WorldWideScience

Sample records for germany federal republic

  1. Federal Republic of Germany: Commodities report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has compiled the facts and figures in a commodities report for 25 years. This report summarises Germany's mineral and energy commodities trading, consumption and supply situation. After fears of shortages in the early 70s, this 25-year-period was mainly characterised by the feeling that mineral resources would always be available on the international markets in adequate quantities. And although there has been no change in the situation even up to the present day, the world markets for mineral resources are currently undergoing a structural change: the old rule of thumb that 20% of humanity in Europe, the USA and Japan consumed more than 80% of resource production is no longer valid. With India, the People's Republic of China, not to mention other heavily populated emerging countries, over half of the world's population is now involved in the demand for minerals. This means that the growth in world economic demand for natural resources is at the beginning of a new growth curve. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syllus, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Brazil-Federal Republic of Germany Cooperation Agreement for constructing nuclear power plants, and the process of nuclear tecnology transfer in the different areas of design, are discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. NP issues in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.

    1994-01-01

    Status of nuclear energy production in Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Measures to qualify continuing operation of nuclear power plants and research activities on reactor materials aging studying are described

  4. Unlimited - nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, W.

    1986-01-01

    Unlimited nuclear liabilities as in force in the Federal Republic of Germany go beyond the international rules of the Paris liability agreement. The unlimited liability mainly roots in the positive operational experiences and safety balance of the 20 nuclear power plants which meanwhile are in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear liabilities must not be confounded with scepticism as to the utilization of nuclear power. Extraordinary requirements of that kind should rather be reflecting responsibility and clear ideas and notions of the advantages and risks of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  5. School Psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietzel, Gerd; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews origins and evaluation of the present status of school psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany, emphasizing strict separation of school tracks. Notes that system has been evolving into more flexible organizational structure in recent years. Discusses roles and functions of school psychology, administration, training, relationships…

  6. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  7. Energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The tenor and consensus of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany have been affected and shaken by the discussion of damage to forests at the beginning of 1985, the rapidly slumping petroleum prices, the Chernobyl reactor accident, and the resulting emotionalized energy policy debates overshadowing the elections for the Land government, the Senate and the Bundestag. However, the responsible decision making organs still seem to feel a strong need for a consensus of that kind. ET-editors have therefore been trying to find out about the situation of 'energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany' late in 1986. The Federal Government, the parliamentary factions, the parties, Land governments, labor unions and BDI, the coal, petroleum and natural gas industry as well as the manufacturers and managers of nuclear power plants were asked to express their opinion on the following questions: How will the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany be provided for in the future. What are the pros and cons of a nuclear phase-out. Should energy economy be reorganized. What is expected from and desired for the development of individual regions or energy sources, respectively. All but a few of above organs answered the questions. The statements therefore give a representative survey of the opinions and attitudes of the relevant decision-making organs and of different institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  9. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is given on the seismic events in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 1986. Further articles deal with statistics on the earthquakes in the period from 1974 to 1986, reports on single regions as well as a list of the earthquakes world-wide and the damages resulting in the year 1986. (orig./HP) With 12 figs., 5 tabs [de

  10. Underground storage development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponheuer, T.

    1990-01-01

    As the demand for gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is increasingly dependent upon temperature, underground storage is becoming a more and more important tool for the adjustment of supply load factors to the patterns of gas demand. Total working gas capacity is expected to double by the year 2000. Capacity requirements must be planned for a design winter, but allowances must also be made for operational flexibility, but management of incidents and the decrease in deliverability mainly from porous rock storage fields towards the end of the withdrawal season. Storage development potential in the Federal Republic of Germany is adequate for these requirements. However, the substantial uncertainties associated with the various factors determining future storage needs, administrative and licensing procedures, difficulties with regard to storage site acceptance by the general public and the resulting long project lead times confront gas companies from the Federal Republic of Germany with a complex planning problem and a major technical and commercial challenge, considering the estimated capital outlay of 4 to 5 billion DM in 1988 Deutschmarks. To master this challenge and to be able to provide secure and competitive gas supplies, the gas industry must continue to operate in a market economy which remains undistorted by new legislation and regulation. (author). 11 figs

  11. Europe '92: Consequences of the European Unification for Cultural Federalism in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggreen, Ingeborg

    1990-01-01

    Discusses consequences of European unification in the Federal Republic of Germany. Focuses on the relationships between the European Community, the federal government of Germany, and the German states. Suggests that the German states are aware of their responsibility to give education and culture a European dimension. (NL)

  12. Measuring program of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, K.

    1991-10-01

    Form May 21 to June 11 1991 seven measuring vans from the Federal Republic of Germany conducted investigations of radioactivity of environmental samples in the Russian Federation. The measurements were concentrated in the areas of Tula, Kaluga and Brjansk, which were contaminated with different concentrations by the Chernobyl accident. These investigations were financed by the 'Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit' and aimed at the information of the population. In this report, the measuring campaign is described and the results are presented. (orig.) [de

  13. Food irradiation developments in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Professor Diehl from Karlsruhe describes work in the Federal Republic of Germany, based on 30 years of research work at the Centre for Nutrition at Karlsruhe. The replacement of toxic chemical preservatives by irradiation is an attractive possibility and permission for commercial spice irradiation is expected later this year. Promising results had been demonstrated for onions, tropical fruits, fish, shrimps, certain meats and enzymes. Prolonged wholesomeness studies has failed to reveal detrimental health effects up to 50 kGy. In spite of certain adverse political and emotional pressures the author is convinced that food irradiation will be permitted in all E.E.C. countries in the not too distant future

  14. On nuclear development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Today's situation of nuclear energy is strongly influenced by political decisions often initiated by arguments in a public discussion with little rational background. This needs to be contrasted by a nuclear development strategy taking into account the long term needs of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the light of the situation at present a strategy would emerge which is based on the continuous use of and a moderate but steady increase in the number of light water reactors. Also high temperature reactors must find a well-defined position. However, a key role must be assigned to fast breeder reactors, unless the whole concept is to be endangered. (orig.) [de

  15. The principles of nuclear safety in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuler, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the nuclear installations in the Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Also, the necessary preparations for a country, which wants to introduce nuclear power and the legal basis, the technical principles and the licensing procedure as practised in the Federal Republic of Germany are discussed. (A.L.) [pt

  16. Federal Republic of Germany/backfilling and sealing program - outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappei, G.

    1986-01-01

    After 1978 the Asse salt mine was used exclusively for research work which serves to make available scientific and technical data for the planning, construction and operation of repositories for radioactive wastes. This presentation delineates the advantages of the geological formation rock salt with a view to the final disposal of radioactive wastes subsequent to a short description of the 'Waste Management Concept' of the Federal Republic of Germany. The individual components of the internationally accepted 'Multiple Barrier System' are described, while the technical barriers 'backfilling and sealing' are subject of special consideration. A general formulation of the requirements and objectives of each specific component in the backfilling and sealing system is presented. (orig./DG)

  17. Treatment of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (F.R. Germany). Abt. Behandlung Radioaktiver Abfaelle

    1976-07-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a nuclear generating capacity of approximately 65 GWe is anticipated by 1990 which, together with the fuel cycle industry and a reprocessing plant, will produce approximately 18,000 m/sup 3/ of preconcentrated liquids and 16,000 m/sup 3/ of solid waste with a total activity of some 3 x 10/sup 7/ Ci. The contribution to the total amount and activity of waste made by the individual types of waste in various nuclear installations differs widely. Waste from reprocessing plants contains some 99.9% of the radionuclides contained in liquid waste and 86% of those contained in solid waste. Waste from the rest of the fuel cycle, the nuclear power stations and the large research centers together contains only some 0.01% of the total activity of the solid waste. In terms of volume, most of the radioactive waste is low level waste.

  18. The electronuclear program of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Heinrich

    1978-01-01

    The preoccupation of the Federal Republic is to lessen its energy dependency on petroleum (now 52%) particularly by developing nuclear power which could in the year 2,000 meet 27% of its primary energy needs, equally with oil. At the end of 1977, West Germany had 6 industrial reactors operating representing a total power of 5,500 MW., 12 reactors under construction (of which 8 units of 1,300 MW.) for a total power of 13,000 MW., 9 reactors under investigation (11,300 MW.), and 2 reactors 2,700 M. whose construction had been postponed for political reasons. A centre for fuel reprocessing and waste storage is also being investigated [fr

  19. Alternative fuel cycle evaluation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.; Closs, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    In compliance with a 1979 governmental decision, Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center managed the research and development (R and D) program ''Alternative Entsorgung,'' which had two major goals: (a) development of technical concepts for direct disposal of spent fuel and (b) comparison of the traditional back end of the nuclear fuel cycle based on fuel reprocessing with direct disposal. With respect to radiological safety, this comparison revealed that direct disposal scores better than the reprocessing path, but the difference is judged minor when compared to doses from natural radiation background. From the standpoint of cost, direct disposal proves more economical by a margin of 30% even though the reference system of direct disposal was not cost optimized. Finally, some unresolved but not unresolvable issues exist with regard to safeguarding a repository for spent fuel. In its decision in January 1985, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany stated that the results of the R and D program indicated that the legal requirement to ensure Entsorgung were better fulfilled by fuel reprocessing than by direct disposal of spent fuel

  20. Brine migration test - Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1988-03-01

    This document is the final report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that were performed at the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Columbus, Ohio, and the Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IfT), Braunschweig, of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF). Final test and equipment design as well as manufacturing and installation was carried out by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The tests were designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. The performance of an array of candidate waste package materials, test equipment and procedures under repository conditions will be evaluated with a view towards future in-depth testing of potential repository sites. (orig./RB)

  1. Contribution of the Federal Republic of Germany, October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The paper refers to chapters A1 and A2 of the Working Group 5A report. The considerations made in the first part (A1) which are based on the SNR 2 ''standard reference'' core design, comparable to the reference core design of the WG 5A report, deal with the breeding characteristics as well as with the potential for improvements and/or adaptations to changing predominant objections. The second part (A2) deals with the future needs for electrical and non-electrical energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. The amount of uranium required is calculated for 3 strategies: LWR once-through, LWR with Pu recycle and FBR in a symbiotic system with LWR. In a comparison of these strategies it becomes evident, that the uranium requirement of the LWR recycle and the LWR/FBR systems diverge more and more beyond the year 2000. Up to 2050 the cumulative uranium requirements of the LWR/FBR system will not exceed a total of 500,000 t, equivalent to 11% of the ''known'' world resources. This high percentage means that the FBR system has to be introduced as early as possible

  2. Reactor licensing in the United States and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, J.E.L.

    1980-02-01

    The licensing procedure for nuclear power plants in the United States and in the Federal Republic of Germany is analysed. The security policy, the inspections and the supervision during their construction and operation are discussed. (A.L.) [pt

  3. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2015. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  4. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2017. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  5. Licensing procedure, nuclear codes and standards in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with legal background of licensing in nuclear technology and atomic energy use, licensing procedures for nuclear power plants and with codes, standards and guidelines in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./RW)

  6. Protest Movements and the Security Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany Since 1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    to rearmament. The state of mind that framed a majority of the members, however, remained one of 33 semi- abstentionism where German labor remained on...I 0D A132 201 PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURI Y POLICY 0 THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950( U) NAVAL\\ POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONEREY CA A N...1 THESIS PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURITY POLICY OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950 by Arthur Neil Black 0. December 1983 C-) LIJ Thesis

  7. The Federal Republic of Germany and Left Wing Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    the Beatles ! Historically speaking, the soon to be dubbed “68ers”, were extremely conscious of the suppressive and authoritarian Nazi regime that...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction

  8. Nuclear export policy and regulation for non-proliferation: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Werner.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear export policy of the Federal Republic of Germany complies with the principle of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Already in 1967 the Federal Government stated in a Peace Note that no export was authorised to countries (outside Euratom) which did not comply with the IAEA Safeguards. In the bilateral agreement the Federal Republic signed with Brasil in 1975, emphasis was put on international safeguards and the control exercised on exported materials to avoid any diversion for military purposes. (NEA) [fr

  9. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  10. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  11. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  12. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  13. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  14. LWR safety research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seipel, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    . The new HDR project will comprise large non-nuclear tests in the former 100 MWth facility. The project will include blowdown experiments, investigation of the safety margins of the reactor pressure vessel, analysis of the efficiency and reliability of existing methods of non-destructive testing and earthquake simulation. Finally, the concept of a German risk study - specially adapted to the boundary conditions typical of the Federal Republic of Germany - is explained

  15. From 40 to 35 Hours: Reduction and Flexibilisation of the Working Week in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Gerhard

    1990-01-01

    Reviews developments in the shortened work week in the Federal Republic of Germany. Discusses collective agreements and examines the methods used to implement the shorter working week at enterprise level and possible developments in the reunited Germany. (JOW)

  16. The development of high-temperature reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, P.; Krings, F.

    1980-01-01

    The principal features of high-temperature reactors are recalled, then the current state of technology of the line in the Federal Republic of Germany is described. Reference is made to the experience of operating the AVR reactor, the construction of the THTR-300 reactor as well as the HTT and PNP projects [fr

  17. Licensing requirements for nuclear merchant ships in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafstall, H.-G.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure of approval in the Federal Republic of Germany will be discussed, referring to the participated authorities and organizations. Rules and guidelines relevant for licensing are mentioned in the frame of legal positions. After presentation of general aspects of basic licensing requirements more detailed information is given relative to their accomplishment demonstrated on the German Nuclear Contained Ship NCS-80-Project

  18. Licensing procedures in Brazil and in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lima, W.A. da.

    1974-01-01

    The procedures for the licensing of nuclear power plants in Brazil and in the Federal Republic of Germany are described. The juridical situation, the administrative praxis and comparative aspects are discussed. Suggestions are made for the improvement of licensing procedures in both countries. (I.C.R.) [pt

  19. Operating experience with PWR in the FRG (Federal Republic of Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Operating experiences with PWR's in the Federal Republic of Germany has been exclusively with KWU turnkey power plants with U tube steam generators. Such experience started with the 345 MW Obrigheim plant in 1968 and includes the 670 MW Stade plant, the 1200/1300 MW Biblis plants, The 900 MW Neckarwestheim and the 1300 MW Unterweser plants. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report on coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter 2010 contains the statistical data concerning the following issues: (i) black coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade; (ii) brown coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade.

  1. Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, J.H.; Hadderingh, R.H.; Bijleveld, M.F.I.J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found

  2. Requirements for electricity producing gas-cooled reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes requirements to a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor from the view-point of a utility in the Federal Republic of Germany. The requirements presented in the paper address different areas including plant size, availability, safety and economics. (author)

  3. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Updating for the year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeder, Lea; Burger, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany (Updating for the year 2016) includes the following issues: Why the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions is necessary; subventions and related processes; international initiatives for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions, routes for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions.

  4. Military cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowsky, J.; Geisler, W.

    1978-01-01

    In the books part called 'the military co-operation between the Federal Republic of Germany and South Africa', the authors report that the African National Congress was able to prove the existence of a long atomic co-operation between the Federal Republic and South Africa: with knowledge and support of the Federal Government, the Society for Nuclear Research, Karlsruhe and the STEAG, Essen, have given the separation nozzle method used for uranium enrichment to South Africa. Thus, it is said, the Federal Republic is helping a regime to possess this dreadful weapon which might use it for tis surrival. Scientists of German nationality have been working in leading positions in the war research in South Africa. (HSCH) [de

  5. The situation of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassert, H.

    1982-01-01

    The industrial development of nuclear power, especially nuclear power plant technology, in the Federal Republic of Germany has reached a top level position worldwide with respect to availability and safety. The expansion of the use of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany by comparison has been in a paradoxical situation for many years: the importance of this source of energy is being stressed again and again by politicians and industrialists, the speedy development of nuclear power described as indispensable for the national economy and the energy producing utilities. However, in actual practice, industry and the electricity utilities are facing no end of obstacles and difficulties which, ultimately, are beginning to jeopardize the major advantages of nuclear power, at least in the Federal Republic. Special difficulties arise not only in the completion of the prototypes of the two advanced reactor lines, i.e., the fast breeder and the high temperature reactor, but especially also in the completion of the fuel cycle by reprocessing plants, despite the fact that all legal conditions exist for allowing nuclear power to occupy the place found to be necessary also in the Federal Republic of Germany. Industry expects these complex effects on the economy to be recognized and taken into account especially on the political side before this important area of innovation suffers irreparable damage. (orig.) [de

  6. Environment and economic growth in the federal republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, F.

    1998-01-01

    After several decades of economic growth with a continuous increase of energy consumptions, a new trend is now developing in Germany: reduction of energy consumptions and of pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes first the energy supplies of Germany (consumption, sources), the consumption by sector, and the share of the different energy sources in the German consumption (petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable energies). In a second part, the German energy policy is presented with its priorities and actions regarding the environment protection: energy savings, development of renewable energy sources, reduction of automotive fuels consumption, rational use of energy, thermal insulation of buildings, financial incentives etc.. Finally, the forecasting of future energy consumption and pollutants emission trends in Germany and at the worldwide scale are evoked. (J.S.)

  7. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The seismic data will serve as input parameters for the construction of sensitive industrial-scale facilities and also as basic data of the general specifications for building construction (DIN 4149, part 1: Building construction in seismic regions of West Germany; assumed loads, dimensioning and design of high structures). To give a better picture, the data are presented in the form of maps showing seismic regions in West Germany (including marginal regions) and world-wide. Definitions are presented in order to facilitate reading for non-experts. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henger, M.; Leydecker, G.

    1988-01-01

    The report summarizes the regional reports of the seismological observatories for the year 1983. There was no serious earthquake so far in the F.R.G. The data are presented in the form of maps showing the seismic centers in West Germany (including marginal regions). Explanations of seismological terminology and abbreviations used are given for the general reader. (DG) [de

  9. Cultural Life in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter Nationes, Bonn (West Germany).

    By the nature of the subject, it is impossible to do justice to the cultural developments of more than 40 years in a brief survey. The aim of this document is to explore the diverse cultural life of West Germany complete with photographs of past and present artists, art products, and other aspects of German culture. The subject areas treated are:…

  10. Limitation of releases of radioactive effluents for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolksdorf, P.; Buehling, A.

    1981-01-01

    Empirical values relating to the effluents of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are now available. These values cover a period of several years of operation. The measured emissions of radioactive substances are often very much below the maximum permissible values, based on the dose limits for the environment stipulated in the legal regulations. Extensive technical and administrative measures contribute to the reduction of radioactive effluents. Furthermore, additional possibilities for improvement are mentioned which may lead to a further reduction of radioactive effluents. These are derived from investigations into the release of radioactive substances in nuclear power plants. The licensing procedure in the Federal Republic of Germany in fixing discharge limits is outlined. Proposals are made concerning licence values which may be determined for the radioactive effluents in modern standardized nuclear power plants with light-water reactors. The resulting radiation exposures are quoted for a typical nuclear power plant site. (author)

  11. Nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The information brochure is a survey of installed nuclear facilities in Germany, presenting on one page each a picture of a nuclear power plant together with the main relevant data, or of other type of nuclear facilities belonging to the nuclear fuel cycle (such as fuel production plant, fuel production plant, fuel element storage facilities, and facilities for spent fuel and waste management). (UA) [de

  12. Nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, D.O.

    1978-01-01

    The way the electricity supply in West Germany is organised is outlined. A summary is given of the development of commercial reactors, of FBRs and HTRs and of their role in present and future nuclear generating capacity. The link-up between manufacturers and companies within the industry is illustrated. Procedures for licensing of plant and the role of administrative courts in dealing with public contestations following the issues of licenses is described. Reference is made to plans for reprocessing. (UK)

  13. The public opinion of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 1955-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, N.

    1988-01-01

    With this report an attempt is made to document all opinion polls concerning the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. This documentation is designed to serve as a useful tool for social science research. It should support the historical analysis of long-term developments in public opinion and a systematic comparison of questions asked in different polls and at different times. (orig.) [de

  14. State of advanced reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutler, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany is engaged in development work on an advanced light-water reactor that is being designed to achieve a conversion factor of 0.9 on U-Pu fuel. With regard to breeder reactors, most efforts are being concentrated on further improving, with the aid of European partners, the safety standards and economic efficiency of fast breeders. Special efforts are being invested in the development and introduction of small, inherently safe high-temperature reactors

  15. The political setting of the environmentalist movement in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, H.J.; Kessel, H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper, aimed at the non-German public, gives a short impression of the political dimensions of the environmental movement in the Federal Republic of Germany. It shows that the former environmental protection groups have developed into new political parties which were successful in the last elections at the state level. Special emphasis is placed on the interrelations between the environmental movement and the peace movement. (orig.) [de

  16. Development of brown coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilmann, W

    1985-01-01

    The significance of brown coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany for the development of opencast technology and the power industry is discussed with emphasis on mining in the Rhineland Area. In 1984, 126.7 mt of brown coal were produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the development of high-performance equipment it is essential that the efficiency of the bucket-wheel excavator is increased. Trains and conveyors are mainly used for mine transport in the Federal Republic of Germany. A high moral commitment is linked to land claims, recultivation and environmental issues on the part of brown coal mining. In 1984 the percentage share of brown coal supplied to the public power stations was 83.6%, corresponding to 105.9 mt. The installed capacity of all brown coal power stations amounted to 12,764 MW at the end of 1984, providing around one quarter of overall public power output. Charge coal for coal refining has become more important and the production of brown coal dust and brown coal coke has also increased. The share of brown coal in domestic primary energy production is currently around 24% of 151 mt hard-coal units or around 10% of 376.5 mt hard-coal units in terms of energy consumption. 12 references.

  17. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany

  18. The Federal Republic of Germany as an energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive overview of the energy market West Germany. The central part is a presentation of the organizational structure of the most important sectoral markets and pricing mechanisms for petroleum, electric power, natural gas, and coal. A further emphasis is on the analysis of the structural change triggered off by the first energy crisis of 1973 and which was continued with increased momentum after the second one in 1979/1980. The book ascribes the savings of energy achieved in industry, households, small businesses and the transport sector to the development of prices and the energy policy implemented since 1973. The final part contains an outline - against the background of the development to be expected in future - of topical points of emphasis of an energy policy that is increasingly influenced by environmental concerns. (orig.) [de

  19. Environmental policy of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malunat, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The history of the policy for environmental protection in Germany is characterized by a particularly fast rate of evolution over the roughly 25 years of its existence to a state of maturity for which all other fundamental political goals and principles of our society - such as democracy, supremacy of law, social welfare - have taken much more time to develop. Compared to this rapid development in theory, the situation of the environment has changed but little, and considering our current knowledge, revealing the interdependency of global ecological processes, there is danger of development to the worse. The United Nations have been signalising the beginning of a new approach towards the environment based on the principle of global responsibility. But the narrow lane of ''sustainable development'' will lead to success only if the great majority of people are prepared to take on personal responsibility. (orig.) [de

  20. Safety philosophy and research program of the LWR development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.

    1978-11-01

    In this paper the framework of the reactor safety concept in the Federal Republic of Germany will be described. It is grounded on several cornerstones the most important of which are a closed fuel cycle concept, a statutory licensing and supervision procedure, a set of compulsory safety-engineering requirements and comprehensive research in the field of reactor-safety. The main part of this last area is the Reactor Safety Research Program sponsored by the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. Furthermore, in this paper emphasis is laid on safety requirements particularly with regard to the quality of the reactor pressure vessel. (orig.) [de

  1. Deregulation potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany. Deregulierungspotentiale in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltwedel, R; Busch, A; Gross, A; Laaser, C F

    1986-01-01

    In December 1984 the Federal Minister of Economics commissioned the Institute of World Trade and Industry to work out an expertise on 'deregulation potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany'. The study gives access to major parts of the expertise. Analyses focus on regulations for different self-supporting occupations, retail trade, the finance markets, the communication sector, the supply industry, and the transportation sector. An examination of the grounds the regulations were based on is followed by a discussion of the pros and cons of a deregulation. The statements and arguments take into account experiences gained abroad.

  2. Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2015; Statusbericht zur Kernenergienutzung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Niedzwiedz, Katarzyna; Philippczyk, Frank; Thoemmes, Achim

    2016-05-15

    Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2015 covers the following topics: electricity generation on Germany, nuclear power plants in Germany, research reactors, facilities of nuclear fuel supply and nuclear waste management.

  3. The legal framework for nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Preuss, M.

    2008-01-01

    Within the range of the power generation the part of nuclear energy amounts 22 % in Germany in the year 2007. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the legal framework for nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following aspects are described: (a) The atomic law and the completion of the power generation from nuclear energy; (b) The disposal of nuclear wastes; (c) The Euratom contract; (d) The institutional framework for the execution of the atomic energy law; (e) Legal protection opposite atom legal sovereignty documents; (f) future of the atomic law; (g) European Union-Russian partnership agreement and cooperation agreement. In order to guarantee a sustainable power supply for the production of goods and services in a national economy, also the legal framework for nuclear power stations in Germany must be realized

  4. The non-proliferation regime, vertical proliferation and the interests of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    1988-12-01

    The disarmament orientation of the NPT, which stands beside the central aim of avoiding horizontal proliferation, raises a question: Does a compatibility exist between the non-proliferation policy of the Federal Republic and its security policy, which has its basic pillar in the nuclear deterrence strategy? Critics of this deterrence policy therefore, hinting to the disarmament determination of the NPT, demand that the Federal Republic should exercise its influence for the conclusion of a 'Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty' (CTBT), the establishment of a 'Nuclear-Weapons-Free-Zones' (NWFZ) in Europe, a 'No First Use'-Treaty (NFU) and finally the abolishment of all atomic weapons ('Zero Solution'). According to them such disarmament 'remedies' can reestablish or assure the waning or damaged international consensus for horizontal non-proliferation. This is a contribution for the establishment of a stable world order and will smooth the way for a prolongation of the NPT in the year 1995. An analysis of the history and the structure of interests shows that the policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is deeply rooted in the NPT and that a prolongation of the treaty and its own membership is a substantial object of the foreign and security policy. Consequently the Federal Republic has to face the demands for an intensification of 'anti-nuclear measures' and has to examine their acceptability and their usefulness with respect to non-proliferation. The structure of the problem encloses the following aspects: The security conception of the Federal Republic with its military-strategic essence; the provisions in article VI NPT for negotiations with the object of a world free of atomic weapons; the derived disarmament 'remedies' for strengthening the consensus for horizontal non-proliferation and, finally, the real interface between horizontal and vertical proliferation. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Management and storage of spent research reactor fuel within the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1996-01-01

    Research reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany and their needs for the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel are described. Existing long-term interim storage facilities are described. Special licensing and legal restrictions imposed by the German Atomic Energy Act are outlined. Possible final solutions for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle for research reactors, including reprocessing in the United Kingdom or France, return of US-origin fuel and a home-grown German solution are discussed. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments, Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany. Annual report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Luebker, D.; Coyle, A.; Kalia, H.

    1984-10-01

    This is the First Annual report (1983) which describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste respository at the 800-meter level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery, and the mine proper. Also included are test data for the first six months of operations on brine migration rates, room closure rates, extensometer readings, stress measurements, and thermal mechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be two years, ending in December 1985. 3 references, 34 figures, 13 tables

  7. Power programmes review: Power reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Compared with work in some other industrialized countries, the atomic energy programme in the Federal Republic of Germany got off to a somewhat late start. Nevertheless, after about four years of research and training of scientists, the country is today on the threshold of a major phase in atomic energy development. While research and training are being continued, the first concrete steps are also being initiated for the commercial utilization of nuclear energy as a source of power. Several experimental nuclear power stations are being set up, designed or planned

  8. Data concerning the development of the energy economy of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    After an introductory survey concerning international and national energy policy in 1981 there follow statistics, tables and graphs concerning the balance of primary energy, the structure of energy consumption, the import and export of energy sources, as well as the development of the market (amount produced, utilisation, prices) especially for black coal, brown coal, mineral oil, electricity and gas. To extend these data referring to the Federal Republic of Germany and to compare them the most important energy data of the world are represented.

  9. Underground disposal of hazardous waste in the Federal Republic of Germany - principles and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.; Brasser, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the final disposal of radioactive waste and the permanent enclosure of defined types of toxic wastes in deep geological formations are being pursued with a view towards preventing hazardous material from reaching the biosphere. A detailed site- and waste-specific safety analysis will be required to substantiate the effiency of underground repositories. In this respect the longterm behaviour of wastes and possible interactions need to be evaluated, taking into consideration the geochemical-hydrogeological conditions such as groundwater movement and solution potentials. (au)

  10. Regulatory inspection practices for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, Otto.

    1977-01-01

    Applicants for a licence as well as the competent bodies in this field are responsible for justifying the public's confidence in the quality and reliability of the uses of nuclear energy. This concern is reflected in the legal provisions and the philosophy applicable to statutory inspections in the Federal Republic of Germany. This paper describes the organisation, the purposes and the number of inspections performed at the design, the construction and the operational stages of nuclear power plants as well as the inspections organised following unexpected events and includes the comparison of various inspection costs with the overall costs of a nuclear power plant. (NEA) [fr

  11. Legal and practical aspects of radioactivity in comsumer products in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, F.

    1978-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the use of consumer products that contain radioactive substances is primarily controlled by the first radiation protection ordinance, the second radiation protection ordinance, and the ordinance on the approval of drugs that have been treated with ionizing radiation or that contain radioactive subtances. In October 1976, a new radiation protection ordinance was published. This new ordinance replaced the regulations of the first and second radiation protection ordinances. In this paper, the old regulations and the most important changes according to the new radiation protection ordinance are discussed

  12. Regional radiation protection center in the Federal Republic of Germany - Tasks and Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1988-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany 220,000 staff members are classified at the moment as occupationally radiation exposed persons. For the maintenance of industrial health and safety for the workers in the companies and for the medical, professional and social rehabilitaion after an accident the so-called ''Berufsgenossenschaften'' (professional trade associations) are responsible. For employees in nuclear industry two trade associations are competent: - the Trade Association for Precision Engineering and Electrical Engineering for the 6,000 employees in nuclear power plants, - the Trade Association of the Chemical Industry for the 4,000 employees in fuel element fabrication and the reprocessing companies. In case of an accident workers from service companies e.g. construction and installation companies could be affected as well. Therefore these trade associations have founded a couple of years ago an ''Institute for Radiation Protection''. A special task of this institute is First Aid to overexposed people in case of radiation accidents. In addition, it organizes the 24-hours-service of the seven Regional Radiation Protection Centers of Federal Republic of Germany. The institute provides special training of radiation protection physicians and occupationally radiation exposed persons. (author) [pt

  13. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs

  14. Research in the Federal Republic of Germany. Forschung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Beispiele, Kritik, Vorschlaege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, C.

    1983-01-01

    This book is about research and, consequently, researchers. It shows the kinds of questions they ask themselves, how they solve them and how they use the results. A great deal of discussion is going on about research in the Federal Republic of Germany: the aims, the promotion measures, the quality of research by international standards and the yield in proportion to the expenditure. Are we doing enough research. What inner and outer conditions will best ensure the prosperity of research. This book is a plausible attempt to provide the discussion with a solid basis: in it scientists report their experiences, presenting, in a manner of speaking, a piece of their scientific autobiography, because that is most likely to throw a light on the multifariousness, complexity and, often enough, unpredictability of events, influences, thoughts and motives which finally bring about their scientific achievement in the form of results and effects. This book has the merit of giving a voice to men of the arts and of the sciences and to the engineering community as well. Successful research, today, always carries an aspect of associating diverging scientific domains. Yet it does not try to give a comprehensive view of research in the Federal Republic of Germany, but limits itself instead to examples. Each of them is illustrative in a particular way. In their totality, they convey a unique picture of the scientific culture of the present.

  15. Status and future aspects of nuclear fuel cycle transports in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechschmidt, M.; Keese, H.

    1977-01-01

    The transport practices in the Federal Republic of Germany for materials of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Particularly containers and modes of transport for UF 6 , fresh and spent fuel elements, plutonium and radwaste are described, with main emphasis on transport to reprocessing and waste storage facilities. In most cases nuclear materials have to be shipped across the borders because at present neither an enrichment nor an industrial reprocessing plant exists in the Federal Republic of Germany. Transports are therefore carried out according to international standards, such as the IAEA recommendations laid down in legal traffic regulations. Control and physical protection are being exercised on the basis of national regulations. The paper summarizes the experience gained in performing quite a number of various shipments and deals with the application of the relevant transport regulations. It also gives a brief outlook on future aspects, such as the increasing transport volume, and transport problems related to decommissioning and the operation of a nuclear fuel cycle center

  16. Final disposal of decommissioning wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewitz, W; Stippler, R

    1981-01-01

    The waste disposal concept of the Federal Republic of Germany for nuclear power plants provides for the final disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological formations and mines. The radiological safety of such a repository depends on a system of multiple barriers of which the geological barrier is the most important one. The isolation concept must guarantee the waste to decay below the limiting values of the German Radiation Protection Regulation within the repository. The expected total decommissioning waste masses from 12 nuclear power plants operating in the Federal Republic of Germany amounts to approxiametly 85000 Mg. For the final disposal of these wastes there are, under present aspects, two mines being considered as repositories. The pilot repository in the Asse II salt mine is in the state of licensing. The adandoned iron ore mine Konrad is being investigated for its feasibility and licensing will probably be initiated in 1982. Capacity and efficiency calculations have proved that both mines have got the technical requirements needed for the disposal of decommissioning and operating wastes from existent as well as from future built nuclear power plants.

  17. Nuclear power plant licensing and supervision in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrhardt, H.J.; Gottschalk, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes nuclear power plant licensing and supervision in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Peculiarities due to the federal structure of the FRG are outlined paying due regard to the long tradition of using consultation by qualified and independent technical experts. The participating authorities, commissions, expert organizations, vendors, utilities and the public as well as their respective competences are mentioned. Also, the hierarchy in nuclear legislation by means of ordinances, administrative regulations, guidelines and technical standards is pointed out. Typical examples are presented. The paper ends in mentioning important items concerning the evaluation of operating experience, recurrent tests, backfitting, lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, safety research concerning accident management measures, on-site and off-site emergency planning, as well as qualification and occupational training of the responsible shift personnel. (orig.)

  18. Comparison measurements of the official individual dosimetry systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.

    1988-01-01

    At present, about 220,000 radiation workers are subject to individual monitoring of external radiation in the Federal Republic of Germany in accordance with the X-Ray Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Each radiation worker must wear at least one individual dosemeter provided by one of the five officially authorized dosemeter services. Requirements for these dosemeter services with respect to technical equipment and personnel are published in the form of a national directive. The five dosemeter services must participate in the comparison measurements for photon radiation with the official dosemeters issued by them. The comparison measurements are organized at least once a year by the Physicalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in agreement with the Federal Minister of Economics. Film dosemeters evaluated with a filter analysis procedure are most frequently used (96.% of all evaluations in 1984) to monitor the whole body exposure to photon radiation. Glass dosemeters play a minor role (0.5%). They are issued by only two officially authorized dosemeter services and are approved for measurements of photons with energies above 45 keV. According to the national directive, thermoluminescence dosemeters may be used only for partial body dosimetry of photon and beta radiation (2.8%). Nuclear track emulsion films are distributed to measure neutrons of energies above 0.5 MeV. A thermoluminescence albedo dosemeter for the measurement of less energetic neutrons is being introduced. The dosimetry systems involved in the comparison measurements and the operational radiation protection monitoring system of the Federal Republic of Germany are described elsewhere. The objective of this work is to describe the performance of the comparison measurements and to give some results obtained from 1979 to 1984

  19. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in Central Europe. It covers an area of 250,000 square kilometres and has a population of 60 millions. The Federal Republic consists of 10 individual states. The capital of the country is Bonn. The northern and northwestern parts of the country are formed of flat lowlands, the Norddeutsche Tiefebene. Towards the south follow hilly and mountainous regions with elevations not exceeding 1000 m. In the southwestern and southeastern regions the elevations may reach 1500m in the Black Forest and Bayerischer Wald. The foreland of the Alps and the northern part of the Alps itself with elevations close to 3000 m make up the southern part of the Federal Republic. The main rivers - Rhine, Weser and Elbe - are directed towards northwest and drain the country to the North Sea. Only the southern part is drained by the southeast running river Danube. The climate is moderate, generally with frequent snow during the winter season and warm periods during the summer. The precipitation is distributed uniformly throughout the year. Due to the high industrialization a dense network of railroads, highways and motorroads exists.According to what is geologically known about the country, the chances for the discovery of large quantities of low-coast uranium resources must be considered to be limited. The potential for new discoveries of those deposits can be estimated to be around 10 000 t U. The potential for very low-grade uranium ore, such as granites, low-grade sedimentary rocks (sandstones, shales) can be estimated to range between 10,000 - 50,000 t U or possibly more taking into account very low-grade concentrations in shales. This material is not mineable under present conditions. Environmental considerations may prevent mining in the future

  20. Vocational Education and Training for the Hotel and Catering Industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. Report of a Visiting Party. Studies in Vocational Education and Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. Number Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripper, Chris, Ed.; Russell, Russ, Ed.

    A party of vocational educators from the United Kingdom (UK) traveled to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to examine West German vocational education and training for the hotel and catering industry. During the study, the investigators examined the training with respect to regulations, the content of training, and the structure of the…

  1. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeunert, U [Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie, Bonn (Germany); Kessler, G [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1978-07-01

    Problems of public acceptance of nuclear power have affected the development of fast breeder reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany. Besides cooperation with UK, USA and Japan, the most outstanding event in the field of international fast breeder cooperation was a set of the agreements between Germany and France. These agreements opened the possibility of joint fast breeder development by Germany together with Belgium and the Netherlands. Most activities on the site of Compact Sodium Cooled Nuclear Reactor KNK-II were concerned with commissioning of the plant and final construction work. Criticality was achieved in Oct. 1977 and low-power tests performed. This paper includes a description of the status of construction of SNR-300 reactor and the results of research and development programmes performed. These were concerned with fuel elements development and results of irradiation experiments; development of cladding materials and core element structural materials; interaction between fuel and cladding; sodium tests; development and verification of computer codes; experiments in fast critical assemblies; fast rector safety; core disruptive accidents; development of instrumentation; thermodynamics od fuel assemblies; fluid dynamics.

  2. Organizational aspects of the handling of radiation accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is a legal requirement that persons exposed to ionizing radiation as a consequence of their employment in radiation facilities should be monitored. Some 90000 persons constitute the population 'at risk' for occupational radiation exposure. The actual radiation accident rate has been very low indeed. Nevertheless, precautions must be taken. Four radiation accident categories may be distinguished: uncomplicated, complicated, contamination and incorporation accidents. In the Federal Republic, the 'Berufsgenossenschaften' (BGS) are required to organize radiation accident care if necessary and take all measures to prevent them. The BGS has issued a pamphlet 'First Aid in case of Increased Exposure to Ionizing Radiation' as a guide to all personnel concerned. The BGS has also organized 5 'Regional Radiation Protection Centres' available to give advice 7 days a week, 24 hours a day in Hamburg, Homburg (Saar), Juelich, Karlsruhe und Munich. These centres are all equipped to provide first aid and decontamination and to cater for a short term stay until a decision is reached as to how to handle a particular accident. The special burns hospital of the BGS in Ludwigshafen is equipped with sterile rooms to handle 'complicated accidents', in particular when skin burns are involved. Two mobile 'radiation protection units' are available in Karlsruhe and Munich to provide help in all problems of dosimetry and health physics. A medical advisory team has been formed to supplement local physicians in dealing with special problems in the handling of radiation accident victims. (author)

  3. The conflicts between labor and environmentalism in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, H.

    1985-01-01

    This report is the German-language short version of a book by the same author titled 'The Conflicts between Labor and Environmentalism in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States' published by Gower, Aldershot, England and St. Martin's Press, New York in the summer 1985. It discusses the evolution of the relationship between organized labor and environmentalism in both countries since the mid-1960s. Five explanations for this relationship are examined: (1) The perceptions of the interdependencies between employment and environmental protection by both groups, (2) the demographic and socio-economic composition of both groups, (3) internal will-formation and decision-making, (4) the overall institutional and political frameworks, and (5) the historical and ideological backgrounds of both groups. (orig.) [de

  4. Manpower and areas of activity in the nuclear research centers in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miessner, H.

    1984-12-01

    A survey is presented of tasks and functions of the nuclear research centers, which belong to the 13 big research establishments in the Federal Republic of Germany. The central R+D-activities in the nuclear field (high temperature reactor, fast breeder, uranium enrichment, reprocessing, waste handling, nuclear safety, nuclear fusion, fusion technology, plasma physics and technology) and the manpower assigned to these activities are described. Future developments in R+D and in manpower are discussed. An outline is given of cooperation established with industry, universities and other institutions. The number of staff and its composition in terms of education and qualification are indicated. Staff mobility, especially transfer to industry, manpower development of junior staff and training efforts are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments, Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany. Annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Feddersen, H.K.; Schwarzianeck, P.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1986-07-01

    This is the second joint annual report (1984) on experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are test data for the first 19 months of operation on the following: brine migration rates, thermal mechanical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), and borehole gas pressures. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of results are included in this report. The duration of the experiment will be 2 years, ending in December 1985

  6. Nesting bird deterrents for the Federal Republic of Germany glass log storage pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    A proposed storage pad wi11 be constructed in the 200 West Area for the storage of isotopic heat and radiation sources from the Federal Republic of Germany. The pad will be constructed in the southern portion of the Solid Waste Operations Complex near the existing Sodium Storage Pad (Figure 1). Following a biological review by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel (Brandt 1996), it was determined that in order for construction to take place after March 15, 1997, actions would need to be taken to prevent migratory birds from nesting in the project area. Special attention was focused on preventing sage sparrows and loggerhead shrikes, both Hanford Site species of concern (DOE/RL 1996), from nesting in the area. This activity plan details the methods and procedures that will be used to implement these nesting deterrents

  7. Progress in instrumentation and control in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1990-01-01

    The development of I and C in the Federal Republic of Germany is influenced mainly by three factors, the stagnation to order new plants, the need to retrofit operating plants, and the fast technological progress in electronics. Since the life time of I and C in a plant is about one third of the overall plant life, there is enough impact onto developing I and C using new technologies. This leads to more extensive use of signal processing by means of computers and to the introduction of algorithms for providing higher level information. Presentation techniques employ colored graphics or diagrams on CRTs, which in term can be used to initiate manual control actions. Advanced control room concepts aim at operator information which is adapted to the process situation. New methodologies focus on advanced information tasks like diagnosis and prognosis. In addition midterm research work started on developments for new I and C concepts. (author)

  8. Health physics assistant. A special training in health physics in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, H.; Koelzer, W.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany knowledge in health physics is imparted mainly as a supplement training in courses of some days up to a few weeks duration. This may be adequate for strictly defined sectors, although it is not sufficient as to the education of a true health physicist. Already in the early sixties the necessity of such special training was recognized at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and training was started of 'health physics assistants' as this profession is called. Significant details are given about training, the contributions of the individual training institutions (Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, nuclear medical hospital, Euratom institute, S.C.P.R.I.) examinations and subjects examined, experience regarding future employments and activities

  9. Plutonium recycle in LWRs - The programme of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This paper explains that in accordance with the Federal Republic of Germany's nuclear energy policy, spent fuel from their large programme of LWRs will be stored for some years in an interim storage pool until capacity for reprocessing, which is essential on environmental grounds, becomes available after 1990. The residual fissile content (uranium and plutonium) of the spent fuel can then be recovered and either be recycled into thermal LWRs or later on be burnt in Fast Reactors. A comprehensive R, D and D programme for plutonium recycle was launched in 1971. Up to the end of 1978 about 10,000 MOX fuel rods were designed, specified, fabricated and irradiated in several nuclear power plants. The methods used in this work and the results are described

  10. Safety concept of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, H.L.; Seipel, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    The safety philosophy of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) pertaining to nuclear power plants is presented. Its general approach makes much use of research and experience in other countries, especially the United States, but the FRG has also evolved approaches and aspects unique to itself. The article discusses the institutional interrelationships of the entities affecting German nuclear power plant safety and presents the resulting German safety philosophy. This philosophy is based, as in the United States, on multilevel defenses but with greater reliance on a number of accident-prevention and/or -mitigation concepts, including: (1) automated responses to off-normal conditions, (2) an operating-limit system that acts before initiation of protective actions by the reactor protection system, (3) multistrand independent safety trains, and (4) long-term self-contained safety under accident conditions without operator intervention. The practical realization of this philosophy in the design and operation of the chief reactor systems is described

  11. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale, dated 1 October 2002, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in document INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998) has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2001

  12. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale, dated 1 October 2002, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in document INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998) has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2001

  13. National energy and nuclear power system plans of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuous and secure procurement of energy is of vital importance for our national economy. This has been demonstrated drastically during and after the energy crisis in 1973. Therefore, the aim of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany is to make energy available: (1) in always sufficient quantities; (2) with a maximum degree of security of supply; (3) in a way to protect the environment to a maximum extent; (4) at the cheapest possible cost to the economy. The other aim of our energy policy is to diversify the basis of primary energy sources in order to reduce our dependence on imported oil as fast as this is possible under reasonable economic conditions. For these reasons our efforts are concentrated on the development of nuclear and new non-nuclear energy sources as well as on the development of technologies on energy conservation. The concept of the Federal Republic of Germany for the development of new energy sources is outlined in the FRG program of energy research and technology. It combines the continuation of the 4. nuclear program of FRG (1973-1976) and the skeleton program of non-nuclear energy research (1974-1977). In continuation of existing activites the main object of the new program will be again the development of nuclear energy concentrating on advanced reactor systems, nuclear fuel cycle and safety and radiation protection research. In addition large efforts are made in the area of coal technology, the development of new primary and secondary energy sources and methods for energy conservation. Until 1985 in the FRG the percentage of nuclear energy will be increased from 2% of today to 15% in 1985, i.e. approximately 45.000 MWe. The development of nuclear power systems will be performed by industry and nuclear research centers. At present there are about 25.000 people working in this area

  14. Radiation exposure control of nuclear power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of exposure records of all persons engaged in radiation work at nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany has shown that annual collective doses increase rapidly with time. The annual gross electrical energy generated from nuclear power also increases rapidly with time, corresponding to about 11% of the total gross electrical energy produced in 1977/78. Therefore, it is obvious that there is an increase of both the risk and the benefit from nuclear power production. Whether in the course of time the situation develops more towards the risk or the benefit side is learned from the history of the annual ratio of the collective dose per gross electrical energy generated. This ratio shows a significant decrease since 1972. The decrease is due to the experience gained from operation of the first-generation plants, which led to several administrative measures aimed at an improved control of the collective doses of power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany. The administrative measures include, among others, the introduction of the following requirements: (a) Everyone who applies for a nuclear power plant construction licence has to provide evidence that, in the design of the plant, full use is made of the experience gained from plants in operation with respect to reduction of collective doses of the power plant personnel. (b) Everyone who engages his employees on radiation work within operations for which an operation licence is required, but which is held by others, requires a special 'contractor licence'. (c) Every person engaged in radiation work on the basis of a contractor licence must carry a special exposure record book which is registered by the competent national authority. (author)

  15. The text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy which entered into force on 26 February 1976

  16. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  17. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [fr

  18. The text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-26

    The document reproduces the text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy which entered into force on 26 February 1976.

  19. Mining in the Federal Republic of Germany 2012. Mining industries and statistics. 64th year 2013. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    The annual report of the series ''The mining industry in the Federal Republic of Germany - Mountain Economics and Statistics'' is published by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology in cooperation with the mining authorities of the federal states. It contains comprehensive data of all production facilities of mining industry in Germany and describes the position of the German industry in the context of the overall economic development. The report shows an interest in local raw materials as well as on the international raw materials economy. Moreover, the present publication provides a detailed statistics section. [de

  20. Radioactive effluents and present and future radiation exposure to the population from nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.; Edelhauser, H.; Gans, I.; Wolter, R.

    1977-01-01

    As this time ten light water cooled nuclear power plants are operated outside of nuclear research centers in the Federal Republic of Germany. A review of the releases of radioactivity in gaseous and liquid effluents shows that increasing operational experience and improved technology combined with restrictive licensing policy and comprehensive control systems have resulted in decreasing release rates. Therefore radiation exposure to the population and critical groups calculated from these release rates on a local scale via different exposure pathways have been low until now. Predictions of future radiation exposure are based on the energy program of the Federal Republic of Germany up to 1985 and continuing forecasts for future energy demands, release rates of new reactor types and reprocessing plants being taken into account. In calculations of exposures to the population local models are combined with regional models superimposing contributions from sources in the Federal Republic and neighbouring countries and with a global multi-compartment model. If, with view to a continued development of the present state of science and technology in connection with major reprocessing plants, retention rates from 90-99% are assumed to be obtainable for H 3 and Kr 85, 99,5-99,9% for iodine and approximately 90% for C 14 from reprocessing plants, it can be demonstrated that also the future radiation exposure can be kept below the dose limits established in the Federal Republic of Germany

  1. The fuel cycle of the LWR system in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalthoff, F.J.; Messer, K.P.

    1977-01-01

    Within the framework of a system analysis conducted to forecast the nuclear output capacity that would presumably be installed by the year 2000 in the Federal Republic of Germany, the demands for uranium, enrichment and reprocessing, the fuel fabrication of elements and transportation capacity are determined. The factors of uncertainty involved in forecasts concerning the demand are discussed (analysis of sensitivity). Furthermore, the study points out to what extent the demand for uranium and fuel cycle services is being covered in the FRG and what aspects related to the coverage not yet secured are important. The situation in the field of reprocessing and ultimate disposal in the FRG, and the role which the electrical utilities are to play are in particular dealt with. After a brief survey of the Federal Republic's plans concerning the reprocessing and ultimate disposal issues, the pending problems related to the technology, organization and financing of this sector of the fuel cycle are analyzed. Moreover, the paper deals with the past and probable future development of fuel cycle costs as well as with their influence on the further development of nuclear energy as a whole. It will be examined whether and to what extent the considerable increase in the costs for uranium, enrichment and reprocessing occurring simultaneously with the rise of capital expense for new nuclear power plants has affected the profitability of nuclear energy as compared with fossil primary energies. Finally, the paper discusses how the security of supply for nuclear power plants with fuel and all necessary services could be improved under economically justifiable conditions, and what measures could be taken in this area by the electric utilities, the fuel cycle industries, and the public authorities

  2. Program status of the high temperature reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The status of the HTR development program in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1984 is characterized by the beginning of a transition phase from a national program to a commercial program. In the last 20 years the HTR technology program was strongly, nearly completely supported by the Federal Government and the State Government of North-Rhine-Westfalia. Funding of the program up to now exceeded 5 billion DM. Within this framework it was possible to establish competent-reactor-system companies, to enable industries to supply HTR- specific components including fuel elements and nuclear graphites, to maintain the strong engagement of the national centre KFA Juelich in general R and D activities, to build and operate the AVR-plant for more than 16 years, to erect the demonstration plant THTR-300 now approaching completion and to build and operate many efficient test facilities. Thereby the HTR technology development achieved a stage of maturity which is not only considered to be most advanced, but is also ready now for commerical deployment. The assessment report which comprised both the fast breeder and the HTR development included all major impacts, such as history, status, prospects, benefits, industrial aspects and international developments of the technology. The program description is facilitated by distinguishing the five major program elements: AVR, THTR-300, THTR follow-up plant, nuclear process heat program, fuel cycle activities

  3. The structure of the electricity market in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany can be subdivided into the three subareas of public electricity supply, industrial power generation, and electricity supply to the Federal Railways. The most important sector, public electricity supply, is organized in private companies. Its special characteristics are its decentralized, pluralistic structure. The public electricity supply sector is made up of approximately 1000 firms, half of which only have a market share of approx. 1%, however. 89% of the total deliveries of useful electricity come from the 91 largest companies; the 26 biggest firms are responsible for 64% of the total deliveries of useful electricity. In terms of electricity generation, the two largest firms contribute 43%, the 25 largest, 72%, and the 116 largest, 99%. The firms in the public electricity supply sector contributed well over 80% of the total electricity production in 1988 of approx. 425 billion kWh. Since its origins late in the past century, the public power industry has been arranged in a comprehensive network of agreements restricting competition. At the distribution level, for instance, the supply regions of the electricity utilities are divided up by agreements excluding competition, so-called demarcation agreements. (orig.) [de

  4. Federal Republic of Germany: Prospects for nuclear energy from 1972-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilger-Haunschild, H [Federal Ministry for Education and Science, Bonn (Germany)

    1972-07-01

    The number of nuclear power stations, both built and planned, in the Federal Republic of Germany, bears witness to what has been achieved so far. At present, nuclear power stations in operation generate a total of about 2000 MWe, while power stations with a total capacity for a further 10 000 MWe are under construction. The first export orders demonstrate the competitiveness of the German nuclear power industry -power stations are now being built by West German firms at Atucha in Argentina, Borselle in the Netherlands, and Zwentendorf in Austria. Because of parallel technological advances reached by the world's major industrialized nations, and the large funds necessary for further nuclear development, international cooperation is increasingly important. The federal Government therefore follows a policy of joint-development projects, particularly within a European framework. The SNR 300 fast breeder reactor, which is to be constructed with Belgium and the Netherlands, and the development of the gas centrifuge technique being carried out with the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, are excellent examples of this policy.

  5. Where are the differences between France and the Federal Republic of Germany in the final storage of radioactive waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1990-01-01

    Given similar points of departure in the two countries compared here, the differences in the goals of final storage do not seem to be too marked. The state is responsible and executes the projects by working through state organizations. The practical execution of theses tasks, however, is characterized by major discrepancies. While most of the radioactive waste in France is disposed of by shallow land burial, all radioactive waste in the Federal Republic from the outset had been planned for final storage in an underground repository. Different waste categories result from this difference between the two countries. Other differences can be found in the progress attained in final storage. In France, shallow land burial of waste has been practiced since 1969, while low level radioactive waste was disposed of by repository storage for only one decade in the Federal Republic of Germany; since then, there has only been intermediate storage. Both countries have decided in favor of deep geologic formations to be used for the final storage of high level radioactive waste. The Federal Republic has opted for salt, while France has not yet decided on the type of rock to be used. The main differences, however, are of a political, organizational and administrative nature. In France, nuclear power is accepted by all political parties and receives neutral treatment in most of the media. Neither is true of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  6. State and development of nuclear energy utilization in the Federal Republic of Germany 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Philippczyk, Frank; Dose, Julia

    2013-11-15

    This report describes the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany as of December 2012. It contains the essential data of all nuclear power plants, research reactors and the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. At the reporting moment 31{sup st} of December in 2012, nine nuclear power plants were still in operation. The power generation from nuclear energy in 2012 amounted to 99.5 TWh (2011: 108.0 TWh). That is a share of 16.1 % of the total gross electricity production (2011: 17.7 %). The report summarises the essential operational results of the nuclear power plants and information on granted licences. A short description of the present state of the nuclear power plants that have been shut down or decommissioned and of the stopped projects is given. Concerning research reactors essential data on type, characteristics (thermal power, thermal neutron flux) and purpose of the facility are represented. Furthermore, an overview of the licensing and operation history and the present state of the operating condition is given. For the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle data on purpose and capacity, the licensing history and the present state of operation and licensing are given. The current status of repository projects is presented. To give a survey, the data is summarised in tabular form in the report Annexes. The report will be updated and published once a year.

  7. Radioactive waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany: Industrial practices and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabener, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the production and use of nuclear-generated electricity expanded steadily despite the fact that opposition from the environmentalists led to the impression of an upcoming moratorium for nuclear energy. With this increase in capacity--by the year 1990, nearly 25 000 MW will be on the line--there will be an increase in the volume of low-level (non-heat-generating) radwaste originating from nuclear power plants. Radwaste management has been influenced to a considerable extent by the requirements of the final repository. Following a period of trial storage in the Asse repository, preparations are now being made for storage in the Konrad ore mine. It is intended to begin storage in 1991. Requirements for the packages specify containers with a volume from 3.9 to 10.9 m/sup 3/ or cast iron safety drums. These drums are suitable for radioactive materials in powder form (resins, dried concentrates) without the need for embedding materials. Storage in standard 55-gal drums is no longer permitted. The costs for final storage will be very high so that volume reduction is of prime importance. Kraftwerk Union (KWU) as a supplier of nuclear power plants (NPPs) examined the radwaste market and decided to combine delivery of radwaste treatment systems to NPPs with service jobs including radwaste handling and conditioning in its own service and maintenance plant at Karlstein

  8. Amount of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany - waste inquiry for the year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.

    1986-09-01

    On December 31, 1985, about 61 400 waste packages were stored in intermediate storage facilities. The unconditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 6 300 m 3 . The volume of the conditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 29 600 m 3 . Thereof the waste from nuclear research establishments made up about 11 200 m 3 , the waste from the operation of nuclear power plants about 9 900 m 3 and the waste from reprocessing of spent fuel elements about 5 800 m 3 . In addition the future amount of conditioned radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation was prognosticated. Due to this forecast an amount of about 227 600 m 3 of these wastes is expected in the year 2000. In 1985 a capacity of about 88 700 m 3 for the intermediate storage of radioactive wastes was available in the Federal Republic of Germany. On December 31, 1985, this capacity was utilized by unconditioned and conditioned radioactive wastes at an average of about 40%. It may be concluded from the data on the expected amount of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation and on the utilization factor of the intermediate storage facilities that no bottlenecks are to be assumed up to the planned operation of the Konrad repository. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Yield of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany - waste survey for the year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.

    1987-05-01

    On December 31, about 67600 waste packages were stored in interim storage facilities. The unconditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 6600 m 3 . The volume of the conditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 33900 m 3 . Thereof the waste from nuclear research establishments made up about 13300 m 3 , the waste from the operation of nuclear power plants about 10700 m 3 and the waste from reprocessing of spent fuel elements about 6700 m 3 . In addition the future amount of conditioned radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation was prognosticated. According to this forecast, the waste package volume will be approximately in the order of 218200 m 3 up to the year 2000. In 1986 a capacity of about 97500 m 3 for the interim storage of radioactive wastes was available in the Federal Republic of Germany. On December 31, 1986, this capacity was utilized by unconditioned and conditioned radioactive wastes at an average of about 38%. It may be concluded from the data on the expected amount of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation and on the utilization factor of the interim storage facilities that no bottlenecks are to be assumed up to the planned operation of the Konrad repository. (orig./RB) [de

  10. Present and future use of TRIGA reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, H.; Junker, D.; Krauss, O.

    1986-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany nine research reactors are presently in operation, three of which are TRIGA reactors. These are the TRIGA Mark I reactors at Hannover and Heidelberg with a steady state power of 250 kW and the TRIGA Mark II reactor at Mainz with a steady power of 100 kW and a peak pulsing power of 250 MW. The decommissioning of a number of research reactors, including the TRIGA Mark III reactor at Neuherberg near Munich, is reason enough to think about the present and future use of our reactors. The German TRIGA reactors met a lively interest of scientists, since they went into operation. Presently they are well used especially in biomedical (Hannover, Heidelberg) and basic research (Mainz). In the course of about 20 years of operation the techniques and requirements of experiments changed and consequently the use of the reactors too. Certainly this will be so in the future. But thanks to its versatile experimental facilities, this type of reactor can meet the various experimental demands. So we are looking forward to a good utilisation of our German TRIGA reactors in future and taking into account the low costs for personal, energy and fuel, we are quite confident that they will be in operation still for many years. (author)

  11. Road transport of LWR spent fuel in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, R.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1967, when fuel from LWRs was first transported by road from the Kahl reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany to the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, a total of more than 400 road transports have been performed without any adverse effect on the environment. In the beginning, road transport was the dominant mode. However, in recent years large capacity rail flasks with a weight ranging from 80 to 110 tonnes have been put into service in order to cope with the increasing demand of transport services and to replace existing smaller flasks designed primarily for road transport. Therefore, the number of spent fuel transports by road has declined. However, road transport of heavy flasks from reactor sites without a direct rail link to a nearby rail terminal has become an important task and a number of special problems have had to be solved. The following items are discussed, with special emphasis placed on heavy load transports by road from the reactor to a nearby rail terminal: design of road transport equipment to meet the requirements of the national traffic law; application of technical and administrative procedures to meet the IAEA Regulations; transport restrictions due to overload/oversize; transfer of the flask from the reactor to the transport vehicle; handling of the flask at the rail terminal; turn-around inspection and periodic maintenance of equipment to ensure safe performance of transport; and physical protection during transport and handling at rail terminals. (author). 4 figs

  12. Status of Fast Breeder Reactor Development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hüper, R.

    1988-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: - Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) - Interatom, Bergisch Gladbach Alkem, Hanau - SCK/CEN, Mol - Belgonucleaire, Brussels - ECN, Petten - TNO, Apeldoorn - Neratoom, The Hague. The first three institutions mentioned above have been associated in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Schneller Brüter since 1977. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1987 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants, which is followed by an R&D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1987

  13. Report on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation activities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1986-01-01

    The overall situation in I and C of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany can be characterized by three aspects. a) The improvement of man-machine communication by introducing integral information concepts for the control room by means of VDUs. b) Along with a) new data acquisition systems based upon process computers which facilitate the integration of operator aids like alarm analyses, disturbance analyses, post-mortem analyses, etc. c) The penetration of programmable processors into limitation systems in order to provide soft setback measures. d) The transition to I and C systems making use of the new generation of electronic components. The most important step towards advanced control rooms was the development of the Process Information System (PRINS) by KWU, which will be used with the German convoi-plants. The main emphasis regarding further R and D work in the field of operator aids is placed upon expert systems. Work will begin with a two years project aiming at the development of a basic module for a laboratory prototype

  14. Consequences of large-scale implementation of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1978-10-01

    Three scenarios of the future installation of nuclear capacity in the Federal Republic of Germany are selected on the basis of assumptions concerning long-term demand of primary energy and other factors of influence for the expansion of nuclear energy. The corresponding demand for natural uranium, the requirements for separative work and fuel fabrication, and the situation with regard to reactor construction capacity are described. Because of the heavy dependence of the Federal Republic of Germany on uranium imports, the world-wide development of uranium demand and supply is discussed in some detail. For this purpose, the dependence of the yearly and cumulative uranium demand on the type and the time and speed of introducting of breeding or high converting reactors is analysed. The uranium demand situation and possible difficulties on the supply side are described against the background of uranium reserve and resource data. (orig.) [de

  15. Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Zur staatlichen Marktregulierung in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltwedel, R; Busch, A; Gross, A; Laaser, C F

    1987-01-01

    The major part of the expertise 'Deregulation Potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany' - theoretical fundaments, justifying analysis of the regulation and the proposals relating to deregulation - was published as 'Kieler Studie No. 202'. However, the synopsis of the relevant legal prescriptions of the regulation systems, the historical development courses of regulations, analytic excursions and statistical information about the structures of the markets could not be included in the investigation. This gap is now closed by the special issue 'Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany'. Among others, it deals with the regulation of the supplying industry: it shows the structures of the most important sections and the market-regulating acts of the government: competition-restricting instruments, price regulation by the government and the restraint to contract. (orig./HSCH).

  16. In-situ stress measurements - results of experiments performed at the ASSE salt mine - Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feddersen, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    High-level nuclear wastes are heat generating wastes. Heat will be transferred to the surrounding salt formation. This heating of the host rock will result in an increased temperature and in stress changes. From 1983 through 1985 two underground tests were conducted in the Asse Salt Mine (Federal Republic of Germany) in which, among others, thermally induced stress changes were investigated. These tests are discussed in this paper

  17. The bomb as option. Motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanel, Tilmann

    2015-01-01

    The book on the motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963 discusses the following issues: History of the German reactor development during the time of the National Socialism and World War II, reactor research abroad (examples Sweden and Switzerland), protagonists and motivation (politics, science, economy, army), the development of a nuclear infrastructure, results and consequences of the German nuclear policy until 1963.

  18. Status and programme of development of the fast breeder reactor systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeunert, U.; Kessler, G.

    1977-01-01

    Owing to the dependence of the Federal Republic of Germany on imports of raw materials for energy purposes, special importance is given to nuclear energy for reasons of energy policy. Against the background of a nuclear power station capacity amounting to 24,000 MWe in 1976 (power stations being either on order, under construction or actually in operation), the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) has quite outstanding significance in this country where the economical utilization both of uranium and of the plutonium accumulating in light water reactors is concerned. Work in this sector started in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1960. Milestones on the path of development were the initial activities on the plutonium critical SNEAK at Karlsruhe, the successful operation of the KNK 20 MWe experimental reactor (sodium-cooling) with the KNK II (plutonium core) follow-up stage, the construction of the 300 MWe FBR prototype nuclear power station at Kalkar, as well as the initial planning work carried out in connection with a 1,300 MWe FBR demonstration nuclear power station. The provision of a viable infrastructure for safety assessment must go hand in hand with the development of new reactor systems. For this reason, prototype reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany are already subjected to the same strict licensing procedures under nuclear legislation as are commercial nuclear power stations. After several years' practical experience, it is becoming evident that this approach was the right one to take. Already early on, it was recognized in the Federal Republic of Germany that the execution of long-term technological major projects were increasingly exceeding the capacities of unaided development by single nations. The SNR 300 FBR prototype project combines the efforts of the governments, power supply companies, reactor manufacturers and nuclear research centres of the Federal Republic of Germany and of the Kingdoms of both Belgium and the Netherlands. The Agreement signed

  19. The nuclear licensing and supervisory procedures for nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1982-02-01

    A combined system has been developed in the Federal Republic of Germany: the States execute the Atomic Energy Act on behalf of the Federal Government. Despite these differences, the safety requirements and the safety standard achieved vary only insignificantly, as a result of a world-wide communication and of international cooperation. The legal prerequesites for the German nuclear licensing procedures have been established about 20 years ago, and, by a number of amendments have been adapted to new perceptions and developments. Several supplementary ordinances, due to further developments in nuclear technology, are being prepared. The work on associated technical provision, which had been neglected for a long time, has in recent years been tackled systematically and should, before long, lead to a comprehensive programme of safety standards, which simplifies and expedites the nuclear licensing procedures. Essential features of the licensing procedure are the phased structure and the division into intermediate steps which render it possible to adapt the safety requirements to the advancing state of science and technology. The responsible authorities call in experts for the safety verification of the application documents. It is the task of these experts to make assessments and to conduct quality examinations in the manufacturing plants and at the site, and to carry out recurrent tests. The public is involved by the announcement of the projects, the display of the documents and by the opportunity to raise objections during the licensing procedure. Licenses granted can be contested before the administrative courts. This procedure paves the way for the achievement of a satisfactory balance between private and public interests. (orig./HP)

  20. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-06

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2016. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  1. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-07

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2015. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  2. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2017; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-14

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2017. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  3. Status and development programme of the fast breeder reactor system in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeunert, U.; Kessler, G.

    1977-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany depends on imports of raw materials for energy purposes, and special importance is therefore given to nuclear energy for reasons of energy policy. Against the background of a nuclear power station capacity amounting to 24,000MW(e) in 1976 (power stations being either on order, under construction or actually in operation), the fast breeder reactor (FBR) is outstandingly significant in the Federal Republic for the economic use both of the uranium and the plutonium accumulating in light-water reactors (LWRs). Work in this sector started in the FRG in 1960. Important stages in development were: the initial activities on the plutonium critical SNEAK at Karlsruhe; successful operation of the KNK 20-MW(e) experimental reactor (sodium-cooled) with the KNK II (plutonium core) follow-up stage; costruction of the 300-MW(e) FBR prototype nuclear power station at Kalkar; and initial planning carried out for a 1300-MW(e) FBR demonstration nuclear power station. A viable infrastructure for safety assessment must go hand in hand with the development of new reactor systems. Prototype reactors in the FRG are therefore already subjected to the same strict licensing procedures under nuclear legislation as are commercial nuclear power stations. Several years' practical experience have shown that this was the right approach. It was recognized in the FRG early on that major long-term technological projects could no longer be implemented by unaided single nations. The SNR-300 FBR prototype project combines the efforts of the governments, power supply companies, reactor manufacturers and nuclear research centres of the FRG, Belgium and the Netherlands. The agreement signed in 1971 by the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG (FRG), Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica (Italy) and Electricite de France (France) power supply companies on the joint construction of the Super-Phenix and SNR-2 FBR demonstration nuclear power stations, and the German

  4. Methods and practice in the evaluation of potential radiation exposure around nuclear installations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.; Franzen, L.F.; Handge, P.; Meurin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The estimation and evaluation of potential radiation exposure around nuclear installations resulting from airborne and aquatic releases of radioactivity has always been included in the Nuclear Authorization Procedures (atomrechtliches Genehmigungsverfahren) in the Federal Republic of Germany. Basic investigations have shown that first of all the radiological burden is expected via the pathway of external radiation exposure. Since about 1970 the pasture - cow - milk -pathway has been accorded an increased importance by introducing a corresponding dose rate guideline for the thyroid burden. With the rapid increase of energy production from nuclear power plants, a detailed analysis of the environmental radiological burden possibly brought about by these facilities was inserted into the Nuclear Authorization Procedures. In order to estimate in detail the consequences resulting from the release of radioactivity, nowadays the potential radiation exposure for a site is evaluated for exposures resulting from airborne discharges and for exposures resulting from aquatic discharges. Furthermore, some other pathways of exposure depending on local characteristics are taken into account. Particularly, extensive inquiry is needed concerning the deposition of radionuclides and the reconcentration by food chains. The choice of appropriate parameters often is difficult as site-specific values are not available. The determination of critical population groups and critical persons and their behavioral or dietary habits results in comparable difficulties. Therefore, a site-independent model for the evaluation of the potential radiological exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany was worked out and submitted to the nuclear regulatory commission. Moreover, some other groups - among others the Radiation Protection Commission (Strahlenschutzkommission) and the Federal Health Office (Bundesgesundheitsamt) - are investigating by theory and experiment ecological procedures and parameters

  5. Amount of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany - waste survey for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.

    1989-06-01

    On December 31, 1988, about 69 800 waste packages - about 40 700 m 3 - were stored in interim storage facilities. The unconditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 11 700 m 3 . The volume of the conditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 40 700 m 3 . Of this, the waste from nuclear research centres made up about 16 300 m 3 , the waste from the operation of nuclear power plants about 12 900 m 3 and that from the reprocessing of spent fuel elements about 8 300 m 3 . A prognosis was also made of the future amount of conditioned radioactive wastes. According to this forecast, the cumulated waste package volume of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation will be approximately in the order of 173 400 m 3 up to the year 2000, whereas for heat-generating radioactive wastes a volume of about 5 800 m 3 is estimated. These figures already express the waste volume reduction according to modern conditioning techniques. In 1988 a capacity of about 123 800 m 3 for the interim storage of radioactive wastes was available in the Federal Republic of Germany. On December 31, 1988, an average of about 37% of this capacity was utilized by unconditioned and conditioned radioactive wastes. From the data on the expected amount of radioactive wastes and on the utilization factor of the interim storage facilities, it may be concluded that, taking an overall view, no bottlenecks in the interim storage of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation are to be anticipated up to the planned operation of the Konrad repository in 1994. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Materials and welding process development for nuclear application in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Stoppler, W.; Sinz, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of Basis Safety was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in order to achieve exclusion of catastrophic failure of pressure boundary components in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). This concept provides redundant safeties both for long-term service as well as for an accident by improving toughness properties of the base material (BM), heat-affected zone (HAZ) and deposited metal (DM) of components with relevance safety. With the help of the welding simulation technique, the toughness properties in the HAZ was investigated as a function of stress-relief temperature. Submerged-arc welding (SAW) on heavy section components were investigated during and after welding. This helped to delineate boundary conditions for a computer code for the design and optimization of a joint and its HAZ. The advantage of the narrow gap technique is the extremely low amount of sensitive coarse grained zones. Processing tough filler materials with optimum weld parameters will provide excellent material properties at an elevated strength level in shape-welded heavy section components. The martensitic steel X 20 CrMoV 12 has an excellent weldability of the BM (HAZ without problems), but it has not been possible up to now, to achieve equal properties for the deposited material. This is also the case for martensitic welding. As far as austenitic steels are concerned the sulfur content had also to be lowered. Sufficient toughness had to be proved also in the case of impact loading for austenitic welded joints subsequent to thermal aging. Susceptibility to corrosion of individual austenitic materials and material conditions was investigated and remedies elaborated. 33 figures, 7 tables

  7. Planning and development of nuclear power programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunschild, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the peaceful utilization of nuclear science and technology in the Federal Republic of Germany started in 1955. It concentrated on the development of nuclear energy with its important potential for energy supply, in order to cover the growing energy demand of the recovering economy, and on the application of nuclear radiation and radioactive isotopes in various areas of science and technology such as biology, medicine, chemistry, physics, materials research and development. From the beginning, the nuclear energy programme was a joint undertaking of government, industry and science. To achieve the necessary impetus and to supplement the activities of industry and universities, several nuclear research centres, in particular at Juelich and Karlsruhe, were founded. This comprehensive approach was the basis for the following rapid development of nuclear technology, as well as for its competitive structure and its safety record. With regard to nuclear energy utilization for electricity generation, heat supply, and ship propulsion a broad range of reactor concepts such as light- and heavy-water reactors, high-temperature reactors, and fast-breeder reactors was examined. Today, nuclear energy meets about 17% of the country's electricity demand. Fifteen nuclear power plants with a capacity of about 10,000 MW(e) are in operation; 11 plants with a total capacity of about 12,000 MW(e) are under construction, and the construction of another 10 plants is definitely planned. Activities in uranium enrichment, fuel element fabrication, and reprocessing have reached the industrial stage. The paper indicates possible future trends of the nuclear programme. The successful development of a national nuclear energy programme goes in parallel with broad international co-operation. Therefore the efforts to re-establish a stable system for co-operation in nuclear commerce and technology, based on international safeguards, should be strengthened

  8. Types and treatment of sewage sludges: Practice in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasaran, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The sludge that is formed by the various processes in the sewage treatment plant consists mainly of water with a small amount of organic and inorganic suspended solids. It contains pathogenic agents and biological inhibitors, and must be prepared and brought into a form where it is less dangerous to the environment. The de-watering of the sludge is the first step in sludge handling. The solids content of the raw sludge, which is usually between 5 and 10%, can be increased by gravity thickening to 15%, by centrifuging or straining-band-pressing up to 30%, and by pressure-filtration up to 40%. The process of drying enables a substance with almost no moisture to be obtained. Generally the sludge will be either mixed before de-watering with coagulation agencies, or preheated, or its colloidal components biochemically oxidized in order to accelerate the withdrawal of the water. One of the most common methods of disposal is the transport of sludge to a land filling, usually together with the solid refuse of the community. For this purpose the moisture content of the sludge should not be more than 60 to 70 percent. The disposal of sludge into the sea can be practised in coastal towns, but the ecological effects of this kind of sludge removal are still disputed. More expedient is the agricultural utilization of sludge, particularly if the sludge is composted together with a carbon carrier such as city refuse which would make it a very suitable soil improver. In the Federal Republic of Germany the wet oxidation of sludge is applied in a few cases. The most common process is anaerobic alkaline digestion. The incineration of sludge is more economical than drying, but still too, expensive in comparison with other approved processes. (author)

  9. Studies on sprout inhibition of onions by irradiation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, T.

    1978-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany imports about 97% of the onions for human consumption, especially from the Netherlands and from 7 other countries. The onions are distributed for sale immediately without long storage in storehouses. Therefore the objective of this study was not primarily to clear the irradiation and storage processing but to obtain better information about the quality of imported irradiated onions and about the parameters influencing the quality. Seven varieties cultivated in Germany with different physical and sensory properties were irradiated with 10MeV electrons at doses of 5 or 10krad and stored at temperatures of +4, +9, +10 or +20 0 C. The time between harvest and irradiation and the storage conditions for this time were also varied. In all periods physical, chemical and sensory properties of fresh and cooked bulbs were tested and statistically analysed during the storage periods of 8 to 10 months after harvest. It could be demonstrated that a dose of 5krad of 10MeV electrons was high enough to inhibit sprouting in all varieties, independent of the storage conditions, if the irradiation was applied within 4 weeks after harvest. If more time elapsed between harvest and irradiation, reduced sprout suppression was obtained. The sensory quality of the onion bulbs, irradiated and stored for 8 months, was evaluated as only 1 or 2 points lower than at the beginning of storage, when tested as cooked vegetables. The influence of the variety and storage conditions on the properties was more evident than the influence of irradiation, apart from sprouting. However, the browning in the growth centre of the irradiated onion bulbs could not be ignored. Varying the time between harvest and irradiation had no effect, and different storage conditions demonstrated only that lower storage temperatures delayed the browning but did not prevent it. This will probably not influence the marketability of the onions and would be compensated by lower prices for the

  10. Transport of radioactive materials in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) since 3. October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.; Collin, F.W.; Fasten, C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents a survey on the transport of radioactive materials in the FRG. For shipments of nuclear material and large sources in the FRG - and also in the former German Democratic Republic - a license from the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (the competent authority in the FRG) due to the Atomic law and Radiological Protection Requirements are necessary. (J.P.N.)

  11. Discussing euthanasia in two German states: scientific terminology and public discourse in the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, Hartmut; Nowak, Andreas; Roccia, Maria Gracia; Salloch, Sabine

    2017-08-18

    Discussions on euthanasia ("Sterbehilfe") that took place in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) have remained widely unnoticed by the historical sciences. By referring to various publications dating from the 1950s until today, this paper presents the basic ideas of the debate on euthanasia in the GDR and compares them-partly synchronically, partly diachronically-with the situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). A special focus is placed on positions and terminology related to medical ethics at the end of life in the former two German states. The methodical approach of the paper allows a transparent analysis of the question of whether the GDR debates on euthanasia are significant and independent, and whether they are relevant to current ethical debates on end-of-life practices in Germany.

  12. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-03

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  13. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2014; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-03-10

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  14. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-08

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  15. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2017; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-03-12

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2017. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  16. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  17. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2013. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  18. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2014; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  19. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  20. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  1. Nuclear energy in a densely populated and built-up country such as the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnenberg, H.; Eschhaus, M.; Hensel, W.; Kayser, J.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear energy is absolutely necessary for the Federal Republic of Germany. By 1995, 75% of the energy used in that country for electricity production will be nuclear, which means an installed nuclear power of approximately 100 000 MW with all its nuclear infrastructure such as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste disposal and transport of a great deal of radioactive material between these services. Many sites are needed for these activities, including transport, which is, in fact, comprised of moving sites on special lines. Risk analysis is also needed for all this, the basis of which is the use of land in the western part of the country by population and industry. The Federal Republic of Germany is one of the most densely populated and built-up areas in the world. A computer program with a voluminous information system which stores all the relevant land-use data was written. A simulation program was also written to analyse the required regional capacity for transport of nuclear material in respect of different sites for power plants, reprocessing plants and waste disposal. This simulation program makes optimization with variable criteria. All the railway lines which can be used for heavy transport are stored in the computer as well as the traffic routes and rivers. The computer calculations show that, especially for selection of sites for reprocessing plants, the minimization of transport should be an important criterion in an intensely used country like the Federal Republic of Germany. The country will be forced to undertake detailed regional planning for the introduction of nuclear energy to achieve minimum risk to the population and minimum risk to the introduction itself. (author)

  2. Cs-137 in roe-deer and other game species in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1986-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.

    1993-01-01

    The radiocesium contamination of several game species of the Federal Republic in Germany was studied between 1986 - 1987. There were large variations in Cs-137 activity concentration in game meat, depending on it's origin: the minimum measured value was 2 Bq.kg -1 , the maximum was 5400 Bq.kg -1 . The cesium-contamination of roe-deer, which is a good bioindicator, decreases significantly (P -1 , at the investigation site Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) there were 75 of 600 (13%). (orig.) [de

  3. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: United States/Federal Republic of Germany nuclear licensing comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In order to compare US and FRG Nuclear Licensing, a summary description of United States Nuclear Licensing is provided as a basis. This is followed by detailed information on the participants in the Nuclear Licensing process in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). FRG licensing procedures are described and the rules and regulations imposed are summarized. The status of gas reactor licensing in both the U.S. and the FRG is outlined and overall conclusions are drawn as to the major licensing differences. An appendix describes the most important technical differences between US and FRG criteria

  4. Evaluation of operating experience: The precursor study (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) are systematic and quantitative predictions of possible accident scenarios at technical installations on the basis of data gained from the past experience on similar technical installations. For supporting PSAs by operational experience as far as possible Precursor studies are performed. An Accident Sequence Precursor is defined as an observed event which could results, in coincidence with additional postulated events, in a potential severe core damage accident. In the presented case study the procedure of such Precursor studies is explained. Particularly, the methodology and the results of the plant-specific Precursor (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany are shown in detail. 26 refs, 13 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Evaluation of operating experience: The precursor study (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) are systematic and quantitative predictions of possible accident scenarios at technical installations on the basis of data gained from the past experience on similar technical installations. For supporting PSAs by operational experience as far as possible Precursor studies are performed. An Accident Sequence Precursor is defined as an observed event which could results, in coincidence with additional postulated events, in a potential severe core damage accident. In the presented case study the procedure of such Precursor studies is explained. Particularly, the methodology and the results of the plant-specific Precursor (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany are shown in detail. 26 refs, 13 figs, 8 tabs.

  6. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands - January 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (DeBeNe) agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about dose cooperation in the fast breeder field. The results of activities carried out by DeBeNe partners in 1985 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by the R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1985

  7. Dying forests and environmental policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given on extent and causes of the dying forests in the Federal Republik of Germany and the scientific hypotheses of agents are discussed. The author focuses on the reasons of the widespread disease of forests and reviews from a historical-materialistic point of view the history of foresty and the coherences between industrial pollution and forest damages. A balance of the environmental policy since 1960 is given.

  8. Strontium measurement results from the Federal Republic of Germany and from Switzerland after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, A.; Goll, L.; Voelkle, H.; Winter, M.

    1987-10-01

    The Working Group Environmental Monitoring (AKU) of Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. (Radiation Protection Association) performed an inquiry about the time after the Chernobyl reactor accident concerning the results of strontium-90 measurements carried out for the territories of the Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland. The data suppliers listed in the report furnished to AKU results of Sr-90 measurements made on approximately 1000 samples in total. The individual measuring results have been entered into separate tables in a uniform representation. The tables also include the results of Sr-89-measurements as well as the Cs-137/Sr-90 ratios as far as they were available. The results of measurements presented here taken together prove that contamination with Sr-90 of the environmental media including food as a result of the Chernobyl fallout were only low in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Switzerland compared with the contamination due to the nuclides I-/131 and Cs-137. The same applies to the amount of Sr-90 transferred into the soil as compared with the level of existing contamination due to nuclear weapons fallout which has accumulated since the 60ies. (orig.) [de

  9. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Economy. Updating for the year 2010; Umweltschaedliche Subventionen in Deutschland. Wirtschaft. Aktualisierte Ausgabe 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    In the background paper under consideration, the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the following topics: (a) The most important environmentally harmful subsidies; (b) State of the art and development of environmentally harmful subsidies at a glance; (c) Environmentally oriented controlling of subsidies: The 'environmental check' for subsidies.

  10. Chernobyl and the future of energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has caused warning signals to sound internationally because of the intensity of the consequences of the accident and the degree of concern of the public. The 10 articles include descriptions of the course of the accident with its consequences regarding the radio-ecology, environment and safety. There are considerable consequences for the management of accident risks. The state of development of advanced nuclear energy techniques, fusion research and solar techniques are important for the prospects for future energy supplies, particularly for the Federal German Republic. (DG) [de

  11. Federal Republic of Germany R and D programme: A special issue of the journal radioactive waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines the issues of radioactive waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany. Topics considered include the challenges of waste handling and disposal, the borosilicate glass for Pamela, the treatment and conditioning of transuranelement bearing wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany, conditioning of low and intermediate level wastes, volume reduction of low level solid radioactive waste by incineration and compaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, MAW test emplacement in boreholes, treatment and disposal of special radioactive wastes comprising tritium, carbon 14, krypton 85 and iodine 129, and the German Project: ''Safety Studies for Nuclear Waste Management: Development of Safety Assessment Methodology for Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste in a Salt Dome

  12. Earthquakes in the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Seismic activity in the territory of the Federal Republik of Germany with marginal areas in 1981 was low on the whole; in accordance with the maximum intensity observed-category VI - no damage was recorded. As compared to the previous years only few and predominantly slight events occured in the areas known for their proneness to earthquakes: local magnitudes of M1 0 N - 55 0 N and 5 0 E - 15 0 E and corresponded to the magnitude M1 >= 2.0 or were recorded macroseismically. (orig./HP) [de

  13. External quality-control surveys of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays in the Federal Republic of Germany. The present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.; Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quality-control survey (QCS) of hormone assays are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the one survey, the participating laboratories are requested to determine seven or eight different hormones in two lyophilized sera that are distributed several times a year. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether they are ''correct'' or subject to systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. In the other survey, the participating laboratories are requested to assay only one given hormone in some 20 deep-frozen sera (including standards in hormone-free sera for derivation of a standard curve) that are distributed at relatively long intervals. The statistical analysis of the data derived from these QCSs allows - together with the methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for discrepancies in the results. (author)

  14. Regulations and control of fuel reprocessing plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with regard to environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The principles of radiation protection in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) are reviewed. These principles are based on ICRP recommendations and are laid down in the Atomgesetz (Atomic Energy Act, 1959) and in the Strahlenschutzverordnung (Radiological Protection Ordinance, 1976). The licencing procedure in the FRG is outlined together with the extent of the information on environmental protection to be submitted by the applicant for a licence. Information is required about the site, safety against external and internal hazards, control of occupational radiation exposure, control of gaseous and liquid effluents, environmental dose limits and accident situations. The methods used to monitor releases to the environment are briefly discussed. Finally, figures for occupational and general public exposure in respect of the operation of the WAK reprocessing facility at Karlsruhe are given

  15. Regionally differentiated air pollution control regulations in the installation-related emission control law of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The volume treats an issue from the boundary zone between environmental law and environmental economics, namely the regionalization of air pollution control standards in installation-related emission control law. In order to examine the question of whether this proposal, which originates in the field of environmental economics, can be adopted and is purposeful, the author initially performs a complete inventorization of applicable norms, this covering emission control law, the law of regional planning, and the provisions of international law. This status quo is then reviewed using conformity and optimization criteria developed by the political sciences. The assessment comes to the conclusion that the introduction of regionally differentiated air pollution control standards is not desirable. The author further submits proposals for the streamlining of the law of installation-related air pollution control in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  16. Importance and topical problems of the industry of the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrikoff, A.

    1987-01-01

    32 companies belong to the industrial association 'Kernbrennstoffkreislauf e.V.'. They do business in the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany. This field comprises the different forms of dealing with nuclear fuels and the materials from which they are made, including the radioactive wastes resulting from the use of nuclear fuels, with the exception of the handling of such materials in nuclear power plants. Some 5000 persons - subcontractors not counted - are employed in this branch of industry. Turnover amounts to about 2 billion Deutsch Marks yearly. But it is a branch of industry that is important beyond the figures mentioned. Its existence constitutes the precondition for building, operating, and exporting nuclear power plants. This paper is concerned particularly with some topical political problems. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Updating for the year 2016; Umweltschaedliche Subventionen in Deutschland. Aktualisierte Ausgabe 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeder, Lea; Burger, Andreas

    2016-12-15

    The contribution on environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany (Updating for the year 2016) includes the following issues: Why the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions is necessary; subventions and related processes; international initiatives for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions, routes for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions.

  18. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. [Is the structure of surgical clinics in Germany changing? A current investigation into the structure of surgical clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, G; Lob, T; Bauer, H; Niethard, F; Polonius, J; Siebert, H

    2009-04-01

    Medical developments have led to extensive specialization in the field of surgery. This has already been reflected for many years in altered structure and organization forms of surgical clinics. Indispensable quality standards, statutory general conditions, increasing competition in service providers and health insurance with transparency of the service procedure all intensify this trend. The aim of this investigation was, therefore, to determine how far this differentiation of service supply in the field of surgery is also reflected in the area and in surgical departments and clinics of basic and routine supply. To achieve this, all available published information on the structure and organization of surgical clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany was classified according to current departmentalization into "undivided" or general/visceral surgery facilities compared to orthopedic/trauma surgery departments.

  20. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands - February 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three Germany institutions mentioned above have been associated since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1984 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by a R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1984

  1. Comparative investigations of oiled seabirds and beaches in the Netherlands, Denmark, and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlmann, G.; Timm, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Oiled Seabirds project (January 3, 1990, to March 31, 1993) consisted of two parts: regular surveillance of the beaches in the Netherlands, Denmark, and the Federal Republic of Germany, and sampling and analysis. The aims of the project were: To identify and compare the main sources of oil pollution in the countries involved; To trace definite sources (i.e., particular ships), in more severe cases, to promote prosecution of the offenders; and To gauge the efficiency of countermeasures, e.g., the joint material surveillance in the countries involved. Although the term open-quotes oiledclose quotes was used in the project title, the investigations were not restricted to petroleum. An attempt was made to identify all the products that could have caused the deaths of seabirds. The major sources of oil pollution in the Netherlands and Germany appear to be from normal shipping operations, e.g. engine room residues, while in Denmark the major component of chronic oil pollution is crude oil from tank washings of tanker ships

  2. Agreement between the Swiss Federal Council and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany on Radiation Protection in Case of Emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1978-12-01

    This Agreement, translated from German, was concluded by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Swiss Federal Council on 31 May 1978. In view of the risk of radioactive contamination of air and water which might arise from the operation of nuclear installations and the transport of nuclear material, and also because the population in the neighbouring country might be affected, in particular in the case of international transport, both Parties have undertaken to take a number of measures to meet this contingency. Both Governments will inform each other in case of a radioactive emergency on their territory which is likely to have harmful consequences for the neighbouring country. An appropriate information system will be set up in each country.

  3. 2 April 2014 - H. E. Mr Joachim Gauck, President of the Federal Republic of Germany in the ATLAS experimental cavern with Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    in the ATLAS cavern: Minister of State at the Federal Foreign Office M. Böhmer (green jacket) and Mrs daniela Schadt (First Lady). 201404-069_39.jpg: State Secretary, Federal Ministry of Education and Research G. Schütte, Minister of State at the Federal Foreign Office M. Böhmer, President Gauck, CERN DG, State Secretary, Chief of the Federal President´s Office D. Gill and Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany to the Swiss Confederation O. Lampe.

  4. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  5. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2017.

  6. People’s Republic of China and Federal Republic of Germany in current international relations in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Tsvyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of the current Sino-German relations in the context of world politics and dynamics of international relations as exemplified by the Central Asia region. Basic problems and prospects for cooperation between China and Germany in this region, as well as possible ways of cooperation of the SCO and the EU are under consideration.

  7. Nuclear fuel in water reactors: Manufacturing technology, operational experience and development objectives in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, R.; Knoedler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel industry in the Federal Republic of Germany comprises the full range of manufacturing capabilities for pressurized-, boiling- and heavy-water reactor technology. The existing manufacturing companies are Reaktor-Brennelement Union (RBU) and Alkem. RBU makes natural and enriched UO 2 -fuel assemblies, starting with powder preparation. Facilities to produce UO 2 -gadolinia and UO 2 -ThO 2 fuel are also available. Alkem manufactures mixed-oxide UO 2 /PuO 2 fuel and fuel rods. Zircaloy cladding tubes are produced by Nuklearrohr-Gesellschaft (NRG) and Mannesmannroehren-Werke (MRW). Construction of a new fuel manufacturing plant has been announced by Exxon. Supplementary to quality control, an integrated quality assurance system has been established between the reactor vendor's fuel design and engineering division and the existing manufacturing companies for fuel and tubing. Operating experience with LWR and HWR fuel dates back to 1964/65 and has shown good performance. Possible reasons for a small fraction of defective rods could be identified quickly by a fast feedback system incorporating close co-operation between Kraftwerk Union (KWU) and the utilities. KWU combines fuel development, hot-cell and pool-side service facilities as well as fuel technology linked to manufacturing. The responsibility of KWU for core and fuel design, which enabled an integral optimization, was also an important reason for the successful operation and design flexibility. (author)

  8. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and Netherlands - February 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1983-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three German institutions mentioned above have been connected since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. Kfk, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1982 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants and the political background, followed by an R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1982

  9. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands - February 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1984-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three German institutions mentioned above have been connected since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeBe partners in 1983 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by an R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1983

  10. Status of the fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands, February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, R; Friese, R [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1981-05-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (DeBeNe) agreed to develop, in a joint program, breeder reactors to the point of commercial maturity. The following research organizations take part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEW, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TWO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The results of research and development activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1980 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a review of the energy policy background, followed by an R and D summary. The bulk of the report following next is organized by the Working Groups of the R and D Program Working Committee of the Fast Breeder Project; additional chapters provide information about the operation of KNK II and the construction of SNR 300. In the annexes a survey is given of international cooperation.

  11. Future plans for the design and construction of fast reactor power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempken, M.; Koehler, M.; Wolff, M.

    1978-01-01

    Some important design features of future fast reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) are presented, in particular for the demonstration plant SNR 2 which is to follow the prototype SNR 300, presently under construction in Kalkar. The SNR 2 conceptual design will be based on the SNR 300 design as far as possible. Programmes for the introduction of fast breeder reactor power stations on the part of the governments, the utilities and suppliers are based on broad international co-operation. The FRG is a country which imports a high proportion of its primary energy and it has rather small resources of natural uranium. The natural uranium realistically available to the FRG will allow nuclear energy to play a substantial role in the long-term energy supply only if present uranium utilization based on LWRs is supplemented and replaced by breeder reactor utilization later. To maintain this option, efforts towards the development, design and construction of fast breeder reactors have to be intensively continued in the FRG. The construction of the first large power station with a fast breeder reactor, SNR 2, will, according to present planning, start in the middle of the 80s. Operation can be expected to start at the beginning of the 90s. The present fast breeder programme in the FRG promises to develop reactors, reprocessing and fuel manufacturing plants to such a degree that by the end of this century the introduction of a substantial number of fast reactor power stations will be possible. (author)

  12. Threshold power. Nuclear energy and foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons is one of the most serious problems for international security today. Since the end of the Cold War states like India, Pakistan and North Korea performed tests of nuclear explosive devices and the number of nuclear weapons states seems to be growing even more. Iran is pursuing actively a nuclear programme with unclear prospects and despite the catastrophe at Fukushima other states remain interested in the use of nuclear energy. In principle it is not possible to distinguish clearly between civil and military use of nuclear technology. The international regime to prevent the misuse of nuclear power and the dissemination of nuclear weapons is based on the Nonproliferation Treaty of 1970 and several other treaties and informal agreements. While the legal aspects of the nonproliferation regime are well studied, much less attention has been paid to the evolution of this regime, which was set up during the Cold War. Especially the role of the nonnuclear weapons states in this process remains unclear. This work explores the influence of the Federal Republic of Germany, one of the most influential nuclear threshold powers, on the formulation of the international nonproliferation regime as well as the role of nuclear energy in German foreign policy in general.

  13. Status of the fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1982-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop, in a joint program, breeder reactors to the point of commercial maturity. The following research organizations take part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three German institutions mentioned above have been interrelated since 1977 by the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. Between KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique contracts were concluded in 1977 about close cooperation in the Fast Breeder field, with association of the Belgian and Dutch partners. The results of research and development activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1981 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a short survey of the fast reactor plants, followed by an R and D summary. The bulk of the report gives more detailed information about those plants and about results reported by the Working Groups of the R and D Program Working Committee of the Fast Breeder Project. In an additional chapter a survey is given of international cooperation. (author)

  14. Status of the fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands, February 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.; Friese, R.

    1981-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (DeBeNe) agreed to develop, in a joint program, breeder reactors to the point of commercial maturity. The following research organizations take part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEW, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TWO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The results of research and development activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1980 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a review of the energy policy background, followed by an R and D summary. The bulk of the report following next is organized by the Working Groups of the R and D Program Working Committee of the Fast Breeder Project; additional chapters provide information about the operation of KNK II and the construction of SNR 300. In the annexes a survey is given of international cooperation

  15. The accident at Gorleben: A case study of risk communication and risk amplification in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, H P; Hennen, L [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (USA). Center for Technology, Environment, and Development

    1988-07-01

    On May 12, 1987 an accident happened in the ``pilot mine`` at Gorleben in the Federal Republic of Germany where the feasibility of a repository or high-radioactive nuclear waste is currently being investigated. A miner was killed during that accident and two others were severely injured. Although this accident happened during conventional mining work and had nothing to do with radioactive waste, this event received much public attention and news coverage and had a strong impact on the political debate on the Gorleben project of a repository mine for radioactive waste and even on the nuclear power controversy in general. This study does not aim to evaluate the accident that happened in the Gorleben pilot mine from a geological point of view nor does it aim to evaluate the West German waste disposal concept. All information given in chapter 2 on these aspects should be considered as background information, useful in understanding the subject of this case study: the risk communication concerning the Gorleben project in general and the accident in the shaft in particular.

  16. Methods of promotion of nuclear research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, G.

    1987-01-01

    The promotion of nuclear research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany is part of the overall R and D policy and is geared to the long-term energy policy goals. Nuclear energy development has been successfully promoted for more than thirty years, the non-nuclear energy technologies for almost 15 years. As a result of this support for new technologies, energy production has become more efficient and cost-effective and with regard to fossil energy sources also markedly less detrimental to the environment. Nuclear energy research policy is an integral part of energy research policy as a whole, which particularly aims to increasingly promote renewable energy sources, above all photovoltaic and wind energy, the utilization of biomass and geothermal energy as well as the development of various energy storage methods. In addition to some mining projects which aim to reduce coal production costs, promotion in the field of fossil energy sources concentrates above all on power plant engineering and combustion techniques - i.e. environment-oriented technologies. In view of future supply patterns, projects on coal conversion are continued; with present supply and price structures for mineral oil and natural gas, however, commercialization of coal conversion cannot be expected to be launched on a large scale. (J.P.N.)

  17. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s.

  18. A Case of Successful Transitional Justice: Fritz Bauer and his Late Recognition in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gortat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Germany is an example of a country which has been implementing transitional justice for decades and is still active in this field. What is more, contemporary Germans have recently come to terms with their not-so-distant past and their negligence in this area by showing the falsehood, backwardness, and injustice as negative foundations of the young Federal Republic. This article evokes the person of Fritz Bauer, the prosecutor in the state of Hessen. His struggle for human dignity and the memory of his achievements after his death exemplify an accomplished case of transitional justice and the memory of it. During his lifetime he contributed to bringing to trial numerous Nazi criminals, even at the cost of habitual threats and disregard. Forgotten for a few decades, Bauer and his legacy have been recently rediscovered and studied. Eventually, Bauer became a movie character and was finally brought back to the collective memory of Germans. The belated, but a well-deserved wave of popularity of Fritz Bauer in the German culture memory proves that reflections on the transitional justice are still topical and important.

  19. The accident at Gorleben: A case study of risk communication and risk amplification in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.; Hennen, L.

    1988-07-01

    On May 12, 1987 an accident happened in the ''pilot mine'' at Gorleben in the Federal Republic of Germany where the feasibility of a repository or high-radioactive nuclear waste is currently being investigated. A miner was killed during that accident and two others were severely injured. Although this accident happened during conventional mining work and had nothing to do with radioactive waste, this event received much public attention and news coverage and had a strong impact on the political debate on the Gorleben project of a repository mine for radioactive waste and even on the nuclear power controversy in general. This study does not aim to evaluate the accident that happened in the Gorleben pilot mine from a geological point of view nor does it aim to evaluate the West German waste disposal concept. All information given in chapter 2 on these aspects should be considered as background information, useful in understanding the subject of this case study: the risk communication concerning the Gorleben project in general and the accident in the shaft in particular

  20. Chances and limits of solar hydrogen in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradke, H.; Masuhr, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Assuming that by the middle of the next century in West-Germany a CO 2 -reduction of over 60% may be necessary, the implementation of a hydrogen based economy is not only consistent with the condition of using the most economic energy supply; beside the use of other competitive technologies (energy conservation and renewables) the CO 2 -reduction targets even force the introduction of hydrogen technologies. To achieve the Toronto target of an 80% CO 2 -reduction by the year 2050, the potential share of hydrogen in primary energy consumption could be about 30%. In West-Germany the annual cash-flow for such a scenario would be about 150 mrd ECU higher than today. But taking into account the increasing GDP the total relative costs of the energy systems will not be higher. 4 figs

  1. Status and future developments of risk analysis for repositories of radioactive wastes in salt formations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proske, R.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a hypothetical repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste in a salt formation was taken as basis for a first attempt to use the methodology of risk analysis in order to get statements on the safety of such a geologic and mining system. Several institutions were engaged in drawing up fault trees, development of release models and calculation of the risk. A lot of R+D-work is scheduled to be carried out in future which includes optimization of the application of risk analysis methodology to geologic and mining systems, further development of release models, development of a model describing the migration of radionuclides in typical geologic strata and soils of the Federal Republic of Germany and application of risk analysis methodology to different repositories and disposal technologies

  2. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhlke, W

    1989-01-01

    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.

  3. US NRC/LLL liaison with the Federal Republic of Germany for the GKSS-PSS steam condensation tests. Progress report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    This progress report for the USNRC/LLL Liaison program with the Federal Republic of Germany regarding boiling water reactor containment multivent steam condensation tests being conducted by GKSS (Gesellschaft fuer Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt) address program activity during the period of May-June 1979. During this period the program scope was defined, initial contacts between LLL and GKSS were established, and the first trip by an LLL representative to the GKSS test facility was taken

  4. External and internal accidents in PWR power plants. Comparison of current regulations in Belgium, United States, France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maere, G. de; Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.; Preat, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this report a comparison is made of the rules and practices applied in various countries (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and United States of America) in designing PWR plants to resist natural hazards (first part of the report) and hazards associated with human activities (second part). The third part of the report deals with the practices in different countries concerning the protection against accidents of internal origin [fr

  5. Progress report on nuclear data research in the Federal Republic of Germany for the Period April 1, 1981 to March 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report has been prepared to promote exchange of nuclear data research information between the Federal Republic of Germany and the other member states of NEA and IAEA. The emphasis has been on measurement, evaluation and compilation of application-oriented nuclear data, such as those relevant to fission and fusion reactor technologies, development of intense spallation neutron sources, production of medically important short-lived radioisotopes, etc. Each contribution is presented under the laboratory heading where the work was done

  6. How can research be carried on without money. An interview with Andreas von Buelow, Minister of Research of Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Buelow, A

    1981-06-01

    When the treasury are not as full as they were, the question automatically arises as to public support for large-scale research facilities and basic research. The new Minister for Research in the Federal Republic of Germany clearly discloses what is possible at present and what is not in the way of State support for research. Therefore the Minister demands that industry should share in basic research and in the large-scale technological facilities required for research.

  7. Licensing and regulatory control of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenhaus, W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper deals with the legal background, the role of the 'Bund' (Federation) and the 'Laender' (States) in the field of atomic energy and radiation protection law and the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants. (RW) [de

  8. Nuclear fuels imports and exports of the Federal Republic of Germany 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the Federal Office for the Economy (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety of the imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source material in 1989 show a drop in imports by 29.5% and a considerable increase in exports by 104%. For comparison, the relevant figures of the preceding year are given in brackets throughout this statistical survey. (orig.) [de

  9. Siting of light-water reactor power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, H.A.G.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear power plant site requirements formulated for environment protection in Germany allow nuclear power plants to be built at any site provided these requirements are duly taken into account in preparing and monitoring the site and in the design of the proposed power plant. After a brief discussion of light water reactor power plant sites, prevailing practice in site planning, site selection criteria, licensing procedure and used criteria, rules and guidelines, this paper reports on some considerations taken into account by the expert advisers and by the licensing authorities and future site planning. (orig.) [de

  10. Concepts for the interim storage of spent fuel elements from research reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niephaus, D.; Bensch, D.; Quaassdorff, P.; Plaetzer, S.

    1997-01-01

    Research reactors have been operated in the Federal Republic of Germany since the late fifties. These are Material Test Reactors (MTR) and training, Research and Isotope Facilities of General Atomic (TRIGA). A total of seven research reactors, i.e. three TRIGA and four MTR facilities were still in operation at the beginning of 1996. Provisions to apply to the back-end of the fuel cycle are required for their continued operation and for already decommissioned plants. This was ensured until the end of the eighties by the reprocessing of spent fuel elements abroad. In view of impeding uncertainties in connection with waste management through reprocessing abroad, the development of a national back-end fuel cycle concept was commissioned by the Federal Minister of Education, Science, Research and Technology in early 1990. Development work was oriented along the lines of the disposal concept for irradiated light-water reactor fuel elements from nuclear power plants. Analogously, the fuel elements from research reactors are to be interim-stored on a long-term basis in adequately designed transport and storage casks and then be directly finally disposed without reprocessing after up to forty years of interim storage. As a first step in the development of a concept for interim storage, several sites with nuclear infrastructure were examined and assessed with respect to their suitability for interim storage. A reasonably feasible reference concept for storing the research reactor fuel elements in CASTOR MTR 2 transport and storage casks at the Ahaus interim storage facility (BZA) was evaluated and the hot cell facility and AVR store of Forschungszentrum Juelich (KFA) were proposed as an optional contingency concept for casks that cannot be repaired at Ahaus. Development work was continued with detailed studies on these two conceptual variants and the results are presented in this paper. (author)

  11. Public and political issues in radioactive waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Government's radioactive waste management concept and regulations governing formal public participation in licensing procedures for radioactive waste management facilities are presented. The paper focuses on public and political issues arising from widely diverging views in different social groups on nuclear energy and on radioactive waste management. The resulting conflict between Federal and Laender (Federal constituent states) authorities and the actual course of public participation in a licensing procedure are illustrated with the example of planned final disposal of radioactive waste in the Konrad mine. Major national efforts to overcome the unsatisfying present situation are presented and the role of international consensus is briefly touched. Concluding remarks will particularly justify admissibility and emphasize the need to discuss and eventually decide on radioactive waste management issues regardless of diverging views on nuclear energy

  12. Radiation protection laws, competences and organizational structures in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peinsipp, N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper points out the priorities and peculiarities of German radiation protection laws. With the coming into force of the unification agreement, the Atomic Energy Act, the Radiation Protection Ordinance, and the X-Ray Ordinance became valid in the five new Federal States and Berlin, with slight deviations and amendments. Radiation protection law is Federal law adapted to EC law, with several variations, such as the minimization rule in section 28, para 1, Radiation Protection Ordinance, compared to the ALARA principle, or lower partial body dose limits. The paper discusses licensing and protective regulations; the terms' officer responsible for radiation protection' and 'officer in charge of radiation protection'; radiation pass; physical radiation monitoring, and medical follow-up checks as well as governmental control functions and competences; executive functions of the Federal Government; import and export; Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz; transportation of radioactive materials; radioactive waste management. The annex comprises several tables to illustrate the aforesaid. (HSCH) [de

  13. Radionuclide imports and exports of the Federal Republic of Germany 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the Federal Office for the Economy (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety of the imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples, and sealed emitters above 1850 GBq in 1989 show an increase, in terms of radioactivity, in imports by 44.7% and a considerable drop in exports by 48%. The level of imports even exceeds that of 1986, which had been the highest import figure till then, while exports are at the lowest level for years. (orig.) [de

  14. Aspects of the European energy debate: example Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, D.

    1980-01-01

    The European energy debate, especially with respect to nuclear energy, is drastically different between separate countries: France, UK, Germany. There is no definite answer why this is so, but a number of reasons are listed for discussion. However, the general structure of energy production and consumption is similar in all European countries and quite different from the US. The German debate is characterized by antiindustrial and antinuclear groups - the green movement - having less than 5% of the votes, but being influential due to the fact that government parties and opposition are nearly equally strong. The present approach of government therefore places great importance also on energy-saving, coal and development of renewable sources. The arguments are discussed in the light of the oil situation

  15. 1988 nuclear fuel imports and exports of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The statistic of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials compiled by the Federal Office for Industry on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Reactor Safety show a 32.3% decrease in imports and a 17.6% increase in exports in 1988 compared to the previous year. Most of the imports are made up of source materials, natural uranium, and uranium enriched up to 10%. The term 'source material' as used in these statistics refers only to uranium concentrate. A considerable increase is reported in imports of uranium enriched 3 to 10% and of plutonium. All other products have suffered major or minor decreases. (orig.)

  16. 1987 nuclear fuel imports and exports of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The statistics of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials compiled by the German Federal Office for Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Reactor Safety (Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit) shows a 29.1% increase in imports and a 16.9% decrease of exports in 1987 compared to the previous year. A major rise was experienced in imports of natural uranium, uranium enriched up to 3% and to 3-10%, and plutonium, while there was a decline in imports of depleted uranium, source materials, and more highly enriched uranium. Uranium enriched 3-10%, highly enriched uranium, and plutonium were exported in larger quantities, while only smaller quantities of depleted uranium, source materials, natural uranium, uranium enriched up to 3%, and uranium enriched 10-85% were exported. (orig.) [de

  17. The safety analysis report for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, H.A.G.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the standard format for drawing up safety analysis reports for stationary fission reactors - this format was published in 1959 by the competent Federal Ministry for Atomic Energy - a report is made on the format and scope of German safety analysis reports. The reasons for drawing up a standard safety analysis report for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactor or boiling water reactor and a KWU draft are discussed. (orig./RW) [de

  18. The design of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany as regards aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of investigation results of aircraft crashes for the Federal territory and site assessment data of the Ministry of the Interior, air traffic does not present a notable hazard for a nuclear power plant. As a precautionary measure for reducing the remaining risk, design requirements for LWRs were developed which, independently of existing aircraft types, contain mainly an abstract predetermination of an idealized impact load - time diagramme. (HP) [de

  19. The workday routines of Turkish women in Federal Republic of Germany: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munscher, A

    1984-01-01

    Despite international economic crises which have pushed many immigrants out of employment, jobs that are insecure, unstable and poorly paid have become increasingly available, particularly to immigrant women, whose legal and economic insecurity forces them to accept such jobs. This is the case of Turkish women in West Germany. Even within these jobs, immigrant women are exchangeable and transferable. For women, the already narrow spectrum of available employment opportunity has become even more limited on account of restrictions, both legal and familial, on their entry into the labor force. The result of a pilot survey of Turkish women in West Germany, described in this article, finds that widespread stereotypes depict Turkish women as shy, isolated and uprooted housewives, though these characteristics do not fit all. Almost 1/3 of Turkish women are employed full time and an unknown number work part time or in household employment, which are not not registered. They are forced to take up jobs in spite of lack of child care arrangements. A split family is the rule for almost all the women. For many, especially those who are themselves heads of household, housework include "organizing management"--going to the bank, negotiating with landlords--which they have not done before. A poor knowledge of German is an additional handicap. The work at home is shared by children, but not necessarity by husbands. Their places of residence are often too small by German standards. In spite of the stress, hardship, legal and residential insecurity associated with restrictive laws, many of these women display a sense of pride in being able to fulfil what they perceive as their duties toward their families, and have gained a measure of financial independence. A strong desire to return home to Turkey is, however, hampered by several factors, which include, diminishing hopes of finding a job there, inability to save enough money to lead a financially independent life, and a fear that

  20. Physical protection of special nuclear materials in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Measures to protect special nuclear materials in West Germany are based on a relatively likely average threat and not on the less-likely but maximum credible threat. The reason is to avoid the costs of maintaining a very high level of security that is seldom needed. The concept of delayed action, which divides the responsibility for security between private protection forces and local police forces, would be insufficient in the event of the maximum credible threat. In principle, sufficient security is possible only when the facilities and transports are constantly protected by a police force large enough to deal with the maximum credible threat without assistance from outside. They must also be adequately armed to avert all possible attackers, and they must be paid by the licensees. The threat of an insider(s) diverting special nuclear material can be addressed only by strengthening the scope and depth of the checks on applicants and employees and the permanent work controls. It is recognized, however, that such security measures may not be compatible with constitutional civil liberties

  1. Licensing and regulatory control of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenhaus, W.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture is divided into three parts: 1) the legal conception and requirements of the German Atomic Energy Law (with special view on construction and operation of nuclear power plants), 2) the role of the Federation ('Bund') and the 'Laender' in the field of atomic energy and the Radiation Protection Ordinance (especially for licensing and supervision of nuclear power plants), 3) the function, participants, types and sequence of the strongly formalised licensing procedure for nuclear power plants, technical assessment in the frame of this procedure, content of a licence, possibility for altering the licence at a later date, role of administrative courts, continual supervision. (orig./HP) [de

  2. The oil industry of the Federal Republic of Germany during 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Contrary to expectations, there has been no further, loss of profits in 1993. Continued efforts of industry to cut down on costs and tighten up activities and, most of all, the downward trend of prices in the international crude oil and petroleum markets with its time-lag effect on the inland market even have slightly improved the profit situation as compared to the year previously. Especially in the processing sector, profit margings are still inadequate. Tough competition due to overcapacities and lack of harmonization of environmental protection regulations in Europe limits opportunities for enhancing profits through modernization and rationalization. In addition, unused eastern German refinery capacities put pressure on the market: a potential of approximately five million tonnes, to go by western German capacity tilization standards. Regional inbalances in the equipment of refineries with conversion and further processing systems are an additional impediment to improving profit margins, especially in south-western Germany. The petroelum products distribution sector profited much by rationalization efforts, especially at the administrative level, and higher sales figures. But the two to six per cent increase in the main products sales volume, with the exception of heavy heating oil, was partly a result of the drastic increase in petroleum tax from January 1st, 1994, at least as far as the last quarter of 1993 was concerned, which is corroborated by the declining sales figures for the first months of the year 1994. Here again the pressure remains to make use of any opportunity for further ratinalization and cost-cutting. (orig./HS) [de

  3. Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den

  4. Safety requirements and safety experience of nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Peaceful use of nuclear energy within the F.R.G. is rapidly growing. The Energy Programme of the Federal Government forecasts a capacity of up to 50.000 MW in 1985. Whereas most of this capacity will be of the LWR-Type, other activities are related to LMFBR - and HTGR - development, nuclear ships, and facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. Safety of nuclear energy is the pacemaker for the realization of nuclear programmes and projects. Due to a very high population - and industrialisation density, safety has the priority before economical aspects. Safety requirements are therefore extremely stringent, which will be shown for the legal, the technical as well as for the organizational area. They apply for each nuclear facility, its site and the nuclear energy system as a whole. Regulatory procedures differ from many other countries, assigning executive power to state authorities, which are supervised by the Federal Government. Another particularity of the regulatory process is the large scope of involvement of independent experts within the licensing procedures. The developement of national safety requirements in different countries generates a necessity to collaborate and harmonize safety and radiation protection measures, at least for facilities in border areas, to adopt international standards and to assist nuclear developing countries. However, different nationally, regional or local situations might raise problems. Safety experience with nuclear facilities can be concluded from the positive construction and operation experience, including also a few accidents and incidents and the conclusions, which have been drawn for the respective factilities and others of similar design. Another tool for safety assessments will be risk analyses, which are under development by German experts. Final, a scope of future problems and developments shows, that safety of nuclear installations - which has reached a high performance - nevertheless imposes further tasks to be solved

  5. Nuclear research and nuclear technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The atomwirtschaft-atomtechnik has reflected the development of this quarter century. In this jubilee edition it describes the future lines of development. It has invited the Federal German companies and institutions of the branch to present their performance potential in the form of monography - more detailed than usually. This invitation was accepted by 81 of the most important enterprises. The figure also includes a number of important service companies, the research centres of the country, and last not least, a number of energy supply enterprises. Part 2 of this jubilee edition as a whole offers a crossection of the present performances offered in the German nuclear research, nuclear techniques, and the planning and service belonging to nuclear power operation. For the English-speaking readers, a digest part was set up in part 3 of the present edition. In part 4, the reader will find a product index in German and English. Each key-word indicates an offering firm by the page number allocated. Access to the monographies (part 2) and the digest (part 3) can be found in the listing of the monography-advertisers from page 102 on. The atw-jubilee edition closes with part 5, with product advertisements of companies from home and abroad. (orig./UA) [de

  6. [Hospital legislation in the Federal Republic of Germany and its effects on psychiatric hospitals (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumpe, V

    1978-02-01

    The article discusses the hospital laws of several land governments enacted subsequent to the hospital financing law of the Federal Government, in respect of the influence exercised by these laws on the internal structure of the hospital. The fact that the laws apply to all kinds of hospitals, and hence also to big psychiatric hospitals, is considered a disadvantage for psychiatric care. Such care is obviously hampered, on the one hand, by the legislative demand for departmentalization of the individual fields according to specialist subjects, representing a setup which is opposed to the realization of patient care in accordance with the requirements of the communities and citizens who expect to be cared for on an individual and not on a schematic basis, whereas, on the other hand, the new structures of management stipulated by the law do not provide for the inclusion of representatives of the new groups of professions now engaged in psychiatric activities. The model of regrouping the hospital structure into sectors instead of medical specialist departments, is presented and contrasted with the proposed model. It is recommended to arrange for representation of the non-medical and non-nursing professions in the managing boards, as well as to take into account the sociotherapeutico-rehabilitative interests as forming part of the conceptual approach to care in psychiatric hospitals, via special hospital committees.

  7. The Atomic Energy Law in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, E.; Nobbe, U.

    1982-01-01

    Since nothing much was done in the way of legislation and ordinances to remove the uncertainties still prevailing from political quarters with regard to the legal bases of some questions of nuclear power, increased importance must be attributed to the other activities of the Bundestag and federal governments. Ever lengthier and more uncertain licensing procedures under the nuclear law have for years been adding to the construction time and thereby raising the cost while reducing the economic efficiency of nuclear power plants. In October 1981 the cabinet committee for the peaceful utilization of nuclear power has approved a catalogue of measures to accelerate these procedures in future. In the field of the administration of justice, supreme court rulings have contributed particularly to clarify the central questions related to court proceedings on nuclear construction licenses. Considerable uncertainty regarding the concept for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear power plants has been caused by administrative court rulings according to which the storage of spent-fuel elements beyond the decay time is not eligible for licensing for want of a legal basis. (orig./UA) [de

  8. AFM annual report 1983 (Petroleum Industry). [Export Federation for Mineral Oil, Federal Republic of Germany]. AFM Jahresbericht 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The annual report 1983 of the Export Federation for Mineral Oil (AFM) contains informations about the mineral oil economics, the market development for selected main products and the environmental protection. The AFM terms (standard conditions for barge transactions) for the mineral oil industry are given. The AFM Oil Market Report Daily has extended the frame of its reports in 1983.

  9. Landslide databases for applied landslide impact research: the example of the landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Bodo; Klose, Martin

    2014-05-01

    This contribution presents an initiative to develop a national landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany. It highlights structure and contents of the landslide database and outlines its major data sources and the strategy of information retrieval. Furthermore, the contribution exemplifies the database potentials in applied landslide impact research, including statistics of landslide damage, repair, and mitigation. The landslide database offers due to systematic regional data compilation a differentiated data pool of more than 5,000 data sets and over 13,000 single data files. It dates back to 1137 AD and covers landslide sites throughout Germany. In seven main data blocks, the landslide database stores besides information on landslide types, dimensions, and processes, additional data on soil and bedrock properties, geomorphometry, and climatic or other major triggering events. A peculiarity of this landslide database is its storage of data sets on land use effects, damage impacts, hazard mitigation, and landslide costs. Compilation of landslide data is based on a two-tier strategy of data collection. The first step of information retrieval includes systematic web content mining and exploration of online archives of emergency agencies, fire and police departments, and news organizations. Using web and RSS feeds and soon also a focused web crawler, this enables effective nationwide data collection for recent landslides. On the basis of this information, in-depth data mining is performed to deepen and diversify the data pool in key landslide areas. This enables to gather detailed landslide information from, amongst others, agency records, geotechnical reports, climate statistics, maps, and satellite imagery. Landslide data is extracted from these information sources using a mix of methods, including statistical techniques, imagery analysis, and qualitative text interpretation. The landslide database is currently migrated to a spatial database system

  10. Federalism and Lander Autonomy: The Higher Education Policy Network in the Federal Republic of Germany. Studies in Higher Education Dissertation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onestini, Cesare

    This study traces the development of the German higher education system, examining the development of higher education policies from the postwar years to the postunification period. It focuses on federalism and the relative positions of"Lander" (German states) and the government of the Federal Republic (FRG) as revealed in higher…

  11. Joint declaration on co-operation in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy between France and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This Declaration follows upon the signing of a Protocol of intent on 3 April 1989 by VEBA, the major energy consortium in the Federal Republic of Germany supplying nuclear power, and COGEMA, the French State-owned nuclear fuel company and aims to provide a broad framework for co-operation between the two countries. The Declaration, in particular, covers co-operation in the fields of reprocessing, production of MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel), uranium enrichment, nuclear reactors, information relating to nuclear installations, transport of nuclear material [fr

  12. Nuclear war and other catastrophes. Civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The book civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945 discusses the following issues: aerial defense and the atomic bomb (1945 - 1968), crises and catastrophes in the shadow of the bomb (1962 - 1978), civil defense and the comeback of the (nuclear) war (1976 - 1979), civil defense and the second ''Cold War'' (1979 - 1986), Chernobyl and the end of the Cold War (1979 - 1990), war, catastrophe and safety in the 20th century - a conclusion.

  13. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, October--December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, J.L.; Kalia, H.N.; Coyle, A.J.

    1988-03-01

    The tenth brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through December 1985. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report includes test data for 31 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. 3 refs., 118 figs., 93 tabs

  14. Quarterly brine migration data report, May-September 1983: Nuclear Waste Repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.N.; Eckert, J.L.

    1987-04-01

    The first quarterly brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1983. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 4 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 83 figs., 55 tabs

  15. Supervision of nuclear material in the Federal Republic of Germany by the Commission of the European Communities (Euratom) and the International Atomic Energy Organisation (IAEO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, C.

    1979-01-01

    Since the fifties Euratom has controlled nuclear material in the Federal Republic of Germany. When the verification agreement came into force in the treaty on the non-proliferation of atomic weapons in February 1977, the International Atomic Energy Organisation (IAEO) has commenced the supervision of nuclear material in German nuclear energy installations. The author describes the basic principle of the supervision and the possible effects on the installations. In addition, he also deals with the discussions which have flared up about the international supervision of nuclear material, and indicates possible future developments. (orig.) [de

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic [es

  17. Survey of reportable incidents in nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, there were 249 reportable nuclear power plant incidents in Germany (old and new federal Laender). The report comprehensively lists all these incidents. There was no release of radioactivity exceeding the maximum permissible limits, and there were no effects on man or the environment. There were no incidents of reporting category S (Urgent notification), and ten belonging to category E (immediate notification). The six incidents reported in the first half of 1991 from nuclear power plants in the new federal Laender all belonged to category AE 3, which is the lowest. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Ecology trends in Greece and in the Federal Republic of Germany. Oekologiebewegung in Griechenland und in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland; Unter Beruecksichtigung historischer, gesellschaftspolitischer und theoretischer Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, I.

    1993-01-01

    This study evolves and discusses a thesis which maintains that ecology trends, both in Greece and in the Federal Republic of Germany, are the results of specific processes of social ''modernization'' based on different historical developments. A definition of ''modernization'' is given discussing the ''Fordism'' conception as part of the regulation theory: ''new'' social trends are interpreted as the results of the practice and crisis of Fordistic capitalism which, however, differs depending on its ''metropolitan'' (Germany) and ''peripheral'' (Greece) manifestations. The applicability of the Fordism theorem to Greece is discussed taking into account some political and cultural parameters. (orig.)

  19. Collection, documentation and assessment of data measured in the Federal Republic of Germany after the reactor accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Braun, H.; Dehos, R.; Frasch, G.; Haubelt, R.; Hoppe-Schoenhammer, J.; Kaul, A.; Loebke, A.; Werner, M.

    1989-08-01

    Representative for the Federal Republic of Germany, regions were selected that showed a lesser (Hesse) and higher (Bavaria) contamination. The contamination in individual environmental media (milk, i.a.) was demonstrated by values measured and assessed on a prognostic model and subsequently compared with each other. The intake was then evaluated on the basis of food basket and total body measurement data for determining the dose for various age groups and regions. Against those from food baskets, the doses derived from total body measurements were generally lower by 20-60%. This indicates change in consumption habits, adherence to recommendations and the effect of countermeasures, particularly in the higher contaminated southern region of the Federal Republic of Germany. The intake and dose assessments were compared to those measured during the time of contamination from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests. External radiation exposure and cumulative dose from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident were calculated. In 1986, the radiation exposure from external sources and from ingestion in consequence of the reactor accident had reached in the region of highest contamination (County of Berchtesgaden) 40%, in the lesser contaminated region (Hesse) about 5% of the average natural radiation exposure. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Panel: How relevant are the developments in the USA and their causes to the future situation of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelt, K; Kraemer, H; Schill, H; Mueller, W D; Radtke, G

    1984-01-01

    Recently the question has been increasingly discussed not only in the public but also among experts, whether nuclear energy still has its economic lead over other sources of energy and whether it will be able to keep it in the future in order to fulfil the expectations which have been placed in it. One important issue in this discussion is the fact that no new nuclear power plant has been ordered in the USA for the past five years. On the contrary, a considerable number of nuclear power plants already ordered or under construction have been postponed until an indefinite period of time or have been canceled altogether. Will this development have an effect on the Federal Republic of Germany with the ''usual'' time lag. Or is this a very special American situation. On this subject the journal ''atomwirtschaft'' organizes a colloquium in Duesseldorf on October 26, 1983 under the title ''Will nuclear energy remain economic. US-cancellations - a warning sign.'' After an address on principles a group of experts discusses the fact how relevant the developments in the USA and their causes are to the future situation of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  1. Public relations work in the field of disposal of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.

    1996-01-01

    Many institutions have participated in public relations work concerning the final disposal of radioactive wastes in Germany since preliminary research work in this field was started in the early 1960's. The large number of institutions involved necessitates a uniform phraseology, kept up to date by permanent exchanges of information. The Press and Public Information Section of the Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz (BfS) is responsible for co-ordination, with the aim of presenting both the general disposal concept of the Federal Government, and the work done within the scope of individual projects in the field of final waste disposal. Public relations activities are supported by the Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau and Betrieb von Endlagern fur Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE) which conducts public relations work at site level. Since the early sixties radioactive waste disposal policy in Germany has been based on the decision that all kinds of radioactive wastes should be disposed of in deep geological formations. One operating repository and two different disposal projects are currently under was in Germany. The paper discusses these three sites and their public relations efforts. A lot of work has been done in the public relations field in Germany, for more than 15 years now. Open, comprehensive information and reporting are essential for transparent and credible representations of the activities necessary for the disposal of radioactive waste, as well as to create a climate of confidence in order to fashion a position identity for such large-scale projects. In addition to personal contacts, target-group oriented information meetings and scientifically understandable information material are important means to achieved this end. The permanent presence of contact persons at the sites supports this objective, especially with regard to information directed towards the general public. (author)

  2. Progress report on nuclear data research in the Federal Republic of Germany for the period April 1, 1992 to March 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    This report has been prepared to promote the exchange of nuclear data research information between the Federal Republic of Germany and other member states of OECD/NEA and IAEA. It covers progress reports from KfK Karlsruhe, KFA Juelich, the universities of Dresden, Hannover, Koeln, Mainz, Marburg as well as from PTB Braunschweig and FIZ Karlsruhe. The emphasis in the work reported here is on measurement, compilation and evaluation of nuclear data for pure and applied science programmes, such as those relevant to fission- and fusion-reactor technology, radioactive waste management, accelerator shielding and development, astrophysics research, cosmogenic and meteoritic investigations, production of medically important radioisotopes, etc. Each contribution is presented under the laboratory heading from where the work is reported. The names of other participating laboratories are also mentioned. When the work is relevant to the World Request List for Nuclear Data, WRENDA 87/88 (INDC(SEC)-095/URSF), the corresponding identification numbers are given. (orig.)

  3. Proposal of a procedure of the operative program optimization of production in the petroleum refinery of PCK / Oder, Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Maily

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The blended of raw petroleum is an operation that can be optimized and it is based on a great quantity of knowledge and experience. The planning of these operations consists in obtaining a mixture of components with different properties and specification as octane, flow, level of sulfur etc., besides keeping in mind the existent capacities and the demand. This is considered important in this type of industries, since their profitability depends on finding the good mixture, due to the variability of the prices in the final products. The objective of this paper is to determine the good variant of production of the refinery PCK/Oder, Federal Republic of Germany that achieves the maximum of utilities, by means of the Parametric Lineal Programming. The preliminary validation, presents advantages in the utilities of until 4 %, in comparison with the use of the current method.

  4. Proposed limiting values for performance criteria in acceptance testing of diagnostic X-ray equipment in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeuml, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a new X-ray ordinance came into force in 1988 containing a specific paragraph on quality assurance for all medical X-ray units stipulating acceptance tests, regular checks and supervision by medical bodies and the competent authorities. Acceptance testing is to be performed by engineers from equipment suppliers of manufacturers in new and existing installations. It is expected that the service engineers will adjust the equipment in such a way as to obtain optimal performance before measurements are made, the results of which are to be stated in a certificate describing quality status of the equipment. A working group has developed guidelines for these acceptance tests. Items to be measured are reported and proposed limiting values and their tolerances are discussed. (author)

  5. Proposed limiting values for performance criteria in acceptance testing of diagnostic X-ray equipment in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeuml, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a new X-ray ordinance came into force in 1988 containing a specific paragraph on quality assurance for all medical X-ray units stipulating acceptance tests, regular checks and supervision by medical bodies and the competent authorities. Acceptance testing is to be performed by engineers from the equipment suppliers or manufacturers in new and also existing installations. It is expected that the service engineers will adjust the equipment in such a way as to obtain optimal performance before measurements are made, the results of which are to be stated in a certificate describing the quality status of the equipment. A working group has developed guidelines for these acceptance tests. The items to be measured are reported and the proposed limiting values and their tolerances are discussed. (author)

  6. Establishment of a real-time electronic expert system to estimate and limit radiological consequences of nuclear facility accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Eklund, J.; Gregor, J.; Mueller, H.; Paretzke, H.G.; Proehl, G.; Richter, M.; Stapel, R.

    1991-12-01

    The programme system PARK is mainly based on the radioecological food chain model ECOSYS. PARK is subdivided into the system parts AUTOPARK and DIAPARK, and into the programme DOSISPARK. AUTOPARK is a mainly automatically running programme system which converts the measured data obtained by intensive operation of the 'Integrated measuring and information system for monitoring environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany (IMIS)', and the propagation calculations provided by the German Weather Service, into a full-scale assessment of nuclide-specific contamination of air, soil and 20 plant species. Based on such calculation results, the potential radiation exposures of the public are assessed, the expected contamination of food is prognosticated, and the effects of the preventive measures 'recommendation of staying indoors' and 'prohibition of marketing higher-level contaminated food' are investigated for ten relevant radionuclides. (orig.) [de

  7. Market success proves the efficiency of directives in the gas industry in the Federal Republic of Germany; Markterfolg belegt Effizienz des gaswirtschaftlichen Ordnungsrahmens in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, M

    1994-09-01

    Deregulation is the catchword which has been ruling the present debate about energy-economy regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany. Deregulation can be interpreted at least in two ways: 1. Maintenance of existing regulations but modification of regulations which are part of the energy economy laws, 2. Introduction of a compulsory gas transit regulation for the benefit of third parties, compulsory deconcentration of the utilities, and abrogation or change of basic legal conditions. Both approaches are discussed and evaluated. (HW) [Deutsch] Die jetzige Diskussion ueber den energiewirtschaftlichen Ordnungsrahmen in der BRD ist durch das Schlagwort Deregulierung gepraegt. Hierfuer existieren jedoch mindestens zwei verschiedene Interpretationen: 1. Grundsaetzliche Beibehaltung des bestehenden Ordnungsrahmens bei gleichzeitiger Modifizierung von Regelungen im Energiewirtschaftsgesetz; 2. Einfuehrung einer Zwangsdurchleitung zugunsten Dritter, Zwangsentflechtung der Versorgungsunternehmen sowie Abschaffung bzw. Aenderung grundlegender ordnungsrechtlicher Rahmenbedingungen. Der vorliegende Beitrag versucht eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit den beiden Ansaetzen. (HW)

  8. Lehrer in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Eine Kritische Analyse Statistischer Daten uber das Lehrpersonal an Allgemeinbildenden Schulen. (Education in the Federal Republic of Germany. A Statistical Study of Teachers in Schools of General Education.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Helmut

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the available statistics concerning teachers in schools of general education in the Federal Republic of Germany. An analysis of the demographic structure of the pool of full-time teachers showed that in 1971 30 percent of the teachers were under age 30, and 50 percent were under age 35. It was expected that…

  9. Communication dated 30 May 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the Agency with regard to the German proposal for a Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 30 May 2008 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany, attaching a document entitled 'Ensuring Access to Nuclear Fuel and Enrichment Services Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project (MESP)'. As requested in that communication, the document is herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  10. Proceedings of the US/FRG research symposium: effects of atmospheric pollutants on the spruce-fir forests of the Eastern United States and the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, tech. coord. Hertel; Gerard Hertel

    1988-01-01

    Includes 66 papers presented at the US/FRG research symposium: effects of atmospheric pollutants on the spruce-fir forests of the Eastern United States and the Federal Republic of Germany, which was held October 19-23, 1987, in Burlington, Vermont.

  11. In situ-experiments on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HAW) at the Asse salt mine Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.; Rothfuchs, T.

    1989-01-01

    Deep geological salt formations are considered as being the most suitable medium for the disposal of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This paper reports how, in order to develop and to prove the necessary disposal techniques, the Asse Salt Mine in the northern part of Germany is being used as a national R and D facility for the execution of representative in situ-tests. Besides the test-wise disposal of low-and medium-level radioactive waste, a series of in situ experiments was performed on the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW). The so-called HAW repository is being performed from 1983 through 1994 will be the most important pilot test for the HAW repository in the FRG. During this experiment, 30 vitrified high-level radioactive heat and radiation sources will be emplaced in six underground boreholes. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. In addition to the investigations of the interactions of the heat and radiation sources and the host rock, a complete handling system for HAW-canisters is being developed and proved

  12. Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2013; Statusbericht zur Kernenergienutzung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Niedzwiedz, Katarzyna; Philippczyk, Frank; Dose, Julia

    2014-08-15

    This report describes the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany as of 31 December, 2013. It contains the essential data of all nuclear power plants, research reactors and the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. At the reporting moment 31{sup st} of December in 2013, nine nuclear power plants were still in operation. The power generation from nuclear energy in 2013 amounted to 97.3 TWh (2012: 99.5 TWh). It is a share of 15.4 % of the total gross electricity production (2012: 15.8 %). The report summarizes the essential operational results of the nuclear power plants and information on granted licenses. A short description of the present state of the nuclear power plants that have been shut down or decommissioned and of the stopped projects is given. Concerning research reactors essential data on type, characteristics (thermal power, thermal neutron flux) and purpose of the facility are represented. Furthermore, an overview about the licensing and operation history and the present state of the operating condition is given. For the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle data on purpose and capacity, the licensing history and the present state of operation and licensing are given. The current status of repository projects (ERAM and Konrad) Asse mine and the Gorleben site is presented. To give a survey, the data are summarized in tabular form in the report annexes. The report will be updated and published once a year. Due to the government reshuffle and the changed portfolio of some federal ministries, the former Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) was renamed to Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) on 17 December 2013.

  13. Nuclear fuel in water reactors: manufacturing technology operational experience and development activities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, R.; Knoedler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel industry in the F.R. Germany comprises the full range of manufacturing capabilities for pressurized - boiling- and heavy water reactor technology. The existing manufacturing companies are RBU and Alkem. RBU makes natural and enriched UO 2 -fuel assemblies, starting with powder preparation. Facilites to produce UO 2 -Gadolinia and UO 2 -ThO 2 fuel are also available. Alkem is manufacturing mixed oxide UO 2 /PuO 2 -fuel and -rods. Zircaloy cladding tubes are produced by NRG and MRW. This constitutes the largest single nuclear fuel manufacturing capacity outside the USA. The companies are interested in export and current capacity trends indicate some overcapacity caused by delays in plant schedules. Construction of a new fuel manufacturing plant in the FRG has been announced by Exxon. Supplementary to quality control in manufacturing an integrated quality assurance-system has been established between the reactor vendor KWU, fuel design and -engineering division, and the existing manufacturing companies for fuel and tubing. The operating experience with LWR and HWR fuel dates back to 1964/65 and proves good performance. No generic problems like densification or rod bow were encountered. Possible reasons for the small fraction of defective rods could be quickly identified by a fast feedback system incorporating a close cooperation between KWU and the utilities. KWU combines fuel development, hot-cell and poolside service facilities as well as fuel technology linking to manufacturing in one hand. The common responsibility of KWU for core- and fuel design which enabled an integral optimization was also an important reason for the successful operation and flexibility in design. Development efforts will be concentrated on tests to improve the understanding of power ramping capability under extreme operational and postulated abnormal conditions, on statistical evaluation of safety aspects and on improved economy. The LWR fuel development was sponsored by the

  14. Germany after Federal elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzballa, G.

    2010-01-01

    The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

  15. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management Of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of Highly Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 7 November 2001 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and with reference to the statement on the policies which it has decided to apply to the management of plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549/Add.2), has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2000. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has conveyed in its note verbale that 'Regarding any material that has been shipped abroad, especially for reprocessing, Germany would like to point out that the data on such material are not available at the German side. This should be taken into consideration whenever these data are used for statistical purposes. All nuclear materials within the states of the EU are property of the European Union, represented by the EURATOM Supply Agency'

  16. Communication received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale, dated 22 September 2003, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2002. 2. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of the estimated amounts of high enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2002. 3. In light of the request expressed by the Federal Republic of Germany in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the Note Verbale of 22 September 2003 and the enclosures thereto are attached for the information of all Member States

  17. Communication received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale, dated 17 September 2004, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2003. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of the estimated amounts of highly enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2003. In light of the request expressed by the Federal Republic of Germany in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the Note Verbale of 17 September 2004 and the enclosures thereto are attached for the information of all Member States

  18. Teaching the Holocaust in the Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe the approaches used by educators to facilitate learning about the Holocaust. The examples provided in this paper are one of various approaches that are used by educators teaching in the Federal Republic of Germany. Approaches will be different from country to country, from school to school, and from educator…

  19. Public Opinion and Security Policy in the Federal Republic of Germany: Elite and Mass Opinion in a Comparative Perspective,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    not want to fight for freedom could easily be disproved by a public poll of 1982, which indicated that "given the horrors of war today," the Germans...34peace .0 image" in Germany.7 This is especially the case in the evalutation of 7Peace groups particularly have very low confidence in the ability of the

  20. Approaches to the final storage of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany. Will responsibility be shifted to future generations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomauske, B.

    2004-01-01

    With respect to the management of high-level radioactive waste in Germany, there is agreement on these premises: - The waste is to be stored permanently in the Federal Republic of Germany. - A repository is to be operational by 2030. - Final storage is to be achieved in geologic formations. Differences of opinion exist about these questions: - Should there be only one repository for all types of radioactive waste, or would a breakdown into waste generating heat and waste generating only negligible amounts of heat in different repositories be useful under aspects of safety and requirement? - Will a new site selection procedure be required in an effort to find a suitable site, and would such a selection procedure be able to meet the deadline of 2030 for an operational repository? - After the end of legal proceedings, should the Konrad repository be revamped for waste generating negligible amounts of heat? The analysis presented shows that an operational repository for waste generating heat can be made available only in connection with continued exploration work at Gorleben and demonstration of the suitability of that site and subsequent construction of the repository. If the search for a repository site were started from scratch, the date of commissioning such a facility would be after 2050. In this way, that approach would miss the purpose of not shifting the waste management issue to future generations. Acting responsibly means to build the Konrad repository speedily after completion of the legal proceedings about a permit and, in this way, avoid the addition of more interim stores for waste generating negligible amounts of heat. Further exploration of Gorleben is the way agreed upon and necessary for the creation of a repository for high-level radioactive waste generating heat by 2030. For this purpose, the 'points of doubt' must be resolved speedily. (orig.) [de

  1. Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2014; Statusbericht zur Kernenergienutzung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Niedzwiedz, Katarzyna; Philippczyk, Frank; Thoemmes, Achim

    2015-05-15

    This report describes the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany as at 31 December 2014. It contains the essential data of all nuclear power plants, research reactors and the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. At the reporting date 31 December 2014, nine nuclear power plants were in operation. The power generation from nuclear energy in 2014 amounted to altogether 97.1 TWh (2013: 97.3 TWh). This is a share of 15.8% of the total gross electricity production (2013: 15.4%)1. The report summarises the essential operational results of the nuclear power plants and information on granted licences. A short description of the present state of the nuclear power plants that have been shut down or decommissioned and of the stopped projects is given. Concerning research reactors essential data on type, characteristics (thermal power, thermal neutron flux) and purpose of the facility are represented. Furthermore, an overview is given of the licensing and operation history and the present state of the operating condition. For the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle data on purpose and capacity and output are given. Furthermore, the licensing history and the present status of operation and licensing are represented. The works on the running repository projects ERAM and Konrad and on the Asse II mine and the Gorleben mine are presented. To give a survey, the data is summarised in tabular form at the end of the report (Annexes). The report is updated and published once a year.

  2. The market potential of HTR modular reactors as a heat source for high - temperature processes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The HTR is the only reactor system which can provide process heat in a wide temperature range up to 950 0 C. The HTR module is designed as an unsophisticated, safe and universal heat source with a large field of applications. The following applications have been considered: the steam reforming of natural gas and coal conversion processes for the production of methanol, hydrogen and SNG. They are investigated in many different modifications and nuclear and autothermal processes are compared. Other applications of nuclear process heat in the chemical and petrochemical industry seem to be appropriate and promising, but could not be analysed because of lack of data. The economic results show that for today's coal and gas processing the HTR can only compete against conventional conversion processes for specific premises. Especially, those processses in which valuable fossil fuels such as natural gas are substituted by nuclear process heat promise an economic bebefit. Looking to the market of the year 2030 and the need for process heat in the chemical and steel industries (including the demand for synthesis gas), cement and refinery industries, for the production of aluminium oxide and for tertiary oil recovery, a total theoretical market in the Federal Republic of Germany of up to 60 HTR-2 module plants is estimated

  3. Energy supplies in the Federal Republic of Germany. The reliability of supplies and strategies to provide for it. Die Energieversorgung der Bundesrepublik. Sicherungsbedarf und Sicherungsstrategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthies, K

    1985-06-01

    The IEA crisis management has so far not been required to demonstrate its full capacity and power. In spite of a number of crises in the Middle East oil has always been sufficiently available in the Western world. Even with the Gulf at war there have been abundant oil supplies and once again slackening petroleum prices on the world market for several years. This very situation did not fail to affect the different opinions on the reliability of supplies. While the Western German petroleum industry is being suffocated by accumulating idle refinery stocks and therefore protests against excessive provision making with the help of restrictive policies, the mining industry still meets with political support for a policy of stockpiling for the sake of reliable energy supplies. In view of the inflationary use of the reliability and safety concepts in political discussion the publication abstracted is trying to throw light on the meaning per se, the development of the supply situation in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1973 and on the applicability and costs of possible precautionary strategies taking effect in the case of suspended energy imports.

  4. Cost-effectiveness and risk associated with radiological chest screening programmes illustrated at the results of mass-screening in Bavaria/Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Th.; Stieve, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    In 1975 the German Central Committee on combating tuberculosis, in accordance with international recommendations, proposed to continue non-selected mass surveys as long as more than 4 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis are detected in a total of 10,000 persons whose disease has not yet been detected by other means. In December 1977 the same recommendation was repeated. Meantime, however, the incidence and mortality of pulmonary tuberculosis has decreased so much, that the concentration of an increased morbidity rate has already been limited to a few districts of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1982 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis decreased from 19 to 70 per 100,000 with a mean value of about 30. The number of deaths because of pulmonary tuberculosis came to approximately 2.0 per 100,000 inhabitants. Besides regional differences there are great ones between the native population and foreigners. The latter group is much more concerned with the total incidence as well as with regard to the age of the people affected. Therefore it will be necessary to think- over the practice of chest radiographic examination - in accordance the the recommendations of the International Radiation Commission discussed in 1977 and 1982 and the recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO) published in 1983

  5. Gestations and parturitions after the Chernoby1 reactor accident. A representative evaluation for the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin (West)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeltz, J.; Hoeltz, A.; Potthoff, P.; Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.; Hinz, G.; Kaul, A.; Martignoni, K.; Roedler, H.D.; Schwarz, E.; Tsavachidis, C.

    1992-09-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany (former states) a cohort study was performed to find out, if there were any untoward pregnancy outcomes (preterm births) after the Chernobyl accident. It was also investigated, whether a possibly increased incidence of premature births was correlated to fears of the pregnant women for increased radiation exposure. The study was carried out in 3 stages: In the first stage (card-file monitoring) the data of 5,548 pregnant women (date of conception between April and August 1986) were taken from their gynaecologists' card-files, and in stage 2 and 3 (questionnaire/pregnancy record monitoring) 3,946 pregnant women (date of conception between January 1987 and February 1988) additionally filled in an extensive questionnaire. The influence of the following risk factors was studied: fears, smoking, drug consumption, biomedical and socio-economic factors. Both, in the card-file monitoring and the questionnaire, there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of preterm births in areas with different radiation exposure. From women living in areas with higher radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl fallout fears related to environmental risks were mentioned more frequently. There was a statistically significant increase in premature births for the risk factors smoking, psycho-drug consumption, and for biomedical risks as documented in the pregnancy records. When comparing this study with a similar one from 1981/1982, no difference in the rate of preterm births was observed. (orig.) [de

  6. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  7. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  8. Official announcement concerning the conclusion of an agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and utilities of the electric power industry for implementing the EC transboundary guideline of October 29, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany, Badenwerk AG, Bayernwerk AG, Berliner Kraft- und Licht-AG, Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG, Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke AG, Preussen Elektra AG, RWE Energie AG and Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG have concluded an agreement on 7 October 1991 in order to implement the EC Council's guideline of 29 October 1990 concerning transboundary transmission of electric power via large-scale power grids. (orig./HP) [de

  9. The bomb as option. Motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963; Die Bombe als Option. Motive fuer den Aufbau einer atomtechnischen Infrastruktur in der Bundesrepublik bis 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanel, Tilmann

    2015-07-01

    The book on the motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963 discusses the following issues: History of the German reactor development during the time of the National Socialism and World War II, reactor research abroad (examples Sweden and Switzerland), protagonists and motivation (politics, science, economy, army), the development of a nuclear infrastructure, results and consequences of the German nuclear policy until 1963.

  10. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article 111(1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons entered into force, pursuant to the first sentence of Article 25(a) thereof, on 21 February 1977 [es

  11. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  12. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  13. [Ascertainment of physical fitness for work in persons applying for annuities in the Federal Republic of Germany (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramse, M; Wille, G

    1980-06-01

    Annuities granted because of unfitness for work in general or unfitness to perform particular professional work are being paid in Germany by a state insurance agency. Unfitness for work has to be ascertained in each individual case as has been ruled by jurisdiction of the Highest German Court. It is the task of the medical expert in the course of this procedure to register the clinical status of the applicants and to reach a medical judgment in regard to fitness for work. This judgment does not rely upon the diagnosis or prognosis of a particular disease; a decreased fitness for work because of a particular disease can only be assumed if the disease has led to long-term irreversible deficient organ functions. Annuities for a limited time period may be granted if there is a chance for improvement of health. Problems of finding expert judgement are reported.

  14. Crude oil and natural gas in the Federal Republic of Germany 1997; Erdoel und Erdgas in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, M.; Kosinowski, M.; Loesch, J.; Meyer, H.J.; Porth, H.; Sedlacek, R.

    1998-12-31

    In 1997, exploration for oil and gas in onshore Germany further slowed down compared to the previous years. Both the number of exploration wells and the geophysical activity (seismic and gravimetric field surveys) decreased. In contrast, extensive seismic measurements were conducted in the German sector of the North Sea. Oil production amounted to 2.82x10{sup 6} t which is approximately the same level as in 1996. Due to the mild winter, gas production slightly decreased to 22.5x10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (raw gas). Underground gas storage in depleted oil or gas fields, in aquifer structures and salt caverns continued to play a very important role in Germany. The total working gas capacity of the 38 existing storage plants increased by 1.3x10{sup 9} m{sup 3} to 15.4x10{sup 9} m{sup 3}. An additional capacity of 7.1x10{sup 9} m{sup 3} is under construction or in the planning stage. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1997 ist die Aufsuchungstaetigkeit nach Erdgas und Erdoel auf dem deutschen Festland gemessen an der Anzahl der Explorationsbohrungen und dem Umfang der geophysikalischen Feldmessungen (Seismik, Gravimetrie) dem Trend des Vorjahres folgend zurueckgegangen. Demgegenueber standen umfangreiche seismische Untersuchungen in der Nordsee. Die Erdoelfoerderung hat sich mit 2,82 Mio. t ungefaehr auf dem Niveau des Vorjahres gehalten. Die Erdgasfoerderung hat gegenueber 1996 witterungsbedingt geringfuegig abgenommen und betrug 22,5 Mrd. m{sup 3}(V{sub n})/a (natuerlicher Brennwert). Auf dem Sektor der Untertage-Erdgasspeicher (ehem. Lagerstaetten, Aquifere und Salzkavernen) setzte sich auch im Jahre 1997 der Wachstumstrend fort. Gegenueber dem Vorjahr stieg das Arbeitsgasvolumen in 23 Porenspeicher- und 15 Kavernenspeicher-Betrieben um etwa 1,3 Mrd. m{sup 3}(V{sub n}) auf 15,4 Mrd. m{sup 3}(V{sub n}) an. Weitere ca. 7,1 Mrd. m{sup 3}(V{sub n}) Arbeitsgas sind in neuen Projekten oder durch Erweiterung bestehender Projekte in Planung und Bau. (orig./MSK)

  15. European Conference on Advanced Materials and Processes Held in Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany on November 22-24, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-24

    Development of Residual Stresses During Spray Deposition XX 8 J . B36a (Sp), M. Ferdinandy, J . Kril, D. U~ka, 1. Pec~r, VUKOV , Ko~ice (CSSR) Multilayer...actively in the programme. o8esloa For XTIS mumM DTIC WAD (3Unaraouned JUst ifloat o Aivailability Codem - J " -a I or i " l Diat Special 2 Contents5C...nercc ov4 Federation of European Materials Societies J ~ fr(~ 1 Welcoming Address q~jwqI - .2; qtt .4 Organizing Committee ~e~&’’~6 Introduction rc f

  16. Studies on cadmium exposure in the population of the Federal Republic of Germany. Untersuchungen zur Cadmiumbelastung der Bevoelkerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports on a number of studies performed on cadmium exposure in the population of the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular that of the Rhine-Ruhr region. The studies covered: - the examinations for Cd concentrations in full blood (CdB), in urine (CdU) in different population groups, and the analysis of various influencing factors; - an autopsy study involving 388 corpses from the Duesseldorf and Duisburg regions to determine the concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc in the renal cortex - an epidemiological study on the occurrence and incidence of cadmium-induced renal function disorders in inhabitants of areas exposed to high Cd immission levels (Stolberg, Duisburg). The studies indicate CdB concentrations to be influenced by the following factors: - smoking; - age; - sex; - Cd immission level. Measurements of CdU concentrations were performed in children from Duisburg and Goch, and in women aged 65 and 66 from Stolberg, Duisburg and Duesseldorf. The results of the study performed in children did not reveal any influence of Cd immission levels. The results of the autopsy study showed that Cd concentrations in the renal cortex of persons not exposed to heavy metals occupationally, are well below the critical CdKc concentration on an average. The results of the epidemiological study on cadmium-induced renal function disorders in 286 women aged 65 and 66 from the cities of Stolberg, Duisburg and Duesseldorf revealed that no indications for renal dysfunctions clearly attributable to excessive Cd accumulation in the kidney, were verified even in a population group which had been exposed to relatively high Cd levels from the environment. (orig./MG).

  17. Measurement of actinides in samples from effluent air, primary coolant and effluent water of nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.

    1977-01-01

    Since the middle of 1973 the alpha radioactivity of a number of aerosol filters from the stack monitoring systems of some nuclear power stations, of water effluent samples from all german nuclear power stations and of samples from the primary coolant water of one nuclear power reactor was measured. Essentially, the following procedures of sample preparation for alpha spectrometry of the samples in large area gridded ionization chambers were used; cold ashing of the aerosol samples in 'excited' oxygen, coprecipitation of the alpha emitters from the effluent water samples with iron hydroxide and subsequent cold ashing of the precipitate, and evaporation of the samples from the primary cycle on stainless steel plates. The following transuranium nuclides, or some of them, were found in the samples of the primary coolant and in several aerosol filter samples: Pu-239/240, Pu-238 and/or Am-241, Cm-242 and Cm-244. Cm-242 contributes most to the alpha radioactivity in fresh samples. In the effluent water samples Cm-242, Pu-239/240 and Pu-238 and/or Am-241 were identified in some cases, in one case also Cm-244. Detection limits of the procedures used for the analysis of the above stated transuranium nuclides were in the order of 0,1 fCi per m 3 for the aerosol samples and of 0.2 pCi per 1 for the liquid samples. For the effluent air and water samples in most cases specific activities near the detection limit or somewhat higher were found. On the basis of the measurements, an estimation of the annual actinides releases from nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  18. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Bernard, A.; Stiller-Winkler, R.; Hahn, R.; Manojlovic, N.

    1985-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed to assess whether environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly contaminated by cadmium, lead and other heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population the authors selected 65- and 66-year-old women (n = 286) who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average cadmium levels in blood (CdB) and urine (CdU) revealed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg greater than Duisburg greater than Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. However, with respect to the urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins (beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein), albuminuria, total proteinuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia and some other biological findings, no significant differences between the study populations were noted. Similarly, the prevalence of clinically-confirmed hypertension as well as the relative frequency of hypertensive subjects (systolic greater than or equal to 160 and/or diastolic greater than or equal to 95 mm Hg) did not differ significantly among the three study groups. There was no exposure-response relationship between CdU and tubular proteinuria in the range of the CdU-levels found (0.1 to 5.2 micrograms/g creatinine). However, albuminuria tended to be increased at CdU levels greater than 2 micrograms/g creatinine.

  19. Compensatory charge as guarantee of power supply. [Federal Republic of Germany]. Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut an der Universitaet zu Koeln. Sonderveroeffentlichung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, A

    1981-01-01

    First, the legal base of the compensatory charge is described, followed by an evaluation of its revenue systematics. Since the compensatory charge revenue does not go into the federal budget, but to a special fund, a budget evaluation follows. In the framework of a financial evaluation, the effects of imposing this charge are investigated. The differences between a political assessment and a financial evaluation of this charge are shown by giving MP statements made. According to the present situation, it is also possible to combine the various purposes of power taxation in an ingeniously contrieved manner under the aspects of finance and psychology. It follows that a power tax might still be levied at a time when the original purpose of its introduction is no longer applicable.

  20. Information on nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Establishment of a dialogue between the public and Government authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, K.

    1977-01-01

    During recent years the public debate on nuclear energy has grown in importance. Events such as the occupation of a power plant construction site and many discussions in the press have led to a broadly based interest in questions related to the use of nuclear energy. In 1975, the Federal German Government launched a nuclear energy information programme, with the main objective of establishing a dialogue between the public and Government authorities. In several advertisements the public was asked to participate in this dialogue by applying for a booklet prepared by the Government or by taking part in direct discussions. General discussions were held, which were very well attended, and many seminars were organized, which allowed a more detailed discussion of special items among a limited number of participants. The scope of discussions was not limited to the environmental and safety aspects of nuclear energy; the Government also intended to illustrate the need for nuclear energy and its role in an overall energy strategy. Since all parliamentary political parties supported the use of nuclear energy and since power plant construction and planning was going ahead on the basis of the Government's energy programme, the dialogue was intended to provide a basis for a wider understanding of the problems and the advantages of nuclear energy. This information compaign has met with great interest. Up to the end of 1976, approximately 100,000 people have responded to the Government's initiative. (author)

  1. Report on the fuel cycle centre for spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report takes into account the contents of the safety report which was presented on March 31st, 1977 to the Social Minister of Lower Saxony by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Wiederaufbereitung von Kernbrennstoffen mbH, Hanover, together with the application for a licence for the construction and operation of a fuel cycle centre. However, the report is not to be seen as the brief description of the facility, as it is required according to section 3, sub-section 3 of the AtVfV (Nuclear Installations Ordinance). It is more introductory information. Statements and drafts are preliminary; they have neither been decided on nor have they been licensed. However, the report gives a survey of the present state-of-the-art and of planning activities concerning the nuclear fuel cycle centre, while paying special attention to data relevant to the site. The government of Lower Saxony has proposed as a preliminary site on Febr. 22nd, 1977 an area near Gorleben in the rural district of Luechow-Dannenberg. The Federal government has adopted this proposal on July 5th, 1977. (orig.) [de

  2. Reduction of regional disparities in electric power prices by spatially effective measures and planning in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G

    1984-01-01

    For a long time energy policy has been trying to reduce disparities in electric power prices by administrative and financial measures alone. Governmental planning was opening up new prospects when long-range fuel transport - and in particular the transport of hard coal by ship or by rail - was seeing a drop in prices in the mid seventies. Since fuel transport has been lower-priced than the transport of equivalent quantities of electric power, regional disparities in electric power prices which are due to the respective supply structures may be levelled by way of power plant site selection and power plant installation according to the specific regional loads. A decentralized expansion of power generation within reach of the consumer requires but a minimum of wiring. Structural price disparities are reduced in particular in regions importing electric power at excessive prices. In addition, costs may be saved by rational energy utilization consisting above all in the application of dual-purpose power plants and by the rationalization of network infrastuctures. The study abstracted is part of a research project of the Federal Research Institute for Land Studies and Planning. The project is dealing with concepts of decentralized electric power supply and space heating. It adds to already existing related studies which deal above all with the basic problems of scheduling and planning the contents and inner structure of decentralized energy concepts.

  3. Site investigations and conceptual design for the repository in the nuclear 'Entsorgungszentrum' of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Site investigations are planned to enable the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and the other institutions involved to scrutinize the suitability of the Gorleben site and its salt dome as the nuclear 'Entsorgungszentrum' repository, and to provide all data necessary for detailed site-specific planning and safe building and operation of the repository. The investigations include deep drillings and an extensive hydrogeological programme for exploring the general structure of the salt dome and its environment. The latter programme started on 17 April 1979. The Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Federal Geological Survey) is in charge of the geoscientific side of the investigations. For the site-independent conceptual design the following requirements have been laid down: (1) for safety reasons retrievability is not to be considered; (2) standard mining techniques and the special experience gained at the Asse salt mine should be utilized as much as possible; (3) two shafts should be sufficient for the mine, for all transport and the ventilation system; (4) different forms of waste in terms of waste type and container shall be disposed of in different storage areas; (5) ventilated sections must permit the shutting off of each storage area from the rest of the mine; (6) the mining method of retreat working should be applied in order to explore the whole disposal area prior to the beginning of disposal, to enable an optimal fit of the mine to the structure of the salt dome, and to move away from the heat generated by heat-producing waste; (7) the mine works shall have a lateral safety distance to the cap rock of 200 m and a vertical safety zone of 300 m beneath the salt level. (8) all disposal areas shall be on one level; (9) salt and waste shall be transported in different drifts, mainly in a one-way system. (author)

  4. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of Inference/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  5. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998

  6. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  7. Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS. Report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the sixth review conference in March/April 2014; Uebereinkommen ueber nukleare Sicherheit. Bericht der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Sechste Ueberpruefungstagung im Maerz/April 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the sixth review conference (Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS) in March/April 2014 covers the following issues: reappraisal of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany; measures as consequence of the reactor accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima; safety regulations; execution of the IRRS follow-up mission in Germany; safety management and technical qualification of the occupational personnel; safety surveillance; radiation protection, overview on important safety topics; events and incidents larger INES 0. Assessment of the existing nuclear facilities; progress and changes since 2011; future activities.

  8. Nuclear war and other catastrophes. Civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945; Atomkrieg und andere Katastrophen. Zivil- und Katastrophenschutz in der Bundesrepublik und Grossbritannien nach 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebel, Martin [Zentrum fuer Zeithistorische Forschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945 discusses the following issues: aerial defense and the atomic bomb (1945 - 1968), crises and catastrophes in the shadow of the bomb (1962 - 1978), civil defense and the comeback of the (nuclear) war (1976 - 1979), civil defense and the second ''Cold War'' (1979 - 1986), Chernobyl and the end of the Cold War (1979 - 1990), war, catastrophe and safety in the 20th century - a conclusion.

  9. Environmental policy between repair and prevention. An introduction, with reference to the Federal Republic of Germany in the international context. Umweltpolitik zwischen Reparatur und Vorbeugung. Eine Einfuehrung am Beispiel Bundesrepublik im internationalen Kontext

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, B

    1989-01-01

    With reference to the Federal Republic of Germany, the author first of all describes the origin and development of a national environmental policy and its instruments. Subsequently, selected problem fields (air, water, soil, waste, chemicals) are dealt with in greater detail. Basic facts and issues of 'transfrontier environmental pollution' of an 'external policy for the environment', and of environmental policy in developing countries form the objects of the following chapters. At last the 'consequences for environmental strategies in industrialized and developing countries' are discussed. The author pleads for greater emphasis to be placed on ecological ethics and calls for a more preventively oriented, i.e. prospective and anticipatory, environmental policy. (orig.).

  10. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority tha...

  11. A winter chronicle. The coldness of the winter in the Federal Republic of Germany between 1960/61 and 2007/2008; Eine Winterchronik. Die Kaelte der Winter in Deutschland von 1960/61 bis 2007/08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Hans-Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nineteen-sixties a review of the past winter period was published each spring. These publications based on weather maps and measurements from different places across the Federal Republic of Germany. Since 1991 further locations from the new German states were added. With the aid of data such as the sum of negative daily mean air temperature from 1st November to 31st March and the amount of days with negative daily mean air temperature, the wintriness and the length of the winter for each season were calculated and compared with long-time statistical values. In addition, a no dimensional so called coldness value was generated to characterize the strength of each winter period with direct comparability between all locations in Germany. All essential information from these papers is presented chronologically.

  12. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the Community and the Agency) on 30 April 2004, has also entered into force for Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  13. Material flows of benzene with particular consideration of the Federal Republic of Germany; Stoffstroeme von Benzol unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehncke, A.; Mangelsdorf, I. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung, AG Dokumentation und Bewertung von Chemikalien, Hannover (Germany); Rosner, G. [ToxConsult, Merzhausen (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, benzene is one of the most important basic materials for the chemical industry. Only a relatively small proportion of the pure benzene processed in the chemical industry is emitted into the environment (ca. 40 t in 1991). But the substance is also a natural component of the crude oil in gasoline and is released during incomplete combustion or is formed out of other aromatic substances. The primary source of emissions, with more than 10,000 t/yr (approximately 85% of this from motor vehicles with Otto engines), is commercial motor vehicle transportation. Benzene concentrations in the environment are approximately <1 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in rural areas, 20-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} near main roads (peak levels in highly urbanized regions with much traffic as high as approximately 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and 7-15 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in the vicinity of industrial polluters. It has not been possible to detect a specific trend over time during the last ten years. An increased exposure (approx. 350-27,000 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) is likely while filling the tank and within the motor vehicle (approx. 10-200 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) due to gasoline volatilization from pipes, etc. Compared to outdoor air, higher concentrations of benzene (approx. 2-11 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) are measured in the indoor air which contains additionally benzene from tobacco smoke, equipment, renovating work and heating. The primary exposure pathway of benzene in humans is inhalation. Apart from individuals with occupational exposure, smokers have the highest internal benzene burden. Measures undertaken during recent years to reduce the amount of emissions have been counteracted at least in part by the increase in motor vehicle traffic. Further measures to reduce the emissions or to change the transportation policies must still be or have already been initiated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Benzol stellt fuer die chemische Industrie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland einen der wichtigsten Grundstoffe dar. Das in der

  14. Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2016; Statusbericht zur Kernenergienutzung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Niedzwiedz, Katarzyna; Philippczyk, Frank [Bundesamt fuer kerntechnische Entsorgungssicherheit (BFE), Salzgitter (Germany); Thoemmes, Achim [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    On 7-30-2016, the ''Act on the Organisational Restructuring in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management'' came into force. It provides for bundling the governmental tasks of licensing and supervision in the field of nuclear technology, interim storage, site selection and repository monitoring in a new authority, the Federal Office for Nuclear Waste Disposal Safety (BfE). With the entry into force of the law, the corresponding specialist tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) were transferred to the BfE. The task of preparing the annual status report on the use of nuclear energy is now the task of the BfE. A state-owned company, the Bundesgesellschaft fuer Endlager (BGE), will assume responsibility for the operational tasks of site search, construction and operation of the repository, the Asse II mine and Gorleben salt mine. This report as at 12-31-2016 provides an overview of the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. The report lists the key data of all nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear fuel supply and disposal facilities. At the reporting date of December 31,2016, eight nuclear power plant units were in operation. Nuclear power generation in 2016 totalled approximately 84.6 TWh (2015:91.8 TWh). Nuclear energy accounted for 13.0% of total gross electricity generation (2015:14.2%)1. In the case of nuclear power plants, the report summarizes the main operating results and provides information on the nuclear licences granted in the year under review. A brief description of the current status of the decommissioned and decommissioned nuclear power plants as well as of the discontinued projects will be given. For the research reactors, the essential information on the type, the characteristics (thermal power, thermal neutron flux) and the intended use of the plant are presented. Furthermore, an overview of the approval and operating history as well as the current operating status is given

  15. Convention on nuclear safety report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the second extraordinary meeting in August 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear consequences of the earthquake disaster in Japan represent a profound change for the peaceful use of nuclear power, also in Germany. In the light of these events, the German Federal Government, together with the Prime Ministers of the Laender in which NPPs are operated had reviewed the safety of all German NPPs by the German Reactor Safety Commission in close collaboration with the competent nuclear regulatory authorities of the Laender and, through an Ethics Commission on ''Secure Energy Supply'', also started a dialogue among the German society on the risks involved in the use of nuclear power and on the possibility of an accelerated transition to the age of renewable energies. Taking into account the results of the Reactor Safety Commission and the Ethics Commission on ''Secure Energy Supply'' as well as the absolute priority of nuclear safety, the Federal Government decided to terminate the use of nuclear power at the earliest possible date. The amendments in the Atomic Energy Act that went into force in August 2011 induce the progressive abandonment of electricity generation by NPPs in Germany by the end of 2022 at the latest. Germany took an active part in the assessment of the robustness of the NPPs in Europe (EU stress test) under the leadership of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG). The results of these reviews show that the German plants partly have considerable safety margins and that additional precautionary measures have been taken in order to prevent (preventive measures) or limit (mitigative measures) the effects of the beyond-design-basis events considered in the reviews. Based on the results of the plant-specific reviews, the RSK has derived first recommendations for further examinations. Some plant-specific improvement measures are already in implementation or planned. The results of the EU stress test will be taken into account in future RSK recommendations. On behalf of the BMU, the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und

  16. Mining in the Federal Republic of Germany 2012. Mining industries and statistics. 64th year 2013. Documentation; Der Bergbau in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2012. Bergwirtschaft und Statistik. 64. Jahrgang 2013. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    The annual report of the series ''The mining industry in the Federal Republic of Germany - Mountain Economics and Statistics'' is published by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology in cooperation with the mining authorities of the federal states. It contains comprehensive data of all production facilities of mining industry in Germany and describes the position of the German industry in the context of the overall economic development. The report shows an interest in local raw materials as well as on the international raw materials economy. Moreover, the present publication provides a detailed statistics section. [German] Der Jahresbericht in der Reihe ''Der Bergbau in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland - Bergwirtschaft und Statistik'' wird vom Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie in Zusammenarbeit mit den Bergbehoerden der Bundeslaender herausgegeben. Er enthaelt umfassende Daten aller Produktionsbetriebe des Bergbaus in Deutschland und beschreibt die Lage des deutschen Bergbaus im Zusammenhang mit der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. Der Bericht geht sowohl auf heimische Rohstoffe als auch auf die internationale Rohstoffwirtschaft ein. Darueber hinaus liefert die vorliegende Publikation einen ausfuehrlichen Statistikteil.

  17. The text of the agreement of 15 July 1981 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of Safeguards in connection with contracts concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica Argentina and the Kraftwerk Union AG (Federal Republic of Germany) for the supply of the Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 15 July 1981 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with contracts concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomic Argentina and the Kraftwerk Union AG (Federal Republic of Germany) for the supply of the Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant has been suspended

  18. Regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany. Exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. Regulierung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Die Ausnahmebereiche des Gesetzes gegen Wettbewerbsbeschraenkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, M

    1988-01-01

    As a result of other countries' experiences, the Federal Republic has also been affected by the debate about regulation and deregulation. The discussion is centred particularly on exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. This anthology aims to assist in clarifying the debate and gives a systematic account of the exceptions, including the theoretical justifications for regulation. Special weight is given to the description and explanation of the current status of regulation. The nature and scope of today's regulation can only be understood when its historical development is included in the examination. It is against this background that the authors make suggestions either for deregulation or for reformulation. The different chapters deal with: The theoretical basis of regulation, regulation in the areas of: The networked energy industry, telecommunications, traffic, banks, insurance markets. (orig./HSCH).

  19. Regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany. Exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. Regulierung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Die Ausnahmebereiche des Gesetzes gegen Wettbewerbsbeschraenkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, M.

    1988-01-01

    As a result of other countries' experiences, the Federal Republic has also been affected by the debate about regulation and deregulation. The discussion is centred particularly on exceptions to the law against competitive restrictions. This anthology aims to assist in clarifying the debate and gives a systematic account of the exceptions, including the theoretical justifications for regulation. Special weight is given to the description and explanation of the current status of regulation. The nature and scope of today's regulation can only be understood when its historical development is included in the examination. It is against this background that the authors make suggestions either for deregulation or for reformulation. The different chapters deal with: The theoretical basis of regulation, regulation in the areas of: The networked energy industry, telecommunications, traffic, banks, insurance markets. (orig./HSCH).

  20. Protocol to suspend the application of safeguards pursuant to the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany in the light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the Quadripartite Safeguards Agreement between Argentina, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol of 16 October 1998 suspending the application of safeguards under the Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC/237) of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany in the light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the Quadripartite Safeguards Agreement between the Agency, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA. The Protocol entered into force on 21 October 1999

  1. Methodological problems of monetary evaluations of complex environmental damages - the example of the forest damages in the Federal Republic of Germany. Zur monetaeren Bewertung von Umweltschaeden - methodische Untersuchung am Beispiel der Waldschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, H J; Brabaender, H D; Brechtel, H M; Both, M; Hayessen, E; Jahn, A; Moehring, B; Moog, M; Nohl, W; Richter, U

    1986-01-01

    The study analyses the methodological problems of monetary evaluations of complex environmental damages by treating an actual example, the monetary evaluation of the present and further expectable forest damages in the Federal Republic of Germany. The state of the forest ecosystems, which can be expected under different plausible assumptions with respect to emissions and immissions of important air contaminants like SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/, is established by using expert surveys and scenario-techniques. The monetary consequences of different states of the forest system (status-quo-scenario: air pollution of the beginning 80ies continues; trend-scenario: strong, but possible reductions of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions during the simulation period; reference-scenario: development path as if no air pollution existed) are estimated for three fields (timber production, recreation and tourism, water and soil protection) and for a period of 77 years (1984 to 2060).

  2. Measuring program of the Federal Republic of Germany. Results of environmental measurement in Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine in the time from May 17 to September 2, 1993, and from October 8 to November 1, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, K.; Hille, R.

    1994-06-01

    This report gives an overview on the results of the environmental measurements 1993, which have been gained in the frame of the measuring program of the Federal Republic of Germany in Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine. In the time from May 17, to the end of October 18 scientists and engineers conducted environmental measurements and determined the contamination of soil and foodstuff. Samples of food of the population were measured and the results were given in a certificate with short explanation in Russian language. In 3 appendices of this report all results are given in detail. They are discussed in the way of local mean values. In regard to the preceding year the external dose and the soil contaminations are nearly constant. However the milk contaminations decreased with the exception of a few villages. Possible explanations for these exceptions are discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. The text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    On 5 April 1989 the Agency received in respect of the European Atomic Energy Community and Spain the notification required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency, which therefore came into force for Spain on that date

  4. 7 May 2013 - Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany to Switzerland and Liechtenstein P. Gottwald and Mrs Gottwald in the ATLAS experimental cavern and LHC tunnel with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Wengler and German Scientists A. Schopper and V. Mertens.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    7 May 2013 - Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany to Switzerland and Liechtenstein P. Gottwald and Mrs Gottwald in the ATLAS experimental cavern and LHC tunnel with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Wengler and German Scientists A. Schopper and V. Mertens.

  5. The text of the Agreement of 9 June 1982 between the Federal Republic of Germany, Spain and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Agreement between the Governments on co-operation in the field of the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes of 5 December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The full text of the agreement of 9 June 1982 between the Federal Republic of Germany, Spain and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the agreement between the Governments in co-operation in the field of the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes of 5 December 1978 is presented

  6. Legal bases of resource policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. A contribution towards law-related geography. Die rechtlichen Grundlagen der Ressourcenpolitik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Ein Beitrag zur Rechtsgeographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graafen, R

    1983-01-01

    This work from the field of law-related geography deals with the legal regulations issued in the framework of resource policy and with their territorial effects. One of the purpose of law-related geography is to present those legal regulations which bear on territory in a manner easy to survey. The different legal forms to be considered (law, legal regulation, administrative regulation, statutes, law of the (European Community etc.) provide a means of approach. From the peculiarities of the individual legal forms it is possible to tell for instance in how far they possess validity as against citizens or only as against authorities, in how far they are cogent or only constitute recommendations, or whether citizens are allowed to participate in the precise definition of regulations, what standard of European Community law are immediately applied in the Federal Republic of Germany, or what the order of priority of legal regulations is. The study investigates above all the territory-related consequences of regional and land use planning, the federal mining law, energy policy with regard to black coal, brown coal, petroleum and naturel gas, of the planning of power plans sites, local supply concepts, transport infra-structure policy, the federal immission protection law and of regulations for the protection of nature or governing forest and water management. (orig./HSCH).

  7. Climate protection in Germany: National report of the Federal Government on the Federal Republic of Germany on anticipation of Article 12 of the framework agreement of the United Nations on climate changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report contains a comprehensive presentation by the Federal German Government on the subject greenhouse effect, its possible consequences and on the strategies and measures adopted for its containment. National, up-to-date inventories are made for greenhouse gases including a systematic survey of the direct greenhouse gases and an identification of the indirect greenhouse gases and taking into account the quantities yield up in reservoirs (forests). The report also gives the current stage in the implementation of the CO 2 abatement campaign, detailed data on framework conditions (economic development, population, land use), a description of those areas particularly endangered by the greenhouse effect, the current state of research, development and systematic climated observation and the current state of international cooperation in the areas of technology and finance. (KW) [de

  8. Infant mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany in the years after Chernobyl. Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortality in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. Saeuglingssterblichkeit nach Tschernobyl in der BRD. Untersuchung der Auswirkungen des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl im April 1986 auf die Saeuglingssterblichkeit in schwach- und hochbelasteten Gebieten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, W; Scholz, H; Hacker, C; Beushausen, S; Heydenreich, B; Platiel, G

    1991-04-01

    Study into the influence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 on infant mortility in lightly and heavily contaminated areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. In connection with this scientific study, official quarterly reports on population developments released by the Wiesbaden-based Federal Office of Statistics were subjected to a time-dependent analysis. On the basis of generally applicable stastical laws infant mortality curves plotted after 1958 were examined for changes after Chernobyl. In view of regional differences in the effects from radioactive precipitations due to the Chernobyl ractor accident, the examinations were performed in subgroups that were largely derived from the results of a study covering all of the Federal territory. The analysis revealed the following links: The curve of the infant mortality rates for the first 7 days after delivery (7-day mortalities) pointed to a linear-exponential relationship between the point of time investigated and number of infants dying. In heavily contaminated areas the 7-day mortality rates determined after 1986 show statistically significant deviations from developments as expected from normal rates. (orig./MG).

  9. Methods for registration and mapping of waste heat emissions and their application to the regions of Rastatt, Baden-Baden and Karlsruhe-City (Federal Republic of Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomaei, G.; Kinzelbach, W.

    1978-05-01

    Methods are developed that allow the registration and mapping of waste heat emissions on a grid of 2 x 2 km 2 . They are directly applicable in the Federal Republik of Germany and may be extended to neighbouring countries. Such a mapping provides the distribution of anthropogeneous waste heat emissions in space and time and serves in the case of the upper Rhine Valley as a basis for the numerical evaluation of climate modification by man. In a close approximation the distribution of waste heat is equal to the distribution of energy consumption. Therefore, the first step is the registration and mapping of energy consumption. Data about the consumption of the most important types of energy such as coal, fuel oil, gas, electricity etc. are available only partially and on the level of administrative units which are considerably larger than the grid size. Therefore, models were developed which allow to determine energy consumption on the commune and grid level with the help of local structural data like the distribution of population, households, traffic etc. The second step to be taken is the transformation of energy of energy consumption into waste heat emissions categorized in terms of the components convection, radiation, latent heat and discharge of heated water. Energy consumption and waste heat were determined separately for the various sectors of economy. Large sources in the industrial and energy supply sectors were analyzed individually by questionnaires. The results obtained with foresaid methods in the districts of Rastatt and Baden-Baden and in the township of Karlsruhe are presented. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  10. Agreements concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany under international law in the field of environmental protection. Annex: Treaties with the GDR. (Source index in the Federal Law Gazette, part II). (As of September 15, 1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1987-01-01

    This compilation contains all agreements under international law in the field of environmental protection, the FRG has joined and that have been published and/or announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. The summary is of September 15, 1987. The classification is made according to the subjects: waste management law, pollution abatement law, nuclear law and energy and mining law and within these according to the date of treaty/agreement. For easier access, there are a chronological index, an index of the contracting states and an index of the places of contract. In the annex the relevant treaties with the German Democratic Republic are indicated. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Autopsy issues in German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole.

  12. About the 'scientification' of politics by way of scientific expertise by advisory bodies. Social science expertise and desicion-making in social problem areas in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1985-01-01

    Taking the examples of the Council of Economic Advisors, the Education Council and the Federal Parliament's Commission of Inquiry on Future Nuclear Energy Policy, this paper analyses political situations in the Federal Republic of Germany in which social science expertise entered public debate and decision-making in certain social problem areas in a very pronounced way. By considering the social context in which these advisory bodies were created, an attempt is made to link an analysis of different social actors' interests to a review of existing knowledge and patterns of interpretation in the social sciences. It is shown that by using social science findings some actors achieved advantages in justifying and legitimating their political positions and that subsequently the relations of actors in some arenas of conflict changed-without, however, allowing to relate this causally only to the use of scientific knowledge. If, however, the use of scientific arguments is rapidly generalized, the confrontation of expertise and counter-expertise by opposing actors becomes usual practice. This, in turn, provides for questions concerning their 'scientificity', which the social sciences are asked to take up in reflections of their relation to social practice. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Measurement and analysis of environmental exposure factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86. 1. environmental survey. Vol. 3c. Indoor situation in homes: Indoor air. Description of VOC in the indoor air of the Federal Republic of Germany; Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86. 1. Umwelt-Survey. Bd. 3c. Wohn-Innenraum: Raumluft. Deskription fluechtiger organischer Verbindungen in der Raumluft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Chutsch, M.; Henke, M.; Huber, M.; Kliem, C.; Leiske, M.; Mailahn, M.; Schulz, C.; Schwarz, E.; Seifert, B.; Ullrich, D.

    1992-05-01

    This volume is based upon the data of the research project ``Environment and Health - Measurement and Analysis of Environmental Exposure Factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86`` (1st Environment Survey). These data were established for a representative sample of n=2731 cases selected by age, sex, and community size. It constitutes part C of the third report volume and contains the description of the concentrations of a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in indoor air from households of the general population of the Federal Republic of Germany (sub-sample). Function and objectives of this third part of evaluated data are to give, as far as possible, a precise assessment of the exposure to VOC in households among the general population of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1985/86. This is to gie interested persons an orientation and a classifying survey of laboratory results to be evaluatd. In this sense, the estimated distributions of the measured concentrations are presented for the entire population as well as for the below menioned subpopulations classified by outdoor temperatures, community size, type of region, number of persons in industrial jobs in the urban/rural area, building density, year of construction of the house, floor area of home, type of heating, type of fuel, number of persons in household, children (below 14 years) in household, smokers in household, age of floor covering, age of wall coating, age of furniture, new painting/wall-paper/furniture in recent months, presence of chipboard on walls/floor, furniture from chipboard (in the case of formaldehyde only), use of insecticides, room fresheners/deodorants in toilet and of cleansing agents/disinfectants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Berichtsband basiert auf den Daten der Studie ``Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86 - Umwelt und Gesundheit`` (1. Umwelt-Survey), der eine nach Alter, Geschlecht und

  14. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Halbjahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-09-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  15. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2017; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Halbjahr 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-09-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: sales and foreign trade. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, refinement, employees; part II: sales in domestic and foreign trade.

  16. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Halbjahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-08-28

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  17. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2017; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Januar bis September 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-12-04

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2017.

  18. Institutional Premises of Social Partnership Between Managers and Employees Under the Conditions of Socially-oriented Market Economy of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Marinova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers basic principles of socially-oriented economy according to L. Erhard's model applied in Germany after World War II. It provides the analysis of their advantages and disadvantages, outlines the main subjects of economic relations and specifies the ways to implement the principles of socially-oriented market economy.

  19. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Januar bis September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-16

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2016.

  20. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Januar bis September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-30

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2015.

  1. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2014; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Januar bis September 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-12

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2014.

  2. West Germany: Federal Structure, Political Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Alex

    1978-01-01

    Describes the organizational structure of the broadcasting industry in West Germany which is unique because of the federal, public, and political elements involved. Special problems that arise from this framework are discussed, including financing, programing, creative vs technical advances, concepts of production values, and political balance.…

  3. The materials programme for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany: Status of the development of high-temperature materials, integrity concept, and design codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.; Bodmann, E.; Seehafer, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    During the last 15 years, the research and development of materials for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) applications in the Federal Republic of Germany have been concentrated on the qualification of high-temperature structural alloys. Such materials are required for heat exchanger components of advanced HTGRs supplying nuclear process heat in the temperature range between 750 deg. and 950 deg. C. The suitability of the candidate alloys for service in the HTGR has been established, and continuing research is aimed at verification of the integrity of components over the envisaged service lifetimes. The special features of the HTGR which provide a high degree of safety are the use of ceramics for the core construction and the low power density of the core. The reactor integrity concept which has been developed is based on these two characteristics. Previously, technical guidelines and design codes for nuclear plants were tailored exclusively to light water reactor systems. An extensive research project was therefore initiated which led to the formulation of the basic principles on which a high temperature design code can be based. (author)

  4. Die Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Medizin in Köln und Bonn – Zentrale Fachbibliothek und Infrastruktureinrichtung für die Forschung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland / The German National Library of Medicine in Cologne and Bonn – National Library and Infrastructure Organisation for Research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korwitz, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The German National Library of Medicine (ZB MED is the National Library for Medicine, Health, Nutrition, Environment and Agriculture in the Federal Republic of Germany. Founded 40 years ago, the library developed from a document supplier on the basis of its comprehensive collection to an infrastructure organisation especially for scientific users. Today, the emphasis is put – besides collection management and document delivery – on modern information services, Open Access Publishing and innovative projects.

  5. The text of the agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities has been suspended

  6. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany; Texto Del Acuerdo De 26 De Febrero De 1976 Entre El Organismo, El Brasil Y La Republica Federal De Alemania Para La Aplicacion De Salvaguardias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-27

    The text of the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [Spanish] Para informacion de todos los Estados Miembros, en el presente documento se transcribe el texto del Acuerdo de 26 de febrero de 1976 concertado entre el Organismo, el Brasil y la Republica Federal de Alemania en relacion con el Acuerdo de 27 de junio de 1975 entre los dos Gobiernos relativo a la cooperacion en la esfera de los usos pacificos de la energia nuclear.

  7. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  8. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  9. Long-term planning frame of controlled fusion research in the Federal Republic of Germany and within the scope of EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Current R and D activities in the field of controlled nuclear fusion are investigating physics and technological problems rather than economic efficiency aspects of future fusion reactor systems. The report in hand compares the long-term plans and programmes set up on the European level with other countries' programmes, explains the international cooperative framework and activities, and goes into details of the Federal German research programme. Aspects of safety and environmental impacts are discussed. (HP) [de

  10. Gas supplies from EC member states to customers in the Federal Republic of Germany; Gaslieferungen aus EG-Mitgliedstaaten an Abnehmer in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukes, R. [Forschungsstelle Recht und Technik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    After implementation of the EU Internal Gas Market Directive in Germany, marketers from EU member states are increasingly interested in entering the German natural gas market. In addition to the legal and competition aspects arising analogous to the internal market in electrity, as e.g. third party access to pipelines, management of physical transactions and use-of-pipeline pricing, natural gas trading of suppliers from EU member states in the German market has to be reviewed also from the angle of section 3 of the EnWG (German act for reform of the energy industry law), in which provisions are set forth governing and defining the case of energy supply to third parties, marketers being obliged to apply for a licence. The legal requirements and the various aspects to be considered are explained in detail. (Orig./CB) [German] Nach Ablauf der Umsetzungsfrist der Gas-Binnenmarktrichtlinie interessieren sich nunmehr auch GVU aus anderen Mitgliedstaaten fuer Gaslieferungen an Abnehmer in der Bundesrepublik. Allerdings tritt neben den beim Strom schon haeufig eroerterten Problemen von Netzzugang, Leitungskapazitaet, Nutzungsentgelt usw. die Frage auf, ob Gasversorgungsunternehmen (GVU) aus anderen Mitgliedstaaten bei Gaslieferungen an Abnehmer in der Bundesrepublik eine Energieversorgung anderer aufnehmen und deshalb der behoerdlichen Genehmigung nach Paragraph 3 EnWG beduerfen. Die Rechtslage wird analysiert. (orig./CB)

  11. Merger control in the energy sector. An empirical investigation for the Federal Republic of Germany; Fusionskontrolle in der leitungsgebundenen Energiewirtschaft. Eine empirische Untersuchung fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauk, Martina Margret

    2008-11-06

    In 1998, EU legislation initiated a liberalisation process among European energy markets. The process of market opening has significantly changed the functioning of the markets and the competition conditions of the energy sector. At the same time, the industry witnessed a surge of mergers and far-reaching changes in the structure of German electricity and natural gas markets occurred. Against this background, the doctoral thesis at hand surveys the merger activities in the energy sector as well as the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office during the first years of liberalisation. The study starts with a portrayal of the institutional framework of the German merger control regime and a survey of the relevant economic literature on horizontal and vertical mergers. Subsequent to the legal and theoretical considerations, the merger activities and the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office are investigated empirically. The data set is based on information taken from merger control files at the archive of the Federal Cartel Office in Bonn. It contains information on more than 250 merger cases and appendant decisions in the German natural gas and electricity sector put before the Federal Cartel Office between 1999 and 2003. In order to perform a statistical analysis, the information contained in the written decisions is transformed into variables. The data set is complemented by information on electricity and gas networks taken from external data sources. The empirical part of the study is divided into two parts: The aim of the first part is to investigate the integration strategies of energy utilities with respect to basic characteristics of the firms involved as well as structural factors of the markets affected by the respective mergers. In the descriptive section, key patterns of the integration strategies of the energy utilities can be identified. The results of the discrete choice analysis show that in addition to firm size of

  12. Merger control in the energy sector. An empirical investigation for the Federal Republic of Germany; Fusionskontrolle in der leitungsgebundenen Energiewirtschaft. Eine empirische Untersuchung fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauk, Martina Margret

    2008-11-06

    In 1998, EU legislation initiated a liberalisation process among European energy markets. The process of market opening has significantly changed the functioning of the markets and the competition conditions of the energy sector. At the same time, the industry witnessed a surge of mergers and far-reaching changes in the structure of German electricity and natural gas markets occurred. Against this background, the doctoral thesis at hand surveys the merger activities in the energy sector as well as the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office during the first years of liberalisation. The study starts with a portrayal of the institutional framework of the German merger control regime and a survey of the relevant economic literature on horizontal and vertical mergers. Subsequent to the legal and theoretical considerations, the merger activities and the merger control policy of the German Federal Cartel Office are investigated empirically. The data set is based on information taken from merger control files at the archive of the Federal Cartel Office in Bonn. It contains information on more than 250 merger cases and appendant decisions in the German natural gas and electricity sector put before the Federal Cartel Office between 1999 and 2003. In order to perform a statistical analysis, the information contained in the written decisions is transformed into variables. The data set is complemented by information on electricity and gas networks taken from external data sources. The empirical part of the study is divided into two parts: The aim of the first part is to investigate the integration strategies of energy utilities with respect to basic characteristics of the firms involved as well as structural factors of the markets affected by the respective mergers. In the descriptive section, key patterns of the integration strategies of the energy utilities can be identified. The results of the discrete choice analysis show that in addition to firm size of

  13. Survey of special events recorded in nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany in the first quarter of 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    50 special events were reported in the old Federal States, 47 of them belonged to the reporting category N (normal notification), three to the reporting category E (immediate notification). According to the international evluation scale (INES = International Nuclear Events Scale) five of those events fell under INES category 1, the rest under category 0. The Greifswald nuclear power plant reported three events of category AE-3 (lowest category) at KGR-5. There was no release of radioactivity involved in these incidents, and there were no effects on man or the environment reported. (HP) [de

  14. Compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Endrulat, H.J.; Haubelt, R.; Westpfahl, U.

    1976-04-01

    The present compilation of data on the release of radioactive substances in the vent air of nuclear power plants in the FRG is a continuation of a report series on aerosol filter and iodine filter samples from the exhaust air control systems of the nuclear power plants Gundremmingen, Obrigheim, Wuergassen, Stade, Lingen and Biblis A. The reports have been issued by the Federal public health office since 1972. This report is supplemented by annual release values on radioactive noble gases, on short- and long-lived aerosols, and on gaseous 131 I, supplied by the individual nuclear power plants as in previous years on uniform questionnaires. Data on the release of tritium are also available from some nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  15. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority that issued the tax act, though in some cases to a higher tax authority. This obligatory procedure was borrowed by the Russian tax system. The trial stage of tax dispute settlement in Germany is carried out by specialized courts, forming a two-level system for legal proceedings. Thus, the tax dispute submitted to the Court is settled first by the financial lands courts and then by the higher Federal Financial Court. However, the Federal Financial Court takes into consideration only certain categories of actions listed in the Act (the Regulations of finance courts (Finanzgerichtordnung. In Russia appeals of administrative review of tax conflicts, unlike in the German system, are handled by arbitration and general jurisdiction courts. The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation is the supreme judicial body for settling economic disputes and other cases considered by arbitration courts in implementing federal procedural judicial supervision over their activities and provides explanations regarding judicial practices. Arbitration courts established at the level of the Federation to resolve disputes involving commercial entities, e.g. enterprises and entrepreneurs, resolve the bulk of tax disputes. These courts are composed of specially created panels of judges known as bars, i.e. groups of judges who specialize in reviewing taxation cases.

  16. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Minister for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    Investigations on the safety of light water reactors (LWR) being performed in the framework of his research program on reactor safety are sponsored by the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) (Federal Minister for Research and Technology). Objective of this program is to investigate in greater detail the safety margins of nuclear power plants and their systems and the further development of safety technology. Besides the investigations of LWR tasks also projects on the safety of advanced reactors are sponsored by the BMFT. The Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), (Society for Reactor Safety), by order of the BMFT, informs continuously of the status of such investigations by means of semi-annual and annual publication of progress reports within the series GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about objectives, the work performed, the results, the next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the contractors themselves as a documentation of their progress in work and published by the Forschungsbetreuung at the GRS, (FB) (Research Coordination Department), within the framework of general informations of progress in reactor safety research. The individual reports are classified according to the same classification system as applied in the nuclear index of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities) and the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. (orig./HP)

  17. Annual report on Reactor Safety Research Projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 1999. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to the classification system ''Joint Safety Research Index'' of the CEC (commission of the European communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear energy information in the Federal Republic of Germany (and the establishment of a dialogue between the public and government authorities)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, M.; Lang, K.

    1977-01-01

    During the past years the public debate on nuclear energy has grown in importance. Events such as the occupation of a power plant construction site and many discussions in the press media have led to a broadly based interest in the questions related to nuclear energy utilization. In 1975, the Federal Government launched a special nuclear energy information programme. Its main effort was to establish a dialogue between the public and government authorities. In several advertisements, the public was asked to participate in this dialogue by applying for a pocket book prepared by the government or for a direct discussion. Discussions on general questions were held with a large number of participants and many seminars were organized allowing for a more detailed discussion of special items among a limited number of people. The scope of the discussions was not limited to the environmental and safety aspects of nuclear energy. It was also the government's incentive to illustrate the need for nuclear energy and its role in an overall energy stratey. With all political parties represented in the parliament supporting the utilization of nuclear energy and power plant construction and planning going ahead on the basis of the government's energy programme, the dialogue was meant to provide a basis for a more broadly based conciousness of the problems and advantages of nuclear energy. The government's information effort has met with great interest. Until mid-1976, appr. 50000 people had responded to the government's initiative

  19. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2005. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  20. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Labour of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2004. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  1. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Labour of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2004. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  2. Annual report on reactor safety research projects sponsored by the Ministry of Economics and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reporting period 2007. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Within its competence for energy research the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) sponsors research projects on the safety of nuclear power plants currently in operation. The objective of these projects is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such research projects by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work. The progress reports are published by the Research Management Division of GRS. The reports as of the year 2000 are available in the Internet-based information system on results and data of reactor safety research (http://www.grs-fbw.de). The compilation of the reports is classified according to the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index (JSRI)'. The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  3. Availability of nuclear fuels: an aspect of supply assurance. [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinski, U; Ziesing, H J [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (F.R. Germany)

    1976-08-01

    The future supply possibilities for the Federal Republic of Germany with nuclear fuel are investigated by the German Institute for Economy Research in an expertise on 'the safety, price and environmental aspects in the energy supply'. The requirements of natural uranium in the Federal Republic of Germany are dealt with, as well as the world-wide assured and probable deposits of natural uranium in relation to the extraction costs. After indicating the restrictive changes in the export policy of the supplying countries, the international and national state of development of recycling is shown.

  4. Federal Republic of Germany, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    toes, and sugar beets. Raising livestock, largely for milk and meat, more important than cropping. Country about 70 percent self- sufficient in foods ...ministries of economics and of food , agriculture, and forests. The FDP lost the powerful ministry of the interior, however. Friedrich Zimmer- man, a...34........................... PALATINATE S k 9:: ANSCAAACH LO RAIN 9 41, - - ( I ) WORTTEMBiRG L 0SUNDGA . .......... .. ............ 0 FRANCHE ::::::::::::. S w I S C 0 N F E D E R A T

  5. Selection statements of the Federal Government of Germany of the 8th legislative period. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, G.

    1980-02-01

    This selection of opinions of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany covers the total fuel circuit. It is classified in a lucid index and the complete texts of the questioning of the Bundestag and the answers given by the Federal Government. Questions and answers are put directly one after the other to obtain a better view. (Publications of the Bundestag and plenary minutes). (HP) [de

  6. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for Co-Operation in the Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Contract of 13 August 1976 concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union GmbH (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Section 26, on 22 July 1977.

  7. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for Co-Operation in the Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-11-30

    The text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Contract of 13 August 1976 concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union GmbH (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Section 26, on 22 July 1977.

  8. Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS. Report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the seventh review conference in March/April 2017; Uebereinkommen ueber nukleare Sicherheit. Bericht der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Siebte Ueberpruefungstagung im Maerz/April 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-22

    The CNS (Convention on Nuclear Safety) report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the seventh review conference in March/April 2017 covers the following topics: Summary of the most important results since the sixth review conference: existing nuclear facilities, frame for legislation and execution, licensing system, regulatory authority, governmental organizations, responsibility of the licensee, priority of safety, financing and personnel, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment, radiation protection, emergency preparedness, site selection for nuclear facilities, design and construction, operation.

  9. Approaches to the final storage of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany. Will responsibility be shifted to future generations?; Wege zur Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Wird die Verantwortung auf zukuenftige Generationen verschoben?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomauske, B. [Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Power GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    With respect to the management of high-level radioactive waste in Germany, there is agreement on these premises: - The waste is to be stored permanently in the Federal Republic of Germany. - A repository is to be operational by 2030. - Final storage is to be achieved in geologic formations. Differences of opinion exist about these questions: - Should there be only one repository for all types of radioactive waste, or would a breakdown into waste generating heat and waste generating only negligible amounts of heat in different repositories be useful under aspects of safety and requirement? - Will a new site selection procedure be required in an effort to find a suitable site, and would such a selection procedure be able to meet the deadline of 2030 for an operational repository? - After the end of legal proceedings, should the Konrad repository be revamped for waste generating negligible amounts of heat? The analysis presented shows that an operational repository for waste generating heat can be made available only in connection with continued exploration work at Gorleben and demonstration of the suitability of that site and subsequent construction of the repository. If the search for a repository site were started from scratch, the date of commissioning such a facility would be after 2050. In this way, that approach would miss the purpose of not shifting the waste management issue to future generations. Acting responsibly means to build the Konrad repository speedily after completion of the legal proceedings about a permit and, in this way, avoid the addition of more interim stores for waste generating negligible amounts of heat. Further exploration of Gorleben is the way agreed upon and necessary for the creation of a repository for high-level radioactive waste generating heat by 2030. For this purpose, the 'points of doubt' must be resolved speedily. (orig.) [German] Im Hinblick auf die Entsorgung hochradioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland besteht

  10. Disposal of Radioactive Waste in the Subsurface of the Federal Republic of Germany: Geological and Hydro-Geological Problems; Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs dans le Sous-Sol de la Republique Federale d'Allemagne: Problemes Geologiques et Hydrogeologiques; 041f 041e 0414 ; Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en el Subsuelo de la Republica Federal de Alemania Problemas Geologicos e Hidrogeologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.; Richter, W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1960-07-01

    The geological and hydrogeological problems related to the subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany are outlined. Special consideration is given to the possibility of storing solid and liquid wastes in the salt-domes widespread in the north-west, and of injecting liquid waste into deep reservoirs containing briny water and located in favourable geologic structures. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent les problemes geologiques et hydrogeologiques que pose, dans la Republique federale d'Allemagne, l'elimination des dechets radioactifs dans le sous-sol. Ils examinent notamment la possibilite d'emmagasiner des dechets solides et liquides dans les salines, qui abondent dans la partie nord-ouest et d'injecter des dechets liquides dans de profonds reservoirs d'eau saline, situes dans des formations geologiques presentant des conditions favorables. (author) [Spanish] Los autores exponen los problemas geologicos e hidrogeologicos que plantea la evacuacion de desechos radiactivos en el subsuelo de la Republica Federal de Alemania. Examinan sobre todo la posibilidad de almacenar desechos solidos y liquidos en los domos de sal, muy abundantes en el noroeste del pais, y de inyectar desechos liquidos en depositos profundos de agua salobre situados en estructuras geologicas que presentan condiciones favorables. (author) [Russian] Privoditsja opisanie geologicheskih i gidrogeologicheskih problem, svjazannyh s podzemnym udaleniem radioaktivnyh othodov v Federal'noj Respublike Germanii. Osoboe vnimanie udeljaetsja vozmozhnosti skladirovanija tverdyh i zhidkih othodov v soljanyh kupolah, imejushhihsja v bol'shom kolichestve v severo- zapadnoj chasti Germanii, i zahoronenija zhidkih othodov v glubokie rezervuary, soderzhashhie solenye vody i raspolozhennye v podhodjashhih geologicheskih strukturah. (author)

  11. 'Penetrated system' or 'normal' state? An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The 'maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a 'normal' state

  12. Penetrated system' or normal' state An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a normal' state.

  13. Convention on nuclear safety report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the second extraordinary meeting in August 2012; Uebereinkommen ueber nukleare Sicherheit. Bericht der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Zweite ausserordentliche Tagung im August 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-25

    The nuclear consequences of the earthquake disaster in Japan represent a profound change for the peaceful use of nuclear power, also in Germany. In the light of these events, the German Federal Government, together with the Prime Ministers of the Laender in which NPPs are operated had reviewed the safety of all German NPPs by the German Reactor Safety Commission in close collaboration with the competent nuclear regulatory authorities of the Laender and, through an Ethics Commission on ''Secure Energy Supply'', also started a dialogue among the German society on the risks involved in the use of nuclear power and on the possibility of an accelerated transition to the age of renewable energies. Taking into account the results of the Reactor Safety Commission and the Ethics Commission on ''Secure Energy Supply'' as well as the absolute priority of nuclear safety, the Federal Government decided to terminate the use of nuclear power at the earliest possible date. The amendments in the Atomic Energy Act that went into force in August 2011 induce the progressive abandonment of electricity generation by NPPs in Germany by the end of 2022 at the latest. Germany took an active part in the assessment of the robustness of the NPPs in Europe (EU stress test) under the leadership of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG). The results of these reviews show that the German plants partly have considerable safety margins and that additional precautionary measures have been taken in order to prevent (preventive measures) or limit (mitigative measures) the effects of the beyond-design-basis events considered in the reviews. Based on the results of the plant-specific reviews, the RSK has derived first recommendations for further examinations. Some plant-specific improvement measures are already in implementation or planned. The results of the EU stress test will be taken into account in future RSK recommendations. On behalf of the

  14. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Texto del Acuerdo Concertado Entre Belgica, Dinamarca, La Republica Federal De Alemania, Irlanda, Italia, Luxemburgo, Los Paises Bajos, La Comunidad Europea De Energia Ato Mica Y El Organismo En Relacion Con El Tratado Sobre La No Proliferacion De Las Armas Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-14

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [Spanish] Para informacion de todos los Estados Miembros, en el presente documento se transcribe el texto del Acuerdo concertado entre Belgica, Dinamarca, la Republica Federal de Alemania, Irlanda, Italia, Luxemburgo, los Paises Bajos, la Comunidad Europea de Energia Atomica y el Organismo en ejecucion de lo dispuesto en los parrafos 1 y 4 del articulo III del Tratado sobre la no proliferacion de las armas nucleares, asi como el del Protocolo que acompana a dicho Acuerdo.

  15. Availability of nuclear fuels: one aspect of the reliability of supply. [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinski, U; Ziesing, H J [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (F.R. Germany)

    1976-09-01

    In connection with the future supply of nuclear fuels to the Federal Republic of Germany the authors discuss the problems which arise. They describe the future development of the demand for natural uranium and the work involved in separation and deal with the possibilities of meeting the demand. They pay particular attention to the changed market situation and to the policies of the countries which produce uranium. The article is a detailed examination of the report by the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW) on aspects of the reliability of supply to the electricity supply industry in the Federal Republic of Germany, which was prepared under the aegis of the Bavarian Ministry for Economic and Transport. This investigation will be published, omitting the regional aspects, towards the middle of 1976, by the German Institute for Economic Research under the title 'Reliability, price and environmental protection aspects of energy supply'.

  16. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  17. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [fr

  18. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  19. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  20. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  1. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  2. The text of the agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. The Agreement and the Protocol thereto, which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories on 21 February 1977, have also entered into force for Austria, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  3. Site-specific cultivation systems for energy plants. Results of the joint project ''Development and comparison of optimized cultivation systems for the agricultural production of energy plants at different site-specific conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany, EVA I''. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Standortangepasste Anbausysteme fuer Energiepflanzen. Ergebnisse des Verbundprojektes ''Entwicklung und Vergleich von optimierten Anbausystemen fuer die landwirtschaftliche Produktion von Energiepflanzen unter den verschiedenen Standortbedingungen Deutschlands, EVA I''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    With respect to the estimations of the Agency for Renewable Ressources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany), nearly 2 millions ha of the area of arable land in Germany were used for the production of renewable raw materials in the last years. The production of vegetable energy sources only was limited on few cultural species. This led to criticism by organisations of nature protection and environmental protection. The joint project 'Development and comparison of optimized cultivation system for the agricultural production of energy plants at different site specific conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany' was one of the most extensive national agrarian research projects of the past years. This joint project offers practice-relevant knowledge to efficient and sustainable cultivation systems of energy plants. The brochure under consideration reports on the results of the first project phase of this joint project.

  4. Draft of a Federal Mining Law (BBergG). [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Standardization and rearrangement is proposed for all the mining laws in the Federal Republic of Germany, especially of the regulations concerning prospecting and mining of natural resources. The draft provides; 1) creation of a modern, elastic system of concessions for particularly important natural resources withdrawn from the landed property; smoothing of the existing system of mineral rights; 2) development of the instruments of mining law adapted to the special requirements of mining natural resources in view of preventive and current control of the operation and its supervision; 3) first-time authorizations for federal safety and labor protection decrees; 4) reformation of the relationship with the employer's liability insurances and, resulting therefrom, improvement of the accident prevention measures; 5) stronger embodiment of damage-preventing measures in mining-damage law; improvement of the extent of liability and the protection of those damaged; 6) accounting for related new engineering developments (underground tankless storage); 7) final regulation for prospecting and mining of natural resources in the range of the continental shelf; 8) relief of mining law from alien legal matters as well as liquidation of antiquated institutes of mining law.

  5. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic Of Germany) for Co-Operation in The Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994 [es

  6. Possibilities and restrictions of wind energy use in one federal state in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltschmitt, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a current political topic, the request for increasing use of wind energy. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate this call in more detail in some parts of the Federal Republic of Germany by analyzing possibilities, restrictions, and production costs of electricity generation from wind energy in Baden-Wurttemberg, an inland state in the southwest of Germany. Based on zones with similar average wind velocities, the theoretical potential to install converters is assessed for each municipality, considering among other things residential areas, highways, roads, rivers, and nature conservation areas as not usable territories. The result is a technical area potential suitable for the installation of wind energy converters. Based on this area potential, a methodological approach is presented that allows the definition and the analysis of strategies of a wind energy use on a high spatial and timely resolution

  7. The text of the agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. On 18 September 1995 the Agency received in respect of the European Atomic Energy Community and Finland the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. For practical accounting purposes as proposed in the notifications, the Agreement came into force for Finland on 1 October 1995

  8. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Hungary and Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. The Agreement and the Protocol thereto, which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories on 21 February 1977, have also entered into force for Austria, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden

  9. Low disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations of the Federal Republic of Germaany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.

    1980-01-01

    The salt formations of northern Europe are generally suitable for the storage of radioactive wastes because the region is largely free from earthquakes and the salt formations known as diapires provide effective hydrological sealing. The Federal Republic of Germany employed the Asse Salt Mine of Lower Saxony for research in waste storage. More recently, exploratory work has begun on the construction of a large recycling and disposal plant at the Gorleben salt dome. The geology, hydrology, rock mechanics, and seismicity of the two sites are briefly discussed, including a discussion of experiences gained so far from the Asse site. 11 refs

  10. Notifiable events in systems for fission of nuclear fuels - nuclear power plants and research reactors with maximum output exceeding 50 kW of thermal normal rating - in the Federal Republic of Germany. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter of 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    There were 32 notifiable events in nuclear power plants in Germany in the second quarter of 1996. The report lists and characterises all the 32 events notified in the reporting period. The events did not involve any radioactivity release exceeding the maximum permissible limits during this period, so that there were no radiation hazards to the population or the environment. One event was classified at level 1 of the INES event scale (Anomaly). Research reactor operators in Germany reported 5 notifiable events in the reporting period. The report lists and characterises these events. These events did not involve any radioactivity release exceeding the maximum permissible limits during this period, so that there were no radiation hazards to the population or the environment. All events notified were classified into the lowest categories of safety significance of the official event scales (N, or below scale). (orig./DG) [de

  11. Support for Separatism in Ethnic Republics of the Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagendoorn, Louk; Poppe, Edwin; Minescu, Anca

    2008-01-01

    This study examines popular support for separatism among Russians and non-Russian titular nationalities (titulars) in 10 ethnic republics of the Russian Federation: Karelia, Komi, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, Adygea, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Sakha-Yakutia and Tuva. A survey was carried

  12. 78 FR 22765 - Presidential Determination on Eligibility of the Federal Republic of Somalia To Receive Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... April 8, 2013 Presidential Determination on Eligibility of the Federal Republic of Somalia To Receive... find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Federal Republic of Somalia...

  13. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ...)] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia that are alleged to be sold in the United States at less than fair value. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to...

  14. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This report is an assessment of the status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia'sfinancial accountability at June 2002. This first CFAA for the FRY focuses on the most critical issues in the near-to-medium term. In this context, the CFAA concentrates on public sector accountability and on fiduciary arrangements for Bank-financed projects, with a limited review of private sector accounting...

  15. Quality control in nuclear medicine. Addendum to 'Quality assurance in nuclear medicine', World Health Organization, 1982. Following a training workshop in Neuherberg, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, November 23-30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cradduck, T.D.; Busemann Sokole, E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the results of a workshop, sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI) and the World Health Organization (WHO), held in Neuherberg, Munich, 1983, a revised concept of quality control (QC) in nuclear medicine is proposed. In a previous document published by the WHO in 1982, a set of rigorous daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and half-quarterly QC protocols was recommended. The revised concept suggested by the 1983 workshop participants is that of a simple, total system, QC test that can be applied on a frequent, probably daily, basis. Any deviation of the results of such a test from the accepted norm will require further investigation and decision trees can then be applied to localize faults

  16. Environmental survey. Vol. 1. Description of the study and biological monitoring in humans. Description of the trace element content in blood, urine and hair of the population in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86; Umwelt-Survey. Bd. 1. Studienbeschreibung und humanbiologisches Monitoring. Deskription der Spurenelementgehalte in Blut, Urin und Haar der Bevoelkerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Chutsch, M.; Henke, M.; Huber, M.; Kliem, C.; Schulz, C.; Schwarz, E.

    1989-09-01

    This volume contains a description of studies under the research project entitled `Environment and Health - Measurement and Analysis of Environmental Exposure Factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86` (Environmental Survey), as well as a description of concentrations of a number of elements and some compounds in blood, urine and hair. This description represents the first of five parts of the analysis of the entire data base. The aim of this analysis was to give, as far as possible, a precise assessment of the corporal exposure to pollutants of the general population in Germany. The estimated distribution of the concentrations calculated for the study population, as well as for subpopulations classified by age, sex, community size, land, smoking habits and the consumption of fish. The descriptive part is divided by the 3 types of sample material such as blood, (morning) urine and hair. Within these groups, all analyzed elements and compounds (Al, As, Ba, Pb, B, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, P, Hg, Sr, Zn, creatinine, cotinine and PCP) are reported separately. A short characterization is followed by thetables giving the estimated statistical parameters such as percentile values (10, 50, 90, 95 and 98), maximum value, geometric (GM) and arithmetic (AM) mean, the standard error of AM and the sample standard deviation. Additionally, the measurements are represented in the form of histograms and scatterdiagrams. (orig./MG) With 66 figs., 167 tabs., 11 attachments. [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Berichtsband enthaelt zum einen die Studienbeschreibung des Forschungsvorhabens `Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86 - Umwelt und Gesundheit` (Umwelt-Survey) und zum anderen die Deskription der Gehalte zahlreicher Elemente und einiger Verbindungen in Blut, Urin und Haar. Die vorliegende Deskription stellt den ersten von insgesamt fuenf Auswertungsteilen des gesamten Datensatzes dar. Funktion und Zielsetzung dieses ersten

  17. The punishment of gene doping - The relation between WADA prohibited lists, German Medicinal Products Act, German Doping Agents Amounts Ordinance, and Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzeller, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The genetic constitution of athletes influences efficiency. Knowledge of genetic influences provides an opportunity for medical diagnostic and therapeutic attempts. Beside risks and therapeutic aspects, however, the possibilities of abuse for gene doping purposes in sports also exist. Genetic screening or gene therapy may have an advantage for athletes who use these methods. In juridical comments, it is pointed out that gene doping so far plays no role in sports, but that the legislator must consider a development in this area. Preventing abuse requires legal regulations. These regulations can include sanctions. This paper deals with the gene doping prohibition of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as confirmed and accepted by the monitoring group according to Articles 10 and 11 of the European Anti-Doping Convention by the Council of Europe, the prohibition of (gene) doping in sports of the German Medicinal Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz - AMG) and the German Doping Agents Amounts Ordinance (Dopingmittel-Mengen-Verordnung-DmMV) of the German Federal Ministry of Health (BMG). The comprehensibility of the doping ban on the norm addressee was tested with a questionnaire. In connection with legal regulations of the German constitution, gene doping is discussed and problems which may arise by a state doping prohibition are pointed out. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Agency received from the Czech Republic on 18 May 2009 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2009, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for the Czech Republic on 1 October 2009 [es

  19. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Czech Republic on 18 May 2009 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2009, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for the Czech Republic on 1 October 2009 [fr

  20. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Czech Republic on 18 May 2009 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2009, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for the Czech Republic on 1 October 2009

  1. Was the hazard regulation really necessary. [Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyhaupt, F J

    1981-01-01

    The BImSchG (German Code) did not expressively require the passing of the hazard regulation. On the basis of comparative data for the danger of death and on the basis of quotations of representatives of different groups of society, the necessity of this regulation is accepted not only out of ethic motivations, but also out of occupational responsibility.

  2. Measuring program of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, K.; Hille, R.

    1993-05-01

    21 scientists and engineers conducted environmental measurement and determined the contamination of soil and foodstuff. Samples of food of the population were measured received and the results were given in a certificate with short explanation in the native language. In 3 appendices of this report all results are given in detail. They are discussed in the way of local mean values. In regard to one year earlier the external dosis and the soil contaminations are nearly constant. But the milk contaminations decreased significantly. (orig.) [de

  3. Environmental policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonis, U.E.

    1991-12-31

    After a short description of the basic aims of environmental policy the general development of environmental policy in the FRG is gone into. Here above all the sectors air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and waste materials are dealt with. Finally the most important elements of the decision-making processes are explained and a short history of environmental policy in the FRG is given. (UA). [Deutsch] Nach einer kurzen Erlaeuterung der Grundziele der Umweltpolitik wird in kurzer Form auf die allgemeine Entwicklung der Umweltpolitik in der BRD eingegangen. Dabei werden insbesondere die Bereiche Luftverschmutzung, Wasserverschmutzung, Laermbelaestigung und Abfallmaterialien behandelt. Abschliessend werden die wichtigsten Grundzuege des Entscheidungs-Findungs-Prozesses erlaeutert, und es wird die historische Entwicklung der Umweltpolitik in der BRD skizziert. (UA).

  4. Supply of the Federal Republic of Germany with enriched uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oboussier, F [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Supply Agency

    1976-08-01

    After giving a short historical background of past policies concerning uranium supply (policies which were mainly in the hands of the USAEC), the essential characteristics of the enrichment agreements with ERDA, URENCO, EURODIF, and the USSR are explained. A comparison is made difficult by completely different conditions. New side issues (the latest estimates on the development of electricity demand, delays in the licensing of nuclear power plants, etc.) lead to the assumption that demand will exceed supply by 1985/86, which means that the construction of new separation plants will be necessary.

  5. Decommissioning plans and program in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loschhorn, U.

    1988-01-01

    Seven reactors of different types are currently being decommissioned or plans are being drawn up to do so. The Niederaichbach reactor will be completely dismantled (stage 3) and returned to a green field site within five years. Other reactors will be decommissioned to stage 2. The progress on these projects is summarized. Research and development of decommissioning techniques and tools for decontamination concrete blasting, pipe cutting, remotely controlled manipulators and melting of steel scrap, are described. (author)

  6. IGBP research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetkemeier, S.; Bolle, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) has taken on definite shape and represents a remarkable stimulus for the international scientific community. The goals of IGBP have been defined by the scientific community bearing in mind the deficits which exist in our knowledge of the System Earth with its physical, chemical and biological components. IGBP has limited the scope of this research programme to a time scale of less than a few centuries and excluded the study of processes evolving over long time scales such as the continental drift, geological developments and changes in the Earth's orbital parameters. Thus, IGBP focuses on basic research which both builds upon and attempts to integrate projects and activities already underway when IGBP was founded. This report summarizes German contributions to IGBP. Due to the complex, multi-level structure of science funding, the following report may fail to list every single contribution to the different research activities of IGBP or provide sufficient information to scientists of other countries with a view to prospective partnerships. In this case, the German IGBP Secretariat or the national coordinators listed at the end of the report will supply the required details. (orig./KW)

  7. Geothermal energy utilized in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the geothermal resources and reserves that have been estimated for selected aquifers in the Northwest German Basin, the Upper Rhine Graben and the South German Molasse Basin. The highest reserves (31 · 10 18 J) are located in the Malm aquifer in the Molasse Basin. Geothermal energy is utilized in 15 localities using low enthalpy water. The total installed capacity is about 8 MW t . Two small new installations (Waldsee, Weiden) have been realized in the last years. In another project (Bruchsal) the doublet, which is necessary because of the high saline water, is now in a working order. A prefeasibility study for a Hot Dry Rock system has been performed by a German-French group. The HDR test site is located in the Upper Rhine Graben

  8. Measuring program of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, P.; Hille, R.

    1992-04-01

    The body content of radionuclides of close to 160.000 persons in the RSFSR has been examined during summer 1991. An area of approximately 10000 km 2 extending from close-to-Moskow Tula up to Slynka at the Byelorussian border and such including regions of low and high contamination levels in the districts of Briansk, Kaluga, Arel and Tula has been covered in the survey. Up to 7 mobile whole-body counting laboratories have been operational with a total number of 20 counters. More than 100 german specialists have participated in the task group. Each person examined received an official certificate given the activity of the Cs 137/134 mixture in the body and a judgement on the radiation risk involved. Observed activity levels were generally much less and in no case higher than the annual limit of intake acceptable for professional radiation workers. Only for less than 1% of the people examined the results suggest the necessity of a further surveillance by health physicists and physicians similar to the regular medical examination professional radiation workers undergo. (orig.) [de

  9. Research Policy in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-16

    plasma physics, nuclear physics, space research, astronomy, radioastronomy , solid state physics, meteorology, and social and educational sciences. Most of...fUr Radioastronomie ( radioastronomy ) Max-Planck-Institut fur Str~5mungsforschung (fluid dynamics) Humanities Section Bibliotheca Hertziana (Max-Planck

  10. Nuclear education and training in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The purpose of this summary is to give a survey of the facilities for further education and training in the field of nuclear science and nuclear technology within the FRG. The classification of the different facilities presently existing, such as universities, technical colleges, engineering schools, and special institutes, seemed the most appropriate way of making the survey as straight forward as possible. The survey is mainly based on information received from the institutes concerned in reply to questionnaires distributed at the end of 1976. Further references are available in the Personal- und Vorlesungsverzeichnisse of the universities as well as in the Deutscher Fachhochschulfuehrer. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Excursions to nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    Promoting young talents in the field of nuclear technology is considered one of the most important tasks the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (Society for Nuclear Engineering) tries to fulfill in many ways. It has developed a curriculum for the specialty of nuclear technology, provides funds for attending conferences and gives financial support to student members. In line with these efforts to promote young talents, the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft now submits a list of nuclear facilities where to special excursions may be made in the course of corresponding training programmes. State-owned and private research and development centres, industrial factories and electricity-generating nuclear power plants as well as nuclear fuel cycle centres are thus concerned. (orig.) [de

  12. Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and the Federative Republic of Brazil for the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and the Federative Republic of Brazil for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, signed by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Argentina and Brazil in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 18 July 1991

  13. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...)] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia..., Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia of grain-oriented electrical steel, provided for in subheadings... alleged to be sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV), and by reason of imports of grain...

  14. 75 FR 62104 - Certain Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... trademark of Imphy, S.A. Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from...-831] Certain Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and... duty orders on certain stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from Germany, Italy, Japan, the...

  15. No 2601. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the law project No 2555, authorizing the approval of the agreement between the governments of the French Republic, of the Federal Republic of Germany, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and of the Netherlands Kingdom, relative to the cooperation in the domain of centrifugation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Cardiff agreement, signed on July 12, 2005 between France, Germany, UK and the Netherlands, aims at allowing Areva company (France) and the Urenco consortium (Germany, UK, the Netherlands) to set up a cooperation in order for Urenco to share its uranium ultracentrifugation technology with Areva. This industrial agreement between two European champions of uranium enrichment opens up the way to a European cooperation of prime importance for the preservation of the energy security of European countries. This agreement is conformable with all security warranties of the international right. This document recommends the approval by the Parliament of this agreement between France, Germany, UK and the Netherlands for the Areva-Urenco cooperation in the domain of ultracentrifugation as described in the French law project No 2555. (J.S.)

  16. Environmental and economic report 2011. Data and facts for Germany; Umweltwirtschaftsbericht 2011. Daten und Fakten fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The environmental and economic report 2011 published by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) and Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the economic factor environmental protection, sustainable economic management, green future markets as well as on resource conservation.

  17. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Republic of Bulgaria on 15 September 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 May 2009, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Bulgaria on 1 May 2009 [es

  18. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Republic of Bulgaria on 15 September 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 May 2009, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Bulgaria on 1 May 2009 [fr

  19. The diffusion of Local Agenda 21 in Germany: Comparing the German federal states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, K.; Koll, C.; Schophaus, M.

    2007-01-01

    The diffusion of Local Agenda 21 (LA21) appears to have run its course, even in Germany. Starting from Germany's changing international position from laggard to latecomer, this article focuses on a comparison of the German federal states (Lnder) because the percentage of local authorities with LA21

  20. Comparison of Urban and Suburban Rail Transport in Germany and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidenglanz Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an environmentally friendly form of passenger transport which can be utilized effectively also in urban and suburban transport systems. The paper describes the urban and suburban rail transport system including comparison of selected Czech (Prague, Brno and Ostrava and German metropolitan regions (Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden. Its aim is to analyze the importance of various factors influencing the differences between the situation in Germany and in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the research question is whether these differences are primarily caused by a different liberalization stage, or whether they are a result of other factors such as available infrastructure, investment level, rail transport services budget, structure and activity of ordering bodies and coordinators or geographical context. The supply of city and suburban rail transport is quite good in Germany and in the Czech Republic, although trains in Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden run more frequently, faster and are better interconnected with car transport. German rail transport sector is at a higher stage of liberalization, and tendering procedures are the preferred selection method for contractor carriers. However, a degree of liberalization of the railway sector is not the key marker indicating a better standard of urban and suburban rail transport in Germany because it is the high standard which is achieved as the consequence of the professional activity of the ordering bodies and train service coordinators in combination with geographical conditions, available financial sources and effective transport infrastructure. On the other hand, the importance of liberalization cannot be totally overlooked as tenders are a tool for the ordering bodies to strongly affect the price and quality of transport services in their area. The supply of better quality and attractive transport to passengers could increase the usage of rail transport in metropolitan regions and could

  1. 78 FR 16832 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea: Revocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ...] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea: Revocation of... ``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty (``AD'') orders on corrosion-resistant carbon steel... (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 85 (January 3, 2012). \\2\\ See Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From...

  2. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Texte de l'Accord entre la Belgique, le Danemark, la Republique Federale d' Allemagne, l'Irlande, l'Italie, le Luxembourg, les Pays-Bas, la Communaute Europeenne de l'En-Ergie Atomique et L'Agence En Application Du Traite Sur La Non-Proliferation Des Armes Nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-14

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [French] Le texte de l'Accord, ainsi que celui du Protocole qui y est joint, entre la Belgique, le Danemark, la Republique fdrale d'Allemae, l'Irlande, l'Italie, le Luxembourg, les Pays-Bas, la Communaute europenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence condu en application des paragraphes 1 et 4 de l'article III du Traite sur la non proliferation des armes nucleaires sont reproduits dans le present document pour l'information de tous les Membres.

  3. Off-site nuclear emergency management in Germany under the auspices of the federal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Bittner, S.; Korn, H.

    1998-01-01

    Both the individual states (Laender) and the federation (Bund) are involved in off-site emergency management in Germany. The states operate site-related Remote Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants, while the federation operates a nationwide Integrated Measurement and Information System. The states are responsible for accident response, the federation is responsible for radiation precaution measures. In the event of an accident, the state and federal authorities make their decisions and implement the corresponding emergency measures within their responsibility. Exchange of information exists between the two levels. (P.A.)

  4. The development of the breeder reactor program of the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunschild, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This article recapitulates the stages of the program which is in hand in the German Federal Republic concerning breeder reactors with fast neutrons. In particular, it describes in detail the causes for the delays in the construction of the demonstration reactor SRN 300 (Kalkar) for which the commissioning has now been fixed for 1987. It emphasizes the importance of the collaboration which exists in Europe for the establishment of the projects and the construction of fast neutron power stations, including the SNR 2 reactor; the construction of the latter could begin in the German Federal Republic at the end of the Eighties [fr

  5. Communication dated 10 March 1994 received from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The text of the aide memoire, dated 10 March 1994, of the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to the IAEA is being circulated for the information of all Member States at the request of the Alternate Resident Representative of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)

  6. The Russian Federation Islamic Republic of Dagestan: Curricular Decentralization, Social Cohesion, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the curricular decentralization-sociopolitical stability nexus in the predominantly Muslim Russian Federation Republic of Dagestan, adjacent to war-torn Chechnya. Concomitant with the metamorphoses taking place in the economic and political sectors of society is the overhaul of institutionalized education. A major reform…

  7. Churches and Federal State in Europe: the paradigm of Germany and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Pacillo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available English alternate version of the paper “Libertà religiosa e federalismo in Europa: i precedenti della Repubblica Federale di Germania e della Confederazione elvetica” presented at the 2010 Meeting of ADEC (Associazione dei docenti di diritto ecclesiastico e canonico that will be published on the review “Il Diritto ecclesiastico”. I want to thank Prof. Enrico Vitali – director of “Il Diritto ecclesiastico” - for the authorization to publish this English version. SUMMARY: 1. What do we mean about “Federalism”? – 2. Federalism and religions in Germany – 3. Federalism and religions in Switzerland.

  8. Factors Affecting the Number of Visitors in National Parks in the Czech Republic, Germany and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Stemberk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of national-level strategies, the importance of tourism in national parks is on the rise. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the number of visitors to national parks and five variables: area, number of employees, budget, average employee salary and number of researchers in 12 national parks in the Czech Republic, Germany and Austria. Analysis of factors influencing the number of visitors to national parks uses the method of retrospective analysis of the data contained in internal documents and questionnaires among managers of national parks. The number of candidate predictors is relatively high when compared with the number of observations. Due to this fact, the Gilmour method for statistical analysis is used. Statistical results represented by the parameter β2 for number of employees is −33,016 (95% CI, −50,592–−15,441 and by the parameter β3 for budget is 0.586 (95% CI, 0.295–0.878, showing that the number of visitors increases with budget, while it decreases with the number of employees. The results of this study are a useful starting point for managers in their efforts to focus on developing key areas in an appropriate way. In conclusion, results show that increasing the economic benefits accruing from national parks regional policy could aim at a qualitative upgrading of tourist services, increased marketing of the unique national park label and the promotion of a diverse regional supply base.

  9. The local power supply in the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The article first examines the contours of the foundations of the communes' competence to act autonomously, which have been laid by constitutional jurisdiction and jurisprudence. Next, the limits that constitutional law sets to the communes' competence in the field of energy politics are scrutinized. These limits firstly result from the confinement of the communal administrative unions' competence to a local sphere, and secondly from the additional constraints of Federal law, particularly the Law Concerning the Power Economy, and of the law of the Laender, here primarily communal commercial law. It is concluded that the limits to the communal administrative unions' competence must be strictly observed and the constraints imposed by power law and communal commercial law respected. Under the present constitutional law the guarantee of communal autonomy at least provides no legal means of defying decisions and directives under the laws of the Federation or the Laender that apply supraregionally. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbel Raimund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29

  11. American cinema and the construction of masculinity in film in the Federal Republic after 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Since 1945, film in the Federal Republic has maintained an ambivalent relationship to American cinema and its embedded ideologies and nowhere is this more evident than in (West) German film's representations of masculinity. This article focuses on three historical moments when political and social shifts resulted in a problematising of male identities in the Federal Republic: the mid-1950s, the early 1970s and the late 1990s. Cinema responded to a perceived destabilisation of gender norms by exploring constructions of German masculinity in relation to the ambivalently received models of male identity offered by American cinema. With a detailed analysis of three specific examples – Georg Tressler's Die Halbstarken (1956), Rainer Werner Fassbinder's Der amerikanische Soldat (1970) and Fatih Akin's Kurz und schmerzlos (1998) – this article investigates the manner in which German cinema engages with these competing conceptions of masculinity and demonstrates the ways in which divergent understandings of gender identity can impact on representations of national and ethnic identity.

  12. Photovoltaic energy generation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the current state of the art regarding photovoltaic research and demonstration programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Also attention is paid to the companies and research institutes involved, and the long-term economical and technical prospects of photovoltaic energy. 13 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs

  13. [Environmental protection techniques used in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Zelimira

    2006-09-01

    Within the framework of the programme "Partnership for Sustainable Development" The Ministry of Environment of the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg has come up with a project "Study Visit--Environmental Protection Techniques". It was intended as a three-week study visit for environmental protection experts from Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) to learn about the environmental protection techniques used in this federal state. Visits were paid to companies producing, applying or installing plants based on the state-of-the-art environmental protection techniques. The project started in 2005 and will last five years. The first visit to Baden-Württemberg was scheduled for 25 September-14 October 2005 for 12 experts from 12 countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine.

  14. Report of the Federal Government on the consequences of the report 'Global 2000'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The required equipment for environmental policy and planning in the Federal Republic of Germany is largely available. At present, the Federal Government is intensively cooperating in the United Nations' Environmental Programme (UNEP). (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. An Examination of the Legal Authority for the 1999 NATO Air Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magnan, Richard

    2000-01-01

    ...?s use of force against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). My objective for this article is to investigate the legal authority for NATO's use of force against the FRY during the Kosovo air campaign...

  16. The electricity supply industry in the German Federal Republic in the year 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The present report continues the series of the annual reports issued so far, in the same form and arrangement of the available statistical material, which have been published in 'Elektrizitaetswirtschaft' since 1950 and as special publication. On the basis of official data the report gives a statistical review of public electricity supply, the industrial private undertakings and the power supply to the German Federal Railways. By combining these three groups - after omitting any overlap of the available data - an overall review of the development of electricity supply in the whole of the German Federal Republic is made possible. (orig.) [de

  17. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  18. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, July-September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.N.; Eckert, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The fifth brine migration data status report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1984. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 16 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. Annual reports have been prepared for the years 1983 and 1984, describing the test activities on a yearly basis (Rothfuchs et al., 1984, 1986). The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 2 refs., 118 figs., 91 tabs

  19. National report of the Federal Republic of Germany. Risks and risk assessment according to the law of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.; Feldmann, F.J.; Knueppel, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives a detailed account of the way risks and risk assessment are treated in civil law, criminal law and public law, with a special emphasis on industrial law, law on emission control and atomic energy law. The discussions mainly refer to probability of occurrence, relativity, limiting values, prevention of hazards, precautionary, safety measures, principles of radiological protection, list of accidents, 'residual risk', deterministic safety concept, probabilistic methods and the probabilistic approach in the legal system. As the determination of a standard of acceptability on the basis of probabilistic analyses is mainly a legal problem, and as this standard cannot be defined by technical experts in a legally binding way, it is to be regarded as a task of the legislature or the judicial authorities, e.g. the licensing authorities and the courts, which ought to accept this task and work out practicable solutions. This seems to be particularly true with regard to plant components and external effects. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. The current state of external quality control surveys in the German Federal Republic in the field of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.; Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of quality control surveys (QSC) are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in the field of hormone assays: 1) The distribution of two lyophilized sera at regular intervals, in which the participants have to determine 7 or 8 different hormones. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether the results of the participants are 'correct' or contain systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. 2) The distribution of approximately 20 deep-frozen sera (including a standard curve in hormone-free serum) in which the participant has to assay a single hormone. These 20 sera-QCS are performed only at long intervals for a given hormone. The statistical analysis of the rate of the radioactive counts of the QCS-sera and those of the participants' standard curves allows - together with a methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for deviating results. (orig.) [de

  1. The Lincoln Image in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Nagler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the enduring fascination with the sixteenth President of the United States in Germany. In general, his legacy and its evaluation changed in relation to the determinate historical contexts, beginning with the monarchial system, extending through the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and now the Federal Republic of Germany. Certain social and political individuals/groups in Germany used the image and iconography of Lincoln as a projection screen to support their own political objectives. Although there were always multiple layers of Lincoln representations in Germany, the dominant images were: the national unifier, the libertarian universalist, the emancipator, the defender of moral values, the modernizer, the democrat who used the power of the democratic state, the egalitarian self-made man from humble origins, and the defender of social justice and workingmen’s rights.

  2. Study tour of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (formerly Czechoslovakia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is the independent body that advises the Secretaries of State for the Environment, Scotland and Wales on civil radioactive waste management issues. In September 1992, a RWMAC Study Group visited the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR - formerly Czechoslovakia) to learn about the radioactive waste management practices there. This publication reports on the Group's findings. The rapid political change, social conflicts over energy options, growing environmental concern, and lack of financial resources, being experienced by the CSFR, would point to the need for a body similar to RWMAC to advise on an overall policy. (Author)

  3. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (Promulgation) Decree 1989 (No. 12 of 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria which was promulgated by decree in 1989. The Constitution guarantees every citizen equality under the law. Opportunities to secure employment without discrimination are protected; working conditions are to be safe and humane; adequate medical and health facilities are to be available; pay equity is assured; vulnerable groups (children, the aged, and the disabled) are to receive social protection; and the free movement of citizens is assured. The third part of the constitution establishes a national population census which is to be submitted to the President of the country for acceptance.

  4. Managing Cultural Diversity in Federal Germany: Bavaria and Berlin as Classic Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schultz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the type of federalism applied in Germany the level of analysis best suited for studying integration is that of the 16 Länder. For comparing the approaches of two of these - Bavaria and Berlin - in managing migration-related diversity, the paper uses a double differentiation as analytical starting point. The first refers to the bulk of literature of different national models of integration and proposes two ideal types of integration/diversity policy. The second differentiation seizes the suggestion that integration in some areas of life is socially much more consequential than in others with the consequence that state intervention in these areas is much easier to justify from a normative point of view. From the descriptive comparison it becomes clear that both Länder, though coming from rather diverging starting points, by now employ hybrid strategies to accommodate or manage different aspects of cultural diversity.

  5. Energy and the environment. Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia, Germany, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore. Buildings and plants. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs has employed ten experts to help Danish exporters to penetrate the foreign markets. The experts working in the field identify sales potentials, stimulate prospective customers' interest in Danish products and services, and establish contacts to Danish suppliers, in this case within the field of energy and the environment. They work in close cooperation with the commercial/business/industrial sector and organizations and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The publication comprises the experts' descriptions of market conditions and potentials in Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia, Germany, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and the United Kingdom (in this latter case within the field of buildings). On this basis it is expected that Danish exporters will be able to evaluate possibilities for selling their products and services on these markets. (AB)

  6. Comparative geopolitical analysis of “hotspots” in the Russian federation and in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Federation and the Republic of Serbia have experienced internal challenges to their own unity and coherence for a long time. This work represents the analysis of these challenges, which can be defined, geopolitically speaking, as “hotspots”. Relying on the observations of Russian political scientists, the author of this work analyzed the so-called “crisis potential” in four “hotspots” in the Russian Federation. In the Republic of Serbia, five areas are marked that emit instability and jeopardise (or can jeopardise its unity, peace and prosperity. Certain similarities are found between the compared “hotspots”, and differences as well. The region of North Caucasus is marked as the most dangerous “hotspot” in the Russian Federation, which has not been completely solved yet by the Russian federal authorities, due to the constant terrorist attacks. The purpose of the attacks is to extort from Russia the withdrawal from the area and create conditions for the political independence. The author found a geopolitical analogy to the North Caucasus “hotspot” (Chechnya in the Republic of Serbia on the territory of Kosovo and Metohija. In the conclusion, it is stated that, at present, disparate geopolitical processes are taking place in the two countries - the Federal Centre is strengthening in the Russian Federation and the Federal Subjects are losing their attributes of statehood, whereas in the Republic of Serbia, the centrifugal tendencies are gaining prominence that can completely fragment it.

  7. Energy report of the Federal German Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In its governmental declaration of May 4th, 1983, the Federal German Government has pointed out how it will safeguard the continuous, economical, and non-polluting supply of energy to the Federal Republic of Germany. By that report the Federal Government strikes a balance of its policy and defines its position with regard to topical questions, especially the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The report comprises four chapters: 1. peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 2. Summary statement on energy policy, 3. Current situation in the energy market and long-term perspectives, 4. Points of main emphasis of future energy policy. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Consequences for the Federal Republic of Germany arising from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. Recommendations of the Radiation Protection Commission (SSK) relating to risk assessment, limitation, evaluation. Auswirkungen des Reaktorunfalls in Tschernobyl in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Empfehlungen der Strahlenschutzkommission zur Abschaetzung, Begrenzung und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumprecht, D; Kindt, A

    1986-01-01

    The booklet contains recommendations (2.5., 7.5., 16.5. and 2.6.1986), the statement concerning the contamination of food (7.5.1986), and the progress report of the Radiation Protection Commission (SSK) to the committee of the German Bundestag dealing with the environment, which was issued on the 20th of June 1986. Furthermore a listing of the SSK's members from 1986 and the statutes of the SSK is provided. Since the recommendations of the Radiation Protection Commission (SSK) explained at several federal press conferences have not been reported properly, or have often led to misunderstandings, or have partly been misinterpreted in the media, this publication is to meet the urgent demand for information and to contribute to down-to-earth discussions in the public. 1 figure, 7 tables.

  9. Politics: Interest, Participation and Education. Comparing the Republic of Ireland with Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In order to generate higher levels of interest in politics and participation in political processes, political or citizenship, education in schools must be at the heart of the curriculum and be characterised by active, learner-centred approaches. This paper hypothesises that, when compared with Germany, a more limited form of political education…

  10. History of census in the Czech Republic and in France (or in Germany, in the USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Šťastný, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Principal objective of this bachelor thesis is comparing census in the Czech Republic, in France and in the USA. In introductory section concerns on history of census in particular countries, mainly on detailed describe of census during 20th century. This is followed by chapters which attend to methodology and last census in selected countries where illustrated different access in variable parts of the world is. The last part is concerned about following census and perspective to the future, ...

  11. Emission control at stationary sources in the Federal Republic of Germany. Vol 1. Sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide emission control; Massnahmen zur Emissionsminderung bei stationaeren Quellen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bd. 1. Minderung der SO{sub 2}- und NO{sub x}-Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, O; Schleef, H J; Dorn, R; Sasse, H; Karl, U

    1997-05-01

    The first volume of the report covers the state of implementation of primary and secondary measures for SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} control applied in the most important industrial sectors in Germany. Integrated pollution abatement techniques, called primary measures in this report, such as process integrated measures and low emission processes, have gained increased importance in recent years. The end-of-pipe processes, described here as secondary measures, are generally highly effective. They represent mature technologies, which are capable of achieving significant reductions in SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} emissions, and which have been used in particular for retrofitting existing plants. At first, an overview is given regarding the development of SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} emissions in selected European countries during the last 20 years and in Europe. Current national and European emission limits and emission guidelines on SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} emissions from stationary sources are discussed as well. The state of implementation of measures for the reduction of SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} emissions is analysed for each relevant industrial sector and primary emission reduction options are described. Special units designede for direct contact of flame and process materials are dealt with in the different sector descriptions, while external combustion processes providing process heat and power are dealt with in a separate chapter. In the final section an overview of secondary emission reduction measures covering SO{sub 2}- and NO{sub x} control technology is given. For the various sectors, examples of investments and costs for installed emission reduction measures are given, which have to be considered as highly case specific. In addition, the suppliers of the various control technologies have given specific aspects related to specific process layout of their systems as well as references. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der erste Band des Berichts beschreibt den Anwendungsstand von

  12. Wind power in Germany - a success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, T.

    1996-01-01

    The successful introduction of wind power to the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany is described using graphic representations to illustrate the industry's growth over the last twenty years. The history of the wind market is discussed, together with the importance of stakeholders as a way of funding the industry. The author concludes that public support for environmentally sensitive power generation was the key factor leading to the success of the wind power industry in Germany. (UK)

  13. Air Pollution Studies in the Republic of Udmurtia, Russian Federation, using Moss Biomonitoring and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratova, Yu. S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Berdnikov, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 36 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in 79 moss samples, collected in the southern part of the Republic of Udmurtia, Russian Federation, in the period 2005-2006. A factor analysis was applied to determine possible pollution sources over the territory. The seven resulting factors represent a natural and anthropogenic origin of the elemental deposition in Udmurt moss. Some of the factors are interpreted as being associated with the industry factor (W, Mo, Cr, Zn); chemical weapon destruction (As is the component of lewisite; Na is used for detoxication of lewisite). The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some regions of Russia and European countries

  14. Environmental policy. Resolution of the German Federal Government concerning the Air Pollution Abatement Programme of the Federal Republic of Germany based on the fourth report of the Interdepartmental Working Group on Carbon Dioxide Reduction (IMA `CO{sub 2} Reduction`); Umweltpolitik. Beschluss der Bundesregierung zum Klimaschutzprogramm der Bundesrepublik Deutschland auf der Basis des Vierten Berichts der Interministeriellen Arbeitsgruppe ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion`` (IMA ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion``)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Air pollution abatement is a key issue in German environmental policy. This was stressed again in the 4th report of the Interdepartmental Working Group on Carbon Dioxide Reduction (IMA `CO{sub 2}-Reduktion`), in which the Federal Government confirmed its goal of a 25% reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 2005 as referred to 1990. This report contains the government decision, the formulatio of the task assigned to the IMA, and the 4th report of the IMA. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Klimavorsorge ist ein Schwerpunkt der deutschen Umweltpolitik. Dies hat das Bundeskabinett mit der Verabschiedung des 4. Berichts der Interministeriellen Arbeitsgruppe (IMA) ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion`` nachdruecklich unterstrichen. Mit diesem Beschluss bekraeftigt die Bundesregierung erneut ihr Ziel, die CO{sub 2} Emissionen bis 2005 um 25 % gegenueber 1990 zu senken. Der vorliegende Bericht enthaelt den Beschluss, der Bundesregierung, den Auftrag der Bundesregierung an die Interministerielle Arbeitsgruppe (IMA) und den 4. Bericht der IMA ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion``. (orig./SR)

  15. International outsourcing over the business cycle: some intuition for Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine LEVASSEUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the extent to which multinational firms – in the first instance, the German ones – may adjust their international outsourcing over the business cycle in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. For that purpose, we have used monthly data of production for the manufacturing sector as a whole and some of its sub-sectors, since 2000 onwards. Our econometrical estimates suggest that there would be an asymmetry in the international outsourcing across the states of the economy, meaning that multinationals firms would be engaged differently in outsourcing activities, depending on whether bad or good economic times occur. Yet, such an asymmetry is found increasing over the time for German and French multinationals operating in the transport equipment sector of Slovakia. Another conclusion is that international outsourcing made by multinational firms in Slovakia may account for a portion of its large business cycles volatility.

  16. Least cost planning as a regulatory concept in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprich, U.

    1994-01-01

    The least cost planning concept is a result of the traditional planning of business activities on the part of public utilities developed further. In the light of operating efficiency it certainly makes sense for public utilities to limit or at least shift power demand in certain situations (''load management''), thereby enlarging the scope for entrepreneurial action. LCP as a regulatory concept, by contrast, discards this view, judging the efforts of utilities to ensure efficient use of electrical energy exclusively from an overall economic angle. The relevant question is then no longer ''When does LCP make sense for public utilities, given current boundary conditions?'' but rather, ''To what extent are LCP activities desirable in national economic terms, and in what way must the regulatory system be adapted to permit utilities to launch such activities?'' What LCP as a ''competitive concept'' is about, is foremost, the substitution competition between the energy source electric power and the respective application technology that produces the desired ''service''. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Comparative status and development trends of central electricity supply technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the present situation in the public electricity sector of the FRG with its legal and political constraints, to identify the development trends of the supply technologies for central electricity in regard to their application potential during the forthcoming 10 to 20 years. Summarizing expectations and conclusions are drawn on the foreseeable contribution of the electricity supply sector to the aspired CO 2 -reductions in the FRG

  18. Relationship between research and regulatory review in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, O.

    1979-01-01

    The current role of all authorities involved in the nuclear safety research programmes is presented. Later this paper discusses the influence of research results on rules, regulations and guidelines for the design of nuclear power plants. (author)

  19. Long-term testing of HTR fuel elements in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.

    1986-12-01

    The extensive results from irradiation experiments carried out on coated particles, on graphitic matrices of different composition and on integral fuel elements have shown that the spherical fuel elements with high-enriched uranium/thorium mixed-oxide particles and optimized graphitic matrix are available for use in the planned HTR facilities. A concentrated qualification programme is on the way in order to bring the fuel elements with particles from low-enriched uranium dioxide (LEU) and TRISO coating to a comparable level of experience and knowledge, i.e. to make them licensable for the planned HTR facilities. (orig.) [de

  20. Compensation of damage to property in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.J.; Stoll, J.

    1986-01-01

    The legal situation after the events of Chernobyl is characterized by the fact that a host of different rules establishing claims, conflict of laws rules, and procedural rules from the sectors civil law, administrative law, and law of nations are involved. There is a need for verifying not only the event itself, but partly also the liability bases. This outline informs briefly on the most important conditions establishing claims and their interaction, and provides a discussion basis for examining possible claims to compensation. (orig.) [de

  1. Status and development of nuclear energy utilization in the Federal Republic of Germany - December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippczyk, F.; Ziegenhagen, J.

    1993-05-01

    The report states the essential data of all nuclear power plants, the nuclear fuel cycle facilities and the storage of radioactive wastes. In 1992, 20 nuclear power plants were in operation. With 158.840 GWh altogether they provided 32% of the total gross electricity production. The report summarizes the essential operational results of the nuclear power plants as well as the use of mixed oxide fuel elements (MOX). A short description of the present state of the nuclear power plants that have been shut down or decommissioned and of the stopped programmes is given. Data on purpose and capacity of facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle and of radioactive waste storage are given. Furthermore, the licensing history and the present state of operation and licensing are represented. Three projects with regard to disposal of radioactive wastes are presented according to their present state. (orig.) [de

  2. Ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferkamp, H.

    1986-01-01

    The first planning step is careful selection of a salt deposit fulfilling the required geological and hydrogeological criteria, as well as careful exploration of the internal structure of the salt deposit, by underground horizontal boring, shaft drilling, and preparation of exploratory roads. The following requirements are to be met: (1) There must be a sufficiently thick mineral salt barrier at the flanks of the deposit, and towards the leaching surface. (2) Careful plugging of shafts, roads and caverns must be guaranteed in order to ensure long-term sealing in compliance with the natural sealing function of the salt rock bed. (orig./PW) [de

  3. Standard and chances of the HTR in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Harder, H.

    1980-01-01

    If one believes the verbal support of the politicians on the High-Temperature Reactor this reactor type seems to have a good future. The facts show that inspite of the well known properties of the HTR and the engagement of the industry and potential operators, progress is hardly made. Soon it could be too late for this reactor line. (orig.) [de

  4. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany; Umweltschaedliche Subventionen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Holger; Burger, Andreas; Thiele, Karen

    2008-07-01

    The quality of environmental goods such as climate, water, ground or air has a high value in the population. This also is reflected in the public and private expenditures for environmental protection. The state intervenes with subventions in the economical production process and in the individual decisions of the household consumer. The present practice of subvention does not promote a sustainable development to a large extent neither from ecological view nor from economic view. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the most important environmental harmful subventions within the ranges energy supply and energy utilization, traffic, building industry and housing, agriculture. Moreover an environmentally referred controlling of subvention is described in order to dismantle systematically environmentally harmful subventions and to a sustainable policy of subvention.

  5. Considerations to improve quality assurance criteria: experience in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, H.W.; Schulz-Forberg, B.

    1978-01-01

    Package design certificates of approval issued by the respective competent authorities are required for Type B packagings and packagings for Fissile Classes I, II and III. The certificate of approval testifies that the package design has met the requirements given by the 1973 IAEA regulations. But this also means that an unrestricted number of packagings can be manufactured. The certificate of approval covers all respective packagings during their lifetime. Only a comprehensive quality assurance program is able to verify the homogeneity of packagings during manufacturing and to assure the packaging, i.e., each individual packaging, meets safety standards during use, approved by re-inspection. Some inspections done by BAM showed that there is an urgent need for establishing a surveillance system, for corrosion phenomena, other wear characteristics and constructive changes done by the licensee could be observed. There will be another question if a packaging being in continuous use for several years still has the required physical properties and what to do with obsolete casks. A new regulatory guide in the FRG for the procedure of approving packagings for the transport of radioactive material will cover quality assurance during manufacturing and use. A close cooperation between manufacturers, competent organizations and competent authority leads to a complete surveillance including re-inspection of each packaging and will grant the continuously required safety standard

  6. Energy industry and energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany now facing new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziesing, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident, discussions about the latest deep plunge of oil prices and the consequences for the economic and energy market situation have promptly been pushed to the background, and now it is the well-known controversy about the pros and cons of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy that flares up again. The author of the paper in hand is well aware that the very complex problems posed by the task to weigh the risks of energy supply with or without nuclear energy generation can by far not be solved within this framework, so that the paper picks out only a few aspects of a decision to abandon nuclear power, and some consequences to be considered. As an introduction to the problem, the author presents a survey of the current energy situation and current energy policy, and of the related perspectives. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Progress of Maglev-linear vehicles in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, P

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes a research and development programme on the technology of track-guided transport systems. The delimitation of the operational ranges between advanced wheel-on-rail systems and the electromagnetic suspension system and the development history of the magnetic suspension system, both state of the work and future developments are discussed.

  8. Air pollution control measures of the electricity industry in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubek, W.; Kallmeyer, D.

    1989-09-01

    The pollution of air with SO 2 and NO x constitutes a problem which can be regionally delimited and can be solved by a harmonization of pollution control standards at the highest possible level. The growing CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, however, has possibly a strong impact on the global climate. In this context it has to be borne in mind in particular that it will be impossible to undo environmental damage once it has arisen. Once lasting changes of the world climate have been caused by the increased CO 2 concentration, all the pollution control efforts will not achieve any short-term success but will produce desired effects only with a time-lag of decades at the earliest. All measures by a country to contain CO 2 emissions on a national level are almost ineffective if a reduction of CO 2 emissions is not aimed at by international agreements at the same time. All nations are therefore called upon to help solve the CO 2 problem. National single-handed approaches are equally inappropriate as the oft-heard reference to the just marginal contribution by the respective countries to global CO 2 emissions. In light of their possibilities and the magnitude of the problem, it is precisely the industrial nations that have the duty not only to cut CO 2 emissions in their own countries but also to give the developing countries the assistance required to keep the CO 2 content of the atmosphere from rising further. (author). 9 figs

  9. Emergency planning and preparedness for nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1988-01-01

    Because of their inventories of radioactive materials nuclear facilities represent a hazard potential which, though comparable with that posed by other large technical facilities, demands particular protective measures to be taken. As a consequence of the extreme safety provisions, made, accidents with major impacts on the environment of nuclear facilities are excluded to the best human knowledge. However, as there are distinct limits to human planning and recognition, a residual risk remains despite all these precautions. In order to reduce that risk, recommendations for emergency protection in the environment of nuclear facilities have been drafted. To the extent in which measures are required outside the specific emergency protection plans apply which contain non-object related planning preparations. The recommendation also omits potential repercussions of nuclear accidents which might require measures in the sector of preventive health protection under the Radiation Protection Provisions act or the government measures to be taken. The recommendation is applied to German nuclear installations and those foreign installations whose proximity to the border requires planning measures to be taken on German territory in the sense of this recommendation. (author) [pt

  10. The general concept for a spallation neutron source in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between the two German nuclear research centres at Karlsruhe and at Juelich, a reference concept for a spallation neutron source has been studied which would be suitable to satisfy the medium term needs in neutrons for fundamental research and to serve a large number of other scientific disciplines as well. The reference facility, consisting of a high power proton linac for 5 mA time average current of 1.1 GeV protons and a rotating lead target with hybrid H 2 O-D 2 O moderators can deliver a thermal neutron flux equivalent to 7 x 10 14 cm -2 s -1 at the beam tube noses. Pulsed operation of the accelerator results in an intensity modulation of this flux at a repitition rate of 100 Hz with a peak flux of 1.3 x 10 16 cm -2 s -1 and a pulse width of 510 μs. Further possible improvements were considered, consisting in the use of uranium as target material and in the addition of a proton pulse compressor to increase the neutron peak flux especially in the epithermal energy range and to provide a time structure suitable for neutrino and muon research. To realize this concept in a fashion compatible with existing constraints while still serving a maximum number of users at the earliest possible date, a staged concept is being considered by KFA Juelich. (orig.) [de

  11. Development of dedicated nuclear heating plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzmann, C.A.; Schroeter, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    In many cases district heating is both economically and environmentally superior over directly burning of fossil fuels in individual furnaces primarily because of the efficiency of the usual applied co-generation principle with regard to fuel utilization and flue gas clean up. In principle, this argument should carry even greater weight in conjunction with nuclear energy. The major draw back of dedicated heating reactors as seen up to now concerns the high specific capital cost for the application-dictated small reactor size. The paper discusses by way of a specific example in what directions solutions are being sought. (author)

  12. Licensing and regulatory control of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, H.

    1975-01-01

    Legal basis; licensing requirements by the Atomic Energy Act, national law, international law and recommendations, and by technical rules and standards; licensing process: types of licences, responsibilities, sequence of the procedure; role of technical advisory bodies, enforcement of licensing actions. (HP) [de

  13. Can we dispense with nuclear power. [Federal Republic of Germany]. Koennen wir auf Kernenergie verzichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frewer, H; Braun, W; Freiberger, S; Martin, J

    1986-01-01

    The aims of energy policy, which consist in safeguarding energy supply while using nuclear power as one source of energy, are discussed in an interview (H. Frewer, Managing Director of Kraftwerk Union 'KWU'). The safety of German nuclear power plants is illustratively compared with the safety of nuclear power plants in the USSR, especially the reactor at Chernobyl (Braun and Freiberger, KWU). A further contribution deals with the propagation of the radioactive plume after the accident at Chernobyl (Martin, KWU).

  14. Federal Republic of Germany. Report 1 [Marine Radioecology. Current Research and Future Scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.

    1967-01-01

    Present research program (long term): Radioactive waste disposal - Investigations under this programme take place in an area which might be used for disposal of low-level waste from European countries. The first step of the programme is to get an idea of the ecological situation which will be worked out in co-operation with the German Hydrographic Institute and the Institute of Hydrology and Fisheries Science of the University of Hamburg. Samples of benthic fauna, plankton and fish will be analysed on their content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, to get information of the long-term contamination with radioactive fall-out. Further the samples will be analysed on their content of stable zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, molybdenum and chromium. This enables us to calculate the maximum concentration factors for these elements. The distribution of species and the number of organisms at various depths provide an impression of vertical biological transport

  15. Recent developments of the environmental surveillance in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narrog, J.

    1988-01-01

    A system of measurements of the radioactivity was introduced in the late fiftieth and early sixtieth in the territory of the FRG in order to control the impact of the fallout of nuclear weapon tests of the northern hemisphere. Due to the ban of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests by the USA and the SU and the decreasing importance of the remaining radioactive fallout this system played a small role in the early 80 th . As a consequence of the Chernobyl-accident this system gained new importance. It was improved and amplified. Conceptes of nets of mesasuring stations were created and are now under construction. The system as a whole is determined both for normal and alert conditions. (author) [pt

  16. Canada's part in providing the Federal Republic of Germany with nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, F

    1976-04-01

    It is stated that Canada, despite intended provision to safeguard its own growing demand for uranium by means of governmental regulations, will remain in the future, too, one of the big uranium-exporting countries of the world for the FRG. From 1960-1975 uranium was bought from Canada in amounts which represent about 25% of the overall demand on natural uranium. The quantities already entered into a contract about regarding the FRG's estimated demand for uranium until 1986 will be met to 30% with Canadian extractions.

  17. Contribution of the Federal Republic of Germany to chapter C.3/C.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The paper refers to chapters C.3 and C.4 of the WG 5C report. Different modes of international FBR activities are examined according to the aspects such as ownership, operation, electricity supply, and safeguards. Examples of realization of international FBR development are given. Three aspects are examined as the main potential incentives for internationalization i.e. environment, economics, non-proliferation; some problems are revealed. Aspects of collocation and internationalization in connection with FBRs are investigated based on 3 concepts

  18. 19 February 2015 - Professor Holger Hanselka President Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Federal Republic of Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    Gadmer, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson K. Borras and CMS Collaboration, Team Leader, Karlsruhe Institut fur Technologie T. Muller and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer. C. Schaefer present throughout.

  19. Institutional factors of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehfeld, D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy policy serves to demonstrate the interrelation of political field analysis and conceptional political discussion. A theoretical political field analysis results in the fact that energy policy must not be considered a clearly defined political field but rather a domain affected by economic policy. Based on this principle the publication is entering into an empirically founded discussion of topical aspects of political science (policy science, corporatism, governability, marxian theories). The respective problems at issue are applied to energy policy in order to work out the potential and topical problems of all aspects involved. (orig.) [de

  20. Physical protection system of nuclear material in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueker, H.; Jungclaus, D.; von Eyss, H.J.; von Osten, W.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of physical protection, its statutory and other bases as well as the parties involved in the licensing process are described. The facilities are grouped in categories reflecting their hazard potentials: the possibility of a theft of nuclear fuels in an approach similar to INFCIRC 225 and, in addition, the possibility of a release of radioactive materials. Physical protection follows the concept of detection, alert of police force, delay, prevention of the act by police force. The schematic layout of a Category I facility is presented

  1. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1989-01-01

    The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1988 have been compiled in this report. The 1989 KNK II experimental program will focus on the management of fuel element failures. This includes in particular post-irradiation examinations in the hot cells and the THIBO experiments (thermally induced fuel rod oscillation). For this program, nine permits were received in 1988 for the installation and operation of test systems, including a new facility for localizing failed fuel elements. Increasing the purity of sodium is the purpose of a cesium trap recently installed, and of modifications to an oxygen probe operated for test purposes. The SNR 300 project is being continued within the framework of the ''holding phase''. The objective of this phase of operation is to keep the reactor plant in the loading and operational states and execute planning within the licensing procedure necessary to obtain the next partial permit. R and D work was concentrated on fuel and materials development, safety, physics, and components development. Materials for fuel, blanket, and absorber elements were studied and further developed with a view to very high burnup. In the sector of physics, the engineering design and the nuclear design of large breeders call for a reduction of the margins of uncertainty in reliable predictions of the major reactor parameters. The development of the joint European cell code, ECCO (European Cell Code) has progressed far enough in the meantime to allow the criticality parameter, k eff , of a cell arrangement to be calculated with ECCO for the first time at UKAEA Winfrith, the central agency for carrying out the development work. One of the major aspects covered in safety studies is the complex of fuel rod failures, loss of coolant flow, and power transients as possible causes of accidents. Studies conducted into the management of credible accident consequences were concentrated, among other topics, on the behaviour of aerosols, sodium fires, and the consequences of sodium-concrete interactions. Another major topic dealt with was the removal of decay heat. 10 figs

  2. Position paper of the Federal Republic of Germany on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.; Peppler, W.; Oeynhausen, H.; Freudenstein, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    A substantial part of the R+D-work is correlated to the containment concept. The safe operation of the containment with its main components has to be shown by containment analysis and some experimental work under accident conditions. The results of the aerosol-physical and thermodynamic analysis are discussed with regard to their importance for the experimental parameters

  3. Contribution of the Federal Republic of Germany to chapter C.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The paper is a summary of two more detailed reports, covering the chapters of the WG 5 - C report C.1.3, C.1.4, C.1.5, and C.1.6. The main results of the investigations are that no environmental and ecological problems specific of FBR exist in comparison to thermal reactors. The ecological impact of spent fuel is quantified by generally adapted measures such as the ''Hazard Measure''. It is demonstrated that e.g. the ingestion ''Hazard Measure'' of the FBR over cooling times ranging from 0 to 10 6 years is lower than that of LWR once-through systems

  4. Radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany. Systems study. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyroff, H.; Fleischmann, F.K.

    1976-01-01

    Taking the probable developments in the fields of nuclear technology, and the data specific for the wastes of certain plants, the overall rate of radioactive wastes in the FRG from 1975 till 1990 is estimated and some prognostications are made up till the year 2000. The analysis of the waste rate in the FRG from 1975 till 1990 shows that the wastes of nuclear power plants, compared with those of the reprocessing plants, predominate quantitatively, but looking at it from the radiological properties it becomes obvious that almost all radioactivity released in nuclear technology is contained in reprocessing wastes. With regard to the fuel cycle industry, those substances from the U/Pu fuel production which emit alpha radiation present a special problem. Radioactive wastes from large research centres, from industry research, collecting depots of the Laender, and isotope technology are of no significance, neither with regard to the quantity nor from the point of view of radioactivity. (orig./HR) [de

  5. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. First half-year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report provides up-to-date information on the German coal mining industry for the reporting time period. Data on coal mining as well as on brown coal mining cover: Production, stocks, productivity, employes, sales, imports and exports of coal and coal products. (orig.) [de

  6. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1990-01-01

    The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1989 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of fast reactor plants, which is followed by an R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is presented of international cooperation in 1989. Effective January 1990, KfK activities in the area of fast reactors have been incorporated in the Nuclear Safety Research Project. (author)

  7. The development of sectoral final and basic energy demand in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reents, H.

    1977-08-01

    The detailed knowledge of the demand structures and their determining factors is an important precondition for estimating the possible developments of future energy demand. In this report the past developments of the final and basic energy demand in the different demand categories private households, commercial sector, industry and transportation will be analyzed. The demonstrated relations are the basis for a final energy demand model. With the help of this model a scenario of the future development of the final energy demand in the different sectors will be built. It is the aim of this scenario to show, how alternative actions (insulation, gas-heat pump) influence the future development of the final energy demand. (orig.) [de

  8. Procedures for permission under atomic energy laws in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of proper locations by the enterprisers responsible for projects is usually accompanied in recent years by the active location policy of the state. The application for the permission of locations and projects shall be filed to one or more ministries of the province where the facilities are to be installed. The papers describing the projects, especially safety reports and summaries shall be attached to the applications. The applications shall be published on a bulletin of the government office or daily newspapers, and every person has access to the applications, the safety reports and the summaries for two months. When objections are lodged within the period, closed hearings are held to examine the protests with attendance of the objector, the enterpriser of the project and the government office which has joined the decision. Following the phase of public participation and after the confirmation of facts highly important to the decision, fact examination is carried out with cooperation of specialists by the government office authorized for permission. As a special feature of the procedures under Atomgesetz, the government office is not necessarily obliged to give permission considering the safety policy, even when the pre-requisites of permission are all fulfilled. In other respects, permission may be offered for each partial installation of the facilities and various stages of operation by particular administrative measures (partial permission). The experiences of past 20 years indicate the virtual defects of the laws applied, and the amendment is urgently required. (Okada, K.)

  9. The law governing the nuclear licensing procedure in Brazil and in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Da Costa Lima, W.

    1984-01-01

    The two first parts of this thesis separately describe the framework of the legal system of the two countries in the field of nuclear energy, whereas the third part goes into details which are explained in order to prepare the subsequent comparative analysis. The comparison covers the structural set-up of the bodies of the national atomic energy provisions, the structure of the various nuclear licensing procedures, the role and competences of experts and their opinions, and the role and competence of jurisdiction. The most profound difference is found in the fact that Brazilian administrative law does not include jurisdiction of an administrative court, and this for constitutional reasons. The civil courts only have competence to examine acts of administration with regard to their legality. The procedure for licensing nuclear installations or equipment is determined by the central licensing authority within the framework of its competency. So far, there have been no attempts in Brazil to seek judicial remedy or to start an action to set aside decisions taken in the nuclear licensing procedure. Furthermore, there are no means in Brazilian law to stop licensing whenever the requirements of Art. 7, section 1, no. I-IV of Lei 6189 are met. The licensing authority has no scope of discretion. Applicants for a licence in Brazil will have no problems in finding out which regulations are applicable to their particular case. The concrete definition of details, however, always is a time-consuming and expensive process. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Element budgets of two contrasting catchments in the Black Forest (Federal Republic of Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feger, K. H.; Brahmer, G.; Zöttl, H. W.

    1990-08-01

    Rainfall and throughfall inputs of all major cations and anions, via open-field bulk precipitation and canopy throughfall, are compared with streamwater outputs in two forested catchments at higher altitudes of the Black Forest. The sites differ considerably in terms of bedrock geology, soil type, soilwater characteristics, topography, and forest management history. Deposition at both sites is almost equal and, in contrast to other forest areas in Central Europe, of a low-to-moderate level. Dry deposition does not seem to play an important role. Distinct differences in the elemental output emerge owing to the differing site conditions. At Villingen, deposited nitrogen is almost totally retained, whereas at Schluchsee, nitrogen output and input are of the same order of magnitude. This is consistent with the different nitrogen nutrition level of the stands, microbial turnover in the soil, and former management practices (change of tree species, excessive nutrient export). Sulphur is not retained in either of the catchments. At Schluchsee, sulphur export exceeds input from canopy throughfall by a factor of 2.5. The higher output rates, both of nitrogen and sulphur at Schluchsee, are due to the much higher microbial mineralization of organic matter as shown by previous incubation tests. Differences in cation and proton export are mainly caused by a different drainage pattern. In contrast to the Schluchsee catchment, where vertical water pathways prevail, the streamwater solute output at Villingen is dominated by a shallow subsurface runoff. Atmospheric deposition is a contributing, but not the dominant, factor in the biogeochemical cycling at these sites. Hence, a generally applicable quantitative definition of 'critical loads', especially for nitrogen, is illusory and the use of such numbers will be misleading.

  11. Data on the development of the energy economy in 1975 in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    After a short commentary on energy policies in 1975, numerical data on energy production and consumption are given in tabular form. The data are classified according to energy carriers and stand in comparison to numerical data, some of which reach back more than a decade. (UA) [de

  12. 30 years of monitoring environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The individual sections of the report describe the development of monitoring functions and of the contamination of the atmosphere and the biosphere by radioactive substances. After environmental radioactivity due to the fallout of nuclear explosions reached a peak level in 1963, its contribution to radiation exposure today is insignificant in comparison with natural radioactivity. Moreover, monitoring by authorities of the emissions and the environmental impact of nuclear installations has been extended during the past 20 years in such a way that the existing network of measuring stations takes full account of the increased number of nuclear installations. The monitoring results show that nuclear installations do not make any considerable contribution to environmental radioactivity. (orig./PW) [de

  13. Consequences of large-scale implementation of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Coenen, R.; Conrad, F.; Klein, S.; Paschen, H.

    1979-02-01

    In this part of the study, selected questions concerning the economic aspects of the large-scale implementation of nuclear energy are discussed. First, the future contribution of nuclear energy towards covering total expected energy demand is defined within the framework of model projections designed with a view to fulfilling important overall economic goals. A comparison of these model projections with the present situation regarding reveals discrepancies which might, in the case of prolonged delays, result in shortages of electricity supply in the mid-eighties. The potential impacts of such delays, especially with regard to the situation on the labour market, as well as strategies to avoid difficulties in the supply of electricity, are analysed. This is followed by a comparison of the costs of electricity generation by coal-fired and nuclear power plants and by an analysis of the problem of financing the further implementation of nuclear energy. In a final chapter, the importance of the export of nuclear power plants for the German nuclear industry and for the economy as a whole is discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Systems study, radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany Vol. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingender, H.J.

    1976-12-01

    The study aimed at developing a method suitable for the assessment of waste disposal facitities. A method for carrying out probabilistic risk analyses was elaborated, and it was tested on facilities of a hypothetical but realistic reference system for the disposal of radioactive waste. The facilities chosen were: 1) A storage tank site for highly active, liquid waste concentrates for a reporcessing plant and 2) a vitrification plant for wastes of this kind. By means of this method, the risk of plants is to be assessed 1) quantitatively, 2) completely (if possible), and 3) in the stage of planning already, too. - A comparison of different approaches to risk evaluation demonstrated that nothing but the probabilistic risk concept should be used for quantitative assessment. This concept defines the risk as a product accident of frequency and accident consequences. A comparison of various methods for the determination accidents of shows that a complete risk evaluation can most likely be achieved with the fault-tree analysis - a deductive method. However, in special cases, other methods on their own or combined with the fault-tree analysis may also be used. (orig.) [de

  15. Polarisation and consensus: Public acceptance of new technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, T; Thurn, G; Williams, R; Mills, S [eds.

    1985-01-01

    The report starts out with characterizing the 'climate of acceptance'. After a discussion of the results of surveys on public opinion and attitude, programmes and strategies of some actors in the field of technology policy are introduced; the role of the education system and the influence of the mass media are examined briefly in this context. Further, the paper deals with the development of the problem of acceptance in the course of the past two decades. The debates on nuclear energy and the introduction of new information technologies are analysed with an eye to structural differences. Finally the report turns to some considerations on the role of the acceptance issue in the context of structural problems in society. In an annex it is attempted both to obtain an overview of the various meanings of the term 'acceptance' and to summarise tendencies of social science research on acceptance. (orig./HSCH).

  16. Determinants of the energy price system in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennicke, P.

    1983-01-01

    The seven theses presented in this article are to illustrate some basic determinants of the West German energy price system systematically and - at present mainly - empirically. The theses are related to the following sub-aspects: - relation between the consumption structure of primary energy and the heat-price relations, - influence of energy imports on the domestic energy price level, - existence and dimensions of differential revenues, - reproaches of bulling made to the petroleum industry, - extent and development of the differentiation of energy prices, - influence of governmental interventions on the energy price level, - theoretical price fixing principles and actual tariff policy.

  17. Risks and risk assessment according to the law of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.

    1980-01-01

    In civil and criminal law, danger is defined as the imminent possibility of an infringement of rights protected by the law. In the general law governing the security forces and public order, too, the concept of danger has been clearly defined, and, therefore the author discusses the guiding criteria for the definition of danger concepts for police regulations and the law governing supervision. In the legal fields of governmental supervision, the legislature - for reasons of preventing danger and for the protection of the public - has introduced public licensing, notification duties, information or other supervisory measures. By means of the industrial law, the law on emission control and the atomic energy law, criteria for the definition danger and danger assessment are described. (HSCH) [de

  18. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, Coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [de

  19. Economic instruments of environmental policy - USA and Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, A.

    1983-01-01

    The basic orientation of American practice should induce us to develop constructive ideas. The principle is simple: Companies profit directly by emission reductions, and thus air-pollution abatement is enhanced. Even after a short period, an emmission relief and cost reduction are perceptible which is encouraging. Further options under the current licensing procedures must be carefully examined, and even though they may not, at first glance, appear to be equally rational and systematic which fact fascinates many because the suggestions on an environmental levy are so obviously aiming at specific targets. We should, therefore, not turn a deaf ear to a step-by-step approach with instruments of environmental policy which gains by experiments and errors.

  20. Polarisation and consensus: Public acceptance of new technologies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petermann, T.; Thurn, G.

    1985-01-01

    The report starts out with characterizing the 'climate of acceptance'. After a discussion of the results of surveys on public opinion and attitude, programmes and strategies of some actors in the field of technology policy are introduced; the role of the education system and the influence of the mass media are examined briefly in this context. Further, the paper deals with the development of the problem of acceptance in the course of the past two decades. The debates on nuclear energy and the introduction of new information technologies are analysed with an eye to structural differences. Finally the report turns to some considerations on the role of the acceptance issue in the context of structural problems in society. In an annex it is attempted both to obtain an overview of the various meanings of the term 'acceptance' and to summarise tendencies of social science research on acceptance. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Behavior Modification in Special Education in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkey, Peter

    1977-01-01

    West German literature on educational behavior modification is summarized, and empirical studies of behavior modification intervention with special education students at the elementary level are surveyed. (SBH)

  2. Management of spent fuel elements in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, A.; Messer, K.

    1989-01-01

    The duty of operators of nuclear installations to take care of radioactive waste management is regulated in paragraph 9a Atomic Energy Act, the prime principle of which is the reprocessing of radioactive waste. The reprocessing plant in Wackersdorf having been given up, long-term waste management of German nuclear power plants is assured by European reprocessing plants. The costs are covered as well. (DG) [de

  3. Amount of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Waste inventory for the year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schuhmacher, J.

    1986-03-01

    On December 31, 1984, about 53 200 waste packages were stored in intermediate storage facilities. The unconditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 7 000 m 3 . The volume of the conditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 25 100 m 3 . Thereof the waste from nuclear research establishments made up about 10 000 m 3 , the waste from the operation of nuclear power plants about 7 400 m 3 and the waste from spent fuel reprocessing about 5 100 m 3 . In addition the future amount of conditioned radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation was prognosticated. Due to this forecast an amount of about 238 000 m 3 of these wastes is expected in the year 2000. In 1984 a capacity of about 87 800 m 3 for the intermediate storage of radioactive wastes was available. On December 31, 1984, this capacity was utilized by unconditioned and conditioned radioactive wastes to about 37%. It may be concluded from the data on the expected amount of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation and on the utilization factor of the intermediate storage facilities that no bottlenecks are to be assumed up to the planned operation of the Konrad repository. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Large-scale research in the Federal Republic of Germany. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, W.

    1986-01-01

    The name is misleading: in the biggest of 13 large-scale research institutions, the KFA Nuclear Research Centre Juelich, nuclear research is now only one sphere of activities among many, besides other areas of research such as computer science, materials, and environmental research. This change in the areas of main emphasis constitutes the successful attempt - or so it seems up to now - of a 'research dinosaur' to answer to the necessities of an altered 'research landscape'. (orig.) [de

  5. Environmental status report. A survey of the ecological situation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The book examines the ecological situation in the country. The major environmental issues are reviewed: nuclear power, renewable energy sources, air pollution, nature conservation, forest decline, environmental policy and pollution control laws, regional planning and development. Every chapter analyses the current situation, characterises the policy pursued by the political parties in the Bundestag, and presents an outline of remedial measures as far as there still is reason to hope for improvements. The annex presents a keyword index, a glossary, a list of major organisations for environmental protection, and an annotated list of literature for further reading. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. The treatment and conditioning of transuranelement bearing wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, H.

    1986-01-01

    Transuranelement bearing wastes (TRU wastes) differ from other radioactive wastes (with the exception of high level wastes from reprocessing) primarily by the longevity and high radiotoxity of many of their radionuclides. The volumes and total TRU content of these wastes are still quite small. Due to the present absence of a repository for radioactive wastes in the FRG, no definitions of TRU wastes and no acceptance criteria for these wastes have been fixed so far. Anyway, as only waste disposal into deep geological formations is envisaged for the time being, the limits for the TRU content do not need to be as low as in countries practicing shallow land burial. During the experimental disposal in the Asse salt mine, wastes with a TRU-content <5μCi/g were considered as non-TRU waste. There is some probability that in the future a similar value may be fixed. The present practice in TRU waste management is primarily determined by this situation. However, this system is neither ideal from a fundamental point of view nor in the long range; and, therefore, research and development work is going on for the development of an advanced TRU waste management system which should meet the requirements of an industrial scale fast breeder fuel cycle, and also improve the acceptance of such a program by the public. (Auth.)

  7. Development of dedicated nuclear heating plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzmann, C.A.; Schroeter, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    In many cases district heating is both economically and environmentally superior over directly burning of fossil fuels in individual furnaces primarily because of the efficiency of the usual applied co-generation principle with regard to fuel utilization and flue gas clean up. In principle, this argument should carry even greater weight in conjunction with nuclear energy. The major draw back of dedicated heating reactors as seen up to now concerns the high specific capital cost for the application-dictated small reactor size. The paper discusses by way of a specific example in what directions solutions are being sought

  8. Research reactor spent nuclear fuel shipment from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, K.; Broz, V.; Novosad, P.; Podlaha, J.; Svitak, F.

    2009-01-01

    In May 2004, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative agreement was signed by the governments of the United States and the Russian Federation. The goal of this initiative is to minimize, in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, the existing threat of misuse of nuclear and radioactive materials for terrorist purposes, particularly highly enriched uranium (HEU), fresh and spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and plutonium, which have been stored in a number of countries. Within the framework of the initiative, HEU materials and SNF from research reactors of Russian origin will be transported back to the Russian Federation for reprocessing/liquidation. The program is designated as the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program and is similar to the U.S. Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program, which is underway for nuclear materials of United States origin. These RRRFR activities are carried out under the responsibilities of the respective ministries (i.e., U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian Federation Rosatom). The Czech Republic and the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, plc (NRI) joined Global Threat Reduction Initiative in 2004. During NRI's more than 50 years of existence, radioactive and nuclear materials had accumulated and had been safely stored on its grounds. In 1995, the Czech regulatory body , State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS), instructed NRI that all ecological burdens from its past activities must be addressed and that the SNF from the research reactor LVR -15 had to be transported for reprocessing. At the end of November 2007, all these activities culminated with the unique shipment to the Russian Federation of 527 fuel assemblies of SNF type EK-10 (enrichment 10% U-235) and IRT-M (enrichment 36% and 80% U-235) and 657 irradiated fuel rods of EK-10 fuel, which were used in LVR-15 reactor. (authors)

  9. Mobile Learning Usage and Preferences of Vocational Secondary School Students: The cases of Austria, the Czech Republic, and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biloš Antun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the current status of mobile device usage and mobile learning adoption in vocational education and training (VET secondary schools in three European Union countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, and Germany. The research focused on exploring students’ mobile device usage habits, their attitudes toward education in the context of mobile application support, and preferences regarding mobile learning features. The research confirmed a high level of mobile device usage among secondary school students on a daily basis; smartphones and laptops were the most commonly used devices. The vast majority of participants perceived themselves to be advanced mobile device users, but reported a deficit of ICT-assisted mobile learning experience. However, the majority of respondents with prior ICT-assisted education experience described it as a positive or very positive experience. In addition, study participants tended to agree that mobile learning will play a significant role in education in the future. The paper also explored the reported differences among the students in the three countries and suggested several implications for understanding students’ views of mobile learning. The findings provide insights into possibilities of m-learning implementation while creating a framework for m-learning application development in the VET secondary school environment.

  10. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  11. What matters 2010. Annual report of the Federal Environment Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-27

    The annual report under consideration of the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the following themes: (1) Future mobility - Today's best investment; (2) Environmental protection - A barrier to investment for agriculture ?; (3) Emissions trading - The engine of climate policy ?; (4) The Federal Environment Agency (Departmental research, credo, organisation, data and facts, publications).

  12. Situation Report--Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti (French Polynesia), Tonga, Turkey, and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 21 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti, Tonga, Turkey, and United…

  13. The uses and abuses of participatory ideologies in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješ Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the formation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY has organized large work and youth actions aimed at rebuilding the country after the Second World War. The main hypothesis of this paper is that in Yugoslavia there was no participation in the true sense, but that there were mechanisms which represented the ideology of participation. Work actions had huge impact on rebuilding the land, but they were not voluntary - which is a basic requirement of modern theory of participation. Likewise, the term participation is further explained in this paper, in order to further explain the thesis of formal participation in the former Yugoslavia. Student protests in 1968 were not an isolated case of revolt against the system, the basic characteristics of popular revolt that had its roots back in the early sixties. The aim of this paper is theoretical analysis of the theory of participation and the basic characteristics of Yugoslavia, in order to show that the participation of the people in the exercise of power was just an illusion, ie. formal. Case Study about films of the sixties and seventies in Yugoslavia illustrates the processes of censorship and imposition of ideology of participation.

  14. Note to the Secretariat from the Permanent Mission of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic to the International Organizations in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document reproduces the Note received by the Director General from the Permanent Mission of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic to the International Organizations in Vienna in connection with the dissolution of the CSFR on 31 December 1992

  15. The Future Demand for Long-term Carers in Germany: Model Calculations for the Federal Länder until 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Pohl

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the birth rate shortfall, at the same time as an increase in life expectancy, will lead to more elderly people living in Germany in future, in both relative and absolute terms. The possible development in the demand for professional long-term carers until 2020 for the individual Federal Länder is illustrated in this essay using model calculations. Because of the differences in demographic change between the Federal Länder, the labour market for long-term care will develop heterogeneously in the federal territory as a whole. The increase in the number of persons in need of long-term care from its current level of 2.25 million to a forecast level of 2.9 million by 2020 will mean that professional long-term care in particular will continue to become more significant in Germany as a whole. The demand for long-term carers (in full-time equivalent posts could increase from its current level of 561,000 to up to 900,000 by 2020. The actual development on the professional labour market will however be heavily dependent on the commitment of care-giving relatives. Additionally, possible productivity advances in the provision of long-term care services will play a role, as can be shown in various scenarios of the model calculations.

  16. 20 Years of engagement for renewable resources in Germany. 20 Years FNR; 20 Jahre Einsatz fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe in Deutschland. 20 Jahre FNR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-01

    The Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) presents an survey on the thematically widespread field of 'Renewable resources in Germany'. The main part of this magazine includes a specialist article of a guest author as well as a report to the main sub-themes: bio-energy, material use, and some superior aspects. The last part of this magazine is devoted to the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. and its history of origin, its structure and tasks in the course of time. A survey by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) completes this topic.

  17. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  18. Experiences gained in the conditioning of radioactive wastes from regional depots by example of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, and recommendations for the establishment of regional depots in the new Federal States of unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, W.

    1992-01-01

    Details are given about radioactive waste management and radioactive waste management fundamentals as well as about the respective methods applied by the Baden-Wuerttemberg radioacive waste depot. The waste treatment, quality assurance and internal inspection methods applied by Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) are described, and recommendations are given for the establishment of regional depots in the new provinces of the Federal Republic of Germany. These recommendations which are based on Western German standards before unification suggest regional depots with combined administrative systems which watch over the depot use and charges, the foundation of a waste management association responsible for the disposal, transport, intermediate storage and conditioning of radioactive wastes in the new provinces, and the establishment of a facility to be run by the proposed waste management association for the intermediate storage of conditioned waste packages intended for final disposal. (orig.) [de

  19. Financial potential and economic development trend of Chuvash Republic, Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubovtseva E.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this article discusses the economic potential and development trend of Chuvash Republic. All important economic indicators of Chuvash Republic like, Gross Regional Production (GRP, employment, export, import, performance of credit organization, per capita income have been taken into consideration to analyze economic performance. This paper also shows how any increase in per capita income effects socio-economic condition. Finally, this paper proposes adequate and proper measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness in policy formation and use of financial resources in Chuvash Republic on the basis of analysis. Only secondary source of data has been used for analysis.

  20. energy and climatic policy of the federal government of Germany - State of the art end 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In the context of the german objectives concerning the reduction of the carbon dioxide emissions, this document presents the measures implementing by the Germany to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions in accordance of the Kyoto protocol. The four main axis of the ''integrated package climate and energy'', the evaluation of the IEKP and the no nuclear program are discussed. The legislative framework, the future actions and the financial assistance program are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  1. Environmental radioactivity in Germany. Report of the federal installations and the Federal office of radiation protection. Data and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    This report is a compilation and evaluation of data on radioactivity in the environment and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Germany from 2011 to 2013. The mean radiation exposure of the public in Germany was about 4.0 mSv in 2013, of which natural radiation exposure accounted for about 2.1 mSv and man-made radiation exposure for 1.9 mSv. An international work group is in charge of the preparation of quality standards for radon measurements. These latter also serve as a basis to implement the regulations of the new EURATOM Basic Safety Standards Directive. Rice grown within the contaminated zone around Fukushima has been certified as reference material for food monitoring. The trace analysis laboratory for airborne radioactive substances obtained several striking results of measurements performed during the reporting period. Man-made radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident were detectable, too. Assessment of anthropogenic radioactivity also requires thorough measurement of ''natural'' radiation components. Three different measurement areas are used as a reference for calibration. Discharges of radioactive substances into the exit air and wastewaters from nuclear power plants remained far below the authorised limit from 2011 to 2013. There has been a trend of decreasing discharges since 1975. The nine nuclear power plant units in operation at the end of the reporting period had a total capacity of 12.7 GW and accounted for 15 per cent of power generation. The annual mean values provided by the measuring network of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD; German Meteorological Service) amounted to 0.6 mBq/m"3, 0.7 mBq/m"3 and 0.7 mBq/m"3 for the total -activity in the air and 58 Bq/m"2, 38 Bq/m"2, and 27 Bq/m"2 for the total -activity deposited by precipitation in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. The higher annual value for 2011 is due to the Fukushima releases. The activity concentrations of "8"5Kr measured by the BfS in Freiburg remained at about 1.5 Bq

  2. Communication dated 26 November 2004 received from the Permanent Representatives of France, Germany, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United Kingdom concerning the agreement signed in Paris on 15 November 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 26 November 2004 from the Permanent Representatives of France, Germany, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United Kingdom, attaching the text of the agreement signed by the Governments of France, Germany, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with the support of the High Representative of the European Union, and the Islamic Republic of Iran, in Paris on 15 November 2004. The letter and, as requested therein, the text of the agreement, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  3. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 7 December 1991 and signed in Vienna on 13 December 1991

  4. Nuclear licensing and supervision in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The legal instrument for implementing the licensing and supervisory procedure is specified by statutory ordinances, guidelines and provisions. The licensing requirements for nuclear power plants on the final storage of radioactive wastes in the federal republic of germany are described. The nuclear facilities are subject to continuous state supervision after they have been granted. The appendix gives a brief account of the most important ordinances relating to the AtG and extracts from the Nuclear Safety Convention. (HP)

  5. Encouraging Family and Parent Education: Program Development and Evaluation in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Landhäusser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a European-wide strategy of governance aimed at improving support for parents and families, the following report details the conceptualization and evaluation of a federal state program 4 in Baden-Württemberg (Germany which was launched in 2008 to encourage family and parent education. Two program components, a voucher system for parents with a new-born child and an element that emphasizes educational offers for families with special needs in particular living situations, were started to increase requests for educational courses. The aim was to establish and deepen cooperation between different public and private professional services that are in contact with parents and their children. The results show that main goals of the program were reached.

  6. FEATURES OF PRICING OF THE MORTGAGE MARKET IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana KASYANENKO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is determined by the importance of the market of mortgage loans as the main instrument of social policy. The aim of the article is to identify the relationship between the volume of mortgage loans and the value of residential real estate on both the primary and secondary markets. The article consists of two parts. The main objective of the first part of this article is to clarify the concepts and features of mortgage loans, and identification of peculiarities of mortgage loans in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova. The methodological basis of the work is made up of methods of analysis and synthesis, the combination of logical and historical approaches, methods of economic comparison and statistical analysis. The result of the study of the first part of the article is to identify the stages of development of mortgage loans in the Russian Federation, an analysis of prices in the primary and secondary markets of residential property on the basis of aggregate statistical indicators that reflect the status and characteristics of the housing market. The Russian experience is correlated with the peculiarities of the development of the mortgage market in the Republic of Moldova.

  7. Study the Attitude, Knowledge and Experience of Coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic Of Iran toward Sport Psychology Counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Sheikh Rahmati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was study the attitude, knowledge and experience of coaches of Karate Federation Islamic Republic of Iran toward sport psychology counseling. For this purpose, 150 official coaches (75 women and 75 men of karate Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran who had grade 1 and 2 of certified coach and had participated in the senior Championships of Iran, championship adolescents of young people and under 21 years, national team qualifiers and teams participating in premier League, had participated in this research as individual. In order to collect the required information the researcher made and the research questionnaire Sports coaches on sports psychology was used. Research results by using a two variable Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is meaningful relationship between experience and attitude to sport psychology consulting and as well as between knowledge and attitudes toward sport psychology consulting that is (p=0.001,p=0.001 respectively. also results of research using independent t-tests showed that there is not meaningful relationship between male and female attitudes towards sport psychology consulting (p=0.207 while there is meaningful difference between adult and youth educators' attitudes towards sports psychology counseling (p=0.001. It seems that according to common concerns that exist between coaches and athletes perhaps existence sport psychology can be effective to athletes and coaches in reducing stress and achieve the desired result.

  8. Outbreak of hepatitis A in two federal states of Germany: bakery products as vehicle of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, K; Bremer, V; Grabe, C; Van Treeck, U; Schreier, E; Höhne, M; Ammon, A; Alpers, K

    2006-12-01

    In April 2004, increased numbers of hepatitis A were noted in six neighbouring districts in Germany. Exploratory interviews showed that patients had consumed bakery products from company X where two employees had been diagnosed with hepatitis A in February. A case-control study of consumption of products of company X was carried out through telephone interviews. Altogether, 64 cases were identified. Fifty-two cases and 112 controls aged >or=16 years were included in the case-control study. In total, 46/52 cases and 37/112 controls had consumed company X products [odds ratio (OR) 15.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.1-39.7]. Of these, 36/46 cases and 16/37 controls had consumed pastries (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.8-12.3), 25/46 cases and 12/37 controls had consumed filled doughnuts (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.1). Sequence analysis of the VP1-2A junction region indicated 100% strain homology between cases and an infected employee of company X. We recommended reinforcement of hygiene precautions, and consideration of a prolongation of compulsory work absence after post-exposure vaccination.

  9. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...... developed toward an open access order; open access was not, however, sustainable and collapsed in 1930–31. This case of a failed open access order suggests refining the framework of limited and open access orders in further work. It shows that the political process of “creative destruction” might result...

  10. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  11. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the applications of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of an Agreement by exchange of letters with the Federative Republic of Brazil in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 10 June 1997 and entered into force on that date

  12. Ethnical distance of the citizens of Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the nations of former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puhalo Srđan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of Ethnical distance with the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study was made using Bogardus' scale of social distance, on 1000 interviewees of the Federation of BiH and 850 interviewees of Republika Srpska. The citizens of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina reject the Romas the most, followed by the Albanians and Macedonians. This is followed by the Serbs and Montenegrians, while Slovenians and Croats are the least rejected. Prejudices of the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Romas, Albanians, and Macedonians are much more important for the rejection or accepting of offered relations, than it was the case with open hostility and war conflicts with the Serbs, Montenegrians, and Croats. In the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina a distinction is made in the degree of ethnical distance of Bosniaks and Croats to the nations who lived in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Offered relations are more rejected by the Croats than by the Bosniaks. The citizens of Republika Srpska accept the Muslims (Bosniaks and Romas the least. This is followed by the Croats, Slovenians, and Macedonians, and the Montenegrians are rejected the least. The citizens of Republika Srpska refuse that they or the members of their family marry a member of another nation. Thus they object any possibility for the members of other nations to be found on managing position, or any situation where they themselves would be in a subordinate position in society in relation to the members of other nationalities.

  13. Satisfaction with the quality of stroke care in the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on comparing and analyzing the satisfaction of quality of medical care for patients with acute stroke in the Russian Federation (RF and the People’s Republic of China (PRC to identify major problems and the most successful organizational solutions in the system of medical care for patients with stroke. The analysis of differences was performed by the following parameters: quality of care in hospital assessed by patients; the attitude of the medical and nursing staff and the physician to patients (assessed by patients; timely diagnosis and treatment; the level of staff qualifications assessed by patients; satisfaction with the outcome of treatment; availability and volume of conversations held with the patient about the nature and causes of the disease; test results by the life quality scale EQ-5D.

  14. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met

  15. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met [es

  16. Agreement between the Republic of Slovenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and the Protocol Additional thereto, entered into force for the Republic of Slovenia on 1 September 2006 [es

  17. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Estonia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons came into force for the Republic of Estonia on 1 December 2005 [es

  18. Agreement between the Czech Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and the Protocol Additional thereto, entered into force for the Czech Republic on 1 October 2009 [es

  19. The Text of the Agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons entered into force for the Slovak Republic on 1 December 2005 [es

  20. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Exchange of Letters concerning an agreement with the Federative Republic of Brazil in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 September 1999, and entered into force on that date