mouse (22 %). Since the groups irradiated skin graft showed lower graft incorporation (6 and 15%), but with greater production of collagen type III mice (35 % and 28 % to 25 kGy and 50 kGy, respectively). In conclusion, this study presented that the group irradiated to 25 kGy and it has a higher cell proliferation and vessel formation, and better remodeling of the healing area. (author)

  7. Microencapsulated tumor assay: Evaluation of the nude mouse model of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-Zhe; Cheng, Dong-Feng; Ye, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Jia-Xiang; Shi, Min-Min; Han, Bao-San; Peng, Cheng-Hong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish a more stable and accurate nude mouse model of pancreatic cancer using cancer cell microencapsulation. METHODS: The assay is based on microencapsulation technology, wherein human tumor cells are encapsulated in small microcapsules (approximately 420 μm in diameter) constructed of semipermeable membranes. We implemented two kinds of subcutaneous implantation models in nude mice using the injection of single tumor cells and encapsulated pancreatic tumor cells. The size of subcutaneously implanted tumors was observed on a weekly basis using two methods, and growth curves were generated from these data. The growth and metastasis of orthotopically injected single tumor cells and encapsulated pancreatic tumor cells were evaluated at four and eight weeks postimplantation by positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan and necropsy. The pancreatic tumor samples obtained from each method were then sent for pathological examination. We evaluated differences in the rates of tumor incidence and the presence of metastasis and variations in tumor volume and tumor weight in the cancer microcapsules vs single-cell suspensions. RESULTS: Sequential in vitro observations of the microcapsules showed that the cancer cells in microcapsules proliferated well and formed spheroids at days 4 to 6. Further in vitro culture resulted in bursting of the membrane of the microcapsules and cells deviated outward and continued to grow in flasks. The optimum injection time was found to be 5 d after tumor encapsulation. In the subcutaneous implantation model, there were no significant differences in terms of tumor volume between the encapsulated pancreatic tumor cells and cells alone and rate of tumor incidence. There was a significant difference in the rate of successful implantation between the cancer cell microencapsulation group and the single tumor-cell suspension group (100% vs 71.43%, respectively, P = 0.0489) in the orthotropic implantation model. The former method

  8. MUC1 selectively targets human pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Youp Park

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine whether MUC1 antibody conjugated with a fluorophore could be used to visualize pancreatic cancer. Anti-MUC1 (CT2 antibody was conjugated with 550 nm or 650 nm fluorophores. Nude mouse were used to make subcutaneous and orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. Western blot and flow cytometric analysis confirmed the expression of MUC1 in human pancreatic cancer cell lines including BxPC-3 and Panc-1. Immunocytochemistry with fluorophore conjugated anti-MUC1 antibody demonstrated fluorescent areas on the membrane of Panc-1 cancer cells. After injecting the conjugated anti-MUC1 antibodies via the tail vein, subcutaneously transplanted Panc-1 and BxPC-3 tumors emitted strong fluorescent signals. In the subcutaneous tumor models, the fluorescent signal from the conjugated anti-MUC1 antibody was noted around the margin of the tumor and space between the cells. The conjugated anti-MUC1 antibody bound the tumor in orthotopically-transplanted Panc-1 and BxPC-3 models enabling the tumors to be imaged. This study showed that fluorophore conjugated anti-MUC1 antibodies could visualize pancreatic tumors in vitro and in vivo and may help to improve the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  9. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liang

    Full Text Available Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  10. Effect of combined misonidazole and accelerated neon ions on a human melanoma transplanted into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichard, M.; Tenforde, T.; Curtis, S.; Malaise, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The response to accelerated neon ions of human Nall melanomas growing in nude mice was measured by an in vitro colony-forming assay following in situ tumor irradiation in the midposition of a 10-cm extended-peak ionization region. Values of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for peak neon ions compared with 60 Coγ radiation were 3.2 and 3.4, respectively, at the 1% and 10% survival levels. Following irradiation with peak neon ions, the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) was comparable to that observed after γ irradiation. When misonidazole (1 mg/g intraperitoneal dose) was administered in combination with extended-peak neon ions, the drug enhancement ratio (ER) at the 1% survival level was 1.5 if the tumors were removed and plated in vitro immediately following irradiation, and 1.9 if tumor excision and plating were delayed for greater than or equal to 6 hours. Administration of misonidazole completely inhibited PLD repair following either γ irradiation or extended peak neon-ion irradiation

  11. Correlation of cytotoxicity with elimination of iodine-125 from nude mice inoculated with prelabeled human melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockshin, A.; Giovanella, B.C.; Quian, C.; Mendoza, J.T.; Vardeman, D.M.; Stehlin, J.S. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    BRO human melanoma cells were prelabeled in vitro with [125I]5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ([125I]IdUrd) and inoculated into NIH-II nude mice ip, im, sc, or iv. Saline or diphtheria toxin (DT), which is selectively toxic to human cells compared to those of mice, was injected, and the loss of 125I from the animals was monitored daily with a whole-body gamma scintillation detector. For most of the inoculation sites DT accelerated the rate of 125I excretion and in all cases was cytotoxic for the inoculated cells as determined by host survival or measurement of visible tumor growth. Differences between the rates of 125I loss for DT-treated mice compared to untreated mice were most evident for cells inoculated ip or im. These results indicate that [125I]IdUrd prelabeling of human tumor cells inoculated in nude mice offers a rapid method for determination of cytotoxicity in vivo

  12. Characterization of human glioblastoma cell lines in vitro and their xenografts in nude mice by DNA fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Türeci, O; Fischer, H; Lagoda, P

    1990-01-01

    Human gliomas were grown as permanent tissue cultures and xenografts in nude mice. DNA fingerprint patterns from two human gliomas were established using two different hypervariable multilocus probes [( GTG]5 and 33.15). In general the cell lines investigated showed an overall stability in the DNA...... fingerprint pattern. However, differences in the DNA fingerprint patterns were shown to occur depending upon the above mentioned parameters....

  13. The biodistribution study of 99mTc labelled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody in tumor bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Zongxin

    1992-01-01

    The author report the optimal condition of 99m Tc labelling with anti-CEA monoclonal antibody using chelating of 99m Tc with dimethylformamide. The labelling rate of this method is 60%-80%, the radiochemical purity of labelling antibody over 90% and maintain its better immuno activity. The biodistribution of the tumor bearing nude mice demonstrates that as compared with the control group, 24 hours after the intraperitoneal injection the injected labelled antibody has its specific concentration in tumor tissue

  14. Combined therapeutic effect and molecular mechanisms of metformin and cisplatin in human lung cancer xenografts in nude mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Qin Chen; Gang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This work was aimed at studying the inhibitory activity of metformin combined with the commonly used chemotherapy drug cisplatin in human lung cancer xenografts in nude mice. We also examined the combined effects of these drugs on the molecular expression of survivin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), and vascular endothelial growth factorreceptor-3 (VEGFR-3) to determine the mechanism of action and to explore the potential applicati...

  15. Endocrine sensitivity of the receptor-positive T61 human breast carcinoma serially grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M; Skovgaard Poulsen, H

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of ovariectomy, 17 beta-oestradiol, and tamoxifen on the oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive T61 human breast carcinoma grown in nude mice. The effect of the treatment was evaluated by the specific growth delay calculated on the basis of Gompertz growth cur...... but is not a sufficiently clear marker to allow prediction of the endocrine sensitivity of individual breast tumours....

  16. Study on therapy of 188Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension in nude mice bearing human colon tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiyuan; Wu Yuanfang; Dong Mo

    2003-01-01

    The effect of therapy, tissue distribution and stability are studied in nude mice bearing human colon tumor after injections of 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension. The tissues are observed with electric microscope. The results show that 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension is stabilized in the tumor and its inhibitive effects on human colon tumor cells are obvious. 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension is a potential radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of human tumor

  17. Scaffold-Free Coculture Spheroids of Human Colonic Adenocarcinoma Cells and Normal Colonic Fibroblasts Promote Tumorigenicity in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-il Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to form a scaffold-free coculture spheroid model of colonic adenocarcinoma cells (CACs and normal colonic fibroblasts (NCFs and to use the spheroids to investigate the role of NCFs in the tumorigenicity of CACs in nude mice. We analysed three-dimensional (3D scaffold-free coculture spheroids of CACs and NCFs. CAC Matrigel invasion assays and tumorigenicity assays in nude mice were performed to examine the effect of NCFs on CAC invasive behaviour and tumorigenicity in 3D spheroids. We investigated the expression pattern of fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α by immunohistochemical staining. CAC monocultures did not form densely-packed 3D spheroids, whereas cocultured CACs and NCFs formed 3D spheroids. The 3D coculture spheroids seeded on a Matrigel extracellular matrix showed higher CAC invasiveness compared to CACs alone or CACs and NCFs in suspension. 3D spheroids injected into nude mice generated more and faster-growing tumors compared to CACs alone or mixed suspensions consisting of CACs and NCFs. FAP-α was expressed in NCFs-CACs cocultures and xenograft tumors, whereas monocultures of NCFs or CACs were negative for FAP-α expression. Our findings provide evidence that the interaction between CACs and NCFs is essential for the tumorigenicity of cancer cells as well as for tumor propagation.

  18. Preventive study of gastric cancer peritoneal micrometastasis in nude mice with 188Re-labelled monoclonal antibody 3H11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhi; Zhang Meiying; Lin Baohe; Zhao Changying; Han Yan; Mou Aping; Ma Yunxia

    2001-01-01

    In advanced gastric cancer, especially when the serosa is invaded, the implantation of cancer cells in the peritoneum is common, and it affects patients' survival time severely. Based on successfully labelled monoclonal antibody 3H11 with 188 Re, we investigated the effect of RIT (radioimmunotherapy) with 188 Re-3H11 on preventing the establishment of gastric cancer cell peritoneal micrometastasis in nude mice. After 1x10 6 BGC-823, gastric cancer cells were injected into the peritoneal cavity of each mouse, 45 BABL/C nude mice were divided into 9 groups. Each group received the various doses of 188 Re-3H11 or 188 Re-IgG or saline I.P.16 hours postoperation. The injected volume of each mouse was 1.0 mL. The results showed that the survival time depended on injected doses from 0 to 37MBq. The survival time was 170 ± 25.3 days after 37MBq 188 Re-3H11 were treated . It was over 5 times that of the saline group and about 3 times that of the 74MBq 188 Re-IgG group (p 188 Re-3H11 I.P. is effective and safe in the prevention of intra-peritoneally injected gastric cancer cells from surviving, growing and disseminating in nude mice. (author)

  19. Differentiation of bone marrow cells to functional T lymphocytes following implantation of thymus grafts and thymic stroma in nude and ATxBM mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splitter, G.A.; McGuire, T.C.; Davis, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Cardiac allografts were used to compare the immunologic capacity of nude mice and adult, thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (AT x BM) mice. Neither nude nor AT x BM mice were able to reject cardiac allografts of any party. However, both rejected grafts of any party following implantation of neonatal thymus or thymus from 3-week-old syngeneic mice. Irradiated syngeneic thymus grafts (800 R) were equally effective in restoring host responsiveness against allografts. In contrast, allogeneic thymus grafts restored the capacity to reject second-party heart grafts only in AT x BM mice. Second-party grafts persisted indefintely when placed on nude mice implanted with an allogeneic, unirradiated thymus graft. Third-party grafts transplanted 17 weeks after reconstitution, however, were rejected. Irradiated nude mice given normal littermate bone marrow and simultaneously grafted with second-party thymus and heart allografts also failed to reject their second-party heart grafts. The difference in ultimate capacity to respond between AT x BM and nude mice suggests that a maturational defect exists in the nude mouse environment which impedes development of precursor T lymphocytes

  20. Preparation and Identification of HER2 Radioactive Ligands and Imaging Study of Breast Cancer-Bearing Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-zhi Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A micro-molecule peptide TP1623 of 99mTc-human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 was prepared and the feasibility of using it as a HER2-positive molecular imaging agent for breast cancer was evaluated. METHODS: TP1623 was chemically synthesized and labeled with 99mTc. The labeling ratio and stability were detected. HER2 expression levels of breast cancer cells (SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 and cell binding activity were measured. Biodistribution of 99mTC-TP1623 in normal mice was detected. SKBR3/MDA-MB-231-bearing nude mice models with high/low expressions of HER2 were established. Tumor tissues were stained with hematoxylin–eosin (HE and measured by immunohistochemistry to confirm the formation of tumors and HER2 expression. SPECT imaging was conducted for HER2-overexpressing SKBR3-bearing nude mice. The T/NT ratio was calculated and compared with that of MDA-MB-231-bearing nude mice with low HER2 expression. The competitive inhibition image was used to discuss the specific binding of 99mTc- TP1623 and the tumor. RESULTS: The labeling ratio of 99mTc-TP1623, specific activity, and radiochemical purity (RCP after 6 h at room temperature were (97.39 ± 0.23%, (24.61 ± 0.06 TBq/mmol, and (93.25 ± 0.06%, respectively. HER2 of SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed high and low expression levels by immunohistochemistry, respectively. The in vitro receptor assays indicated that specific binding of TP1623 and HER2 was retained. Radioactivity in the brain was always at the lowest level, while the clearance rate of blood and the excretion rate of the kidneys were fast. HE staining showed that tumor cells were observed in SKBR3- and MDA-MB-231-bearing nude mice, with significant heteromorphism and increased mitotic count. The imaging of mice showed that targeted images could be made of 99mTc-TP1623 in high HER2-expressing tumors, while no obvious development was shown in tumors in low HER2-expressing nude mice. No development was visible in

  1. Radioimmunotherapy of Nude Mice Bearing Human Colon Carcinoma with I-131 Labeled Anti-carcinoembryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sang Eun; Choi, Yong; Chi, Dae Yoon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Chung, Hong Keun

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of various factors on the therapeutic effect of the I-l3l labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody(anti-CEA antibody). Tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT) was used to compare in vitro cytotoxicity of 3 Korean colon cancer cell lines (SNU-C2A, SNU-C4, SNU-C5) for selection of proper 2 cell lines in this study. The changes of the size of tumor which was xenografted to nude mice (balb/c nu/nu) were compared in 4 groups (group treated I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody, group treated with non-radiolabeled anti-CEA antibody, group treated with I-131. labeled anti-human chorionic gonadotropin monoclonal antibody (anti-hCG antibody) as nonspecific antibody, and group injected with normal saline as a control). Immunohistochemical staining and in vivo autoradiography were performed after excision of the xenografted tumor. The results were as below mentioned. The in vitro cytotoxic effect of I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody is most prominent in SNU-C5 cell line between 3 cancer cell lines. The changes of xenografted tumor size in both SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 cell tumors at the thirteenth day after injection of the antibodies were smallest in the group treated with I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody (SNU-C4/SNU-C5; 324/342%) comparing with other groups, group treated with anti-CEA antibody (622/660%), group treated with I-131 anti-hCG antibody (538/546%), and control group(1030/724%) (p<0.02 in SNU-C4 and p<0.1in SNU-C5 at the 13th day after injection of antibodies). On the thirteenth day after injection of the antibodies nude mice were sacreficed to count the radiouptake of tumor and to check the changes of tumor size. Correlations between radiouptake and change of tumor size were calculated in each groups and significant negative correlation was only obtained in the group treated with I-131 anti-CEA antibody (p<0.05). There were no correlations between antigenic expression of carcinoembryonic antigen and

  2. Oral Administration of Pentoxifylline Reduces Endometriosis-Like Lesions in a Nude Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Maria; González-Foruria, Iñaki; Castillo, Paola; Martínez-Florensa, Mario; Lozano, Francisco; Balasch, Juan; Carmona, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    Recent reports consider endometriosis to be an immunological disorder, thus suggesting potential efficacy of immunomodulators for its treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oral administration of pentoxifylline on endometriosis-like lesions in a heterologous mice model. Human endometrial tissue obtained from women (n = 5) undergoing surgery for benign conditions was implanted in nude female mice (n = 30). The animals were distributed into 3 experimental groups receiving: saline 0.1 mL/d (control, group 1); pentoxifylline 100 mg/kg/d (group 2), and pentoxifylline 200 mg/kg/d (group 3). After 28 days, the number of implants and the total volume of surgically extracted tissue were recorded. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to assess the area of endometriosis and vascularization of endometriosis-like lesions. Cytokine levels in peritoneal fluid samples were measured. Macroscopic quantification showed a trend to dose-dependent reduction in the number of the endometriosis-like lesions after 28 days. The volume was significantly reduced in group 3 versus group 2 and controls (399.10 ± 120.68 mm 3 vs 276.75 ± 94.30 mm 3 and 145.33 ± 38.20 mm 3 , respectively; P = .04). Similarly, the mean area of endometriosis was significantly lower in group 3 (0.12 ± 0.08 mm 2 ) versus group 2 (1.35 ± 0.43 mm 2 ) and control (2.84 ± 0.60 mm 2 ; P = .001). Vascularization and cytokine levels were also reduced posttreatment. Our results suggest that the oral administration of pentoxifylline may be an alternative to current therapies for endometriosis. Nonetheless, further studies are required.

  3. Synergistic effect of cisplatin and synchrotron irradiation on F98 gliomas growing in nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, Clement; Fernandez, Manuel [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Requardt, Herwig [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Wion, Didier [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Vial, Jean-Claude [Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, St Martin d’Hères (France); Segebarth, Christoph; Sanden, Boudewijn van der, E-mail: boudewijn.vandersanden@ujf-grenoble.fr [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2013-09-01

    Synchrotron photoactivation therapy of cisplatin relies on a synergistic effect of synchrotron X-rays and platinum and leads to tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion. Among brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme appears as one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with poor prognosis and no curative treatment available. Recently, a new kind of radio-chemotherapy has been developed using synchrotron irradiation for the photoactivation of molecules with high-Z elements such as cisplatin (PAT-Plat). This protocol showed a cure of 33% of rats bearing the F98 glioma but the efficiency of the treatment was only measured in terms of overall survival. Here, characterization of the effects of the PAT-Plat on tumor volume and tumor blood perfusion are proposed. Changes in these parameters may predict the overall survival. Firstly, changes in tumor growth of the F98 glioma implanted in the hindlimb of nude mice after the PAT-Plat treatment and its different modalities have been characterized. Secondly, the effects of the treatment on tumor blood perfusion have been observed by intravital two-photon microscopy. Cisplatin alone had no detectable effect on the tumor volume. A reduction of tumor growth was measured after a 15 Gy synchrotron irradiation, but the whole therapy (15 Gy irradiation + cisplatin) showed the largest decrease in tumor growth, indicating a synergistic effect of both synchrotron irradiation and cisplatin treatment. A high number of unperfused vessels (52%) were observed in the peritumoral area in comparison with untreated controls. In the PAT-Plat protocol the transient tumor growth reduction may be due to synergistic interactions of tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion.

  4. Application of Benchtop-magnetic resonance imaging in a nude mouse tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäder Karsten

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MRI plays a key role in the preclinical development of new drugs, diagnostics and their delivery systems. However, very high installation and running costs of existing superconducting MRI machines limit the spread of MRI. The new method of Benchtop-MRI (BT-MRI has the potential to overcome this limitation due to much lower installation and almost no running costs. However, due to the low field strength and decreased magnet homogeneity it is questionable, whether BT-MRI can achieve sufficient image quality to provide useful information for preclinical in vivo studies. It was the aim of the current study to explore the potential of BT-MRI on tumor models in mice. Methods We used a prototype of an in vivo BT-MRI apparatus to visualise organs and tumors and to analyse tumor progression in nude mouse xenograft models of human testicular germ cell tumor and colon carcinoma. Results Subcutaneous xenografts were easily identified as relative hypointense areas in transaxial slices of NMR images. Monitoring of tumor progression evaluated by pixel extension analyses based on NMR images correlated with increasing tumor volume calculated by calliper measurement. Gd-BOPTA contrast agent injection resulted in a better differentiation between parts of the urinary tissues and organs due to fast elimination of the agent via kidneys. In addition, interior structuring of tumors could be observed. A strong contrast enhancement within a tumor was associated with a central necrotic/fibrotic area. Conclusions BT-MRI provides satisfactory image quality to visualize organs and tumors and to monitor tumor progression and structure in mouse models.

  5. Imaging Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Dynamics in Primary and Metastatic Colon Cancer in Nude Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kosuke; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Nakamura, Miki; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Bouvet, Michael; Shimizu, Masahito; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-05-01

    Colon cancer frequently results in metastasis to the liver, where it becomes the main cause of death. However, the cell cycle in primary tumors and metastases is poorly understood. We developed a mouse model of liver metastasis using the human colon cancer cell line HCT-116, which expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm (HCT-116-GFP-RFP). HCT-116 GFP-RFP cells were injected into the spleen of nu/nu nude mice. HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells subsequently formed primary tumors in the spleen, as well as metastatic colonies in the liver and retroperitoneum by 28 days after cell transplantation. Using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope, it was possible to clearly image mitosis of the dual-colored colon cancer cells in the primary tumor as well as liver and other metastases. Multi-nucleate cancer cells, in addition to mono-nucleate cancer cells and their mitosis, were observed in the primary tumor and metastasis. Multi-nucleate HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells were also observed after culture of the primary and metastatic tumors. A similar ratio of mono-nucleate, multi-nucleate, and mitotic cells grew from the primary and metastatic tumors in culture, suggesting similarity of the nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics of primary and metastatic cancer cells, further emphasizing the stochastic nature of metastasis. Our results demonstrate a similar heterogeneity of nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics within primary tumors and metastases, which may be an important factor in the stochastic nature of metastasis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. In Vivo Imaging of Human Malignant Mesothelioma Grown Orthotopically in the Peritoneal Cavity of Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqian Feng, Jingli Zhang, Miriam Anver, Raffit Hassan, Mitchell Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma (MM causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients. With increasing efforts devoted to developing therapeutics targeting mesothelioma, a xenograft mouse model with in vivo tumor imaging is especially desired for evaluating anti-tumor therapies. In the present study, we fluorescently labeled the NCI-H226 human mesothelioma cell line by a lentiviral vector harboring a luciferase-GFP (Luc/GFP fusion gene driven by the RNA polymerase II promoter. After single-cell cloning by flow cytometry, a clone (named LMB-H226-GL that stably expresses high levels of Luc/GFP was obtained. The in vivo tumorigenicity of Luc/GFP-labeled LMB-H226-GL was determined by using intraperitoneal injections of the cells in nude mice. LMB-H226-GL was found to be able to consistently form solid tumors in the peritoneum of mice. Tumor growth and aggressive progression could be quantitated via in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The model exhibited the pathological hallmarks consistent with the clinical progression of MM in terms of tumor growth and spread inside the peritoneal cavity. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of drugs targeting mesothelioma, we treated mice with SS1P, a recombinant immunotoxin currently evaluated in Phase II clinical trials for treatment of mesothelioma. All the tumor-bearing mice had a significant response to SS1P treatment. Our results showed that this is a well-suited model for mesothelioma, and may be useful for evaluating other novel agents for mesothelioma treatment in vivo.

  7. Multimodality imaging of 131I uptake in nude mice thyroid based on Cerenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhenhua; Liang Jimin; Qu Xiaochao; Yang Weidong; Ma Xiaowei; Wang Jing; Tian Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform the multimodality 131 I thyroid imaging using Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) and gamma imaging, and to compare the results of CLT and gamma imaging. Methods The nude mice (n=4, mass: (21 ±3) g) were injected with 1.67 ×10 7 Bq 131 I. CLT and gamma imaging were acquired at 0.5, 3, 12 and 24 h after the injection. Three-dimensional biodistribution of 131 I uptake in thyroid was reconstructed using Cerenkov source reconstruction method based on the diffusion equation (DE), and the reconstructed power of 131 I in different acquisition time points was obtained. Additionally, the ROIs were drawn over the gamma images of the mouse neck, and the counts were read. The correlation between the reconstructed power of CLT and gamma ray counts of gamma imaging was analyzed. Results: The power of 131 I uptake in thyroid at 0.5, 3, 12 and 24 h were 7.80 ×10 -13 , 1.62×10 -12 , 2.20×10 -12 and 2.68 × 10 -12 W, respectively. CLT results showed that reconstructed power increased with the increasing of acquisition time. Gamma imaging results indicated that 131 I uptake decreased in abdomen and increased in thyroid with the collection time. The results of CLT were consistent with that of gamma imaging (r 2 =0.7620, P<0.05). Conclusion: CLT has the potential to identify and monitor functioning thyroid tissue at before and (or) after 131 I treatment. (authors)

  8. Compact whole-body fluorescent imaging of nude mice bearing EGFP expressing tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanping; Xiong, Tao; Chu, Jun; Yu, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2005-01-01

    Issue of tumor has been a hotspot of current medicine. It is important for tumor research to detect tumors bearing in animal models easily, fast, repetitively and noninvasivly. Many researchers have paid their increasing interests on the detecting. Some contrast agents, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Discosoma red fluorescent protein (Dsred) were applied to enhance image quality. Three main kinds of imaging scheme were adopted to visualize fluorescent protein expressing tumors in vivo. These schemes based on fluorescence stereo microscope, cooled charge-coupled-device (CCD) or camera as imaging set, and laser or mercury lamp as excitation light source. Fluorescence stereo microscope, laser and cooled CCD are expensive to many institutes. The authors set up an inexpensive compact whole-body fluorescent imaging tool, which consisted of a Kodak digital camera (model DC290), fluorescence filters(B and G2;HB Optical, Shenyang, Liaoning, P.R. China) and a mercury 50-W lamp power supply (U-LH50HG;Olympus Optical, Japan) as excitation light source. The EGFP was excited directly by mercury lamp with D455/70 nm band-pass filter and fluorescence was recorded by digital camera with 520nm long-pass filter. By this easy operation tool, the authors imaged, in real time, fluorescent tumors growing in live mice. The imaging system is external and noninvasive. For half a year our experiments suggested the imaging scheme was feasible. Whole-body fluorescence optical imaging for fluorescent expressing tumors in nude mouse is an ideal tool for antitumor, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenesis drug screening.

  9. An allograft generated from adult stem cells and their secreted products efficiently fuses vertebrae in immunocompromised athymic rats and inhibits local immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Bret H; McNeill, Eoin P; Palmer, Daniel; Krause, Ulf; Bartosh, Thomas J; Chaput, Christopher D; Gregory, Carl A

    2017-03-01

    Spine pain and the disability associated with it are epidemic in the United States. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, more than 650,000 spinal fusion surgeries are performed annually in the United States, and yet there is a failure rate of 15%-40% when standard methods employing current commercial bone substitutes are used. Autologous bone graft is the gold standard in terms of fusion success, but the morbidity associated with the procedure and the limitations in the availability of sufficient material have limited its use in the majority of cases. A freely available and immunologically compatible bone mimetic with the properties of live tissue is likely to substantially improve the outcome of spine fusion procedures without the disadvantages of autologous bone graft. This study aimed to compare a live human bone tissue analog with autologous bone grafting in an immunocompromised rat model of posterolateral fusion. This is an in vitro and in vivo preclinical study of a novel human stem cell-derived construct for efficacy in posterolateral lumbar spine fusion. Osteogenically enhanced human mesenchymal stem cells (OEhMSCs) were generated by exposure to conditions that activate the early stages of osteogenesis. Immunologic characteristics of OEhMSCs were evaluated in vitro. The secreted extracellular matrix from OEhMSCs was deposited on a clinical-grade gelatin sponge, resulting in bioconditioned gelatin sponge (BGS). Bioconditioned gelatin sponge was used alone, with live OEhMSCs (BGS+OEhMSCs), or with whole human bone marrow (BGS+hBM). Efficacy for spine fusion was determined by an institutionally approved animal model using 53 nude rats. Bioconditioned gelatin sponge with live OEhMSCs did not cause cytotoxicity when incubated with immunologically mismatched lymphocytes, and OEhMSCs inhibited lymphocyte expansion in mixed lymphocyte assays. Bioconditioned gelatin sponge with live OEhMSC and BGS+hBM constructs induced profound bone growth at

  10. Skin graft influence in human tissue radiated in nude mice regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Jurandir Tomaz de

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years it has increased the interest in the human skin grafts radio sterilized for application mainly in extensive and deep burns. Because these grafts quickly grip and present antigenic lower potential, compared with other treatments used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histoarchitecture of human skin grafts irradiated with doses 25 kGy, 50 kGy and non-irradiated during the repair tissue process in nude mice submitted by skin grafting in the dorsal region. Three groups of animals received irradiated human skin grafts (25 kGy and 50 kGy) and non-irradiated and were euthanized on the 3 rd , 7 th and 21 th day after the surgery. Indeed, routine histologic procedures, tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for quantification of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, immune cells and blood vessels and immunofluorescence (IF) was performed to determine the expression human collagen type I and collagen type I and III mouse. Therefore, quantification of both the cells and the collagen types was performed by image analysis using Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. Histologic results demonstrated at a dose of 25 kGy that human skin irradiation when grafted influences the increase in the number of cells in wound site over time and it provides better dispersion of these cells. In addition, on the 21 st day, three groups of animals with human skin graft were embedded part of the graft in the healing process. On the other hand, the group not irradiated showed greater incorporation of the graft (43 %), but less production of collagen type III mouse (22 %). Since the groups irradiated skin graft showed lower graft incorporation (6 and 15%), but with greater production of collagen type III mice (35 % and 28 % to 25 kGy and 50 kGy, respectively). In conclusion, this study presented that the group irradiated to 25 kGy and it has a higher cell proliferation and vessel formation, and better remodeling of the healing area. (author)

  11. [Effects of the Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin on the residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Tang, Zhao-you; Ren, Zheng-gang; Huang, Xiu-yan; Jia, Qing-an; Xie, Xiao-ying; Shen, Hu-jia

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effects of a Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin on residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy in nude mice and the relevant mechanisms. Orthotopic nude mouse models bearing residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy was established using human liver carcinoma MHCC97L cells. Three different doses of Songyon Yin (2.1 g/kg, 4.2 g/kg and 8.4 g/kg) were administered to the mice in the trial groups by intragastric gavage, respectively. The mice in the control group were administered physiological saline. The tumor growth, metastasis and survival in the mice of each group were recorded. The corresponding mechanisms were studied. The pulmonary metastasis rates of the control group and 2.1g/kg, 4.2g/kg, 8.4g/kg Songyou Yin treatment group were 86.7%, 73.3%, 40.0%, and 20.0%, respectively, and the survivals of these groups were 53.83 ± 4.71, 56.50 ± 6.09, 66.67 ± 5.61, 81.17 ± 7.36 days, respectively. Compared with the mice in the control group, mice in the 4.2 g/kg, 8.4 g/kg Songyou Yin treatment groups had a lower pulmonary metastasis rate (P = 0.021 and P = 0.001, respectively) and longer survival (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). A restoration of E-cadherin expression and a concomitant reduction of N-cadherin expression were detected in the tumors of the 4.2 g/kg and 8.4 g/kg Songyou Yin treatment groups. Songyou Yin effectively inhibits the invasion and metastasis of the residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy in nude mice through attenuating the epithelia-mesenchymal transition and prolongs the survival. Songyon Yin may have potential to promote the efficacy of chemotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. EGFR gene overexpression retained in an invasive xenograft model by solid orthotopic transplantation of human glioblastoma multiforme into nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Diao; Hua, Tian Xin; Lin, Huang Yan

    2011-03-01

    Orthotopic xenograft animal model from human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines often do not recapitulate an extremely important aspect of invasive growth and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene overexpression of human GBM. We developed an orthotopic xenograft model by solid transplantation of human GBM into the brain of nude mouse. The orthotopic xenografts sharing the same histopathological features with their original human GBMs were highly invasive and retained the overexpression of EGFR gene. The murine orthotopic GBM models constitute a valuable in vivo system for preclinical studies to test novel therapies for human GBM.

  13. Radioimmunoimaging of sup 131 I labeled CEA McAb in nude mice bearing human colonic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiyong, Li [Shanghai Second Medical Univ., SH (China). Ruijing Hospital; and others

    1990-02-01

    CEA McAb was purified by protein A-Sepharose 4B. ELISA had no obvious crossreaction with NCA and NFA. 1.85 {similar to} 3.7 MBq/10 {mu} g CEA McAb was injected into nude mice by intraperitoneal route. Radioimmunoimaging and biodistribution were performed at 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th day after injection. Results showed that satisfactory tumor imaging can be got after 5th day. On the 6th day, tumor and blood ratio was at its maximum, 301 +-0.1. There was significant difference between the CEA McAb and the IgG control group.

  14. Experimental research of 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT in detecting multidrug resistance status on tumor nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xudong; Ji Cheng; Wang Xiaoyue; Xu Jiaying; Fan Saijun; Yang Guoren

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze 99 Tc m -MIBI images separately before and after VPL in nude mice bearing human lung tumors in order to find a feasible way in evaluating MDR status of tumor with 99 Tc m -MIBI image. Methods: Analysis of 99 Tc m -MIBI images was performed at 15 min, 60 min and 120 min after injecting 99 Tc m -MIBI 7.4 MBq in female BALB/c nude mice bearing human lung tumors. The tumor uptake rate (TUR) and retention rate (RI) were calculated and the data were analyzed. P-gp albumen ex-pression was determined by flow cytometry. Results: Significance difference in TUR was observed for at the 15th, 60th or 120th min between the imaging in the control group versus in the second imaging in VPL reverse group as well as between the first imaging and the second imaging in the reverse group. Furthermore, there was negative correlation between retention rate (RI) and P-gp albumen expression. Conclusion: These results for the first time demonstrate that the results of 99 Tc m -MIBI imaging exhibits a negative correlation to P-gp albumen expression, indicating that analysis of 99 Tc m -MIBI imaging may be a potential indicator for MDR status of tumor and can be used to monitoring the role of VPL in reverting the multidrug resistance. (authors)

  15. Inhibitory effects of CP on the growth of human gastric adenocarcinoma BGC-823 tumours in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Bao-Jun; Zhang, Zhan-Xue; Li, Ai-Ying; An, Ran; Yue, Bin; Fan, Li-Qiao; Li, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Objective To investigate the potential antitumour effects of [2-(6-amino-purine-9-yl)-1-hydroxy-phosphine acyl ethyl] phosphonic acid (CP) against gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Human BGC-823 xenotransplants were established in nude mice. Animals were randomly divided into control and CP groups, which were administered NaHCO 3 vehicle alone or CP dissolved in NaHCO 3 (200 µg/kg body weight) daily, respectively. Tumour volume was measured weekly for 6 weeks. Resected tumours were assayed for proliferative activity with anti-Ki-67 or anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibodies. Cell apoptosis was examined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assays and with caspase-3 immunostaining. Proteins were measured by Western blotting. Results There was a significant reduction in tumour volume and a reduced percentage of Ki-67-positive or PCNA-positive cells in the CP group compared with the control group. The percentage of TUNEL-positive or caspase 3-positive cells significantly increased following CP treatment compared with the control group. Tumours from the CP group had higher levels of phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT) compared with control tumours. Conclusion CP treatment inhibited tumour growth and induced tumour cell apoptosis in a nude mouse model of BGC-823 gastric adenocarcinoma. Activation of the AKT and ERK signalling pathways may mediate this antitumour activity.

  16. Study on the toxic side effect of 131I-17-AAG treatment in ovarian cancer-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the toixc side effect on bone marrow and hepatic function of 131 I-17-allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin ( 131 I-17 AAG) treatment for ovarian-cancer-bearing nude mice models. Methods: Ovarian-cancer- bearing nude mice models (n=40) were prepared with cancer cell inoculation. 131 I labelled 17 AAG originally prepared in this laboratory was used intravenously for treatment at a single dose of 3 mCi in 20 models and the remain 20 models were used as controls. Rontine bllod examination (CBC, Hgb, platalet) and liver function test (ALT, AST, ALP and r-GT) were performed in these models at lwk and 2wk after treatment. Results: CBC and Hgb in the treated models were not much different from those in controls at 2wk with the exception of a higher platalet count (P 0.05). Conclusion: Toxic side-effect of 131 I-17-AAG treatment on hematologyical and hepatic function in the models was rather mild and there was a tendency toward recovery at 2wk after treatment. (authors)

  17. Cell death induced on cell cultures and nude mouse skin by non-thermal, nanosecond-pulsed generated plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duval

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasmas are gaseous mixtures of molecules, radicals, and excited species with a small proportion of ions and energetic electrons. Non-thermal plasmas can be generated with any high electro-magnetic field. We studied here the pathological effects, and in particular cell death, induced by nanosecond-pulsed high voltage generated plasmas homogeneously applied on cell cultures and nude mouse skin. In vitro, Jurkat cells and HMEC exhibited apoptosis and necrosis, in dose-dependent manner. In vivo, on nude mouse skin, cell death occurred for doses above 113 J/cm(2 for the epidermis, 281 J/cm(2 for the dermis, and 394 J/cm(2 for the hypodermis. Using electron microscopy, we characterized apoptosis for low doses and necrosis for high doses. We demonstrated that these effects were not related to thermal, photonic or pH variations, and were due to the production of free radicals. The ability of cold plasmas to generate apoptosis on cells in suspension and, without any sensitizer, on precise skin areas, opens new fields of application in dermatology for extracorporeal blood cell treatment and the eradication of superficial skin lesions.

  18. Failure-to-thrive syndrome associated with tumor formation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in newborn nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinster, Lauren R; Omeir, Romelda L; Foseh, Gideon S; Macauley, Juliete N; Snoy, Philip J; Beren, Joel J; Teferedegne, Belete; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2013-08-01

    Tumors that formed in newborn nude mice that were inoculated with 10(7) Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were associated with a failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndrome consisting of growth retardation, lethargy, weakness, and dehydration. Scoliosis developed in 41% of affected pups. Pups were symptomatic by week 2; severely affected pups became moribund and required euthanasia within 3 to 4 wk. Mice with FTT were classified into categories of mild, moderate, and severe disease by comparing their weight with that of age-matched normal nude mice. The MDCK-induced tumors were adenocarcinomas that invaded adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and bone; 6 of the 26 pups examined had lung metastases. The induction of FTT did not correlate with cell-line aggressiveness as estimated by histopathology or the efficiency of tumor formation (tumor-forming dose 50% endpoint range = 10(2.8) to 10(7.5)); however, tumor invasion of the paravertebral muscles likely contributed to the scoliosis noted. In contrast to the effect of MDCK cells, tumor formation observed in newborn mice inoculated with highly tumorigenic, human-tumor-derived cell lines was not associated with FTT development. We suggest that tumor formation and FTT are characteristics of these MDCK cell inocula and that FTT represents a new syndrome that may be similar to the cachexia that develops in humans with cancer or other diseases.

  19. Immunoscintigraphy of human tumors transplanted in nude mice with radiolabeled anti-ras p21 monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Y.; Nakata, K.; Kohno, K.; Shima, M.; Satoh, A.; Kusumoto, Y.; Ishii, N.; Kohji, T.; Shiku, H.; Nagataki, S.

    1990-01-01

    Anti-ras p21 monoclonal antibody (RASK-3) was used for immunoscintigraphy of human cancer cell lines in nude mice. Iodine-125-labeled RASK-3 was injected into nude mice with either human colon cancers (FCC-1 or BM-314) or lung cancer (KNS-62). Clear images were obtained in all three cancers 7 days after the injection of antibody. No localization of 125 I-labeled control monoclonal antibody was observed. The ratio of tissue/blood radioactivity and % ID/g in the tumor were significantly higher than other organs by Day 8. The specific localization index examined by 131 I-RASK-3 and 125 I-control monoclonal antibody was also higher in the tumor than in other tissues. In the in vitro study, binding of RASK-3 to tumor cells increased significantly by treatment of cells with either lysolecithin or periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde, which confirmed the intracellular localization of ras p21. The mechanism by which anti-ras p21 antibodies accumulate in tumor sites could be the necrotic changes in tumor cells or changes in membrane permeability of non-necrotic cells. These results provide a strong rationale for the utilization of ras p21 as a target antigen in the imaging of a variety of human cancers

  20. Systemic study on the safety of immuno-deficient nude mice treated by atmospheric plasma-activated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehui, XU; Qingjie, CUI; Yujing, XU; Bingchuan, WANG; Miao, TIAN; Qiaosong, LI; Zhijie, LIU; Dingxin, LIU; Hailan, CHEN; Michael, G. KONG

    2018-04-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new technology, widely used in many fields of biomedicine, especially in cancer treatment. Cold plasma can selectively kill a variety of tumor cells, and its biological safety in clinical trials is also very important. In many cases, the patient’s immune level is relatively low, so we first studied the safety assessment of plasma treatment in an immuno-compromised animal model. In this study, we examined the safety of immuno-deficient nude mice by oral lavage treatment of plasma-activated water, and studied the growth status, main organs and blood biochemical indexes. Acute toxicity test results showed that the maximum dose of plasma treatment for 15 min had no lethal effect and other acute toxicity. There were no significant changes in body weight and survival status of mice after 2 min and 4 min of plasma-activated water (PAW) treatment for 2 weeks. After treatment, the major organs, including heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney, were not significantly changed in organ coefficient and tissue structure. Blood biochemical markers showed that blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells were slightly increased, and the others remained unchanged. Liver function, renal function, electrolytes, glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism were not affected by different doses of PAW treatment. The above results indicate that PAW treatment can be used to treat immuno-deficient nude mice without significant safety problems.

  1. Fluorescence-guided surgery of human colon cancer increases complete resection resulting in cures in an orthotopic nude mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metildi, Cristina A; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Snyder, Cynthia S; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We inquired if fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) could improve surgical outcomes in fluorescent orthotopic nude mouse models of human colon cancer. We established fluorescent orthotopic mouse models of human colon cancer expressing a fluorescent protein. Tumors were resected under bright light surgery (BLS) or FGS. Pre- and post-operative images with the OV-100 Small Animal Imaging System (Olympus Corp, Tokyo Japan) were obtained to assess the extent of surgical resection. All mice with primary tumor that had undergone FGS had complete resection compared with 58% of mice in the BLS group (P = 0.001). FGS resulted in decreased recurrence compared with BLS (33% versus 62%, P = 0.049) and lengthened disease-free median survival from 9 to >36 wk. The median overall survival increased from 16 wk in the BLS group to 31 weeks in the FGS group. FGS resulted in a cure in 67% of mice (alive without evidence of tumor at >6 mo after surgery) compared with only 37% of mice that underwent BLS (P = 0.049). Surgical outcomes in orthotopic nude mouse models of human colon cancer were significantly improved with FGS. The present study can be translated to the clinic by various effective methods of fluorescently labeling tumors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel model of distal colon cancer in athymic mice Novo modelo de câncer de cólon distal em camundongos atímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gonçalves Priolli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present a novel adenocarcinoma model in athymic mice. METHODS: Seven athymic mice were used. Colon diversion and distal fistula were made. Adenocarcinoma cells were inoculated in the submucosa of fistula. Tumor growth was monitored daily. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI was performed to identify the tumor. RESULTS: The model of distal colon cancer is feasible. Tumor detection was possible by both, macroscopically and molecular imaging. All resections demonstrated poorly differentiated tumors. Colon obstruction occurred in one case, similarly to evolution in human tumors of distal colon. CONCLUSION: The proposed model of distal colon cancer is feasible, allows for easy monitoring of tumoral growth by both, macroscopically and molecular imaging, and is suitable for studying the evolution of tumor with implementation of cytotoxic therapy in vivo.OBJETIVO: Apresentar novo modelo de adenocarcinoma distal em camundongos atímicos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados sete camundongos atímicos. Desvio do cólon distal e fístula foram feitas. Células de adenocarcinoma foram inoculadas na submucosa da fístula. O crescimento do tumor foi monitorado diariamente. Cintilografia com 99mTc-MIBI foi realizada para identificar o tumor. RESULTADOS: O modelo de câncer de cólon distal é viável. Detecção do tumor foi possível macroscopicamente e por imagem molecular. Todas as ressecções demonstraram tumores pouco diferenciados. Obstrução do cólon ocorreu em um caso, de forma semelhante à evolução em tumores humanos do cólon distal. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de câncer do cólon distal proposto é viável, permite a monitorização fácil do crescimento tumoral macroscopicamente e por imagem molecular, sendo adequado para o estudo da evolução de tumor com aplicação de terapia citotóxica in vivo.

  3. A red fluorescent nude mouse model of human endometriosis: advantages of a non-invasive imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Hong, Shanshan; Tan, Jinfeng; Ke, Peiqi; Liang, Lili; Fei, Hui; Liu, Bin; Liu, Liqun; Liu, Yongdong; Yu, Bingjun

    2014-05-01

    To establish red fluorescent human endometriosis lesions in a nude mouse model and dynamically and non-invasively to compare intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injection models. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and epithelial cells (EECs) isolated from 24 patients with a normal uterine cavity were transfected with 2.5×10(8) (Group 1) and 1.25×10(8) (Group 2) plaque-forming units (PFU) of adenovirus encoding red fluorescent protein (Ad-RFP). Transfection efficiencies, fluorescence intensity and apoptosis rate of the two types of cells were compared in vitro. A mixture of 2.5×10(8) PFU Ad-RFP-infected approximately 400 EECs cell mass and 2×10(6) ESCs for 36h was injected individually into 24 female nude mice subcutaneously (Group A) or intraperitoneally (Group B). From Day 5 after injection, an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) was used to non-invasively observe and compare the lesions of the two groups every week until Day 33. Specifically, the fluorescent intensity, positive rates, persistence time and lesion weight in the implanted human endometriosis lesions were compared. A parametric Student's t-test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Compared with 1.25×10(8) PFU RFP, a titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP ESCs and EECs incubated for 36h exhibited higher transfection efficiencies and higher fluorescence intensities in vitro. In vivo imaging of the fluorescent human endometriosis lesions originating from an RFP titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU showed that the intensity and lesion weight in Group A were significantly higher than in Group B. However, the two groups had the same RFP-positive rates and fluorescence persistence. The structure of each lesion was evaluated by immunohistochemistry to confirm its human endometrial origin. The red fluorescent human endometriosis model established by subcutaneously injecting 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP-transfected stromal cells and epithelial cells into nude mice had a higher fluorescent positive

  4. Experimental study of the function of the sodium/iodide symporter (nis) in the nude mice bearing breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Wei; Wang Guohui; Zhang Weiguang; Dai Junjin; Yang Xiaochun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the function of the sodium / iodide symporter (NIS) and the feasibility of treating breast cancer by studying the distribution and imaging of the nude mice bearing breast cancer. Methods: The animal model of MCF-7/ER(+)-bearing and MCF-7/ER(-)-bearing human breast cancer nude mice were prepared before experiments. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with 131I when tumor grown to 0.8-1 cm . The distribution of 131I in different tissues was detected at different time ( 6, 12, and 24h ). The percentage of the injected dose per gram of tissue (%D/g) and the ratio of Tumor/Non-tumor were calculated. Meanwhile, the nude mice were imaged at different time. Results: The 131I in tumor tissue in the MCF-7/ER(+)group was higher than that of MCF- 7/ER(-) group at 6h after injection, and the %ID/g were 6.13% and 2.37% respectively. The %lD/g at 12 h of two groups were 9.31 and 3.12, and were 11.21 and 3.47 at 24 h. There was a distinguish difference between them (p<0.05). At 12 h, the values of T/NT of blood, heart, lung, intestine and muscle were 2.39,3.06,3.94, 7.69 and 7.60 and were 5.15, 5.47, 5.29, 11.44 and 10.99 at 24 h. The values of T/NT of MCF-7/ER(-) group were much lower than those of MCF-7/ER(+) group. The imaging results showed that there was much radioactivity in tumor tissue in the MCF-7/ER(+) group at 12 h . The control groups has no obvious radioactivity in the tumor tissue all the time. Conclusion: Sodium/iodide symporter expressed in the estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer tissue could transformed actively 131I into tumor tissue, which suggests 1311 therapy might become a promising way to treat breast cancer. (authors)

  5. Thymidine Kinase-Negative Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Can Efficiently Establish Persistent Infection in Neural Tissues of Nude Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yu; Yao, Hui-Wen; Wang, Li-Chiu; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Hsu, Sheng-Min; Chen, Shun-Hua

    2017-02-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in neural tissues of immunocompetent mice but persists in both peripheral and neural tissues of lymphocyte-deficient mice. Thymidine kinase (TK) is believed to be essential for HSV-1 to persist in neural tissues of immunocompromised mice, because infectious virus of a mutant with defects in both TK and UL24 is detected only in peripheral tissues, but not in neural tissues, of severe combined immunodeficiency mice (T. Valyi-Nagy, R. M. Gesser, B. Raengsakulrach, S. L. Deshmane, B. P. Randazzo, A. J. Dillner, and N. W. Fraser, Virology 199:484-490, 1994, https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.1994.1150). Here we find infiltration of CD4 and CD8 T cells in peripheral and neural tissues of mice infected with a TK-negative mutant. We therefore investigated the significance of viral TK and host T cells for HSV-1 to persist in neural tissues using three genetically engineered mutants with defects in only TK or in both TK and UL24 and two strains of nude mice. Surprisingly, all three mutants establish persistent infection in up to 100% of brain stems and 93% of trigeminal ganglia of adult nude mice at 28 days postinfection, as measured by the recovery of infectious virus. Thus, in mouse neural tissues, host T cells block persistent HSV-1 infection, and viral TK is dispensable for the virus to establish persistent infection. Furthermore, we found 30- to 200-fold more virus in neural tissues than in the eye and detected glycoprotein C, a true late viral antigen, in brainstem neurons of nude mice persistently infected with the TK-negative mutant, suggesting that adult mouse neurons can support the replication of TK-negative HSV-1. Acyclovir is used to treat herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-infected immunocompromised patients, but treatment is hindered by the emergence of drug-resistant viruses, mostly those with mutations in viral thymidine kinase (TK), which activates acyclovir. TK mutants are detected in brains of immunocompromised

  6. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng

    2005-01-01

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10 9 PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases

  7. Comparison of (211)At-PRIT and (211)At-RIT of Ovarian Microtumors in a Nude Mouse Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Sofia H L; Bäck, Tom; Chouin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) against intraperitoneal (i.p.) ovarian microtumors using avidin-conjugated monoclonal antibody MX35 (avidin-MX35) and (211)At-labeled, biotinylated, succinylated poly-l-lysine ((211)At-B-PL(suc)) was compared with conventional...... radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using (211)At-labeled MX35 in a nude mouse model. Methods: Mice were inoculated i.p. with 1×10(7) NIH:OVCAR-3 cells. After 3 weeks, they received PRIT (1.0 or 1.5 MBq), RIT (0.9 MBq), or no treatment. Concurrently, 10 additional animals were sacrificed and examined to determine disease...

  8. Experimental study on ultrasound-guided intratumoral injection of "Star-99" in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma of nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wu Lin; Xiao-Dong Lin; Yi-Mi He; Shang-Da Gao; En-Sheng Xue

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-cancer effect and the immunological mechanism of ultrasound-guided intratumoral injection of Chinese medicine "Star-99" in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of nude mice.METHODS: Twenty-eight human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 transplanted nude mice, 14 of hypodermically implanted and 14 of orthotopic liver transplanted, were randomly divided into three groups of which 14 mice with Star-99, and 7 with ethanol and saline respectively. Ten days after the transplantation the medicines were injected into the tumors of all the nude mice once every 5 days.After 4 injections the nude mice were killed. The diameters of three dimension of the tumors were measured by high frequency ultrasound before and after the treatment and the tumor growth indexes* (TGI) were calculated.Radioimmunoassay was used to detect the serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha.The tumor tissues were sent for flow cytometry (FCM) DNA analysis. Apoptotic cells were visualized by TUNEL assay.All the experiments were carried out by double blind method. zRESULTS: The TGI of Star-99 group (0.076±0.024) was markedly lower than that of the saline group (4.654±1.283)(P<0.01). It also seemed to be lower than that of the ethanol group (0.082±0.028), but not significantly different (P>0.05).Serum levels of IL-2 and TNF-α were markedly higher than those of ethanol group and saline groups (P<0.05). The mean apoptotic index (AI: percentage of TUNEL signal positive cells)in Star-99 group (48.98±5.09 %) was significantly higher than that of the ethanol group (11.95±2.24 %) and the saline group (10.48±3.85 %) (P<0.01). FCM DNA analysis showed that the appearance rate of the apoptosis peak in Srar-99group was 92.9 %, markedly higher than that of the ethanol group (14.3 %) and the saline group (0.0 %) (P<0.01).Correlation (r=0.499, P<0.05) was found between AI and serum level of TNF-α.CONCLUSION: Star-99 has an effect on the

  9. Combination Therapy with Zoledronic Acid and Parathyroid Hormone Improves Bone Architecture and Strength following a Clinically-Relevant Dose of Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for the Local Treatment of Canine Osteosarcoma in Athymic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ryan C; Custis, James T; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Ehrhart, E J; Condon, Keith W; Gookin, Sara E; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies using definitive-intent stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for the local treatment of canine osteosarcoma (OSA) have shown canine patients achieving similar median survival times as the current standard of care (amputation and adjuvant chemotherapy). Despite this, there remains an unacceptable high risk of pathologic fracture following radiation treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are therapeutic candidates for decreasing this fracture risk post-irradiation. Due to differing mechanisms, we hypothesized that the combined treatment with ZA and PTH would significantly improve bone healing more than ZA or PTH treatment alone. Using an orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats, we evaluated bone healing following clinically-relevant doses of radiation therapy (12 Gy x 3 fractions, 36 Gy total). Groups included 36 Gy SRT only, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA and PTH, 36 Gy SRT plus PTH, and 36 Gy SRT plus localized PTH treatment. Our study showed significant increases in bone volume and increased polar moments of inertia (in the distal femoral metaphysis) 8 weeks after radiation in the combined (ZA/PTH) treatment group as compared to radiation treatment alone. Histomorphometric analysis revealed evidence of active mineralization at the study endpoint as well as successful tumor-cell kill across all treatment groups. This work provides further evidence for the expanding potential indications for ZA and PTH therapy, including post-irradiated bone disease due to osteosarcoma.

  10. Combination Therapy with Zoledronic Acid and Parathyroid Hormone Improves Bone Architecture and Strength following a Clinically-Relevant Dose of Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for the Local Treatment of Canine Osteosarcoma in Athymic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Curtis

    Full Text Available Clinical studies using definitive-intent stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT for the local treatment of canine osteosarcoma (OSA have shown canine patients achieving similar median survival times as the current standard of care (amputation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite this, there remains an unacceptable high risk of pathologic fracture following radiation treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA and parathyroid hormone (PTH are therapeutic candidates for decreasing this fracture risk post-irradiation. Due to differing mechanisms, we hypothesized that the combined treatment with ZA and PTH would significantly improve bone healing more than ZA or PTH treatment alone. Using an orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats, we evaluated bone healing following clinically-relevant doses of radiation therapy (12 Gy x 3 fractions, 36 Gy total. Groups included 36 Gy SRT only, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA and PTH, 36 Gy SRT plus PTH, and 36 Gy SRT plus localized PTH treatment. Our study showed significant increases in bone volume and increased polar moments of inertia (in the distal femoral metaphysis 8 weeks after radiation in the combined (ZA/PTH treatment group as compared to radiation treatment alone. Histomorphometric analysis revealed evidence of active mineralization at the study endpoint as well as successful tumor-cell kill across all treatment groups. This work provides further evidence for the expanding potential indications for ZA and PTH therapy, including post-irradiated bone disease due to osteosarcoma.

  11. Immunoscintigraphy of human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice with I-131-F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments of monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senekowitsch, R.; Maul, F.D.; Wenisch, H.J.C.; Kriegel, H.; Hor, G.

    1985-01-01

    In the present study radioiodinated F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments of CA19-9 and antibody that reacts specifically with human gastrointestinal cancer were examined for their ability to detect human pancreatic carcinoma hosted in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice received 80μCi of I-131-F(ab')/sub 2/ with a specific activity of 1.8μCi/μg. All mice were imaged after the injection and every 24hr up to 6 days. The retained radioactivity was also registered with a whole-body counter immediately after imaging. As a control F(ab's)/sub 2/ of a nonspecific antibody were administered in parallel to another group of animals bearing the same tumor. Three animals of each group were killed at 1,2,4 and 8 days for determination of the distribution of both labeled antibody-fragments. On scintigraphic images obtained with the CA19-9-F(ab')/sub 2/ the tumors could be visualized 24hr after injection, the best dilineation however was achieved 96hr p.i.. The biodistribution data exhibited a more rapid blood clearance for the specific fragments compared to that for the unspecific ones. Tumors showed an increase in uptake up to 48hr reaching 1.7% of the injected dose per gram, declining to values of 0.08%/g at day 6 p.i.. The highest tumor-to-blood ratios were found after 96h. They were 7 for the CA19-9-fragments compared to 1.5 for the unspecific fragments. The whole body counting revealed a more rapid excretion for the fragments of the specific monoclonal antibodies than for the unspecific ones. In summary the authors were able to show that CA19-9-F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments can be used for immunodetection of human pancreatic carcinoma hosted in nude mice

  12. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Liu; Weilun, Zhang; Minghong, Jiang; Yaxi, Zhang; Shilian, Liu; Yanxin, Liu; Dexian, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy

  13. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Methods Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. Results The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. Conclusion These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy.

  14. Biodistribution and SPECT imaging of 99Tcm labeling NGR peptide in nude mice bearing human HePG2 hepatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenhui; Wang Jing; Yang Weidong; Li Guiyu; Ma Xiaowei; Wang Zhe

    2012-01-01

    A peptide containing the Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) sequence was radiolabeled by 99 Tc m and its radiochemical characteristics, biodistribution and SPECT imaging in nude mice bearing human HePG2 hepatoma were evaluated. 99 Tc m -NGR was prepared directly with a labeling yield higher than 90%, and the radiochemical purity (RCP) higher than 95%. Nude mice bearing human HePG2 hepatoma were randomly divided into 6 groups with 3 mice in each group. The control group mice were blocked by injecting 100 μg unlabeled NGR 0.5 h before 99 Tc m -NGR injection. The mice were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 h after caudal intravenous injection of 7.4 MBq 99 Tc m -NGR. The uptakes of kidney and liver were very high. Tumor uptake was (2.52±0.62)% ID/g at 1 h, with the highest uptake of (7.26±2.71) %ID/g. At 12 h, the uptake was still (3.93±1.93) %ID/g. In comparison, the uptake of the blocked control group was (1.29±0.85) %ID/g. The SPECT static images of 3 mice and the tumor/muscle (T/NT) value were obtained. The highest T/NT value was 3.25 at 4 h. The xenografted tumor became visible at 1 h and the clearest image of the tumor was observed at 12 h. Results from this work shows that 99 Tc m -NGR can be efficiently prepared, can favorably target tumor angiogenesis, and should be a potential probe in tumor therapy. (authors)

  15. Combined therapeutic effect and molecular mechanisms of metformin and cisplatin in human lung cancer xenografts in nude mice

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    Yu-Qin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work was aimed at studying the inhibitory activity of metformin combined with the commonly used chemotherapy drug cisplatin in human lung cancer xenografts in nude mice. We also examined the combined effects of these drugs on the molecular expression of survivin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C, and vascular endothelial growth factorreceptor-3 (VEGFR-3 to determine the mechanism of action and to explore the potential applications of the new effective drug therapy in lung cancer. Materials and Methods: The nude mice model of lung cancer xenografts was established, and mice were randomly divided into the metformin group, the cisplatin group, the metformin + cisplatin group, and the control group. The animals were killed 42 days after drug administration, and the tumor tissues were then sampled to detect the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA and protein expression levels of survivin, MMP-2, VEGF-C, and VEGFR-3 by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: The protein and mRNA expression levels of survivin, MMP-2, VEGF-C, and VEGFR-3 in the cisplatin group and the combined treatment group were lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05. In the metformin group, the expression of MMP-2 protein and mRNA was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05. The protein and mRNA expression levels of survivin, MMP-2, VEGF-C, and VEGFR-3 in the combined treatment group were lower than that in the cisplatin group and the metformin group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Metformin inhibited the expression of MMP-2, cisplatin and the combined treatment inhibited the expression of survivin, MMP-2, VEGF-C, and VEGFR-3, and the combined treatment of metformin with cisplatin resulted in enhanced anti-tumor efficacy.

  16. The anti-tumor effects of the recombinant toxin protein rLj-RGD3 from Lampetra japonica on pancreatic carcinoma Panc-1 cells in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Tu, Zuoyu; Dai, Yongguo; Xu, Hong; Lv, Li; Wang, Jihong

    2017-02-01

    Recombinant Lampetra japonica RGD peptide (rLj-RGD3) is a soluble toxin protein with three RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs and a molecular weight of 13.5kDa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of rLj-RGD3 on tumor growth and survival in pancreatic carcinoma Panc-1 cell-bearing mice. A Panc-1 human pancreatic carcinoma-bearing nude mouse model was successfully generated, and the animals were treated with different doses of rLj-RGD3 for 3 weeks. The volume and weight of the subcutaneous tumors, the survival of the nude mice, histopathological changes, the intratumoral MVD, the number of apoptotic Panc-1 cells, and apoptosis-related proteins and gene expressions were determined. rLj-RGD3 significantly decreased the tumor volumes and weights, and the maximum tumor volume and weight IR values were 53.2% (pPanc-1-bearing nude mice treated with rLj-RGD3 was increased by 56.3% (pPanc-1 cells in a nude mouse model, implying that rLj-RGD3 may serve as a potent clinical therapeutic agent for human pancreatic carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Bone Metastasis Nude Mouse Model Created by Ultrasound Guided Intracardiac Injection of Breast Cancer Cells: the Micro-CT, MRI and Bioluminescence Imaging Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Jin; Song, Eun Hye; Kim, Seol Hwa; Song, Ho Taek; Suh, Jin Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyun [Korean Minjok Leadership Academy, Heongsung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a nude mouse model of bone metastasis by performing intracardiac injection of breast cancer cells under ultrasonography guidance and we wanted to evaluate the development and the distribution of metastasis in vivo using micro-CT, MRI and bioluminescence imaging. Animal experiments were performed in 6-week-old female nude mice. The animals underwent left ventricular injection of 2x105 MDA-MB-231Bo-Luc cells. After injection of the tumor cells, serial bioluminescence imaging was performed for 7 weeks. The findings of micro-CT, MRI and the histology were correlated with the 'hot' lesions seen on the bioluminescence imaging. Metastasis was found in 62.3% of the animals. Two weeks after intracardiac injection, metastasis to the brain, spine and femur was detected with bioluminescence imaging with an increasing intensity by week 7. Micro-CT scan confirmed multiple osteolytic lesions at the femur, spine and skull. MRI and the histology were able to show metastasis in the brain and extraskeletal metastasis around the femur. The intracardiac injection of cancer cells under ultrasonography guidance is a safe and highly reproducible method to produce bone metastasis in nude mice. This bone metastasis nude mouse model will be useful to study the mechanism of bone metastasis and to validate new therapeutics

  18. [Inhibitory effect of Biejiajian pills on HepG2 cell xenograft growth and expression of β-catenin and Tbx3 in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin; Sun, Hai-Tao; He, Song-Qi; LA, Lei; An, Hai-Yan; Pang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    To explore the molecular mechanism by which Biejiajian pills inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma in a nude mouse model bearing HepG2 cell xenograft. The inhibitory effect of Biejiajian pills on the growth of HepG2 cell xenograft in nude mice was observed. Immunohistochemical method was used to examine proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in HepG2 cell xenograft, and TUNEL method was employed to detect the cell apoptosis; the expression levels of β-catenin and Tbx3 were measured by Western blotting. Biejiajian pills significantly suppressed the growth of HepG2 cell xenograft in nude mice. The tumor-bearing mice treated with a high and a moderate dose of Biejiajian pills showed significantly increased apoptosis rate of the tumor cells [(22.9±1.220)% and (14.7±0.50)%, respectively] compared with the control group [(5.5±0.90)%, Ppills significantly decreased the expressions of PNCA, β-catenin, and Tbx3 in the cell xenograft (Ppills can inhibit the growth of HepG2 cell xenograft in nude mice and promote tumor cell apoptosis possibly by inhibiting PNCA expression and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  19. Tumor penetration with intact MAb and fragments demonstrated in vitro on tumor spheroids and in vivo in the nude mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchegger, F.; Halpern, S.E.; Sutherland, R.M.; Schreyer, M.; Mach, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Tumor spheroids grown in culture represent a good in vitro model for the study of tumor penetration phenomena of potential radiotherapeutics. Using this system, it was found that Fab-fragments penetrate tumors more quickly and deeply than complete antibodies. These results were confirmed in tumor bearing nephrectomized nude mice

  20. Effect on growth and cell cycle kinetics of estradiol and tamoxifen on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells grown in vitro and in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Bronzert, D; Vindeløv, L L

    1989-01-01

    The effects of estradiol and tamoxifen (TAM) on the estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 grown in vitro and in nude mice were compared. The effect on growth was determined by cell number in vitro and by tumor growth curves in nude mice. The effects on the cell cycle kinetics were...... determined by repeated flow cytometric DNA analyses in vitro and in vivo and by the technique of labeled mitosis in nude mouse-grown tumors. Under in vitro conditions, estradiol induced a pronounced increase in S-phase fraction and cell number. TAM inhibited growth of MCF-7 cells with a concomitant increase...... in the G1 phase from 60% to 75%. In nude mice, MCF-7 only formed tumors in estradiol-supplemented mice. No differences were observed in growth and cell kinetics between 0.1 and 1.0 mg of estradiol. Daily i.p. injections of TAM resulted in tumor growth inhibition with shrinkage of tumors. The flow...

  1. The biodistribution and pretargeting radioimmunoimaging of the fusion protein of anti-CEA single-chain antibody and core-streptavidin in human rectocolonic tumor bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Weidong; Li Biao; Zhu Chengmo; Jiang Xufeng; Feng Guowei; Wu Xiangpu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biodistribution and two-step pretargeting radioimmunoimaging of the fusion protein of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) single-chain antibody (ScFv) and core-streptavidin in human rectocolonic tumor bearing nude mice. Methods: Before the injection of 153 Sm-biotin, the fusion protein of ScFv-core-streptavidin was pretargeted for 24 h (200 μg every nude mouse), 24 h later 153 Sm-biotin was injected. The uptake of radioactivity in tumor and normal tissues in 20 nude mice was measured at 1, 4, 8 and 24 h and the other 3 nude mice was scanned at 8 and 24 h after peritoneal injection of 153 Sm-biotin. Results: The tumor to blood ratio (tumor/blood) reached 0.49 , 1.21, 1.56 and 3.09 at 1, 4, 8 and 24 h respectively. Radioactivity concentration peaked at 8 h in tumor site and demonstrated a 'hot' area, with significant decreasing its background at 24 h. Conclusion: The fusion protein can elevate the tumor/blood ratio, shorten pretargeting and imaging process and also improve image quality

  2. [Expression of Jagged1 mRNA in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and effect of RNA interference of Jagged1 on growth of xenograft in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G Y; Gao, Z H; Li, L; Song, T T; Sheng, X G

    2016-06-25

    To investigate the expression of Jagged1 in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and the effect of Jagged1 on growth of xenograft in nude mice. (1) Forty-eight cases of ovarian cancer and 30 cases of patients with benign epithelial ovarian tumor in the Henan Province Xinxiang Central Hospital during Feb. 2011 to Mar. 2014 were enrolled in this study. The mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1 and the downstream target genes Hes1, Hey1 were analyzed by using realtime PCR method. (2) The ovarian cancer xenograft models in nude mice were constructed by injecting SKOV3 cells in axillary subcutaneouswere. The nude mice were randomly divided into Jagged1 interference group, blank plasmid group and control group. Each group had 10 mice. They were transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)-siRNA-Jagged1, blank plasmid pDC3.1 and phosphate buffer, respectively. The tumor volumes and tumor masses were measured 14 days after transfection and the inhibition rate was calculated. The relative mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in xenograft tissues after transfection in each group was detected by using realtime PCR technique and the relative protein expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in xenograft tissues was detected by utilizing western blot method. (1) The relative mRNA expression of Jagged1, Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 in ovarian cancer tissues were higher than benign ovarian tumor tissues, the differences were statistically significant (Ptissues of nude micein Jagged1 interference group were lower than that in the other two groups, the differences were statistically significant (Ptissues of nude mice among the three groups (P>0.05). Jagged1 is highly expressed in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Jagged1 gene interference in xenograft tumor can inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth and improve tumor suppressor rate, which probably play roles by inhibiting Notch1 signaling pathway.

  3. The association of yogurt starters with Lactobacillus casei DN 114.001 in fermented milk alters the composition and metabolism of intestinal microflora in germ-free rats and in human flora-associated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouzi, Z; Andrieux, C; Degivry, M C; Bouley, C; Szylit, O

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of milk and of various fermented milks on the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora. Groups of eight rats were fed for 6 wk a diet containing 30% nonfermented milk (M), yogurt (Y), milk fermented with Lactobacillus casei (LcFM) or milk fermented with the association of L. casei DN 114.001 and yogurt starters (LcYFM). In the first study, the survival of the lactic acid bacteria from the fermented milks was assessed by bacterial enumeration in feces of germ-free rats (GF rats) fed milk or fermented milks. The metabolic activities of the lactic acid bacteria were studied in these rats by the measurement of glycolytic activities and products of bacterial fermentation, i.e., acetate and lactate (isoforms L and D). In a second study, the effects of fermented milks on the composition and metabolism [gas, glycolytic activities, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), alcohol and ammonia] of human flora were studied using human flora-associated rats (HF rats). In GF rats, the survival of L. casei in the feces did not differ between those fed the LcFM and LcYFM diets. L. bulgaricus was detected in the feces of the rats fed Y, whereas Streptoccus thermophilus was found in the feces of the LcYFM group. In HF rats, fecal concentration of Bifidobacteria was greater in the LcFM group than in the others. beta-Glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) activity was lower in rats fed LcFM and Y than in those fed M and LcYFM, whereas beta-galactosidase (3.2.1.23), alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1 20) and beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) activities were higher in the LcYFM group compared with the others. Methane excretion was higher in rats fed Y than in other groups. Cecal SCFA concentrations did not differ in LcFM, Y and M groups, but total SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate were significantly greater in the LcYFM group. These results suggest that milk fermented with the combination of L. casei and yogurt starters leads to specific

  4. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid combined with trichostatin A on the nude mice bearing human follicular thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Libo; Yuan Gengbiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of iodine uptake of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line (FTC-133) and nude mice bearing human follicular thyroid carcinoma after the induction with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), trichostatin A (TSA) or ATRA combined with TSA. Methods: After the induction with ATRA, TSA, or ATRA combined with TSA in different concentrations for 96 h, the iodine uptake of FTC-133 cells was observed. The concentrations for different groups were as follows: ATRA 1.0 ×10 -6 mol/L(A low group), ATRA 1.0 × 10 -4 mol/L (A high group), TSA 1.65 ×10 -7 mol/L (T group), A low + T group, A high + T group and ethanol (control group). Cell quantities and morphology were observed by HE staining. FTC-133 cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Twelve nude mice were randomly divided into 4 groups after tumor formation: ATRA group (2 mg/kg, intragastric administration), TSA group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection), combined therapy group (ATRA + TSA, the same doses as above) and saline control group (10 ml/kg, intragastric and intraperitoneal administration, respectively). Drugs were administered to the tumor-bearing mice according to the mouse body mass daily. At the 22nd day, the tumor-bearing mice were injected with 37 MBq 131 I intraperitoneally. The biodistribution of 131 I and gamma imaging were performed at 4, 6, 12 and 24 h after the injection respectively. Histopathological examinations of the tumor samples were taken after imaging completion. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPSS 13.0. Results: The cellular iodine uptake were (23 885 ± 616.0) and (13 849 ±728.2) counts · min -1 · 10 -6 cells in the A low + T group and A high + T group respectively, and the data were (985 ± 84.2) - (17 600 ± 782.7) counts · min -1 · 10 -6 in the other groups (F=600.879, P<0.001). The % ID/g of tumor at 6 h was 6.17 ±0.46 in the combined group and it increased to 9.34 ±0.61 at 12 h and 11.19 ± 0.98 at 24 h. The

  5. A comparison of 111In- or 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab Fab fragments for imaging subcutaneous HER2-positive tumor xenografts in athymic mice using microSPECT/CT or microPET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to compare 111In- or 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab Fab fragments for imaging small or large s.c. tumor xenografts in athymic mice that display a wide range of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) expression using microSPECT/CT or microPET/CT. Methods Trastuzumab Fab were labeled with 111In or 64Cu by conjugation to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N, N', N'', N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). The purity of 111In- and 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab Fab was measured by SDS-PAGE and HPLC. HER2 binding affinity was determined in saturation radioligand binding assays using SKBR-3 cells (1.3 × 106 HER2/cell). MicroSPECT/CT and microPET/CT were performed in athymic mice bearing s.c. BT-20 and MDA-MB-231 xenografts with low (0.5 to 1.6 × 105 receptors/cell), MDA-MB-361 tumors with intermediate (5.1 × 105 receptors/cell) or SKOV-3 xenografts with high HER2 expression (1.2 × 106 receptors/cell) at 24 h p.i. of 70 MBq (10 μg) of 111In-DOTA-trastuzumab Fab or 22 MBq (10 μg) of 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab Fab or irrelevant 111In- or 64Cu-DOTA-rituximab Fab. Tumor and normal tissue uptake were quantified in biodistribution studies. Results 111In- and 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab were > 98% radiochemically pure and bound HER2 with high affinity (Kd = 20.4 ± 2.5 nM and 40.8 ± 3.5 nM, respectively). MDA-MB-361 and SKOV-3 tumors were most clearly imaged using 111In- and 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab Fab. Significantly higher tumor/blood (T/B) ratios were found for 111In-DOTA-trastuzumab Fab than 111In-DOTA-rituximab Fab for BT-20, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-361 xenografts, and there was a direct association between T/B ratios and HER2 expression. In contrast, tumor uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab Fab was significantly higher than 64Cu-DOTA-rituximab Fab in MDA-MB-361 tumors but no direct association with HER2 expression was found. Both 111In- and 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab Fab imaged small (5 to 10 mm) or larger (10 to 15 mm) MDA-MB-361 tumors. Higher blood, liver, and spleen

  6. The effectiveness of 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy for transplantation tumor of human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice: an experiment in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qi; Liu Yu; Wang Zhongmin; Huang Wei; Lu Jian; Chen Kemin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the effectiveness and therapeutic mechanism of 125 I interstitial brachytherapy for transplantation tumor of human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice. Methods: The human pancreatic cell line Sw1990 was subcutaneously injected into the right lower limb partially dorsal area next to the groin of the immunodeficient BABL /c nude mice. The tumor was removed and cut into small pieces after it was formed,then the tumor pieces were inoculated in nude mice. The tumor developed to 8-10 mm in size after six weeks. A total of 16 nude mice with the suitable tumor size were used in this study. The 16 experimental mice were randomly and equally divided into two groups. The mice in study group (n = 8) were implanted with 125 I seeds, while the mice in control group (n = 8) were implanted with ghost seeds. After the implantation both the long and short diameter of the tumors as well as the mouse body weight were measured every 4 days. The tumor weight was measured when the mouse was sacrificed. The paraffin-embedded samples were sent for histopathological examination. Apoptotic cells were checked with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was detected with immuno-histochemical staining. Results: The tumor grew slowly in the study group, but rapidly in the control group. The tumor weight in the study group and the control group was (2.68 ± 0.70)g and (4.68 ± 1.45)g, respectively, the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.021). The tumor inhibition rate was about 42.66%. No significant difference in body weight of nude mice existed between two groups both before and after the treatment (P > 0.05). Marked tumor necrosis was seen in study group, but no obvious, or only a little, tumor necrosis could be observed in the control group. The apoptotic index checked with the TUENL method in the study group and control group was (23.2 ± 1.9)% and

  7. Effects of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl on tumor angiogenesis and on tumor growth in nude mice implanted with cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahasiripanth, Taksanee; Hokputsa, Sanya; Niruthisard, Somchai; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Patumraj, Suthiluk

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the crude extract of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl (AE) on tumor growth and angiogenesis by utilizing a tumor model in which nude mice were implanted with cervical cancer cells containing human papillomavirus 16 DNA (HPV-16 DNA). The growth-inhibitory effect of AE was investigated in four different cell types: CaSki (HPV-16 positive), HeLa (HPV-18 positive), hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), and human dermal fibroblast cells (HDFs). The cell viabilities and IC 50 values of AE were determined in cells incubated with AE for different lengths of time. To conduct studies in vivo, female BALB/c nude mice (aged 6–7 weeks, weighing 20–25 g) were used. A cervical cancer-derived cell line (CaSki) with integrated HPV-16 DNA was injected subcutaneously (1 × 10 7 cells/200 μL) in the middle dorsum of each animal (HPV group). One week after injection, mice were fed orally with AE crude extract at either 300 or 3000 mg/kg body weight/day for 14 or 28 days (HPV-AE groups). Tumor microvasculature and capillary vascularity were determined using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Tumor tissue was collected from each mouse to evaluate tumor histology and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunostaining. The time-response curves of AE and the dose-dependent effect of AE on growth inhibition were determined. After a 48-hour incubation period, the IC 50 of AE in CaSki was discovered to be significantly different from that of HDFs (P < 0.05). A microvascular network was observed around the tumor area in the HPV group on days 21 and 35. Tumor capillary vascularity in the HPV group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.001). High-dose treatment of AE extract (HPV-3000AE group) significantly attenuated the increase in VEGF expression and tumor angiogenesis in mice that received either the 14- or 28-day treatment period (P < 0.001). Our novel findings demonstrated that AE crude extract could

  8. Percutaneous Absorption and Metabolism of Ketoprofen Isopropyl Ester via Excised Nude Mouse‘s and Monkey’s Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUQuan-gang; HUJin-hong

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To study percutaneous absorption and metabolism of ketoprofen isopropyl ester (KPE)via excised nude mouse's and monkey's skin.Methods:Excised skin was prepared by surgical excision and enzyme digestion.Sideby-side diffusion cells were used for in vitro permeation studies.The concentrations of KPE and its metabolite in samples were assayed by HPLC.Results:All KPE penetration through whole thickness skin and stripped skin was metabolized to ketoprofen(KP).the concentration of which in the reciiver solution increased linearly with time.As to the nude mouse skin.the steady-state flux of KP through whole thickness skin was 2.5 times that of KPE through the whloe thickness skin,but the KP and KPE remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finishing of KPE penetration was 22.2 times in compered with the KP remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finshing of KP penetration.The rate of formation of the steady state KP from KPE throught dermis was significantly lower than that of KPE through the whole thickness skin.In he monkey skin,the rate of formation of the steady-state KP from KPE through the whole thickness skin was 0.7 times that from KPE through stripped skin.The KP and KPE remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finishing of KPE penetration was 2.0 time that in the stripped skin after the finishing of KPE penetration.The rate of fornation of the steady-state KP from KPE through dermis was lower than that from KPE through the whole thickness skin and the stripped skin.the KP remaining in dermis after the finsihing of KPE penetration was also significantly lower than the KP remaining in the whole thickness skin and the stripped skin after the finishing of KPE penetration.Conclusion:KP esters are of benefit to imporove the local action of KP.and skin esterase metabolism mainly develops in the epidermis.

  9. Adoptive immunotherapy of human pancreatic cancer with lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 in a nude mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincola, F.M.; Da Pozzo, L.F.; Drucker, B.J.; Holder, W.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A pancreatic cancer cell line was grown in orthotopic and heterotopic positions in young Swiss/NIH nude mice, which were tested with adoptive immunotherapy. Mice were injected with 1 x 10(7) human cancer cells in the subcutaneous tissue and duodenal lobe of the pancreas. The mice were randomly divided into four groups: group IA (LAK + IL-2) (N = 25) received 2 X 10(7) human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from normal donors by tail vein injection followed by 10,000 units of human recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) given intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 28 days; group IB (IL-2) (N = 27) was given the same dose of IL-2 alone; group IC (RPMI-1640) (N = 18) received a placebo consisting of 1 ml of RPMI-1640 intraperitoneally every 12 hours; and group ID (LAK) (N = 14) received 2 X 10(7) LAK cells but no IL-2. Toxicity was significantly higher in group IB, with a mortality rate of 45.5% (10/22 animals) versus a 0% mortality (0/25) in group IA. None of the group IA or IB animals died of pancreatic cancer during the experiment. The animals that did not receive IL-2 died before 28 days in 14.2% of group IC and in 16.7% of group ID. The area under the growth curve of subcutaneous tumors during the course of treatment and the pancreatic tumor weight at the end of treatment were compared in each group. Subcutaneous tumors had a reduced rate of growth in group IA animals compared to all the other treatments. Pancreatic tumor growth was slowed in group IA. The animals treated with IL-2 alone (group IB) showed some slowing of tumor growth that was intermediate between group IA, group IC, and group ID. A similar experiment was done with irradiated (375 rad) mice. Nine nude mice with tumors were treated with LAK + IL-2 (group IIA), eight received IL-2 alone (group IIB), and seven received placebo (group IIC)

  10. Selenized milk casein in the diet of BALB/c nude mice reduces growth of intramammary MCF-7 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrington, Jenny M; Kim, Julie JM; Stahel, Priska; Cieslar, Scott RL; Moorehead, Roger A; Coomber, Brenda L; Corredig, Milena; Cant, John P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary selenium has the potential to reduce growth of mammary tumors. Increasing the Se content of cows’ milk proteins is a potentially effective means to increase Se intake in humans. We investigate the effects of selenized milk protein on human mammary tumor progression in immunodeficient BALB/c nude mice. Four isonitrogenous diets with selenium levels of 0.16, 0.51, 0.85 and 1.15 ppm were formulated by mixing low- and high-selenium milk casein isolates with a rodent premix. MCF-7 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad of female BALB/c nude mice implanted with slow-release 17 β-estradiol pellets. Mice with palpable tumors were randomly assigned to one of the four diets for 10 weeks, during which time weekly tumor caliper measurements were conducted. Individual growth curves were fit with the Gompertz equation. Apoptotic cells and Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors were determined. There was a linear decrease in mean tumor volume at 70 days with increasing Se intake (P < 0.05), where final tumor volume decreased 35% between 0.16 and 1.15 ppm Se. There was a linear decrease in mean predicted tumor volume at 56, 63 and 70 days, and the number of tumors with a final volume above 500 mm 3 , with increasing Se intake (P < 0.05). This tumor volume effect was associated with a decrease in the proportion of tumors with a maximum growth rate above 0.03 day -1 . The predicted maximum volume of tumors (V max ) and the number of tumors with a large V max , were not affected by Se-casein. Final tumor mass, Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors were not significantly affected by Se-casein. There was a significantly higher number of apoptotic cells in high-Se tumors as compared to low-Se tumors. Taken together, these results suggest that turnover of cells in the tumor, but not its nutrient supply, were affected by dairy Se. We have shown that 1.1 ppm dietary Se from selenized casein can effectively reduce tumor progression in an MCF-7

  11. Comparison of conventional and novel PET tracers for imaging mesothelioma in nude mice with subcutaneous and intrapleural xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Atsushi B.; Sogawa, Chizuru; Sugyo, Aya [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sudo, Hitomi [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Pathology and Oncology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Toyohara, Jun [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 206-8670 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Abe, Masaaki; Hino, Okio [Department of Pathology and Oncology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Harada, Yoshi-nobu; Furukawa, Takako [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazutoshi [Molecular Probe Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Saga, Tsuneo [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: saga@nirs.go.jp

    2009-05-15

    Introduction: Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor originating in the pleura, peritoneum and pericardium, and the prognosis of patients undergoing current treatment remains poor. To develop new therapies, it is important to have a noninvasive imaging system for evaluating the efficacy of such prospective treatments. We have established clinically relevant mouse models and evaluated conventional and novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. Methods: Epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells were inoculated subcutaneously and intrapleurally into nude mice. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were conducted by injecting [{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), 3'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3'-doxythymidine (FLT) or 4'-methyl-[{sup 11}C]thiothymidine (S-dThd) into the mouse models. In vitro cellular uptake of [{sup 14}C]FDG and [{sup 3}H]FLT and thymidine kinase 1 (TK{sub 1}) activity in both cell lines were measured. Expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) and Ki-67 in xenografted tumors was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Results: In epithelioid mesothelioma models, biodistribution experiments showed that tumor uptake of [{sup 11}C]S-dThd was significantly higher than that of [{sup 18}F]FDG. On the other hand, in sarcomatoid models, [{sup 18}F]FDG showed significantly higher accumulation than the other two tracers. These differential uptakes of the three tracers were confirmed by PET imaging. The cellular uptake of [{sup 14}C]FDG and [{sup 3}H]FLT and TK{sub 1} activity in sarcomatoid cells were higher than those of epithelioid cells. GLUT-1 protein was strongly expressed in sarcomatoid but not in epithelioid tumor. We observed a high percentage of Ki-67-positive cells in both epithelioid and sarcomatoid tumors. Conclusions: We established nude mouse models of epithelioid and sarcomatoid subtypes of mesothelioma. PET tracers applicable for the evaluation of epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma would vary

  12. Growth of SJL/J-derived transplantable reticulum cell sarcoma as related to its ability to induce T-cell proliferation in the host- III. Studies on thymectomized and congenitally athymic SJL mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, I.R.; Chapman-Alexander, J.; Jacobson, E.B.; Lerman, S.P.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    When SJL mice are irradiated and reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow (XBM) they support growth of transplantable reticulum cell sarcoma to approximately 60% of that in normal mice. The ability to support RCS growth gradually improves with time after irradiation and reaches 90% of normal by 8-12 weeks. However, if the mice are thymectomized 4 weeks prior to treatment (Tx-XBM) they initially show 50% which increases to only 65% of growth in normal mice after 12 weeks. The ability of lymphoid cells from these mice to proliferate in vitro in response to irradiated RCS cells is normal 4 weeks after treatment in XBM, but remains <10% of normal in Tx-XBM mice. Nude mice of SJL background also show greatly diminished RCS growth. It is concluded that T cells promote RCS growth in vivo possibly via their tendency to proliferate upon exposure to RCS

  13. Interim report on intrathoracic radiotherapy of human small-cell lung carcinoma in nude mice with Re-188-RC-160, a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, P.O.; Bender, H.; Biersack, H.J.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Re-188-RC-160 in experimental models of human small cell lung carcinomas which mimic the clinical presentation. In the experimental model, cells from the human small cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H69 cells were inoculated into the thoracic cavity of athymic mice and rats. Subsequently, the biodistribution of Re-188-RC-160 after injection into the pleural cavity, a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue, was monitored as was the effect on the subsequent growth of tumors. The results presented here, and which are a part of a larger series of studies, suggest that Re-188-RC-160 can be effectively used in this animal model to restrict the growth of small cell lung carcinoma in the thoracic cavity

  14. Kinetics of EGFR expression during fractionated irradiation varies between different human squamous cell carcinoma lines in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicheler, Wolfgang; Krause, Mechthild; Hessel, Franziska; Zips, Daniel; Baumann, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Preclinical and clinical data indicate that high pretherapeutic EGFR expression is associated with poor local tumour control, possibly caused by a high repopulation rate of clonogenic cells during radiotherapy in these tumours. Previous data reported from our laboratory showed a correlation between EGFR expression and acceleration of repopulation in poorly differentiated FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) during fractionated irradiation. To test whether this is a general phenomenon, two further SCC were investigated in the present study. Patients and methods: GL and UT-SCC-14, two moderately well differentiated and keratinising hSCC, were grown as xenografts in nude mice. Functional data on the repopulation kinetics during fractionated irradiation for these tumour models have been previously determined. The expression of EGFR during fractionation was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Endpoints were the membrane-staining score and the proportion of EGFR-positive cells (EGFR labelling index). Results: Different kinetics of EGFR expression during fractionated RT were found. In UT-SCC-14, EGFR staining score and labelling index increased significantly during radiotherapy. In GL SCC, the EGFR expression was unchanged. Both tumours are characterized by a small but significant repopulation rate during radiotherapy. Conclusions: The expression of EGFR may change significantly during fractionated irradiation. No clear correlation between EGFR expression and the repopulation kinetics of clonogenic tumour cells during fractionated irradiation was found. The changes in EGFR expression during irradiation warrant further investigation on their prognostic implications and on their importance for therapeutic interventions

  15. The nude mutant gene Foxn1 is a HOXC13 regulatory target during hair follicle and nail differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S; Pruett, Nathanael D; Kern, Michael J; Baybo, Mary Ann; Godwin, Alan R; Potter, Kathleen A; Peterson, Ron L; Sundberg, John P; Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Among the Hox genes, homeobox C13 (Hoxc13) has been shown to be essential for proper hair shaft differentiation, as Hoxc13 gene-targeted (Hoxc13(tm1Mrc)) mice completely lack external hair. Because of the remarkable overt phenotypic parallels to the Foxn1(nu) (nude) mutant mice, we sought to determine whether Hoxc13 and forkhead box N1 (Foxn1) might act in a common pathway of hair follicle (HF) differentiation. We show that the alopecia exhibited by both the Hoxc13(tm1Mrc) and Foxn1(nu) mice is because of strikingly similar defects in hair shaft differentiation and that both mutants suffer from a severe nail dystrophy. These phenotypic similarities are consistent with the extensive overlap between Hoxc13 and Foxn1 expression patterns in the HF and the nail matrix. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis of skin from Hoxc13(tm1Mrc) mice identified Foxn1 as significantly downregulated along with numerous hair keratin genes. This Foxn1 downregulation apparently reflects the loss of direct transcriptional control by HOXC13 as indicated by our results obtained through co-transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. As presented in the discussion, these data support a regulatory model of keratinocyte differentiation in which HOXC13-dependent activation of Foxn1 is part of a regulatory cascade controlling the expression of terminal differentiation markers.

  16. Transplantability of human lymphoid cell line, lymphoma, and leukemia in splenectomized and/or irradiated nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Shimosato, Y.; Kuroki, M.; Sato, Y.; Nakajima, T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of splenectomy and/or whole-body irradiation of nude mice before xenotransplantation of lymphoid cell lines, lymphoma, and leukemia were studied. Transplantation after whole-body irradiation resulted in the increased ''take'' rate of three cultured cell lines (two of T-cell-derived acute lymphocytic leukemia and one of B-cell derived acute lymphocytic leukemia) and in the tumorous growth of Burkitt-derived Raji and spontaneously transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. With splenectomy plus irradiation as a pretreatment, tumorous growth occurred in four other cell lines which were not transplantable after irradiation only (two cell lines of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cord blood cells and one each of null acute lymphocytic leukemia and nodular lymphoma-derived cell lines). Direct transplantation of leukemia and lymphoma cells into the pretreated mice was successful in 7 of 24 cases (29%). B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid lymphoma was transplantable in three of seven cases (43%). However, lymphoma and leukemia of peripheral T-cell origin was difficult to transplant even with pretreatment, and only one pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma grew to a significant size (2 cm). One tumor each of B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid and T-cell diffuse lymphoblastic lymphoma became transplantable

  17. Radiation-induced interphase death observed in human T-cell lymphoma cells established as a nude mouse tumor line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, T.; Yoshida, S.; Miyamoto, T.

    1990-01-01

    Interphase death of cells occurs physiologically in healthy animal tissues as well as in tissues pathologically injured by radiation or drugs. An active self-destruction process has been found to play a major role in the interphase death of highly radiosensitive cells. However, the mechanism of this radiation-induced interphase death in human lymphoma has not yet been studied in detail. In the present study, we examined a lymphoma derived from a child lymphoblastic lymphoma bearing CD1, CD4, and CD8 antigens and established in nude mice. Low-dose x-irradiation of this lymphoma induced interphase cell death with characteristic morphological and biological changes of an active self-destruction process, i.e., changes in cell surface appearance seen using scanning electron microscopy and nuclear fragmentation accompanied with an increase in free DNA. The process was proved to require protein synthesis. It was concluded that the radiosensitivity of this T-cell lymphoma of common thymic type is mainly due to the occurrence of the active self-destruction process

  18. Effects of artesunate combining with radiation on apoptosis in nude mice transplanted with HeLa cells of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanyuan; Feng Yang; Cao Jianping; Zhu Wei; Ni Qianying; Geng Chong; Chen Guanglie; Luo Judong; Zhang Xuguang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Artesunate combining with radiation on apoptosis in transplanted tumors. Methods: HeLa cells were inoculated into the nude mice to develop a tumor model. Mice were randomized into four groups as the control group, the Artesunate group,the irradiation group and the combination group when average volume of tumor achieved about 5 mm x 5 mm x 5 mm. During the period of treatment, the volume of tumors was measured per 2 days. After 14 days treatment, the mice were killed and tumor tissues were harvest, the tumor size and weight were measured, tumor inhibitory rate calculated and TUNEL assay was used to analysis the apoptosis of tumor tissue. Results: The tumor weight in combination group was significantly lower than that than in the irradiation group [(0.64 ± 0.11) gvs (1.31 ± 0.58) g] (P<0.05), the tumor inhibitory rate was 71.17%. The apoptosis in the combination group was obviously higher than that in the irradiation group [(77.5 ± 8.07) %vs (48.80 ± 6.71) %] (P<0.05 ). Conclusion: Artesunate can dramatically increase the radiosensitivity of tumor model transplanted with HeLa cells of cervical cancer, the possible mechanism of radiosensitization of Artesunate is related to increasing apoptosis of tumor cells. (authors)

  19. Radiolabeling of substance P with Lutetium-177 and biodistribution study in AR42J pancreatic tumor xenografted Nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Bortoleti de; Pujatti, Priscilla Brunelli; Barrio, Ofelia; Caldeira, Jose S.; Mengatti, Jair; Suzuki, Miriam F.

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic tumor (PT) is a neuroendocrine neoplasm that usually origin metastases in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, new developments in targeted therapies have emerged and the presence of peptide receptors at the cell membrane of PT constitutes the basis of the clinical use of specific radiolabeled ligands. Substance P, an 11-amino acid peptide which has an important role in modulating pain transmission trough neurokinin 1 and 2 receptors (NKr), may play a role in the pathogenesis of PT, because approximately 10% of these tumors over express NKr. The aim of the present work was to produce a pure and stable SP analog (DOTA-SP) radiolabeled with Lutetium-177 ( 177 Lu), and to evaluate its in vivo target to AR42J pancreatic tumor cells in Nude mice in other to verify if SP can be used in this pancreatic tumor detection and treatment. 177 Lu (half-life 6.7 days) has both β and γ-emissions suitable for radiotherapy and imaging respectively. Substance P was successfully labeled with high yield (>99%) at optimized conditions and kept stable for more than 72 hours at 4 deg C and 24 hours in human plasma. Biodistribution studies showed that SP excretion was mainly performed by renal pathway. In addition, 177 Lu-DOTA-SP showed higher uptake by tumor than normal pancreas, indicating the presence of NK receptors in AR42J pancreatic tumor. (author)

  20. High-resolution dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of lung cancer xenografts in nude mice using clinical PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying Yi; Wang, Kai; Xu, Zuo Yu; Song, Yan; Wang, Chu Nan; Zhang, Chong Qing; Sun, Xi Lin; Shen, Bao Zhong

    2017-08-08

    Considering the general application of dedicated small-animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography is limited, an acceptable alternative in many situations might be clinical PET/CT. To estimate the feasibility of using clinical PET/CT with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose for high-resolution dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of cancer xenografts in nude mice. Dynamic clinical PET/CT scans were performed on xenografts for 60 min after injection with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Scans were reconstructed with or without SharpIR method in two phases. And mice were sacrificed to extracting major organs and tumors, using ex vivo γ-counting as a reference. Strikingly, we observed that the image quality and the correlation between the all quantitive data from clinical PET/CT and the ex vivo counting was better with the SharpIR reconstructions than without. Our data demonstrate that clinical PET/CT scanner with SharpIR reconstruction is a valuable tool for imaging small animals in preclinical cancer research, offering dynamic imaging parameters, good image quality and accurate data quatification.

  1. Recombinant methioninase effectively targets a Ewing's sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takashi; Li, Shukuan; Han, Qinghong; Tan, Yuying; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Miyake, Kentaro; Singh, Arun S; Nelson, Scott D; Dry, Sarah M; Li, Yunfeng; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Lwin, Thinzar M; DeLong, Jonathan C; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-05-30

    Methionine dependence is due to the overuse of methionine for aberrant transmethylation reactions in cancer. Methionine dependence may be the only general metabolic defect in cancer. In order to exploit methionine dependence for therapy, our laboratory previously cloned L-methionine α-deamino-γ-mercaptomethane lyase [EC 4.4.1.11]). The cloned methioninase, termed recombinant methioninase, or rMETase, has been tested in mouse models of human cancer cell lines. Ewing's sarcoma is recalcitrant disease even though development of multimodal therapy has improved patients'outcome. Here we report efficacy of rMETase against Ewing's sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The Ewing's sarcoma was implanted in the right chest wall of nude mice to establish a PDOX model. Eight Ewing's sarcoma PDOX mice were randomized into untreated control group (n = 4) and rMETase treatment group (n = 4). rMETase (100 units) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every 24 hours for 14 consecutive days. All mice were sacrificed on day-15, 24 hours after the last rMETase administration. rMETase effectively reduced tumor growth compared to untreated control. The methionine level both of plasma and supernatants derived from sonicated tumors was lower in the rMETase group. Body weight did not significantly differ at any time points between the 2 groups. The present study is the first demonstrating rMETase efficacy in a PDOX model, suggesting potential clinical development, especially in recalcitrant cancers such as Ewing's sarcoma.

  2. Effect of single-dose x irradiation on the growth curves of a human malignant melanoma transplanted into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spang-Thomsen, M.; Visfeldt, J.; Nielsen, A.

    1981-01-01

    A human malignant melanoma transplanted into nude mice was exposed to single-dose x irradiation. Experimental growth data described mathematically according to a transformed Gompertz function were used to determine the effect of irradiation on growth delay, growth rate, and tumor shrinkage. The radiation-induced changes in the histology of the tumors were also described. The results showed that irradiation induced a dose-dependent growth delay; this parameter was therefore found suitable for the assessment of relative therapeutic effect. The treatment also induced a dose-dependent reduction in growth rate during regrowth. As a result of this effect on growth rate, extrapolation of tumor shrinkage to the time of treatment became directly misleading as a measure of the effect of the treatment. From this it can be deduced that in therapeutic studies where treatment induces nonparallel posttherapeutic growth curves, growth delay for various tumors and therapies cannot be compared directly. The transformed Gompertz function proved to be extremely well suited for evaluating these conditions

  3. Biodistribution of 99mTc labelled anti TAG 72 chimeric McAb ccM4 in nude mice and preliminary clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qingjie; Zhao Jie; Zhang Yingnan; Gao Fengtong; Liu Shuqing

    1995-01-01

    Chimeric McAb ccM 4 was labelled with 99m Tc by direct method. The antibody was reduced by molar excess 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME; Ab, 1000:1). The reduced ccM 4 chimeric McAb was mixed with 99m Tc reduced by SnCl 2 and 99m Tc labelling efficiency was 98%. The immunoreactivity did not change after labelling. The biodistribution of 99m Tc-ccM 4 was performed in nude mice and patients with stomach carcinoma. There was significantly more radioactivity in tumor than in the rest of the body in nude mice. Radioimmunoimaging of ccM 4 in 10 patients of gastric cancer was also presented

  4. Inhibition of Tumor Growth of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells in a Nude Mouse Xenograft Model by the Total Flavonoids from Arachniodes exilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A tumor growth model of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells in nude mice was employed to investigate the antitumor activity of the total flavonoids extracted from Arachniodes exilis (TFAE in vivo. Several biochemical assays including hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were performed to elucidate the mechanism of action of total flavonoids extracted from Arachniodes exilis (TFAE. The results showed that TFAE effectively inhibited the tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice and had no significant effect on body weight, blood system, and functions of liver and kidney. Expression levels of proapoptotic proteins Bax and cleaved caspase-3 remarkably increased while the expressions of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, and VEGF were suppressed by TFAE. These results suggested that the antitumor potential of TFEA was implied by the apoptosis of tumor cells and the inhibition of angiogenesis in tumor tissue.

  5. The Prevalence and Gratification of Nude Self-Presentation of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Online-Dating Environments: Attracting Attention, Empowerment, and Self-Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Richard; Merz, Simon

    2018-01-01

    This study builds on research about the importance of body presentation among men who have sex with men (MSM) by exploring the phenomenon of nude body presentation in online dating environments. In a quantitative survey of N = 9,235 MSM users of a gay online dating site (ODS) in Germany, the prevalence of nude pictures and gratifications sought while displaying them were investigated. About two-thirds of the participants declared that they use nude pictures in their dating profiles, with only small differences in prevalence between members of different ages, education levels, and sexual orientation. Furthermore, the results indicate that the use of nudity is driven by three underlying gratifications: (1) Attracting attention, meaning that nudity is used to accelerate sexual outcomes from online dating use; (2) empowerment, meaning that nudity online serves as an environment for otherwise and elsewhere inhibited forms of body presentation; and (3) self-verification, whereby nudity is used as a means of receiving affirmation from others. Regression analyses are used to investigate associations of these gratifications with sociodemographics and online dating behavior. Findings are discussed in relation to earlier research on self-presentation as well as theories of body importance among gay men. While earlier research has mainly focused on the negative implications of body presentation (e.g., self-objectification; reinforcing standards of beauty), the findings of this study hint that ODS may provide a platform for acts of nude body presentation that are not possible elsewhere and are thus accompanied by empowerment and self-verification.

  6. Anti-tumor effects of 125I radioactive particles implantation on transplantated tumor model of human breast cancer cells in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhongdi; Liang Chunlin; Zhang Guoli; Jing Yue; Zhang Yucheng; Gai Baodong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-tumor effects of 125 I radioactive particles implantation on transplantated tumor model of human breast cancer cells in nude mice and clarify their anti-tumor mechanisms. Methods 120 nude mice transplantated with human breast cancer cells MCF-7 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=40): 125 I radioactive particles implanted group, non-radioactive particles implanted group and non-particles implanted group. The articles were implanted into mice according to Pairs system principle. The expressions of Fas mRNA and protein and the activaties of caspase-3 and caspase-8 enzyme were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The changes of cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with non-radioactive particles implanted group and non-particles implanted group, the size of cancer tissues in 125 I radioactive particles implanted group was reduced significantly (P 0 /G 1 phase was significantly increased (P 125 I radioactive particles into transplantated tumor model of human breast cancer cells can kill tumor cells, inhibit the growth cycle of tumor cells and induce the apoptosis of tumor cells in nude mice. (authors)

  7. Enhanced Metastatic Recurrence Via Lymphatic Trafficking of a High-Metastatic Variant of Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Surgical Resection in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    We previously developed and characterized a highly invasive and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant by serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. Eventually, a highly invasive and metastatic variant of human TNBC was isolated after lymph node metastases was harvested and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice for two cycles. The variant thereby isolated is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared to 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. In the present report, we observed that high-metastatic MDA-MB-231H-RFP cells produced significantly larger subcutaneous tumors compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice. Extensive lymphatic trafficking by high-metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells was also observed. High-metastatic MDA-MB-231 developed larger recurrent tumors 2 weeks after tumor resection compared with tumors that were not resected in orthotopic models. Surgical resection of the MDA-MB-231 high-metastatic variant primary tumor in orthotopic models also resulted in rapid and enhanced lymphatic trafficking of residual cancer cells and extensive lymph node and lung metastasis that did not occur in the non-surgical mice. These results suggest that surgical resection of high metastatic TNBC can greatly increase the malignancy of residual cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 559-569, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Establishment of an iRFP and luciferase dual-color fluorescence-traced hepatocellular carcinoma transplantation model in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjun; Yang, Tianhua; Huang, Yanping; Liu, Mingzhu; Qin, Zhongqiang; Chu, Fei; Li, Zhenghong; Li, Yonghai

    2017-11-01

    Objective To establish a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model in nude mice which could stably express gene and be monitored dynamically. Methods We first constructed the lentiviral particles containing luciferase (Luc) and near-infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) and puromycin resistance gene, and then transduced them into the HepG2 hepatoma cells. The cell line stably expressing Luc and iRFP genes were screened and inoculated into nude mice to establish xenograft tumor model. Tumor growth was monitored using in vivo imaging system. HE staining and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the pathological features and tumorigenic ability. Results HepG2 cells stably expressing iRFP and Luc were obtained; with the engineered cell line, xenograft model was successfully established with the features of proper tumor developing time and high rate of tumor formation as well as typical pathological features as showed by HE staining and immunohistochemistry. Conclusion Hepatocellular carcinoma model in nude mice with the features of stable gene expression and dynamical monitoring has been established successfully with the HepG2-iRFP-Luc cell line.

  9. An experimental study of the diagnosing value to nude mice model of transplanted human gastric cancer with folate-receptor MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jianhui; Zeng Mengsu; Zhou Kangrong; Shen Jizhang; Chen Caizhong; Zhong Gaoren; Xue Qiong; Gu Haiyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the tumor targeting characteristic by observing signal varying of human gastric cancer transplanted nude mice (SGC-7901 ) using Folate-Receptor MR contrast agent. Methods: As a Folate-Receptor MR contrast agent, Gd-DTPA-Folate was obtained by conjugation of DTPA-Folate and GdCl 3 under specific conditions. Nude mice of subcutaneously transplanted human gastric cancer (SGC-7901) were used as animal models, 12 mice were divided into experimental group (n=6) and control group (n=6) randomly. Both were injected with Gd-DTPA-Folate and Gd-DTPA (contained same gadolinium) via abdominal cavity respectively. Tumor signal varying was observed by T 1 WI after injection of contrast agent immediately, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h, and tumor signal changing of experimental group was compared with that of control group. CNR (contrast noise ratio) was regarded as evaluating mark. Results: Tumor signal intensity of experimental group was increased evidently between 1-2 hours after injecting Gd-DTPA-Folate. Comparison with pre-injection, there was a significant difference (evaluating mark is CNR: q 1 =5.80, q 2 =4.64; P 1 =0.64, q 2 =1.19, P>0.05). Conclusion: Gd-DTPA-Folate shows definite characteristic of tumor targeting effect to nude mice of subcutaneously transplanted human gastric cancer (SGC-7901). (authors)

  10. Anti-tumor activity of high-dose EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and sequential docetaxel in wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer cell nude mouse xenografts

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Ning; Zhang, Qianqian; Fang, Shu; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is still a challenge. This study explored antitumor activity of high-dose icotinib (an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) plus sequential docetaxel against wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells-generated nude mouse xenografts. Nude mice were subcutaneously injected with wild-type EGFR NSCLC A549 cells and divided into different groups for 3-week treatment. Tumor xenograft volumes were monitored and record...

  11. Five-chlorodeoxycytidine, a tumor-selective enzyme-driven radiosensitizer, effectively controls five advanced human tumors in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, Sheldon; Alvarez, Marcy; Mas, Marisol; Wozniak, Chandra; Arnold, David; Knapinska, Anna; Norris, Christina; Burk, Ronald; Aller, Alex; Dauphinee, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The study's goals were as follows: (1) to extend our past findings with rodent tumors to human tumors in nude mice, (2) to determine if the drug protocol could be simplified so that only CldC and one modulator, tetrahydrouridine (H 4 U), would be sufficient to obtain efficacy, (3) to determine the levels of deoxycytidine kinase and dCMP deaminase in human tumors, compared to adjacent normal tissue, and (4) to determine the effect of CldC on normal tissue radiation damage to the cervical spinal cord of nude mice. Methods and Materials: The five human tumors used were as follows: prostate tumors, PC-3 and H-1579; glioblastoma, SF-295; breast tumor, GI-101; and lung tumor, H-165. The duration of treatment was 3-5 weeks, with drugs administered on Days 1-4 and radiation on Days 3-5 of each week. The biomodulators of CldC were N-(Phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA), an inhibitor of aspartyl transcarbamoylase, 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (FdC), resulting in tumor-directed inhibition of thymidylate synthetase, and H 4 U, an inhibitor of cytidine deaminase. The total dose of focused irradiation of the tumors was usually 45 Gy in 12 fractions. Results: Marked radiosensitization was obtained with CldC and the three modulators. The average days in tumor regrowth delay for X-ray compared to drugs plus X-ray, respectively, were: PC-3 prostate, 42-97; H-1579 prostate, 29-115; glioblastoma, 5-51; breast, 50-80; lung, 32-123. Comparative studies with PC-3 and H-1579 using CldC coadministered with H 4 U, showed that both PALA and FdC are dispensable, and the protocol can be simplified with equal and possibly heightened efficacy. For example, PC-3 with X-ray and (1) no drugs, (2) CldC plus the three modulators, (3) a high dose of CldC, and (4) escalating doses of CldC resulted in 0/10, 3/9, 5/10, and 6/9 cures, respectively. The tumor regrowth delay data followed a similar pattern. After treating mice only 1((1)/(2)) weeks with CldC + H 4 U, 92% of the PC-3 tumor cells were found

  12. Patterns of proliferation related to vasculature in human head-and-neck carcinomas before and after transplantation in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijffels, Karien I.E.M.; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Bussink, Johan; Peters, Hans P.W.; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Hoogen, Frank J.A. van den; Wilde, Peter C.M. de; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The predictive potential of tumor cell kinetic parameters may be improved when they are studied in relation to other microenvironmental parameters. The purpose of this investigation was to quantitatively categorize human tumor samples according to proliferation patterns. Second, it was examined whether these characteristics are retained after xenotransplantation. Methods and Materials: Fifty tumor samples from head-and-neck cancer patients were immunohistochemically stained for Ki-67 and vessels. Also, parts of the samples were transplanted into nude mice. Tumors were categorized according to previously described patterns of proliferation. Vascular and proliferation patterns were analyzed using an image processing system. Results: The 50 tumors were categorized into four patterns of proliferation by visual assessment: marginal (6), intermediate (10), random (21), and mixed (12). One tumor could not be classified. These patterns were quantified by calculating the Ki-67 labeling index in distinct zones at increasing distance from vessels yielding good discrimination and significant differences between patterns. The probability of growth after xenotransplantation was significantly higher for tumors with a labeling index and vascular density above the median value compared to tumors with both parameters below the median (82% vs. 35%). Fifty percent of the tumors retained their proliferation patterns after xenotransplantation. Conclusion: The categorization by proliferation pattern previously described by others was reproduced quantitatively and spatially related to the vascular network using a computerized image processing system. The combination of quantitative and architectural information of multiple microenvironmental parameters adds a new dimension to the study of treatment resistance mechanisms. Tumor models representative of the various patterns can be used to further investigate the relevance of these architectural patterns

  13. Anti-tumor effects of a novel chimeric peptide on S180 and H22 xenografts bearing nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongdong; Gao, Yanfeng; Chen, Lixiang; Qi, Yuanming; Kang, Qiaozhen; Wang, Haili; Zhu, Linyu; Ye, Yong; Zhai, Mingxia

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, many endogenous peptides have been identified by screening combinatory phage display peptide library, which play important roles in the process of angiogenesis. A heptapeptide, ATWLPPR, binds specifically to NRP-1 and selectively inhibits VEGF165 binding to VEGFR-2. Another heptapeptide, NLLMAAS, blocks both Ang-1 and Ang-2 binding to Tie-2 in a dose-dependent manner. In the present study, we aimed to connect ATWLPPR (V1) with NLLMAAS (V2) via a flexible linker, Ala-Ala, to reconstruct a novel peptide ATWLPPRAANLLMAAS (V3). We firstly investigated the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of peptide V3 on sarcoma S180 and hepatoma H22 bearing BALB/c nude mice. Mice were continuously subcutaneously administrated with normal saline, V1 (320microg/kg/d), V2 (320microg/kg/d), V1+V2 (320microg/kg/d), and V3 (160, 320 and 480microg/kg/d), for 7 days. Treatment with peptide V3 could significantly reduce the tumor weight and volume. Pathological examination showed that the tumors treated with peptide V3 had a larger region of necrosis than that of peptide V1, V2, and V1+V2 at the same dose. A significant decrease of microvessel density (MVD) in a dose-dependent manner was observed in each group of peptide V3. The results of pathological examination on normal tissue, lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and white blood cells showed that peptide V3 might have no significant toxicity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that peptide V3 could be more effective on inhibiting tumor growth and angiogenesis than that of V1, V2, and V1+V2. Peptide V3 could be considered as a novel chimeric peptide with potent anti-tumor activity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rasfonin, a novel 2-pyrone derivative, induces ras-mutated Panc-1 pancreatic tumor cell death in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Z; Li, L; Li, Y; Zhou, W; Cheng, J; Liu, F; Zheng, P; Zhang, Y; Che, Y

    2014-05-22

    Rasfonin is a novel 2-pyrone derivative reported to induce apoptosis in ras-dependent cells. In this study, its effects on ras-mutated pancreatic cancer cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Two human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1 (mutated K-ras) and BxPC-3 (wild-type K-ras) were selected to test the effects of rasfonin on cell proliferation, clone formation, migration and invasion in vitro. Immunoblotting was used to detect the expressions of EGFR-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway proteins. Ras activity was measured using a pull-down ELISA kit and guanine exchange factor (GEF)/GTPase-activating proteins (GAP) activity was measured by [(3)H]-GDP radiometric ligand binding. For an in vivo study, CD1 nude mice bearing Panc-1 cells were treated with rasfonin or Salirasib (FTS). We found that rasfonin suppressed proliferation more strongly in Panc-1 cells (IC50=5.5 μM) than BxPC-3 cells (IC50=10 μM) in vitro. Clone formation, migration and invasion by Panc-1 cells were also reduced by rasfonin. Rasfonin had little effect on the farnesylation of Ras, but it strongly downregulated Ras activity and consequently phosphorylation of c-Raf/MEK/ERK. Further experiments indicated that rasfonin reduced Son of sevenless (Sos1) expression but did not alter GEF and GAP activities. The in vivo experiments also revealed that rasfonin (30 mg/kg) delayed the growth of xenograft tumors originating from Panc-1 cells. Tumor weight was ultimately decreased after 20 days of treatment of rasfonin. Rasfonin is a robust inhibitor of pancreatic cancers with the K-ras mutation. The reduction of Sos1 expression and the consequently depressed Ras-MAPK activity could be important in its anticancer activity.

  15. Hydrogel and Platelet-Rich Plasma Combined Treatment to Accelerate Wound Healing in a Nude Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Gil Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPlatelet-rich plasma (PRP contains high concentrations of growth factors involved in wound healing. Hydrogel is a 3-dimensional, hydrophilic, high-molecular, reticular substance generally used as a dressing formulation to accelerate wound healing, and also used as a bio-applicable scaffold or vehicle. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PRP and hydrogel on wound healing, in combination and separately, in an animal wound model.MethodsA total of 64 wounds, with 2 wounds on the back of each nude mouse, were classified into 4 groups: a control group, a hydrogel-only group, a PRP-only group, and a combined-treatment group. All mice were assessed for changes in wound size and photographed on scheduled dates. The number of blood vessels was measured in all specimens. Immunohistochemical staining was used for the analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression.ResultsDifferences in the decrease and change in wound size in the combined-treatment group were more significant than those in the single-treatment groups on days 3, 5, 7, and 10. Analysis of the number of blood vessels through histological examination showed a pattern of increase over time that occurred in all groups, but the combined-treatment group exhibited the greatest increase on days 7 and 14. Immunohistochemical staining showed that VEGF expression in the combined-treatment group exhibited its highest value on day 7.ConclusionsThis experiment demonstrated improved wound healing using a PRP–hydrogel combined treatment compared to either treatment individually, resulting in a decrease in wound size and a shortening of the healing period.

  16. Combination of Albendazole and 2-Methoxyestradiol significantly improves the survival of HCT-116 tumor-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehteda, Anahid; Galettis, Peter; Pillai, Krishna; Morris, David L

    2013-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a microtubule-targeting anthelmintic with a remarkable activity against a variety of human cancer cells. In this study, we examined if the antitumor activity of ABZ could be enhanced by its combination with other microtubule-binding agents. The interactions between ABZ and microtubule-binding agents, paclitaxel, vinblastine, colchicine, and 2-methoxyestradiol were characterized using median effect analysis method in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and DU145 prostate cancer cell line. The mechanism underlying the synergistic interaction related to tubulin polymerization and apoptosis was then investigated. Finally, the effect of the combination therapy on the survival of HCT-116 tumor-bearing nude mice was evaluated. Among the tested drugs, a synergistic anti-proliferative effect was observed with the combination of low concentrations of ABZ plus colchicine and ABZ plus 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME). Exploring the mechanism of the interaction between ABZ and 2ME revealed that the combination therapy synergistically activated the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Consistent with in vitro results, the combination of low concentration of ABZ with 2ME prolonged the survival of mice-bearing HCT-116 tumors. High concentration of ABZ in combination with 2ME, however, proved to be less effective than ABZ alone. The combination of low doses of ABZ and 2ME has shown promising results in our pre-clinical model. Additionally, the finding that the combination of two microtubule-binding agents that share the same binding site can act synergistically may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment

  17. Morphofunctional evaluation of human skin preserved in glycerol and exposed to gamma radiation: a study in athymic mice; Avaliacao morfofuncional de pele humana conservada em glicerol e submetida a radiacao gama: estudo em camundongos atimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringel, Fabiana de Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for autograft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, induces alterations in skin preserved in glycerol at 85%, reducing the tensile strength of irradiated tissue. Clinical observation also suggests faster integration of such graft with the receptors tissue. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. The skin of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis, optical coherence tomography imaging, histological and biomechanical assays. It was possible to conclude that grafts irradiated with 25 kGy promoted greater initial contraction, without alteration of the final dimensions of the repair area, also displaying a faster closing of the wound. Moreover, the use of irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) enabled the formation of a more organized healing process without significant effects on biomechanical properties. (author)

  18. Radiobiological hypoxic fraction does not correlate with pO2 measurements in eight human tumor xenografts into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghian, A.; Huang, P.; Griffon, G.; Hartford, A.; Allam, A.; Costa, A. da; Kozin, S.; Suit, H.D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Clinical and laboratory reports suggest that hypoxia limits local control probability in tumors treated by radiation. Significant increase in the TCD 50 (the dose of radiation needed to control 50% of the tumors) was obtained in a number of tumor models when the tumors were rendered hypoxic by clamping. Furthermore, recent data have shown the value of measuring the pO2 using electrodes in predicting the tumor response to radiation in cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the radiobiological hypoxic fraction (HF) and the pO2 measurements of human tumor xenografts. Materials and Methods: Eight human tumor xenografts (five glioblastoma, one squamous cell carcinoma, one colon cancer, and one soft tissue sarcoma) were used in these experiments. Tumor chunks 2 mm in diameter were implanted into the hindleg of 5 Gy whole-body irradiated nude mice. When the tumor size reached 110 mm 3 , radiation was administered in a single dose ranging from 17.5 Gy to 90 Gy in hypoxic conditions. Acute hypoxia was induced by clamping the tumor bearing leg three minutes before and during the treatment. When aerobic conditions were required, the tumor bearing leg was immobilized by a hook which fitted around the ankle. Seven to 10 tumors were assigned to each dose level in each assay; there were 6 to 8 dose levels per assay. Starting at 2-3 weeks after irradiation, the animals were examined once per week and scored for presence of local tumor; if present, tumor diameters were measured. Tumor response is described in terms of radiation dose (in Gy) required to control 50% of the xenografts (TCD 50 ). The (HF) was determined using the formula of Howes (HF=e - ((TCD 50 hypoxic-TCD 50 air)(Do hypoxic)) and assuming an oxygen enhancement ratio of 3.0: (D o hyp=D o air x 3.0) (the D o air was separately determined in vitro for the corresponding cell lines). The pO2 measurements used electrodes as published (Boucher et al

  19. Regulation of DNA repair mechanism in human glioma xenograft cells both in vitro and in vivo in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnala, Shivani; Veeravalli, Krishna Kumar; Chetty, Chandramu; Dinh, Dzung H; Rao, Jasti S

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal form of brain tumor. Efficient DNA repair and anti-apoptotic mechanisms are making glioma treatment difficult. Proteases such as MMP9, cathepsin B and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are over expressed in gliomas and contribute to enhanced cancer cell proliferation. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair mechanism plays a major role in double strand break (DSB) repair in mammalian cells. Here we show that silencing MMP9 in combination with uPAR/cathepsin B effects NHEJ repair machinery. Expression of DNA PKcs and Ku70/80 at both mRNA and protein levels in MMP9-uPAR (pMU) and MMP9-cathepsin B (pMC) shRNA-treated glioma xenograft cells were reduced. FACS analysis showed an increase in apoptotic peak and proliferation assays revealed a significant reduction in the cell population in pMU- and pMC-treated cells compared to untreated cells. We hypothesized that reduced NHEJ repair led to DSBs accumulation in pMU- and pMC-treated cells, thereby initiating cell death. This hypothesis was confirmed by reduced Ku70/Ku80 protein binding to DSB, increased comet tail length and elevated γH2AX expression in treated cells compared to control. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that EGFR-mediated lowered DNA PK activity in treated cells compared to controls. Treatment with pMU and pMC shRNA reduced the expression of DNA PKcs and ATM, and elevated γH2AX levels in xenograft implanted nude mice. Glioma cells exposed to hypoxia and irradiation showed DSB accumulation and apoptosis after pMU and pMC treatments compared to respective controls. Our results suggest that pMU and pMC shRNA reduce glioma proliferation by DSB accumulation and increase apoptosis under normoxia, hypoxia and in combination with irradiation. Considering the radio- and chemo-resistant cancers favored by hypoxia, our study provides important therapeutic potential of MMP9, uPAR and cathepsin B shRNA in the treatment of glioma from clinical stand

  20. Regulation of DNA repair mechanism in human glioma xenograft cells both in vitro and in vivo in nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Ponnala

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM is the most lethal form of brain tumor. Efficient DNA repair and anti-apoptotic mechanisms are making glioma treatment difficult. Proteases such as MMP9, cathepsin B and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR are over expressed in gliomas and contribute to enhanced cancer cell proliferation. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ repair mechanism plays a major role in double strand break (DSB repair in mammalian cells.Here we show that silencing MMP9 in combination with uPAR/cathepsin B effects NHEJ repair machinery. Expression of DNA PKcs and Ku70/80 at both mRNA and protein levels in MMP9-uPAR (pMU and MMP9-cathepsin B (pMC shRNA-treated glioma xenograft cells were reduced. FACS analysis showed an increase in apoptotic peak and proliferation assays revealed a significant reduction in the cell population in pMU- and pMC-treated cells compared to untreated cells. We hypothesized that reduced NHEJ repair led to DSBs accumulation in pMU- and pMC-treated cells, thereby initiating cell death. This hypothesis was confirmed by reduced Ku70/Ku80 protein binding to DSB, increased comet tail length and elevated γH2AX expression in treated cells compared to control. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that EGFR-mediated lowered DNA PK activity in treated cells compared to controls. Treatment with pMU and pMC shRNA reduced the expression of DNA PKcs and ATM, and elevated γH2AX levels in xenograft implanted nude mice. Glioma cells exposed to hypoxia and irradiation showed DSB accumulation and apoptosis after pMU and pMC treatments compared to respective controls.Our results suggest that pMU and pMC shRNA reduce glioma proliferation by DSB accumulation and increase apoptosis under normoxia, hypoxia and in combination with irradiation. Considering the radio- and chemo-resistant cancers favored by hypoxia, our study provides important therapeutic potential of MMP9, uPAR and cathepsin B shRNA in the treatment of glioma from

  1. Inhibition of growth and metastasis of human gastric cancer implanted in nude mice by d-limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Guang; Zhan, Li-Bin; Feng, Bing-An; Qu, Ming-Yang; Yu, Li-Hua; Xie, Ji-Hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects and mechanism of d-limonene on the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer in vivo. METHODS: Metastatic model simulating human gastric cancer was established by orthotopic implantation of histologically intact human tumor tissue into gastric wall of nude mice. One percent d-limonene was orally administered at dose of 15 ml/kg every other day for seven weeks. Eight weeks after implantation, tumor weight, inhibition rate, apoptotic index (AI), microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), variation of ultrastructure, and the presence of metastasis were evaluated, respectively, after the mice were sacrificed. RESULTS: The tumor weight was significantly reduced in 5-FU group (2.55 ± 0.28 g), d-limonene group (1.49 ± 0.09 g) and combined treatment group (1.48 ± 0.21 g) compared with the control group(2.73 ± 0.23 g, P limonene group, combined treatment group, the inhibition rates were 2.60%, 47.58% and 46.84% and 0, respectively; AI was (3.31 ± 0.33)%, (8.26 ± 1.21)%, (20.99 ± 1.84)% and (19.34 ± 2.19)%, respectively; MVD was (8.64 ± 2.81), (16.77 ± 1.39), (5.32 ± 4.26) and (5.86 ± 2.27), respectively; VEGF expression was (45.77 ± 4.79), (41.34 ± 5.41), (29.71 ± 8.92) and (28.24 ± 8.55), respectively. The incidences of peritoneal metastasis also decreased significantly in 5-FU group(77.8%), d-limonene group (20.0%) and combined group (22.2%) compared with control group (100%) versus 62.5%, 30% and 22.2%) (P limonene group and combined group than that in control group (87.5% vs 55.5%, 20.0% and 22.2% respectively) (P limonene group and combined group was 25.0%, 22.2%, 0, 0, respectively and 12.5%, 11.1% 0, 0, with respect to the metastasis rate to other organs. CONCLUSION: d-limonene has antiangiogenic and proapoptotic effects on gastric cancer, thereby inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. Combination of d-limonene with cytotoxic agents may be more effective. PMID:15237454

  2. Boswellic acid suppresses growth and metastasis of human pancreatic tumors in an orthotopic nude mouse model through modulation of multiple targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungduck Park

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PaCa is one of the most lethal cancers, with an estimated 5-year survival of <5% even when patients are given the best treatment available. In addition, these treatments are often toxic and expensive, thus new agents which are safe, affordable and effective are urgently needed. We describe here the results of our study with acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA, an agent obtained from an Ayurvedic medicine, gum resin of Boswellia serrata. Whether AKBA has an activity against human PaCa, was examined in in vitro models and in an orthotopic nude mouse model of PaCa. We found that AKBA inhibited the proliferation of four different PaCa cell lines (AsPC-1, PANC-28, and MIA PaCa-2 with K-Ras and p53 mutations, and BxPC-3 with wild-type K-Ras and p53 mutation. These effects correlated with an inhibition of constitutively active NF-κB and suppression of NF-κB regulating gene expression. AKBA also induced apoptosis, and sensitized the cells to apoptotic effects of gemcitabine. In the orthotopic nude mouse model of PaCa, p.o. administration of AKBA alone (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the tumor growth; this activity was enhanced by gemcitabine. In addition, AKBA inhibited the metastasis of the PaCa to spleen, liver, and lungs. This correlated with decreases in Ki-67, a biomarker of proliferation, and CD31, a biomarker of microvessel density, in the tumor tissue. AKBA produced significant decreases in the expression of NF-κB regulating genes in the tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed AKBA downregulated the expression of COX-2, MMP-9, CXCR4, and VEGF in the tissues. Overall these results demonstrate that AKBA can suppress the growth and metastasis of human pancreatic tumors in an orthotopic nude mouse model that correlates with modulation of multiple targets.

  3. Residual hepatocellular carcinoma after oxaliplatin treatment has increased metastatic potential in a nude mouse model and is attenuated by Songyou Yin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Wei; Liu, Liang; Wang, Wen-Quan; Tang, Zhao-You; Ren, Zheng-Gang; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Bin-Bin; Li, Qi-Song; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The opposite effects of chemotherapy, which enhance the malignancy of treated cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are not well understood. We investigated this phenomenon and corresponding mechanisms to develop a novel approach for improving chemotherapy efficacy in HCC. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2 (with low metastatic potential) and MHCC97L (with moderate metastatic potential) were used for the in vitro study. An orthotopic nude mouse model of human HCC was developed using MHCC97L cells. We then assessed the metastatic potential of surviving tumor cells after in vitro and in vivo oxaliplatin treatment. The molecular changes in surviving tumor cells were evaluated by western blot, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry. The Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin (composed of five herbs) was investigated in vivo to explore its effect on the metastatic potential of oxaliplatin-treated cancer cells. MHCC97L and HepG2 cells surviving oxaliplatin treatment showed enhanced migration and invasion in vitro. Residual HCC after in vivo oxaliplatin treatment demonstrated significantly increased metastasis to the lung (10/12 vs. 3/12) when re-inoculated into the livers of new recipient nude mice. Molecular changes consistent with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were observed in oxaliplatin-treated tumor tissues and verified by in vitro experiments. The Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin (4.2 and 8.4 g/kg) attenuated EMT and inhibited the enhanced metastatic potential of residual HCC in nude mice (6/15 vs. 13/15 and 3/15 vs. 13/15, respectively). The surviving HCC after oxaliplatin treatment underwent EMT and demonstrated increased metastatic potential. Attenuation of EMT by Songyou Yin may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in HCC

  4. Radiolabeling of anti-human prostatic specific membrane antigen antibody with 99Tcm and its biodistribution in nude mice bearing human prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Shaohua; Shen Jiangfan; Tao Rong; Ji Xiaowen; Wang Yancheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the binding affinity of 99 Tc m labeled anti-human prostatic specific membrane antigen (PSMA) monoclonal antibody (McAb) J591 to prostate cancer cells and the biodistribution of 99 Tc m -J591 in nude mice bearing human prostate cancer. Methods: The McAb J591 was labeled with vTcm by improved Schwarz method and the labeled McAb was purified by Sephadex G-50. The binding affinity of J591 with prostate cancer cells was measured by Flow Cytometry. The nude mice bearing PSMA-positive C4-2 prostate carcinoma xenografts were served as experiment groups, mice with PSMA-negative pc3 tumors served as controls. The biodistribution of 99 Tc m -J591 were carried out in both model nude mice. Results: The radiolabeling efficiency of 99 Tc m -J591 was 78.9±6.2%, and radiochemical purity was more than 90% after purification. The 99 Tc m -J591 showed a good combination with PSMA-positive C4-2 cells and no combination with PSMA-negative PC3 cells in vitro. The biodistribution results showed that 99 Tcm-J591 was accumulated in tumor tissue during the 2-24 hours after injection in experiment groups, and no significant uptake in control group. The uptake of 99 Tcm-J591 in tumor tissue reached a maximum 15.91±5.16 % ID/g in experimental group at 12h post-injection. There was a significant difference compared with controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The monoclonal antibody J591 exhibits an excellent immuno-reactivity and tumor targeting property, and it may be used in diagnosis and target therapy of prostate cancer. (authors)

  5. [An experimental study on the Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell clone CPA-Yang1-BR with brain metastasis potency in nude mice and in vivo imaging research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bei; Cao, Jie; Shen, Jie; Zhao, Lanxiang; Liang, Sheng; Meng, Qinggang; Xie, Wenhui; Yang, Shunfang

    2013-08-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in men and women. It is also the most common cause of brain metastases. A brain metastasis model is difficult to be established because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the lack of optimal methods for detecting brain metastasis in nude mice. Thus, the establishment of a Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell line and its animal model with brain metastasis potency and in vivo research is of great significance. CPA-Yang1 cells were obtained from a patient with human lung adenocarcinoma by lentiviral vector-mediated transfection of green fluorescence protein. Intracardiac inoculation of the cells was performed in nude mice, and brain metastatic lesions were detected using micro ¹⁸F FDG-PET/CT scanners, small animal in vivo imaging system for fluorescence, radionuclide and X ray fused imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with sense body detection, and resection. The samples were divided into two parts for cell culture and histological diagnosis. The process was repeated in vivo and in vitro for four cycles to obtain a novel cell clone, CPA-Yang1-BR. A novel cell clone, CPA-Yang1-BR, was obtained with a brain metastatic rate of 50%. The use of MRI for the detection of brain metastases has obvious advantages. An experimental Chinese lung adenocarcinoma cell clone (CPA-Yang1-BR) and its animal model with brain metastasis potency in nude mice were established. MRI with sense body or micro MRI may be used as a sensitive, accurate, and noninvasive method to detect experimental brain metastases in intact live immunodeficient mice. The results of this study may serve as a technical platform for brain metastases from lung adenocarcinoma.

  6. Reversal of multidrug resistance by magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle copolymerizating daunorubicin and 5-bromotetrandrine in xenograft nude-mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Baoan

    2009-01-01

    Baoan Chen1,* Jian Cheng1,* Yanan Wu1, Feng Gao1, Wenlin Xu2, et al 1Department of Hematology;2Department of Hematology, The Affiliated People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, PR China *These authors have contributed equally to this workAbstract: In this paper we establish the xenograft leukemia model with stable multidrug resistance in nude mice and to investigate the reversal effect of 5-bromotetrandrine (5-BrTet) and magnetic nanoparticle of Fe3O4 (MNP-Fe3O4) c...

  7. Experimental study on 211At labelled monoclonal antibody 3H11 and its Fab fragment radioimmunotherapy for human gastric cancer xenografts in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jiannan; Liu Ning; Zhang Shuyuan; Zhang Shiyuan; Luo Deyuan; Zhou Maolun

    1996-01-01

    Experimental radioimmunotherapy investigation of α-emitting radionuclide 211 At labelled anti-gastric cancer monoclonal antibody 3H11 and its Fab fragment for nude mice carrying human gastric cancer xenografts was conducted. Three i.p. injections of 14.8 or 22.2 kBq/g mouse were given, once every 5 days. The results showed that the growth of tumor xenografts was inhibited efficiently. The most evident therapy effect was observed at 15 days after treatment, and the tumor inhibition rates were 65% and 72%, respectively. No radiation injury of important organs was found

  8. Preliminary study on guiding therapy of subcutaneous human hetero graft in nude mice by 211-At labelled monoclonal antibody against gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Lin; Wang Fangyuan

    1993-01-01

    In short time, 211 At labelled monoclonal antibody 3H 11 inhibited the growth of human gastric cancer grafted in nude mice effectively. The most evident inhibition was observed at the 9th day after treatment, and the tumor inhibition rates were 80%, 93%, 48% in the groups of intravenous injection, internal tumor injection (both 211 At-3H 11 5 μCi per animal), Na 211 At (5 μCi per animal) treatment respectively. On the 20th day, when animals were killed, the tumor inhibition rates were 66%, 81%, 6%, respectively. Inhibition treated with Na 211 At showed obviously lower than those at the 9th day

  9. Evaluation of Novel 64Cu-Labeled Theranostic Gadolinium-Based Nanoprobes in HepG2 Tumor-Bearing Nude Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengcheng; Cheng, Dengfeng; Huang, Tao; Banizs, Anna B.; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Guobing; Chen, Quan; Wang, Yuenan; He, Jiang; Shi, Hongcheng

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy of liver cancer is limited by low tolerance of the liver to radiation. Radiosensitizers can effectively reduce the required radiation dose. AGuIX nanoparticles are small, multifunctional gadolinium-based nanoparticles that can carry radioisotopes or fluorescent markers for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), fluorescence imaging, and even multimodality imaging. In addition, due to the high atomic number of gadolinium, it can also serve as a tumor radiation sensitizer. It is critical to define the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of these gadolinium-based nanoparticles to quantitate the magnitude and duration of their retention within the tumor microenvironment during radiotherapy. Therefore, in this study, we successfully labeled AGuIX with 64Cu through the convenient built-in chelator. The biodistribution studies indicated that the radiotracer 64Cu-AGuIX accumulates to high levels in the HepG2 xenograft of nude mice, suggesting that it would be a potential theranostic nanoprobe for image-guided radiotherapy in HCC. We also used a transmission electron microscope to confirm AGuIX uptake in the HepG2 cells. In radiation therapy studies, a decrease in 18F-FDG uptake was observed in the xenografts of the nude mice irradiated with AGuIX, which was injected 1 h before. These results provide proof-of-concept that AGuIX can be used as a theranostic radiosensitizer for PET imaging to guide radiotherapy for liver cancer.

  10. In vivo Brain Delivery of v-myc Overproduced Human Neural Stem Cells via the Intranasal Pathway: Tumor Characteristics in the Lung of a Nude Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Seong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to monitor the successful brain delivery of stem cells via the intranasal route and to observe the long-term consequence of the immortalized human neural stem cells in the lungs of a nude mouse model. Stably immortalized HB1.F3 human neural stem cells with firefly luciferase gene (F3-effluc were intranasally delivered to BALB/c nude mice. Bioluminescence images were serially acquired until 41 days in vivo and at 4 hours and 41 days ex vivo after intranasal delivery. Lungs were evaluated by histopathology. After intranasal delivery of F3-effluc cells, the intense in vivo signals were detected in the nasal area, migrated toward the brain areas at 4 hours (4 of 13, 30.8%, and gradually decreased for 2 days. The brain signals were confirmed by ex vivo imaging (2 of 4, 50%. In the mice with initial lung signals (4 of 9, 44.4%, the lung signals disappeared for 5 days but reappeared 2 weeks later. The intense lung signals were confirmed to originate from the tumors in the lungs formed by F3-effluc cells by ex vivo imaging and histopathology. We propose that intranasal delivery of immortalized stem cells should be monitored for their successful delivery to the brain and their tumorigenicity longitudinally.

  11. Application of hepatitis B core particles produced by human primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PLC/342) propagated in nude mice to the determination of anti-HBc by passive hemagglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Itoh, Y; Tsuda, F; Matsui, T; Tanaka, T; Miyamoto, H; Naitoh, S; Imai, M; Usuda, S; Nakamura, T

    1986-05-22

    Human primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PLC/342), carried by nude mice, produces hepatitis B core particles as well as hepatitis B surface antigen particles. Core particles purified form PLC/342 tumors displayed epitopes of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) but not epitopes of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) on their surface, unlike core particles prepared from Dane particles, derived from plasma of asymptomatic carriers, that expressed epitopes of both HBcAg and HBeAg. Core particles obtained from PLC/342 tumors were applied to the determination of antibody to HBcAg (anti-HBc) by passive hemagglutination. The assay detected anti-HBc not only in individuals with persistent infection with hepatitis B virus and in those who had recovered from transient infection, but also in patients with acute type B hepatitis, indicating that it can detect anti-HBc of either IgG or IgM class. A liberal availability of core particles from tumors carried by nude mice, taken together with an easy applicability of the method, would make the passive hemagglutination for anti-HBc a valuable tool in clinical and epidemiological studies, especially in places where sophisticated methods are not feasible.

  12. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Sanae [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ayata, Minoru, E-mail: maverick@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kaoru [Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Division of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Makoto [Department of Virology 3, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Shintaku, Haruo [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ogura, Hisashi [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene.

  13. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Sanae; Ayata, Minoru; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shintaku, Haruo; Ogura, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene

  14. Anti-tumor effect of 131I labeled 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin on human non-small cell lung cancer in xenograft-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jin; Liu Lu; Zhu Xiaoli; Chen Daozhen; Gao Wen; Jiang Xinyu; Huang Ying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) has been developed as a novel heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor being used in clinical trials. HSP90 is known as a molecular target for tumor therapy. The goal of this study was to investigate the inhibitive effects of 131 I labeled 17-AAG on human non-small cell lung cancer in xenograft-bearing nude mice. Methods: 17-AAG was labeled with 131 I. Twenty-eight BALB/c nude mice bearing H460 human non-small cell lung carcinoma tumor xenograft were randomly divided into seven groups, one control group and six treatment groups according to the route of administration (via tail vein injection or intratumoral injection) and the doses of injected radio-activity (5.5 MBq x 2 with 8 d interval, 11.0 MBq and 5.5 MBq). Two additional mice were treated with intratumoral injection of Na 131 I solution that was served as seintigraphic imaging controls. In each group two mice underwent scintigraphy at 2 h, 6 h, 24 h, 2 d, 3 d, 7 d, 10 d and 16 d. After 16 d the tumor inhibition rate was calculated. Then all of the mice were sacrificed and the tumor tissues were obtained for histological examination and immunohistochemical assay. Results: Persistent accumulation of 131 I-17-AAG in the tumors was seen on seintigraphic images. Tumor inhibiting effect was demonstrated in all treatment groups with varying degrees. The highest tumor inhibition rate (86.77 ± 4.57)% was shown in the group with interval intratumoral injection (5.5 MBq x 2). There was no significant difference of tumor inhibition rates between 5.5 MBq x 2 group (via tail vein injection) and 11.0 MBq group( via tail vein injection, q=1.67, P>0.05). While among the other treatment groups, there was significant difference in tumor inhibition rates( q=3.16-24.34, all P 131 I-17-AAG may effectively inhibit the tumor growth and expression of HSP90α antigen expression in non-small cell lung cancer bearing nude mice. The more prominent anti-tumor effect may be

  15. The effect of combining recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha with local radiation on tumor control probability of a human glioblastoma multiforme xenograft in nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Peigen; Allam, Ayman; Perez, Luis A; Taghian, Alphonse; Freeman, Jill; Suit, Herman D

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: To evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rHuTNF-{alpha}) on a human glioblastoma multiforme (U87) xenograft in nude mice, and to study the effect of combining rHuTNF-{alpha} with local radiation on the tumor control probability of this tumor model. Methods and Materials: U87 xenograft was transplanted SC into the right hindleg of NCr/Sed nude mice (7-8 weeks old, male). When tumors reached a volume of about 110 mm{sup 3}, mice were randomly assigned to treatment: rHuTNF-{alpha} alone compared with normal saline control; or local radiation plus rHuTNF-{alpha} vs. local radiation plus normal saline. Parameters of growth delay, volume doubling time, percentage of necrosis, and cell loss factor were used to assess the antitumor effects of rHuTNF-{alpha} on this tumor. The TCD{sub 50} (tumor control dose 50%) was used as an endpoint to determine the effect of combining rHuTNF-{alpha} with local radiation. Results: Tumor growth in mice treated with a dose of 150 {mu}g/kg body weight rHuTNF-{alpha}, IP injection daily for 7 consecutive days, was delayed about 8 days compared to that in controls. Tumors in the treatment group had a significantly longer volume doubling time, and were smaller in volume and more necrotic than matched tumors in control group. rHuTNF-{alpha} also induced a 2.3 times increase of cell loss factor. The administration of the above-mentioned dose of rHuTNF-{alpha} starting 24 h after single doses of localized irradiation under hypoxic condition, resulted in a significant reduction in TCD{sub 50} from the control value of 60.9 Gy to 50.5 Gy (p < 0.01). Conclusion: rHuTNF-{alpha} exhibits an antitumor effect against U87 xenograft in nude mice, as evidenced by an increased delay in tumor growth as well as cell loss factor. Also, there was an augmentation of tumor curability when given in combination with radiotherapy, resulting in a significantly lower TCD{sub 50} value in the treatment vs. the

  16. Preparation and evaluation of 99Tcm-(HYNIC-[Lys3] -bombesin) (tricine) (TPPTS) for imaging the Balb/c nude mice bearing human pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wei; Wang Feng; Li Shaohua; Shao Guoqiang; Hou Yanjie; Wang Zizheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize 99 Tc m - (hydrazinonictinamide- [Lys 3 ] -bombesin) (tricine)(trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3 - trisulfonate) ((HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-BBS) (tricine) (TPPTS)) and evaluate its biodistribution and binding capability with tumor tissue in Balb/c nude mice bearing human pancreatic cancer xenografts. Methods: HYNIC was conjugated to the [Lys 3 ] -BBS at pH=9.0 with SnCl 2 as reducing agent and both tricine and TPPTS as coligands for 99 Tc m -labeling. 99 Tc m -HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-BBS)(tricine) (TPPTS) was purified by Sep-Pak C18 cartridge and was analysed by HPLC. The radiochemical purity and radiolabeling yield were measured. The stability of 99 Tc m -(HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-BBS) (tricine)(TPPTS) in serum, biodistribution (% ID/g) in the normal mice and imaging of the Balb/c nude mice bearing human pancreatic cancer xenografts in vivo were studied. Results: The radiolabeling yield was (90±2)% and the radiochemical purity was over 95%. The radiochemical purity after 4 h in serum was over 85%. The distribution in normal mice showed rapid clearance from blood (the uptake was (0.07±0.01) %ID/g at 2 h postinjection). 99 Tc m -(HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-BBS) (tricine) (TPPTS) was excreted mainly via the kidney with little radioactivity accumulation in the liver and gastrointestinal tract (the uptake of liver, stomach, intestine was (0.27±0.03), (0.06±0.03), (0.04±0.00) %ID/g at 2 h postinjection). Marked uptake of radioactivity was found in tumor tissue of the Balb/c nude mice bearing human pancreatic cancer with maximum T/NT ratio of 3.71±0.57 at 2 h postinjection. Conclusions: 99 Tc m -(HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-BBS)(tricine) (TPPTS) can be easily prepared with high radiolabeling yield and radiochemical purity. The stability in serum and good biodistribution characteristics make it useful for the diagnosis of human pancreatic cancer with over-expression of the gastric-releasing peptide(GRP) receptor. (authors)

  17. Glomerular filtration rate after alpha-radioimmunotherapy with 211At-MX35-F(ab')2: a long-term study of renal function in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Back, T.; Haraldsson, B.; Hultborn, R

    2009-01-01

    of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The renal toxicity was evaluated at levels close to the dose limit for the bone marrow and well within the range for therapeutic efficacy on tumors. Astatinated MX35-F(ab')(2) monoclonal antibodies were administered intravenously to nude mice. Both non-tumor-bearing animals...... manifested late. Examination of the kidney sections showed histologic changes that were overall subdued. Following alpha-RIT with (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2) at levels close to the dose limit of severe myelotoxicity, the effects found on renal function were relatively small, with only minor to moderate reductions...... in GFR. These results suggest that a mean absorbed dose to the kidneys of approximately 10 Gy is acceptable, and that the kidneys would not be the primary dose-limiting organ in systemic alpha-RIT when using (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2) Udgivelsesdato: 2009/12...

  18. In vitro culture and characterization of human lung cancer circulating tumor cells isolated by size exclusion from an orthotopic nude-mouse model expressing fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolostova, Katarina; Zhang, Yong; Hoffman, Robert M; Bobek, Vladimir

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate an animal model and recently introduced size-based exclusion method for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolation. The methodology enables subsequent in vitro CTC-culture and characterization. Human lung cancer cell line H460, expressing red fluorescent protein (H460-RFP), was orthotopically implanted in nude mice. CTCs were isolated by a size-based filtration method and successfully cultured in vitro on the separating membrane (MetaCell®), analyzed by means of time-lapse imaging. The cultured CTCs were heterogeneous in size and morphology even though they originated from a single tumor. The outer CTC-membranes were blebbing in general. Abnormal mitosis resulting in three daughter cells was frequently observed. The expression of RFP ensured that the CTCs originated from lung tumor. These readily isolatable, identifiable and cultivable CTCs can be used to characterize individual patient cancers and for screening of more effective treatment.

  19. Effectiveness of anticancer drugs determined in nude mice inoculated with [125I]5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-prelabeled human melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockshin, A.; Giovanella, B.C.; Vardeman, D.M.; Mendoza, J.T.; Quian, C.; Kozielski, T.; Stehlin, J.S. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Anticancer drugs were tested on NIH-2 nude mice inoculated ip with BRO human melanoma cells, which are rapidly lethal for these hosts. Criteria for drug activity were a) increased host survival and b) an increased rate of radioactivity loss from mice bearing BRO cells prelabeled with [ 125 I]5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. Diphtheria toxin, which is selectively toxic to human cells compared to mouse cells, prolonged host survival and accelerated 125 I elimination in a dose-dependent manner. Drugs that increased the rate of 125 I loss compared to the rate of untreated mice also prolonged the lives of treated mice. With one exception, drugs that did not accelerate 125 I elimination had little or no effect on the length of survival

  20. Cooperation of Ad-hING4 and 125I seed in tumor-suppression on human pancreatic cancer xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Hongyan; Fa Yihua; Su Chenghai; Yang Jicheng; Sheng Weihua; Xie Yufeng

    2009-01-01

    This work is to investigate the combined tumor-suppression effect of Adenovirus-mediated human ING4 (Ad-hING4) and 125 I seed on human pancreatic cancer xenograft and the possible mechanisms. Ad-hING4 recombinant adenovirus vector was transected into QBI-293A cells and high titre adenovirus was obtained. Subcutaneous tumor models were established with 25 nude mice with human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. They were randomly divided into 5 groups: PBS control group, Ad carrier group, 125 I seed brachytherapy group, Ad-hING4 gene treatment group, combined 125 I seed and Ad-hING4 group. The tumor volumes were measured every 5 days after treatment, and were sacrificed on the 20th day. The tumors were measured and weighed to determine the ratio of tumor-suppression and Jin-Shi q value. Morphological changes of tumor cells,the tissue injury and apoptotic index AI were examined on pathological sections. MVD, Survivin and Caspase3 were tested in immunohistochemistry. The results show that the tumor-suppressive ratio of the 125 I seed group, Ad-hING4 group, combined treatment group were,respectively, 34.19%(P 0.05). It can be concluded that 125 I seed and Ad-hING4 inhibit the growth of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer on nude mice significantly. These indicate a synergy of the combined treatments in tumor-suppression and Ad-hING4 is a promising novel radiosensitizer. The mechanisms of tumor-suppressive may be multi-pathways such as down-regulation the expression of Survivin and up-regulation the expression of Caspase3 to induce apoptosis and inhibit angiogenesis. (authors)

  1. Cetuximab improves AZD6244 antitumor activity in colorectal cancer HT29 cells in vitro and in nude mice by attenuating HER3/Akt pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Xiao, He; Jin, Feng; Li, Mengxia; Luo, Jia; Wang, Ge

    2018-07-01

    The present study investigated the molecular mechanism by which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor cetuximab enhances the antitumor activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor AZD6244 in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. HT29 cells were treated with AZD6244 plus cetuximab and then subjected to the following assays: Cell Counting kit-8, BrdU-incorporation, flow cytometric cell cycle distribution and apoptosis analysis, western blot analysis, and nude mouse xenografts. The combination of AZD6244 and cetuximab significantly reduced HT29 cell viability and proliferation compared with AZD6244 alone. The combination treatment reduced the IC 50 value from 108.12±10.05 to 28.45±1.92 nM. AZD6244 and cetuximab also induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and reduced S phase (88.53% vs. 93.39%, P=0.080; 8.73% vs. 4.24%, P=0.082, respectively). Combination of AZD6244 with cetuximab significantly induced tumor cells apoptosis (14.61% vs. 8.99%, P=0.046). Inhibition of EGFR activity using cetuximab partially abrogated the feedback-activation of phosphorylated receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erB-3 (p-HER3) and p-AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT), as well as prevented reactivation of p-extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) conferred by AZD6244 treatment. Combination of AZD6244 and cetuximab also inhibited HT29 cell xenograft growth in nude mice and suppressed HER3 and p-AKT levels in xenografts. The EGFR inhibitor cetuximab enhanced the antitumor activity of the MEK inhibitor AZD6244 in colorectal cells in vitro and in vivo . Co-inhibition of MEK and EGFR may be a promising treatment strategy in colorectal cancers.

  2. The use of 5-fluorouracil-loaded nanobubbles combined with low-frequency ultrasound to treat hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaoya; Li, Hongyang; He, Chengjun; Jing, Zhouhong; Liu, Changan; Xie, Juan; Ma, Wenwen; Deng, Huisheng

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-loaded nanobubbles irradiated with low-intensity, low-frequency ultrasound in nude mice with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A transplanted tumor model of HCC in nude mice was established in 40 mice, which were then randomly divided equally into four groups: group A (saline), group B (5-FU-loaded nanobubbles), group C (5-FU-loaded nanobubbles with non-low-frequency ultrasound), and group D (5-FU-loaded nanobubbles with low-frequency ultrasound). The tumor size in each mouse was observed via ultrasound before and after the treatments. Inhibition of the tumor growth in each group was compared, and survival curves were generated. Tumor tissues were removed to determine the apoptotic index using the TUNEL method and quantitative analysis. Tumor tissues with CD34-positive microvessels were observed by immunohistochemistry, and the tumor microvessel densities were calculated. The growth rate of the tumor volumes in group D was significantly slower than that in the other groups, while the tumor inhibition rates and apoptotic index in group D were significantly higher than those of the other groups. The number of microvessels staining positive for CD34 was decreased in group D. Therefore, group D presented the most significant inhibitory effects. Therefore, 5-FU-loaded nanobubbles subjected to irradiation with low-frequency ultrasound could further improve drug targeting and effectively inhibit the growth of transplanted tumors, which is expected to become an ideal drug carrier and targeted drug delivery system for the treatment of HCC in the future.

  3. The effect of combining recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha with local radiation on tumor control probability of a human glioblastoma multiforme xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Peigen; Allam, Ayman; Perez, Luis A.; Taghian, Alphonse; Freeman, Jill; Suit, Herman D.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rHuTNF-α) on a human glioblastoma multiforme (U87) xenograft in nude mice, and to study the effect of combining rHuTNF-α with local radiation on the tumor control probability of this tumor model. Methods and Materials: U87 xenograft was transplanted SC into the right hindleg of NCr/Sed nude mice (7-8 weeks old, male). When tumors reached a volume of about 110 mm 3 , mice were randomly assigned to treatment: rHuTNF-α alone compared with normal saline control; or local radiation plus rHuTNF-α vs. local radiation plus normal saline. Parameters of growth delay, volume doubling time, percentage of necrosis, and cell loss factor were used to assess the antitumor effects of rHuTNF-α on this tumor. The TCD 50 (tumor control dose 50%) was used as an endpoint to determine the effect of combining rHuTNF-α with local radiation. Results: Tumor growth in mice treated with a dose of 150 μg/kg body weight rHuTNF-α, IP injection daily for 7 consecutive days, was delayed about 8 days compared to that in controls. Tumors in the treatment group had a significantly longer volume doubling time, and were smaller in volume and more necrotic than matched tumors in control group. rHuTNF-α also induced a 2.3 times increase of cell loss factor. The administration of the above-mentioned dose of rHuTNF-α starting 24 h after single doses of localized irradiation under hypoxic condition, resulted in a significant reduction in TCD 50 from the control value of 60.9 Gy to 50.5 Gy (p 50 value in the treatment vs. the control groups

  4. The effect of the overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on the tumor control probability of a human soft tissue sarcoma xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allam, Ayman; Perez, Luis A.; Huang, Peigen; Taghian, Alphonse; Azinovic, Ignacio; Freeman, Jill; Duffy, Michael; Efird, Jimmy; Suit, Herman D.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of the overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on the tumor control probability (TCP) of a human soft tissue sarcoma xenograft growing in nude mice, as well as to compare the pretreatment potential doubling time (T pot ) of this tumor to the effective doubling time (T eff ) derived from three different schedules of irradiation using the same total number of fractions with different overall treatment times. Methods and Materials: The TCP was assessed using the TCD 50 value (the 50% tumor control dose) as an end point. A total of 240 male nude mice, 7-8 weeks old were used in three experimental groups that received the same total number of fractions (30 fractions) with different overall treatment times. In group 1, the animals received three equal fractions/day for 10 consecutive days, in group 2 they received two equal fractions/day for 15 consecutive days, and in group 3 one fraction/day for 30 consecutive days. All irradiations were given under normal blood flow conditions to air breathing animals. The mean tumor diameter at the start of irradiation was 7-8 mm. The mean interfraction intervals were from 8-24 h. The T pot was measured using Iododeoxyuridine (IudR) labeling and flow cytometry and was compared to T eff . Results: The TCD 50 values of the three different treatment schedules were 58.8 Gy, 63.2 Gy, and 75.6 Gy for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This difference in TCD 50 values was significant (p pot (2.4 days) was longer than the calculated T eff in groups 2 and 3 (1.35 days). Conclusion: Our data show a significant loss in TCP with prolongation of the overall treatment time. This is most probably due to an accelerated repopulation of tumor clonogens. The pretreatment T pot of this tumor model does not reflect the actual doubling of the clonogens in a protracted regimen

  5. Nanotechnology combined therapy: tyrosine kinase-bound gold nanorod and laser thermal ablation produce a synergistic higher treatment response of renal cell carcinoma in animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunologically naïve nude mice (Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu) were injected bilaterally on the flanks (n=36) with 2.5 x 106 cells of a human metastatic renal cell carcinoma cell line (RCC 786-O). Subcutaneous xenograft tumors developed 1 cm palpable nodules. AuNR encapsulated in Human Serum Albumin (HSA) P...

  6. Preliminary study of MR diffusion weighted imaging in nude mice models of hepatic Bel7402 tumors after adenovirus-mediated cytosine diaminase-thymidine kinase gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xinqing; Chen Liang; Wu Hongzhen; Huang Jingjun; Wei Xinhua; Mo Lei; Yang Ruimeng; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of DWI in nude mice models of hepatic Bel7402 tumors after treatment with adenovirus-mediated cytosine diaminase-thymidine kinase (Ad. CD-TK) double suicide gene therapy, and then to identify whether DWI can be used for assessing curative effect of postoperative tumors. Methods: Thirty nude mice models of hepatic Bel7402 tumors were successfully created using cell suspension method, after the tumor grew to more than 1 cm in diameter, 20 tumor models were treated by intratumoral administration of Ad. CD-TK for 3 days plus intraperitonea (i.p.) treatment with 5-Fc and GCV for the duration of the study.Then they were randomly divided into three groups during 5-Fc and GCV treatment. The remaining 10 tumor models were used as controls. MR scanning were performed in 10 th day before and after tumor implantation in all models by using EPI-SE series and SENSE technology for treatment group. Tumor volumes and ADC values were calculated pretreatment and posttreatment. Cell apoptosis were determined by using TUNEL method. Analyze the change of ADC and apoptosis index (AI) in different times, t test was used for comparison the difference of AI and ADC values respectively. Results: After 10 days,the tumor volumes of the treatment groups and controls were respectively (724.16 ±57.45) mm 3 , (754.57 ± 66.84) mm 3 , with no significant difference (t=0.488, P >0.05). The ADC values of the treatment groups were (0.98 ±0.11) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s,the ones of the control groups were (0.68 ±0.04) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; AI of the treatment groups were (23.25 ±6.57)%, the ones of the control groups were (2.57 ± 0.58)%. There were difference in both groups (t=4.473, 5.874; P<0.01). Conclusion: DWI can be effectively to monitor the early pathological changes of hepatic Bel7402 tumors after Ad. CD-TK double suicide gene therapy, and provide experimental evidences for clinical application. (authors)

  7. The effect of the overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on the tumor control probability of a human soft tissue sarcoma xenograft in nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, Ayman; Perez, Luis A; Huang, Peigen; Taghian, Alphonse; Azinovic, Ignacio; Freeman, Jill; Duffy, Michael; Efird, Jimmy; Suit, Herman D

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: To study the impact of the overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on the tumor control probability (TCP) of a human soft tissue sarcoma xenograft growing in nude mice, as well as to compare the pretreatment potential doubling time (T{sub pot}) of this tumor to the effective doubling time (T{sub eff}) derived from three different schedules of irradiation using the same total number of fractions with different overall treatment times. Methods and Materials: The TCP was assessed using the TCD{sub 50} value (the 50% tumor control dose) as an end point. A total of 240 male nude mice, 7-8 weeks old were used in three experimental groups that received the same total number of fractions (30 fractions) with different overall treatment times. In group 1, the animals received three equal fractions/day for 10 consecutive days, in group 2 they received two equal fractions/day for 15 consecutive days, and in group 3 one fraction/day for 30 consecutive days. All irradiations were given under normal blood flow conditions to air breathing animals. The mean tumor diameter at the start of irradiation was 7-8 mm. The mean interfraction intervals were from 8-24 h. The T{sub pot} was measured using Iododeoxyuridine (IudR) labeling and flow cytometry and was compared to T{sub eff}. Results: The TCD{sub 50} values of the three different treatment schedules were 58.8 Gy, 63.2 Gy, and 75.6 Gy for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This difference in TCD{sub 50} values was significant (p < 0.05) between groups 1 and 2 (30 fractions/10 days and 30 fractions/15 days) vs. group 3 (30 fractions/30 days). The loss in TCP due to the prolongation of the overall treatment time from 10 days to 30 days was found to be 1.35-1.4 Gy/day. The pretreatment T{sub pot} (2.4 days) was longer than the calculated T{sub eff} in groups 2 and 3 (1.35 days). Conclusion: Our data show a significant loss in TCP with prolongation of the overall treatment time. This is most probably due to an

  8. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles mediated 131I-hVEGF siRNA inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma tumor growth in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing; Zhu, Shu; Tong, Liangqian; Li, Jiansha; Chen, Fei; Han, Yunfeng; Zhao, Ming; Xiong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver tumor and is the most difficult human malignancy to treat. In this study, we sought to develop an integrative approach in which real-time tumor monitoring, gene therapy, and internal radiotherapy can be performed simultaneously. This was achieved through targeting HCC with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) carrying small interfering RNA with radiolabled iodine 131 ( 131 I) against the human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF). hVEGF siRNA was labeled with 131 I by the Bolton-Hunter method and conjugated to SilenceMag, a type of SPIOs. 131 I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag was then subcutaneously injected into nude mice with HCC tumors exposed to an external magnetic field (EMF). The biodistribution and cytotoxicity of 131 I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag was assessed by SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) studies and blood kinetics analysis. The body weight and tumor size of nude mice bearing HCC were measured daily for the 4-week duration of the experiment. 131 I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag was successfully labeled; with a satisfactory radiochemical purity (>80%) and biological activity in vitro. External application of an EMF successfully attracted and retained more 131 I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag in HCC tumors as shown by SPECT, MRI and biodistribution studies. The tumors treated with 131 I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag grew nearly 50% slower in the presence of EMF than those without EMF and the control. Immunohistochemical assay confirmed that the tumor targeted by 131 I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag guided by an EMF had a lower VEGF protein level compared to that without EMF exposure and the control. EMF-guided 131 I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag exhibited an antitumor effect. The synergic therapy of 131 I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag might be a promising future treatment option against HCC with the dual functional properties of tumor therapy and imaging

  9. Reversal of multidrug resistance with KR-30035: evaluated with biodistribution of Tc-99m MIBI in nude mice bearing human tumor xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Kyun; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Byung Ho

    2001-01-01

    KR-30035 (KR), a new MDR reversing agent, has been found to produce a similar degree of increased Tc-99m MIBI uptake in cultured tumor cells over-expressing mdr1 mRNA compared to verapamil (VP), with less cardiovascular effects. We assessed the MDR-reversing ability of KR in vivo, and effects of various doses of KR on MIBI uptake in nude mice bearing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) positive (+) and P-gp negative (-) human tumor xenografts. P-gp (+) HCT15/CLO2 colorectal and P-gp (-) A549 non-small cell cancer cells were inoculated in each flank of 120 nude mice (20 mice x 6 groups). Group 1 (Gr1) mice received 10mg/kg Kr i.p. 3 times (x3); Gr2, 10mg/kg VP i.p. x3; Gr3, 10mg/kg KR i.p. x2 + 25mg/kg KR i.p. x1; Gr4, 10mg/kg KR i.p. x 2 + 50mg/kg i.p. x1; Gr5, 10mg/kg Kr i.p. x2 + 25mg/kg KR i.v. x1, GrC, controls. The mice were then injected with Tc-99m MIBI and sacrificed after 10 min, 30 min, 90 min and 240 min. Tumor uptake of MIBI (TU) in each group was compared. Tu in P-gp (+) and (-)tumors were both higher in Gr1 than Gr2. Washout rate between the 10 min and 4 hours was lower in Gr5 of P-gp (+) cell (0.93) than the control. Percentage increases in Tu were higher in P-gp (+) than P-gp (-) tumors with all KR doses. Pgp (+) TU were highest at 10 min (173% of GrC) and persisted up to 240 min (144%) in Gr3. Larger doses of KR resulted in a lesser degree of increase in P-gp (+) TU at 10 min (130% in Gr4 and 117% in Gr5) and 30 min (178%, 129%), but TU increased by time up to 240 min (177%, 196%). Heart and lung uptakes were markedly increased in Gr4 and Gr5 at 10 and 3C min, likely due to cardiovascular effects. No mice died. These data further suggest that KR that has significantly lower cardiovascular toxicity than verapamil can be used as an active inhibitor of MDR. Even a relatively low dose of KR significantly increased Tc-99m MIBI uptake in P-gp (+) tumors in vivo

  10. Migration of iron-labeled KHYG-1 natural killer cells to subcutaneous tumors in nude mice, as detected by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christiane L; McFadden, Catherine; Chen, Yuhua; Foster, Paula J

    2012-07-01

    A novel cell line of cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells, KHYG-1, was examined in vivo for immunotherapy against prostate cancer. The feasibility of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tracking to monitor the fate of injected NK cells following intravenous (i.v.), intraperitoneal (i.p.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration was assessed. PC-3M human prostate cancer cells were injected s.c. into the flank of nude mice (day 0). KHYG-1 NK cells were labeled with an iron oxide contrast agent and injected s.c., i.v. or i.p. on day 8. Mice were imaged by MRI on days 7, 9 and 12. Tumor sections were examined with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistologic staining for NK cells. NK cells were detected in the tumors by histology after all three administration routes. NK cells and fluorescence from the iron label were co-localized. Signal loss was seen in the areas around the tumors and between the tumor lobes in the s.c. group. We are the first to label this cell line of NK cells with an iron oxide contrast agent. Accumulation of NK cells was visualized by MRI after s.c. injection but not after i.v. and i.p. injection.

  11. The experimental study on the radioimmunotherapy of the hepatoma in nude mice model with intratumoral injection of 131I-human anti-HBsAg Fab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Rongcheng; Wu Guichen; Han Huanxing; You Changxuan; Ding Xuemei; Li Aimin; Wang Chuanbin; Zhang Mingjiang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapeutic efficacy of radioimmunotherapy of 131 I-human anti-HBsAg Fab via different routes of administration. Methods: The human hepatoma bearing nude mice we reinjected with 131 I-human anti-HBsAg Fab intra-tumor (IT) and intra-peritoneum (IP). Biodistribution was measured on the 5th day. The tumor growth inhibition rate was determined by measurement of tumor volume. Results: In the IT-treated mice, tumor uptake of 131 I-human anti-HBsAg Fab was four-fold greater than in the IP-treated mice, and normal organ uptake was half of that in the IP-treated mice. At the 3rd week after the infusion, the tumor growth inhibition rate in IT-treated mice was higher than that in the IP-treated mice. Conclusions: Intratumoral administration of 131 I-human anti-HBsAg Fab makes high level of radioactivity retained in tumor with significantly lower radioactivity retained in normal tissues, and provides a more effective regional therapy

  12. Comparison of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated with visible or near-infrared fluorescent dyes for imaging pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a set of visible and near-infrared dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific chimeric antibody for high-resolution tumor imaging in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer was orthotopically implanted into pancreata of nude mice. Mice received a single intravenous injection of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated to one of the following fluorophores: 488-nm group (Alexa Fluor 488 or DyLight 488); 550-nm group (Alexa Fluor 555 or DyLight 550); 650-nm group (Alexa Fluor 660 or DyLight 650), or the 750-nm group (Alexa Fluor 750 or DyLight 755). After 24 h, the Olympus OV100 small-animal imaging system was used for noninvasive and intravital fluorescence imaging of mice. Dyes were compared with respect to depth of imaging, resolution, tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), photobleaching, and hemoglobin quenching. The longer wavelength dyes had increased depth of penetration and ability to detect the smallest tumor deposits and provided the highest TBRs, resistance to hemoglobin quenching, and specificity. The shorter wavelength dyes were more photostable. This study showed unique advantages of each dye for specific cancer imaging in a clinically relevant orthotopic model.

  13. Fluorescently labeled chimeric anti-CEA antibody improves detection and resection of human colon cancer in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metildi, Cristina A; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A; Talamini, Mark A; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new fluorescently labeled chimeric anti-CEA antibody for improved detection and resection of colon cancer. Frozen tumor and normal human tissue samples were stained with chimeric and mouse antibody-fluorophore conjugates for comparison. Mice with patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) of colon cancer underwent fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) or bright-light surgery (BLS) 24 hr after tail vein injection of fluorophore-conjugated chimeric anti-CEA antibody. Resection completeness was assessed using postoperative images. Mice were followed for 6 months for recurrence. The fluorophore conjugation efficiency (dye/mole ratio) improved from 3-4 to >5.5 with the chimeric CEA antibody compared to mouse anti-CEA antibody. CEA-expressing tumors labeled with chimeric CEA antibody provided a brighter fluorescence signal on frozen human tumor tissues (P = 0.046) and demonstrated consistently lower fluorescence signals in normal human tissues compared to mouse antibody. Chimeric CEA antibody accurately labeled PDOX colon cancer in nude mice, enabling improved detection of tumor margins for more effective FGS. The R0 resection rate increased from 86% to 96% with FGS compared to BLS. Improved conjugating efficiency and labeling with chimeric fluorophore-conjugated antibody resulted in better detection and resection of human colon cancer in an orthotopic mouse model. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Comparative study of intact A7 MoAc and F(ab')2 fragments for radioimmunoimaging of human colon cancer in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shuji; Suzuki, Naomi; Shimura, Noriko; Kubodera, Akiko; Kubota, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Toshio; Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru

    1993-01-01

    Differences of pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging ability between intact monoclonal antibody A7 (A7 MoAb) and F(ab) 2 fragments were studied in human colon cancer (LS-174T)-bearing nude mice. The authors examined the yield and the immunoreactivity of F(ab) 2 fragments after treatment with ficin as a function of time. The yield of F(ab) 2 fragments reached about 50% after ficin treatment for 8 h, and the F(ab) 2 retained about 80% of the immunoreactivity of the corresponding MoAb. Longer digestion with ficin produced smaller fragments (less than 92 kDa) with a lower yield and most of the immunoreactivity was lost. In pharmacokinetics studies, the F(ab') 2 was preferentially taken up by the tumor, cleared more rapidly from the blood circulation and seemed to have less non-specific tissue binding than intact A7 MoAb. The tumor image obtained at an early time using 131 I-F(ab') 2 was much superior in quality to that with intact 131 I-A7 MoAb. The use of F(ab') 2 fragments may be effective for tumor diagnosis and therapy. (author)

  15. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole D. Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg; and a fast T2W* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2W* signal intensity under carbogen (T+ was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2W* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  16. Early effects of combretastatin A4 phosphate assessed by anatomic and carbogen-based functional magnetic resonance imaging on rat bladder tumors implanted in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole D; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  17. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fa Hsieh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments: Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol (mPEG and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε‑caprolactone (PCL; which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG‑COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14 of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  18. Pigment epithelium derived factor inhibits the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Sun

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the formation and development of endometriosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF is a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated a reduction of PEDF in the peritoneal fluid, serum and endometriotic lesions from women with endometriosis compared with women without endometriosis. Here, we aim to investigate the inhibitory effect of PEDF on human endometriotic cells in vivo and in vitro. We found that PEDF markedly inhibited the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro by up-regulating PEDF expression and down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. Moreover, apoptotic index was significantly increased in endometriotic lesions in vivo and endometriotic stromal cells in vitro when treated with PEDF. In mice treated with PEDF, decreased microvessel density labeled by Von Willebrand factor but not by α-Smooth Muscle Actin was observed in endometriotic lesions. And it showed no increase in PEDF expression of the ovary and uterus tissues. These findings suggest that PEDF gene therapy may be a new treatment for endometriosis.

  19. ABCG2-overexpressing S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice keep original biochemistry and cell biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Liang, Yong-Ju; Wu, Xing-Ping; Su, Xiao-Dong; Fu, Li-Wu

    2012-03-01

    S1-M1-80 cells, derived from human colon carcinoma S1 cells, are mitoxantrone-selected ABCG2-overexpressing cells and are widely used in in vitro studies of multidrug resistance(MDR). In this study, S1-M1-80 cell xenografts were established to investigate whether the MDR phenotype and cell biological properties were maintained in vivo. Our results showed that the proliferation, cell cycle, and ABCG2 expression level in S1-M1-80 cells were similar to those in cells isolated from S1-M1-80 cell xenografts (named xS1-M1-80 cells). Consistently, xS1-M1-80 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan, but remained sensitive to the non-ABCG2 substrate cisplatin. Furthermore, the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143 potently sensitized xS1-M1-80 cells to mitoxantrone and topotecan. These results suggest that S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice retain their original cytological characteristics at 9 weeks. Thus, this model could serve as a good system for further investigation of ABCG2-mediated MDR.

  20. Regression of established renal cell carcinoma in nude mice using lentivirus-transduced human T cells expressing a human anti-CAIX chimeric antigen receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Shuk-Yee Lo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a tumor-associated antigen and marker of hypoxia that is overexpressed on > 90% of clear-cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC but not on neighboring normal kidney tissue. Here, we report on the construction of two chimeric antigen receptors (CARs that utilize a carbonic anhydrase (CA domain mapped, human single chain antibody (scFv G36 as a targeting moiety but differ in their capacity to provide costimulatory signaling for optimal T cell proliferation and tumor cell killing. The resulting anti-CAIX CARs were expressed on human primary T cells via lentivirus transduction. CAR-transduced T cells (CART cells expressing second-generation G36-CD28-TCRζ exhibited more potent in vitro antitumor effects on CAIX+ RCC cells than first-generation G36-CD8-TCRζ including cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, proliferation, and clonal expansion. Adoptive G36-CD28-TCRζ CART cell therapy combined with high-dose interleukin (IL-2 injection also lead to superior regression of established RCC in nude mice with evidence of tumor cell apoptosis and tissue necrosis. These results suggest that the fully human G36-CD28-TCRζ CARs should provide substantial improvements over first-generation mouse anti-CAIX CARs in clinical use through reduced human anti-mouse antibody responses against the targeting scFv and administration of lower doses of T cells during CART cell therapy of CAIX+ RCC.

  1. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Industry, 12 Nguyen Van Bao St, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jim-Ray [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Jwo, Shyh-Chuan [Division of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa, E-mail: mfhsieh@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-28

    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG-COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  2. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van; Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun; Chen, Jim-Ray; Jwo, Shyh-Chuan; Hsieh, Ming-Fa

    2010-01-01

    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG-COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX

  3. Topical administration of Tetrasodium-Mesotetraphenyl-Porphinesulfonate (TPPS): correlations between drug penetration and depth of necrosis in skin of nude mice following red light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesini, R.; Melloni, E.; Fava, G.

    1987-01-01

    The main side effect in photodynamic therapy is photosensitization of the patient's skin following systemic administration of the photosensitizing agent. In the case of superficial lesions, this problem can be avoided by topically applying the drug: in this way a local treatment can be performed. The photosensitizing properties of a 2% solution of TPPS (Tetrasodium-Tetraphenylpophinesulfonate) in a vehicle containing a penetration enhancer, Azone, on skin of nude mice has been tested. An aliquot of 0.1 ml/cm 2 of the solution was painted on the skin overlying an s.c. implanted NMU-1 tumor. Subsequently, animals were sacrificed at different times after applications. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that TPPS penetration depth was related to time elapsed after application and to painting modalities. Solution penetration was enhanced by wiping with ether immediately before painting. Irradiation at 80 mW/cm 2 for 20 min with a dye laser emitting at 640 nm, 4 h after TPPS applications, produced necrosis of the upper skin layers, up to 0.2 mm in depth. These findings suggest that topical TPPS administration, followed by laser irradiation, may be a suitable treatment modality for skin lesions involving epithelial layers, even though several aspects of this methodology need further investigation

  4. 177Lu-DOTA-HH1, a novel anti-CD37 radio-immunoconjugate: a study of toxicity in nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada H V Repetto-Llamazares

    Full Text Available CD37 is an internalizing B-cell antigen expressed on Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells (CLL. The anti-CD37 monoclonal antibody HH1 was conjugated to the bifunctional chelator p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and labelled with the beta-particle emitting radionuclide 177Lu creating the radio-immunoconjugate (RIC 177Lu-DOTA-HH1 (177Lu-HH1, trade name Betalutin. The present toxicity study was performed prior to initiation of clinical studies with 177Lu-HH1.Nude mice with or without tumor xenografts were treated with 50 to 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu- HH1 and followed for clinical signs of toxicity up to ten months. Acute, life threatening bone marrow toxicity was observed in animals receiving 800 and 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1. Significant changes in serum concentrations of liver enzymes were evident for treatment with 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1. Lymphoid depletion, liver necrosis and atrophy, and interstitial cell hyperplasia of the ovaries were also observed for mice in this dose group.177Lu-DOTA-HH1 was well tolerated at dosages about 10 times above those considered relevant for radioimmunotherapy in patients with B-cell derived malignancies.The toxicity profile was as expected for RICs. Our experimental results have paved the way for clinical evaluation of 177Lu-HH1 in NHL patients.

  5. Antibodies to Placental Immunoregulatory Ferritin with Transfer of Polyclonal Lymphocytes Arrest MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Growth in a Nude Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Halpern

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently cloned human gene named “placental immunoregulatory ferritin” (PLIF is a pregnancyrelated immunomodulator. Recombinant PLIF and its bioactive domain C48 are immune-suppressive and induce pronounced IL-10 production by immune cells. PLIF is expressed in the placenta and breast cancer cells. Blocking PLIF in pregnant mice by anti-C48 antibodies inhibited placental and fetal growth and modulated the cytokine network. It has been revealed that anti-C48 treatment inhibited MCF-7 tumor growth in nude mice. However, this significant effect was observed only in those transfused with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blocking PLIF in tumor-engrafted human immune cell transfused mice resulted in massive infiltration of human CD45+ cells (mainly CD8+ T cells, both intratumorally and in the tumor periphery, and a significant number of caspase-3+ cells. In vitro, antiC48 treatment of MCF-7 tumor cells cocultured with human lymphocytes induced a significant increase in interferon-γ secretion. We conclude that blocking PLIF inhibits breast cancer growth, possibly by an effect on the cytokine network in immune cells and on breakdown of immunosuppression.

  6. The experimental study on biodistribution and radioimmunoimaging of 131I labeled anti-lymphoma Fab antibody in nude mice bearing human B cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaochun; Zhang Meihua; Shen Junkang; Shen Yongmei; Shi Yizhen; Liu Zengli

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Radioimmunoimaging is still an interesting study in the domain of nuclear medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution and radioimmunoimaging of 131 I-Fab anti- body in nude mice beating human B cell lymphoma. Methods: The immunoreactivity of Fab antibody to Raji cells was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Fab antibody and CD20 monoclonal antibody (as control) were labeled with 131 I using Iodogen method. 131 I-Fab antibody or 131 I-CD20 was injected into nude mice bearing B cell lymphoma via tail veins. The biodistribution and radioimmunoimaging results were obtained at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h postinjection, respectively. Results: The results of immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry indicated that both Fab antibody and 131 I-Fab antibody could bind strongly with membrane antigens on Raji cells, and the binding rate reached above 87%. Clear tumor image was obtained at 8 h after injection with 131 I-Fab and elimination was observed at 24 h postinjection. The clear tumor image for 131 I-CD20 antibody was obtained at 24 h post injection. The biodistribution in vivo showed that the percentage activities of injection dose per gram of tumor (% ID/g) of 131 I-Fab group at 2, 4, 8 h postinjection were higher than that of 131 I-CD20 antibody [(1.37±0.28), (1.84±0.13), (2.21±0.15)% ID/g vs (0.33±0.06), (0.62±0.08), (1.46±0.24)% ID/g, respectively; F=52.22, 278.42 and 29.00, all P 131 I-Fad and 131 I-CD20 groups at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h were [(0.22±0.03)-(5.44± 0.31)] vs[(0.04±0.01)-(3.10±0.29)], [(0.43±0.11) - (21.01±3.97)] vs [(0.11±0.05) - (7.99±1.81)], [(1.09±0.07) -(20.28±2.77)] vs [(0.48±0.06) - (23.55±1.69)], [(1.12± 0.02) - (10.29±1.78)] vs [(2.32 ± 0.34) - (33.23±6.83)], respectively. Conclusion: 131 I-Fab anti- body has advantages of small molecular weight, excellent targeting characteristics, early imaging and fast elimination, which indicates the potential application value in diagnosing B cell

  7. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors show different anti-brain metastases efficacy in NSCLC: A direct comparative analysis of icotinib, gefitinib, and erlotinib in a nude mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianlong; Li, Min; Zhong, Wen; Hu, Chengping; Gu, Qihua; Xie, Yali

    2017-11-17

    Brain metastasis is an increasing problem in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including gefitinib, erlotinib, and icotinib, are reported to be effective in patients with brain metastases. However, direct comparative studies of the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of these three drugs in treating brain metastases are lacking. In the present investigation, we found that gefitinib penetrated the blood-tumor barrier and was distributed to brain metastases more effectively than erlotinib or icotinib in a nude mouse model. The 1-h ratio of brain metastases to plasma concentration for gefitinib, erlotinib, and icotinib was 9.82±1.03%, 4.83±0.25%, and 2.62±0.21%, respectively. The 2-h ratio of brain metastases to plasma concentration for gefitinib, erlotinib, and icotinib was 15.11±2.00%, 5.73±1.31%, and 2.69±0.31%, respectively. Gefitinib exhibited the strongest antitumor activity ( p gefitinib vs. erlotinib =0.005; p gefitinib vs. icotinib =0.002). Notably, erlotinib exhibited a better treatment efficacy than icotinib ( p =0.037). Consistently, immunohistochemical data showed that TKIs differentially inhibit the proliferation of metastatical tumor cells. Gefitinib and erlotinib markedly inhibited the proliferation of tumor cells, while there were more ki-67-positive tumor cells in the icotinib group. Additionally, gefitinib inhibited the phosphorylation of EGFR better than the other drugs, whereas pEGFR expression levels in erlotinib groups were lower than levels in the icotinib group ( p gefitinib vs. erlotinib =0.995; p gefitinib vs. icotinib =0.028; p erlotinib vs. icotinib =0.042).Altogether, our findings suggest that gefitinib and erlotinib can inhibit the growth of PC-9-luc brain tumors. Gefitinib demonstrated better antitumor activity and penetration rate in brain metastases than erlotinib or icotinib.

  8. Ablation of human colon carcinoma in nude mice by 131I-labeled monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody F(ab')2 fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchegger, F.; Pfister, C.; Fournier, K.; Prevel, F.; Schreyer, M.; Carrel, S.; Mach, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Pooled F(ab')2 fragments of three MAbs against distinct epitopes of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were used for radioimmunotherapy of nude mice bearing a subcutaneous human colon carcinoma xenograft. 9-10 d after transplantation when tumor nodules were in exponential growth, 36 mice were treated by intravenous injection of different amounts of 131 I-labeled MAb F(ab')2. All 14 mice injected with a single dose of 2,200 (n = 10) or 2,800 microCi (n = 4) showed complete tumor remission. 8 of the 10 mice treated with 2,200 microCi survived in good health for 1 yr when they were killed and shown to be tumor free. Four of nine other mice treated with four fractionated doses of 400 microCi showed no tumor relapse for more than 9 mo. In contrast, all 15 mice injected with 1,600-3,000 microCi 131 I-control IgG F(ab')2 showed tumor growth retardation of only 1-4 wk, and 15 of 16 mice injected with unlabeled anti-CEA MAb F(ab')2 showed unmodified tumor progression as compared with untreated mice. From tissue radioactivity distributions it was calculated that by an injection of 2,200 microCi 131 I-MAb F(ab')2 a mean dose of 8,335 rad was selectively delivered to the tumor, while the tissue-absorbed radiation doses for the normal organs were: peripheral blood, 2,093; stomach, 1,668; kidney, 1,289; lung, 1,185; liver, 617; spleen, 501; small intestine, 427; large intestine, 367; bone, 337; and muscle, 198. These treatments were well tolerated since out of 19 mice with complete tumor remission only 4 required bone marrow transplantation and 17 were in good health for 6-12 mo of observation

  9. Inhibition of potential lethal damage repair and related gene expression after carbon-ion beam irradiation to human lung cancer grown in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Tomoyasu; Fujisawa, Takehiko; Koyama-Saegusa, Kumiko; Imai, Takashi; Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2007-01-01

    Using cultured and nude mouse tumor cells (IA) derived from a human lung cancer, we previously demonstrated their radiosensitivity by focusing attention on the dynamics of tumor clonogens and the early and rapid survival recovery (potential lethal damage repair: PLD repair) occurring after X-ray irradiation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating gene expression in association with PLD repair after carbon-ion beam or X-ray irradiation to cancer cells. In this study we tried to detect the mechanism of DNA damage and repair of the clonogens after X-ray or carbon-ion beam irradiation. At first, colony assay method was performed after irradiation of 12 Gy of X-ray or 5 Gy of carbon-ion beam to compare the time dependent cell survival of the IA cells after each irradiation pass. Second, to search the genes causing PLD repair after irradiation of X-ray or carbon-ion beam, we evaluated gene expressions by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the selected 34 genes reportedly related to DNA repair. The intervals from the irradiation were 0, 6, 12 and 24 hr for colony assay method, and 0, 3, 18 hr for RT-PCR method. From the result of survival assays, significant PLD repair was not observed in carbon-ion beam as compared to X-ray irradiation. The results of RT-PCR were as follows. The gene showing significantly higher expressions after X-ray irradiation than after carbon-ion beam irradiation was PCNA. The genes showing significantly lower expressions after X-ray irradiation rather than after carbon-ion beam irradiation were RAD50, BRCA1, MRE11A, XRCC3, CHEK1, MLH1, CCNB1, CCNB2 and LIG4. We conclude that PCNA could be a likely candidate gene for PLD repair. (author)

  10. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole D.; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease post-CA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents. PMID:16867221

  11. Impact of overall treatment time on local control of slow growing human GL squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice treated by fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.; Petersen, C.; Schulz, P.; Baisch, H.

    1999-01-01

    Background and purpose: The impact of overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on local control of slow growing human GL squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was determined. Materials and methods: Moderately well differentiated and keratinizing human GL SCC with a volume doubling time of 8 days were transplanted subcutaneously into the right hindleg of NMRI (nu/nu) mice and irradiated with 30 fractions under ambient conditions over 2, 3, 4.5, 6 and 10 weeks. Endpoint of the experiments was local tumor control at day 180 after end of treatment.Results: The tumor control dose 50% (TCD 50) increased from 40 to 57 Gy when the treatment time was extended from 2 to 10 weeks. The data can be well described by a linear increase in TCD 50 with time. The recovered dose per day (D r ) was 0.28 Gy (95% confidence interval 0.06; 0.48). The fit to the data was not significantly improved by assuming a biphasic (dog-leg) time course with constant TCD 50 values in the initial part of treatment followed by a more rapid increase of TCD 50 thereafter.Conclusions: D r in GL SCC was significantly less than the value of 1.0 Gy (0.7; 1.3 ) previously reported for poorly differentiated, non-keratinizing and fast growing human FaDu SCC (Baumann M, Liertz C, Baisch H, Wiegel T, Lorenzen J, Arps H. Impact of overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on local control of human FaDu squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice. Radiother. Oncol. 1994;32:137-143), indicating important heterogeneity of the time factor between different tumors of the same histological type. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Anticancer activity using positron emission tomography-computed tomography and pharmacokinetics of β-eudesmol in human cholangiocarcinoma xenografted nude mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plengsuriyakarn, Tullayakorn; Karbwang, Juntra; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2015-03-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an important public health problem in several parts of South East Asia, particularly in Thailand. The limited availability of effective diagnostic tools for early stage CCA, including chemotherapeutic options, constitutes a major problem for treatment and control of CCA. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-CCA activity and pharmacokinetics of β-eudesmol in CCA-xenografted nude mouse model and healthy mice. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose was used for detecting and monitoring tumour development, and PET-CT with technetium-99m was used to investigate its pharmacokinetics property. Results support the role of PET-CT as a potential tool for detecting and monitoring the progress of lung metastasis. Tumour size and lung metastasis were significantly inhibited by 91.6% (of baseline) and 95% (of total lung mass), respectively, following treatment with high-dose β-eudesmol (100 mg/kg body weight for 30 days). Survival time was prolonged by 64.4% compared with untreated controls. Systemic clearance of the compound was rapid, particularly during the first 60 min. The compound was distributed to the vital organs at maximum levels 2 h after oral administration and 15 min after intravenous injection. Results from the present study suggest the potential of β-eudesmol as a promising candidate for further development as an anti-CCA drug with respect to its pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties. PET-CT, with radiotracers (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and technetium-99m, was shown to be a reliable tool in the investigation of anti-CCA and pharmacokinetic properties of β-eudesmol in CCA-xenografted and healthy mice. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. In vivo imaging and specific targeting of P-glycoprotein expression in multidrug resistant nude mice xenografts with [125I]MRK-16 monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Andrew M.; Rosa, Eddie; Mehta, Bippin M.; Divgi, Chaitanya R.; Finn, Ronald D.; Biedler, June L.; Tsuruo, Takashi; Kalaigian, Hovannes; Larson, Steven M.

    1995-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumors is associated with P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression. In vivo quantitation of Pgp may allow MDR to be evaluated noninvasively prior to treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to radiolabel MRK-16, a monoclonal antibody that targets an external epitope of P-glycoprotein, and perform in vivo quantitation of P-glycoprotein in a MDR xenograft nude mouse model. MRK-16 was labeled with 125 I by the iodogen method, with subsequent purification by size exclusion chromatography. Groups of 10 Balb/c mice were each xenografted with colchicine-resistant or -sensitive neuroblastoma cell lines, respectively. Whole body clearance and tumor uptake over time was quantitated by gamma camera imaging, and biodistribution studies were performed with [ 125 ]MRK-16 and an isotype matched control antibody, A33. Quantitative autoradiography and immunohistochemistry analysis of tumors was also evaluated to confirm specific targeting of [ 125 I]MRK-16. Peak tumor uptake was at 2-3 days post-injection, and was significantly greater in resistance compared to sensitive tumors (mean % injected dose/g ± SD) (18.76 ± 2.94 vs 10.93 ± 0.96; p 125 I]MRK-16 was confirmed by comparison to [ 131 I]A33 in biodistribution studies, and localized to cellular components of tissue stroma by comparison of histologic and autoradiographic sections of sensitive and resistant tumors. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated a 4.5-fold difference in P-glycoprotein expression between sensitive and resistant cell lines without colchicine selective pressure. We conclude that in vivo quantitation of P-glycoprotein in MDR tumors can be performed with [ 125 I]MRK-16. These findings suggest a potential clinical application for radiolabeled MRK-16 in the in vivo evaluation of multidrug resistance in tumors

  14. Conversion of adipose-derived stem cells into natural killer-like cells with anti-tumor activities in nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiu Ning

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop peripheral blood-derived nature killer (NK cells into therapeutic products have been hampered by these cells' low abundance and histoincompatibility. On the other hand, derivation of NK-like cells from more abundant cell sources such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs and umbilical cord blood (UCB requires the selection of rare CD34+ cells. Thus, we sought to convert adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs, which are abundant and natively CD34+, into NK-like cells. When grown in hematopoietic induction medium, ADSCs formed sphere clusters and expressed hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and KDR. Further induction in NK cell-specific medium resulted in a population of cells that expressed NK cell marker CD56, and thus termed ADSC-NK. Alternatively, the hematopoietically induced ADSCs were transduced with NK cell-specific transcription factor E4BP4 prior to induction in NK cell-specific medium. This latter population of cells, termed ADSC-NKE, expressed CD56 and additional NK cell markers such as CD16, CD94, CD158, CD314, FasL, and NKp46. ADSC-NKE was as potent as NK leukemia cell NKL in killing breast cancer cell MCF7 and prostate cancer cells DU145, PC3, LnCap, DuPro, C4-2 and CWR22, but exhibited no killing activity toward normal endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In nude mice test ADSC-NKE was able to significantly delay the progression of tumors formed by MCF7 and PC3. When injected into immunocompetent rats, ADSC-NKE was detectable in bone marrow and spleen for at least 5 weeks. Together, these results suggest that ADSCs can be converted into NK-like cells with anti-tumor activities.

  15. Uptake of encapsulated 99mTc-MIBI into simple or pegylated liposomes in cultured cells and in tumour-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergote, J.; Belhaj-Tayeb, H.; Banisadr, G.; Leger, G.; Briane, D.; Moretti, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Encapsulating 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes could prolong its circulation half-life in blood without alteration of tracer abilities. In addition, surface coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) have been shown to be efficient vehicles for antibiotics or 99m Tc-tracers. The uptake of encapsulated 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes, simple or pegylated, in cancerous cells and its biodistribution were compared to the free 99m Tc-MIBI. The encapsulation of 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes was obtained using a K + diffusion potential method. Untrapped 99m Tc-MIBI into liposomes preparations 'Small Unilamellar Vesicles' (SUVs) was removed by passing the SUVs through a chromatography column. 99m Tc-MIBI uptake in cells was qualified by measuring radioactivity retained in K562 and MCF7-ras cells incubated with encapsulated or free 99m Tc-MIBI. The biodistribution was explored in tumour-bearing nude mice. The efficiency with which 99m Tc-MIBI was encapsulated in liposomes was 45% - 50% for pegylated or not. In the two cell lines, the accumulation of 99m Tc-MIBI was similar either the tracer was free or encapsulated into liposomes. One hour after injection, the biodistribution showed a higher clearance for free 99m Tc-MIBI than for encapsulated tracer into liposomes. The tumour accumulated in a greater extent the encapsulated form than the free 99m Tc-MIBI. Encapsulated 99m Tc-MIBI into PEG-liposomes would be a promising radiopharmaceutical for tumour imaging in vivo. (author)

  16. Human umbilical blood mononuclear cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells serve as interleukin-21 gene delivery vehicles for epithelial ovarian cancer therapy in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weihua; Wang, Jing; He, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Hongyi; Yu, Fangliu; Jiang, Longwei; Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Junsong; Dou, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system, and its overall cure rate remains low. The present study investigated human umbilical blood mononuclear cell (UBMC)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UBMC-MSCs) as interleukin-21 (IL-21) gene delivery vehicles for ovarian cancer therapy in nude mice. MSCs were isolated from UBMCs and the expanded cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Cultured UBMCs were differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes using appropriate media and then the UBMC-MSCs were transfected with recombinant pIRES2-IL-21-enhancement green fluorescent protein. UBMC-MSCs expressing IL-21 were named as UBMC-MSC-IL-21. Mice with A2780 ovarian cancer were treated with UBMC-MSC-IL-21 intravenously, and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the tumor volume and mouse survival. To address the mechanism of UBMC-MSC-IL-21 against ovarian cancer, the expression of IL-21, natural killer glucoprotein 2 domain and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related molecules A/B were detected in UBMC-MSC-IL-21 and in the tumor sites. Interferon-γ-secreting splenocyte numbers and natural killer cytotoxicity were significantly increased in the UBMC-MSC-IL-21-treated mice as compared with the UBMC-MSCs or the UBMC-MSC-mock plasmid-treated mice. Most notably, tumor growth was delayed and survival was prolonged in ovarian-cancer-bearing mice treated with UBMC-MSC-IL-21. Our data provide important evidence that UBMC-MSCs can serve as vehicles for IL-21 gene delivery and inhibit the established tumor. Copyright © 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. MR immuno-imaging study using avidin-biotin pre-targeting system on nude mice grafted with human colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Qingfen; Huang Qiliu; Xu Yikai; Liu Xian; Wu Yuankui

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To further improve the amount of gadolinium located on tumor, a gadolinium chelate enhanced magnetic resonance imaging pre-targeting with avidin-biotin system technique was adopted and the enhancing characteristics of difference of signal intensity at various scan timing were investigated in author's experiment. Methods: (1) Anti-CEA antibody CL -3 was biotinylated in a mixture with antibody to NHS-LS-biotin with a molar ratio of 1/30-50. (2) After the reaction of GdCl 3 and DTPA-B, the unconjugated gadolinium was removed by chromatography on G-10 column. (3) Steps for pre-targeting tumor: First step, McAb-B was injected intravenously into nude mice on the first day. Second step, avidin (Av) and streptavidin (SA) were injected intraperitoneally 24 hours later. Third step, Gd-DTPA-Bt was injected intravenously 48 hours after the first injection. MRI was performed with plain scans, enhanced scans at 20 minutes, 2 hours, 8 hours, and 24 hours after the third step. Signal intensities of tumor and muscles were measured. The pre-targeting effect was compared with those of Gd-DTPA-McAb and Gd-DTPA. Results: (1) Each monoclonal antibody conjugated with 11-23 biotin and the immuno-activity of biotinylated antibody with 12 biotin/antibody was 94.9%. (2) The enhancing effect of pre-targeting approach was tumor specific. Contrarily that of Gd-DTPA was not. (3) The enhancing rate of signal intensity specificity of pre-targeting approach was 43%, while that of McAb-Gd-DTPA was 17.9% only, so the enhancing ratio was 2.4. Conclusion: Pre-targeting approach using avidin-biotin system improves the amounts of gadolinium locating on tumors and yields a specific enhancing effect. It is a promising modality which promotes the ability of Gd labelled magnetic resonance immuno-imaging in the detection of colon cancer and its recurrence

  18. Preliminary evaluation of 1′-[18F]fluoroethyl-β-D-lactose ([18F]FEL) for detection of pancreatic cancer in nude mouse orthotopic xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Paolillo, Vincenzo; Young, Daniel; Wen, XiaoXia; Logsdon, Craig D.; De Palatis, Louis; Alauddin, Mian M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of pancreatic cancer could save many thousands of lives. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging, including PET with [ 18 F]FDG, has inadequate resolution for detection of small (2–3 mm) pancreatic tumours. We demonstrated the efficacy of PET imaging with an 18 F-labelled lactose derivative, [ 18 F]FEDL, that targets HIP/PAP, a biomarker that is overexpressed in the peritumoural pancreas. We developed another analogue, 1-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl lactose ([ 18 F]FEL), which is simpler to synthesise, for the same application. We conducted a preliminary evaluation of the new probe and its efficacy in detecting orthotopic pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in mice. Methods: Xenografts were developed in nude mice by injecting L3.6pl/GL + pancreatic carcinoma cells into the pancreas of each mouse. Tumour growth was monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI); accuracy of BLI tumour size estimates was verified by MRI in two representative mice. When the tumour size reached approximately 2–3 mm, the animals were injected with [ 18 F]FEL (3.7 MBq) and underwent static PET/CT scans. Blood samples were collected at 2, 5, 10, 20 and 60 min after [ 18 F]FEL injection to track blood clearance. Following imaging, animals were sacrificed and their organs and tumours/pancreatic tissue were collected and counted on a gamma counter. Pancreas, including tumour, was frozen, sliced and used for autoradiography and immunohistochemical analysis of HIP/PAP expression. Results: Tumour growth was rapid, as observed by BLI and MRI. Blood clearance of [ 18 F]FEL was bi-exponential, with half-lives of approximately 3.5 min and 40 min. Mean accumulation of [ 18 F]FEL in the peritumoural pancreatic tissue was 1.29 ± 0.295 %ID/g, and that in the normal pancreas of control animals was 0.090 ± 0.101 %ID/g. [ 18 F]FEL was cleared predominantly by the kidneys. Comparative analysis of autoradiographic images and immunostaining results demonstrated a correlation between [ 18 F

  19. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Christoph; Kaemmerer, Ulrike; Illert, Bertram; Muehling, Bettina; Pfetzer, Nadja; Wittig, Rainer; Voelker, Hans Ullrich; Thiede, Arnulf; Coy, Johannes F

    2008-01-01

    Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12) or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12) ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm 3 to 700 mm 3 . The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume). The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT delayed tumour growth in a mouse xenograft model. Further

  20. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT. Methods Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12 or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12 ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume. Results The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Conclusion Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT

  1. Imaging of 99Tcm-labeled new cyclic RGDfK Dimer in nude mice bearing U87MG human glioma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiao'an; Shi Jiyun; Liu Yan; Zhu Zhaohui; Jia Bing; Liu Zhaofei; Shi Ximin; Wang Fan; Li Fang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: (1) To evaluate the effect of insertion of two 15-amino-4, 7, 10, 13-tetraoxapentadecanoic (2 PEG 4 ) linkers into cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) Dimer E [c(RGDfK)] 2 on receptor binding in vitro, (2) to assess its biodistribution in vivo and (3) to investigate the value of 99 Tc m labeled 2PEG 4 -Dimer for integrin α v β 3 -positive tumors imaging. Methods: The expression of U87 human glioma cells and integrin α v β 3 was determined by immunofluorescence staining. The half-inhibition concentrations (IC 50 ) for 125 I-cyclo (Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys) (c(RGDyK)) of c (RGDyK), hydrazinonictinamide (HYNIC)-Dimer and HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer binding to integrin α v β 3 were measured. 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Dimer and 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer were synthesized using non-SnCl 2 formulation. Biodistribution and imaging studies were performed in nude mice bearing human glioma xenografts. The unpaired t test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The labeling yield of the two radiotracers was more than 95%, and the radiochemical purity was more than 99% through Sep-Pek C18 cartridge. HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer had significantly higher binding affinity of integrin α v β 3 than c(RGDyK) and HYNIC-Dimer (IC 50 =0.8 nmol/L, 27 nmol/L and 2.4 nmol/L, respectively). Biodistribution study showed that 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer was mainly excreted via the kidney. The tumor uptake of 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer was higher than that of 99 Tc m -HYNIC-Dimer at 2 h post injection ((5.71±0.96) and (2.10±0.50) % ID/g, t =4.80, P 99 Tc m -HYNIC-2PEG 4 -Dimer is a promising radiotracer for integrin α v β 3 -positive tumor imaging. (authors)

  2. Labelling of anti-human bladder tumor chimeric antibody with 99Tcm and radioimmunoimaging of bladder carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunli; Wang Rongfu; Fu Zhanli; Bai Yin; Ding Yi; Yu Lizhang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro immunoreactivity and in vivo tissue distribution, tumor targeting property of anti-human bladder tumor human-murine chimeric antibody (ch-BDI) labeled with 99 Tc m and to investigate its possibility for being used in guiding diagnosis and guiding therapy of bladder cancer. Methods: The ch-BDI was labeled with 99 Tc m by improved Schwarz method and the labeled antibody was purified by Sephadex G-50. Labeling yield and radiochemical purity were measured by paper chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction and association constant (K a ) were measured by Lindmo method and Scatchard analysis, respectively. 11.1 MBq (30 μg) 99 Tc m -ch-BDI was intravenously injected into nude mice bearing human bladder cancer xenografts in the right thigh and radioimmunoimaging (RII) was performed 2, 6, 20 and 24 h postinjection. The images were processed by region of interest (ROI) method to acquire the counts of whole body and the tumor and the counts ratios of tumor to contralateral normal tissue or to tissues of other non-tumor bearing organs. The mice were killed after 24 h postinjection imaging and tissue distribution was measured. %ID/g and target to nontarget (T/NT) ratios were calculated. Results: The labeling yield and radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -ch-BDI were (66.5±7.3)% and >90%, respectively. The immunoreactive fraction was 76% and K a was 3.56 x 10 9 L/mol. RII showed that the tumor was clearly visualized 6 h postinjection and becoming clearer along with time prolonging. The radioactivity of whole body decreased rapidly with time, whereas the radioactivity of the tumor decreased slowly. The T/NT ratios was increased with time. Biodistribution results showed that tumor uptake was 17.4%ID/g 24 h postinjection. T/NT ratios were very high except for the kidney. T/NT ratios for brain, muscle, intestinal wall, bone and heart wall were 136.0, 55.1, 39.3, 29.7 and 27.9, respectively. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -ch-BDI exhibits excellent

  3. Anti-tumor activity of high-dose EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and sequential docetaxel in wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer cell nude mouse xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Zhang, Qianqian; Fang, Shu; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zhehai

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is still a challenge. This study explored antitumor activity of high-dose icotinib (an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) plus sequential docetaxel against wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells-generated nude mouse xenografts. Nude mice were subcutaneously injected with wild-type EGFR NSCLC A549 cells and divided into different groups for 3-week treatment. Tumor xenograft volumes were monitored and recorded, and at the end of experiments, tumor xenografts were removed for Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Compared to control groups (negative control, regular-dose icotinib [IcoR], high-dose icotinib [IcoH], and docetaxel [DTX]) and regular icotinib dose (60 mg/kg) with docetaxel, treatment of mice with a high-dose (1200 mg/kg) of icotinib plus sequential docetaxel for 3 weeks (IcoH-DTX) had an additive effect on suppression of tumor xenograft size and volume (P Icotinib-containing treatments markedly reduced phosphorylation of EGFR, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase B (Akt), but only the high-dose icotinib-containing treatments showed an additive effect on CD34 inhibition (P icotinib plus docetaxel had a similar effect on mouse weight loss (a common way to measure adverse reactions in mice), compared to the other treatment combinations. The study indicate that the high dose of icotinib plus sequential docetaxel (IcoH-DTX) have an additive effect on suppressing the growth of wild-type EGFR NSCLC cell nude mouse xenografts, possibly through microvessel density reduction. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:27852073

  4. Differences in the heat stress associated with white sportswear and being semi-nude in exercising humans under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a wet bulb globe temperature of greater than 28 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Michio; Kume, Masashi; Tuneoka, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether wearing common white sportswear can reduce heat stress more than being semi-nude during exercise of different intensities performed under radiant heat and wind conditions, such as a hot summer day. After a 20-min rest period, eight male subjects performed three 20 min sessions of cycling exercise at a load intensity of 20 % or 50 % of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a room maintained at a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28.7 ± 0.1 °C using two spot lights and a fan (0.8 m/s airflow). Subjects wore common white sportswear (WS) consisting of a long-sleeved shirt (45 % cotton and 55 % polyester) and short pants (100 % polyester), or only swimming pants (SP) under the semi-nude condition. The mean skin temperature (Tsk) was greater when subjects wore SP than WS under both the 20 % and 50 % exercise conditions. During the 50 % exercise, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), and the increases in esophageal temperature (ΔTes) and heart rate were significantly higher (Pheat storage (S), calculated from the changes in the mean body temperature (0.9Tes + 0.1 Tsk), was significantly lower in the WS trials than in the SP trials during the 20 min resting period before exercise session. However, S was similar between conditions during the 20 % exercise, but was greater in the WS than in the SP trials during 50 % exercise. These results suggest that, under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a WBGT greater than 28 °C, the heat stress associated with wearing common WS is similar to that of being semi-nude during light exercise, but was greater during moderate exercise, and the storage of body heat can be reduced by wearing WS during rest periods.

  5. Bibliography of Germfree Research 1885-1963. 1979 Supplement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Turton, J. A. Eradication of the pinworm Syphacia obvelata from an animal unit by anthelmintic therapy . Lab. Anim. 13(2):115-118, 1979. _p_ 176. Patte, C...Bull. Exp. Biol. k Med. (Engl. tr.). 86(9):1217, 1978. (Rs) 182. Pollack, J. D., Weiss, H. S., and Somerson, N. L. Lecithin changes in murine myco

  6. Estudo histoquímico comparativo da matriz extracelular dc tumores primários e metastáticos em ratos nude xenotransplantados com células KB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Regina Prúpere Ogata

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se comparativamente, através de métodos histoquímicos, a expressão dos componentes da matriz extracelular de tumores primitivos e metastáticos em ratos nude, xenotransplantados com células KB. Em ambas as neoplasias observou-se uma variabilidade tanto qualitativa como quantitativa dos componentes matriciais, coexistência de diferentes tipos de fibras, pouca representatividade de fibras elásticas de glicosaminoglicanas ácidas e sulfatadas e de polissacarídeos neutros, além da ausência de membrana basal.

  7. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Phosphorylation on Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells Leads to Treatment of Orthotopic Human Colon Cancer in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Sasaki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to determine whether the dual inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR signaling pathways in tumor-associated endothelial cells can inhibit the progressive growth of human colon carcinoma in the cecum of nude mice. SW620CE2 human colon cancer cells growing in culture and orthotopically in the cecum of nude mice expressed a high level of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF but were negative for EGFR, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, VEGFR. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that tumorassociated endothelial cells expressed EGFR, VEGFR2, phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR, phosphorylated VEGFR (pVEGFR. Treatment of mice with either 7H-pyrrolo [2,3-d]-pyrimidine lead scaffold (AEE788; an inhibitor of EGFR and VEGFR tyrosine kinase or CPT-11 as single agents significantly inhibited the growth of cecal tumors (P < .01; this decrease was even more pronounced with AEE788 combined with CPT-11 (P < .001. AEE788 alone or combined with CPT-11 also inhibited the expression of pEGFR and pVEGFR on tumor-associated endothelial cells, significantly decreased vascularization and tumor cell proliferation, increased the level of apoptosis in both tumorassociated endothelial cells and tumor cells. These data demonstrate that targeting EGFR and VEGFR signaling on tumor-associated endothelial cells provides a viable approach for the treatment of colon cancer.

  8. Differences in the heat stress associated with white sportswear and being semi-nude in exercising humans under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a wet bulb globe temperature of greater than 28 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Michio; Kume, Masashi; Tuneoka, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether wearing common white sportswear can reduce heat stress more than being semi-nude during exercise of different intensities performed under radiant heat and wind conditions, such as a hot summer day. After a 20-min rest period, eight male subjects performed three 20 min sessions of cycling exercise at a load intensity of 20 % or 50 % of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a room maintained at a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28.7 ± 0.1 °C using two spot lights and a fan (0.8 m/s airflow). Subjects wore common white sportswear (WS) consisting of a long-sleeved shirt (45 % cotton and 55 % polyester) and short pants (100 % polyester), or only swimming pants (SP) under the semi-nude condition. The mean skin temperature was greater when subjects wore SP than WS under both the 20 % and 50 % exercise conditions. During the 50 % exercise, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), and the increases in esophageal temperature (ΔTes) and heart rate were significantly higher ( P < 0.001-0.05), or tended to be higher ( P < 0.07), in the WS than SP trials at the end of the third 20-min exercise session. The total sweat loss ( m sw,tot) was also significantly higher in the WS than in the SP trials ( P < 0.05). However, during the 20 % exercise, the m sw,tot during exercise, and the ΔTes, RPE and TS at the end of the second and third sessions of exercise did not differ significant between conditions. The heat storage (S), calculated from the changes in the mean body temperature (0.9Tes + 0.1 ), was significantly lower in the WS trials than in the SP trials during the 20 min resting period before exercise session. However, S was similar between conditions during the 20 % exercise, but was greater in the WS than in the SP trials during 50 % exercise. These results suggest that, under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a WBGT greater than 28 °C, the heat stress associated with wearing common WS is similar to that

  9. Epidermal changes following application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to human skin transplanted to nude mice studied with histological species markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graem, N.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of the tumor initiator 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on epidermis of human fetal and adult skin were studied in the nude mouse/human skin model. Human skin grafts on NC nude mice were exposed to two topical applications of 1 mg of DMBA in 50 microliter of acetone with an interval of 3 days and/or to applications of 10 micrograms of TPA in 50 microliter of acetone twice weekly. In some animals, it was attempted to augment the susceptibility of the grafts to the tumor-initiating effect of DMBA by pretreatment with TPA or ultraviolet light. The mice were sacrificed 8-32 wk after the initial treatment. Tumors did not appear in the central portions of any of the grafts, but epidermal tumors were seen at the graft border in 34.9% of the DMBA-treated animals. To identify human epidermis on the grafts and to determine the species origin of the induced tumors, two independently working histological marker methods were applied. (a) The first is detection of a human Blood Group B-like antigen present in mouse epidermis and in chemically induced murine epidermal tumors. This antigen cannot be demonstrated in human epidermis and in epidermal tumors of human patients. (b) The second is histological staining with the DNA-specific fluorochrome, bisbenzimide, displaying a characteristic pattern of 5-10 intranuclear fluorescent bodies in murine nonneoplastic epidermal cells and in murine epidermal tumor cells. Such a pattern is not seen in human epidermis and in epidermal tumors of human patients. The studies showed that TPA treatment resulted in epidermal hyperplasia in both the human epidermis and the adjacent mouse epidermis and that the induced tumors were derived from murine tissue

  10. Reduced miR-433 expression is associated with advanced stages and early relapse of colorectal cancer and restored miR-433 expression suppresses the migration, invasion and proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Tong; Dong, Xin-Min; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Long-Hua

    2018-05-01

    The expression of microRNA (miR-433) is altered in various types of human cancer. The present study analyzed the prognostic and biological value of miR-433 expression in colorectal cancer using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 125 colorectal tissue specimens (including a test cohort of 40 cases of paired colorectal cancer and adjacent normal mucosae and a confirmation cohort of 85 cases of stage I-III colorectal cancer). In vitro and nude mouse xenograft experiments were subsequently used to assess the effects of miR-433 expression on the regulation of colorectal cancer cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion. The data indicated that miR-433 expression was significantly downregulated in colorectal cancer tissues in the test and confirmation patient cohorts and that low miR-433 expression was associated with advanced tumor stage and early relapse. Furthermore, the restoration of miR-433 expression was able to significantly inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing G1-S cell cycle arrest, suppressing cyclinD1 and CDK4 expression, and markedly inhibited the migratory and invasive capacities of tumor cells in vitro . The restoration of miR-433 expression or liposome-based delivery of miR-433 mimics suppressed the growth of colorectal cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. In conclusion, miR-433 may be a putative tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, and the detection of low miR-433 expression will be investigated in further studies as a putative biomarker for the detection of early relapse in patients with colorectal cancer.

  11. Comprehensive and Holistic Analysis of HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells and Tumor-Bearing Nude Mouse Model: Interactions Among Fractions Derived From the Chinese Medicine Formula Tian Xian Liquid in Effects on Human Colorectal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Annballaw Bridget; Cheung, Ho Pan; Lin, Li-Zhu; Ng, Tzi Bun; Lao, Lixing; Zhang, Yanbo; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Tong, Yao; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing

    2017-09-01

    The Chinese medicine formula Tian Xian Liquid (TXL) has been used clinically for cancer therapy in China for more than 25 years. However, the comprehensive and holistic effects of its bioactive fractions for various antitumor therapeutic effects have not been unraveled. This is the first study to scientifically elucidate the holistic effect of Chinese medicine formula for treating colon cancer, hence allowing a better understanding of the essence of Chinese medicine formula, through the comparison of the actions of TXL and its functional constituent fractions, including ethyl acetate (EA), butanol (BU), and aqueous (WA) fractions. Tissue-specific proliferative/antiproliferative effects of these fractions on human colorectal carcinoma HT-29 cells and splenocytes were studied by using the MTT assay. Their modulations on the expression of markers of antiproliferation, antimetastasis, reversion of multidrug resistance in treated HT-29 cells were examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, and their modulations in a xenografted nude mouse model were examined by Western blot analysis. Results revealed that EA fraction slightly inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells, but tissue-specifically exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on splenocytes. On the contrary, only TXL and BU fraction tissue-specifically contributed to the proliferation of splenocytes, but inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells. WA fraction exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on HT-29 cells and also the strongest inhibitory action on tumor size in the nude mouse model in our previous study. In the HT-29 model, TXL and WA fraction exerted the most pronounced effect on upregulation of p21 mRNA and protein; TXL, and EA and WA fractions exerted the effect on downregulation of G1 phase cell cycle protein, cyclin D1 mRNA and protein; EA and BU fractions exerted the most prominent anti-invasive effect on anti-invasion via downregulation of MMP-1 m

  12. Uterine-Specific Knockout of Tsc-2: A Mouse Model for Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Burlingame, Califor- nia ), anti-phospho-S6 (Ser 235/236), anti-S6 and 1:5000 anti- glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; Cell Sig- naling...Olson S, Nguyen TA. Hydronephrosis and urine retention in estrogen-implanted athymic nude mice. Vet Pathol. 2009;46(3): 505 –508. 40. Leavitt WW, Takeda

  13. Chemomodulation of Doxorubicin Pharmacodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    doxorubicin in athymic nude mice with multidrug resistant MCF-7 human tumor xenografts. High pressure liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) will be utilized to measure...is a flavonoid that causes 50% growth tumor growth support by the host (42). The clinical efficacy of inhibition of tumor cells at 60 nM (57). It also

  14. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R

    1996-01-01

    . For in vivo experiments, pieces of newborn rat epidermis obtained by dispase treatment were grafted onto athymic nude mice. Three and six weeks after grafting, immunofluorescence analysis of the grafted skin was carried out, using monoclonal antibodies specific for rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate...

  15. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 sensitizes liver cancer stem-like cells to magnetic hyperthermia and enhances anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Tang, Qiusha; Miao, Fengqin; An, Yanli; Li, Mengfei; Han, Yong; Wang, Xihui; Wang, Juan; Liu, Peidang; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the thermoresistance and expression of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) in magnetic hyperthermia-treated human liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSCs) and the effects of a heat-shock protein HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxgeldanamycin (17-AAG) on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice. Methods CD90+ LCSCs were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting from BEL-7404. Spheroid formation, proliferation, differentiation, drug resistance, and tumor formation assays were performed to identify stem cell characteristics. CD90-targeted thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TMs)-encapsulated 17-AAG (CD90@17-AAG/TMs) was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation and its characteristics were studied. Heat tolerance in CD90+ LCSCs and the effect of CD90@17-AAG/TMs-mediated heat sensitivity were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results CD90+ LCSCs showed significant stem cell-like properties. The 17-AAG/TMs were successfully prepared and were spherical in shape with an average size of 128.9±7.7 nm. When exposed to magnetic hyperthermia, HSP90 was up-regulated in CD90+ LCSCs. CD90@17-AAG/TMs inhibited the activity of HSP90 and increased the sensitivity of CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia. Conclusion The inhibition of HSP90 could sensitize CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia and enhance its anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26677324

  16. Impact of adjuvant inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases on tumor growth delay and local tumor control after fractionated irradiation in human squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zips, Daniel; Hessel, Franziska; Krause, Mechthild; Schiefer, Yvonne; Hoinkis, Cordelia; Thames, Howard D.; Haberey, Martin; Baumann, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Previous experiments have shown that adjuvant inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor after fractionated irradiation prolonged tumor growth delay and may also improve local tumor control. To test the latter hypothesis, local tumor control experiments were performed. Methods and materials: Human FaDu and UT-SCC-14 squamous cell carcinomas were studied in nude mice. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584 (50 mg/kg body weight b.i.d.) was administered for 75 days after irradiation with 30 fractions within 6 weeks. Tumor growth time and tumor control dose 50% (TCD 50 ) were determined and compared to controls (carrier without PTK787/ZK222584). Results: Adjuvant administration of PTK787/ZK222584 significantly prolonged tumor growth time to reach 5 times the volume at start of drug treatment by an average of 11 days (95% confidence interval 0.06;22) in FaDu tumors and 29 days (0.6;58) in UT-SCC-14 tumors. In both tumor models, TCD 50 values were not statistically significantly different between the groups treated with PTK787/ZK222584 compared to controls. Conclusions: Long-term inhibition of angiogenesis after radiotherapy significantly reduced the growth rate of local recurrences but did not improve local tumor control. This indicates that recurrences after irradiation depend on vascular endothelial growth factor-driven angiogenesis, but surviving tumor cells retain their clonogenic potential during adjuvant antiangiogenic treatment with PTK787/ZK222584

  17. Eribulin regresses a doxorubicin-resistant Ewing's sarcoma with a FUS-ERG fusion and CDKN2A-deletion in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kentaro; Murakami, Takashi; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Li, Yunfeng; Singh, Arun S; Dry, Sarah M; Eckardt, Mark A; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Momiyama, Masashi; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a recalcitrant tumor greatly in need of more effective therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of eribulin on a doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant Ewing's sarcoma patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The Ewing's sarcoma PDOX model was previously established in the right chest wall of nude mice from tumor resected form the patient's right chest wall. In the previous study, the Ewing's sarcoma PDOX was resistant to doxorubicin (DOX) and sensitive to palbociclib and linsitinib. In the present study, the PDOX models were randomized into three groups when the tumor volume reached 60 mm 3 : G1, untreated control (n = 6); G2, DOX treated (n = 6), intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, Eribulin treated (n = 6, intravenous (i.v.) injection, weekly for 2 weeks). All mice were sacrificed on day 15. Changes in body weight and tumor volume were assessed two times per week. Tumor weight was measured after sacrifice. DOX did not suppress tumor growth compared to the control group (P = 0.589), consistent with the previous results in the patient and PDOX. Eribulin regressed tumor size significantly compared to G1 and G2 (P = 0.006, P = 0.017) respectively. No significant difference was observed in body weight among any group. Our results demonstrate that eribulin is a promising novel therapeutic agent for Ewing's sarcoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pimonidazole labelling and response to fractionated irradiation of five human squamous cell carcinoma (hSCC) lines in nude mice: The need for a multivariate approach in biomarker studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaromina, Ala; Zips, Daniel; Thames, Howard D.; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Krause, Mechthild; Rosner, Andrea; Haase, Michael; Petersen, Cordula; Raleigh, James A.; Quennet, Verena; Walenta, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Baumann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence on local control after fractionated radiotherapy of hypoxia measured in unirradiated tumours using the hypoxic marker Pimonidazole, using multivariate approaches. Material and methods: Five human squamous cell carcinoma lines (FaDu, UT-SCC-15, UT-SCC-14, XF354, and UT-SCC-5) were transplanted subcutaneously into the right hind-leg of NMRI nude mice. Histological material was collected from 60 unirradiated tumours after injection of Pimonidazole. The relative hypoxic area within the viable tumour area (Pimonidazole hypoxic fraction, pHF) was determined in seven serial 10 μm cross-sections per tumour by fluorescence microscopy and computerized image analysis. Local tumour control was evaluated in a total of 399 irradiated tumours at 120 days after 30 fractions given within 6 weeks with total doses between 30 and 115 Gy. Results: Tumour lines showed pronounced heterogeneity in both pHF and TCD 5 . Mean pHF values varied between 5% and 37%, TCD 5 values between 47 and 130 Gy. A Cox Proportional Hazards model of time to recurrence with two covariates, dose and pHF, yielded significant contributions of both parameters on local control (p < 0.005) but violated the proportional hazards assumption, suggesting that other factors also influence tumour control. Introduction of histological grade as an example of a confounding factor into the model improved the fit significantly. Local control rates decreased with increasing pHF and this effect was more pronounced at higher doses. Conclusions: This study confirms that tumour hypoxia measured using Pimonidazole in untreated tumours is a significant determinant of local control after fractionated irradiation. The data support the use of multivariate approaches for the evaluation of a single prognostic biomarker such as Pimonidazole, and more generally, suggest that they are required to establish accurate prognostic factors for tumour response

  19. Pharmacokinetics of internally labeled monoclonal antibodies as a gold standard: comparison of biodistribution of 75Se-, 111In-, and 125I-labeled monoclonal antibodies in osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Saga, T.; Sakahara, H.; Konishi, J.; Yamamuro, T.; Toyama, S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to know the true biodistribution of anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies, three monoclonal antibodies (OST6, OST7, and OST15) against human osteosarcoma and control antibody were internally labeled with 75Se by incubating [75Se]methionine and hybridoma cells. 75Se-labeled monoclonal antibodies were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using the human osteogenic sarcoma cell line KT005, and the results were compared with those of 125I- and 111In-labeled antibodies. 75Se-, 125I- and 111In-labeled monoclonal antibodies had identical binding activities to KT005 cells, and the immunoreactivity was in the decreasing order of OST6, OST7, and OST15. On the contrary, in vivo tumor uptake (% injected dose/g) of 75Se- and 125I-labeled antibodies assessed using nude mice bearing human osteosarcoma KT005 was in the order of OST7, OST6, and OST15. In the case of 111In, the order was OST6, OST7, and OST15. High liver uptake was similarly seen with 75Se- and 111In-labeled antibodies, whereas 125I-labeled antibodies showed the lowest tumor and liver uptake. These data indicate that tumor targeting of antibody conjugates are not always predictable from cell binding studies due to the difference of blood clearance of labeled antibodies. Furthermore, biodistribution of both 111In- and 125I-labeled antibodies are not identical with internally labeled antibody. Admitting that internally labeled antibody is a ''gold standard'' of biodistribution of monoclonal antibody, high liver uptake of 111In-radiolabeled antibodies may be inherent to antibodies. Little, if any, increase in tumor-to-normal tissue ratios of antibody conjugates will be expected compared to those of 111In-labeled antibodies if stably coupled conjugates are administered i.v

  20. [Effects of Buzhong Yiqi decoction on expression of Bad, NF-κB, caspase-9, Survivin, and mTOR in nude mice with A549/DDP transplantation tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Li; Yi, Jia-Li; Liu, Chun-Ying

    2017-02-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effects of Buzhong Yiqi decoction on the expression levels of Bad, NF-κB, caspase-9, Survivin, and mTOR in nude mice with A549/DDP transplantation tumors.Sixty BALB/C mice were randomly divided into blank control group, tumor-bearing control group, cisplatin group and Buzhong Yiqi decoction of high, medium and low doses+cisplatin groups (hereinafter referred to as the high,medium and low combined groups). A549/DDP cells (concentration of 5×106 cells/mL)were cultured and inoculated in various groups, then the tumor-forming situations were observed. Corresponding treatment was given in all groups. Fourteen days later, immunohistochemistry and Real-time PCR methods were used to detect the expression levels of Bad, NF-κB, caspase-9, Survivin, mTOR protein and mRNA in tumors.Results showed that Buzhong Yiqi decoction combined with cisplatin could reduce the volume of transplanted tumors, and there was significant difference between medium combined group and high combined group(PBad, NF-κB, Survivin and mTOR were significantly reduced in medium and high combined groups(PBad, NF-κB and caspase-9 between medium combined group, high combined group and cisplatin group, low-combined group, tumor-bearing control group(PBad, NF-κB, caspase-9, Survivin, and mTOR levels as well as promoting apoptosis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Tumour localization and pharmacokinetics of iodine-125 human monoclonal IgM antibody (COU-1) and its monomeric and half-monomeric fragments analysed in nude mice grafted with human tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditzel, H.; Erb, K.; Rasmussen, J.W.; Jensenius, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Human monoclonal IgM antibodies reactive with cancer-associated antigens may not have the optimal imaging capability due to their large size. Fragmentation of human IgM is less than straight-forward due to the loss of immunoreactivity. From the human monoclonal IgM antibody COU-1 we have prepared monomeric and half-monomeric fragments, which retain the ability to bind to colon cancer cells in vitro. The pharmacokinetics and tumour localization were evaluated in nude mice bearing human colon adenocarcinoma and human melanoma grafts. Faster clearance from the circulation was seen for the smaller half-monomeric fragment with a half-life (rapid phase/slow phase) of 2 h/16 h compared with the intact antibody, 4 h/25 h, and the monomeric fragment, 3 h/27 h. Intact COU-1 as well as the fragments accumulated in the colon tumour graft. Higher amounts of radioactivity were found in the colon tumour as compared to normal organs for intact COU-1 at days 4 and 6, for the monomeric fragment at day 4, and for the half-monomeric fragment at day 2 after injection. This investigation demonstrates the favourable biodistribution of the half monomeric COU-1 fragment. The fast clearance of this fragment resulted in a tumour-to-muscle ratio as high as 22 on day 2 after injection. Also, only this fragment gave a positive tumour-to-blood ratio. Normal IgM and its fragments were used as controls. Radioimmunoscintigraphy demonstrated the colon tumour discriminatory properties of each of the three iodine-labelled antibody preparations. The results compare favourably with previously reported investigations of the localization of human monoclonal antibodies and suggest that fragments of human monoclonal IgM antibodies may be useful tools for the immunodetection of cancer in patients. (orig.)

  2. Enhancement by O6-benzyl-N2-acetylguanosine of N'-[2-chloroethyl]-N-[2-(methylsulphonyl)ethyl]-N'-nitrosourea therapeutic index on nude mice bearing resistant human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiton, E.; Cussac-Buchdhal, C.; Mounetou, E.; Rapp, M.; Dupuy, J. M.; Maurizis, J. C.; Veyre, A.; Madelmont, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The exposure of cells to O6-benzyl-N2-acetylguanosine (BNAG) and several guanine derivatives is known to reduce the activity of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (MGMT) and to enhance the sensitivity of Mer+ (methyl enzyme repair positive) tumour cells to chloroethylnitrosoureas (CENUs) in vitro and in vivo. High water solubility and the pharmacokinetic properties of BNAG make it a candidate for simultaneous administration with CENUs by the i.v. route in human clinical use. In vivo we have shown previously that BNAG significantly increases the efficiency of N'-[2-chloroethyl]-N-[2-(methylsulphonyl)ethyl]-N'-nitrosourea (cystemustine) against M4Beu melanoma cells (Mer+) through its cytostatic activity by the i.p. route, but also increases its toxicity. To investigate the toxicity of BNAG and cystemustine when administered simultaneously in mice, we compared the maximum tolerated dose and LD50 doses of cystemustine alone or in combination with 40 mg kg(-1) BNAG by the i.p. route. The toxicity of cystemustine was enhanced by a factor of almost 1.44 when combined with BNAG. To compare the therapeutic index of cystemustine alone and the cystemustine/BNAG combination, pharmacological tests were carried out in nude mice bearing Mer+ M4Beu human melanoma cells. Isotoxic doses were calculated using the 1.44 ratio. The treatments were administered three times by the i.v. route on days 1, 5 and 9 after s.c. inoculation of tumour cells. Although the toxicities of the treatments were equal, BNAG strongly enhanced tumour growth inhibition. These results demonstrate the increase of the therapeutic index of cystemustine by BNAG and justify the use of BNAG to enhance nitrosourea efficiency in vivo by i.v. co-injection. PMID:9365163

  3. Effective molecular targeting of CDK4/6 and IGF-1R in a rare FUS-ERG fusion CDKN2A-deletion doxorubicin-resistant Ewing's sarcoma patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takashi; Singh, Arun S; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Dry, Sarah M; Li, Yunfeng; James, Aaron W; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; DeLong, Jonathan C; Zhang, Yong; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Russell, Tara; Eckardt, Mark A; Yanagawa, Jane; Federman, Noah; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-07-26

    Ewing's sarcoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy. In the present study, tumor from a patient with a Ewing's sarcoma with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/B (CDKN2A/B) loss and FUS-ERG fusion was implanted in the right chest wall of nude mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The aim of the present study was to determine efficacy of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitors on the Ewing's sarcoma PDOX. The PDOX models were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached 50 mm3: G1, untreated control; G2, doxorubicin (DOX) (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, CDK4/6 inhibitor (palbociclib, PD0332991, per oral (p.o.), daily, for 14 days); G4, IGF-1R inhibitor (linsitinib, OSI-906, p.o., daily, for 14 days). Tumor growth was significantly suppressed both in G3 (palbociclib) and in G4 (linsitinib) compared to G1 (untreated control) at all measured time points. In contrast, DOX did not inhibit tumor growth at any time point, which is consistent with the failure of DOX to control tumor growth in the patient. The results of the present study demonstrate the power of the PDOX model to identify effective targeted molecular therapy of a recalcitrant DOX-resistant Ewing's sarcoma with specific genetic alterations. The results of this study suggest the potential of PDOX models for individually-tailored, effective targeted therapy for recalcitrant cancer.

  4. Transplantation of canine osteosarcoma into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifrine, M.; Taylor, N.; Holloway, G.; Arnstein, P.R.; Chrisp, C.; Pool, R.; Whaley, C.

    1975-01-01

    Osteosarcomas from dogs were inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Sixty days later six mice had tumors that gradually increased in size. All tumors were undifferentiated sarcomas. Karyotypes of osteosarcomas grown in tissue culture and of tumors from mice inoculated with the culture were similar with two marker chromosomes. It was thus shown that radioinduced osteosarcomas can be cultivated in tissue culture while retaining their marker chromosomes and malignancy

  5. Gluten-induced enteropathy in nude mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farré, Maria; Funda, David P.; Tlaskalová, Helena

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (1995), s. S75 ISSN 0090-1229. [International congress of mucosal immunology /8./. San Diego, 17.07.1995-20.07.1995] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/93/1093; GA AV ČR IAA720401 Impact factor: 2.088, year: 1995

  6. Nova Aql 1918: A nude old nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvelli, P.L.; Cassatella, A.

    1981-01-01

    IUE observations at high and low resolution of Nova Aql 1918 show neither evidence of outflow nor the presence of nebular lines. This indicates that the shell ejected at the time of the outburst and surrounding the system for many years (Mustel and Boyarchuck, 1970) has by now disappeared. The high excitation spectrum presents rapid variations in the far UV and eclipse effects in the near UV that seem well correlated with the orbital phase. The observations can be interpreted in terms of phenomena occurring in or near the accretion disk surrounding the white dwarf. However, the small inclination of the orbital axis raises serious problems in trying to model the system. (Auth.)

  7. In vivo study of doxorubicin-loaded cell-penetrating peptide-modified pH-sensitive liposomes: biocompatibility, bio-distribution, and pharmacodynamics in BALB/c nude mice bearing human breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Y

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Ding,1,* Wei Cui,2,* Dan Sun,1 Gui-Ling Wang,1 Yu Hei,1 Shuai Meng,1 Jian-Hua Chen,3 Ying Xie,1 Zhi-Qiang Wang4 1Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmaceutics and New Drug Delivery Systems, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 2School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 3School of Medicine, Jianghan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kent State University Geauga, Burton, OH, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In vivo evaluation of drug delivery vectors is essential for clinical translation. In BALB/c nude mice bearing human breast cancer tumors, we investigated the biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of doxorubicin (DOX-loaded novel cell-penetrating peptide (CPP-modified pH-sensitive liposomes (CPPL (referred to as CPPL(DOX with an optimal CPP density of 4%. In CPPL, a polyethylene glycol (PEG derivative formed by conjugating PEG with stearate via acid-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG2000-Hz-stearate was inserted into the surface of liposomes, and CPP was directly attached to liposome surfaces via coupling with stearate to simultaneously achieve long circulation time in blood and improve the selectivity and efficacy of CPP for tumor targeting. Compared to PEGylated liposomes, CPPL enhanced DOX accumulation in tumors up to 1.9-fold (p<0.01 and resulted in more cell apoptosis as a result of DNA disruption as well as a relatively lower tumor growth ratio (T/C%. Histological examination did not show any signs of necrosis or inflammation in normal tissues, but large cell dissolving areas were found in tumors following the treatment of animals with CPPL(DOX. Our findings provide important and detailed information regarding the distribution of CPPL(DOX in vivo and reveal their abilities of tumor penetration and potential for the treatment of

  8. Combination Efficacy of Astragalus membranaceus and Curcuma wenyujin at Different Stages of Tumor Progression in an Imageable Orthotopic Nude Mouse Model of Metastatic Human Ovarian Cancer Expressing Red Fluorescent Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gang; Tang, Decai; Dai, Jianguo; Liu, Min; Wu, Mianhua; Sun, Y U; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Guo, Xiuxia

    2015-06-01

    The present study determined the efficacy of extracts of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Curcuma wenyujin (CW), a traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture, at different tumor stages of an orthotopic nude mouse model of human ovarian cancer expressing red fluorescent protein. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with cisplatinum (CDDP), AM, CW, or a combination of AM and CW in each of three tumor stages, using the same regimen. Group 1 received saline as negative control. Group 2 received CDDP i.p. as positive control with a dose of 2 mg/kg, every three days. Group 3 received AM daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 9120 mg/kg. Group 4 received CW daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 4560 mg/kg. Groups 5, 6 and 7 received combinations of AM and CW daily via oral gavage at low (AM, 2280 mg/kg; CW, 1140 mg/kg), medium (AM, 4560 mg/kg; CW 2280 mg/kg), and high (AM, 9120 mg/kg; CW, 4560 mg/kg) doses. The expression of angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2), and by polymerase chain reaction for MMP-2, FGF-2 and Bcl-2. CDDP, AM, and its combination with CW-induced significant growth inhibition of Stage I tumors. Strong efficacy of the combination of AM and CW at high dose was observed. Monotherapy with CDDP, AM, CW, and the combination treatments did not significantly inhibit Stage II and III tumors. The expression of MMP-2, VEGF, FGF-2, and Cox-2 was significantly reduced in Stage I tumors treated with AM, CW, and their combination, suggesting a possible role of these angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the observed efficacy of the agents tested. This study is the first report on the efficacy of anticancer agents at different stages of ovarian cancer in an orthotopic mouse model. As the tumor progressed, it became treatment

  9. Herbal compound 'Songyou Yin' reinforced the ability of interferon-alfa to inhibit the enhanced metastatic potential induced by palliative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiu-Yan; Huang, Zi-Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xin-Yu; Ai, Kai-Xing; Zheng, Qi; Tang, Zhao-You

    2010-01-01

    Liver resection is a widely accepted treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous clinical study showed that the rate of palliative resection was 34.0% (1958-2008, 2754 of 8107). However, the influence of palliative resection on tumor metastasis remains controversial. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of palliative resection on residual HCC and to explore interventional approaches. Palliative resection was done in an orthotopic nude mice model of HCC (MHCC97H) with high metastatic potential. Tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, lifespan, and some molecular alterations were examined in vivo and in vitro. Mice that underwent palliative resection were treated with the Chinese herbal compound 'Songyou Yin,' interferon-alfa-1b (IFN-α), or their combination to assess their effects. In the palliative resection group, the number of lung metastatic nodules increased markedly as compared to the sham operation group (14.3 ± 4.7 versus 8.7 ± 3.6, P < 0.05); tumor matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) activity was elevated by 1.4-fold, with up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2). The sera of mice undergoing palliative resection significantly enhanced cell invasiveness by 1.3-fold. After treatment, tumor volume was 1205.2 ± 581.3 mm 3 , 724.9 ± 337.6 mm 3 , 507.6 ± 367.0 mm 3 , and 245.3 ± 181.2 mm 3 in the control, 'Songyou Yin,' IFN-α, and combination groups, respectively. The combined therapy noticeably decreased the MMP2/TIMP2 ratio and prolonged the lifespan by 42.2%. Moreover, a significant (P < 0.001) reduction of microvessel density was found: 43.6 ± 8.5, 34.5 ± 5.9, 23.5 ± 5.6, and 18.2 ± 8.0 in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Palliative resection-stimulated HCC metastasis may occur, in part, by up-regulation of VEGF and MMP2/TIMP2. 'Songyou Yin' reinforced the ability of IFN-α to inhibit the

  10. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. II. Active and passive immunization as protection against a lethal bacterial dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1990-01-01

    Immunization against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in athymic and thymus-bearing LEW rats. Active immunization was performed with formalin-killed whole cell vaccine or sublethal infection prior to the lethal infection. After vaccination with killed bacteria the euthymic...... from immunized thymus grafted animals provided only limited protective effect, and treatment with cells from athymic animals had no effect. The study shows that although isogeneic thymus-grafted nude rats become resistent to reinfection with S. typhimurium, only large doses of spleen cells from...

  11. Adaptation and possible attenuation of Theileria parva-infected cells grown in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, A.D.; Brown, C.G.D.; Stagg, D.A.; Kanhai, G.K.; Kimber, C.D.; Radley, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Theileria parva-infected bovine lymphoid cells were taken from 8 cattle immediately after death from East Coast fever (ECF). Cells were inoculated into groups of irradiated Swiss and athymic nude mice. The irradiated mice were exposed to 800 rad doses from a 60 Co source. Cells became established in one group of Swiss mice and 2 groups of athymic mice. Development of cells in mice only occurred if cells concurrently established in culture; when establishment in culture was delayed, cells failed to develop in mice. Cells from one of the isolates in athymic mice were passaged 6 times through further mice. On inoculation of these mouse-passaged cells into cattle, the animals underwent mild reactions and subsequently resisted a lethal ECF challenge. The possibility of vaccinating cattle aginst ECF by means of mouse passaged cells merits further study. (author)

  12. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...... became severely septicemic and died within a week of inoculation, irrespective of presence or absence of thymus. In the second experiment the animals were inoculated with 10(6) bacteria, and both euthymic and thymus-grafted animals responded with high titres of anti bacterial antibodies while these were...... very low in the athymic nude animals. Polyclonal antibody production was only observed in the euthymic animals and only regarding IgG. Athymic rats were not able to clear the infection, while the thymus-grafted animals reacted like euthymic rats: Very few animals housed the bacteria four weeks after...

  13. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine composit Guben Yiliu III combined with gemcitabine on human pancreatic cancer xenograft in nude mice%固本抑瘤Ⅲ号方联合吉西他滨对人胰腺癌裸鼠异位移植瘤的抑瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炬; 钱海利; 徐志坚; 张立生; 叶霈智; 田爱平; 杨宏丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨固本抑瘤Ⅲ号方以及与吉西他滨联合治疗人胰腺癌裸鼠异位移植瘤的抑瘤作用。方法将40只荷瘤裸鼠随机分为对照组、吉西他滨组、固本抑瘤Ⅲ号联合吉西他滨组、固本抑瘤Ⅲ号组,每组10只。于接种后第8天开始给药,观察指标为瘤重、裸鼠体重、移植瘤体积。结果吉西他滨组、固本抑瘤Ⅲ号联合吉西他滨组、固本抑瘤Ⅲ号组的抑瘤率分别为49.2%、68.9%和28.0%。固本抑瘤Ⅲ号联合吉西他滨组较吉西他滨组抑瘤作用更强( P<0.05)。吉西他滨组、固本抑瘤Ⅲ号联合吉西他滨组、固本抑瘤Ⅲ号组移植瘤体积均较对照组明显降低,差异有显著性。固本抑瘤Ⅲ号联合吉西他滨组体重下降明显,体重较对照组、吉西他滨组及固本抑瘤Ⅲ号组明显下降,差异有显著性。结论固本抑瘤Ⅲ号方具有增加吉西他滨化疗治疗人胰腺癌裸鼠腋下移植瘤疗效的作用。%Objective To explore whether the Chinese medicine Guben Yiliu III can improve the effect of gemcit -abine on human pancreatic cancer xenograft in nude mice . Methods Nude mice with transplanted human pancreatic cancer were divided randomly into 4 groups: control group, gemcitabine treatment group , combined ( Guben Yiliu III +gemcitabine) group, and Guben Yiliu III group, 10 mice in each group.The gemcitabine group and combined group were treated with gemcitabine from the 8th day after transplantation in a dose of 100 mg/kg by i.p.injection, twice a week. Guben Yiliu III and combined groups were given the aqueous solution of Guben Yiliu III granules p .o.since the 8th day af-ter transplantation .Result The inhibition rate of transplanted tumor in the three treatment groups were 48.9% in the gemcitabine group , 68.9%in the combined group , and 28.0%in the Guben Yiliu III group .The combined group showed a significantly higher inhibition rate than the gemcitabine group (P<0

  14. Disposition of [14C]γ-cyclodextrin in germ-free and conventional rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Ommen, B. van; Bär, A.

    1998-01-01

    The absorption, disposition, metabolism, and excretion of 14C-labeled γ-cyclodextrin ([14C]γ-CD) was examined in four separate experiments with Wistar rats. In experiment 1, [14C]γ-CD (25 μCi, 600 mg/kg body wt) was administered intravenously to four male and four female conventional rats. In

  15. Disposition of 14C-α-cyclodextrin in germ-free and conventional rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Bär, A.

    2004-01-01

    The absorption, disposition, metabolism, and excretion of uniformly 14C-labeled α-cyclodextrin (14C-α-CD) was examined in four separate experiments with Wistar rats. In Experiment 1, 14C-α-CD (25μCi, 50mg/kg bw) was administered intravenously to four male and four female conventional rats. In

  16. The distribution of lymphoid cells in the small intestine of germ-free and conventional piglets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potočková, Hana; Šinkorová, Jana; Kárová, Kristýna; Šinkora, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2015), s. 99-107 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Porcine immune system * Lymphocyte subpopulations * Cell surface molecules Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.620, year: 2015

  17. In vivo investigations of genetically modified microorganisms using germ-free rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund jacobsen, Bodil

    Risk evaluation of genetically modified microorganism (GMMO) in relation to human health effects brings into consideration the ability of the microorganism to survive and colonise the gastrointestinal tract and the potential gene transfer to the resident microbiota. Different biological containment...

  18. Susceptibility of germ-free pigs to challenge with protease mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchal, Igor; Rychlík, I.; Gregorová, D.; Šebková, A.; Trebichavský, Ilja; Šplíchalová, Alla; Muneta, Y.; Mori, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 212, - (2007), s. 577-582 ISSN 0171-2985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/2248 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) 1B4400020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : salmonella * protease mutants * pig Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.886, year: 2007

  19. Aged Gut Microbiota Contributes to Systemical Inflammaging after Transfer to Germ-Free Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Floris; van Beek, Adriaan A.; Borghuis, Theo; El Aidy, Sahar; Hugenholtz, Floor; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; De Jonge, Marien I.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Smidt, Hauke; Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this

  20. Aged gut microbiota contributes to systemical inflammaging after transfer to germ-free mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Floris; Beek, van A.A.; Borghuis, Theo; Aidy, El Sahar; Hugenholtz, F.; Gaast-de Jongh, van der Christa; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Jonge, De Marien I.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Smidt, H.; Faas, Marijke M.; Vos, de Paul

    2018-01-01

    Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this

  1. Microbiome and Colorectal Carcinoma Insights From Germ-Free and Conventional Animal Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Vannucci, Luca; Klimešová, Klára; Štěpánková, Renata; Křižan, Jiří; Kverka, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2014), s. 217-224 ISSN 1528-9117 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/1252; GA ČR GAP303/12/0535; GA AV ČR IAA500200917; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Microbiota * microbiome * colorectal cancer Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.237, year: 2014

  2. Synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-5-iodo-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([{sup 18}F]-FIAU) and micro-PET imaging of suicide gene expression in tumor-bearing nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alauddin, M.M.; Shahinian, A.; Park, R.; Tohme, M.; Fissekis, J.D.; Conti, P.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). PET Imaging Science Center

    2004-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) is being used as a suicide gene for gene therapy of cancer. An in vivo method to assess the HSV1-tk enzyme activity after gene transfer is desirable to monitor gene expression as an indicator of gene delivery. Imaging of the HSV1-tk reporter gene along with various reporter probes is of current interest. We originally developed [{sup 18}F]-FHPG and [{sup 18}F]-FHBG for PET imaging of HSV1-tk gene expression and demonstrated that [{sup 18}F]-FHBG is more useful than [{sup 18}F]-FHPG for this purpose. [{sup 124}I]-FIAU has been shown to be a potential PET imaging agent for HSV1-tk gene expression, and is superior to [{sup 18}F]-FHPG and [{sup 18}F]-FHBG. We also demonstrated that radiolabeled FMAU can be used as a marker for HSV-tk gene expression, and is superior to [{sup 18}F]-FHPG and [{sup 18}F]-FHBG. Earlier we reported a synthesis for 2'-deoxy-2'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-5-methyl-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([{sup 18}F]-FMAU) and some other 5-substituted nucleosides. We have synthesized now [{sup 18}F]-FIAU, used the tracer for micro-PET imaging of suicide gene expression in tumor-bearing nude mice, and compared the results with earlier studies using [{sup 14}C]-FMAU. (orig.)

  3. Synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-5-ethyl-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([{sup 18}F]-FEAU) and micro-PET imaging of HSV-tk gene expression in tumor-bearing nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alauddin, M.M.; Shahinian, A.; Park, R.; Tohme, M.; Fissekis, J.D.; Conti, P.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). PET Imaging Science Center

    2004-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) is being used as a suicide gene for gene therapy of cancer. An in vivo method to assess the HSV1-tk enzyme activity after gene transfer is desirable to monitor gene expression as an indicator of gene delivery. Imaging of the HSV1-tk reporter gene along with various reporter probes is of current interest. We originally developed [{sup 18}F]-FHPG and [{sup 18}F]-FHBG for PET imaging of HSV1-tk gene expression and demonstrated that [{sup 18}F]-FHBG is more useful than [{sup 18}F]-FHPG for this purpose. [{sup 124}I]-FIAU has been shown to be a potential PET imaging agent for HSV1-tk gene expression, and is superior to [{sup 18}F]-FHPG and [{sup 18}F]-FHBG. We also demonstrated that radiolabeled FMAU can be used as a marker for HSV-tk gene expression, and is superior to [{sup 18}F]-FHPG and [{sup 18}F]-FHBG. Earlier we reported a synthesis for 2'-deoxy-2'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-5-methyl-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([{sup 18}F]-FMAU) and some other 5-substituted nucleosides. We have synthesized now [{sup 18}F]-FEAU, used the tracer for micro-PET imaging of suicide gene expression in tumor-bearing nude mice, and compared the results with earlier studies using [{sup 14}C]-FMAU. (orig.)

  4. The combination of temozolomide-irinotecan regresses a doxorubicin-resistant patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model of recurrent Ewing's sarcoma with a FUS-ERG fusion and CDKN2A deletion: Direction for third-line patient therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kentaro; Murakami, Takashi; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Miyake, Masuyo; Li, Yunfeng; Nelson, Scott D; Dry, Sarah M; Bouvet, Michael; Elliott, Irmina A; Russell, Tara A; Singh, Arun S; Eckardt, Mark A; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Momiyama, Masashi; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-11-28

    The aim of the present study was to determine the usefulness of a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model of a doxorubicin-resistant metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, with a unique combination of a FUS-ERG fusion and CDKN2A deletion, to identify effective drugs for third-line chemotherapy of the patient. Our previous study showed that cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitors were effective on the Ewing's sarcoma PDOX, but not doxorubicin, similar to the patient's resistance to doxorubicin. The results of the previous PDOX study were successfully used for second-line therapy of the patiend. In the present study, the PDOX mice established with the Ewing's sarcoma in the right chest wall were randomized into 5 groups when the tumor volume reached 60 mm 3 : untreated control; gemcitabine combined with docetaxel (intraperitoneal [i.p.] injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); irinotecan combined with temozolomide (irinotecan: i.p. injection; temozolomide: oral administration, daily, for 2 weeks); pazopanib (oral administration, daily, for 2 weeks); yondelis (intravenous injection, weekly, for 2 weeks). All mice were sacrificed on day 15. Body weight and tumor volume were assessed 2 times per week. Tumor weight was measured after sacrifice. Irinotecan combined with temozolomide was the most effective regimen compared to the untreated control group (p=0.022). Gemcitabine combined with docetaxel was also effective (p=0.026). Pazopanib and yondelis did not have significant efficacy compared to the untreated control (p=0.130, p=0.818). These results could be obtained within two months after the physician's request and were used for third-line therapy of the patient.

  5. Establishment of drug resistance transplanted tumor models in nude mice with human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1/DDP and drug resistance detection%人鼻咽癌耐药裸鼠移植瘤模型的建立及耐药性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚德雅; 刘森; 朱名毅; 彭丽雲; 刘津; 高洁; 卢露碧

    2016-01-01

    Objective To look for optimized methods to establish drug resistance transplanted tumor models in nude mice with human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1/DDP (cisplatin), and to detect its drug resistance in order to set up the foundation for the follow-up researches about the mechanism of drug resistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma ( NPC) .Methods The multidrug resistant cell line CNE-1/DDP cells were established by cisplatin induction , then the three different concentrations of drug-resistant cells were inoculated subcutaneously into nude mice , respectively , and to observe the tumorigenicity and metastasis ,The expression levels of LRP ,VEGF and Bcl-2 in CNE-1 cells, CNE-1/DDP resistant cells and transplanted tumor were detected by Western Blotting .Results The nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1/DDP resistant cell lines were successfully established by cisplatin induction ,and its drug tolerance to DDP , vincristine and paclitaxel increased 35.83,23.74 and 10.54 times,respectively, as compared with that in CNE-1 cells,The successful rate of transplantation tumor was 83.33%by means of CNE-1/DDP resistant cells at 5 ×106/ml, however, transplantation tumor was not induced by the other two concentrations of drug-resistant cells,moreover, the tumor metastases in liver, lungs and other organs were not observed in all the nude mice .The expression levels of LRP , VEGF and Bcl-2 in resistant cells and transplanted tumor were significantly higher than those in CNE-1 cells ( P <0.05).Conclusion The tumorigenicity of CNE-1/cisplatin resistant cells is related with cells concentration ,the transplantation tumor of CNE-1 resistant cells keeps still drug tolerance ,which can provide ideal animal models for the researches about reversal agent of drug resistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma .%目的:优化建立人鼻咽癌CNE-1/顺铂耐药裸鼠移植瘤模型的方法,并检测其药耐药性,为后续鼻咽癌的耐药机制研究奠定基础。方法

  6. CD4+ LYMPHOCYTES IMPROVE VENOUS BLOOD FLOW IN EXPERIMENTAL ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Juan C.; Martinez, Laisel; Mesa, Annia; Wei, Yuntao; Tabbara, Marwan; Salman, Loay H.; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I.

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of immune cells in arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) maturation is poorly understood and has received, until quite recently, little attention. This study examines the role of T lymphocytes in AVF vascular remodeling. Methods Experimental fistulae were created in athymic rnu nude rats lacking mature T lymphocytes and euthymic control animals by anastomosing the left superior epigastric vein to the nearby femoral artery. Blood flow rates, wall morphology and histological changes were assessed in AVF 21 days after creation. The effect of CD4+ lymphocytes on AVF maturation in athymic animals was analyzed by adoptive transfer of cells after fistula creation. Results The absence of T lymphocytes compromised blood flow in experimental fistulae. Histopathological inspection of AVF from athymic rats revealed that T cell immunodeficiency negatively affected venous vascular remodeling, as evidenced by a reduced lumen, a thick muscular layer and a low number of inflammatory cells compared to control animals. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ lymphocytes from euthymic rats into athymic animals before and after fistula creation improved blood flow and reduced intima-media thickness. Conclusion These results point at the protective role of CD4+ lymphocytes in the remodeling of the AVF vascular wall. PMID:25999254

  7. Withaferin A Suppresses Liver Tumor Growth in a Nude Mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mouse Model by Downregulation of Cell Signaling Pathway. Leading to Invasion and ... intravasation into blood or lymphatic vessels and extravasation into new ..... The development of the chicked. New York: H. Holt and company, 1908. 3.

  8. Withaferin A Suppresses Liver Tumor Growth in a Nude Mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumor cell invasiveness in colon cancer [7] and is related to angiogenesis in ... Hsp90, phosphorylated STAT3 and annexin II. [18,20-24]. ..... Herbstritt CJ, Ruiz A, Zhang L, Hanson AD, Conner. BP, Rougas J, Pribluda VS. Withaferin A is a ...

  9. NRP-1 monoclonal antibody in combination with metronomic chemotherapy (MCT) inhibits the growth of gastric cancer xenografts in nude mice%NRP-1单抗联合节律化疗对裸鼠胃癌移植瘤生长的抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁园; 徐芸; 陈玉强; 颜江华

    2017-01-01

    目的:探讨NRP-1单抗联合多西他赛节律化疗对胃癌裸鼠移植瘤的抗肿瘤疗效.方法:BALB/c裸鼠皮下接种胃癌BGC-823细胞制备移植瘤模型,将荷瘤裸鼠以数字随机表法随机分为对照组、NRP-1单抗组、节律化疗组(MCT)、联合组(NRP-1mAb+MCT),每组6只.除对照组,其余各组于造模第8天开始分别给予相应治疗,给药2周,观察裸鼠一般状况,隔天测量裸鼠体重及肿瘤体积.裸鼠处死后称瘤质量,H-E染色观察瘤组织形态,免疫组化检测裸鼠瘤组织中NRP-1蛋白、VEGF、MVD表达.结果:联合组移植瘤的体积和质量显著低于其他各组[(0.394±0.128) vs (0.748±0.152)、(0.867±0.361)、(1.247±0.494)g;(0.613±0.223) vs (0.866±0.115)、(1.098±0.343)、(1.474±0.644)cm3.均P<0.05],抑瘤率较其他治疗组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对照组癌组织细胞生长良好,血管丰富,给药组癌组织出现不同程度的片状坏死,血管成分减少.免疫组化染色显示,对照组NRP-1表达明显高于治疗各组(P<0.05),联合组的NRP-1、VEGF、MVD表达均显著低于其余各组(P<0.05).结论:NRP-1单抗联合多西他赛节律化疗可能通过下调NRP-1表达而显著抑制BGC-823胃癌移植瘤的生长及血管生成.%Objective:To investigate the antitumor effect of NRP-1 monoclonal antibody combined with docetaxel metronomic chemotherapy in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts.Methods:BALB / c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with BGC-823 cells to establish xenograft model;the tumor bearing rats were randomly divided into control group,NRP-1 monoclonal antibody group (NRP-lmAb),rhythm chemotherapy group (MCT) and combined group (NRP-lmAb+MCT).Except the control group,the other three groups were given the corresponding treatment on the 8th day after the model establishment.After 2 weeks of administration,the general condition of nude mice was observed and the body weight and tumor volume were measured the next day

  10. Vitamin A deficiency may lead to severe septicemia in germfree rats being colonized from birth with an Escherichia coli strain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, U.; Štěpánková, Renata; Hanson, L. A.; Kahu, H.; Dahlgren, U. I.

    1997-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 1 (1997), s. A22 ISSN 0818-9641. [International Congress of Mucosal Immunology /9./. Sydney, 27.01.1997-31.01.1997] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/96/1256; GA ČR GA311/97/0784 Impact factor: 0.909, year: 1997

  11. Diet Matters: Endotoxin in the Diet Impacts the Level of Allergic Sensitization in Germ-Free Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarzer, M.; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Hermanová, Petra; Leulier, F.; Kozáková, Hana; Schabussova, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-15, č. článku e0167786. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0449; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06326S; GA MŠk 7AMB12AT020; GA MŠk 7AMB15AT025 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : REGULATORY T-CELLS * BET V 1 * COMMENSAL BACTERIA Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  12. Role of Intestinal Bacteria in Gliadin-Induced Changes in Intestinal Mucosa: Study in Germ-Free Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cinová, Jana; De Palma, G.; Štěpánková, Renata; Kofroňová, Olga; Kverka, Miloslav; Sanz, Y.; Tučková, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-10 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA ČR GA303/08/0367; GA ČR GPP304/10/P406; GA AV ČR IAA500200801; GA AV ČR IAA500200710; GA AV ČR KJB500200904; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : CELIAC-DISEASE * ALTERED EXPRESSION * MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to human mammary tumor-associated antigens and their use for radiolocalization of xenografts in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colcher, D.; Schlom, J.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have utilized membrane-enriched extracts of human metastatic mammary tumor cells as immunogens to generate and characterize monoclonal antibodies reactive with determinants that would be maintained on metastatic, as well as primary, human mammary carcinoma cells. Multiple assays using tumor cells extracts, tissue sections, and live cells in culture have been employed to reveal the diversity of the monoclonal antibodies generated. Then the utility of these antibodies for radiolocalization studies was examined. (Auth.)

  14. High αv Integrin Level of Cancer Cells Is Associated with Development of Brain Metastasis in Athymic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingjen Jeffrey; Pagel, Michael A; Muldoon, Leslie L; Fu, Rongwei; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    Brain metastases commonly occur in patients with malignant skin, lung and breast cancers resulting in high morbidity and poor prognosis. Integrins containing an αv subunit are cell adhesion proteins that contribute to cancer cell migration and cancer progression. We hypothesized that high expression of αv integrin cell adhesion protein promoted metastatic phenotypes in cancer cells. Cancer cells from different origins were used and studied regarding their metastatic ability and intetumumab, anti-αv integrin mAb, sensitivity using in vitro cell migration assay and in vivo brain metastases animal models. The number of brain metastases and the rate of occurrence were positively correlated with cancer cell αv integrin levels. High αv integrin-expressing cancer cells showed significantly faster cell migration rate in vitro than low αv integrin-expressing cells. Intetumumab significantly inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro regardless of αv integrin expression level. Overexpression of αv integrin in cancer cells with low αv integrin level accelerated cell migration in vitro and increased the occurrence of brain metastases in vivo. αv integrin promotes brain metastases in cancer cells and may mediate early steps in the metastatic cascade, such as adhesion to brain vasculature. Targeting αv integrin with intetumumab could provide clinical benefit in treating cancer patients who develop metastases. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Functional and immunohistochemical evaluation of porcine neonatal islet-like cell clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T B; Yderstraede, K B; Schrøder, H D

    2003-01-01

    Porcine neonatal islet-like cell clusters (NICCs) may be an attractive source of insulin-producing tissue for xenotransplantation in type I diabetic patients. We examined the functional and immunohistochemical outcome of the islet grafts in vitro during long-term culture and in vivo after...... transplantation to athymic nude mice. On average we obtained 29,000 NICCs from each pancreas. In a perifusion system, NICCs responded poorly to a glucose challenge alone, but 10 mmol/L arginine elicited a fourfold increase in insulin secretion and 16.7 mmol/L glucose + 10 mmol/L arginine caused a sevenfold...... co-stained for proliferation. However no co-staining was observed between insulin- and glucagon-positive cells or between hormone-and CK-positive cells. Following transplantation of 2000 NICCs under the renal capsule of diabetic nude mice, BG levels were normalized within an average of 13 weeks. Oral...

  16. The weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenrath, W.G.; Hawkins, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Percutaneous penetration of compounds of varying lipid solubility was studied in three systems, in vivo with the data from weanling Yorkshire pigs compared to data reported for nine compounds in man, in vivo with the same nine compounds on either weanling Yorkshire pig skin or human skin grafted to athymic nude mice and in vitro with twelve compounds on weanling Yorkshire pig skin and human skin mounted on a skin penetration/evaporation apparatus. Correlations (P<0.05) were found between in vivo pig values and those reported for man (r=0.83), between values for human and pig skin grafted to nude mice (r=0.69) and between in vitro human and in vitro pig skin values (r=0.76). The in vitro skin penetration system provides a valid approximation of a chemical's penetration through human skin; therefore, the number of animals required to obtain such information is reduced

  17. Chimeric Mouse model to track the migration of bone marrow derived cells in glioblastoma following anti-angiogenic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achyut, B R; Shankar, Adarsh; Iskander, A S M; Ara, Roxan; Knight, Robert A; Scicli, Alfonso G; Arbab, Ali S

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) have been shown to contribute in the tumor development. In vivo animal models to investigate the role of BMDCs in tumor development are poorly explored. We established a novel chimeric mouse model using as low as 5 × 10(6) GFP+ BM cells in athymic nude mice, which resulted in >70% engraftment within 14 d. In addition, chimera was established in NOD-SCID mice, which displayed >70% with in 28 d. Since anti-angiogenic therapies (AAT) were used as an adjuvant against VEGF-VEGFR pathway to normalize blood vessels in glioblastoma (GBM), which resulted into marked hypoxia and recruited BMDCs to the tumor microenvironment (TME). We exploited chimeric mice in athymic nude background to develop orthotopic U251 tumor and tested receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and CXCR4 antagonist against GBM. We were able to track GFP+ BMDCs in the tumor brain using highly sensitive multispectral optical imaging instrument. Increased tumor growth associated with the infiltration of GFP+ BMDCs acquiring suppressive myeloid and endothelial phenotypes was seen in TME following treatments. Immunofluorescence study showed GFP+ cells accumulated at the site of VEGF, SDF1 and PDGF expression, and at the periphery of the tumors following treatments. In conclusion, we developed a preclinical chimeric model of GBM and phenotypes of tumor infiltrated BMDCs were investigated in context of AATs. Chimeric mouse model could be used to study detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms of interaction of BMDCs and TME in cancer.

  18. Tumor Angiogenesis Therapy Using Targeted Delivery of Paclitaxel to the Vasculature of Breast Cancer Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer aberrantly expresses tissue factor (TF in cancer tissues and cancer vascular endothelial cells (VECs. TF plays a central role in cancer angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis and, as such, is a target for therapy and drug delivery. TF is the cognate receptor of factor VIIa (fVIIa. We have coupled PTX (paclitaxel, also named Taxol with a tripeptide, phenylalanine-phenylalanine-arginine chloromethyl ketone (FFRck and conjugated it with fVIIa. The key aim of the work is to evaluate the antiangiogenic effects of PTX-FFRck-fVIIa against a PTX-resistant breast cancer cell line. Matrigel mixed with VEGF and MDA-231 was injected subcutaneously into the flank of athymic nude mice. Animals were treated by tail vein injection of the PTX-FFRck-fVIIa conjugate, unconjugated PTX, or PBS. The PTX-FFRck-fVIIa conjugate significantly reduces microvessel density in matrigel (p<0.01–0.05 compared to PBS and unconjugated PTX. The breast cancer lung metastasis model in athymic nude mice was developed by intravenous injection of MDA-231 cells expressing luciferase. Animals were similarly treated intravenously with the PTX-FFRck-fVIIa conjugate or PBS. The conjugate significantly inhibits lung metastasis as compared to the control, highlighting its potential to antagonize angiogenesis in metastatic carcinoma. In conclusion, PTX conjugated to fVIIa is a promising therapeutic approach for improving selective drug delivery and inhibiting angiogenesis.

  19. Neuroimmune processes associated with Wallerian degeneration support neurotrophin-3-induced axonal sprouting in the injured spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Shine, H David

    2013-10-01

    Lesions of the spinal cord cause two distinctive types of neuroimmune responses, a response at the lesion site that leads to additional tissue destruction and a more subtle response, termed Wallerian degeneration (WD), that occurs distal to the lesion site. We have evidence that the neuroimmune response associated with WD may support tissue repair. Previously, we found that overexpression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) induced axonal growth in the spinal cord after a unilateral corticospinal tract (CST) lesion, but only if the immune system was intact and activated. We reasoned that a neuroimmune response associated with WD was involved in this neuroplasticity. To test this, we compared NT-3-induced axonal sprouting in athymic nude rats that lack functional T cells with rats with functional T cells and in nude rats grafted with CD4(+) T cells or CD8(+) T cells. There was no sprouting in nude rats and in nude rats grafted with CD8(+) T cells. However, nude rats grafted with CD4(+) T cells mounted a sprouting response. To determine which CD4(+) subtype, type 1 T helper (Th1) or type 2 T helper (Th2) cells, was responsible, we grafted Th1 and Th2 cells into nude rats and tested whether they would support sprouting. Axonal sprouting was greater in rats grafted with Th2 cells, demonstrating that the Th2 subtype was responsible for supporting axonal sprouting. These data suggest that WD activates Th2 cells that, along with the direct effects of NT-3 on CST axons, act to support axonal sprouting in the lesioned spinal cord. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Jejunal brush border microvillous alterations in Giardia muris-infected mice: role of T lymphocytes and interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K G; Logan, M R; Klammer, G M; Teoh, D A; Buret, A G

    2000-06-01

    Intestinal colonization with the protozoan Giardia causes diffuse brush border microvillous alterations and disaccharidase deficiencies, which in turn are responsible for intestinal malabsorption and maldigestion. The role of T cells and/or cytokines in the pathogenesis of Giardia-induced microvillous injury remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the role of T cells and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the brush border pathophysiology of acute murine giardiasis in vivo. Athymic nude (nu(-)/nu(-)) CD-1 mice and isogenic immunocompetent (nu(+)/nu(+)) CD-1 mice (4 weeks old) received an axenic Giardia muris trophozoite inoculum or vehicle (control) via orogastric gavage. Weight gain and food intake were assessed daily. On day 6, segments of jejunum were assessed for parasite load, brush border ultrastructure, IL-6 content, maltase and sucrase activities, villus-crypt architecture, and intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) infiltration. Despite similar parasitic loads on day 6, infected immunocompetent animals, but not infected nude mice, showed a diffuse loss of brush border microvillous surface area, which was correlated with a significant reduction in maltase and sucrase activities and a decrease in jejunal IL-6 concentration. In both athymic control and infected mice, jejunal brush border surface area and disaccharidases were high, but levels of tissue IL-6 were low and comparable to the concentration measured in immunocompetent infected animals. In both immunocompetent and nude mice, infection caused a small but significant increase in the numbers of IELs. These findings suggest that the enterocyte brush border injury and malfunction seen in giardiasis is, at least in part, mediated by thymus-derived T lymphocytes and that suppressed jejunal IL-6 does not necessarily accompany microvillous shortening.

  1. The comparative profile of lymphoid cells and the T and B cell spectratype of germ-free piglets infected with viruses SIV, PRRSV or PCV2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šinkora, Marek; Butler, J. E.; Lager, K.; Potočková, Hana; Šinkorová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, SEP 2014 (2014) ISSN 0928-4249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS * PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE-2 * ANTIBODY REPERTOIRE DEVELOPMENT Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  2. The effect of intestinal colonization of germ-free pigs with Escherichia coli on calprotectin levels in plasma, intestinal and bronchoalveolar lavages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchal, Igor; Fagerhol, M. K.; Trebichavský, Ilja; Šplíchalová, Alla; Schulze, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 209, - (2005), s. 681-687 ISSN 0171-2985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/1217; GA MŠk ME 580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : calprotectin * probiotic s * inflammatory bowel disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2005

  3. Colonization of germ-free piglets with probiotic E. coli is associated with stimulated production of TNF-alpha and acceleration of brush border enzyme and glycoconjugate development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana; Kolínská, Jiřina; Zákostelecká, Marie; Lojda, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2005), s. 231-232 ISSN 0891-060X. [Gnotobiology symposium. 20.06.2005-24.06.2005, Tokio] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : swine miniature * enterocyte * Escherichia coli * small intestine Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  4. An ultrastructural study of the effect of neomycin on the colon in the human subject and in the conventional and the germ-free mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwihare, A P

    1971-05-01

    An electron microscopic study of the colon of normal mice and human subjects and those treated with neomycin is reported; there is a close resemblance between the mouse and human colons. After rapid disinfection of the colon, there is epithelial cell damage due to a toxic effect of the drug, a reduction in epithelial turnover accompanying the change in flora, and an important reduction in the cellularity of the lamina propria mainly due to a reduction in inflammatory cells. The changes in the lamina propria probably represent changes in the antipathogenetic defences of the host.

  5. Differences in development of lymphocyte subpopulations from gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT) of germfree and conventional rats: effect if aging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánková, Renata; Šinkora, Jiří; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Kozáková, Hana; Tlaskalová, Helena

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (1998), s. 531-534 ISSN 0015-5632. [International Workshop on Immunodeficient Animals /9./. Praha, 15.06.1997-18.06.1997] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA311/97/0784; GA ČR GA303/96/1256 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.518, year: 1998

  6. Fatty acid composition and phospholipid types used in infant formulas modifies the establishment of human gut bacteria in germ-free mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rikke Mette Guldhammer; Licht, Tine Rask; Hellgren, Lars

    2017-01-01

    -rich emulsions were characterized by high relative abundances of Bacteroidaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae, while LCFA-rich emulsions caused higher abundances of Enterobacteriaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Coriobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae. Consumption of SL-emulsified lipids skewed the community towards more...... Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, while MPL increased Bacteroidaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, Rikkenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. Intake of SL increased cecal concentrations of iso-valeric and iso-butyric acids. This suggests that fat-type and emulsifiers applied in infant formula may have distinct effects...

  7. Specific antibody and immunoglobulin responses after intestinal colonization of germ-free piglets with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli O86

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cukrowska, Božena; Kozáková, Hana; Řeháková, Zuzana; Šinkora, Jiří; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 204, - (2001), s. 425-433 ISSN 0171-2985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA306/99/1383; GA AV ČR IAA5020101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : antibody * gut associated lymphoid tissue * immunoglobulin Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2001

  8. Colonization by non-pathogenic bacteria alters mRNA expression of cytochromes P450 in originally germ-free mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jourová, L.; Anzenbacher, P.; Lišková, B.; Matušková, Z.; Hermanová, Petra; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Kozáková, Hana; Hrnčířová, Lucia; Anzenbacherová, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2017), s. 463-469 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0535; GA ČR GA15-07268S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : HUMAN GUT MICROBIOTA * GENE-EXPRESSION * NISSLE 1917 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2016

  9. Queering Curriculum: "Truth or Dare", Secret Nude Sketches, and Closeted Video Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, Sharif; Washington, G. E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, two art teacher trainers explore the possibility of saddling critical pedagogy with queer theory in order to question the art curriculum's potential for critiquing personal relationships. As a preadolescent boy, one author initiated his own sex education curriculum with his middle school peers by creating "secret nude…

  10. Isomalto oligosaccharide sulfate inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Zhao-You

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC usually has a dismal prognosis because of its limited response to current pharmacotherapy and high metastatic rate. Sulfated oligosaccharide has been confirmed as having potent antitumor activities against solid tumors. Here, we explored the preclinical effects and molecular mechanisms of isomalto oligosaccharide sulfate (IMOS, another novel sulfated oligosaccharide, in HCC cell lines and a xenograft model. Methods The effects of IMOS on HCC proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, and invasiveness in vitro were assessed by cell counting, flow cytometry, adhesion, wound healing, and transwell assays, respectively. The roles of IMOS on HCC growth and metastasis in xenograft models were evaluated by tumor volumes and fluorescent signals. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of AKT, ERK, and JNK as well as total levels of c-MET were detected by Western blotting. IMOS-regulated genes were screened by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR array in HCCLM3-red fluorescent protein (RFP xenograft tissues and then confirmed by qRT-PCR in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Results IMOS markedly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis of HCCLM3, HepG2, and Bel-7402 cells and also significantly suppressed cell adhesion, migration, and invasion of HCCLM3 in vitro. At doses of 60 and 90 mg/kg/d, IMOS displayed robust inhibitory effects on HCC growth and metastasis without obvious side effects in vivo. The levels of pERK, tERK, and pJNK as well as c-MET were significantly down-regulated after treatment with 16 mg/mL IMOS. No obvious changes were found in the levels of pAkt, tAkt, and tJNK. Ten differentially expressed genes were screened from HCCLM3-RFP xenograft tissues after treatment with IMOS at a dose of 90 mg/kg/d. Similar gene expression profiles were confirmed in HepG2 and Hep3B cells after treatment with 16 mg/mL IMOS. Conclusions IMOS is a potential anti-HCC candidate through inhibition of ERK and JNK signaling independent of p53 and worth studying further in patients with HCC, especially at advanced stages.

  11. Micro-Computed Tomography Evaluation of Human Fat Grafts in Nude Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Michael T.; Hyun, Jeong S.; Lo, David D.; Montoro, Daniel T.; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Levi, Benjamin; Januszyk, Michael; Longaker, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although autologous fat grafting has revolutionized the field of soft tissue reconstruction and augmentation, long-term maintenance of fat grafts is unpredictable. Recent studies have reported survival rates of fat grafts to vary anywhere between 10% and 80% over time. The present study evaluated the long-term viability of human fat grafts in a murine model using a novel imaging technique allowing for in vivo volumetric analysis. Methods Human fat grafts were prepared from lipoaspirate samples using the Coleman technique. Fat was injected subcutaneously into the scalp of 10 adult Crl:NU-Foxn1nu CD-1 male mice. Micro-computed tomography (CT) was performed immediately following injection and then weekly thereafter. Fat volume was rendered by reconstructing a three-dimensional (3D) surface through cubic-spline interpolation. Specimens were also harvested at various time points and sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), for macrophages using CD68 and for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Finally, samples were explanted at 8- and 12-week time points to validate calculated micro-CT volumes. Results Weekly CT scanning demonstrated progressive volume loss over the time course. However, volumetric analysis at the 8- and 12-week time points stabilized, showing an average of 62.2% and 60.9% survival, respectively. Gross analysis showed the fat graft to be healthy and vascularized. H&E analysis and staining for CD68 showed minimal inflammatory reaction with viable adipocytes. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-human CB1 antibodies confirmed human origin of the adipocytes. Conclusions Studies assessing the fate of autologous fat grafts in animals have focused on nonimaging modalities, including histological and biochemical analyses, which require euthanasia of the animals. In this study, we have demonstrated the ability to employ micro-CT for 3D reconstruction and volumetric analysis of human fat grafts in a mouse model. Importantly, this model provides a platform for subsequent study of fat manipulation and soft tissue engineering. PMID:22916732

  12. Study on biodistribution and imaging of radioiodinated antisense oligonucleotides in nude mice bearing human lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.F.; Shen, J.; Zhang, C.L.; Liu, M.; Guo, F.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of sporadic lymphoma has risen due to an increase in immunosuppressed patients, particularly those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Sometimes suspect lymphoma has an undetectable location and we can not get the pathological specimen. Management of lymphoma is also difficult because the persistence of a significant number of residual tumor cells after intensive treatment. These relative failures can be attributed to make us choose this study for opening a new diagnostic and therapeutic field of lymphoma from molecular level. Immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain framework region (FR) of V1 family have been verified to be a major determinant of malignant phenotype of V1 family B-cell lymphoma. Most of targets for tumor antisense therapy study are protooncogenes, such as c-myc, bc1-2, which are broad -spectrum tumor imaging agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using radioiodine labeled FR antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs) as an imaging agent or antisense therapeutic radiopharmaceutical in lymphoma. A 18-mer partial phosphorothioate oligonucleotide sequence was synthesized and grafted in 5 ' with a tyramine group which was further labeled with 125 I or 131 I using the chloramine T method. Normal CD-1 mice were injected via a tail vein with 148 kBq of 125 I-FR-ASON (2∼3 μ g). Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 and 24 h and tissue samples were studied. Liposome-mediated 3.33 MBq of 131 I-FR-ASON (7 ∼ 9μ g) was injected intratumorally into tumor-bearing BALB/c mice (6 weeks after inoculation of 10 7 Namalwa cells) meanwhile liposome-mediated 131 I labeled sense oligonucleotides served as controls. Biodistribution was monitored by sequential scintigraphy and organ radioactivity measurement 24 h after injection. The percentage of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g) of tumor and tumor/ non-tumor tissue ratios (T/NT) were calculated for each group of mice and the difference between two groups was assessed. The 5' tyramine group allowed specific and stable radiolabeling of the ASON with radioiodine. The radioactivity in the organs reached its peak at 1 h after injection, and then decreased rapidly in normal mice after intravenous administration of 125 I-FR-ASON. The liver, stomach and intestine played an important role in biodistribution and radioactivity counts were low in bone, brain and blood. When 131 I-FR-ASON injected intratumorally into mice xenografted with Namalwa cell line, images showed tracer accumulated in tumor. Immediately after intratumoral administration, only tumor was visible. Scintiscans performed at the end of 1 and 2 h showed elimination of the tracer from the tumor to the abdomen and at the end of 24 h the tumor was clearly seen. %ID/g of tumor and T/NT ratios for the sense group(control) were significantly lower than those of the antisense group(P<0.001). In this study it could be concluded that radiolabeled Ig FR ASON showed high specificity in V1 family B-cell lymphoma, and it should be considered further for nuclear medicine imaging application and radionuclide antisense therapy.

  13. Experimental iodine-125 seed irradiation of intracerebral brain tumors in nude mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Joost J. C.; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Coumou, Annet W.; Koedooder, Kees; Lavini, Cristina; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Haveman, Jaap; Vandertop, William P.; van Furth, Wouter R.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-dose radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with brain cancer. However, in preclinical research external beam radiotherapy is limited to heterotopic murine models- high-dose radiotherapy to the murine head is fatal due to radiation toxicity. Therefore, we developed a

  14. Growth suppression of MCF-7 cancer cell-derived xenografts in nude mice by caveolin-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ping; Wang Xiaohui; Li Fei; Qi Baoju; Zhu Hua; Liu Shuang; Cui Yeqing; Chen Jianwen

    2008-01-01

    Caveolin-1 is an essential structural constituent of caveolae membrane domains that has been implicated in mitogenic signaling and oncogenesis. However, the exact functional role of caveolin-1 still remains controversial. In this report, utilizing MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells stably transfected with caveolin-1 (MCF-7/cav-1 cells), we demonstrate that caveolin-1 expression dramatically inhibits invasion and migration of these cells. Importantly, in vivo experiments employing xenograft tumor models demonstrated that expression of caveolin-1 results in significant growth inhibition of breast tumors. Moreover, a dramatic delay in tumor progression was observed in MCF-7/cav-1 cells as compared with MCF-7 cells. Histological analysis of tumor sections demonstrated a marked decrease in the percentage of proliferating tumor cells (Ki-67 assay) along with an increase in apoptotic tumor cells (TUNEL assay) in MCF-7/cav-1-treated animals. Our current findings provide for the first time in vivo evidence that caveolin-1 can indeed function as a tumor suppressor in human breast adenocarcinoma derived from MCF-7 cells rather than as a tumor promoter

  15. Effect of whole-body irradiation of mice on the number of background plaque-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Lefkovits, I.; Soeederberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    Mice were exposed in whole-body fashion to several doses of radiation and killed at various times thereafter for a determination of the number of background plaque-forming cells (PFCs) as assayed on either sheep erythrocytes or bromelain-treated autologous mouse erythrocytes. Increased numbers of both types of PFC were found in the irradiated groups. These increases were dependent on radiation dose and time after exposure. They did not appear to be caused by a disruption of normal lymphocyte traffic or a switch in immunoglobulin isotype. An increased number of PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs but not on sheep RBCs were found in irradiated congenitally athymic nude mice. On the basis of this and related observations, background PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs and on sheep RBCs appear to fall under different forms of homeostatic control

  16. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, including maternal fumonisin consumption, periconceptional zinc deficiency, parental occupational exposure and residential proximity to pesticides, lower socioeconomic status, fetal alcohol syndrome, mutations in the VANGL1 gene, human athymic Nude/SCID fetus, and single nucleotide polymorphism in the NOS3 gene. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  17. Sphingosine kinase 1 is a relevant molecular target in gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuereder, Thorsten; Hoeflmayer, Doris; Jaeger-Lansky, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1), a lipid kinase implicated in cell transformation and tumor growth, is overexpressed in gastric cancer and is linked with a poor prognosis. The biological relevance of Sphk1 expression in gastric cancer is unclear. Here, we studied the functional significance of Sphk1...... as a novel molecular target for gastric cancer by using an antisense oligonucleotide approach in vitro and in vivo. Gastric cancer cell lines (MKN28 and N87) were treated with Sphk1 with locked nucleic acid-antisense oligonucleotides (LNA-ASO). Sphk1 target regulation, cell growth, and apoptosis were...... assessed for single-agent Sphk1 LNA-ASO and for combinations with doxorubicin. Athymic nude mice xenografted with gastric cancer cells were treated with Sphk1 LNA and assessed for tumor growth and Sphk1 target regulation, in vivo. In vitro, nanomolar concentrations of Sphk1 LNA-ASO induced an approximately...

  18. Tumor radiobiology studies with heavy charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.B.; Tenforde, T.S.; Tenforde, S.D.; Parr, S.S.; Flynn, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The response of tumor-cell systems to irradiation with carbon, neon, and argon beams at various positions in the plateau and extended peak regions of the Bragg ionization (dose versus depth) curve is being evaluated from experiments conducted both in vivo and in vitro. The radiobiological end points being studied include: tumor volume response, cellular survival after tumor irradiation in situ, cell-kinetic parameters measured by flow cytofluorometry and time-lapse cinematography, and survival of oxic and hypoxic cells irradiated in suspension. One focus of the research effort during the past year has been on the combined effect of radiosensitizing drugs and charged-particle irradiation. In this article, the results are presented of studies on combined drug and radiation treatment of a rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor and a human melanoma tumor growing in athymic (thymus-less) nude mice

  19. A Cs-137 afterloading device. Preliminary results of cell kinetic effects of low dose-rate irradiation in an experimental tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    A Cs-137 afterloading technique is described which can be used in experimental tumours. Preliminary results, obtained with the human cervical carcinoma ME-180 xenografted to nude athymic mice, demonstrated that 20 Gy of low dose-rate irradiation induced an important redistribution of cells over cell cycle. The proportion of cells in G2-phase increased from 14.4% to 44.2% at 140 hours after irradiation. This method allows an accurate calculation of the dose-rate distribution in the tumour. Investigations of the cell kinetic effects of low dose-rate irradiation, at different dose-rates and different total doses, are therefore facilitated by the technique. (orig.) [de

  20. Induction of short-term biomarkers of tumor promotion in skin of CD-1 mice by petroleum middle distillates: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skisak, C; DiGiovanni, J; Conti, C J; Slaga, T J; Sharma, S; Sagartz, J W; Walborg, E F

    1995-01-01

    The induction of sustained epidermal hyperplasia in mouse skin has been shown to be a reliable predictor of tumor promoting activity for chemicals as diverse as phorbol esters, anthralins, n-dodecane and organic peroxides (DiGiovanni, 1992). The results contained herein demonstrate that API 81-07 and API 81-10, petroleum middle distillates that exhibit tumor promoting activity in mouse skin, induce epidermal hyperplasia and ODC activity. Other petroleum middle distillates (odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons, a light vacuum distillate, and a mineral seal oil) were also shown to share these activities. It should be emphasized that the relevance of these observations to human skin remains unresolved; however, the availability of these short-term biomarkers offers the opportunity to address the issue by performing comparative investigations on the effects of petroleum middle distillates on human skin xenografted to athymic (nude) mice. Such studies are being initiated.

  1. Human tumour xenografts established and serially transplanted in mice immunologically deprived by thymectomy, cytosine arabinoside and whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.J.; Thomas, J.M.; Peckham, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Mice immunologically deprived by thymectomy, cytosine arabinoside treatment and whole-body irradiation were used to study the growth of human tumours as xenografts. 10/16 melanoma biopsies, 4/13 ovarian carcinoma biopsies and 3/6 uterine cancer biopsies grew as serially transplantable xenograft lines. The tumour lines were studied through serial passages by histology, histo-chemistry, electron microscopy, chromosome analysis, immune fluorescence, growth rate measurement and mitotic counts. They retained the characteristics of the tumours of origin, with the exception of loss of pigmentation in two melanomas, histological dedifferentiation in the uterine carcinomas, and increased mitotic frequency and growth rate in some melanomas. It was concluded that this type of animal preparation is as useful as alternative methods of immunological deprivation, or as athymic nude mice, for the growth of human tumour xenografts, at least for some experimental purposes. (author)

  2. Enhancement by gamma-interferon of in vivo tumor radiolocalization by a monoclonal antibody against HLA-DR antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlinson, G.; Balkwill, F.; Snook, D.; Hooker, G.; Epenetos, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Athymic nu/nu (nude) mice bearing s.c. human breast tumors were treated systemically with recombinant human gamma-interferon. These tumors were phenotypically negative for HLA-DR prior to therapy, but after 4 days of treatment, 80% of the cells expressed this antigen in vivo as assessed by immunoperoxidase (F. R. Balkwill et al., Eur. J. Cancer Clin. Oncol., in press, 1986). A radioiodine-labeled murine monoclonal antibody (TAL-1B5) against HLA-DR specifically localized to the tumors in recombinant human gamma-interferon-treated but not in control mice. An isotype-identical murine monoclonal antibody that did not react with control or recombinant human gamma-interferon-treated tumors did not show any specific localization. These results demonstrate that specific localization to tumors of radio-labeled monoclonal antibodies to HLA-DR can be facilitated by systemic therapy with gamma-interferon

  3. Nuclear techniques in the study of East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection of cattle)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have been used in a variety of ways to study East Coast fever of cattle caused by the protozoan parasite Theileria parva. Macroschizonts, piroplasms and sporozoites have been radiolabelled by using different nucleic acid precursors, particularly 3 H-hypoxanthine and 3 H-thymidine. These studies have helped to elucidate cyclic changes occurring during parasite development in bovine lymphoid cells and in tick salivary glands. Attempts to attenuate parasites by irradiation have been partially successful in the case of sporozoites, and more attention should be given to an attempt to induce attenuation by irradiation of developing rather than mature sporozoites. Irradiation of macroschizont-infected cells does not appear to offer a means towards vaccine development but has proved a valuable technique in elucidating immunological mechanisms. The study of these mechanisms has also been greatly helped by nuclear techniques such as radioimmunoassay and 51 Cr-release assays. Irradiation of laboratory mice, particularly athymic nude strains, has resulted in immunosuppression of the host so that macroschizont-infected bovine lymphoid cells will grow as tumours following subcutaneous inoculation. Schizonts do not transfer to mouse cells and, until this can be achieved, the use of an athymic mouse model for East Coast fever is limited. (author)

  4. Thymectomized, irradiated, and bone marrow-reconstituted chimeras have normal cytolytic T lymphocyte precursors but a defect in lymphokine production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprez, V.; Maziarz, R.; Weinberger, O.; Burakoff, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    A model system has been developed to study extrathymic T cell differentiation; mice have been thymectomized, lethally irradiated, and reconstituted with bone marrow cells depleted of Thy-1 + cells. After 8 wk, the spleen cells of these athymic, bone marrow-reconstituted chimeras contain Thy-1 + precytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) that are able to respond to antigen only if supernatant from Con A-activated T cells is added to culture. The phenotype of these pre-CTL is similar to that of thymocytes, suggesting that they may be immature T cells. Initial evaluation of the CTL repertoire of these athymic mice demonstrated that the CTL generated to trinitrophenyl-modified syngeneic cells are H-2-restricted, and that the CTL generated to alloantigens have many of the cross-reactivities observed in normal mice but not in nude mice. In this report, the authors demonstrate a helper T cell defect in these thymectomized chimeras. These chimeras lack an Ly-1 + helper cell required for thymocytes to differentiate to CTL. Further studies revealed that when spleen cells from these thymectomized chimeras were stimulated with Con A, they produced normal levels of interleukin 2. However, these splenocytes were defective in the production of another factor needed for CTL differentiation

  5. Growth of transplantable melanoma and leukaemia and prevention of virus-induced leukaemia in long lived radiation chimeras constructed with unmanipulated bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierpaoli, W.

    1985-01-01

    Haemopoietic radiation chimeras across the H-2 barrier (BALB/c → C57B1/6; H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b) chimeras and vice versa) have been studied for their capacity to suppress the growth, or to reject, transplantable B16 melanotic melanoma and radiation leukaemia virus-induced, transplantable leukaemia. Also, radiation leukaemia virus (RadLV) obtained from the thymus of leukaemic C57B1/6 mice was injected i.p. into established chimeras (H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b)). As expected, long lived, graft versus host disease free allogeneic chimeras constructed with intact bone marrow were unable to reject the tumours both when recipients were BALB/c → C57B1/6 or C57B1/6 → BALB/c chimeras. However, inoculation of a large number of immunocompetent cells from normal BALB/c mice into BALB/c → C57B1/6 chimeras failed to promote a rejection of the tumours. On the contrary, the same amount of syngeneic (BALB/c) immunocompetent cells prevented growth of melanoma when transferred into athymic nude BALB/c mice, while the tumour grew unimpaired in untreated athymic nude BALB/c mice. The same type of H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b) chimeras displayed complete resistance to inoculation of leukaemogenic H-2sup(b) restricted RadLV while all H-2sup(b) → H-2sup(b), syngeneically reconstituted mice developed disseminated leukaemia. (author)

  6. In Vivo Assessment of Printed Microvasculature in a Bilayer Skin Graft to Treat Full-Thickness Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Maria; Rincon, Julio; Dones, Aracely; De Maria, Carmelo; Gonzales, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers are common problems in people suffering from type 2 diabetes. These can cause pain, and nerve damage, eventually leading to foot or leg amputation. These types of wounds are very difficult to treat and sometimes take months or even years to heal because of many possible complications during the process. Allogeneic skin grafting has been used to improve wound healing, but the majority of grafts do not survive several days after being implanted. We have been studying the behavior of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in engineered capillary-like endothelial networks. A dermo-epidermal graft has been implanted in an athymic nude mouse model to assess the integration with the host tissue as well as the wound healing process. To build these networks into a skin graft, a modified inkjet printer was used, which allowed the deposit of human microvascular endothelial cells. Neonatal human dermal fibroblast cells and neonatal human epidermal keratinocytes were manually mixed in the collagen matrix while endothelial cells printed. A full-thickness wound was created at the top of the back of athymic nude mice and the area was covered by the bilayered graft. Mice of the different groups were followed until completion of the specified experimental time line, at which time the animals were humanely euthanized and tissue samples were collected. Wound contraction improved by up to 10% when compared with the control groups. Histological analysis showed the neoskin having similar appearance to the normal skin. Both layers, dermis and epidermis, were present with thicknesses resembling normal skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed favorable results proving survival of the implanted cells, and confocal images showed the human cells' location in the samples that were collocated with the bilayer printed skin graft. PMID:25051339

  7. Augmentation of transfer of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in mice by irradiation of recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.V.; Kyriakos, M.; Sharp, G.C.; Braley-Mullen, H.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) can be adoptively transferred to normal syngeneic recipients using spleen cells from susceptible strains of mice primed in vivo with mouse thyroglobulin (MTg) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following in vitro activation of spleen cells by culture with MTg. Irradiation of recipient animals markedly augments the severity of thyroiditis induced in this system. Irradiation of recipients does not alter the time course of the development of thyroiditis, nor does it alter the requirement for both in vivo priming and in vitro activation of spleen cells for the development of EAT. Spleen cells from EAT-resistant strains of mice (e.g., Balb/c) do not induce EAT in irradiated recipients. Irradiated recipients develop significant levels of anti-MTg antibodies while unirradiated recipients have little detectable antibody response. The augmenting effect of irradiation can be substantially reversed by transferring naive spleen cells to recipients prior to the transfer of MTg/LPS-primed in vitro-activated spleen cells. In addition athymic CBA/Tufts nude mice develop more severe EAT than CBA/Tufts nude/+ littermates following transfer of activated CBA/J spleen cells. These data suggest that natural suppressor cells may regulate the development of EAT at the effector cell level

  8. The effect of near-infrared fluorescence conjugation on the anti-cancer potential of cetuximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ji Young; Hyun, Byung-Hwa; Nam, Sang Yoon; Yun, Young Won; Lee, Hu-Jang; Lee, Beom-Jun

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the anti-cancer potential of a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) molecule conjugated with Cetuximab (Cetuximab-NIRF) in six-week-old female BALB/c athymic (nu+/nu+) nude mice. A431 cells were cultured and injected into the animals to induce solid tumors. Paclitaxel (30 mg/kg body weight (BW)), Cetuximab (1 mg/kg BW), and Cetuximab-NIRF (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg BW) were intraperitoneally injected twice a week into the A431 cell xenografts of the nude mice. Changes in BW, tumor volume and weight, fat and lean mass, and diameter of the peri-tumoral blood vessel were determined after two weeks. Tumor volumes and weights were significantly decreased in the Cetuximab-NIRF (1 mg/kg BW) group compared with the control group ( P <0.001). Lean mass and total body water content were also conspicuously reduced in the Cetuximab-NIRF (1 mg/kg BW) group compared with the vehicle control group. Peri-tumoral blood vessel diameters were very thin in the Cetuximab-NIRF groups compared with those of the paclitaxel group. These results indicate that the conjugation of Cetuximab with NIRF does not affect the anti-cancer potential of Cetuximab and NIRF can be used for molecular imaging in cancer treatments.

  9. Elimination of self-reactive CD8+, but not CD4+, T cells by a peripheral immune mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rammensee, H.G.; Huegin, D.

    1990-01-01

    Unirradiated (BALB/c X B6)F1 recipients of lymphocytes from either parent or (B6 X DBA/2)F2 recipients of DBA/2 parental lymphocytes specifically remove the function of donor-derived F1-reactive CTL from the spleen, since such cells could not be recovered 1 week after injection. However, donor-derived CTL specific for third-party antigens, as well as donor-derived F1-reactive CD4+ T cells could be recovered. In contrast, CTL in spleens from recipients sublethally irradiated prior to injections consisted predominantly of F1-reactive CTL in all strain combinations tested. Athymic BALB/c nude mice grafted with fetal thymus of B6 develop a T cell compartment tolerant of BALB/c and B6, like (BALB/c X B6)F1 animals. However, unlike the F1 mice, the thymus-grafted nude mice were not able to eliminate B6-reactive lymphocytes after injection of normal BALB/c spleen cells. Our data indicate the existence of a peripheral immune mechanism capable of selectively eliminating self-reactive CD8+ CTL, but not CD4+, T cells. This mechanism requires self antigen expressed on radiosensitive cells. The presence of T cells tolerant to self antigen by thymic negative selection is not sufficient and perhaps not required. Most likely, this mechanism is involved in the relative resistance to lethal GVHR mediated by parental CD8+ T cells in parent-into-F1 situations

  10. Synergistic effect of EMF-BEMER-type pulsed weak electromagnetic field and HPMA-bound doxorubicin on mouse EL4 T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Říhová, Blanka; Etrych, Tomáš; Šírová, Milada; Tomala, Jakub; Ulbrich, Karel; Kovář, Marek

    2011-12-01

    We have investigated the effects of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) produced by BEMER device on experimental mouse T-cell lymphoma EL4 growing on conventional and/or athymic (nude) mice. Exposure to EMF-BEMER slowed down the growth of tumor mass and prolonged the survival of experimental animals. The effect was more pronounced in immuno-compromised nude mice compared to conventional ones. Acceleration of tumor growth was never observed. No measurable levels of Hsp 70 or increased levels of specific anti-EL4 antibodies were detected in the serum taken from experimental mice before and at different intervals during the experiment, i.e. before solid tumor appeared, at the time of its aggressive growth, and at the terminal stage of the disease. A significant synergizing antitumor effect was seen when EL4 tumor-bearing mice were simultaneously exposed to EMF-BEMER and treated with suboptimal dose of synthetic HPMA copolymer-based doxorubicin, DOX(HYD)-HPMA. Such a combination may be especially useful for heavily treated patients suffering from advanced tumor and requiring additional aggressive chemotherapy which, however, at that time could represent almost life-threatening way of medication.

  11. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and imaging studies with 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 whole antibody in LS174T colonic tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldrosen, M.H.; Biddle, W.C.; Pancook, J.; Bakshi, S.; Vanderheyden, J.L.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Morgan, A.C. Jr.; Foon, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and radioimaging studies were performed with 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 whole antibody in athymic nude mice bearing the LS174T tumor growing either s.c. or in an experimental hepatic metastasis model. NR-LU-10 is an IgG2b murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) that reacts with virtually all human tumors of epithelial origin. NR-BC-1, a IgG2b murine MAb that reacts with normal human B-cell and B malignancies, was used as an isotype-matched control. These MAbs were radiolabeled with 186Re by a preformed chelate approach by using the triamide thiolate ligand system. 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 (50 microCi) was injected into nude mice bearing LS174T tumors growing s.c. Biodistribution studies revealed that the LS174T tumor retained the highest concentration of 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 at day 6. The tumor:blood ratio ranged from 0.1:1 to 10.8:1 by day 6, the last day of analysis. In contrast the tumor:blood ratio of 186Re-labeled NR-BC-1, the isotype-matched MAb control, was 1:1 on day 6. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the t1/2 beta of NR-LU-10 for blood and other tissues ranged from 21 to 25 h, while the t1/2 beta for the LS174T tumor averaged 52 h. The area under the curve for tumor compared to blood was 2.8- to 5.7-fold higher than the area under the curve for all other tissues and organs. The mean residence time for NR-LU-10 in blood and all other organs ranged from 23 to 26 h, while the mean residence time for NR-LU-10 in the LS174T tumor was 72 h. Scintigraphic images revealed selective uptake of the 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10, but not of the 186Re-labeled NR-BC-1, at the LS174T tumor site. Studies in an experimental model of hepatic metastasis revealed a similar selective pattern of 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 accumulation. Scintigraphic images of the LS174T tumor growing within the athymic nude mouse liver were obtained

  12. Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD as an MR molecular probe imaging integrin alphanubeta3 receptor-expressed tumor-MR molecular imaging of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Tianlong; Du, Xiangke; Zhang, Sen; Liu, Xia; Li, Xubing

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel MR probe containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif for imaging integrin alphanubeta3 receptor-expressed tumor. Commercially available HYNIC-RGD conjugated with co-ligand EDDA was labeled with Gd(3+), and the mixture was isolated and purified by solid phase extract (SPE) to get the entire probe Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HHCC) cell line BEL-7402 was cultured and the cells harvested and suspended in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) were subcutaneously inoculated into athymic nude mice for tumor growth. In vitro cell binding assay to integrin alphanubeta3 receptor and cell viability experiments were conducted. The in vivo imaging of the three arms of xenografts were performed by MR scan with a dedicated animal coil at time points of 0, 30, 60, 90min and 24-h post-intravenous injection (p.i.). Three arms of nude mice then were sacrificed for histological examination to confirm the imaging results. Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD was successfully isolated by SPE and validity was verified on signal enhancement through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The nude mice model bearing HHCC was well established. There was approx. 30% signal enhancement on T1WI FSE images at 90min post-intravenous injection of the Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD compared with baseline, and the signal to time curve is straightforward over time in the span of 0-90min p.i., while the control arms do not show this tendency. Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD has the potential to serve as an MR probe detecting integrin alphanubeta3 receptor-expressed tumor. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD as an MR molecular probe imaging integrin {alpha}{nu}{beta}3 receptor-expressed tumor-MR molecular imaging of angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo Tianlong [Peking University People' s Hospital, Radiology Department, 11 Xizhimen South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100044 (China)], E-mail: huotianlong@bjmu.edu.cn; Du Xiangke [Peking University People' s Hospital, Radiology Department, 11 Xizhimen South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100044 (China)], E-mail: duxk@263.net; Zhang Sen [Peking University People' s Hospital, Radiology Department, 11 Xizhimen South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100044 (China)], E-mail: skagerrak_s@yahoo.com.cn; Liu Xia [Peking University People' s Hospital, Radiology Department, 11 Xizhimen South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100044 (China)], E-mail: iamliuxia@126.com; Li Xubing [Peking University People' s Hospital, Radiology Department, 11 Xizhimen South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100044 (China)], E-mail: lixb@bjmu.edu.cn

    2010-02-15

    Rationale and objective: The aim of this study is to develop a novel MR probe containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif for imaging integrin {alpha}{nu}{beta}3 receptor-expressed tumor. Materials and methods: Commercially available HYNIC-RGD conjugated with co-ligand EDDA was labeled with Gd{sup 3+}, and the mixture was isolated and purified by solid phase extract (SPE) to get the entire probe Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HHCC) cell line BEL-7402 was cultured and the cells harvested and suspended in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) were subcutaneously inoculated into athymic nude mice for tumor growth. In vitro cell binding assay to integrin {alpha}{nu}{beta}3 receptor and cell viability experiments were conducted. The in vivo imaging of the three arms of xenografts were performed by MR scan with a dedicated animal coil at time points of 0, 30, 60, 90 min and 24-h post-intravenous injection (p.i.). Three arms of nude mice then were sacrificed for histological examination to confirm the imaging results. Results: Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD was successfully isolated by SPE and validity was verified on signal enhancement through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The nude mice model bearing HHCC was well established. There was approx. 30% signal enhancement on T1WI FSE images at 90 min post-intravenous injection of the Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD compared with baseline, and the signal to time curve is straightforward over time in the span of 0-90 min p.i., while the control arms do not show this tendency. Conclusion: Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD has the potential to serve as an MR probe detecting integrin {alpha}{nu}{beta}3 receptor-expressed tumor.

  14. Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD as an MR molecular probe imaging integrin ανβ3 receptor-expressed tumor-MR molecular imaging of angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Tianlong; Du Xiangke; Zhang Sen; Liu Xia; Li Xubing

    2010-01-01

    Rationale and objective: The aim of this study is to develop a novel MR probe containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif for imaging integrin ανβ3 receptor-expressed tumor. Materials and methods: Commercially available HYNIC-RGD conjugated with co-ligand EDDA was labeled with Gd 3+ , and the mixture was isolated and purified by solid phase extract (SPE) to get the entire probe Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HHCC) cell line BEL-7402 was cultured and the cells harvested and suspended in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) were subcutaneously inoculated into athymic nude mice for tumor growth. In vitro cell binding assay to integrin ανβ3 receptor and cell viability experiments were conducted. The in vivo imaging of the three arms of xenografts were performed by MR scan with a dedicated animal coil at time points of 0, 30, 60, 90 min and 24-h post-intravenous injection (p.i.). Three arms of nude mice then were sacrificed for histological examination to confirm the imaging results. Results: Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD was successfully isolated by SPE and validity was verified on signal enhancement through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The nude mice model bearing HHCC was well established. There was approx. 30% signal enhancement on T1WI FSE images at 90 min post-intravenous injection of the Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD compared with baseline, and the signal to time curve is straightforward over time in the span of 0-90 min p.i., while the control arms do not show this tendency. Conclusion: Gd-EDDA/HYNIC-RGD has the potential to serve as an MR probe detecting integrin ανβ3 receptor-expressed tumor.

  15. Radiosensitization In Vivo by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition with No Increase in Early Normal Tissue Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groselj, Blaz; Ruan, Jia-Ling; Scott, Helen; Gorrill, Jessica; Nicholson, Judith; Kelly, Jacqueline; Anbalagan, Selvakumar; Thompson, James; Stratford, Michael R L; Jevons, Sarah J; Hammond, Ester M; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Kerr, Martin; Kiltie, Anne E

    2018-02-01

    As the population ages, more elderly patients require radiotherapy-based treatment for their pelvic malignancies, including muscle-invasive bladder cancer, as they are unfit for major surgery. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find radiosensitizing agents minimally toxic to normal tissues, including bowel and bladder, for such patients. We developed methods to determine normal tissue toxicity severity in intestine and bladder in vivo , using novel radiotherapy techniques on a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). The effects of panobinostat on in vivo tumor growth delay were evaluated using subcutaneous xenografts in athymic nude mice. Panobinostat concentration levels in xenografts, plasma, and normal tissues were measured in CD1-nude mice. CD1-nude mice were treated with drug/irradiation combinations to assess acute normal tissue effects in small intestine using the intestinal crypt assay, and later effects in small and large intestine at 11 weeks by stool assessment and at 12 weeks by histologic examination. In vitro effects of panobinostat were assessed by qPCR and of panobinostat, TMP195, and mocetinostat by clonogenic assay, and Western blot analysis. Panobinostat resulted in growth delay in RT112 bladder cancer xenografts but did not significantly increase acute (3.75 days) or 12 weeks' normal tissue radiation toxicity. Radiosensitization by panobinostat was effective in hypoxic bladder cancer cells and associated with class I HDAC inhibition, and protein downregulation of HDAC2 and MRE11. Pan-HDAC inhibition is a promising strategy for radiosensitization, but more selective agents may be more useful radiosensitizers clinically, resulting in fewer systemic side effects. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(2); 381-92. ©2017 AACR See all articles in this MCT Focus section, "Developmental Therapeutics in Radiation Oncology." ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Adenoviral vector-mediated gene expression in the nervous system of immunocompetent Wistar and T cell-deficient nude rats : preferential survival of transduced astroglial cells in nude rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, W.T.J.M.C.; Verhaagen, J

    1997-01-01

    In the present paper, we examined the effect of the adenoviral vector dosage, the role of T cells, and the influence of the presence of replication-competent adenovirus (RCA) in adenoviral vector stocks, on the efficacy of adenoviral vector-directed transgene expression in the facial nucleus of

  17. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric proteins of human immunodeficiency virus and gamma interferon are attenuated for nude mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Giavedoni, L D; Jones, L; Gardner, M B; Gibson, H L; Ng, C T; Barr, P J; Yilma, T

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a method for attenuating vaccinia virus recombinants by expressing a fusion protein of a lymphokine and an immunogen. Chimeric genes were constructed that coded for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and structural proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study, we describe the biological and immunological properties of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric genes of murine or human IFN-gamma with glycoprotein gp120, gag, and a fragment of gp41...

  18. A new platelet cryoprecipitate glue promoting bone formation after ectopic mesenchymal stromal cell-loaded biomaterial implantation in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillas, Marina; Prat, Marie; Doucet, Christelle; Ernou, Isabelle; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne; Blancard, Patrick Saint; Holy, Xavier; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-04

    This study investigated the promising effect of a new Platelet Glue obtained from Cryoprecipitation of Apheresis Platelet products (PGCAP) used in combination with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) loaded on ceramic biomaterials to provide novel strategies enhancing bone repair. PGCAP growth factor content was analyzed by ELISA and compared to other platelet and plasma-derived products. MSC loaded on biomaterials (65% hydroxyapatite/35% beta-TCP or 100% beta-TCP) were embedded in PGCAP and grown in presence or not of osteogenic induction medium for 21 days. Biomaterials were then implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice for 28 days. Effect of PGCAP on MSC was evaluated in vitro by proliferation and osteoblastic gene expression analysis and in vivo by histology and immunohistochemistry. We showed that PGCAP, compared to other platelet-derived products, allowed concentrating large amount of growth factors and cytokines which promoted MSC and osteoprogenitor proliferation. Next, we found that PGCAP improves the proliferation of MSC and osteogenic-induced MSC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PGCAP up-regulates the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers (Collagen type I, Osteonectin, Osteopontin and Runx2). In vivo, type I collagen expressed in ectopic bone-like tissue was highly enhanced in biomaterials embedded in PGCAP in the absence of osteogenic pre-induction. Better results were obtained with 65% hydroxyapatite/35% beta-TCP biomaterials as compared to 100% beta-TCP. We have demonstrated that PGCAP is able to enhance in vitro MSC proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation and in vivo bone formation in the absence of osteogenic pre-induction. This clinically adaptable platelet glue could be of interest for improving bone repair.

  19. Migration of human antigen-presenting cells in a human skin graft onto nude mice model after contact sensitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefakker, S.; Balk, H.P.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Joost, T. van; Notten, W.R.F.; Claassen, E.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent contact chemical allergens provoke sensitization after application on both syngeneic and allogeneic skin grafts in mice. We attempted to determine whether the functional activity in a contact sensitization response of human skin graft was affected at the level of antigen uptake and

  20. Sensing vascularization of ex-vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) skin grafts in nude mice using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Gurjar, Rajan; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Fasi, Anthony; Kim, Roderick; Riccardi, Suzannah; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Wolf, David E.

    2014-03-01

    Repair of soft tissue defects of the lips as seen in complex maxillofacial injuries, requires pre-vascularized multi-tissue composite grafts. Protocols for fabrication of human ex-vivo produced oral mucosal equivalents (EVPOME) composed of epithelial cells and a dermal equivalent are available to create prelaminated flaps for grafting in patients. However, invivo assessment of neovascularization of the buried prelaminated flaps remains clinically challenging. Here, we use diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to non-invasively quantify longitudinal changes in the vessel density and blood-flow within EVPOME grafts implanted in the backs of SCID mice and subsequently to determine the utility of these optical techniques for assessing vascularization of implanted grafts. 20 animals were implanted with EVPOME grafts (1x1x0.05 cm3) in their backs. DRS and DCS measurements were obtained from each animal both atop the graft site and far away from the graft site, at one week post-implantation, each week, for four consecutive weeks. DRS spectra were analyzed using an inverse Monte Carlo model to extract tissue absorption and scattering coefficients, which were then used to extract blood flow information by fitting the experimental DCS traces. There were clear differences in the mean optical parameters (averaged across all mice) at the graft site vs. the off-site measurements. Both the total hemoglobin concentration (from DRS) and the relative blood flow (from DCS) peaked at week 3 at the graft site and declined to the off-site values by week 4. The optical parameters remained relatively constant throughout 4 weeks for the off-site measurements.

  1. Optical determination of the hemoglobin oxygenation state of breast biopsies and human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Fay A.

    1992-05-01

    Differences in the oxygenation state of benign and malignant breast biopsies, and human breast cancer xenografts in immune-deficient mice were monitored using a spectrophotometer with integrating sphere. The breast biopsies were maintained below -50 degree(s)C and the mouse model tumors maintained in growth medium at 0 degree(s)C. Tissue sections 500 (mu) thick were allowed to come up to room temperature for mounting between quartz slides and were evaluated over the wavelength region 240 - 2500 nm. Data collection was done within 10 minutes of the removal of the biopsies from storage and, within 5 minutes for the xenografts. That this preparation protocol allowed us to study the samples very close to the in- vivo state was evident from the lack of deoxyhemoglobin in the benign samples. Component analysis performed in the 300 - 800 nm region showed that the malignant samples contained predominantly deoxygenated blood while the benign samples exhibited oxyhemoglobin signature. Absorption peaks due to fat and traces of bilirubin were also resolved in some of the samples. Assuming that the samples are very nearly representative of the in-vivo condition, these hemoglobin differences may well serve as a basis for imaging tumors or, for tissue characterization in a minimally invasive environment.

  2. Analysis of Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Insulitis in NOD Mice: Adoptive Transfer Experiments of Insulitis in ILI and NOD Nude Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Moritaka; Nishimura, Masahiko; Koide, Yukio; Takato, O.Yoshida

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to study the pathophysiological events in the development of insulitis in NOD mice, we have developed ILI- and NOD-nu/nu mice. ILI mice are a nondiabetic inbred strain but are derived from the same Jcl:ICR mouse as NOD mice and share the same H-2 allotype with NOD mice. Splenocytes and CD4+ cells from diabetic NOD mice appeared to transfer insulitis to ILI-nu/nu mice, suggesting that ILI mice already express autoantigen(s) responsible for insulitis. But reciprocal thymic grafts f...

  3. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of the prodrug daunorubicin-GA3 in nude mice bearing human ovarian cancer xenografts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, PHJ; Boven, E; van der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Leenders, RGG; Scheeren, JW; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    1999-01-01

    N-[4-daunorubicin-N-carbonyl (oxymethyl)phenyl] O-beta-glucuronyl carbamate (DNR-GA3) is a glucuronide prodrug of daunorubicin (DNR) which induced a better tumor growth delay than DNR when studied at equitoxic doses in three human ovarian cancer xenografts. These results suggested that the prodrug

  4. Tumor targeting with radiolabeled alpha(v)beta(3) integrin binding peptides in a nude mouse model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.L.H.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Frielink, C.; Edwards, D.S.; Rajopadhye, M.; Boonstra, H.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Boerman, O.C.

    2002-01-01

    The alpha(v)beta(3) integrin is expressed on proliferating endothelial cells such as those present in growing tumors, as well as on tumor cells of various origin. Tumor-induced angiogenesis can be blocked in vivo by antagonizing the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin with small peptides containing the

  5. Demonstration of strong enterobacterial reactivity of CD4+CD25- T cells from conventional and germ-free mice which is counter-regulated by CD4+CD25+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Monika; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Kristensen, Nanna N

    2004-01-01

    Unfractionated CD4+ T cells from the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and peripheral lymph nodes are unresponsive when exposed to enterobacterial antigens in vitro. Under similar conditions, CD4+ T cells depleted in vivo or in vitro of CD4+CD25+ T cells proliferate extensively. The CD4+CD25- T...

  6. SPLEEN-CELLS FROM ANTIGEN-MINIMIZED MICE ARE SUPERIOR TO SPLEEN-CELLS FROM GERM-FREE AND CONVENTIONAL MICE IN THE STIMULATION OF PRIMARY IN-VITRO PROLIFERATIVE RESPONSES TO NOMINAL ANTIGENS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOOPER, DC; MOLOWITZ, EH; BOS, NA; PLOPLIS, VA; CEBRA, JJ

    T lymphocytes from mice reared under conditions of differential exposure to food, environmental and microbial antigens were compared for phenotypic shifts that may be associated with prior exposure to antigens as well as functional variations in the ability to respond to antigens ne novo. While the

  7. The role of gut microbiota (commensal bacteria) and the mucosal barrier in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and cancer: contribution of germ-free and gnotobiotic animal models of human diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Štěpánková, Renata; Kozáková, Hana; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Vannucci, Luca; Tučková, Ludmila; Rossmann, Pavel; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Kverka, Miloslav; Zákostelská, Zuzana; Klimešová, Klára; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Bártová, J.; Sánchez, Daniel; Fundová, P.; Borovská, Dana; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Zídek, Zdeněk; Schwarzer, Martin; Drastich, P.; Funda, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2011), s. 110-120 ISSN 1672-7681 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/08/0367; GA ČR GA303/09/0449; GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA ČR GA305/08/0535; GA ČR GA310/09/1640; GA ČR GD310/08/H077; GA AV ČR IAA500200710; GA AV ČR KJB500200904; GA AV ČR IAA500200917; GA AV ČR IAA500200709; GA MŠk 2B06053; GA MŠk 2B06155; GA MZd NS9775; GA MZd NS10054; GA MZd(CZ) NS10340; GA MŠk 7E09091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : allergy * hygiene hypothesis * intestinal permeability Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.992, year: 2011

  8. [The Antitumor Effects of Fisetin on Ovarian Cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yi-Bo; Xiao, Chao; Chen, Xin-Lian; Bai, Peng; Yao, Yuan; Wang, He; Xiao, Xue

    2016-11-01

    We attempted to survey the inhibit effect of fisetin with human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and the xenograft and the mechanism of the effect. The ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 treated by fisetin were observed directly under the transmission electronmicroscope (TEM);MTT assay was used to determine cell viability.Flow cytometry was used to analyze the apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3.In addition,we established an ovarian cancer athymicnude rat model.We observed the neoplasia and progression after fisetin treatment.The proliferation and apoptosis of athymic nude rat model were evaluated by testing Bcl-2,Bax and poly-ADP-ribose polyerase (PARP) expression through Western blot. The chromatin were brought together and the apoptotic bodies were detected in SKOV3 cells under transmission electron microscope after the treatment by fisetin.MTT assay indicated that fisetin inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner.The flow cytometry data demonstrated that the apoptosis might induct in SKOV3 cells after treatment by fisetin.In athymic rude rat model,under the influence of fisetin,tumor volume and tumor mass were significantly decreased.Western blot demonstrated that treatment with higher concentration of fisetin resulted in a significant decrease of Bcl-2 and a significant increase of Bax.The apoptosis proteins PARP was cut apparently. The results provided the first insight into antitumor anti-proliferative and the induction of apoptosis efficacy of fisetin against ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo .All data suggested a safe promising therapeutic potential of fisetin in ovarian cancer treatment.

  9. Inhibition of vimentin or B1 integrin reverts morphology of prostate tumor cells grown in laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels and reduces tumor growth in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V; Ware, Joy L; Bissell, Mina J; Yacoub, Adly; Zehner, Zendra E

    2008-06-12

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphologic changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the immortalized, prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in athymic, nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the parental, nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin, or {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via small interfering RNA interference or the expression of {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins by the addition of blocking antibodies, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by s.c. injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in three-dimensional lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1 integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acinus in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis. [Mol Cancer Ther 2009;8(3):499-508].

  10. Comparisons of [{sup 18}F]-1-deoxy-1-fluoro-scyllo-inositol with [{sup 18}F]-FDG for PET imaging of inflammation, breast and brain cancer xenografts in athymic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLarty, Kristin; Moran, Matthew D. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Scollard, Deborah A.; Chan, Conrad [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Sabha, Nesrin; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Guha, Abhijit [Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); McLaurin, JoAnne [Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H2 (Canada); Nitz, Mark [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M., E-mail: raymond.reilly@utoronto.ca [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Vasdev, Neil, E-mail: neil.vasdev@utoronto.ca [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the uptake of [{sup 18}F]-1-deoxy-1-fluoro-scyllo-inositol ([{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol) in human breast cancer (BC) and glioma xenografts, as well as in inflammatory tissue, in immunocompromised mice. Studies of [{sup 18}F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]-FDG) under the same conditions were also performed. Methods: Radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol was automated using a commercial synthesis module. Tumour, inflammation and normal tissue uptakes were evaluated by biodistribution studies and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol and [{sup 18}F]-FDG in mice bearing subcutaneous MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 human BC xenografts, intracranial U-87 MG glioma xenografts and turpentine-induced inflammation. Results: The radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol was automated with good radiochemical yields (24.6%{+-}3.3%, uncorrected for decay, 65{+-}2 min, n=5) and high specific activities ({>=}195 GBq/{mu}mol at end of synthesis). Uptake of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol was greatest in MDA-MB-231 BC tumours and was comparable to that of [{sup 18}F]-FDG (4.6{+-}0.5 vs. 5.5{+-}2.1 %ID/g, respectively; P=.40), but was marginally lower in MDA-MB-361 and MCF-7 xenografts. Uptake of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol in inflammation was lower than [{sup 18}F]-FDG. While uptake of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol in intracranial U-87 MG xenografts was significantly lower than [{sup 18}F]-FDG, the tumour-to-brain ratio was significantly higher (10.6{+-}2.5 vs. 2.1{+-}0.6; P=.001). Conclusions: Consistent with biodistribution studies, uptake of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol was successfully visualized by PET imaging in human BC and glioma xenografts, with lower accumulation in inflammatory tissue than [{sup 18}F]-FDG. The tumour-to-brain ratio of [{sup 18}F]-scyllo-inositol was also significantly higher than that of [{sup 18}F]-FDG for visualizing intracranial glioma xenografts in NOD SCID mice, giving a better contrast. -- Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  11. Comparisons of [18F]-1-deoxy-1-fluoro-scyllo-inositol with [18F]-FDG for PET imaging of inflammation, breast and brain cancer xenografts in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLarty, Kristin; Moran, Matthew D.; Scollard, Deborah A.; Chan, Conrad; Sabha, Nesrin; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Guha, Abhijit; McLaurin, JoAnne; Nitz, Mark; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A.; Reilly, Raymond M.; Vasdev, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the uptake of [ 18 F]-1-deoxy-1-fluoro-scyllo-inositol ([ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol) in human breast cancer (BC) and glioma xenografts, as well as in inflammatory tissue, in immunocompromised mice. Studies of [ 18 F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([ 18 F]-FDG) under the same conditions were also performed. Methods: Radiosynthesis of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol was automated using a commercial synthesis module. Tumour, inflammation and normal tissue uptakes were evaluated by biodistribution studies and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol and [ 18 F]-FDG in mice bearing subcutaneous MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 human BC xenografts, intracranial U-87 MG glioma xenografts and turpentine-induced inflammation. Results: The radiosynthesis of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol was automated with good radiochemical yields (24.6%±3.3%, uncorrected for decay, 65±2 min, n=5) and high specific activities (≥195 GBq/μmol at end of synthesis). Uptake of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol was greatest in MDA-MB-231 BC tumours and was comparable to that of [ 18 F]-FDG (4.6±0.5 vs. 5.5±2.1 %ID/g, respectively; P=.40), but was marginally lower in MDA-MB-361 and MCF-7 xenografts. Uptake of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol in inflammation was lower than [ 18 F]-FDG. While uptake of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol in intracranial U-87 MG xenografts was significantly lower than [ 18 F]-FDG, the tumour-to-brain ratio was significantly higher (10.6±2.5 vs. 2.1±0.6; P=.001). Conclusions: Consistent with biodistribution studies, uptake of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol was successfully visualized by PET imaging in human BC and glioma xenografts, with lower accumulation in inflammatory tissue than [ 18 F]-FDG. The tumour-to-brain ratio of [ 18 F]-scyllo-inositol was also significantly higher than that of [ 18 F]-FDG for visualizing intracranial glioma xenografts in NOD SCID mice, giving a better contrast. -- Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  12. Examination of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) as a therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Mechanisms controlling survival and induction of apoptosis following selective inhibition

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary Clare

    2011-06-01

    Background: Platelet-type 12-LOX is an arachidonic acid metabolising enzyme resulting in the formation of 12(S)-HETE, which stimulates tumour cell adhesion, invasion and metastasis. This study aimed to examine the expression profile and role of this enzyme in NSCLC, and determine if it is a potential target for intervention. Methods: A panel of retrospective resected lung tumours was stained for 12-LOX expression by IHC. Levels of the 12-LOX metabolite, 12(S)-HETE, were examined in 50 NSCLC serum samples, and correlated with serum VEGF. A panel of NSCLC cell lines were treated with baicalein (10 uM), a selective inhibitor of 12-LOX, or 12(S)-HETE (100 ng\\/ml) and cell survival\\/proliferation examined by BrdU. Apoptosis following 12-LOX inhibition was examined by HCS and validated by FACS and DNA laddering. The effect of 12-LOX inhibition on NSCLC tumour growth and survival was examined in-vivo using an athymic nude mouse model. Gene alterations following 12-LOX inhibition in NSCLC cell lines were assessed by qPCR arrays and validated by RT-PCR. Transient transfection methods were used to examine the effects of 12-LOX overexpression in NSCLC cells. Results: 12-LOX expression was observed to a varying degree in human lung cancers of varying histological subtypes. 12(S)-HETE levels were correlated (p<0.05) with those of VEGF. Baicalein inhibited proliferation\\/survival in all cell lines, while 12(S)-HETE increased proliferation. 12-LOX inhibition increased apoptosis, indicated by a reduction in f-actin content and mitochondrial mass potential. Treatment with baicalein significantly reduced the growth of NSCLC tumours and increased overall survival in athymic nude mice. qPCR array data implicated a number of apoptosis\\/angiogenesis genes regulating these effects, including bcl-2, VEGF, integrin A2 and A4. 12-LOX overexpression resulted in an increase in VEGF secretion, confirming qPCR observations. Conclusions: 12-LOX is a survival factor\\/potential target in

  13. Antitumor activity of erlotinib (OSI-774, Tarceva) alone or in combination in human non-small cell lung cancer tumor xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Brian; Kolinsky, Kenneth; Smith, Melissa; Beck, Gordon; Rashed, Mohammad; Adames, Violeta; Linn, Michael; Wheeldon, Eric; Gand, Laurent; Birnboeck, Herbert; Hoffmann, Gerhard

    2004-06-01

    Our objective was the preclinical assessment of the pharmacokinetics, monotherapy and combined antitumor activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1/EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in athymic nude mice bearing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenograft models. Immunohistochemistry determined the HER1/EGFR status of the NSCLC tumor models. Pharmacokinetic studies assessed plasma drug concentrations of erlotinib in tumor- and non-tumor-bearing athymic nude mice. These were followed by maximum tolerated dose (MTD) studies for erlotinib and each chemotherapy. Erlotinib was then assessed alone and in combination with these chemotherapies in the NSCLC xenograft models. Complete necropsies were performed on most of the animals in each study to further assess antitumor or toxic effects. Erlotinib monotherapy dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth in the H460a tumor model, correlating with circulating levels of drug. There was antitumor activity at the MTD with each agent tested in both the H460a and A549 tumor models (erlotinib 100 mg/kg: 71 and 93% tumor growth inhibition; gemcitabine 120 mg/kg: 93 and 75% tumor growth inhibition; cisplatin 6 mg/kg: 81 and 88% tumor growth inhibition). When each compound was given at a fraction of the MTD, tumor growth inhibition was suboptimal. Combinations of gemcitabine or cisplatin with erlotinib were assessed at 25% of the MTD to determine efficacy. In both NSCLC models, doses of gemcitabine (30 mg/kg) or cisplatin (1.5 mg/kg) with erlotinib (25 mg/kg) at 25% of the MTD were well tolerated. For the slow growing A549 tumor, there was significant tumor growth inhibition in the gemcitabine/erlotinib and cisplatin/erlotinib combinations (above 100 and 98%, respectively), with partial regressions. For the faster growing H460a tumor, there was significant but less remarkable tumor growth inhibition in these same combinations (86 and 53% respectively). These results show that in NSCLC xenograft tumors with similar

  14. Biodistribution and PET imaging of [18F]-fluoroadenosine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alauddin, Mian M.; Shahinian, Antranik; Park, Ryan; Tohme, Michael; Fissekis, John D.; Conti, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Many fluorinated analogues of adenosine nucleoside have been synthesized and studied as potential antitumor and antiviral agents. Earlier, we reported radiosynthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-adenine ([ 18 F]-FAA) and 3'-deoxy-3'-[ 18 F]fluoro-1-β-D-xylofuranosyl-adenine ([ 18 F]FXA). Now, we report their in vivo studies including blood clearance, biodistribution and micro-PET imaging in tumor-bearing nude mice. Methods: Tumors were grown in 6-week-old athymic nude mice (Harlan, Indianapolis, IN, USA) by inoculation of HT-29 cells, wild-type cells in the left flank and transduced cells with HSV-tk on the right flank. When the tumor was about 1 cm in size, animals were injected with these radiotracers for in vivo studies, including blood clearance, micro-PET imaging and biodistribution. Results: Uptake of [ 18 F]FAA in tumor was 3.3-fold higher than blood, with highest uptake in the spleen. Maximum uptake of [ 18 F]FXA was observed in the heart compared to other organs. There was no tumor uptake of [ 18 F]FXA. Biodistribution results were supported by micro-PET images, which also showed very high uptake of [ 18 F]FAA in spleen and visualization of tumors, and high uptake of [ 18 F]FXA in the heart. Conclusion: These results suggest that [ 18 F]FAA may be useful for tumor imaging, while [ 18 F]FXA may have potential as a heart imaging agent with PET

  15. Local transdermal therapy to the breast for breast cancer prevention and DCIS therapy: preclinical and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oukseub; Ivancic, David; Allu, Subhashini; Shidfar, Ali; Kenney, Kara; Helenowski, Irene; Sullivan, Megan E; Muzzio, Miguel; Scholtens, Denise; Chatterton, Robert T; Bethke, Kevin P; Hansen, Nora M; Khan, Seema A

    2015-12-01

    Women at high risk of breast cancer and those with carcinoma in situ need non-toxic, well-tolerated preventive interventions. One promising approach is drug delivery through the breast skin (local transdermal therapy, LTT). Our goal was to test novel drugs for LTT, to establish that LTT is applicable to non-steroidal drugs. Athymic nude rats were treated with oral tamoxifen, transdermal 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) or endoxifen gel applied daily to the axillary mammary gland for 6 weeks (Study 1). Study 2 was identical to Study 1, testing transdermal telapristone acetate (telapristone) gel versus subcutaneous implant. At euthanasia, mammary glands and blood were collected. In Study 3, consenting women requiring mastectomy were randomized to diclofenac patch applied to the abdomen or the breast for 3 days preoperatively. At surgery, eight tissue samples per breast were collected from predetermined locations, along with venous blood. Drug concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Mammary tissue concentrations of 4-OHT, endoxifen, and telapristone were significantly higher in the axillary glands of the gel-treated animals, compared to inguinal glands or to systemically treated animals. Plasma concentrations were similar in gel and systemically treated animals. The clinical trial showed significantly higher mammary concentrations when diclofenac was applied to the breast skin versus the abdominal skin, but concentrations were variable. These results demonstrate that lipophilic drugs can be developed for LTT; although the nude rat is suitable for testing drug permeability, delivery is systemic. In human, however, transdermal application to the breast skin provides local delivery.

  16. Pathogenicity and genetic variation of 3 strains of Corynebacterium bovis in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Vandana S; Henderson, Kenneth S; Fister, Richard D; Pietrowski, Michael T; Maldonado, Geomaris; Clifford, Charles B

    2013-07-01

    Corynebacterium bovis has been associated with hyperkeratotic dermatitis and acanthosis in mice. We studied 3 different strains of C. bovis: one previously described to cause hyperkeratotic dermatitis (HAC), one that infected athymic nude mice without leading to the classic clinical signs, and one of bovine origin (ATCC 7715). The 3 strains showed a few biochemical and genetic differences. Immunodeficient nude mice were housed in 3 independent isolators and inoculated with pure cultures of the 3 strains. We studied the transmission of these C. bovis studies to isolator-bedding and contact sentinels housed for 5 to 12 wk in filter-top or wire-top cages in the respective isolators. Using a 16S rRNA-based qPCR assay, we did not find consistent differences in growth and transmission among the 3 C. bovis strains, and neither the incidence nor severity of hyperkeratosis or acanthosis differed between strains. Housing in filter-top compared with wire-top cages did not alter the morbidity associated with any of the strains. Our findings confirmed the variability in the gross and histologic changes associated with C. bovis infection of mice. Although bacteriology was a sensitive method for the detection of Corynebacterium spp., standard algorithms occasionally misidentified C. bovis and several related species. Our study demonstrates that PCR of skin swabs or feces is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of C. bovis infection in mice. An rpoB-based screen of samples from North American vivaria revealed that HAC is the predominant C. bovis strain in laboratory mice.

  17. Protein-bound polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus inhibits tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis and alters Wnt/β-catenin in SW480 human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hae-Duck

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysaccharides extracted from the Phellinus linteus (PL mushroom are known to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor properties of PL remain to be explored. Experiments were carried out to unravel the anticancer effects of PL. Methods The anti-cancer effects of PL were examined in SW480 colon cancer cells by evaluating cell proliferation, invasion and matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP activity. The anti-angiogenic effects of PL were examined by assessing human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC proliferation and capillary tube formation. The in vivo effect of PL was evaluated in an athymic nude mouse SW480 tumor engraft model. Results PL (125-1000 μg/mL significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased β-catenin expression in SW480 cells. Expression of cyclin D1, one of the downstream-regulated genes of β-catenin, and T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF transcription activity were also significantly reduced by PL treatment. PL inhibited in vitro invasion and motility as well as the activity of MMP-9. In addition, PL treatment inhibited HUVEC proliferation and capillary tube formation. Tumor growth of SW480 cells implanted into nude mice was significantly decreased as a consequence of PL treatment, and tumor tissues from treated animals showed an increase in the apoptotic index and a decrease in β-catenin expression. Moreover, the proliferation index and microvessel density were significantly decreased. Conclusions These data suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis through the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in certain colon cancer cells.

  18. Cell tracking with gadophrin-2: a bifunctional contrast agent for MR imaging, optical imaging, and fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Rudelius, Martina; Piontek, Guido; Schlegel, Juergen; Metz, Stephan; Settles, Marcus; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pichler, Bernd; Heinzmann, Ulrich; Oostendorp, Robert A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of use of gadophrin-2 to trace intravenously injected human hematopoietic cells in athymic mice, employing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, optical imaging (OI), and fluorescence microscopy. Mononuclear peripheral blood cells from GCSF-primed patients were labeled with gadophrin-2 (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), a paramagnetic and fluorescent metalloporphyrin, using established transfection techniques with cationic liposomes. The labeled cells were evaluated in vitro with electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Then, 1 x 10 6 -3 x 10 8 labeled cells were injected into 14 nude Balb/c mice and the in vivo cell distribution was evaluated with MR imaging and OI before and 4, 24, and 48 h after intravenous injection (p.i.). Five additional mice served as controls: three mice were untreated controls and two mice were investigated after injection of unlabeled cells. The contrast agent effect was determined quantitatively for MR imaging by calculating signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) data. After completion of in vivo imaging studies, fluorescence microscopy of excised organs was performed. Intracellular cytoplasmatic uptake of gadophrin-2 was confirmed by electron microscopy. Spectrometry determined an uptake of 31.56 nmol Gd per 10 6 cells. After intravenous injection, the distribution of gadophrin-2 labeled cells in nude mice could be visualized by MR, OI, and fluorescence microscopy. At 4 h p.i., the transplanted cells mainly distributed to lung, liver, and spleen, and 24 h p.i. they also distributed to the bone marrow. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed the distribution of gadophrin-2 labeled cells to these target organs. Gadophrin-2 is suited as a bifunctional contrast agent for MR imaging, OI, and fluorescence microscopy and may be used to combine the advantages of each individual imaging modality for in vivo tracking of intravenously injected hematopoietic cells. (orig.)

  19. Imaging of a glioma using peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starosta-Rubinstein, S.; Ciliax, B.J.; Penney, J.B.; McKeever, P.; Young, A.B.

    1987-02-01

    Two types of benzodiazepine receptors have been demonstrated in mammalian tissues, one which is localized on neuronal elements in brain and the other, on glial cells and in peripheral tissues such as kidney. In vivo administration of /sup 3/H-labeled PK 11195 (1-(2-chlorophenyl-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam with 5 mg of clonazepam per kg to rats with intracranial C6 gliomas resulted in high levels of tritiated-drug binding to the tumor as shown by quantitative autoradiography. Pharmacological studies indicated that the bound drugs labeled the peripheral benzodiazepine binding site. Binding to the peripheral benzodiazepine site was confirmed primarily to malignant cells with little binding to adjacent normal brain tissue or to necrotic tissue. Tumor cell binding was completely inhibited by preadministration of the peripheral benzodiazepine blocking agent PK 11195 at 5 mg/kg. The centrally selective benzodiazepine ligand clonazepam had no effect on PK 11195 binding to the tumor cells. When binding to other tumor cell lines grown in nude mice and nude athymic rats was evaluated, little or no peripheral benzodiazepine binding was detected on human pheochromocytoma (RN1) and neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC, SK-N-SH) tumor cells, respectively. However, high densities of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites were observed on tumors derived from a human glioma cell line (ATCC HTB 14, U-87 MG). The presence of high concentrations of specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors on glial tumors suggests that human primary central nervous system tumors could be imaged and diagnosed using peripheral benzodiazepine ligands labeled with positron- or gamma-emitting isotopes.

  20. Identification and characterization of cancer stem cells in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jing; Fujisawa, Toshio; Husain, Syed R; Puri, Raj K

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that initiation, growth, and invasion of cancer are driven by a small population of cancer stem cells (CSC). Previous studies have identified CD44+ cells as cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, CD44 is widely expressed in most cells in HNSCC tumor samples and several cell lines tested. We previously identified a small population of CD24+/CD44+ cells in HNSCC. In this study, we examined whether this population of cells may represent CSC in HNSCC. CD24+/CD44+ cells from HNSCC cell lines were sorted by flow cytometry, and their phenotype was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Their self-renewal and differentiation properties, clonogenicity in collagen gels, and response to anticancer drugs were tested in vitro. The tumorigenicity potential of CD24+/CD44+ cells was tested in athymic nude mice in vivo. Our results show that CD24+/CD44+ cells possessed stemness characteristics of self-renewal and differentiation. CD24+/CD44+ cells showed higher cell invasion in vitro and made higher number of colonies in collagen gels compared to CD24-/CD44+ HNSCC cells. In addition, the CD24+/CD44+ cells were more chemo-resistant to gemcitabine and cisplatin compared to CD24-/CD44+ cells. In vivo, CD24+/CD44+ cells showed a tendency to generate larger tumors in nude mice compared to CD24-/CD44+ cell population. Our study clearly demonstrates that a distinct small population of CD24+/CD44+ cells is present in HNSCC that shows stem cell-like properties. This distinct small population of cells should be further characterized and may provide an opportunity to target HNSCC CSC for therapy

  1. Photoaffinity labeling of the progesterone receptor from human endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.L.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    A nude mouse model for the growth of human endometrial carcinoma and hormonal modulation of the progesterone receptor (PR) was established previously. This study describes the effect of 17 beta-estradiol and tamoxifen (TAM) on growth rate and PR concentration in a hormonally responsive human endometrial tumor (EnCa 101) grown in this experimental system and presents the first characterization of human endometrial carcinoma PR. EnCa 101 was transplanted subcutaneously into ovariectomized, BALB/c, nu/nu athymic mice and grown under 17 beta-estradiol-stimulated, TAM-stimulated, and control conditions. Both 17 beta-estradiol and TAM increased the growth rate of EnCa 101 in nude mice, and a parallel increase in the cytosol PR concentration was observed. PR was partially purified by phosphocellulose and DEAE cellulose chromatography, and the DEAE eluate was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and photoaffinity labeling with [17 alpha-methyl- 3 H]promegestone ([ 3 H]R5020). Two PR-negative tumors (EnCa K and EnCa V) were also examined in parallel. Photolabeling and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of EnCa 101 grown in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol or TAM revealed incorporation of [3H]R5020 into proteins of molecular weight approximately 116,000 and 85,000. Labeled proteins of molecular weight 66,000, 45,000, and 35,000 were also observed. No incorporation of [ 3 H]R5020 was observed in EnCa 101 grown in the absence of estrogen, nor was any observed in EnCa K or EnCa V

  2. Berberine suppresses tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inhibiting STAT3 activation induced by tumor associated fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chi Man; Cheung, Yuk Chun; Lui, Vivian Wai-Yan; Yip, Yim Ling; Zhang, Guitao; Lin, Victor Weitao; Cheung, Kenneth Chat-Pan; Feng, Yibin; Tsao, Sai Wah

    2013-01-01

    Cortidis rhizoma (Huanglian) and its major therapeutic component, berberine, have drawn extensive attention in recent years for their anti-cancer properties. Growth inhibitory effects of berberine on multiple types of human cancer cells have been reported. Berberine inhibits invasion, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cancer cells. The anti-inflammatory property of berberine, involving inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) activation, has also been documented. In this study, we have examined the effects of berberine on tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells and their relationship to STAT3 signaling using both in vivo and in vitro models. Berberine effectively inhibited the tumorigenicity and growth of an EBV-positive NPC cell line (C666-1) in athymic nude mice. Inhibition of tumorigenic growth of NPC cells in vivo was correlated with effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells inside the tumor xenografts grown in nude mice. In vitro, berberine inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Inhibition of STAT3 activation by berberine induced growth inhibition and apoptotic response in NPC cells. Tumor-associated fibroblasts were found to secret IL-6 and the conditioned medium harvested from the fibroblasts also induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Furthermore, STAT3 activation by conditioned medium of tumor-associated fibroblasts could be blocked by berberine or antibodies against IL-6 and IL-6R. Our observation that berberine effectively inhibited activation of STAT3 induced by tumor-associated fibroblasts suggests a role of berberine in modulating the effects of tumor stroma on the growth of NPC cells. The effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells by berberine supports its potential use in the treatment of NPC

  3. Can tumor uptake Tc-99m MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.S.F.; Zeng, Z.J.; Yao, Y.M.; Shi, S.M.P.; Shi, S.Z.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study a distribution of Tc-99m MDP in mice bearing tumor cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m MDP was analyzed in seven human tumor cell lines (SPC-A1 adenocarcinoma of lung cancer, P37 Breast cancer, T24 Bladder cancer, SKOV2 Ovary carcinoma, Hela-229 Cervical carcinoma, Osteosarcoma, A375 Melanoma) and one mouse lung cancer cell line (Lewis). They were transplanted into 13, 4, 5, 5, 4, 5 athymic mice, 6 SCID nude mice and 4 C57 black mice, respectively. Approximately 10(7) cells of each cell line were injected subcutaneously into a right chest of mouse. After 5∼6 weeks, the Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy were determined 5-6 hours after i.v. injection of 74MBq in 0.05ml every mouse. Result: Biodistribution and tumor uptake MDP was different in the various cell types investigated. Region of interests (RIOs) placed on a small part of the tumor and horizontal copied to left chest or spine of mice in Tc-99m MDP imaging and the average count ratio (tumor to background ratio: T/B, tumor to spine ratio: T/NT) in each ROI was calculated. 13 nude mice bearing the adenocarcinoma (SPC-A1) were sacrificed and biodistribution was determined after Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy. Results were expressed as % injected dose/gram (%ID/g), mean±SD. T-ulcer=ulcer of tumor, T-round=surrounding of tumor, T-center=the center of tumor, Thor-sp=thoracic spine, Lum-ver=lumbar vertebra, LN=lymph node. Conclusions: Tumor can uptake Tc-99m MDP including adenocarcinoma. Higher uptake rate in the center tissue of tumor is than other part of tumor. It maybe connected with necrosis or fibrosis of tumor

  4. Suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis by a specific antagonist of the cell-surface expressed nucleolin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Destouches

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidences suggest that nucleolin expressed on the cell surface is implicated in growth of tumor cells and angiogenesis. Nucleolin is one of the major proteins of the nucleolus, but it is also expressed on the cell surface where is serves as a binding protein for variety of ligands implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, mitogenesis and angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a specific antagonist that binds the C-terminal tail of nucleolin, the HB-19 pseudopeptide, here we show that the growth of tumor cells and angiogenesis are suppressed in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models. HB-19 inhibited colony formation in soft agar of tumor cell lines, impaired migration of endothelial cells and formation of capillary-like structures in collagen gel, and reduced blood vessel branching in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. In athymic nude mice, HB-19 treatment markedly suppressed the progression of established human breast tumor cell xenografts in nude mice, and in some cases eliminated measurable tumors while displaying no toxicity to normal tissue. This potent antitumoral effect is attributed to the direct inhibitory action of HB-19 on both tumor and endothelial cells by blocking and down regulating surface nucleolin, but without any apparent effect on nucleolar nucleolin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results illustrate the dual inhibitory action of HB-19 on the tumor development and the neovascularization process, thus validating the cell-surface expressed nucleolin as a strategic target for an effective cancer drug. Consequently, the HB-19 pseudopeptide provides a unique candidate to consider for innovative cancer therapy.

  5. Immunotherapy of murine leukemia. Efficacy of passive serum therapy of Friend leukemia virus-induced disease in immunocompromised mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovesi, E.V.; Livnat, D.; Collins, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the passive therapy of Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced disease with chimpanzee anti-F-MuLV serum is accompanied by the development of host antiviral humoral and cellular immunity, the latter measurable in adoptive transfer protocols and by the ability of serum-protected mice to resist virus rechallenge. The present study was designed to further examine the contribution of various compartments of the host immune system to serum therapy itself, as well as to the acquired antiviral immunity that develops in serum-protected mice, through the use of naturally immunocompromised animals [e.g., nude athymic mice and natural killer (NK)-deficient beige mutant mice] or mice treated with immunoabrogating agents such as sublethal irradiation, cyclophosphamide [Cytoxan (Cy)], cortisone, and 89 Sr. The studies in nude mice indicate that while mature T-cells are not needed for effective serum therapy, they do appear to be necessary for the long-term resistance of serum-protected mice to virus rechallenge and for the generation of the cell population(s) responsible for adoptive transfer of antiviral immunity. Furthermore, this acquired resistance is not due to virus neutralization by serum antibodies since antibody-negative, Cy-treated, serum-protected mice still reject the secondary virus infection. Lastly, while the immunocompromise systems examined did effect various host antiviral immune responses, none of them, including the NK-deficient beige mutation, significantly diminished the efficacy of the passive serum therapy of F-MuLV-induced disease

  6. Antibody deposition in tumor in relation to blood clearance using a nephrectomized mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelp, W.B.; Eary, J.F.; Beaumier, P.; Krohn, K.A.; Hellstrom, K.E.; Hellstrom, I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study tumor deposition of monoclonal anti-p97 melanoma antibody (Fab) as a function of its blood concentration over time. I-131-anti-p97 Fab and I-125 non-specific Fab were injected I.V. into 28 control athymic (nude) mice (CM) bearing human xenografted malignant melanoma containing p-97 antigen. Fab (M.W. 50,000) is rapidly excreted by kidney and >90% excretion occurred in 24 hr. To create maximum sustained high blood concentrations of Fab 10 similar mice were likewise injected 1 hr after acute nephrectomy (NM). In this case 24 hr. body excretion was <1%. Blood clearance in CM was biexponential with initial T-1/2 0.4 hr. (80%) a second T-1/2 of 4.4 hr. In NM clearance was monoexponential with a T-1/2 of 29.6 hr. Blood concentrations at 4 hrs. were 2 vs. 19% dose/gm (CM vs NM) and 0.15 vs 12 at 24 hrs. This tumor binding resembled a 2nd order phenomenon. Such information may be useful in predicting the effect of dosage manipulations (multiple bolus or sustained infusions) designed to increase Fab blood levels and enhance tumor labeling with Fab. The NM model should be useful to study the kinetics of antibody tumor deposition with various antibodies

  7. Quilamine HQ1-44, an iron chelator vectorized toward tumor cells by the polyamine transport system, inhibits HCT116 tumor growth without adverse effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Stéphanie; Corcé, Vincent; Cannie, Isabelle; Ropert, Martine; Lepage, Sylvie; Loréal, Olivier; Deniaud, David; Gaboriau, François

    2015-08-01

    Tumor cell growth requires large iron quantities and the deprivation of this metal induced by synthetic metal chelators is therefore an attractive method for limiting the cancer cell proliferation. The antiproliferative effect of the Quilamine HQ1-44, a new iron chelator vectorized toward tumor cells by a polyamine chain, is related to its high selectivity for the Polyamine Transport System (PTS), allowing its preferential uptake by tumoral cells. The difference in PTS activation between healthy cells and tumor cells enables tumor cells to be targeted, whereas the strong dependence of these cells on iron ensures a secondary targeting. Here, we demonstrated in vitro that HQ1-44 inhibits DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of HCT116 cells by modulating the intracellular metabolism of both iron and polyamines. Moreover, in vivo, in xenografted athymic nude mice, we found that HQ1-44 was as effective as cis-platin in reducing HCT116 tumor growth, without its side effects. Furthermore, as suggested by in vitro data, the depletion in exogenous or endogenous polyamines, known to activate the PTS, dramatically enhanced the antitumor efficiency of HQ1-44. These data support the need for further studies to assess the value of HQ1-44 as an adjuvant treatment in cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in Cytokines of the Bone Microenvironment during Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Sosnoski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that cancer cells interact with host cells to create a microenvironment favoring malignant colonization. The complex bone microenvironment produces an ever changing array of cytokines and growth factors. In this study, we examined levels of MCP-1, IL-6, KC, MIP-2, VEGF, MIG, and eotaxin in femurs of athymic nude mice inoculated via intracardiac injection with MDA-MB-231GFP human metastatic breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231BRMS1GFP, a metastasis suppressed variant, or PBS. Animals were euthanized (day 3, 11, 19, 27 after injection to examine femoral cytokine levels at various stages of cancer cell colonization. The epiphysis contained significantly more cytokines than the diaphysis except for MIG which was similar throughout the bone. Variation among femurs was evident within all groups. By day 27, MCP-1, MIG, VEGF and eotaxin levels were significantly greater in femurs of cancer cell-inoculated mice. These pro-osteoclastic and angiogenic cytokines may manipulate the bone microenvironment to enhance cancer cell colonization.

  9. Changes in Cytokines of the Bone Microenvironment during Breast Cancer Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnoski, D.M.; Krishnan, V.; Mastro, A.M.; Kraemer, W.J.; Dunn-Lewis, C.

    2012-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that cancer cells interact with host cells to create a microenvironment favoring malignant colonization. The complex bone microenvironment produces an ever changing array of cytokines and growth factors. In this study, we examined levels of MCP-1, IL-6, KC, MIP-2, VEGF, MIG, and eotaxin in femurs of athymic nude mice inoculated via intracardiac injection with MDA-MB-231GFP human metastatic breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 BRMS1GFP, a metastasis suppressed variant, or PBS. Animals were euthanized (day 3, 11, 19, 27 after injection) to examine femoral cytokine levels at various stages of cancer cell colonization. The epiphysis contained significantly more cytokines than the diaphysis except for MIG which was similar throughout the bone. Variation among femurs was evident within all groups. By day 27, MCP-1, MIG, VEGF and eotaxin levels were significantly greater in femurs of cancer cell-inoculated mice. These pro-osteoclastic and angiogenic cytokines may manipulate the bone microenvironment to enhance cancer cell colonization

  10. Mmp-9 responsive PEG cleavable nanovesicles for efficient delivery of chemotherapeutics to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prajakta S; Haldar, Manas K; Nahire, Rahul R; Katti, Preeya; Ambre, Avinash H; Muhonen, Wallace W; Shabb, John B; Padi, Sathish K R; Singh, Raushan K; Borowicz, Pawel P; Shrivastava, D K; Katti, Kalpana S; Reindl, Katie; Guo, Bin; Mallik, Sanku

    2014-07-07

    Significant differences in biochemical parameters between normal and tumor tissues offer an opportunity to chemically design drug carriers which respond to these changes and deliver the drugs at the desired site. For example, overexpression of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzyme in the extracellular matrix of tumor tissues can act as a trigger to chemically modulate the drug delivery from the carriers. In this study, we have synthesized an MMP-9-cleavable, collagen mimetic lipopeptide which forms nanosized vesicles with the POPC, POPE-SS-PEG, and cholesteryl-hemisuccinate lipids. The lipopeptide retains the triple-helical conformation when incorporated into these nanovesicles. The PEG groups shield the substrate lipopeptides from hydrolysis by MMP-9. However, in the presence of elevated glutathione levels, the PEG groups are reductively removed, exposing the lipopeptides to MMP-9. The resultant peptide-bond cleavage disturbs the vesicles' lipid bilayer, leading to the release of encapsulated contents. These PEGylated nanovesicles are capable of encapsulating the anticancer drug gemcitabine with 50% efficiency. They were stable in physiological conditions and in human serum. Effective drug release was demonstrated using the pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells (PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2) in two-dimensional and three-dimensional "tumor-like" spheroid cultures. A reduction in tumor growth was observed after intravenous administration of the gemcitabine-encapsulated nanovesicles in the xenograft model of athymic, female nude mice.

  11. Pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR increase labile iron in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C. Moser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Labile iron, i.e. iron that is weakly bound and is relatively unrestricted in its redox activity, has been implicated in both the pathogenesis as well as treatment of cancer. Two cancer treatments where labile iron may contribute to their mechanism of action are pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR. Pharmacological ascorbate has been shown to have tumor-specific toxic effects due to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. By catalyzing the oxidation of ascorbate, labile iron can enhance the rate of formation of hydrogen peroxide; labile iron can also react with hydrogen peroxide. Here we have investigated the magnitude of the labile iron pool in tumor and normal tissue. We also examined the ability of pharmacological ascorbate and IR to change the size of the labile iron pool. Although a significant amount of labile iron was seen in tumors (MIA PaCa-2 cells in athymic nude mice, higher levels were seen in murine tissues that were not susceptible to pharmacological ascorbate. Pharmacological ascorbate and irradiation were shown to increase the labile iron in tumor homogenates from this murine model of pancreatic cancer. As both IR and pharmacological ascorbate may rely on labile iron for their effects on tumor tissues, our data suggest that pharmacological ascorbate could be used as a radio-sensitizing agent for some radio-resistant tumors.

  12. Involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in apoptosis induced by capsaicin in the human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Hong; Lai, Fu-Ji; Chen, Hui; Luo, Jiang; Zhang, Ri-Yuan; Bu, He-Qi; Wang, Zhao-Hong; Lin, Hong-Hai; Lin, Sheng-Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Capsaicin, one of the major pungent ingredients found in red peppers, has been recently demonstrated to induce apoptosis in various malignant cell lines through an unclear mechanism. In this study, the effect of capsaicin on proliferation and apoptosis in the human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and its possible mechanism(s) of action were investigated. The results of a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay revealed that capsaicin significantly decreased the viability of PANC-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Capsaicin induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PANC-1 cells as demonstrated by a flow cytometric assessment. Caspase-3 expression at both the protein and mRNA level was promoted following capsaicin treatment. Furthermore, we revealed that phospho-PI3 Kinase p85 (Tyr458) and phospho-Akt (Ser473) in PANC-1 cells were downregulated in response to capsaicin. Moreover, capsaicin gavage significantly inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cell xenografts in athymic nude mice. An increased number of TUNEL-positive cells and cleaved caspase-3 were observed in capsaicin-treated mice. In vivo, capsaicin downregulated the expression of phospho-PI3 Kinase p85 (Tyr458) and phospho-Akt (Ser473). In conclusion, we have demonstrated that capsaicin is an inhibitor of growth of PANC-1 cells, and downregulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway may be involved in capsaicin-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Construction of Thymus Organoids from Decellularized Thymus Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Asako; Pradhan, Isha; Geng, Xuehui; Trucco, Massimo; Fan, Yong

    2016-10-12

    One of the hallmarks of modern medicine is the development of therapeutics that can modulate immune responses, especially the adaptive arm of immunity, for disease intervention and prevention. While tremendous progress has been made in the past decades, manipulating the thymus, the primary lymphoid organ responsible for the development and education of T lymphocytes, remains a challenge. One of the major obstacles is the difficulty to reproduce its unique extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment that is essential for maintaining the function and survival of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), the predominant population of cells in the thymic stroma. Here, we describe the construction of functional thymus organoids from decellularized thymus scaffolds repopulated with isolated TECs. Thymus decellularization was achieved by freeze-thaw cycles to induce intracellular ice crystal formation, followed by detergent-induced cell lysis. Cellular debris was removed with extensive wash. The decellularized thymus scaffolds can largely retain the 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment that can support the recolonization of TECs. When transplanted into athymic nude mice, the reconstructed thymus organoids can effectively promote the homing of bone marrow-derived lymphocyte progenitors and support the development of a diverse and functional T cell repertoire. Bioengineering of thymus organoids can be a promising approach to rejuvenate/modulate the function of T-cell mediated adaptive immunity in regenerative medicine.

  14. Overexpression of the human BCL-2 gene product results in growth enhancement of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshihide

    1989-01-01

    The biological activity of the human BCL-2 gene product was analyzed in an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected human lymphoblastoid B-cell line transfected with BCL-2 sequences driven by the simian virus 40 promoter and enhancer. Overproduction of the BCL-2 protein conferred a selective growth advantage to the EBV-infected B cells as compared with control transfectants in low-serum medium and also after seeding at limiting dilution but did not render the cells tumorigenic in athymic nude mice. This growth enhancement was also seen in cells transfected with the BCL-2 gene with its own promoter juxtaposed to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer, which represents the translocated form of the BCL-2 gene observed in follicular lymphomas with the t(14;18) translocation. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B cells overproducing the BCL-2 protein is neither due to the enhanced growth factor production nor due to an enhanced sensitivity of the BCL-2 transfectants to interleukins 1 or 6, although both lymphokines are known to stimulate proliferation of EBV-infected B-cell lines. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B-cell lines. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B cells by overproduction of the BCL-2 protein suggests the direct involvement of the BCL-2 gene product in the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma

  15. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled chimeric anti-NCA 95 antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody for bone marrow imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwar, M.; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1998-09-01

    Chimeric mouse-human antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody (ch MAb) against non-specific cross-reacting antigen (NCA-95) was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc (using a direct method) and {sup 125}I (using the chloramine T method), and its binding to human granulocytes and LS-180 colorectal carcinoma cells expressing carcinoembryonic antigen on their surfaces, cross-reactive with anti-NCA-95 chimeric monoclonal antibody, increased in proportion to the number of cells added and reached more than 80% and 90%, respectively. In biodistribution studies, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 125}I-labeled ch anti-NCA-95 MAb revealed high tumor uptake, and the tumor-to-blood ratio was 2.9 after 24 hours. The tumor-to-normal-organ ratio was also more than 3.0 in all organs except for the tumor-to-kidney ratio. Scintigrams of athymic nude mice confirmed the results of biodistribution studies that showed higher radioactivity in tumor and kidney of the mice administered with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled ch MAb. A normal volunteer injected with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled ch anti-NCA-95 antigranulocyte MAb showed clear bone marrow images, and a patient with aplastic anemia revealed irregular uptake in his lumbar spine, suggesting its utility for bone marrow scintigraphy and for the detection of hematological disorders, infections, and bone metastasis. (author)

  16. Neuroblastoma cell lines contain pluripotent tumor initiating cells that are susceptible to a targeted oncolytic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Y Mahller

    Full Text Available Although disease remission can frequently be achieved for patients with neuroblastoma, relapse is common. The cancer stem cell theory suggests that rare tumorigenic cells, resistant to conventional therapy, are responsible for relapse. If true for neuroblastoma, improved cure rates may only be achieved via identification and therapeutic targeting of the neuroblastoma tumor initiating cell. Based on cues from normal stem cells, evidence for tumor populating progenitor cells has been found in a variety of cancers.Four of eight human neuroblastoma cell lines formed tumorspheres in neural stem cell media, and all contained some cells that expressed neurogenic stem cell markers including CD133, ABCG2, and nestin. Three lines tested could be induced into multi-lineage differentiation. LA-N-5 spheres were further studied and showed a verapamil-sensitive side population, relative resistance to doxorubicin, and CD133+ cells showed increased sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Oncolytic viruses, engineered to be clinically safe by genetic mutation, are emerging as next generation anticancer therapeutics. Because oncolytic viruses circumvent typical drug-resistance mechanisms, they may represent an effective therapy for chemotherapy-resistant tumor initiating cells. A Nestin-targeted oncolytic herpes simplex virus efficiently replicated within and killed neuroblastoma tumor initiating cells preventing their ability to form tumors in athymic nude mice.These results suggest that human neuroblastoma contains tumor initiating cells that may be effectively targeted by an oncolytic virus.

  17. Immunogenicity moderation effect of interleukin-24 on myelogenous leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Miao, Jingcheng; Xia, Wei; Gu, Zong-Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that interleukin-24 (IL-24) has tumor-suppressing activity by multiple pathways. However, the immunogenicity moderation effect of IL-24 on malignant cells has not been explored extensively. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-24 in immunogenicity modulation of the myelogenous leukemia cells. Data show that myelogenous leukemia cells express low levels of immunogenicity molecules. Treatment with IL-24 could enhance leukemia cell immunogenicity, predominantly regulate leukemia cells to produce immune-associated cytokines, and improve the cytotoxic sensitivity of these cells to immune effector cells. IL-24 expression could retard transplanted leukemia cell tumor growth in vivo in athymic nude mice. Moreover, IL-24 had marked effects on downregulating the expression of angiogenesis-related proteins vascular endothelial growth factor, cluster of differentiation (CD) 31, CD34, collagen IV and metastasis-related factors CD147, membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and MMP-2 and MMP-9 in transplanted tumors. These findings indicated novel functions of this antitumor gene and characterized IL-24 as a promising agent for further clinical trial for hematologic malignancy immunotherapy.

  18. Determination of the transforming activities of adenovirus oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiseder, Thomas; Nevels, Michael; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The last 50 years of molecular biological investigations into human adenoviruses (Ads) have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic principles of normal and malignant cell growth. Much of this knowledge stems from analyses of the Ad productive infection cycle in permissive host cells. Also, initial observations concerning the transforming potential of human Ads subsequently revealed decisive insights into the molecular mechanisms of the origins of cancer and established Ads as a model system for explaining virus-mediated transformation processes. Today it is well established that cell transformation by human Ads is a multistep process involving several gene products encoded in early transcription units 1A (E1A) and 1B (E1B). Moreover, a large body of evidence now indicates that alternative or additional mechanisms are engaged in Ad-mediated oncogenic transformation involving gene products encoded in early region 4 (E4) as well as epigenetic changes resulting from viral DNA integration. In particular, studies on the transforming potential of several E4 gene products have now revealed new pathways that point to novel general mechanisms of virus-mediated oncogenesis. In this chapter we describe in vitro and in vivo assays to determine the transforming and oncogenic activities of the E1A, E1B, and E4 oncoproteins in primary baby rat kidney cells, human amniotic fluid cells and athymic nude mice.

  19. A technique to prepare boronated B72.3 monoclonal antibody for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranadive, G.N.; Rosenzweig, H.S.; Epperly, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    B72.3 monoclonal antibody has been successfully boronated using mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (boron cage compound). The reagent was incorporated by first reacting the lysine residues of the antibody with m-maleimidobenzoyl succinimide ester (MBS), followed by Michael addition to the maleimido group by the mercapto boron cage compound to form a physiologically stable thioether linkage. Boron content of the antibody was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. For biodistribution studies, boronated antibody was radioiodinated with iodogen. 125 I-labeled and boronated B72.3 monoclonal antibody demonstrated clear tumor localization when administered via tail vein injections to athymic nude mice bearing LS174-T tumor xenografts. Boronated antibody was calculated to deliver 10 6 boron atoms per tumor cell. Although this falls short of the specific boron content originally proposed as necessary for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), recent calculations suggest that far fewer atoms of 10 B per tumor cell would be necessary to effect successful BNCT when the boron is targeted to the tumor cell membrane. (author)

  20. Correlation of Perfusion MRI and 18F-FDG PET Imaging Biomarkers for Monitoring Regorafenib Therapy in Experimental Colon Carcinomas with Immunohistochemical Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, Ralf S.; Fendler, Wolfgang P.; Kazmierczak, Philipp M.; Hacker, Marcus; Rominger, Axel; Carlsen, Janette; Hirner-Eppeneder, Heidrun; Schuster, Jessica; Moser, Matthias; Havla, Lukas; Schneider, Moritz J.; Ingrisch, Michael; Spaeth, Lukas; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Cyran, Clemens C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate a multimodal, multiparametric perfusion MRI / 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose-(18F-FDG)-PET imaging protocol for monitoring regorafenib therapy effects on experimental colorectal adenocarcinomas in rats with immunohistochemical validation. Materials and Methods Human colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts (HT-29) were implanted subcutaneously in n = 17 (n = 10 therapy group; n = 7 control group) female athymic nude rats (Hsd:RH-Foxn1rnu). Animals were imaged at baseline and after a one-week daily treatment protocol with regorafenib (10 mg/kg bodyweight) using a multimodal, multiparametric perfusion MRI/18F-FDG-PET imaging protocol. In perfusion MRI, quantitative parameters of plasma flow (PF, mL/100 mL/min), plasma volume (PV, %) and endothelial permeability-surface area product (PS, mL/100 mL/min) were calculated. In 18F-FDG-PET, tumor-to-background-ratio (TTB) was calculated. Perfusion MRI parameters were correlated with TTB and immunohistochemical assessments of tumor microvascular density (CD-31) and cell proliferation (Ki-67). Results Regorafenib significantly (pregorafenib therapy effects on experimental colorectal adenocarcinomas in vivo with significant correlations between perfusion MRI parameters and 18F-FDG-PET validated by immunohistochemistry. PMID:25668193