WorldWideScience

Sample records for germany democratic republic

  1. Discussing euthanasia in two German states: scientific terminology and public discourse in the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, Hartmut; Nowak, Andreas; Roccia, Maria Gracia; Salloch, Sabine

    2017-08-18

    Discussions on euthanasia ("Sterbehilfe") that took place in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) have remained widely unnoticed by the historical sciences. By referring to various publications dating from the 1950s until today, this paper presents the basic ideas of the debate on euthanasia in the GDR and compares them-partly synchronically, partly diachronically-with the situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). A special focus is placed on positions and terminology related to medical ethics at the end of life in the former two German states. The methodical approach of the paper allows a transparent analysis of the question of whether the GDR debates on euthanasia are significant and independent, and whether they are relevant to current ethical debates on end-of-life practices in Germany.

  2. NPPCI - topics in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegenbein, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes research and development activities in the field of computerized operator support systems, self-powered detectors, boiling diagnostic and loose part detection systems in the German Democratic Republic

  3. Democratic Republic of Congo Jobs Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Aterido, Reyes; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Merotto, Dino; Petracco, Carly; Sanchez-Reaza, Javier

    2018-01-01

    The economy of the Democratic Republic of Congo is not creating sufficient jobs for its young and rapidly growing workforce. Although the Congolese economy has experienced fast growth and poverty has declined, further reducing poverty will require more dynamic job creation and continued reductions in fertility rates. The current youth bulge and potential demographic dividend will open a un...

  4. Internet Backbone in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Feasibility ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Internet Backbone in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Feasibility Study and Advocacy. During 7-10 February 2005, representatives of five francophone African countries (Cameroon, Morocco, Niger, Sénégal, and the Democratic Republic of Congo - DRC) met to consider ways and means of galvanizing the appropriation ...

  5. Sport in the German Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of China. A Sociopolitical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Thomas D.

    1985-01-01

    The use of sports in the German Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of China is both propagandist and ideological. International sports competition can enhance the country's image and domestic sport is a means of political socialization. (DF)

  6. [History of Medical Mycology in the former German Democratic Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, C; Blaschke-Hellmessen, Renate; Kielstein, P

    2002-01-01

    After the Second World War the development of medical mycology in Germany had taken a very different course in the east and west parts depending on the political division. In this respect our contribution deals with the situation in the former German Democratic Republic. Efficient mycological centres were founded step by step almost in all medical universities on the basis of the mycological laboratories in dermatological hospitals competent for diagnostic work, but also for teaching and scientific research. In this context biologists were the main stay of mycology, they finally were integrated to the same degree in the universities like physicians. The effectiveness of the Gesellschaft für Medizinische Mykologie der DDR (GMM), its board of directors and its working groups as well as the topics of human and animal mycology during this period are described. Especially the merger of the GMM with the Deutschsprachige Mykologische Gesellschaft after the reunification of Germany without problems and the kind co-operation of Prof. Dr. Johannes Müller during this procedure are emphasized.

  7. The electricity outlook in the former German Democrat Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringeis, Wilhelm

    1991-01-01

    A reliable and low-price electricity supply is an essential part of the economic reconstruction now underway in the five new federal states (lander) of unified Germany, which were created from the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Acting on the request of the last government of the GDR (which was freely elected), the West German utilities RWE Energie, PreussenElektra and Bayernwerk had already investigated suitable means to ensure the power supply of the five new states after unification. On 22 August 1990, after intensive negotiations with the government of the former GDR and the Treuhand privatisation agency, a set of agreements concerning the takeover and modernisation of the energy industry in eastern Germany was signed. The other German inter-connected utilities are also parties to the agreements. The essential task now for the West German utilities is to develop a reliable, low-priced, electricity supply capacity in the new federal states, which means taking long-term investment decisions. The extremely high environmental impact of the existing facilities must also be reduced considerably. (author)

  8. Nuclear power in the energy economics of the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The present structure of the energy economy in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is described and the need of nuclear power stations for the future supply of energy is demonstrated. The selection of the type of nuclear reactor, the existing operating experience with nuclear equipment and the collaboration in this field with the U.S.S.R. is described. The training of personnel in nuclear techniques is noted. (H.E.G.)

  9. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  10. Transitional justice and peacebuilding in the Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost two decades ago, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was confronted with a vicious cycle of internationalised armed conflicts in which between six and ten million people are estimated to have been killed. Those conflicts were resolved through peace agreements between the leaders of the warring parties ...

  11. Political Education in the Former German Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia

    1996-01-01

    Investigates civic education curricular reform in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Discusses the problems inherent in reforming an entire educational system, from textbooks to teachers, originally designed for Marxist-Leninist purposes. Examines the German state educational structure and the role that the main political parties play in…

  12. Religious Networks in Post-conflict Democratic Republic of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With reference to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), religious groups wield enormous influence in the public space as providers of social services in a polity that has been characterised by years of misrule, declining state capacity and protracted conflict. The conflict in the DRC has deepened the imperative for ...

  13. Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Access to improved sanitation is a major concern in the Lao People s Democratic Republic. Only 63 percent of the population of the country had access to improved sanitation facilities in 2010. Sanitation conditions are worse in rural areas. This study aims to generate evidence on the costs and benefits of sanitation improvements Lao PDR.

  14. [International relationships in ophthalmology in the German Democratic Republic (GDR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähne, M

    2017-09-01

    International relationships in ophthalmology in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) were directed by the government and predominantly promoted relationships to socialist countries in Eastern Europe. The lack of freedom of travel, restrictions of import for scientific journals and general prevention of contacts by the State security service led to a stagnation in daily practice and in research, mainly from 1961 until 1989.

  15. Environmental impacts of Chernobyl reactor accident in German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The radiation monitoring results published in this SAAS report correspond with the introductory paper to the compilation of data measured in the German Democratic Republic in the period May to September 1986, which was submitted to the IAEA in October 1986. The conclusion to be drawn from these results is that it was at no time necessary to restrict food consumption or to change nutritional habits in order to avoid detrimental health effects [fr

  16. Beyond the Wall: Typography from the German Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Grant; Yee, Joyce

    2004-01-01

    1989: The German Democratic Republic (GDR) still existed and the Berlin Wall was still standing. Communism was alive in Europe. Hard to believe now, yet only fifteen years ago, a reality. By 1990 the GDR was gone, but it lingers on in the memory of many people now as a dull, repressive, unimaginative place full of cheap plastic, grey concrete, goosestepping soldiers, sports stars with mullets, the dreaded Stasi secret police and of course, the Wall.\\ud \\ud These memories illustrate common Wes...

  17. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control.

  18. Current status of human taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-04-01

    Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality.

  19. The effects of family policies in the German Democratic Republic: a re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, A

    1990-01-01

    The author examines "the impact which various pro-natalist measures adopted since 1976 in the German Democratic Republic have had on women's birth cohorts....A period analysis of subsequent birth and fertility trends would seem to indicate that this policy was remarkably effective. The annual number of births...started to rise rapidly in 1976 and reached a peak of 245,132 births in 1980, an increase of 37%....Furthermore, comparison with the period fertility trend in the Federal Republic of Germany...shows that the gap between the two Germanys has widened since 1977...whereas the trends had been very similar in the two countries before that date....However...other factors should be taken into account: in particular, the number of marriages has fallen steeply during the last few years, and at the same time the number of births outside marriage has soared. These changes, which were in all probability prompted by the adoption of social legislation which favoured single mothers (or fathers)...must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of the new family policy." excerpt

  20. Nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syllus, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Brazil-Federal Republic of Germany Cooperation Agreement for constructing nuclear power plants, and the process of nuclear tecnology transfer in the different areas of design, are discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. NP issues in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.

    1994-01-01

    Status of nuclear energy production in Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Measures to qualify continuing operation of nuclear power plants and research activities on reactor materials aging studying are described

  2. Federal Republic of Germany: Commodities report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has compiled the facts and figures in a commodities report for 25 years. This report summarises Germany's mineral and energy commodities trading, consumption and supply situation. After fears of shortages in the early 70s, this 25-year-period was mainly characterised by the feeling that mineral resources would always be available on the international markets in adequate quantities. And although there has been no change in the situation even up to the present day, the world markets for mineral resources are currently undergoing a structural change: the old rule of thumb that 20% of humanity in Europe, the USA and Japan consumed more than 80% of resource production is no longer valid. With India, the People's Republic of China, not to mention other heavily populated emerging countries, over half of the world's population is now involved in the demand for minerals. This means that the growth in world economic demand for natural resources is at the beginning of a new growth curve. (orig.)

  3. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  4. Democratic Republic of Congo A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    ravaged by a brutal armed conflict. In comparison to the three past presidents, Joseph Kabila has managed to restore political stability and calm to much...DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-A FERTILE GROUND FOR INSTABILITY IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION STATES A thesis presented to the Faculty of...From - To) AUG 2016 – JUNE 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Democratic Republic of Congo-A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region

  5. The state of emergency care in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Malemo Kalisya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is the second largest country on the African continent with a population of over 70 million. It is also a major crossroad through Africa as it borders nine countries. Unfortunately, the DRC has experienced recurrent political and social instability throughout its history and active fighting is still prevalent today. At least two decades of conflict have devastated the civilian population and collapsed healthcare infrastructure. Life expectancy is low and government expenditure on health per capita remains one of the lowest in the world. Emergency Medicine has not been established as a specialty in the DRC. While the vast majority of hospitals have emergency rooms or salle des urgences, this designation has no agreed upon format and is rarely staffed by doctors or nurses trained in emergency care. Presenting complaints include general and obstetric surgical emergencies as well as respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses. Most patients present late, in advanced stages of disease or with extreme morbidity, so mortality is high. Epidemics include HIV, cholera, measles, meningitis and other diarrhoeal and respiratory illnesses. Lack of training, lack of equipment and fee-for-service are cited as barriers to care. Pre-hospital care is also not an established specialty. New initiatives to improve emergency care include training Congolese physicians in emergency medicine residencies and medic ranger training within national parks.

  6. Democratic People's Republic of Korea LWR project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994, at Geneva, the United States and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) signed an Agreed Framework as a first step toward resolving international concerns about nuclear activities in the DPRK. This Agreement, when implemented, will ultimately lead to the complete dismantlement of those aspects of the DPRK's nuclear program, including reprocessing-related facilities, that have undermined the viability of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and the stability of the Asia-Pacific region. The essence of the Agreement is that the DPRK will take near-term action to cease the activities of concern and permit some International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) verification inspection. In the future, it will dismantle its production reactors and accept full-scope IAWA safeguards. In return, the United Stated agreed to lead an international effort to supply the DPRK with light-water reactors which are less of proliferation concern than are graphite-moderated production reactors. Until the first LWR is in operation the DPRK will receive shipments of heavy oil to replace the energy lost by shutting down the production reactors

  7. Ocular pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Sulyok

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease.

  8. Statement dated 1 June 1994 by a spokesman for the Foreign Ministry of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The attached text of a statement by a spokesman for the Foreign Ministry of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, dated 1 June 1994, is being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. This text was received by the Secretariat before the withdrawal of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the Agency

  9. Unlimited - nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, W.

    1986-01-01

    Unlimited nuclear liabilities as in force in the Federal Republic of Germany go beyond the international rules of the Paris liability agreement. The unlimited liability mainly roots in the positive operational experiences and safety balance of the 20 nuclear power plants which meanwhile are in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear liabilities must not be confounded with scepticism as to the utilization of nuclear power. Extraordinary requirements of that kind should rather be reflecting responsibility and clear ideas and notions of the advantages and risks of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  10. Diphtheria outbreak in Lao People's Democratic Republic, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Carolyn; Tiwari, Tejpratap; Macneil, Adam; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Soulaphy, Chanthavy; Souliphone, Phouthone; Reyburn, Rita; Ramirez Gonzalez, Alejandro; Watkins, Margaret; Goodson, James L

    2016-08-05

    Diphtheria is a vaccine-preventable disease. When vaccination coverage and population immunity are low, outbreaks can occur. We investigated a diphtheria outbreak in Lao People's Democratic Republic that occurred during 2012-2013 and highlighted challenges in immunization services delivery to children in the country. We reviewed diphtheria surveillance data from April 1, 2012-May 31, 2013. A diphtheria case was defined as a respiratory illness consisting of pharyngitis, tonsillitis, or laryngitis, and an adherent tonsillar or nasopharyngeal pseudomembrane. To identify potential risk factors for diphtheria, we conducted a retrospective case-control study with two aged-matched neighborhood controls per case-patient in Houaphan Province, using bivariate analysis to calculate matched odds ratio (mOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Reasons for non-vaccination among unvaccinated persons were assessed. Sixty-two clinical cases of diphtheria and 12 diphtheria-related deaths were reported in seven of 17 provinces. Among case-patients, 43 (69%) were diphtheria case-patients from Houaphan province and 79 matched-controls were enrolled. Five (12%) case-patients and 20 (25%) controls had received DTP3 (mOR=0.4, CI=0.1-1.7). No diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine was received by 20 (48%) case-patients and 38 (46%) controls. Among case-patients and controls with no DTP dose, 43% of case-patients and 40% of controls lacked access to routine immunization services. Suboptimal DTP3 coverage likely caused the outbreak. To prevent continued outbreaks, access to routine immunization services should be strengthened, outreach visits need to be increased, and missed opportunities need to be minimized. In the short term, to rapidly increase population immunity, three rounds of DTP immunization campaign should be completed, targeting children aged 0-14years in affected provinces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Tracy A [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.

  12. School Psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietzel, Gerd; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews origins and evaluation of the present status of school psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany, emphasizing strict separation of school tracks. Notes that system has been evolving into more flexible organizational structure in recent years. Discusses roles and functions of school psychology, administration, training, relationships…

  13. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  14. Teaching the Holocaust in the Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe the approaches used by educators to facilitate learning about the Holocaust. The examples provided in this paper are one of various approaches that are used by educators teaching in the Federal Republic of Germany. Approaches will be different from country to country, from school to school, and from educator…

  15. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Lao People's Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Determination for the Lao People's Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presidential Determination for the Lao People's Democratic Republic Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended Presidential...

  16. Sodium boiling noise topics in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegenbein, D.

    1982-01-01

    In German Democratic Republic, the research and development program GDR in the field of nuclear energy is directed' only to selected topics. For instances in the Central Institute for Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences a number of tasks related to process diagnosis have been solved as a contribution to the safe and economical operation of our nuclear. power plants. As a result of these investigations noise diagnosis systems have been developed for the primary loops of the 440 MW units. Signals of about 120 detectors can be analysed wth this equipment for plant surveillance and for an early detection of malfunctions. Some topics in the research on Fast Breeder Reactors are directed to selected contributions in the field of process diagnosis. Their solution shall support a fast industrial application of this reactor type. In addition to calculations for reactor core design, primarily related to operational safety of large LMFBRs, noise analysis technique has been applied to acoustic signals for leak detection in sodium heated steam generators as well as for boiling detection in the reactor core. It seems to be promising to investigate whether the same signal analysis methods can be applied to leak and boiling detection, respectively. If this would be possible one could take a standard monitor into consideration for the surveillance of both plant components. Our recent investigations have shown that the beginning of the sodium-water reaction as well as the inspection of sodium boiling is characterized by changes in the statistic signal parameters. Deviations from the normal state can be recognized by measuring actual values of such statistic characteristics of acoustic and/or neutron flux signals. Activities were concentrated mainly on surveillance methods for sodium heated steam generators. A system is in preparation using acoustic as well as chemical methods, taking into account the requirement of diversity for a surveillance system. The boiling

  17. Commitment to a Lady’s First WIN : Banking Innovation in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Awiti Owuor

    2011-01-01

    Doing business is challenging in the Democratic Republic of Congo and presents opportunities for innovative approaches to banking, especially for micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) - and particularly for women entrepreneurs. But it is getting easier, thanks to innovating banking. This SmartLesson reviews some of the early lessons learned from the ongoing implementation of a Women...

  18. Heath sector network governance and State-building in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bwimana, Aembe

    2017-01-01

    Longstanding patterns of interaction exist between state and non-state actors seeking to improve public health in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). DRC is a weak state, and, in many cases, private actors have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of state health care provision. However,

  19. Scorpion envenomation in pygmies from Democratic Republic of Congo, the example of Pelenge Center, Lomela, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Biezakala Mudiandambu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey among the pygmies of central Democratic Republic of Congo, the incidence of scorpion stings seemed very high with a severity greater than expected. Species responsible were not identified. Specific studies are needed to clarify the risk emerging in the equatorial African forest.

  20. An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. Nur; J. Groen (Jan); H. Heuvelmans; W. Tuynman; C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn February 1998, an outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported from the Kapalata military camp in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The illness was characterized by an acute onset of fever associated with severe headache, arthralgia, backache, neurologic signs, abdominal

  1. An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. Nur; J. Groen (Jan); H. Heuvelmans; W. Tuynman; C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn February 1998, an outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported from the Kapalata military camp in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The illness was characterized by an acute onset of fever associated with severe headache, arthralgia, backache, neurologic

  2. Managing (Fiscally) Resource Windfalls : Exploring Policy Options for the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto-Moreira, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    How should resource-dependent countries respond (fiscally) to resource price volatility? This note studies what determines revenue allocation between a "spend today" strategy and a "save now-spend tomorrow" approach in the context of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It uses a three-sector model in which public infrastructure investment has tangible benefits for private production and inve...

  3. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  4. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is given on the seismic events in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 1986. Further articles deal with statistics on the earthquakes in the period from 1974 to 1986, reports on single regions as well as a list of the earthquakes world-wide and the damages resulting in the year 1986. (orig./HP) With 12 figs., 5 tabs [de

  5. Underground storage development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponheuer, T.

    1990-01-01

    As the demand for gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is increasingly dependent upon temperature, underground storage is becoming a more and more important tool for the adjustment of supply load factors to the patterns of gas demand. Total working gas capacity is expected to double by the year 2000. Capacity requirements must be planned for a design winter, but allowances must also be made for operational flexibility, but management of incidents and the decrease in deliverability mainly from porous rock storage fields towards the end of the withdrawal season. Storage development potential in the Federal Republic of Germany is adequate for these requirements. However, the substantial uncertainties associated with the various factors determining future storage needs, administrative and licensing procedures, difficulties with regard to storage site acceptance by the general public and the resulting long project lead times confront gas companies from the Federal Republic of Germany with a complex planning problem and a major technical and commercial challenge, considering the estimated capital outlay of 4 to 5 billion DM in 1988 Deutschmarks. To master this challenge and to be able to provide secure and competitive gas supplies, the gas industry must continue to operate in a market economy which remains undistorted by new legislation and regulation. (author). 11 figs

  6. Energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The tenor and consensus of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany have been affected and shaken by the discussion of damage to forests at the beginning of 1985, the rapidly slumping petroleum prices, the Chernobyl reactor accident, and the resulting emotionalized energy policy debates overshadowing the elections for the Land government, the Senate and the Bundestag. However, the responsible decision making organs still seem to feel a strong need for a consensus of that kind. ET-editors have therefore been trying to find out about the situation of 'energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany' late in 1986. The Federal Government, the parliamentary factions, the parties, Land governments, labor unions and BDI, the coal, petroleum and natural gas industry as well as the manufacturers and managers of nuclear power plants were asked to express their opinion on the following questions: How will the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany be provided for in the future. What are the pros and cons of a nuclear phase-out. Should energy economy be reorganized. What is expected from and desired for the development of individual regions or energy sources, respectively. All but a few of above organs answered the questions. The statements therefore give a representative survey of the opinions and attitudes of the relevant decision-making organs and of different institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Peoples Democratic Party in the Fourth Republic of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mukhtar Katsina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Their nature and functions make political parties central to democratic governance especially in the new democracies of Africa that face the challenge of building strong and enduring democratic institutions. It is accepted that the existing trend in most of these democracies of one big party dominating the political space weakens democracy and undermines its prospects for consolidation. Big parties—usually the ruling ones—exhibit tendencies such as absence of internal democracy that are antithetical to democratic governance. While observations such as these are incontestable, there is little understanding into the nature, character, ideology, and internal structure of big parties generally. In this article, I attempt to address this concern. Specifically, I examine the nature, structure, and ideology of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP, Nigeria’s ruling party at the federal level with considerable strength at local level between 1999 and 2015. Relying on data obtained from multiple sources, I investigate the process of its formation, the nature of its ideology, internal organization, its electoral strength, and how absence of internal democracy contributed significantly to its defeat in 2015 general elections.

  8. Migration Issues in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    acts as a form of insurance against failures in the local economy and job market , as the household is receiving income from differing locations and...E. S. (1966). A Theory of Migration. Demography, 47 - 57. 35. Lewis, W. A. (1954). Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour . The... Norway . 47. Rice, C. (2005, December 11). The Promise of Democratic Peace: Why Promoting Freedom is the Only Realistic Path to Security. The Washington

  9. Mapping Biomass for REDD in the Largest Forest of Central Africa: the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie; Saatchi, Sassan

    2014-05-01

    With the support of the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Conservation, and Nuclear Security, the implementation of the German Development Bank KfW, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Germany, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and local DRC partners will produce a national scale biomass map for the entire forest coverage of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along with feasibility assessments of different forest protection measures within a framework of a REDD+ model project. The « Carbon Map and Model (CO2M&M) » project will produce a national forest biomass map for the DRC, which will enable quantitative assessments of carbon stocks and emissions in the largest forest of the Congo Basin. This effort will support the national REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) program in DRC, which plays a major role in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. This map will be developed from field data, complemented by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, systematically sampled throughout the forests of the DRC and up-scaled to satellite images to accurately estimate carbon content in all forested areas. The second component of the project is to develop specific approaches for model REDD projects in key landscapes. This project represents the largest LiDAR-derived mapping effort in Africa, under unprecedented logistical constraints, which will provide one of the poorest nations in the world with the richest airborne and satellites derived datasets for analyzing forest structure, biomass and biodiversity.

  10. Food irradiation developments in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Professor Diehl from Karlsruhe describes work in the Federal Republic of Germany, based on 30 years of research work at the Centre for Nutrition at Karlsruhe. The replacement of toxic chemical preservatives by irradiation is an attractive possibility and permission for commercial spice irradiation is expected later this year. Promising results had been demonstrated for onions, tropical fruits, fish, shrimps, certain meats and enzymes. Prolonged wholesomeness studies has failed to reveal detrimental health effects up to 50 kGy. In spite of certain adverse political and emotional pressures the author is convinced that food irradiation will be permitted in all E.E.C. countries in the not too distant future

  11. Measuring program of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, K.

    1991-10-01

    Form May 21 to June 11 1991 seven measuring vans from the Federal Republic of Germany conducted investigations of radioactivity of environmental samples in the Russian Federation. The measurements were concentrated in the areas of Tula, Kaluga and Brjansk, which were contaminated with different concentrations by the Chernobyl accident. These investigations were financed by the 'Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit' and aimed at the information of the population. In this report, the measuring campaign is described and the results are presented. (orig.) [de

  12. On nuclear development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Today's situation of nuclear energy is strongly influenced by political decisions often initiated by arguments in a public discussion with little rational background. This needs to be contrasted by a nuclear development strategy taking into account the long term needs of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the light of the situation at present a strategy would emerge which is based on the continuous use of and a moderate but steady increase in the number of light water reactors. Also high temperature reactors must find a well-defined position. However, a key role must be assigned to fast breeder reactors, unless the whole concept is to be endangered. (orig.) [de

  13. The withdrawal of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea has informed the Government of the United States of America, as depository of the Agency's Statute, in a diplomatic note dated 13 June 1994, that the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea has decided to withdraw from the IAEA as of 13 June 1994. The Director General of the IAEA was notified of this withdrawal by a letter dated 15 June 1994 from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the IAEA. The text of this letter and the enclosed diplomatic note from the DPRK are attached hereto. In accordance with Article XVIII, D of the Statute, the Board of Governors was informed on 15 June 1994 (GOV/INF/748). In compliance with the request of the Resident Representative of the United States of America, the Member States of the Agency are informed by this INFCIRC

  14. Violence against sex workers by police and military in Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombeni, Alphonse Mihigo; Crago, Anna Louise

    2008-12-01

    Sex workers in the Sud-Kivu district of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are regularly subjected to sexual and other forms of violence. In this article, based on a presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Alphonse Mihigo Ombeni and Anna Louise Crago describe the negative impacts of this violence on the sex workers' health and working conditions. Many have become HIV-positive.

  15. The principles of nuclear safety in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuler, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the nuclear installations in the Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Also, the necessary preparations for a country, which wants to introduce nuclear power and the legal basis, the technical principles and the licensing procedure as practised in the Federal Republic of Germany are discussed. (A.L.) [pt

  16. Communication dated 3 June 1994 received from the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The texts of an Interview by a Spokesman for the General Department of Atomic Energy of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, dated 3 June 1994, and Relevant Information, are being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. These texts were received by the Secretariat before the withdrawal of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the Agency

  17. Communications dated 2 and 6 June 1994 received from the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The texts of two telex communications, dated 2 and 6 June 1994, which the International Atomic Energy Agency received from the General Department of Atomic Energy of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea are being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. These texts were received by the Secretariat before the withdrawal of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the Agency

  18. Federal Republic of Germany/backfilling and sealing program - outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappei, G.

    1986-01-01

    After 1978 the Asse salt mine was used exclusively for research work which serves to make available scientific and technical data for the planning, construction and operation of repositories for radioactive wastes. This presentation delineates the advantages of the geological formation rock salt with a view to the final disposal of radioactive wastes subsequent to a short description of the 'Waste Management Concept' of the Federal Republic of Germany. The individual components of the internationally accepted 'Multiple Barrier System' are described, while the technical barriers 'backfilling and sealing' are subject of special consideration. A general formulation of the requirements and objectives of each specific component in the backfilling and sealing system is presented. (orig./DG)

  19. Treatment of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (F.R. Germany). Abt. Behandlung Radioaktiver Abfaelle

    1976-07-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a nuclear generating capacity of approximately 65 GWe is anticipated by 1990 which, together with the fuel cycle industry and a reprocessing plant, will produce approximately 18,000 m/sup 3/ of preconcentrated liquids and 16,000 m/sup 3/ of solid waste with a total activity of some 3 x 10/sup 7/ Ci. The contribution to the total amount and activity of waste made by the individual types of waste in various nuclear installations differs widely. Waste from reprocessing plants contains some 99.9% of the radionuclides contained in liquid waste and 86% of those contained in solid waste. Waste from the rest of the fuel cycle, the nuclear power stations and the large research centers together contains only some 0.01% of the total activity of the solid waste. In terms of volume, most of the radioactive waste is low level waste.

  20. The electronuclear program of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Heinrich

    1978-01-01

    The preoccupation of the Federal Republic is to lessen its energy dependency on petroleum (now 52%) particularly by developing nuclear power which could in the year 2,000 meet 27% of its primary energy needs, equally with oil. At the end of 1977, West Germany had 6 industrial reactors operating representing a total power of 5,500 MW., 12 reactors under construction (of which 8 units of 1,300 MW.) for a total power of 13,000 MW., 9 reactors under investigation (11,300 MW.), and 2 reactors 2,700 M. whose construction had been postponed for political reasons. A centre for fuel reprocessing and waste storage is also being investigated [fr

  1. Target Gutahuka: The UN’s Strategic Information Intervention in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Udo-Udo Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nature and impacts of two information intervention radio programmes broadcast on Radio Okapi—the radio service of the UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A matched randomization technique was used to assign Rwandan Hutus and Congolese autochthons in South Kivu to listen to either of the two programmes within their naturalistic contexts for 13 months. At the end of the treatment, participants’ perceptions of barriers to peace; descriptive and prescriptive interventions; victimhood and villainity; opportunities for personal development and civic engagement; and knowledge of repatriation processes were assessed in 16 focus groups across four contexts. The study concludes that international media intervention programmes that provide robust information and a platform for objective analyses within a multiple narrative and participatory framework can enhance greater engagement with nascent democratic reforms, positive perception of long term opportunities for personal development and empathy with the ethnic Other.

  2. Experience in commissioning and scientific support of nuclear power plant operation in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.; Endler, A.; Loth, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    In the German Democratic Republic two nuclear power plants equipped with four pressurized-water WWER-440-type reactors were commissioned in the years 1973-1979 and have since been in routine operation. The nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the GDR were constructed on the basis of projects developed and tested in the Soviet Union. Their main equipment was also supplied by the USSR. Under the technical supervision of USSR scientific institutions and design organizations, the construction, commissioning and operation of NPPs had to be prepared and organized by the design organizations, scientific institutions and the prospective user in the German Democratic Republic. To this effect, and to ensure nuclear safety, availability and maximum exploitation of nuclear fuel, it was necessary to develop national scientific capacities. The organizations of the USSR supply basic and supplementary documents prescribing the required extent of investigations to prove that the equipment and systems will meet the projected and operational conditions from loading to commercial operation. Concrete test programmes for commissioning and operational instructions are elaborated by national organizations. Pre-operational and initial startup tests are performed by the personnel of the plant, of enterprises and scientific institutions under the technical supervision of the design organizations of the USSR and the German Democratic Republic. Proceeding from experience gained for more than 15 years in the scientific support of commissioning and operation, the required training and disciplines of personnel are reported. The tasks to be met by the various disciplines are described. Furthermore, information is given on the main stages of commissioning and on a number of results. Finally, selected results of work in connection with operational assistance are reported

  3. Basic characteristics of the pollution laws and pollution regulations of the German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammich, S

    1987-02-02

    The paper abstracted informs about the basic principles characterizing the pollution laws and pollution regulations of the German Democratic Republic. The author deals with the constitutional principles, the National Culture Law valid since 1970 and conceived as a general pollution law, the planning of pollution abatement, legal aspects of water pollution abatement, air pollution abatement, waste management, noise pollution abatement and radiation protection. Particular emphasis is on the legal sanctions devised to ensure the observance of environmental laws and restrictions which are both part of the administrative, civil and economic laws and of the disciplinary and criminal laws. (HSCH).

  4. Bushmeat consumption among rural and urban children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Nebesse, Casimir; Nasi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    of other meat (from the wild, such as fish and caterpillars, or from domestic sources, such as beef, chicken, pork, goat and mutton) among children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo. Our results show that urban and rural households consume more meat from the wild than from domestic...... monkeys), probably because rural households tend to consume the less marketable species or the smaller animals. We show that despite the tendency towards more urbanized population profiles and increased livelihood opportunities away from forest and farms, wildlife harvest remains a critical component...

  5. The agreement between Austria and the German Democratic Republic concerning environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, B.

    1989-01-01

    The agreement between Austria and the German Democratic Republic concerning the cooperation in the field of environment protection is in force since 1988 07 01. The mutual pollutant-immission should be reduced by exchange of knowledge and experience, cooperation of experts and development of working plans. The problems of brown-coal combustion should be reduced by extended use of nuclear energy. The article examines the content of the agreement and its coordination with the international agreement about long range transfrontier air-pollution

  6. Comparing the Performance of Faith-Based and Government Schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Backiny-Yetna, Prospere; Wodon, Quentin

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative assessment of the market share, reach to the poor, and performance of faith-based and public schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo using data from the 2004-2005 "123" survey. More than two thirds of primary school students attend faith-based government-assisted schools. Both types of school cater to a similar population that is overwhelmingly poor. Faith-based schools perform slightly better at least in some dimensions than government schools, but the ...

  7. Parliamentary control of the security sector of the Republic of Macedonia as a precondition for the development of democratic society

    OpenAIRE

    Muaremoska Abduli, Sevilj; Racaj, Muhamet

    2017-01-01

    The efforts to establish a democratic legal order in the period immediately after the Republic of Macedonia gained its independence in the area of the security sector institutions were carried out with more or less pronounced difficulties. That, more than ever, imposed the need for establishment of parliamentary and other forms of democratic control and monitoring of the work of the security sector institutions, as these institutions are essentially considered as the most conservative and tou...

  8. Communication dated 4 April 1994 received from the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The text of the Statement by the Spokesman for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea dated 4 April 1994 is being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

  9. Communication dated 3 May 1994 received from the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The text of an Interview by a Spokesman of the Foreign Ministry of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea concerning the replacement of fuel rods at the 5-Megawatt Experimental Nuclear Power Station, dated 3 May 1994, is being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

  10. Communication dated 20 April 1994 received from the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The text of a Memorandum of the Foreign Ministry of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea dated 20 April 1994 is being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

  11. Communications dated 18 and 19 March 1994 received from the permanent mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Texts of the following communications received from the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, concerning IAEA safeguards inspections, are being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the Request of the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

  12. Communication dated 14 May 1994 received from the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The text of an Interview by a Spokesman of the Foreign Ministry of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, dated 14 May 1994, is being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

  13. Communication dated 24 March 1994 received from the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The text of the Statement by a Spokesman of the General Department of Atomic Energy of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea dated 24 March 1994 is being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

  14. Net costs of health worker rural incentive packages: an example from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuffel, Eric; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Paphassarang, Chanthakhath; Tulenko, Kate

    2013-11-01

    Many developing countries are examining whether to institute incentive packages that increase the share of health workers who opt to locate in rural settings; however, uncertainty exists with respect to the expected net cost (or benefit) from these packages. We utilize the findings from the discrete choice experiment surveys applied to students training to be health professionals and costing analyses in Lao People's Democratic Republic to model the anticipated effect of incentive packages on new worker location decisions and direct costs. Incorporating evidence on health worker density and health outcomes, we then estimate the expected 5-year net cost (or benefit) of each incentive packages for 3 health worker cadres--physicians, nurses/midwives, and medical assistants. Under base case assumptions, the optimal incentive package for each cadre produced a 5-year net benefit (maximum net benefit for physicians: US$ 44,000; nurses/midwives: US$ 5.6 million; medical assistants: US$ 485,000). After accounting for health effects, the expected net cost of select incentive packages would be substantially less than the original estimate of direct costs. In the case of Lao People's Democratic Republic, incentive packages that do not invest in capital-intensive components generally should produce larger net benefits. Combining discrete choice experiment surveys, costing surveys and cost-benefit analysis methods may be replicated by other developing countries to calculate whether health worker incentive packages are viable policy options.

  15. Radioactive waste management policy and its implementation in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitzlack, G.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management is considered an integral part of measures for the safe utilization of nuclear energy. In the German Democratic Republic, back in 1962 the government established the National Board for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection as a special body whose regulatory responsibilities include the setting up of an appropriate waste management policy for the country's nuclear power programme. After studies started in the 1960s a central system for the collection and disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and other sources throughout the country was established, this started operation a few years ago. The waste repository is a reconstructed salt mine which is operated by the main waste producer - the nuclear power plant utility. There are no current issues with high-level waste, as the spent fuels are stored for many years and then returned to the supplier country, the Soviet Union. The paper describes the relevant regulatory framework in the German Democratic Republic. The solution established here takes future nuclear power uses into account. (author)

  16. Floristic inventory of vascular plant in Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area, Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Ho Park

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The floristic inventory of vascular plants in Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area was conducted to understand the plant diversity in the northern area of Lao People's Democratic Republic. From the joint field surveys between Korean and Laos experts conducted during 2015–2017, it was found that there are 64 families, 145 genera, and 189 species distributed in the Nam Ba National Biodiversity Conservation Area, and a total of 56 families, 117 genera, and 148 species which comprise more than 78% of the total species were identified as endemic plants to the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Considering the usage of the plants, there are 91 species of medicinal plants, 33 species of ornamental plants, eight species of edible plants, and 16 species of economic plants. In addition, it was found out that Dalbergia balansae and Cinnamomum macrocarpum are categorized as vulnerable in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red list, and 13 more species are categorized as the least concern.

  17. Retinoblastoma in the Democratic Republic of Congo: 20-Year Review from a Tertiary Hospital in Kinshasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Kazadi Lukusa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine clinical profile and management of retinoblastoma among children at Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo. Patients and methods. The medical records of patients with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma seen at the University Hospital of Kinshasa from January 1985 till December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical data, modes of treatment and outcome were analysed. Results. A total of 49 children, of whom 40 had adequate data on record were identified as retinoblastoma (28 males and 12 females. Nine cases had bilateral disease. The median age at the first symptoms was 9 months (range, 1 month to 6 years for unilateral retinoblastoma and 18 months (range, 1 month to 3.5 years for bilateral retinoblastoma. The median age at the first oncology consultation was 2.4 years (range, 6 months to 6 years for unilateral retinoblastoma and 2.4years (range, 9 months to 4 years for bilateral disease. Leukokoria was present in 67.5% of subjects. Seventy-five percent abandoned the treatment. The mortality was 92.5%. Conclusion. In Democratic Republic of Congo, retinoblastoma remains a life threatening disease characterized by late referral to a specialized unit and affordability of chemotherapy; all leading to an extension of the disease and high mortality.

  18. Ordinance of 30 November 1988 on travel abroad by citizens of the German Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Ordinance sets forth new rules with respect to travel abroad by citizens of the German Democratic Republic. Its major provisions are as follows: 1) the occasions when relatives may travel abroad to other than socialist countries have been increased; 2) travel abroad by pensioners may be undertaken without giving any special reason; 3) travel abroad to socialist countries can be made for any reason; 4) persons may now leave the German Democratic Republic permanently for humanitarian reasons, including the desire of an invalid or old person to receive care or spend his or her days elsewhere and family reunification; 5) requests for permanent departure can be denied on the grounds of national security or defense, because a person has not performed his or her military service, to protect the public order or state interests, and to protect the rights of citizens or socialist morale and social requirements; 6) requests to go abroad temporarily are generally to be handled within 30 days and requests to leave permanently usually within 3 months; 7) adverse decisions may now be appealed both administratively and then through the courts, although in a court the only argument that can be made is that the decision was unlawful; 8) a request that has been denied can be resubmitted if the reason for denial is no longer present; and 9) in the case of a request to leave permanently, 6 months must pass before resubmission.

  19. Reactor licensing in the United States and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, J.E.L.

    1980-02-01

    The licensing procedure for nuclear power plants in the United States and in the Federal Republic of Germany is analysed. The security policy, the inspections and the supervision during their construction and operation are discussed. (A.L.) [pt

  20. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2015. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  1. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2017. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  2. Licensing procedure, nuclear codes and standards in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with legal background of licensing in nuclear technology and atomic energy use, licensing procedures for nuclear power plants and with codes, standards and guidelines in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./RW)

  3. Protest Movements and the Security Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany Since 1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    to rearmament. The state of mind that framed a majority of the members, however, remained one of 33 semi- abstentionism where German labor remained on...I 0D A132 201 PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURI Y POLICY 0 THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950( U) NAVAL\\ POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONEREY CA A N...1 THESIS PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURITY POLICY OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950 by Arthur Neil Black 0. December 1983 C-) LIJ Thesis

  4. Alternative fuel cycle evaluation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.; Closs, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    In compliance with a 1979 governmental decision, Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center managed the research and development (R and D) program ''Alternative Entsorgung,'' which had two major goals: (a) development of technical concepts for direct disposal of spent fuel and (b) comparison of the traditional back end of the nuclear fuel cycle based on fuel reprocessing with direct disposal. With respect to radiological safety, this comparison revealed that direct disposal scores better than the reprocessing path, but the difference is judged minor when compared to doses from natural radiation background. From the standpoint of cost, direct disposal proves more economical by a margin of 30% even though the reference system of direct disposal was not cost optimized. Finally, some unresolved but not unresolvable issues exist with regard to safeguarding a repository for spent fuel. In its decision in January 1985, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany stated that the results of the R and D program indicated that the legal requirement to ensure Entsorgung were better fulfilled by fuel reprocessing than by direct disposal of spent fuel

  5. Brine migration test - Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1988-03-01

    This document is the final report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that were performed at the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Columbus, Ohio, and the Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IfT), Braunschweig, of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF). Final test and equipment design as well as manufacturing and installation was carried out by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The tests were designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. The performance of an array of candidate waste package materials, test equipment and procedures under repository conditions will be evaluated with a view towards future in-depth testing of potential repository sites. (orig./RB)

  6. Contribution of the Federal Republic of Germany, October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The paper refers to chapters A1 and A2 of the Working Group 5A report. The considerations made in the first part (A1) which are based on the SNR 2 ''standard reference'' core design, comparable to the reference core design of the WG 5A report, deal with the breeding characteristics as well as with the potential for improvements and/or adaptations to changing predominant objections. The second part (A2) deals with the future needs for electrical and non-electrical energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. The amount of uranium required is calculated for 3 strategies: LWR once-through, LWR with Pu recycle and FBR in a symbiotic system with LWR. In a comparison of these strategies it becomes evident, that the uranium requirement of the LWR recycle and the LWR/FBR systems diverge more and more beyond the year 2000. Up to 2050 the cumulative uranium requirements of the LWR/FBR system will not exceed a total of 500,000 t, equivalent to 11% of the ''known'' world resources. This high percentage means that the FBR system has to be introduced as early as possible

  7. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  8. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  9. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  10. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  11. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  12. Europe '92: Consequences of the European Unification for Cultural Federalism in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggreen, Ingeborg

    1990-01-01

    Discusses consequences of European unification in the Federal Republic of Germany. Focuses on the relationships between the European Community, the federal government of Germany, and the German states. Suggests that the German states are aware of their responsibility to give education and culture a European dimension. (NL)

  13. High Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in Six Health Areas of - Kasansa Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Short Report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linsuke, S.; Nundu, S.; Mupoyi, R.; Mukele, R.; Mukunda, F.; Kabongo, M.M.; Inocencio da Luz, R.; Van Geertruyden, J.P.; Van Sprundel, M.; Boelaert, M.; Polman, K.; Lutumba, P.

    2014-01-01

    School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An

  14. The 1984 Literacy Campaign in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. A Case Study. Notes, Comments...No. 183.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Mohammed Saeed; Fisher, Nigel

    In 1984, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen undertook a nationwide literacy campaign, which mobilized the entire nation in an effort to reach an estimated 194,000 illiterate people, 77 percent of them women. The campaign plan demanded the full and active participation of formal school teachers and students at secondary level and above as…

  15. Producing Woodfuel for Urban Centers in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Path Out of Poverty for Rural Households?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.M.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Woodfuel is a renewable energy source with good potential for climate change mitigation. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the sector employs over 300,000 people for the supply of Kinshasa alone, but the benefits to the poor are often unknown. This paper analyzes the contribution of

  16. Illegibility as a state effect : The limits of governing teacher identification in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, C.O.

    2018-01-01

    State administrations rely on knowledge about its employees in order to ensure transparent payroll management. This thesis investigates the political economy and social dynamics around such knowledge by focusing on public school teachers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). After a calamitous

  17. Agreed framework of 21 October 1994 between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The attached text of the Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, signed in Geneva on 21 October 1994, is being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Resident Representative of the United States of America

  18. Power Holders and Social Dynamics of Participatory Development and Reconstruction: Cases from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyamusugulwa, P.M.; Hilhorst, D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of participatory development and reconstruction programs is how and where to engage with power holders. This paper analyses the dynamics of power relations within a community-driven reconstruction program in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It shows that, in some

  19. High prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella species in rats and fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudisoit, A.; Falay, D.; Amundala, N.; de Bellock, J.G.; van Houtte, N.; Breno, M.; Verheven, E.; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, P.; Raoult, D.; C., Socolovschi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the

  20. Transport of radioactive materials in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) since 3. October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.; Collin, F.W.; Fasten, C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents a survey on the transport of radioactive materials in the FRG. For shipments of nuclear material and large sources in the FRG - and also in the former German Democratic Republic - a license from the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (the competent authority in the FRG) due to the Atomic law and Radiological Protection Requirements are necessary. (J.P.N.)

  1. Antimalarial activity of medicinal plants from the Democratic Republic of Congo: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memvanga, Patrick B; Tona, Gaston L; Mesia, Gauthier K; Lusakibanza, Mariano M; Cimanga, Richard K

    2015-07-01

    Malaria is the most prevalent parasitic disease and the foremost cause of morbidity and mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo. For the management of this disease, a large Congolese population recourses to traditional medicinal plants. To date the efficacy and safety of many of these plants have been validated scientifically in rodent malaria models. In order to generate scientific evidence of traditional remedies used in the Democratic Republic of Congo for the management of malaria, and show the potential of Congolese plants as a major source of antimalarial drugs, this review highlights the antiplasmodial and toxicological properties of the Congolese antimalarial plants investigated during the period of 1999-2014. In doing so, a useful resource for further complementary investigations is presented. Furthermore, this review may pave the way for the research and development of several available and affordable antimalarial phytomedicines. In order to get information on the different studies, a Google Scholar and PubMed literature search was performed using keywords (malaria, Congolese, medicinal plants, antiplasmodial/antimalarial activity, and toxicity). Data from non-indexed journals, Master and Doctoral dissertations were also collected. Approximately 120 extracts and fractions obtained from Congolese medicinal plants showed pronounced or good antiplasmodial activity. A number of compounds with interesting antiplasmodial properties were also isolated and identified. Some of these compounds constituted new scaffolds for the synthesis of promising antimalarial drugs. Interestingly, most of these extracts and compounds possessed high selective activity against Plasmodium parasites compared to mammalian cells. The efficacy and safety of several plant-derived products was confirmed in mice, and a good correlation was observed between in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity. The formulation of several plant-derived products also led to some clinical trials

  2. Search for the Ebola virus reservoir in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Mills, James N.; Krebs, John W.

    1999-01-01

    A 3-month ecologic investigation was done to identify the reservoir of Ebola virus following the 1995 outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Efforts focused on the fields where the putative primary case had worked but included other habitats near Kikwit, Samples were collected from...... 3066 vertebrates and tested for the presence of antibodies to Ebola (subtype Zaire) virus: All tests were negative, and attempts to isolate Ebola virus were unsuccessful. The investigation was hampered by a lack of information beyond the daily activities of the primary case, a lack of information...... on Ebola virus ecology, which precluded the detailed study of select groups of animals, and sample-size limitations for rare species, The epidemiology of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suggests that humans have only intermittent contact with the virus, which complicates selection of target species. Further study...

  3. Ecologic Features of Plague Outbreak Areas, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2004–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shako, Jean-Christophe; Gaudart, Jean; Sudre, Bertrand; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Shamamba, Stomy Karhemere Bi; Diatta, Georges; Davoust, Bernard; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Piarroux, Renaud; Piarroux, Martine

    2018-01-01

    During 2004–2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared 54% of plague cases worldwide. Using national data, we characterized the epidemiology of human plague in DRC for this period. All 4,630 suspected human plague cases and 349 deaths recorded in DRC came from Orientale Province. Pneumonic plague cases (8.8% of total) occurred during 2 major outbreaks in mining camps in the equatorial forest, and some limited outbreaks occurred in the Ituri highlands. Epidemics originated in 5 health zones clustered in Ituri, where sporadic bubonic cases were recorded throughout every year. Classification and regression tree characterized this cluster by the dominance of ecosystem 40 (mountain tropical climate). In conclusion, a small, stable, endemic focus of plague in the highlands of the Ituri tropical region persisted, acting as a source of outbreaks in DRC. PMID:29350136

  4. Visualizing Armed Groups: The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s M23 in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Nangini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies can help unpack the relationships and tendencies that persist in complex networks. We present an interactive, web-based visualization that captures interlocking networks related to the Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23 rebel group in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC to demonstrate the utility of visually summarizing relationships in a multi-dimensional dataset. We draw exclusively from the findings the UN Group of Governmental Experts report S/2012/843 documenting the procurement of weapons and ammunition by the M23 network. The visualization was built using a hierarchical edge bundling algorithm (Holten 2006 implemented in Data-Driven Documents (d3 (Bostock 2011, an open-source JavaScript-based library for interactive web visualizations. We contend that such visualizations can provide improved understanding of complex social networks both within and beyond the confines of war.

  5. Experiences in radioisotope production in the German Democratic Republic with special reference to radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been carried out in the German Democratic Republic for 30 years. Based on a 10 MW research reactor, a cyclotron and certain irradiation facilities at units of national nuclear power stations, a widespread assortment of radioisotopes is produced with emphasis to radiopharmaceuticals as the main materials. Domestic production covers the national demand in these products where the production is technologically feasible under our conditions. A complete supply of the users in the country (more than 7000 licences) is accomplished by an intense co-operation with neighbouring countries, including mutual assistance in reactor shut down periods and supply with special radioactive materials and products. International co-operation within the framework of the IAEA takes place, mainly as scientific and technological assistance to many developing countries. (author)

  6. Reproductive and population dynamics parameters of Mbanza-Ngungu's local goat in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gasigwa Sabimana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for the development of goat breeding in the Democratic Republic of Congo seem favorable. Knowledge of the characteristics of local goat farming by breeders is a very important factor to control and promote goat production. The objective of this study was to improve the productivity of Mbanza-Ngungu’s local goat by increasing the knowledge of its reproductive performance. To achieve this objective, data were collected by direct observation of the goats. These data were used to simulate reproductive and population dynamics parameters over a five-year period. The study showed the relevance of the model to simulate the reproduction traits of Mbanza-Ngungu’s goats and that it is useless to keep them beyond five years.

  7. Battles on women's bodies: war, rape and traumatisation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, J E; Olsson, P; Ahlberg, B M

    2011-01-01

    Rape has been used as a weapon in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in unprecedented ways. Research into the phenomenon of war-rape is limited, particularly in this context. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of local leaders in eastern DRC concerning rape and raped women in the war context. Local leaders were chosen for their ability to both reflect and influence their constituencies. Interviews were conducted with 10 local leaders and transcripts subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study suggests that mass raping and the methods of perpetration created a chaos effectively destroying communities and the entire society and that humanitarian aid was often inappropriate. Furthermore, an exclusive focus on raped women missed the extent of traumatisation entire communities suffered. More significantly, the lack of political will, corruption, greed and inappropriate aid creates a tangled web serving to intensify the war. This complexity has implications for humanitarian interventions including public health.

  8. Khub traditions in Northern Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Conservation and transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dome Swangarom

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research was conducted in three Northern provinces of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic with the aim of investigating the traditional art of khub music and its conservation and inheritance. Data were collected from documents and field research using interviews, observation and focus group discussions as data collection tools. The results show that Morkhub, musicians, teachers, students and audiences all contribute to the success or failure of conservation and inheritance of traditional Laotian music. The majority of problems with conservation stem from a lack of interest and the dilution of local culture with modern Western influences. As a result of this investigation, a four-point plan was proposed to standardize and support future conservation of khub traditions by inclusion in the education system.

  9. Determinants of participation in cavy marketing: Evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Simtowe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder supply chain participation remains low despite the potential welfare gains that would result from choosing a market-oriented production. Yet, studies on determinants of market participation for commodities with underdeveloped value chains are scanty. Employing a double-hurdle model, this paper examines factors determining households’ participation in cavy marketing among cavy farmers from Sud-Kivu province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We find that wealthier households participated less in cavy marketing while those producing more cavies were more likely to participate in their marketing. Moreover, smaller households tended to sell more cavies, while households with other livestock sold fewer cavies. The findings underscore the significance of increasing the participation in the cavy supply chains by farmers through the promotion of appropriate husbandry practices that enhance cavy productivity and production and that enable farmers to participate in markets as sellers.

  10. Dorstenia luamensis (Moraceae, a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Leal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Dorstenia L. (Moraceae, D. luamensis M.E.Leal, is described from the Luama Wildlife Reserve, west of Lake Tanganyika and north of the town of Kalemie in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. This species is endemic to the region and differs from any of the other species by its fernlike lithophytic habit and lack of latex. A description and illustration of this species is presented here. Dorstenia luamensis M.E.Leal inhabits moist and shady vertical rock faces close to small waterfalls in the forest; the species is distributed in small populations within the type locality, and merits the conservation status of endangered (EN.

  11. Challenges for strengthening the health workforce in the Lao People's Democratic Republic: perspectives from key stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Yan, Fei; Wang, Wei; Clancy, Shayna; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Vonglokham, Manithong; Outhensackda, Somphou; Østbye, Truls

    2016-11-29

    The Lao People's Democratic Republic is facing a critical shortage and maldistribution of health workers. Strengthening of the health workforce has been adopted as one of the five priorities of the National Health Sector Strategy (2013-2025). This study aims to identify, explore, and better understand the key challenges for strengthening the Laotian health workforce. This study applied exploratory and descriptive qualitative methods and adapted a working life-span framework. Twenty-three key stakeholders with particular insights into the current situation of the health workforce were purposively recruited for in-depth interviews. Important policy documents were also collected from key informants during the interviews. Thematic analysis was employed for the textual data using MAXQDA 10. The overarching problem is that there is a perceived severe shortage of skilled health workers (doctors, nurses, and midwives) and lab technicians, especially in primary health facilities and rural areas. Key informants also identified five problems: insufficient production of health workers both in quantity and quality, a limited national budget to recruit enough health staff and provide sufficient and equitable salaries and incentives, limited management capacity, poor recruitment for work in rural areas, and lack of well-designed continuing education programs for professional development. These problems are interrelated, both in how the issues arise and in the effect they have on one another. To improve the distribution of health workers in rural areas, strategies for increasing production and strengthening retention should be well integrated for better effectiveness. It is also essential to take the Laotian-specific context into consideration during intervention development and implementation. Furthermore, the government should acknowledge the inadequate health management capacity and invest to improve human resource management capacity at all levels. Finally, assessment of

  12. Communications dated 27 and 28 May 1994 received from the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The texts of the communications received from the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea are being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Permanent Mission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea: Document presented by the DPRK Delegation to the IAEA Delegation at their Working-Level Consultation on 27 may 1994 (Attachment 1); interview by a Spokesman of the Foreign Ministry of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea of 28 May 1994 (Attachment 2)

  13. From 40 to 35 Hours: Reduction and Flexibilisation of the Working Week in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Gerhard

    1990-01-01

    Reviews developments in the shortened work week in the Federal Republic of Germany. Discusses collective agreements and examines the methods used to implement the shorter working week at enterprise level and possible developments in the reunited Germany. (JOW)

  14. LWR safety research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seipel, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    . The new HDR project will comprise large non-nuclear tests in the former 100 MWth facility. The project will include blowdown experiments, investigation of the safety margins of the reactor pressure vessel, analysis of the efficiency and reliability of existing methods of non-destructive testing and earthquake simulation. Finally, the concept of a German risk study - specially adapted to the boundary conditions typical of the Federal Republic of Germany - is explained

  15. A Holistic, Person-Centred Care Model for Victims of Sexual Violence in Democratic Republic of Congo: The Panzi Hospital One-Stop Centre Model of Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Mukwege

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Denis Mukwege and Marie Berg describe the One Stop Centre at Panzi Hospital in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that provides care for girls and women who have been raped in combination with extreme bodily harm.

  16. Studies of crustal structure, seismic precursors to volcanic eruptions and earthquake hazard in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mavonga, T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, civil wars in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo have caused massive social disruptions, which have been exacerbated by volcanic and earthquake disasters. Seismic data were gathered and analysed as part...

  17. A Holistic, Person-Centred Care Model for Victims of Sexual Violence in Democratic Republic of Congo: The Panzi Hospital One-Stop Centre Model of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukwege, Denis; Berg, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Denis Mukwege and Marie Berg describe the One Stop Centre at Panzi Hospital in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that provides care for girls and women who have been raped in combination with extreme bodily harm.

  18. Nuclear export policy and regulation for non-proliferation: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Werner.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear export policy of the Federal Republic of Germany complies with the principle of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Already in 1967 the Federal Government stated in a Peace Note that no export was authorised to countries (outside Euratom) which did not comply with the IAEA Safeguards. In the bilateral agreement the Federal Republic signed with Brasil in 1975, emphasis was put on international safeguards and the control exercised on exported materials to avoid any diversion for military purposes. (NEA) [fr

  19. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ...)] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia that are alleged to be sold in the United States at less than fair value. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to...

  20. Community perceptions towards survivors of sexual violence: A qualitative study from the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    OpenAIRE

    Finnbakk, Ingebjørg

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, there has been increased attention towards women s and girls protection and participation during conflict, peace processes, and peacebuilding. In the wake of this attention, sexual violence during conflict and in post conflict settings has been put on the international agenda. Both scholars and NGOs share a concern about the possible negative impact sexual violence may have both for the individual survivor as well as for the society as a whole. The Democratic Republic ...

  1. Assessing the trade impacts of the ASEAN+6 FTA : the case of Lao People’s Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Suvannaphakdy, Sithanonxay; Tang, Hsiao Chink; DiCaprio, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Using an unbalanced panel dataset of bilateral exports from 1992 to 2009, this paper assesses the potential trade impacts of the expansion of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to ASEAN+3 and ASEAN+6 on the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). It finds that bilateral exports are positively related to the overall bilateral country size and similarity in country size, but inversely related to the relative factor endowment differences, transportation costs, and import tari...

  2. Strategic Mine Planning: A SWOT Analysis Applied to KOV Open Pit Mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick May Mukonki

    2017-01-01

    KOV pit (Kamoto Oliveira Virgule) is located 10 km from Kolwezi town, one of the mineral rich town in the Lualaba province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The KOV pit is currently operating under the Katanga Mining Limited (KML), a Glencore-Gecamines (a State Owned Company) join venture. Recently, the mine optimization process provided a life of mine of approximately 10 years withnice pushbacks using the Datamine NPV Scheduler software. In previous KOV pit studies, we recently outlined t...

  3. Description and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duroch Françoise

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. Methods We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s, forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565 were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%, although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%. Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103 of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%. Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the

  4. The role of major donors in health aid to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haewon; Ahn, Deborah Y; Choi, Soyoung; Kim, Youngchan; Choi, Hyunju; Park, Sang Min

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.

  5. Differences in baseline lung cancer mortality between the German uranium miners cohort and the population of the former German Democratic Republic (1960-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda; Dufey, Florian; Möhner, Matthias; Schnelzer, Maria; Tschense, Annemarie; Kreuzer, Michaela

    2011-03-01

    A previous analysis of the radon-related lung cancer mortality risk, in the German uranium miners cohort, using Poisson modeling techniques, noted internal (spontaneous) rates that were higher on average than the external rates by 16.5% (95% CI: 9%; 24%). The main purpose of the present paper is to investigate the nature of, and possible reasons for, this difference by comparing patterns in spontaneous lung cancer mortality rates in a cohort of male miners involved in uranium extraction at the former Wismut mining company in East Germany with national male rates from the former German Democratic Republic. The analysis is based on miner data for 3,001 lung cancer deaths, 1.76 million person-years for the period 1960-2003, and national rates covering the same calendar-year range. Simple "age-period-cohort" graphical analyses were applied to assess the main qualitative differences between the national and cohort baseline lung cancer rates. Some differences were found to occur mainly at higher attained ages above 70 years. Although many occupational risk factors may have contributed to these observed age differences, only the effects of smoking have been assessed here by applying the Peto-Lopez indirect method for calculating smoking attributability. It is inferred that the observed age differences could be due to the greater prevalence of smoking and more mature smoking epidemic in the Wismut cohort compared to the general population of the former German Democratic Republic. In view of these observed differences between external population-based rates and internal (spontaneous) cohort baseline lung cancer rates, it is strongly recommended to apply only the internal rates in future analyses of uranium miner cohorts. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  6. Monitoring and reporting attacks on education in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, Cyril; van Boetzelaer, Elburg; Rojas, Lina; Richard, Kinyera; Karume, Gang; Nshombo, Marius; Roberts, Leslie; Boothby, Neil

    2018-04-01

    The United Nations' Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism is charged with documenting six grave violations against children in a time of conflict, including attacks on schools. Many of these incidents, however, remain unreported across the globe. This study explores whether or not a local knowledge base of education and child protection actors in North and South Kivu Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and in Mogadishu, Somalia, could contribute to a more complete record of attacks on education in those areas. Hundreds of semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants across the three settings, and in total 432 attacks on education were documented. Purposive samples of these reports were verified and a large majority was confirmed. Local non-governmental organisations and education institutions were most knowledgeable about these incidents, but most never reported them to a monitoring authority. The study concludes that attack surveillance and response were largely insufficient, and recommends investing in mechanisms that utilise local knowledge to address these shortcomings. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  7. Results of growing relatively smoke resistant types of trees and their practical use. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzschacksch, O.

    1985-01-01

    Achievements in cultivating sulfur dioxide resistant conifers in the German Democratic Republic are summarized. These conifers will be planted in afforestation programs in smoke damage zones I, i.e. in conifer forests at high elevations with maximum pollution damage. Nurseries with the most promising tree types have been established for harvesting seeds for propagation. Cultivation of cuttings and tree grafting is carried out in experimental nurseries along with laboratory gas treatment tests. Smoke resistant varieties of the common spruce Picae abies (L.) show vigorous growth in smoke damage zone I. Other spruce types suitable for cultivation are Picea pungens Engelm., Picea omorica (Panc.) Purk. with the highest vitality in 15 to 20 year old trial plantings in smoke damage zone I extreme, and Picea glanca, rubens and orientalis. Suitable pines are Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. (Murray pine), Pinus mugo Turra, and others; resistant larches are Larix decidua and Larix leptolepis. Deciduous trees being cultivated for afforestation are aspens (Populus tremula L.) and mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.). 11 references.

  8. Comparison of two preventive interventions on dental caries among children in Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvonen, P-L; Sipilä, K; Yang, G S; Kim, J K; Lamidi, M-L; Suominen, A L

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare the change in dental caries status in two different intervention groups of the Children's Oral Health Promotion Programme (COHPP). A longitudinal study among 500 children who had participated into the COHPP for 6 years was conducted in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Children in Group I received intensified school-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2007 (n = 250), 10 years in 2010 (n = 250) and 13 years in 2013 (n = 242). Children in Group II (n = 250) joined the programme at the age of 4 years in kindergarten in 2007, were provided with early preschool-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2010 and 10 years in 2013. Both the prevalence and the mean number of dt + DT decreased significantly in both groups during the follow-up. This was due to decrease in the number of dt, whereas the number of DT remained relatively constant. Poisson regression showed that the association between the group status and the change in the number of dt + DT was statistically significant when adjusted for gender but disappeared when the school was included in the analysis. The decrease in dental caries may be partly due to the exfoliation of deciduous teeth and dental treatment received. However, the study gave some reference emphasizing the early starting of the prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Main points of research in crude oil processing and petrochemistry. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, G.; Nowak, S.; Fiedrich, G.; Klare, H.; Apelt, E.

    1982-04-01

    This article analyzes general aspects in the development of petrochemistry and carbochemistry on a global scale and for industry in the German Democratic Republic. Diagrams are given for liquid and solid carbon resources and their natural hydrogen content showing the increasing hydrogen demand for chemical fuel conversion processes. The petrochemical and carbochemical industry must take a growing level of hydrogen demand into account, which is at present 25 Mt/a on a global scale and which increases by 7% annually. Various methods for chemical processing of crude oil and crude oil residues are outlined. Advanced coal conversion processes with prospects for future application in the GDR are also explained, including the methanol carbonylation process, which achieves 90% selectivity and which is based on carbon monoxide hydrogenation, further the Transcat process, using ethane for vinyl chloride production. Acetylene and carbide carbochemistry in the GDR is a further major line in research and development. Technological processes for the pyrolysis of vacuum gas oil are also evaluated. (27 refs.)

  10. Sexual violence-related fistulas in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsrud, Mathias; Sjøveian, Solbjørg; Luhiriri, Roger; Mukwege, Dennis

    2008-12-01

    To determine the magnitude of traumatic gynecologic fistulas caused by sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A retrospective analysis of hospital records from 604 consecutive patients who received treatment for gynecologic fistulas at Panzi Hospital between November 2005 and November 2007. Of the 604 patients, 24 (4%) reported that their fistulas had been caused by sexual violence; of these, 5 (0.8%) had developed fistulas as a direct result of forced penetration with foreign objects and/or gang rapes. Of the remaining patients, 6 had a fistula before they were raped, 9 developed iatrogenic fistulas following inappropriate instrumentation to manage rape-induced spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, or after abdominal hysterectomy, and 4 developed fistulas after prolonged and obstructed labor. Traumatic fistulas are rare compared to obstetric fistulas. Fistulas indirectly related to sexual violence are likely to be more common than those directly related. All fistulas resulting from sexual violence, whether direct or indirect, should be considered traumatic and special care should be given to these women.

  11. [The "health promotion" approach, a strategic alternative to teenagers' health in the Democratic Republic of Congo?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsakala, Gabriel Vodiena; Coppieters, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a review of the possibilities of improving HIV/AIDS prevention and reproductive health of teenagers and adolescents in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This approach was based on compilation of institutional, political, legislative and national strategy data. The document review was completed by information collected from 15 key informants and by direct observation of the work of peer educators and community workers, allowing evaluation of the possibilities of development of the priority domains of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion in young adolescents. Health promotion interventions for adolescents are globally ensured institutionally by three specialized programmes of the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with numerous national and international partners. Organized operationally outside of the primary health care circuit, strategic actions are more specifically directed towards acquisition of knowledge than individual skills by means of IEC (information, education and communication) and (BCC) (behaviour change communication) approaches, but with disappointing results. Although traces of these five priority domains of the Ottawa Charter are perceptible in the national response to the health problems of adolescents, the work of the various actors is not coordinated and organized in compliance with health promotion guidelines. The training of health workers appears to be a major determinant to structure this response around a dynamic federating the actions of all stakeholders to orient them towards the options of the health promotion approach.

  12. An approach to health system strengthening in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John; Moodie, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK), under the leadership of the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), undertook the development of a Health System Strengthening (HSS) proposal through the support of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI). The aim of this paper is to outline the approach to the development of the HSS strategy in DPRK, and describe opportunities and challenges associated with its development and future implementation. Sources of information for this review have included national programme plans, in country social sector reviews, information generated through HSS proposal developments and the international literature. Updated assessments in DPRK indicate some recent improvements in the health situation for women and children, but there remain ongoing concerns regarding health management, human resource and physical infrastructure barriers to health services access. In response to this situation, the DPRK developed a health system strengthening strategy, the main elements of which are the strengthening of health management and service delivery systems at the implementing agency levels of county (district) and Ri (sub district). Three success factors were associated with the reaching of consensus on HSS strategy in DPRK. These were partnerships formed between system planners and programme planners, the identification of an overall health sector strategic framework, and high-level leadership of the MOPH. Although DPRK is in the very early stages of health system reconstruction, there are significant and new opportunities to alleviate the health conditions of women and children in DPRK, through implementation of health system strengthening strategies that are nationally coordinated and internationally supported.

  13. International energy assistance needs and options for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David F. von; Hayes, Peter; Williams, James H.; Greacen, Chris; Sagrillo, Mick; Savage, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Recent agreements between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the other countries involved in the six-party talks on the future of the DPRK's nuclear weapons program have focused attention on the North Korean energy sector, and, specifically, what the international community can or should do to assist the DPRK in energy sector redevelopment. During two visits to North Korea in 1998 and 2000, a team of American and North Korean researchers conducted a unique rural energy use survey in a flood-affected rural village in the DPRK-the farming village of Unhari. The information gathered during the survey has important implications on how to properly approach the ongoing rural energy crisis in the DPRK, and, more broadly, to provide overall energy sector assistance. The results of the Unhari survey are described briefly, followed by suggestions of internal policy and legal reforms, approaches to international cooperation, key and attractive energy sector technologies and processes for energy sector redevelopment in the DPRK

  14. Awareness and Perceptions of Emergency Contraceptive Pills Among Women in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julie H; Muanda, Mbadu; Garcia, Mélissa; Matawa, Grace

    2017-09-01

    Despite the commitment of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to expand the family planning method mix and increase access to services, awareness of emergency contraception is low among women, and the method remains underused and poorly integrated in family planning programming. Data from 15 focus group discussions conducted in 2016 among women aged 15-35 were used to examine awareness and perceptions of, and attitudes toward, emergency contraceptives. After facilitators explained emergency contraceptive pills' mechanism of action and other characteristics, participants were asked about the potential benefits and risks of making the method more widely available. Transcripts were analyzed using an iterative approach. Women reported employing a wide range of postcoital contraceptive behaviors, albeit often using inappropriate products, and generally agreed that emergency contraceptive pills seemed to be a potentially effective solution to their family planning needs. Perceived benefits and limitations of the method were almost always framed in reference to other, better-known contraceptives, and women expressed strong preferences for pharmacy-based provision that aligned with their usual behaviors for obtaining contraceptives. Participants were reluctant to see the method available for free. Emergency contraceptive pills have the potential to address gaps in the family planning method mix in the DRC. Assessing whether women have incomplete or erroneous information about family planning methods can provide better understanding of women's contraceptive choices in low-income countries.

  15. Crystal structure study of a cobaltoan dolomite from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Perchiazzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A structural study has been undertaken on a cobaltoan dolomite, with chemical formula CaMg0.83Co0.17(CO32 (calcium magnesium cobalt dicarbonate, from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Pale-pink euhedral cobaltoan dolomite was associated with kolwezite [(Cu1.33Co0.67(CO3(OH2] and cobaltoan malachite [(Cu,Co2(CO3(OH2]. A crystal with a Co:Mg ratio of 1:5.6 (SEM/EDAX measurement, twinned on (11 -2 0 was used for crystal structural refinement. The refinement of the structural model of Reeder & Wenk [Am. Mineral. (1983, 68, 769–776; Ca at site 3a with site symmetry -3; Mg site at site 3b with site symmetry -3; C at site 6c with site symmetry 3; O at site 18f with site symmetry 1] showed that Co is totally incorporated in the Mg site, with refined occupancy Mg0.83Co0.17, which compares with Mg0.85Co0.15 from chemical data. The Co substitution reflects in the expansion of the cell volume, with a pronounced increasing of the c cell parameter.

  16. [Determinants of survival in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilimali, P Z; Mutombo, P B; Kayembe, P K; Kaba, D K; Mapatano, M A

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to identify factors associated with the survival of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. A historic cohort of HIV patients from two major hospitals in Goma (Democratic Republic of Congo) was followed from 2004 to 2012. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to describe the probability of survival as a function of time since inclusion into the cohort. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves based on determinants. The Cox regression model identified the determinants of survival since treatment induction. The median follow-up time was 3.56 years (IQR=2.22-5.39). The mortality rate was 40 deaths per 1000 person-years. Male gender (RR: 2.56; 95 %CI 1.66-4.83), advanced clinical stage (RR: 2.12; 95 %CI 1.15-3.90), low CD4 count (CD4 < 50) (RR: 2.05; 95 %CI : 1.22-3.45), anemia (RR: 3.95; 95 %CI 2.60-6.01), chemoprophylaxis with cotrimoxazole (RR: 4.29, 95 % CI 2.69-6.86) and period of treatment initiation (2010-2011) (RR: 3.34; 95 %CI 1.24-8.98) were statistically associated with short survival. Initiation of treatment at an early stage of the disease with use of less toxic molecules and an increased surveillance especially of male patients are recommended to reduce mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. German Democratic Republic State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehnsch, W.; Gegusch, M.

    1976-01-01

    The system of accountancy for and control of nuclear material in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) with its legal bases and components is embedded in the overall State system of protection in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As the competent State authority, the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board of the GDR is also responsible for meeting the GDR's national and international tasks in the control of nuclear material. At enterprise level, the observance of all safety regulations for nuclear material, including the regulations for the control, is within the responsibility of managers of establishments, which are in any way concerned with the handling of nuclear material. To support managers and to function as internal control authorities, nuclear material officers have been appointed in these establishments. Design information, operating data, physical inventory of nuclear material and the respective enterprise records and reports are subject to State control by the Nuclear Material Inspectorate of the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board. This Inspectorate keeps the central records on nuclear material, forwards reports and information to, and maintains the necessary contacts with, the IAEA. For the nuclear material in the GDR four material balance areas have been established for control purposes. To rationalize central recording and reporting, electronic data processing is increasingly made use of. In a year-long national and international control of nuclear material, the State control system has stood the test and successfully co-operates with the IAEA. (author)

  18. Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A Quiner

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV, a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. We generated two indices to assess risk: Household Materials Index (HMI, a proxy for socioeconomic status of households and Risk Activity Index (RAI, which describes presumptive risk for animal-to-human transmission of MPXV. Based on participant self-reported activity patterns, we found that people in this population are more likely to visit the forest than a market to fulfill material needs, and that the reported occupation is limited in describing behavior of individuals may participate. Being bitten by rodents in the home was commonly reported, and this was significantly associated with a low HMI. The highest scoring RAI sub-groups were 'hunters' and males aged ≥ 18 years; however, several activities involving MPXV-implicated animals were distributed across all sub-groups. The current analysis may be useful in identifying at-risk groups and help to direct education, outreach and prevention efforts more efficiently.

  19. [Change management: An analysis of actors; perceptions about technical assistance in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesse, Nathalie; Iyeti, Alain; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Technical assistance (TA) is a common component of health system strengthening interventions. This type of intervention is too often designed and evaluated according to a logic that fails to take into account social complexity. Actors' perceptions are one element of this complexity. This article presents a study conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo designed to identify perceptions concerning two types of technical support providers for health system strengthening: long-term technical assistants (agents of development agencies) and provincial technical advisors (agents of the Ministry of Health). Interviews were conducted with an innovative tool inspired by the principles of systems thinking. Interviewees were actors involved in a TA intervention in the province of Bandundu. Their expectations regarding TA providers were identified in terms of personal characteristics (knowledge, know-how and interpersonal skills), roles, and styles of interaction for capacity building ("interventionist/ prescriptive axes"). Interviewees emphasized the importance of mutual learning and the quality of interactions, which depends on TA provider's interpersonal skills and mutual willingness. Perceptions of TA provider's characteristics tend to be similar, but several differences were observed concerning the expectations about the roles of TAs, and the style that should be adopted for capacity building. Ignoring these differences in expectations may be a threat to the effectiveness of TA.

  20. Polio immunity and the impact of mass immunization campaigns in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorman, Arend; Hoff, Nicole A; Doshi, Reena H; Alfonso, Vivian; Mukadi, Patrick; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Bwaka, Ado; Weldon, William; Gerber, Sue; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-10-09

    In order to prevent outbreaks from wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, maintenance of population immunity in non-endemic countries is critical. We estimated population seroprevalence using dried blood spots collected from 4893 children 6-59months olds in the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Population immunity was 81%, 90%, and 70% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Among 6-59-month-old children, 78% reported at least one dose of polio in routine immunization, while only 15% had three doses documented on vaccination cards. All children in the study had been eligible for at least two trivalent oral polio vaccine campaigns at the time of enrollment; additional immunization campaigns seroconverted 5.0%, 14%, and 5.5% of non-immune children per-campaign for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, averaged over relevant campaigns for each serotype. Overall polio immunity was high at the time of the study, though pockets of low immunity cannot be ruled out. The DRC still relies on supplementary immunization campaigns, and this report stresses the importance of the quality and coverage of those campaigns over their quantity, as well as the importance of routine immunization. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Clostridium difficile infection in the Lao People's Democratic Republic: first isolation and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Elaine; Roberts, Tamalee; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Riley, Thomas V; Newton, Paul N; Dance, David A B

    2017-09-21

    Current knowledge of the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Asia, and in particular the Greater Mekong Subregion, is very limited. Only a few studies from Thailand and Vietnam have been reported from the region with variable testing methods and results, and no studies from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Therefore we investigated the presence of C. difficile in a single centre in the Lao PDR and determined the ribotypes present. Seventy unformed stool samples from hospital inpatients at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, were tested for the presence of C. difficile using selective differential agar and confirmed by latex agglutination. C. difficile isolates were further characterised by ribotyping and toxin gene detection. C. difficile was isolated from five of the 70 patients, and five different ribotypes were identified (014, 017, 020, QX 107 and QX 574). This is the first isolation of C. difficile from human stool samples in the Lao PDR. These results will add to the limited amount of data on C. difficile in the region. In addition, we hope this information will alert clinicians to the presence of C. difficile in the country and will help inform future investigations into the epidemiology and diagnosis of C. difficile in Lao PDR.

  2. Characterizing pediatric surgical capacity in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Sarah B; Kalisya, Luc Malemo; Bigabwa, Richard; Rothstein, David H

    2018-03-01

    Characterize pediatric surgical capacity in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to identify areas of potential improvement. The Pediatric Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PediPIPES) survey was used in two representative eastern DRC provinces to assess existing surgical infrastructure and capacity. We compared our results to previously published reports from other sub-Saharan African countries. Fourteen hospitals in the eastern DRC and 37 in 19 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries were compared. The average PediPIPES index for the DRC was 7.7 compared to 13.5 for SSAs. The greatest disparities existed in the areas of personnel and infrastructure. Running water was reportedly available to 57.1% of the hospitals in the DRC, and the majority of hospitals (78.6%) were dependent on generators and solar panels for electricity. Only two hospitals in the DRC (14.3%) reported a pediatric surgeon equivalent on staff, compared to 86.5% of facilities sampled in SSA reporting ≥ 1 pediatric surgeon. Significant barriers in personnel, infrastructure, procedures, equipment, and supplies impede the provision of adequate surgical care to children. Further work is needed to assess allocation and utilization of existing resources, and to enhance training of personnel with specific attention to pediatric surgery.

  3. REDD+ projects in the Democratic Republic of Congo: impacts on future emissions, income and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnier, Aline; Bocqueho, Geraldine; Mant, Rebecca; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlik, Petr; Kapos, Val; Fritz, Steffen; Botrill, Leo

    2014-05-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) encompasses a large rainforest area which has been rather preserved up to now. However, pressure on the forests is increasing with high population growth, transition toward political stability and the abundance of minerals in the country. REDD+ is a developing mechanism under the UNFCCC that aims to support developing countries that want to make efforts to reduce their emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. The REDD+ strategy in DRC combines an independent national fund and independent REDD+ projects at the local level that are at the initial stage of implementation. The objective of this paper is to assess i) emissions reduction due to the implementation of the REDD+ pilot projects taking into account potential leakage and ii) potential co-benefits of REDD+ pilot projects in terms of biodiversity and rural income by 2030. We use the land use economic model CongoBIOM adapted from GLOBIOM which represents land-based activities and land use changes at a 50x50km resolution level. It includes domestic and international demand for agricultural products, fuel wood and minerals which are the main deforestation drivers in the Congo Basin region. Finally, we run a sensitivity analysis on emissions from land use change according to three different above and below ground living biomass estimates: downscaled FAO, NASA and WHRC.

  4. A review of taeniasis and cysticercosis in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James; Khounsy, Syseng; Inthavong, Phouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2008-09-01

    Taeniasis and cysticercosis are important but underreported parasitic zoonoses in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Reports of human and pig cysticercosis are rather limited and based largely on anecdotal evidence. To date, no structured surveys of disease prevalence or incidence have been reported. However, one unpublished pilot survey of pig cysticercosis in a slaughterhouse in northern Laos estimated prevalence to be 1.7%, without speciation of parasite cysts. Over the past 20 years, nine surveys of intestinal helminthic infection have been conducted; the prevalence of human taeniasis ranged from 0 to 14.0%. The study designs and sample sizes varied greatly, however a high degree of spatial and age variation in taeniasis prevalence was evident. These results are however inconclusive as the species of tapeworm infecting the people was not determined. To further our knowledge of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Lao PDR, structured community-based surveys in high-risk areas are required in combination with the use of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests capable of identifying the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. This will enable the development and implementation of control measures that are both appropriate and sustainable if T. solium is shown to be a public health threat.

  5. The development of high-temperature reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, P.; Krings, F.

    1980-01-01

    The principal features of high-temperature reactors are recalled, then the current state of technology of the line in the Federal Republic of Germany is described. Reference is made to the experience of operating the AVR reactor, the construction of the THTR-300 reactor as well as the HTT and PNP projects [fr

  6. Licensing requirements for nuclear merchant ships in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafstall, H.-G.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure of approval in the Federal Republic of Germany will be discussed, referring to the participated authorities and organizations. Rules and guidelines relevant for licensing are mentioned in the frame of legal positions. After presentation of general aspects of basic licensing requirements more detailed information is given relative to their accomplishment demonstrated on the German Nuclear Contained Ship NCS-80-Project

  7. Licensing procedures in Brazil and in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lima, W.A. da.

    1974-01-01

    The procedures for the licensing of nuclear power plants in Brazil and in the Federal Republic of Germany are described. The juridical situation, the administrative praxis and comparative aspects are discussed. Suggestions are made for the improvement of licensing procedures in both countries. (I.C.R.) [pt

  8. Operating experience with PWR in the FRG (Federal Republic of Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Operating experiences with PWR's in the Federal Republic of Germany has been exclusively with KWU turnkey power plants with U tube steam generators. Such experience started with the 345 MW Obrigheim plant in 1968 and includes the 670 MW Stade plant, the 1200/1300 MW Biblis plants, The 900 MW Neckarwestheim and the 1300 MW Unterweser plants. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report on coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter 2010 contains the statistical data concerning the following issues: (i) black coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade; (ii) brown coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade.

  10. Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, J.H.; Hadderingh, R.H.; Bijleveld, M.F.I.J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found

  11. Requirements for electricity producing gas-cooled reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes requirements to a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor from the view-point of a utility in the Federal Republic of Germany. The requirements presented in the paper address different areas including plant size, availability, safety and economics. (author)

  12. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Updating for the year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeder, Lea; Burger, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany (Updating for the year 2016) includes the following issues: Why the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions is necessary; subventions and related processes; international initiatives for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions, routes for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions.

  13. The Federal Republic of Germany and Left Wing Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    the Beatles ! Historically speaking, the soon to be dubbed “68ers”, were extremely conscious of the suppressive and authoritarian Nazi regime that...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction

  14. Environment and economic growth in the federal republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, F.

    1998-01-01

    After several decades of economic growth with a continuous increase of energy consumptions, a new trend is now developing in Germany: reduction of energy consumptions and of pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes first the energy supplies of Germany (consumption, sources), the consumption by sector, and the share of the different energy sources in the German consumption (petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable energies). In a second part, the German energy policy is presented with its priorities and actions regarding the environment protection: energy savings, development of renewable energy sources, reduction of automotive fuels consumption, rational use of energy, thermal insulation of buildings, financial incentives etc.. Finally, the forecasting of future energy consumption and pollutants emission trends in Germany and at the worldwide scale are evoked. (J.S.)

  15. Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2015; Statusbericht zur Kernenergienutzung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Niedzwiedz, Katarzyna; Philippczyk, Frank; Thoemmes, Achim

    2016-05-15

    Status report on the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2015 covers the following topics: electricity generation on Germany, nuclear power plants in Germany, research reactors, facilities of nuclear fuel supply and nuclear waste management.

  16. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The seismic data will serve as input parameters for the construction of sensitive industrial-scale facilities and also as basic data of the general specifications for building construction (DIN 4149, part 1: Building construction in seismic regions of West Germany; assumed loads, dimensioning and design of high structures). To give a better picture, the data are presented in the form of maps showing seismic regions in West Germany (including marginal regions) and world-wide. Definitions are presented in order to facilitate reading for non-experts. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henger, M.; Leydecker, G.

    1988-01-01

    The report summarizes the regional reports of the seismological observatories for the year 1983. There was no serious earthquake so far in the F.R.G. The data are presented in the form of maps showing the seismic centers in West Germany (including marginal regions). Explanations of seismological terminology and abbreviations used are given for the general reader. (DG) [de

  18. Cultural Life in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter Nationes, Bonn (West Germany).

    By the nature of the subject, it is impossible to do justice to the cultural developments of more than 40 years in a brief survey. The aim of this document is to explore the diverse cultural life of West Germany complete with photographs of past and present artists, art products, and other aspects of German culture. The subject areas treated are:…

  19. The situation of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassert, H.

    1982-01-01

    The industrial development of nuclear power, especially nuclear power plant technology, in the Federal Republic of Germany has reached a top level position worldwide with respect to availability and safety. The expansion of the use of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany by comparison has been in a paradoxical situation for many years: the importance of this source of energy is being stressed again and again by politicians and industrialists, the speedy development of nuclear power described as indispensable for the national economy and the energy producing utilities. However, in actual practice, industry and the electricity utilities are facing no end of obstacles and difficulties which, ultimately, are beginning to jeopardize the major advantages of nuclear power, at least in the Federal Republic. Special difficulties arise not only in the completion of the prototypes of the two advanced reactor lines, i.e., the fast breeder and the high temperature reactor, but especially also in the completion of the fuel cycle by reprocessing plants, despite the fact that all legal conditions exist for allowing nuclear power to occupy the place found to be necessary also in the Federal Republic of Germany. Industry expects these complex effects on the economy to be recognized and taken into account especially on the political side before this important area of innovation suffers irreparable damage. (orig.) [de

  20. Localised transmission hotspots of a typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Engy; Bergh, Rafael Van Den; D'hondt, Rob; Kuma-Kuma, Donat; Weggheleire, Anja De; Baudot, Yves; Lambert, Vincent; Hunter, Paul; Zachariah, Rony; Maes, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In a semi-urban setting in the Democratic Republic of Congo, this study aims to understand the dynamic of a typhoid fever (TF) outbreak and to assess: a) the existence of hot spots for TF transmission and b) the difference between typhoid cases identified within those hot spots and the general population in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, sanitation practice, and sources of drinking water. This was a retrospective analysis of TF outbreaks in 2011 in Kikwit, DRC using microbiological analysis of water sources and a structured interview questionnaire. There were a total of 1430 reported TF cases. The outbreak's epidemic curve shows earliest and highest peak attack rates (AR) in three military camps located in Kikwit (Ebeya 3.2%; Ngubu 3.0%; and Nsinga 2.2%) compared to an average peak AR of 0.6% in other affected areas. A total 320 cases from the military camps and the high burden health areas were interviewed. Typhoid cases in the military camps shared a latrine with more than one family (P<0.02). All tap water sources in both the military camps and general population were found to be highly contaminated with faecal coliforms. The role of military camps in Kikwit as early hotspots of TF transmission was likely associated with lower sanitary and hygiene conditions. The proximity of camps to the general population might have been responsible for disseminating TF to the general population. Mapping of cases during an outbreak could be crucial to identify hot spots for transmission and institute corrective measures.

  1. Yellow Fever Outbreak - Kongo Central Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otshudiema, John O; Ndakala, Nestor G; Mawanda, Elande-Taty K; Tshapenda, Gaston P; Kimfuta, Jacques M; Nsibu, Loupy-Régence N; Gueye, Abdou S; Dee, Jacob; Philen, Rossanne M; Giese, Coralie; Murrill, Christopher S; Arthur, Ray R; Kebela, Benoit I

    2017-03-31

    On April 23, 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC's) Ministry of Health declared a yellow fever outbreak. As of May 24, 2016, approximately 90% of suspected yellow fever cases (n = 459) and deaths (45) were reported in a single province, Kongo Central Province, that borders Angola, where a large yellow fever outbreak had begun in December 2015. Two yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns were conducted in Kongo Central Province during May 25-June 7, 2016 and August 17-28, 2016. In June 2016, the DRC Ministry of Health requested assistance from CDC to control the outbreak. As of August 18, 2016, a total of 410 suspected yellow fever cases and 42 deaths were reported in Kongo Central Province. Thirty seven of the 393 specimens tested in the laboratory were confirmed as positive for yellow fever virus (local outbreak threshold is one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever). Although not well-documented for this outbreak, malaria, viral hepatitis, and typhoid fever are common differential diagnoses among suspected yellow fever cases in this region. Other possible diagnoses include Zika, West Nile, or dengue viruses; however, no laboratory-confirmed cases of these viruses were reported. Thirty five of the 37 cases of yellow fever were imported from Angola. Two-thirds of confirmed cases occurred in persons who crossed the DRC-Angola border at one market city on the DRC side, where ≤40,000 travelers cross the border each week on market day. Strategies to improve coordination between health surveillance and cross-border trade activities at land borders and to enhance laboratory and case-based surveillance and health border screening capacity are needed to prevent and control future yellow fever outbreaks.

  2. Antecedent causes of a measles resurgence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Heather Melissa; Ilunga, Benoît Kebela; Mulumba, Audry; Shidi, Calixte; Coulibaly, Tiekoura; Obama, Ricardo; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Simbu, Elisabeth Pukuta; Smit, Sheilagh Brigitte; Masresha, Balcha; Perry, Robert Tyrrell; Alleman, Mary Margaret; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite accelerated measles control efforts, a massive measles resurgence occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) starting in mid-2010, prompting an investigation into likely causes. Methods We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis using measles immunization and surveillance data to understand the causes of the measles resurgence and to develop recommendations for elimination efforts in DRC. Results During 2004-2012, performance indicator targets for case-based surveillance and routine measles vaccination were not met. Estimated coverage with the routine first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 57% to 73%. Phased supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted starting in 2002, in some cases with sub-optimal coverage (≤95%). In 2010, SIAs in five of 11 provinces were not implemented as planned, resulting in a prolonged interval between SIAs, and a missed birth cohort in one province. During July 1, 2010-December 30, 2012, high measles attack rates (>100 cases per 100,000 population) occurred in provinces that had estimated MCV1 coverage lower than the national estimate and did not implement planned 2010 SIAs. The majority of confirmed case-patients were aged measles virus strains that were previously identified in the region. Conclusion The resurgence was likely caused by an accumulation of unvaccinated, measles-susceptible children due to low MCV1 coverage and suboptimal SIA implementation. To achieve the regional goal of measles elimination by 2020, efforts are needed in DRC to improve case-based surveillance and increase two-dose measles vaccination coverage through routine services and SIAs. PMID:26401224

  3. Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks and Events - Three Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Mary M; Chitale, Rohit; Burns, Cara C; Iber, Jane; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi; Chen, Qi; Van Koko, Djo-Roy; Ewetola, Raimi; Riziki, Yogolelo; Kavunga-Membo, Hugo; Dah, Cheikh; Andriamihantanirina, Rija

    2018-03-16

    The last confirmed wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had paralysis onset in December 2011 (1). DRC has had cases of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) documented since 2004 (Table 1) (1-6). After an outbreak of 30 circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) cases during 2011-2012, only five VDPV2 cases were reported during 2013-2016 (Table 1) (1-6). VDPVs can emerge from oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV types 1, 2, or 3; Sabin) polioviruses that have genetically mutated resulting in reversion to neurovirulence. This process occurs during extensive person-to-person transmission in populations with low immunity or after extended replication in the intestines of immune-deficient persons following vaccination (1-6). During 2017 (as of March 8, 2018), 25 VDPV cases were reported in three provinces in DRC: in Tanganyika province, an emergence with one VDPV2 case (pending final classification) in Kabalo health zone and an emergence with one ambiguous VDPV type 1 (aVDPV1) case in Ankoro health zone; in Maniema province, an emergence with two cVDPV2 cases; and in Haut Lomami province, an emergence with 20 cVDPV2 cases that originated in Haut Lomami province and later spread to Tanganyika province (hereafter referred to as the Haut Lomami outbreak area) and an emergence with one aVDPV type 2 (aVDPV2) case in Lwamba health zone (Table 1) (Figure) (6). Outbreak response supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted during June-December 2017 (Table 2) (6). Because of limitations in surveillance and suboptimal SIA quality and geographic scope, cVDPV2 circulation is likely continuing in 2018, requiring additional SIAs. DRC health officials and Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners are increasing human and financial resources to improve all aspects of outbreak response.

  4. Sensibility analysis of VORIS lava-flow simulations: application to Nyamulagira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, H.-B.; Smets, B.; d'Oreye, N.; Marti, J.

    2015-03-01

    Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga area in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1-4 years - mostly in the form of lava flows - at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than two years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano, thereby affecting very large areas and having a serious impact on the region of Virunga. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at the Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling lava flow propagation. We tested different Digital Elevation Models (DEM) - SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM - to analyze the sensibility of the input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1 in simulation of recent historical lava-flow for which the pre-eruption topography is known. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS model for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management.

  5. Local perceptions of cholera and anticipated vaccine acceptance in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In regions where access to clean water and the provision of a sanitary infrastructure has not been sustainable, cholera continues to pose an important public health burden. Although oral cholera vaccines (OCV) are effective means to complement classical cholera control efforts, still relatively little is known about their acceptability in targeted communities. Clarification of vaccine acceptability prior to the introduction of a new vaccine provides important information for future policy and planning. Methods In a cross-sectional study in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), local perceptions of cholera and anticipated acceptance of an OCV were investigated. A random sample of 360 unaffected adults from a rural town and a remote fishing island was interviewed in 2010. In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of key informants and focus-group discussions provided contextual information. Socio-cultural determinants of anticipated OCV acceptance were assessed with logistic regression. Results Most respondents perceived contaminated water (63%) and food (61%) as main causes of cholera. Vaccines (28%), health education (18%) and the provision of clean water (15%) were considered the most effective measures of cholera control. Anticipated vaccine acceptance reached 97% if an OCV would be provided for free. Cholera-specific knowledge of hygiene and self-help in form of praying for healing were positively associated with anticipated OCV acceptance if costs of USD 5 were assumed. Conversely, respondents who feared negative social implications of cholera were less likely to anticipate acceptance of OCVs. These fears were especially prominent among respondents who generated their income through fishing. With an increase of assumed costs to USD 10.5, fear of financial constraints was negatively associated with anticipated vaccine acceptance as well. Conclusions Results suggest a high motivation to use an OCV as long as it seems affordable. The

  6. Organizational forms of medical care in the event of radiation accidents in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nack, P.; Arndt, D.; Schuettmann, W.

    1977-01-01

    Medical care of radiation casualties in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) is organized on two levels. On the level of users the responsible Medical Officers guarantee both the routine control of persons occupationally exposed to radiation and first aid in the event of accidents. On the second level medical treatment is given either in the Clinical Department of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection or in specialized national health system clinics having facilities for intensive medical care. A decision on hospitalization is made according to the conditions of the accident and the necessary diagnostic and therapeutic measures as a rule are based on consultations between the responsible Medical Officer and the departments of the Board (Emergency Assistance Service, Clinical Department, Consultative Committee). For serious cases where haematological complications can be expected, a central medical clinic with facilities for bone-marrow transplants is available. The casualties are treated in local clinics which are provided with continuous support and advice by the Board. This support consists in: (i) immediate activity by a consultative committee of the Board's physicians and scientists experienced and trained in radiation protection and the treatment of radiation accidents; (ii) the requirement of compulsory examination methods and take-over of specialized laboratory investigations; and (iii) the use of a mobile emergency measuring system in cases of additional incorporation. It is the main principle of medical care in case of radiation accidents to consult, as early as possible, a medical consultative committee of the Board in the field of radiation protection at each step of medical care. (author)

  7. Health policy evolution in Lao People's Democratic Republic: context, processes and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Kristina; Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran

    2015-05-01

    During the last 20 years Lao People's Democratic Republic has successfully developed and adopted some 30 health policies, strategies, decrees and laws in the field of health. Still, the implementation process remains arduous. This article aims at discussing challenges of health policy development and effective implementation by contextualizing the policy evolution over time and by focusing particularly on the National Drug Policy and the Health Care Law. Special attention is given to the role of research in policymaking. The analysis was guided by the conceptual framework of policy context, process, content and actors, combined with an institutional perspective, and showed that effective implementation of a health policy is highly dependent on both structures and agency of those involved in the policy process. The National Drug Policy was formulated and adopted in a short period of time in a resource-scarce setting, but with dedicated policy entrepreneurs and support of concerned international collaborators. Timely introduction of operational health systems research played a crucial role to support the implementation, as well as the subsequent revision of the policy. The development of the Health Care Law took several years and once adopted, the implementation was delayed by institutional legacies and issues concerning the choice of institutional design and financing, despite strong support of the law among the policymakers. Among many factors, timing of the implementation appeared to be of crucial importance, in combination with strong leadership. These two examples show that more research, that problematizes the complex policy environment in combination with improved communication between researchers and policymakers, is necessary to inform about measures for effective implementation. A way forward can be to strengthen the domestic research capacity and the international research collaboration regionally as well as globally. Published by Oxford University Press

  8. [Blood transfusion in the Democratic Republic of Congo: efforts and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabinda Maotela, J; Ramazani, S Y; Misingi, P; Dramaix-Wilmet, M

    2015-01-01

    The authors trace the history of blood transfusion in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as inherited through the colonial organization of the health system. The current configuration of transfusion system begins with the drafting of the national blood transfusion policy and the establishment of a national technical office within the Ministry of Health to coordinate transfusion activities and of its agents in each province. Despite countless difficulties, several positive points were noted. These involve essentially the drafting of all the necessary documents and standards and the integration of the blood safety system into the country's health system. Initially, the blood transfusion system applied a vertical approach, but with the reform of the country's health system, the performance of blood safety became transversal. In the 12 years from 2001 to 2012, it mobilized 112,882 volunteer blood donors; more than 80% of blood products were checked for safety and covered all blood needs; and 81,806 HIV infections were avoided by routine testing of blood products. During the same period, 7560 people were trained in blood transfusion. The prevalence of viral markers among donors has diminished sharply. Thus, HIV prevalence decreased from 4.7% to 2.1% between 2001 and 2012 that of hepatitis B dropped from 7.1% to 3.5% during the same period, and hepatitis C from 11.8% to 2.3% from 2004 to 2012. Despite this performance, enormous efforts are still required, for the organization of blood safety monitoring, the establishment of a safe supply of reagents and supplies, for sustaining the dynamics of voluntary associations of blood donors, and finally for providing stable funding for these blood safety activities.

  9. Budget process bottlenecks for immunization financing in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard; Mibulumukini, Benoît; Gessner, Bradford D; Colombini, Anaïs

    2014-02-19

    In Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the availability of domestic resources for the immunization program is limited and relies mostly on external donor support. DRC has introduced a series of reforms to move the country toward performance-based management and program budgets. The objectives of the study were to: (i) describe the budget process norm, (ii) analyze the budget process in practice and associated bottlenecks at each of its phases, and (iii) collect suggestions made by the actors involved to improve the situation. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through: a review of published and gray literature, and individual interviews. Bottlenecks in the budget process and disbursement of funds for immunization are one of the causes of limited domestic resources for the program. Critical bottlenecks include: excessive use of off-budget procedures; limited human resources and capacity; lack of motivation; interference from ministries with the standard budget process; dependency toward the development partner's disbursements schedule; and lack of budget implementation tracking. Results show that the health sector's mobilization rate was 59% in 2011. For the credit line specific to immunization program activities, the mobilization rate for the national Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) was 26% in 2011 and 43% for vaccines (2010). The main bottleneck for the EPI budget line (2011) and vaccine budget line (2011) occurs at the authorization phase. Budget process bottlenecks identified in the analysis lead to a low mobilization rate for the immunization program. The bottlenecks identified show that a poor flow of funds causes an insufficient percentage of already allocated resources to reach various health system levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antiretroviral treatment program retention among HIV-infected children in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ditekemena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retaining patients with HIV infection in care is still a major challenge in sub- Saharan Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC where the antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage is low. Monitoring retention is an important tool for evaluating the quality of care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A review of medical records of HIV-infected children was performed in three health facilities in the DRC: the Amo-Congo Health center, the Monkole Clinic in Kinshasa, and the HEAL Africa Clinic in Goma. Medical records of 720 children were included. Kaplan Meier curves were constructed with the probability of retention at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years. Retention rates were: 88.2% (95% CI: 85.1%-90.8% at 6 months; 85% (95% CI: 81.5%-87.6% at one year; 79.4% (95%CI: 75.5%-82.8% at two years and 74.7% (95% CI: 70.5%-78.5% at 3 years. The retention varied across study sites: 88.2%, 66.6% and 92.5% at 6 months; 84%, 59% and 90% at 12 months and 75.7%, 56.3% and 85.8% at 24 months respectively for Amo-Congo/Kasavubu, Monkole facility and HEAL Africa. After multivariable Cox regression four variables remained independently associated with attrition: study site, CD4 cell count <350 cells/µL, children younger than 2 years and children whose caregivers were member of an independent church. CONCLUSIONS: Attrition remains a challenge for pediatric HIV positive patients in ART programs in DRC. In addition, the low coverage of pediatric treatment exacerbates the situation of pediatric HIV/AIDS.

  11. Sexual violence toward children and youth in war-torn eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Malemo Kalisya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. METHODS: Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (≤ 18 yrs and adult patients. FINDINGS: 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6-12], p72 hours after the assault was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2-4.0], p = 0.007. Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3-4.4], p = 0.006. Nine (2.9% pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p = 0.34. INTERPRETATION: World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth.

  12. Factors that influence contraceptive use amongst women in Vanga health district, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangale Izale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contraception is often necessary in order to plan for children and without it there is a risk of unplanned pregnancies. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, this often results in abortions by untrained persons with resultant morbidity and mortality. Aim: To investigate the factors that influence contraceptive use amongst women of childbearing age in the Vanga health zone. Methods: Cross-sectional survey using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results: Of the 384 women recruited, a majority (46.1% were in the 31–40 year age group;52% had reached primary school and 88% did not have formal employment. One hundredand forty of the participants reported current use of contraception, with 60% of them using modern methods of contraception; 36.1% of them had begun using contraception before the age of 20; and the most common methods were oral contraceptive pills and injection, each accounting for 22.9%. There was variation in the duration of contraceptive use and the main reason for using contraception was to space children. Of the participants, 20.7% had been using contraception for more than two years. Seventy-seven (31.5% of the women reported they did not use contraception because of a fear of side effects. Forty-four (18% reported that they are unable to afford contraception, 38 (15.6% had husbands who disapproved of contraceptive usage, 26 (10.6% had a fear of infertility, 18 (7.4% practised a religion that did not allow them to use contraception and 12 of the women (4.9% did not use contraception because it was unavailable to them. Conclusion: Barriers to contraception in our study were fears of side effects and infertility, cost, male partner’s objection, unavailability of contraception and religious beliefs.

  13. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women: high seroprevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudou, Yobi; Renaud, Piarroux; Coralie, L'Ollivier; Jacqueline, Franck; Hypolite, Situakibanza; Hypolite, Muhindo; Patrick, Mitashi; Andreia, Inocêncio da Luz Raquel; Van Sprundel, Marc; Marleen, Boelaert; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Pascal, Lutumba

    2014-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, as well as the proportion of acutely infected and risk factors in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Thirty maternities in Kinshasa were randomly selected and women attending antenatal consultation were invited to participate. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about known risk factors (age, meat consumption, contact with soil, and presence of cat) and a venous blood sample was taken. Sera were analysed for total immunoglobulins (Ig) by VIDAS Toxo Competition using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. IgM was determined by VIDIA Toxo IgM and IgG avidity by VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. A total of 781 women were included. Median age was 28 years old (IQR: 8.5). And 627 women (80.3%; 95% CI: 77.5-83.1) were found to be positive to total Ig and 17 out of 387 (4.4%; 95% CI: 2.3-6.4) were positive to IgM. IgG avidity was low for 2 (11.8%) women, intermediate for 2 (11.8%) and high for 13 women (76.4%). There was no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and any risk factors assessed. In Kinshasa, toxoplasmosis endemicity is highly prevalent. One woman out of twenty five had a recent toxoplasmosis infection and 20% were not protected against primo-infection, indicating a need for measures to prevent and control toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Onchocerciasis control in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): challenges in a post-war environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenga Bof, J-C; Maketa, V; Bakajika, D K; Ntumba, F; Mpunga, D; Murdoch, M E; Hopkins, A; Noma, M M; Zouré, H; Tekle, A H; Katabarwa, M N; Lutumba, P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate onchocerciasis control activities in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the first 12 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI). Data from the National Programme for Onchocerciasis (NPO) provided by the National Onchocerciasis Task Force (NOTF) through the annual reports of the 21 CDTI projects for the years 2001-2012 were reviewed retrospectively. A hypothetical-inputs-process-outputs-outcomes table was constructed. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin expanded from 1968 communities in 2001 to 39 100 communities by 2012 while the number of community-directed distributors (CDD) and health workers (HW) multiplied. By 2012, there were ratios of 1 CDD per 262 persons and 1 HW per 2318 persons at risk. More than 80% of the funding came from the fiduciary funds of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. The cost of treatment per person treated fell from US$ 1.1 in 2001 to US$ 0.1 in 2012. The therapeutic coverage increased from 2.7% (2001) to 74.2% (2012); the geographical coverage, from 4.7% (2001) to 93.9% (2012). Geographical coverage fell in 2005 due to deaths in loiasis co-endemic areas, and the therapeutic coverage fell in 2008 due to insecurity. Challenges to CDTI in DRC have been serious adverse reactions to ivermectin in loiasis co-endemic areas and political conflict. Targets for personnel or therapeutic and geographical coverages were not met. Longer term funding and renewed efforts are required to achieve control and elimination of onchocerciasis in DRC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The geography of malaria genetics in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A complex and fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Patel, Jaymin; Taylor, Steve M.; Janko, Mark; Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Tshefu, Antoinette K.; Escalante, Ananias A.; McCollum, Andrea; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Meshnick, Steven; Emch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites move between populations is important, particularly given the potential for malaria to be reintroduced into areas where it was previously eliminated. We examine the distribution of malaria genetics across seven sites within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and two nearby countries, Ghana and Kenya, in order to understand how the relatedness of malaria parasites varies across space, and whether there are barriers to the flow of malaria parasites within the DRC or across borders. Parasite DNA was retrieved from dried blood spots from 7 Demographic and Health Survey sample clusters in the DRC. Malaria genetic characteristics of parasites from Ghana and Kenya were also obtained. For each of 9 geographic sites (7 DRC, 1 Ghana and 1 Kenya), a pair-wise RST statistic was calculated, indicating the genetic distance between malaria parasites found in those locations. Mapping genetics across the spatial extent of the study area indicates a complex genetic landscape, where relatedness between two proximal sites may be relatively high (RST > 0.64) or low (RST < 0.05), and where distal sites also exhibit both high and low genetic similarity. Mantel’s tests suggest that malaria genetics differ as geographic distances increase. Principal Coordinate Analysis suggests that genetically related samples are not co-located. Barrier analysis reveals no significant barriers to gene flow between locations. Malaria genetics in the DRC have a complex and fragmented landscape. Limited exchange of genes across space is reflected in greater genetic distance between malaria parasites isolated at greater geographic distances. There is, however, evidence for close genetic ties between distally located sample locations, indicating that movement of malaria parasites and flow of genes is being driven by factors other than distance decay. This research demonstrates the contributions that spatial disease ecology and landscape genetics can make to

  16. ETHICS OF MANDATORY PREMARITAL HIV TESTING IN AFRICA: THE CASE OF GOMA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    RENNIE, STUART; MUPENDA, BAVON

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of prevention efforts, millions of persons worldwide continue to become infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) every year. This urgent problem of global epidemic control has recently lead to significant changes in HIV testing policies. Provider-initiated approaches to HIV testing have been embraced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, such as those that routinely inform persons that they will be tested for HIV unless they explicitly refuse (‘opt out’). While these policies appear to increase uptake of testing, they raise a number of ethical concerns that have been debated in journals and at international AIDS conferences. However, one special form of ‘provider-initiated’ testing is being practiced and promoted in various parts of the world, and has advocates within international health agencies, but has received little attention in the bioethical literature: mandatory premarital HIV testing. This article analyses some of the key ethical issues related to mandatory premarital HIV testing in resource-poor settings with generalized HIV epidemics. We will first briefly mention some mandatory HIV premarital testing proposals, policies and practices worldwide, and offer a number of conceptual and factual distinctions to help distinguish different types of mandatory testing policies. Using premarital testing in Goma (Democratic Republic of Congo) as a point of departure, we will use influential public health ethics principles to evaluate different forms of mandatory testing. We conclude by making concrete recommendations concerning the place of mandatory premarital testing in the struggle against HIV/AIDS. PMID:19143089

  17. Combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements to assess forest carbon stocks in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Bouvy, Alban; Stephenne, Nathalie; Mathoux, Pierre; Bastin, Jean-François; Baudot, Yves; Akkermans, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks changes has been a rising topic in the recent years as a result of REDD+ mechanisms negotiations. Such monitoring will be mandatory for each project/country willing to benefit from these financial incentives in the future. Aerial and satellite remote sensing technologies offer cost advantages in implementing large scale forest inventories. Despite the recent progress made in the use of airborne LiDAR for carbon stocks estimation, no widely operational and cost effective method has yet been delivered for central Africa forest monitoring. Within the Maï Ndombe region of Democratic Republic of Congo, the EO4REDD project develops a method combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements. This combination is done in three steps: [1] mapping and quantifying forest cover changes using an object-based semi-automatic change detection (deforestation and forest degradation) methodology based on very high resolution satellite imagery (RapidEye), [2] developing an allometric linear model for above ground biomass measurements based on dendrometric parameters (tree crown areas and heights) extracted from airborne stereoscopic image pairs and calibrated using ground measurements of individual trees on a data set of 18 one hectare plots and [3] relating these two products to assess carbon stocks changes at a regional scale. Given the high accuracies obtained in [1] (> 80% for deforestation and 77% for forest degradation) and the suitable, but still to be improved with a larger calibrating sample, model (R² of 0.7) obtained in [2], EO4REDD products can be seen as a valid and replicable option for carbon stocks monitoring in tropical forests. Further improvements are planned to strengthen the cost effectiveness value and the REDD+ suitability in the second phase of EO4REDD. This second phase will include [A] specific model developments per forest type; [B] measurements of afforestation, reforestation and natural regeneration processes and

  18. Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Osadebe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human monkeypox (MPX occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases.Data from a cohort of suspect MPX cases (identified by surveillance over the course of a 42 month period during 2009-2014 from DRC were used; real-time PCR diagnostic test results were used to establish MPX and VZV diagnoses. A total of 333 laboratory-confirmed MPX cases, 383 laboratory-confirmed VZV cases, and 36 cases that were determined to not be either MPX or VZV were included in the analyses. Significant (p<0.05 differences between laboratory-confirmed MPX and VZV cases were noted for several signs/symptoms including key rash characteristics. Both surveillance case definitions had high sensitivity and low specificities for individuals that had suspected MPX virus infections. Using 12 signs/symptoms with high sensitivity and/or specificity values, a receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that models for MPX cases that had the presence of 'fever before rash' plus at least 7 or 8 of the 12 signs/symptoms demonstrated a more balanced performance between sensitivity and specificity.Laboratory-confirmed MPX and VZV cases presented with many of the same signs and symptoms, and the analysis here emphasized the utility of including 12 specific signs/symptoms when investigating MPX cases. In order to document and detect endemic human MPX cases, a surveillance case definition with more specificity is needed for accurate case detection. In the absence of a more specific case definition, continued emphasis on confirmatory laboratory-based diagnostics is warranted.

  19. Prevalence of Rubella Antibodies Among Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Vivian H; Doshi, Reena H; Mukadi, Patrick; Higgins, Stephen G; Hoff, Nicole A; Bwaka, Ado; Mwamba, Guillaume Ngoie; Okitolonda, Emile; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Gerber, Sue; Rimoin, Anne W

    2018-01-01

    While generally mild in children, rubella infection in early pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome. Rubella vaccination is not yet available as a part of routine immunization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and the burden of infection is unknown. In collaboration with the 2013-2014 DRC Demographic and Health Survey, a serosurvey was carried out to assess population immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases. Dry blood spot samples collected from children 6-59 months of age were processed using the Dynex Technologies Multiplier FLEX chemiluminescent immunoassay platform (Dynex Technologies, Chantilly, VA). Among the 7195 6- to 59-month-old children, 33% were positive and <1% indeterminate for rubella antibodies in weighted analyses. Seroprevalence was positively associated with age of the child and province, with seropositivity highest in Bandundu (53%) and lowest in Kasai-Oriental (20%). In multivariate analyses, serologic evidence of infection was associated with age of the mother and child, socioeconomic status and geographic location. Rubella infection is prevalent among children in the DRC, and while most seroconversion occurs in young children, a significant proportion of children remain at risk and may enter reproductive age susceptible to rubella infection. While not currently in place, implementation of a surveillance program will provide improved estimates of both rubella virus circulation and the burden of congenital rubella syndrome. Such information will play an important role in future policy decisions, vaccine delivery strategies and may provide a basis upon which the effectiveness of rubella antigen introduction may be assessed.

  20. Civic education and religious education in the function of democratization of education in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemenović Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the socio-political context of changes that have affected the education systems of Eastern European countries, the authors summarize the specific nature of the process of democratization of education in Europe at the turn of the century. The paper analyzes the purpose of democratization of education and of introduction of Civic Education and Religious Education classes in the education system of the Republic of Serbia, observing the idea that education may serve as a generator of social changes, and stating that school is an important support pillar in promoting and accepting the values of the community, as well as in personal growth and the development of every individual. The presented theoretical concepts are supported by the summary of results of empirical studies that have been focused on the analysis of the pedagogical aspects of the implementation of teaching these subjects at the secondary level of education from the perspective of teachers, pupils and parents. Based on the insight into the topic, the authors suggest searching for a “common tangent” in Civic Education and Religious Education teaching process via an open and tolerant dialogue of participants of both subjects, which would enable the exchange of experiences, attitudes, and opinions of pupils, as well as coinciding and permeating of spiritual and democratic values as a foundation for further democratization of school in general. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179036: Pedagogical Pluralism as the Basis for Education Policy

  1. Nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The information brochure is a survey of installed nuclear facilities in Germany, presenting on one page each a picture of a nuclear power plant together with the main relevant data, or of other type of nuclear facilities belonging to the nuclear fuel cycle (such as fuel production plant, fuel production plant, fuel element storage facilities, and facilities for spent fuel and waste management). (UA) [de

  2. Nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, D.O.

    1978-01-01

    The way the electricity supply in West Germany is organised is outlined. A summary is given of the development of commercial reactors, of FBRs and HTRs and of their role in present and future nuclear generating capacity. The link-up between manufacturers and companies within the industry is illustrated. Procedures for licensing of plant and the role of administrative courts in dealing with public contestations following the issues of licenses is described. Reference is made to plans for reprocessing. (UK)

  3. The Lincoln Image in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Nagler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the enduring fascination with the sixteenth President of the United States in Germany. In general, his legacy and its evaluation changed in relation to the determinate historical contexts, beginning with the monarchial system, extending through the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and now the Federal Republic of Germany. Certain social and political individuals/groups in Germany used the image and iconography of Lincoln as a projection screen to support their own political objectives. Although there were always multiple layers of Lincoln representations in Germany, the dominant images were: the national unifier, the libertarian universalist, the emancipator, the defender of moral values, the modernizer, the democrat who used the power of the democratic state, the egalitarian self-made man from humble origins, and the defender of social justice and workingmen’s rights.

  4. Unintended pregnancy and its correlates among currently pregnant women in the Kwango District, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sarita; Song, Jin Sung; Shin, Dong Eun; Lee, Tae Ho; So, Ae Young; Nam, Eun Woo

    2016-06-16

    Unintended pregnancy is an important reproductive health problem in both developed and developing countries and is most prominent in low-middle income countries. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the total fertility rate is high at 5.9 births per women, and a mother's probabily of dying at an age between 15-49 years is also high (53 %). Women with unintended pregnancies are less likely to utilize available necessary services for their own health and the health of their children. Therefore, unintended pregnancy is a crucial factor of maternal health in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This study aims to identify the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and its associated factors in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Data were collected from June 20 to 29, 2014 among women aged 15-49 years who had children younger than 5 years old. The women were from a representative sample of 602 households. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between the dependent variable and the explanatory variables. Unintended pregnancy was reported in 51.4 % of the respondents. Multivariate logistic regression showed an association between education status (AOR, 3.4; CI, 1.21-9.90) and age of the last child (AOR, 5.17; CI, 1.23-21.70) with an unintended pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies were low among women who owner a cell phone (AOR, 0.18; CI, 0.47-0.73) and those who were aware of family planning method (AOR 0.20; CI, 0.06-0.60). The unintended pregnancy rate high and was significantly associated with female education, previous use of family planning methods, ownership of cell phone, and age of the last child. Maternal health interventions should focus on increasing family planning service utilization, awareness of family planning, and access to communication and income.

  5. A cross-sectional community study of post-traumatic stress disorder and social support in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southivong, Bouavanh; Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Southivong, Chanhpheng

    2013-10-01

    To estimate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in those injured and not injured by landmines or unexploded ordnance (UXO) in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic and to determine whether the perception of social support was associated with PTSD symptom severity. A community survey was conducted among 190 people injured by landmines or UXO and 380 age-, sex- and neighbourhood-matched non-injured individuals in the Sepone district of Savannakhet Province, the part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic most heavily bombed during the Viet Nam War. Using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, trained health-care workers conducted face-to-face interviews to assess PTSD symptoms and level of perceived social support. Multiple linear regression was performed to explore the association between social support and other factors and PTSD. The prevalence of PTSD was higher among the injured (10%) than among the non-injured (4%), but the level of perceived social support was not significantly different between the two groups. A higher level of perceived social support was associated with milder symptoms of PTSD. Women, older people and those with a formal education were more often and more severely affected by PTSD. The perception of strong social support might help to alleviate the symptoms of PTSD among people injured by landmines or UXO in rural parts of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Psychosocial interventions should be incorporated in assistance for the injured because they have more severe and longer-lasting symptoms of PTSD than the non-injured.

  6. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany

  7. Microbiologic and Clinical Features of Salmonella Species Isolated From Bacteremic Children in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberg, Olivier; Nyarukweba, Deo Z.; Ndeba, Prudence M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The morbidity of Salmonella bloodstream infections is unacceptably high in Africa. In 2000, the WHO Global Salmonella-Surveillance (GSS) program was founded to reduce the health burden of foodborne diseases. The incorporation, in 2002, of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC......) in this program allowed the improvement of laboratory capacities. In this retrospective study, we describe the first signs of impact the GSS program has had in DRC in the management of bacteremia. Methods: Between 2002 and 2006, we evaluated, in one pediatric hospital, the microbiologic and clinical features...

  8. Limitation of releases of radioactive effluents for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolksdorf, P.; Buehling, A.

    1981-01-01

    Empirical values relating to the effluents of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are now available. These values cover a period of several years of operation. The measured emissions of radioactive substances are often very much below the maximum permissible values, based on the dose limits for the environment stipulated in the legal regulations. Extensive technical and administrative measures contribute to the reduction of radioactive effluents. Furthermore, additional possibilities for improvement are mentioned which may lead to a further reduction of radioactive effluents. These are derived from investigations into the release of radioactive substances in nuclear power plants. The licensing procedure in the Federal Republic of Germany in fixing discharge limits is outlined. Proposals are made concerning licence values which may be determined for the radioactive effluents in modern standardized nuclear power plants with light-water reactors. The resulting radiation exposures are quoted for a typical nuclear power plant site. (author)

  9. Impacts of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the territories of the former German Democratic Republic in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    Several reports by SAAS (the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board of the German Democratic Republic) have been discussing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident through 1989. Only a summary had been published for 1989 in the environmental radioactivity annual report. Institut fuer Umweltschutz had been in charge of the publication of a more detailed account as part of the 'environmental report' but the project was abandoned since the institute was wound up as of October 1990. The report under review concludes the separate German Demoncratic Republic reporting by publishing the part of the manuscript on environmental contamination caused by artificial radionuclides which gives the 1989 situation on the basis of the previous results on the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The appendix lists the SAAS reports published in the past. (orig./BBR) [de

  10. The public opinion of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 1955-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, N.

    1988-01-01

    With this report an attempt is made to document all opinion polls concerning the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. This documentation is designed to serve as a useful tool for social science research. It should support the historical analysis of long-term developments in public opinion and a systematic comparison of questions asked in different polls and at different times. (orig.) [de

  11. State of advanced reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutler, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany is engaged in development work on an advanced light-water reactor that is being designed to achieve a conversion factor of 0.9 on U-Pu fuel. With regard to breeder reactors, most efforts are being concentrated on further improving, with the aid of European partners, the safety standards and economic efficiency of fast breeders. Special efforts are being invested in the development and introduction of small, inherently safe high-temperature reactors

  12. The political setting of the environmentalist movement in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, H.J.; Kessel, H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper, aimed at the non-German public, gives a short impression of the political dimensions of the environmental movement in the Federal Republic of Germany. It shows that the former environmental protection groups have developed into new political parties which were successful in the last elections at the state level. Special emphasis is placed on the interrelations between the environmental movement and the peace movement. (orig.) [de

  13. Development of brown coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilmann, W

    1985-01-01

    The significance of brown coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany for the development of opencast technology and the power industry is discussed with emphasis on mining in the Rhineland Area. In 1984, 126.7 mt of brown coal were produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the development of high-performance equipment it is essential that the efficiency of the bucket-wheel excavator is increased. Trains and conveyors are mainly used for mine transport in the Federal Republic of Germany. A high moral commitment is linked to land claims, recultivation and environmental issues on the part of brown coal mining. In 1984 the percentage share of brown coal supplied to the public power stations was 83.6%, corresponding to 105.9 mt. The installed capacity of all brown coal power stations amounted to 12,764 MW at the end of 1984, providing around one quarter of overall public power output. Charge coal for coal refining has become more important and the production of brown coal dust and brown coal coke has also increased. The share of brown coal in domestic primary energy production is currently around 24% of 151 mt hard-coal units or around 10% of 376.5 mt hard-coal units in terms of energy consumption. 12 references.

  14. Military cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowsky, J.; Geisler, W.

    1978-01-01

    In the books part called 'the military co-operation between the Federal Republic of Germany and South Africa', the authors report that the African National Congress was able to prove the existence of a long atomic co-operation between the Federal Republic and South Africa: with knowledge and support of the Federal Government, the Society for Nuclear Research, Karlsruhe and the STEAG, Essen, have given the separation nozzle method used for uranium enrichment to South Africa. Thus, it is said, the Federal Republic is helping a regime to possess this dreadful weapon which might use it for tis surrival. Scientists of German nationality have been working in leading positions in the war research in South Africa. (HSCH) [de

  15. The Federal Republic of Germany as an energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive overview of the energy market West Germany. The central part is a presentation of the organizational structure of the most important sectoral markets and pricing mechanisms for petroleum, electric power, natural gas, and coal. A further emphasis is on the analysis of the structural change triggered off by the first energy crisis of 1973 and which was continued with increased momentum after the second one in 1979/1980. The book ascribes the savings of energy achieved in industry, households, small businesses and the transport sector to the development of prices and the energy policy implemented since 1973. The final part contains an outline - against the background of the development to be expected in future - of topical points of emphasis of an energy policy that is increasingly influenced by environmental concerns. (orig.) [de

  16. Environmental policy of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malunat, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The history of the policy for environmental protection in Germany is characterized by a particularly fast rate of evolution over the roughly 25 years of its existence to a state of maturity for which all other fundamental political goals and principles of our society - such as democracy, supremacy of law, social welfare - have taken much more time to develop. Compared to this rapid development in theory, the situation of the environment has changed but little, and considering our current knowledge, revealing the interdependency of global ecological processes, there is danger of development to the worse. The United Nations have been signalising the beginning of a new approach towards the environment based on the principle of global responsibility. But the narrow lane of ''sustainable development'' will lead to success only if the great majority of people are prepared to take on personal responsibility. (orig.) [de

  17. Pilot Research as Advocacy: The Case of Sayana Press in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Ministry of Health authorizes only physicians and nurses to give injections, with one exception—medical and nursing students may also give injections if supervised by a clinical instructor. The emergence of the injectable contraceptive Sayana Press in some African countries prompted the DRC to test the acceptability and feasibility of distributing Sayana Press and other contraceptive methods at the community level through medical and nursing students. Sayana Press is similar in formulation to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera but contains a lower dose and is administered subcutaneously using a single-use syringe with a short needle called the Uniject system. The Uniject system allows Sayana Press to be administered by community health workers without clinical training or by self-injection. In this pilot, the advocacy objective was to obtain approval from the Ministry of Health to allow medical and nursing students to inject Sayana Press, as a first step toward authorization for community health workers to provide the method. The pilot described in this article documents a process whereby an innovative approach moved from concept to implementation to replication in less than 2 years. It also paved the way for testing additional progressive strategies to increase access to contraception at the community level. Because the pilot project included a research component designed to assess benefits and challenges, it provided the means to introduce the new task-shifting approach, which might not have been approved otherwise. Key pilot activities included: (1) increasing awareness of Sayana Press among family planning stakeholders at a national conference on family planning, (2) enlisting the support of key decision makers in designing the pilot, (3) obtaining marketing authorization to distribute Sayana Press in the DRC, (4) implementing the pilot from July to December 2015, (5) conducting quantitative

  18. Pilot Research as Advocacy: The Case of Sayana Press in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-12-23

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Ministry of Health authorizes only physicians and nurses to give injections, with one exception-medical and nursing students may also give injections if supervised by a clinical instructor. The emergence of the injectable contraceptive Sayana Press in some African countries prompted the DRC to test the acceptability and feasibility of distributing Sayana Press and other contraceptive methods at the community level through medical and nursing students. Sayana Press is similar in formulation to the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera but contains a lower dose and is administered subcutaneously using a single-use syringe with a short needle called the Uniject system. The Uniject system allows Sayana Press to be administered by community health workers without clinical training or by self-injection. In this pilot, the advocacy objective was to obtain approval from the Ministry of Health to allow medical and nursing students to inject Sayana Press, as a first step toward authorization for community health workers to provide the method. The pilot described in this article documents a process whereby an innovative approach moved from concept to implementation to replication in less than 2 years. It also paved the way for testing additional progressive strategies to increase access to contraception at the community level. Because the pilot project included a research component designed to assess benefits and challenges, it provided the means to introduce the new task-shifting approach, which might not have been approved otherwise. Key pilot activities included: (1) increasing awareness of Sayana Press among family planning stakeholders at a national conference on family planning, (2) enlisting the support of key decision makers in designing the pilot, (3) obtaining marketing authorization to distribute Sayana Press in the DRC, (4) implementing the pilot from July to December 2015, (5) conducting quantitative and

  19. Exceptionally low prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in schoolchildren from Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Robert J; Kahawita, Shyalle; Kong, Aimee; Muecke, James; Sisaleumsak, Siphetthavong; Visonnavong, Vithoune

    2012-10-01

    Vientiane Province is an urbanizing region in Southeast Asia. We aimed to determine the prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in primary school-aged children in this region. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. A total of 2899 schoolchildren from Vientiane Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Ten districts from Vientiane were randomly selected and 2 primary schools were randomly selected from each district. All children aged 6 to 11 years at selected schools were eligible to participate. The examination included visual acuity (VA) testing, cycloplegic retinoscopy with subjective refinement if indicated, ocular motility testing, and anterior segment and fundus examinations in visually impaired children. Cycloplegic refraction and VA. There was an estimated total of 3330 children who were eligible to participate, and data were recorded from 2899 (87%) of these children. Complete refractive data were available on 2842 children (85% of eligible population). The mean spherical equivalent (SE) in the right eyes was +0.60 diopter (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.72), and the mean SE in the left eyes was +0.59 (95% CI, 0.50-0.68). The prevalence of hyperopia was 2.8% (95% CI, 1.9-3.7; 88 subjects), and the prevalence of myopia was 0.8% (95% CI, 0.3-1.4; 24 subjects). The majority of children (98%; 95% CI, 97.0-99.0) had normal unaided binocular VA (at least 20/32 in their better eye). The overall prevalence of any visual impairment (presenting VA <20/32 in the better eye) was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.0-2.9; 55 subjects). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (P = 0.001) was a significant predictor, and female gender (P = 0.08) and Yao ethnicity (P = 0.09) were borderline significant predictors of the presence of any visual impairment. Visual impairment is not a public health concern in this primary school-aged population; however, visually impaired children in the community were not studied. From this baseline, future surveys

  20. Heath Sector Network Governance and State-building in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwimana, Aembe

    2017-12-01

    Longstanding patterns of interaction exist between state and non-state actors seeking to improve public health in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). DRC is a weak state, and, in many cases, private actors have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of state health care provision. However, the role of these interactions in creating a governance network in the health sector has been underexplored. Using data from 18 months of qualitative field research, this study aimed to explore governance networks in DRC's health sector, examining how multiple stakeholders work to manage the health system and how the resulting governance network has been relevant for the state-building process. The findings demonstrate that the health sector in South Kivu is emerging as an arena of networked governance based on active partnerships between state institutions and non-state actors. Interactions between state and non-state actors account for the persistence of the health sector in a setting characterized by state weakness. However, networked governance does not function optimally, because, although non-state interventions fill the void where the state falls short, the DRC state has faced the challenge of interacting with partners with fragmented and horizontally competing agendas. Although weak, the shadow of state authority is present in the arena of stakeholders' interactions, as the state plays a determining role by providing a regulatory framework. Overall, the findings show that the interactive engagement of non-state actors contributes to improving institutional capacity through these actors' engagement with state institutions for health system management and institutional development. However, although networked health sector governance does contribute to state capacity, it is difficult to assess the real influence of these interactions on the state-building process in a context of critical fragility, where coordination and alignment have been problematic. © The

  1. [Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazira, L; Coulibaly, T; Mayenga, M; Ncharre, C; Yogolelo, R; Mbule, A; Moudzeo, H; Lwamba, P; Mulumba, A W; Cabore, J

    2015-10-01

    According to the WHO records of 2013, the incidence of poliomyelitis was reduced by more than 99%, the number of endemic countries decreased from 125 in 1988 to 3 in 2013 and over 10 million cases were prevented from poliomyelitis thanks to the intensive use of Oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, the emergence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus strains (cVDPV), causing serious epidemics like the wild poliovirus, is a major challenge on the final straight towards the goal of eradication and OPV cessation. This paper describes the cVDPVoutbreak that occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) from November 2011 to April 2012. All children under 15 years of age with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and confirmed presence of cVDPV in the stool samples were included. Thirty (30) children, all from the administrative territories of Bukama and Malemba Nkulu in the Katanga Province (south-east DRC), were reported. The virus responsible was the cVDPV type 2 (0.7% -3.5% divergent from the reference Sabin 2 strain) in 29 children (97%) and the ambiguous vaccine-derived poliovirus strain (0.7% divergent) was confirmed in one case (3%), a boy seventeen months old and already vaccinated four times with OPV. Twentyfive children (83%) were protected by any of the routine EPI vaccines and 3 children (10%) had never received any dose of OPV. In reaction, DRC has conducted five local campaigns over a period of 10 months (from January to October 2012) and the epidemic was stopped after the second round performed in March 2012. As elsewhere in similar conditions, low immunization coverage, poor sanitation conditions and the stop of the use of OPV2 have favoured the emergence of the third cVDPV epidemic in DRC. The implementation of the Strategic Plan for Polio eradication and endgame strategic plan 2013-2018 will prevent the emergence of cVDPV and set up the conditions for a coordinated OPV phase out.

  2. Newborn care in Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and the Philippines: a comprehensive needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duysburgh, Els; Kerstens, Birgit; Diaz, Melissa; Fardhdiani, Vini; Reyes, Katherine Ann V; Phommachanh, Khamphong; Temmerman, Marleen; Rodriques, Basil; Zaka, Nabila

    2014-02-15

    Between 1990 and 2011, global neonatal mortality decline was slower than that of under-five mortality. As a result, the proportion of under-five deaths due to neonatal mortality increased. This increase is primarily a consequence of decreasing post-neonatal and child under-five mortality as a result of the typical focus of child survival programmes of the past two decades on diseases affecting children over four weeks of age. Newborns are lagging behind in improved child health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive, equity-focussed newborn care assessment and to explore options to improve newborn survival in Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) and the Philippines. We assessed newborn health policies, services and care in the three countries through document review, interviews and health facility visits. Findings were triangulated to describe newborns' health status, the health policy and the health system context for newborn care and the equity situation regarding newborn survival. (1) In the three countries, decline of neonatal mortality is lagging behind compared to that of under-five mortality. (2) Comprehensive newborn policies in line with international standards exist, although implementation remains poor. An important factor hampering implementation is decentralisation of the health sector, which created confusion regarding roles and responsibilities. Management capacity and skills at decentralised level were often found to be limited. (3) Quality of newborn care provided at primary healthcare and referral level is generally substandard. Limited knowledge and skills among providers of newborn care are contributing to poor quality of care. (4) Socio-economic and geographic inequities in newborn care are considerable. Similar important challenges for newborn care have been identified in Indonesia, Lao PDR and the Philippines. There is an urgent need to address weak leadership and governance regarding newborn care, quality

  3. Family Planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Encouraging Momentum, Formidable Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwete, Dieudonné; Binanga, Arsene; Mukaba, Thibaut; Nemuandjare, Théophile; Mbadu, Muanda Fidele; Kyungu, Marie-Thérèse; Sutton, Perri; Bertrand, Jane T

    2018-01-01

    Momentum for family planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is evident in multiple ways: strong political will, increasing donor support, a growing number of implementing organizations, innovative family planning programming, and a cohesive family planning stakeholder group. Between 2013 and 2017, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) in the capital city of Kinshasa increased from 18.5% to 26.7% among married women, but as of 2013–14, it was only 7.8% at the national level. The National Multisectoral Strategic Plan for Family Planning: 2014–2020 calls for achieving an mCPR of 19.0% by 2020, an ambitious goal in light of formidable challenges to family planning in the DRC. Of the 16,465 health facilities reporting to the national health information system in 2017, only 40% offer family planning services. Key challenges include uncertainty over the political situation, difficulties of ensuring access to family planning services in a vast country with a weak transportation infrastructure, funding shortfalls for procuring adequate quantities of contraceptives, weak contraceptive logistics and supply chain management, strong cultural norms that favor large families, and low capacity of the population to pay for contraceptive services. This article describes promising initiatives designed to address these barriers, consistent with the World Health Organization's framework for health systems strengthening. For example, the national family planning coordinating mechanism is being replicated at the provincial level to oversee the expansion of family planning service delivery. Promising initiatives are being implemented to improve the supply and quality of services and generate demand for family planning, including social marketing of subsidized contraceptives at both traditional and non-traditional channels and strengthening of services in military health facilities. To expand contraceptive access, family planning is being institutionalized in

  4. Human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: disease distribution and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbala, Crispin; Simarro, Pere P; Cecchi, Giuliano; Paone, Massimo; Franco, José R; Kande Betu Ku Mesu, Victor; Makabuza, Jacquies; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Chansy, Shampa; Priotto, Gerardo; Mattioli, Raffaele C; Jannin, Jean G

    2015-06-06

    For the past three decades, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been the country reporting the highest number of cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). In 2012, DRC continued to bear the heaviest burden of gambiense HAT, accounting for 84 % of all cases reported at the continental level (i.e., 5,968/7,106). This paper reviews the status of sleeping sickness in DRC between 2000 and 2012, with a focus on spatio-temporal patterns. Epidemiological trends at the national and provincial level are presented. The number of HAT cases reported yearly from DRC decreased by 65 % from 2000 to 2012, i.e., from 16,951 to 5,968. At the provincial level a more complex picture emerges. Whilst HAT control in the Equateur province has had a spectacular impact on the number of cases (97 % reduction), the disease has proved more difficult to tackle in other provinces, most notably in Bandundu and Kasai, where, despite substantial progress, HAT remains entrenched. HAT prevalence presents its highest values in the northern part of the Province Orientale, where a number of constraints hinder surveillance and control. Significant coordinated efforts by the National Sleeping Sickness Control Programme and the World Health Organization in data collection, reporting, management and mapping, culminating in the Atlas of HAT, have enabled HAT distribution and risk in DRC to be known with more accuracy than ever before. Over 18,000 locations of epidemiological interest have been geo-referenced (average accuracy ≈ 1.7 km), corresponding to 93.6 % of reported cases (period 2000-2012). The population at risk of contracting sleeping sickness has been calculated for two five-year periods (2003-2007 and 2008-2012), resulting in estimates of 33 and 37 million people respectively. The progressive decrease in HAT cases reported since 2000 in DRC is likely to reflect a real decline in disease incidence. If this result is to be sustained, and if further progress is to be made

  5. Who is Responsible for Instability in the Democratic Republic of Congo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Sidorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses on the problem of military-political instability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo experiencing continued armed conflict for a long time. Dozens of illegal armed groups both Congolese and foreign origin continue to destabilize situation in the eastern part of the country causing humanitarian disasters. Due to governmental weakness, economic backwardness, chronical lack of finance resources, interethnic conflicts, all-round and widely spread corruption of the authorities, the Congolese government at the moment is not able to overcome scores of problems including the problem of security. Assistanceprovided to the DRC by itspartnerssuch as, first of all, the former metropolitan country Belgium, as well as the USA, Great Britain, the Europe Union and China works only in favourof these country-donors. They are attracted by rich Congolese natural resources which the DRC remaining one of the poorest countries in the world cannot turn to advantage to the full extent because of its economic backwardness. In exchange for so-calleddevelopment programmes, expensive strategic raw material (such as coltan, wolfram, casseterit, cooper, gold, niobium, and other is being extracted and exported from the country, in addition, often on the inequivalent basis. This is taking place for the reason that numerous mines and open-cast mines are being controlled by different illegal armed groups and not by the central government. Therefore, it turns out that in the context of a military-political crisis, for so-called partners it is more beneficial to pursue their own interests. Furthermore, western ideologists arouse "separatism-oriented" theories similar to "balkanization", in other words, a breakdown of this giant country into several independent states. The Congolese are tremulous to this issue, they try to counter such approachs and defend the territorial integrity of the DRC. However, it is not an easy task. The impediment is unsettled

  6. Patterns of Congenital Malformations and Barriers to Care in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Malemo Kalisya

    Full Text Available An increase of congenital anomalies in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC has been reported. Congenital malformations (CMs are not uncommon among newborns and, if left untreated, can contribute to increased neonate morbidity and mortality.Medical records of all individuals admitted with a diagnosed CM to HEAL Africa Teaching Hospital (Goma, DRC from 2002 to 2014 (n=1301 were reviewed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics to summarize chart records, and inferential statistics to investigate significant barriers to earlier treatment.Since 2012, the number of patients treated each year for CMs has increased by over 200% compared to the average annual number of cases treated from 2002-2011. Though delayed presentation of patients to HEAL Hospital was very obvious, with an average age of 8.2 years. We find that patient age has been significantly decreasing (p=0.037 over time. The average distance separating patients from HEAL Hospital was 178 km, with approximately one third living 350 km or further from the treatment center. Distance is the most significant (p=3.33x10(-6 barrier to earlier treatment. When controlling for an interaction between gender and the use of mercy funds, we also find that female patients are at a significant (p=1.04x10(-3 disadvantage to undergo earlier corrective surgery. This disadvantage is further illustrated by our finding that 89% of women and girls, and over 81% of all patients, required mercy funds to cover the cost of surgery in 2014. Lastly, the mortality rate for surgery was low and averaged less than 1.0%.Despite a formal end to the war in 2009, and an overall increase in individuals undergoing corrective surgery, distance, poverty, and gender are still massive barriers to CM care at HEAL Hospital, Goma, DRC. We find that patients have been successfully treated earlier by HEAL, although the average age of CM correction in 2014 (4.9 years is still above average for Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus

  7. Job satisfaction and its relationship with organisational commitment: A Democratic Republic of Congo organisational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Mitonga-Monga

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The modern workplace, which is characterised by increasing turbulence and debilitating uncertainty, has led to renewed focus on whether employees experience satisfaction and how they commit themselves to the organisation. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the nature of the relationship between employees’ levels of job satisfaction (JS and organisational commitment (OC in a public railway organisation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Motivation for the study: Although previous researchers have found evidence of the relationship between JS and OC in Western countries, there seems to be a paucity of research on the relationship between JS and OC in a developing country context such as that of the DRC. The results could make a valuable contribution to the current literature debate on these two constructs (JS and OC and possibly employees’ intention to stay in their present organisation. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used employing the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Organisational Commitment Scale. The sample (n = 839 comprised permanently employed staff. Correlations and regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that employees’ JS related positively to their level of OC and that JS predicted OC. Practical and managerial implications: The results should also have interesting implications for top management and human resource practitioners. They could use this information to study how organisational psychological attachment is fostered in order to potentially master other organisational dynamics. The information could also be used to create positive working conditions with a view to reinforcing OC. JS manifested as a critical driver of OC, which could result in superior business performance. Management could use the results to create a working environment that actively fosters satisfaction and boosts employees’ level of

  8. Family Planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Encouraging Momentum, Formidable Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwete, Dieudonné; Binanga, Arsene; Mukaba, Thibaut; Nemuandjare, Théophile; Mbadu, Muanda Fidele; Kyungu, Marie-Thérèse; Sutton, Perri; Bertrand, Jane T

    2018-03-21

    Momentum for family planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is evident in multiple ways: strong political will, increasing donor support, a growing number of implementing organizations, innovative family planning programming, and a cohesive family planning stakeholder group. Between 2013 and 2017, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) in the capital city of Kinshasa increased from 18.5% to 26.7% among married women, but as of 2013-14, it was only 7.8% at the national level. The National Multisectoral Strategic Plan for Family Planning: 2014-2020 calls for achieving an mCPR of 19.0% by 2020, an ambitious goal in light of formidable challenges to family planning in the DRC. Of the 16,465 health facilities reporting to the national health information system in 2017, only 40% offer family planning services. Key challenges include uncertainty over the political situation, difficulties of ensuring access to family planning services in a vast country with a weak transportation infrastructure, funding shortfalls for procuring adequate quantities of contraceptives, weak contraceptive logistics and supply chain management, strong cultural norms that favor large families, and low capacity of the population to pay for contraceptive services. This article describes promising initiatives designed to address these barriers, consistent with the World Health Organization's framework for health systems strengthening. For example, the national family planning coordinating mechanism is being replicated at the provincial level to oversee the expansion of family planning service delivery. Promising initiatives are being implemented to improve the supply and quality of services and generate demand for family planning, including social marketing of subsidized contraceptives at both traditional and non-traditional channels and strengthening of services in military health facilities. To expand contraceptive access, family planning is being institutionalized in

  9. The legal framework for nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Preuss, M.

    2008-01-01

    Within the range of the power generation the part of nuclear energy amounts 22 % in Germany in the year 2007. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the legal framework for nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following aspects are described: (a) The atomic law and the completion of the power generation from nuclear energy; (b) The disposal of nuclear wastes; (c) The Euratom contract; (d) The institutional framework for the execution of the atomic energy law; (e) Legal protection opposite atom legal sovereignty documents; (f) future of the atomic law; (g) European Union-Russian partnership agreement and cooperation agreement. In order to guarantee a sustainable power supply for the production of goods and services in a national economy, also the legal framework for nuclear power stations in Germany must be realized

  10. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...)] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia..., Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia of grain-oriented electrical steel, provided for in subheadings... alleged to be sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV), and by reason of imports of grain...

  11. 75 FR 62104 - Certain Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... trademark of Imphy, S.A. Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from...-831] Certain Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and... duty orders on certain stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from Germany, Italy, Japan, the...

  12. Feasibility Analysis of an Evidence-Based Positive Prevention Intervention for Youth Living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L.; Maman, S.; Pettifor, A.; Chalachala, J. L.; Edmonds, A.; Golin, C. E.; Moracco, K.; Behets, F.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of a Positive Prevention intervention adapted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) ages 15-24 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with intervention facilitators and YLWH participants on the following four areas of a feasibility framework:…

  13. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Continuing a Research Reactor Project Project. Extension Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-11-18

    The text of the Project Extension Agreement between the Agency and the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in connection with the Agency's additional assistance to that Government in continuing a research reactor project is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 27 September 1966.

  14. Kitagohaite, Pt.sub.7./sub.Cu, a new mineral from the Lubero region, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabral, A. R.; Skála, Roman; Vymazalová, A.; Kallistová, Anna; Lehmann, B.; Jedwab, J.; Sidorinová, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2014), s. 739-745 ISSN 0026-461X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : kitagohaite * Pt 7 Cu * Lubero * North Kivu * Democratic Republic of the Congo Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.026, year: 2014

  15. Safety philosophy and research program of the LWR development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.

    1978-11-01

    In this paper the framework of the reactor safety concept in the Federal Republic of Germany will be described. It is grounded on several cornerstones the most important of which are a closed fuel cycle concept, a statutory licensing and supervision procedure, a set of compulsory safety-engineering requirements and comprehensive research in the field of reactor-safety. The main part of this last area is the Reactor Safety Research Program sponsored by the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. Furthermore, in this paper emphasis is laid on safety requirements particularly with regard to the quality of the reactor pressure vessel. (orig.) [de

  16. Management and storage of spent research reactor fuel within the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1996-01-01

    Research reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany and their needs for the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel are described. Existing long-term interim storage facilities are described. Special licensing and legal restrictions imposed by the German Atomic Energy Act are outlined. Possible final solutions for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle for research reactors, including reprocessing in the United Kingdom or France, return of US-origin fuel and a home-grown German solution are discussed. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments, Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany. Annual report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Luebker, D.; Coyle, A.; Kalia, H.

    1984-10-01

    This is the First Annual report (1983) which describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste respository at the 800-meter level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery, and the mine proper. Also included are test data for the first six months of operations on brine migration rates, room closure rates, extensometer readings, stress measurements, and thermal mechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be two years, ending in December 1985. 3 references, 34 figures, 13 tables

  18. Power programmes review: Power reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Compared with work in some other industrialized countries, the atomic energy programme in the Federal Republic of Germany got off to a somewhat late start. Nevertheless, after about four years of research and training of scientists, the country is today on the threshold of a major phase in atomic energy development. While research and training are being continued, the first concrete steps are also being initiated for the commercial utilization of nuclear energy as a source of power. Several experimental nuclear power stations are being set up, designed or planned

  19. Data concerning the development of the energy economy of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    After an introductory survey concerning international and national energy policy in 1981 there follow statistics, tables and graphs concerning the balance of primary energy, the structure of energy consumption, the import and export of energy sources, as well as the development of the market (amount produced, utilisation, prices) especially for black coal, brown coal, mineral oil, electricity and gas. To extend these data referring to the Federal Republic of Germany and to compare them the most important energy data of the world are represented.

  20. Underground disposal of hazardous waste in the Federal Republic of Germany - principles and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.; Brasser, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the final disposal of radioactive waste and the permanent enclosure of defined types of toxic wastes in deep geological formations are being pursued with a view towards preventing hazardous material from reaching the biosphere. A detailed site- and waste-specific safety analysis will be required to substantiate the effiency of underground repositories. In this respect the longterm behaviour of wastes and possible interactions need to be evaluated, taking into consideration the geochemical-hydrogeological conditions such as groundwater movement and solution potentials. (au)

  1. Deregulation potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany. Deregulierungspotentiale in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltwedel, R; Busch, A; Gross, A; Laaser, C F

    1986-01-01

    In December 1984 the Federal Minister of Economics commissioned the Institute of World Trade and Industry to work out an expertise on 'deregulation potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany'. The study gives access to major parts of the expertise. Analyses focus on regulations for different self-supporting occupations, retail trade, the finance markets, the communication sector, the supply industry, and the transportation sector. An examination of the grounds the regulations were based on is followed by a discussion of the pros and cons of a deregulation. The statements and arguments take into account experiences gained abroad.

  2. Regulatory inspection practices for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, Otto.

    1977-01-01

    Applicants for a licence as well as the competent bodies in this field are responsible for justifying the public's confidence in the quality and reliability of the uses of nuclear energy. This concern is reflected in the legal provisions and the philosophy applicable to statutory inspections in the Federal Republic of Germany. This paper describes the organisation, the purposes and the number of inspections performed at the design, the construction and the operational stages of nuclear power plants as well as the inspections organised following unexpected events and includes the comparison of various inspection costs with the overall costs of a nuclear power plant. (NEA) [fr

  3. Legal and practical aspects of radioactivity in comsumer products in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, F.

    1978-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the use of consumer products that contain radioactive substances is primarily controlled by the first radiation protection ordinance, the second radiation protection ordinance, and the ordinance on the approval of drugs that have been treated with ionizing radiation or that contain radioactive subtances. In October 1976, a new radiation protection ordinance was published. This new ordinance replaced the regulations of the first and second radiation protection ordinances. In this paper, the old regulations and the most important changes according to the new radiation protection ordinance are discussed

  4. Farmer survey in the hinterland of Kisangani (Democratic Republic of Congo) on rodent crop damage and rodent control techniques used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drazo, Nicaise Amundala; Kennis, Jan; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a survey on rodent crop damage among farmers in the hinterland of Kisangani (Democratic Republic of Congo). We studied the amount of crop damage, the rodent groups causing crop damage, the growth stages affected and the control techniques used. We conducted this survey in three...... municipalities using a standard questionnaire form translated into local languages, between November 2005 and June 2006 and during July 2007. We used the Quotas method and interviewed 70 households per municipality. Farmers indicated rodent groups implicated in crop damage on color photographs. Two types...... of survey techniques were used: individual and focus-group surveys. The sugar cane rat, Thryonomys sp. and Lemniscomys striatus caused most damage to crops, but inside granaries, Rattus rattus was the primary pest species eating stored food supplies and causing damage to stored goods. Cassava and maize were...

  5. Rural energy survey and scenario analysis of village energy consumption: A case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, providing all citizens an access to modern forms of energy is among the central energy policy objectives, as the linkages between modern energy services and human development are widely recognized. This paper presents in a scenario analysis of rural energy consumption, how energy services in different sectors of a village economy contribute to the achievement of the UNDP Millennium Development Goals. In a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic, household energy demand and energy uses were surveyed immediately prior to the electrification of the village. Based on the situation preceding electrification of the village, the development of village electrification was studied by simulating the village energy system, accounting for all village energy uses but transportation. To study the potential development of electricity demand in the village, three scenarios were constructed using the LEAP model: 'residential demand', 'income generation' and 'public services'. Energy demand in each scenario was analyzed with reference to the Millennium Development Goals.

  6. Genetic Evidence of Importation of Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum to Guatemala from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jaymin C; Taylor, Steve M; Juliao, Patricia C; Parobek, Christian M; Janko, Mark; Gonzalez, Luis Demetrio; Ortiz, Lucia; Padilla, Norma; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Emch, Michael; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lindblade, Kim; Meshnick, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    Imported malaria threatens control and elimination efforts in countries that have low rates of transmission. In 2010, an outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported among United Nations peacekeeping soldiers from Guatemala who had recently returned from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Epidemiologic evidence suggested that the soldiers were infected in the DRC, but local transmission could not be ruled out in all cases. We used population genetic analyses of neutral microsatellites to determine the outbreak source. Genetic relatedness was compared among parasites found in samples from the soldiers and parasite populations collected in the DRC and Guatemala; parasites identified in the soldiers were more closely related to those from the DRC. A phylogenetic clustering analysis confirms this identification with >99.9% confidence. Thus, results support the hypothesis that the soldiers likely imported malaria from the DRC. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular genotyping in outbreak investigations.

  7. Different origin and dispersal of sulfadoxine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum haplotypes between Eastern Africa and Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraka, Vito; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Nag, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is still used for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa; however, widespread resistance is a major concern. This study aimed to determine the dispersal and origin of sulfadoxine resistance lineages in the Democratic Republic of the Congo compared with East African.......3 and 7.7 kb) flanking the Pfdhps gene were assayed. Evolutionary analysis revealed a shared origin of Pfdhps haplotypes in East Africa, with a distinct population clustering in DR Congo. Furthermore, in Tanzania there was an independent distinct origin of Pfdhps SGEGA resistant haplotype. In Uganda...... and Tanzania, gene flow patterns contribute to the dispersal and shared origin of parasites carrying double- and triple-mutant Pfdhps haplotypes associated with poor outcomes of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy using SP (IPTp-SP). However, the origins of the Pfdhps haplotypes in DR Congo...

  8. Coprophagy in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a possibly adaptive strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Four cases of coprophagy and two cases of fecal inspection were identified during the 1142 h of observing wild bonobos at Wamba in the Luo Scientific Reserve in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. At least 5 females in the study group practiced coprophagy and/or fecal inspection. According to our daily behavioral observations, boredom and stress, insufficient roughage, and the search for essential nutrients could not explain the coprophagy. Several episodes observed in this study indicated that bonobos might have sought and ingested certain valuable food items, such as hard Dialium seeds, in feces during relatively lean seasons. Although coprophagy occurred only rarely among wild bonobos, this practice appeared to represent a possibly adaptive feeding strategy during periods of food scarcity rather than a behavioral abnormality.

  9. The Political Role of the Ethnic Factor Democratic Republic of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the role of the ethnic factor in political choices in the Democratic .... 4 Decision no 031/CEI/BUR/06 on the announcing of provisional results of the 30 July .... is complicated when we add the purchasing of consciences.

  10. HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among men who have sex with men in Vientiane Capital, Lao People's Democratic Republic, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sarah; Phimphachanh, Chansy; Chanlivong, Niramonh; Manivong, Sisavath; Khamsyvolsvong, Sod; Lattanavong, Phonesay; Sisouk, Thongchanh; Toledo, Carlos; Scherzer, Martha; Toole, Mike; van Griensven, Frits

    2009-01-28

    Men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV infection. Here we report the results of the first assessment of HIV prevalence and risk behaviour in this group in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Between August and September 2007, 540 men were enrolled from venues around Vientiane, using venue-day-time sampling. Men of Lao nationality, 15 years and over, reporting oral or anal sex with a man in the previous 6 months were eligible for participation. Demographic and socio-behavioural information was self-collected using hand-held computers. Oral fluid was tested for HIV infection. Logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors for prevalent HIV infection. The median age of participants was 21 years; the HIV prevalence was 5.6%. Of participants, 39.6% reported exclusive attraction to men and 57.6% reported sex with women. Of those who reported having regular and nonregular sexual partner(s) in the past 3 months, consistent condom use with these partners was 14.4 and 24.2%, respectively. A total of 42.2% self-reported any sexually transmitted infection symptoms and 6.3% had previously been tested for HIV. Suicidal ideation was reported by 17.0%, which was the only variable significantly and independently associated with HIV infection in multivariate analysis. Although the HIV prevalence is low compared with neighbouring countries in the region, men who have sex with men in Lao People's Democratic Republic are at high behavioural risk for HIV infection. To prevent a larger HIV epidemic occurrence and transmission into the broader community, higher coverage of HIV prevention interventions is required.

  11. The association between posttraumatic stress symptoms and functional impairment during ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Wim; Hall, Brian J; Joosse, Petra

    2013-03-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has suffered from a bloody conflict for more than a decade. More than 5,400,000 people died from war-related causes since 1998 and exposure to violence was wide-spread. This study investigated the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms on perceived health and physical and social functioning, filling an important gap in the current literature. Data were collected from a sample of 93 adults living in Bunia, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Structured in-person interviews included the PTSD section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale. Additional questions were included to assess social resources. Study recruitment was balanced to achieve equal representation of both sexes and each quarter of town. Forty percent met symptom criteria for probable PTSD. Individuals with PTSD reported poor perceived general health and had high disability scores compared to those without PTSD. Of the three PTSD symptom clusters, hyperarousal was most strongly associated with disability. Individuals with PTSD were significantly more emotionally affected by their health problems than those without PTSD (85% versus 41%), had more difficulties in activities involving social contact (54% versus 16%) and in doing their daily work (54% versus 20%). The impact of war-related violence on mental health is severe in the DRC. Psychosocial interventions developed in conflict areas might be best targeted primarily to supporting social functioning and reducing hyperarousal. Implications for clinical treatment and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Qualitative Analysis of Disclosure Patterns among Women with Sexual Violence-Related Pregnancies in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Adhiambo Onyango

    Full Text Available The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC has experienced nearly two decades of civil conflict in the Eastern regions of North and South Kivu. This conflict has been notorious for the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war, leading in many cases to pregnancy after rape. The objectives of this analysis were: 1 to describe patterns of sexual violence-related pregnancy (SVRP disclosure; 2 to consider why survivors chose to disclose to particular individuals; and 3 to examine the dialogue around SVRPs between women with SVRPs and their confidants. In South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, two sub-groups of sexual violence survivors completed qualitative interviews, those currently raising a child from an SVRP (parenting group, N = 38 and those who had terminated an SVRP (termination group, N = 17. The findings show that a majority of SVRPs were conceived when participants were held in sexual captivity for prolonged periods of time. The SVRPs were disclosed to friends, family members, other sexual violence survivors, community members, spouses, health care providers, or perpetrators. The confidants were most often chosen because they were perceived by the participants as being discreet, trusted, and supportive. The confidants often provided advice about continuing or terminating the SVRP. Trust and discretion are the most important factors determining to whom women with SVRPs disclose their pregnancies. The vital role of confidants in giving support after disclosure cannot be overlooked. Providing opportunities for survivors to safely disclose their SVRPs, including to health care providers, is a necessary first step in allowing them to access safe and comprehensive post-assault care and services.

  13. Lives and Political Field. An Analysis of the Power Structure of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Reinhardt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses methods and results of an explorative study of two generations of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD: the two generations comprise, on the one hand, older and younger members of the postwar generation who witnessed the Second World War as young soldiers or as children, and on the other hand, the generation that was born in the 1950s and has mainly been responsible for shaping policy for some years. The aim of my dissertation was to analyze the ability of the social democratic leadership to represent the full range of party members and (base voters by comparing two generations, using a sample of political leaders and the habitus/field-analysis inspired by Pierre BOURDIEU. The basis of the analysis were partly biographical, partly theme-focused interviews, as well as a range of sources and already published literature regarding the biographies of these political leaders. The following article is based on my dissertation and is focused on a description of selected theoretical implications, on the description of the essential criteria for selecting the sample and on some of the methods used. These are an analysis of the life, life and field effects, the factions and the development of types of political leaders. I will present some results to exemplify the methods used. They show that the ability of the SPD to represent the full range of party members and (base voters and the power structure of the SPD have changed, thus threatening the party’s status as a "Volkspartei." URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102197

  14. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  15. The non-proliferation regime, vertical proliferation and the interests of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    1988-12-01

    The disarmament orientation of the NPT, which stands beside the central aim of avoiding horizontal proliferation, raises a question: Does a compatibility exist between the non-proliferation policy of the Federal Republic and its security policy, which has its basic pillar in the nuclear deterrence strategy? Critics of this deterrence policy therefore, hinting to the disarmament determination of the NPT, demand that the Federal Republic should exercise its influence for the conclusion of a 'Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty' (CTBT), the establishment of a 'Nuclear-Weapons-Free-Zones' (NWFZ) in Europe, a 'No First Use'-Treaty (NFU) and finally the abolishment of all atomic weapons ('Zero Solution'). According to them such disarmament 'remedies' can reestablish or assure the waning or damaged international consensus for horizontal non-proliferation. This is a contribution for the establishment of a stable world order and will smooth the way for a prolongation of the NPT in the year 1995. An analysis of the history and the structure of interests shows that the policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is deeply rooted in the NPT and that a prolongation of the treaty and its own membership is a substantial object of the foreign and security policy. Consequently the Federal Republic has to face the demands for an intensification of 'anti-nuclear measures' and has to examine their acceptability and their usefulness with respect to non-proliferation. The structure of the problem encloses the following aspects: The security conception of the Federal Republic with its military-strategic essence; the provisions in article VI NPT for negotiations with the object of a world free of atomic weapons; the derived disarmament 'remedies' for strengthening the consensus for horizontal non-proliferation and, finally, the real interface between horizontal and vertical proliferation. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhlke, W

    1989-01-01

    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.

  17. Regional radiation protection center in the Federal Republic of Germany - Tasks and Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1988-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany 220,000 staff members are classified at the moment as occupationally radiation exposed persons. For the maintenance of industrial health and safety for the workers in the companies and for the medical, professional and social rehabilitaion after an accident the so-called ''Berufsgenossenschaften'' (professional trade associations) are responsible. For employees in nuclear industry two trade associations are competent: - the Trade Association for Precision Engineering and Electrical Engineering for the 6,000 employees in nuclear power plants, - the Trade Association of the Chemical Industry for the 4,000 employees in fuel element fabrication and the reprocessing companies. In case of an accident workers from service companies e.g. construction and installation companies could be affected as well. Therefore these trade associations have founded a couple of years ago an ''Institute for Radiation Protection''. A special task of this institute is First Aid to overexposed people in case of radiation accidents. In addition, it organizes the 24-hours-service of the seven Regional Radiation Protection Centers of Federal Republic of Germany. The institute provides special training of radiation protection physicians and occupationally radiation exposed persons. (author) [pt

  18. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs

  19. Research in the Federal Republic of Germany. Forschung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Beispiele, Kritik, Vorschlaege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, C.

    1983-01-01

    This book is about research and, consequently, researchers. It shows the kinds of questions they ask themselves, how they solve them and how they use the results. A great deal of discussion is going on about research in the Federal Republic of Germany: the aims, the promotion measures, the quality of research by international standards and the yield in proportion to the expenditure. Are we doing enough research. What inner and outer conditions will best ensure the prosperity of research. This book is a plausible attempt to provide the discussion with a solid basis: in it scientists report their experiences, presenting, in a manner of speaking, a piece of their scientific autobiography, because that is most likely to throw a light on the multifariousness, complexity and, often enough, unpredictability of events, influences, thoughts and motives which finally bring about their scientific achievement in the form of results and effects. This book has the merit of giving a voice to men of the arts and of the sciences and to the engineering community as well. Successful research, today, always carries an aspect of associating diverging scientific domains. Yet it does not try to give a comprehensive view of research in the Federal Republic of Germany, but limits itself instead to examples. Each of them is illustrative in a particular way. In their totality, they convey a unique picture of the scientific culture of the present.

  20. Status and future aspects of nuclear fuel cycle transports in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechschmidt, M.; Keese, H.

    1977-01-01

    The transport practices in the Federal Republic of Germany for materials of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Particularly containers and modes of transport for UF 6 , fresh and spent fuel elements, plutonium and radwaste are described, with main emphasis on transport to reprocessing and waste storage facilities. In most cases nuclear materials have to be shipped across the borders because at present neither an enrichment nor an industrial reprocessing plant exists in the Federal Republic of Germany. Transports are therefore carried out according to international standards, such as the IAEA recommendations laid down in legal traffic regulations. Control and physical protection are being exercised on the basis of national regulations. The paper summarizes the experience gained in performing quite a number of various shipments and deals with the application of the relevant transport regulations. It also gives a brief outlook on future aspects, such as the increasing transport volume, and transport problems related to decommissioning and the operation of a nuclear fuel cycle center

  1. Final disposal of decommissioning wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewitz, W; Stippler, R

    1981-01-01

    The waste disposal concept of the Federal Republic of Germany for nuclear power plants provides for the final disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological formations and mines. The radiological safety of such a repository depends on a system of multiple barriers of which the geological barrier is the most important one. The isolation concept must guarantee the waste to decay below the limiting values of the German Radiation Protection Regulation within the repository. The expected total decommissioning waste masses from 12 nuclear power plants operating in the Federal Republic of Germany amounts to approxiametly 85000 Mg. For the final disposal of these wastes there are, under present aspects, two mines being considered as repositories. The pilot repository in the Asse II salt mine is in the state of licensing. The adandoned iron ore mine Konrad is being investigated for its feasibility and licensing will probably be initiated in 1982. Capacity and efficiency calculations have proved that both mines have got the technical requirements needed for the disposal of decommissioning and operating wastes from existent as well as from future built nuclear power plants.

  2. Decentralization – the way of democratization and modernization of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurie ŢAP

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization as a way of organizing a state represents the path to its democratization and effectiveness. Furthermore, territorial decentralization establishes the relations between state and local communities, and in order to be efficient some fundamental theoretic conditions should be respected, guidelines followed and two great balances achieved. Generally, an appropriate decentralization can be a catalyst for development and a remedy to overcome internal crises.

  3. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale, dated 1 October 2002, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in document INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998) has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2001

  4. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale, dated 1 October 2002, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in document INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998) has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2001

  5. Comparison of Urban and Suburban Rail Transport in Germany and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidenglanz Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an environmentally friendly form of passenger transport which can be utilized effectively also in urban and suburban transport systems. The paper describes the urban and suburban rail transport system including comparison of selected Czech (Prague, Brno and Ostrava and German metropolitan regions (Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden. Its aim is to analyze the importance of various factors influencing the differences between the situation in Germany and in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the research question is whether these differences are primarily caused by a different liberalization stage, or whether they are a result of other factors such as available infrastructure, investment level, rail transport services budget, structure and activity of ordering bodies and coordinators or geographical context. The supply of city and suburban rail transport is quite good in Germany and in the Czech Republic, although trains in Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden run more frequently, faster and are better interconnected with car transport. German rail transport sector is at a higher stage of liberalization, and tendering procedures are the preferred selection method for contractor carriers. However, a degree of liberalization of the railway sector is not the key marker indicating a better standard of urban and suburban rail transport in Germany because it is the high standard which is achieved as the consequence of the professional activity of the ordering bodies and train service coordinators in combination with geographical conditions, available financial sources and effective transport infrastructure. On the other hand, the importance of liberalization cannot be totally overlooked as tenders are a tool for the ordering bodies to strongly affect the price and quality of transport services in their area. The supply of better quality and attractive transport to passengers could increase the usage of rail transport in metropolitan regions and could

  6. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeunert, U [Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie, Bonn (Germany); Kessler, G [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1978-07-01

    Problems of public acceptance of nuclear power have affected the development of fast breeder reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany. Besides cooperation with UK, USA and Japan, the most outstanding event in the field of international fast breeder cooperation was a set of the agreements between Germany and France. These agreements opened the possibility of joint fast breeder development by Germany together with Belgium and the Netherlands. Most activities on the site of Compact Sodium Cooled Nuclear Reactor KNK-II were concerned with commissioning of the plant and final construction work. Criticality was achieved in Oct. 1977 and low-power tests performed. This paper includes a description of the status of construction of SNR-300 reactor and the results of research and development programmes performed. These were concerned with fuel elements development and results of irradiation experiments; development of cladding materials and core element structural materials; interaction between fuel and cladding; sodium tests; development and verification of computer codes; experiments in fast critical assemblies; fast rector safety; core disruptive accidents; development of instrumentation; thermodynamics od fuel assemblies; fluid dynamics.

  7. The Text of the Agreement between the German Democratic Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-04-27

    The text of the Agreement between the German Democratic Republic and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  8. His Excellency Mr Deepak Dhital Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Deepak Dhital Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  9. Vocational Education and Training for the Hotel and Catering Industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. Report of a Visiting Party. Studies in Vocational Education and Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. Number Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripper, Chris, Ed.; Russell, Russ, Ed.

    A party of vocational educators from the United Kingdom (UK) traveled to the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to examine West German vocational education and training for the hotel and catering industry. During the study, the investigators examined the training with respect to regulations, the content of training, and the structure of the…

  10. The text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy which entered into force on 26 February 1976

  11. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  12. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [fr

  13. 78 FR 16832 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea: Revocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ...] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea: Revocation of... ``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty (``AD'') orders on corrosion-resistant carbon steel... (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 85 (January 3, 2012). \\2\\ See Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From...

  14. The text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-26

    The document reproduces the text of the Safeguards Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the agreement of 27 June 1975 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy which entered into force on 26 February 1976.

  15. Village Stability Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Special Operations Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    effects .8 In addition to these deaths, the UN reports 2.9 million 7 The eleven nations: DRC, Republic of Congo , Uganda, Rwanda , Burundi, Angola, Namibia...Lakes region of Central Africa on land that is easy to exploit but difficult to control. Since the 1994 genocide in Rwanda , which prompted massive...incumbent Hutu government in neighboring Rwanda initiated a genocide of the Tutsi population. The Tutsi Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) capitalized on the

  16. [The career of the psychiatrist Dietfried Müller-Hegemann (1910-1989) : Example of a politically motivated rise and fall in the German Democratic Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H

    2018-01-01

    Dietfried Müller-Hegemann was one of the prominent figures in East German psychiatry and psychotherapy of the 1950s and 1960s. Having been a communist prior to 1933, a resistance fighter during the National Socialist regime and having gone through political training during his exile in Soviet Russia, he proved to be a committed member of the new ruling SED socialist party in Eastern Germany. As such both governmental and party organs regarded him as a promising and reliable party member to be supported and implemented as executive staff within the new, socialist scientific system. Also, due to the fact that he supported the Pavlovian school of thought for modern psychiatry, Müller-Hegemann was installed as the new head of the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry at Leipzig University by the state secretary for higher education, notably against the clear opposition of the university medical faculty. Soon thereafter however Müller-Hegemann fell from favor due to the fact that he supported views that did not follow the strict ideological guidelines, e. g. with regard to the emergence of fascism. Moreover, he strongly opposed the separation of neurology from psychiatry as ruled by the ministry. An attempt in 1963 by junior party members and ministerial staff to remove him from office failed, but still managed to make Müller-Hegemann resign from his Leipzig post and take over that of director of the Griesinger hospital for the mentally ill in East Berlin. In May 1971, after new conflicts with party officials, he did not return from a business trip to Essen in West Germany. This study does not review the scientific and medical merits of Müller-Hegemann, but concentrates on how his career as a leading psychiatrist was manipulated, both supported and sabotaged, and ideologically controlled by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) system. His development is documented proof that party officials did not tolerate opposition, neither in ideological nor in

  17. The UN’s moral responsibility in the ‘spill-over’ of genocide from Rwanda to the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Kovras, I.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in how societies and states should address past wrongdoing. Despite attention to issues of responsibility and moral reparation, however, institutional (moral) responsibility remains relatively unstudied. To this end, the article critically evaluates the UN’s moral responsibility in the world’s deadliest conflict since World War II, namely the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It argues that the UN Security Council should be hel...

  18. An innovative approach to using both cellphones and the radio to identify young people’s sexual concerns in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Nsakala, Gabriel Vodiena; Coppieters, Yves; Kayembe, Patrick Kalambayi

    2014-01-01

    Background: As teenagers have easy access to both radio programs and cell phones, the current study used these tools so that young people could anonymously identify questions about sex and other related concerns in the urban environment of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The purpose of this healthcare intervention was to identify and address concerns raised by young people, which are related to sexual health, and which promote youth health. Methods: This healthcare intervention was conducte...

  19. Breeding of guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus, L. 1758) for meat production in Butembo, Democratic Republic of Congo : Literature review and breeding scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Sikiminywa, K.-L.; Godeau, Jean-Marie; Nyongombe, U.-F.; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Providing animal proteins to humans requires choosing the animal species to be raised when access to land is limited. Butembo, is a refuge city of conflicts area in the east of Democratic Republic of Congo, where guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus) is considered as food. Therefore the breeding of this animal is an option to make more meat available. Genetic selection of guinea pigs and popularization of improved farming techniques can contribute to solve problems of food security in the region. The ...

  20. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Continuing a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-10-04

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in connection with a research reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of the Congo and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 15 April 1971, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members.

  1. Risk factors for measles mortality and the importance of decentralized case management during an unusually large measles epidemic in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Gignoux, E; Polonsky, J; Ciglenecki, I; Bichet, M; Coldiron, M; Thuambe Lwiyo, E; Akonda, I; Serafini, M; Porten, K

    2018-01-01

    In 2013, a large measles epidemic occurred in the Aketi Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of Congo. We conducted a two-stage, retrospective cluster survey to estimate the attack rate, the case fatality rate, and the measles-specific mortality rate during the epidemic. 1424 households containing 7880 individuals were included. The estimated attack rate was 14.0%, (35.0% among children aged

  2. Destructive and non-destructive methods of measuring the quantity and isotopic composition of fissile materials for purposes of national safeguards in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villun, K.; Gruner, V.; Siebert, Kh.U.; Hoffmann, D.

    1979-01-01

    The authors give a brief description of the destructive and non-destructive methods of measuring the quantity and isotopic composition of fissile materials used in the nuclear materials accounting and control system of the German Democratic Republic. They cite examples of the use of gamma-spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence analysis, neutron activation, radiochemical techniques, mass-spectrometry and alpha-spectrometry. (author)

  3. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Continuing a Research Reactor Project. A Second Supply Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    As a sequel to the assistance which the Agency provided to the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in connection with a research reactor project, a Second Supply Agreement has been concluded between the Agency and the Governments of the Congo and the United States of America. This Agreement entered into force on 15 April 1971, and the text is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  4. The conflicts between labor and environmentalism in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, H.

    1985-01-01

    This report is the German-language short version of a book by the same author titled 'The Conflicts between Labor and Environmentalism in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States' published by Gower, Aldershot, England and St. Martin's Press, New York in the summer 1985. It discusses the evolution of the relationship between organized labor and environmentalism in both countries since the mid-1960s. Five explanations for this relationship are examined: (1) The perceptions of the interdependencies between employment and environmental protection by both groups, (2) the demographic and socio-economic composition of both groups, (3) internal will-formation and decision-making, (4) the overall institutional and political frameworks, and (5) the historical and ideological backgrounds of both groups. (orig.) [de

  5. Manpower and areas of activity in the nuclear research centers in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miessner, H.

    1984-12-01

    A survey is presented of tasks and functions of the nuclear research centers, which belong to the 13 big research establishments in the Federal Republic of Germany. The central R+D-activities in the nuclear field (high temperature reactor, fast breeder, uranium enrichment, reprocessing, waste handling, nuclear safety, nuclear fusion, fusion technology, plasma physics and technology) and the manpower assigned to these activities are described. Future developments in R+D and in manpower are discussed. An outline is given of cooperation established with industry, universities and other institutions. The number of staff and its composition in terms of education and qualification are indicated. Staff mobility, especially transfer to industry, manpower development of junior staff and training efforts are discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments, Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany. Annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Feddersen, H.K.; Schwarzianeck, P.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1986-07-01

    This is the second joint annual report (1984) on experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are test data for the first 19 months of operation on the following: brine migration rates, thermal mechanical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), and borehole gas pressures. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of results are included in this report. The duration of the experiment will be 2 years, ending in December 1985

  7. Nesting bird deterrents for the Federal Republic of Germany glass log storage pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    A proposed storage pad wi11 be constructed in the 200 West Area for the storage of isotopic heat and radiation sources from the Federal Republic of Germany. The pad will be constructed in the southern portion of the Solid Waste Operations Complex near the existing Sodium Storage Pad (Figure 1). Following a biological review by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel (Brandt 1996), it was determined that in order for construction to take place after March 15, 1997, actions would need to be taken to prevent migratory birds from nesting in the project area. Special attention was focused on preventing sage sparrows and loggerhead shrikes, both Hanford Site species of concern (DOE/RL 1996), from nesting in the area. This activity plan details the methods and procedures that will be used to implement these nesting deterrents

  8. Progress in instrumentation and control in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1990-01-01

    The development of I and C in the Federal Republic of Germany is influenced mainly by three factors, the stagnation to order new plants, the need to retrofit operating plants, and the fast technological progress in electronics. Since the life time of I and C in a plant is about one third of the overall plant life, there is enough impact onto developing I and C using new technologies. This leads to more extensive use of signal processing by means of computers and to the introduction of algorithms for providing higher level information. Presentation techniques employ colored graphics or diagrams on CRTs, which in term can be used to initiate manual control actions. Advanced control room concepts aim at operator information which is adapted to the process situation. New methodologies focus on advanced information tasks like diagnosis and prognosis. In addition midterm research work started on developments for new I and C concepts. (author)

  9. Health physics assistant. A special training in health physics in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, H.; Koelzer, W.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany knowledge in health physics is imparted mainly as a supplement training in courses of some days up to a few weeks duration. This may be adequate for strictly defined sectors, although it is not sufficient as to the education of a true health physicist. Already in the early sixties the necessity of such special training was recognized at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and training was started of 'health physics assistants' as this profession is called. Significant details are given about training, the contributions of the individual training institutions (Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, nuclear medical hospital, Euratom institute, S.C.P.R.I.) examinations and subjects examined, experience regarding future employments and activities

  10. Plutonium recycle in LWRs - The programme of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This paper explains that in accordance with the Federal Republic of Germany's nuclear energy policy, spent fuel from their large programme of LWRs will be stored for some years in an interim storage pool until capacity for reprocessing, which is essential on environmental grounds, becomes available after 1990. The residual fissile content (uranium and plutonium) of the spent fuel can then be recovered and either be recycled into thermal LWRs or later on be burnt in Fast Reactors. A comprehensive R, D and D programme for plutonium recycle was launched in 1971. Up to the end of 1978 about 10,000 MOX fuel rods were designed, specified, fabricated and irradiated in several nuclear power plants. The methods used in this work and the results are described

  11. Nuclear power plant licensing and supervision in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrhardt, H.J.; Gottschalk, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes nuclear power plant licensing and supervision in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Peculiarities due to the federal structure of the FRG are outlined paying due regard to the long tradition of using consultation by qualified and independent technical experts. The participating authorities, commissions, expert organizations, vendors, utilities and the public as well as their respective competences are mentioned. Also, the hierarchy in nuclear legislation by means of ordinances, administrative regulations, guidelines and technical standards is pointed out. Typical examples are presented. The paper ends in mentioning important items concerning the evaluation of operating experience, recurrent tests, backfitting, lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, safety research concerning accident management measures, on-site and off-site emergency planning, as well as qualification and occupational training of the responsible shift personnel. (orig.)

  12. Safety concept of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, H.L.; Seipel, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    The safety philosophy of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) pertaining to nuclear power plants is presented. Its general approach makes much use of research and experience in other countries, especially the United States, but the FRG has also evolved approaches and aspects unique to itself. The article discusses the institutional interrelationships of the entities affecting German nuclear power plant safety and presents the resulting German safety philosophy. This philosophy is based, as in the United States, on multilevel defenses but with greater reliance on a number of accident-prevention and/or -mitigation concepts, including: (1) automated responses to off-normal conditions, (2) an operating-limit system that acts before initiation of protective actions by the reactor protection system, (3) multistrand independent safety trains, and (4) long-term self-contained safety under accident conditions without operator intervention. The practical realization of this philosophy in the design and operation of the chief reactor systems is described

  13. East German Journalists and the Wende: A history of the collapse and transformation of socialist journalism in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Morgan Morille Schupbach

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation utilizes archival sources and interviews to examine the transformation of the journalism profession in East Germany from the collapse of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) through the unification of the two German states. During this period of dramatic political and social upheaval, East German journalists navigated the divide between socialist journalism of the GDR and democratic journalism of the Federal Republic. By embedding the history of this professional transformat...

  14. Comparison measurements of the official individual dosimetry systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.

    1988-01-01

    At present, about 220,000 radiation workers are subject to individual monitoring of external radiation in the Federal Republic of Germany in accordance with the X-Ray Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Each radiation worker must wear at least one individual dosemeter provided by one of the five officially authorized dosemeter services. Requirements for these dosemeter services with respect to technical equipment and personnel are published in the form of a national directive. The five dosemeter services must participate in the comparison measurements for photon radiation with the official dosemeters issued by them. The comparison measurements are organized at least once a year by the Physicalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in agreement with the Federal Minister of Economics. Film dosemeters evaluated with a filter analysis procedure are most frequently used (96.% of all evaluations in 1984) to monitor the whole body exposure to photon radiation. Glass dosemeters play a minor role (0.5%). They are issued by only two officially authorized dosemeter services and are approved for measurements of photons with energies above 45 keV. According to the national directive, thermoluminescence dosemeters may be used only for partial body dosimetry of photon and beta radiation (2.8%). Nuclear track emulsion films are distributed to measure neutrons of energies above 0.5 MeV. A thermoluminescence albedo dosemeter for the measurement of less energetic neutrons is being introduced. The dosimetry systems involved in the comparison measurements and the operational radiation protection monitoring system of the Federal Republic of Germany are described elsewhere. The objective of this work is to describe the performance of the comparison measurements and to give some results obtained from 1979 to 1984

  15. National energy and nuclear power system plans of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuous and secure procurement of energy is of vital importance for our national economy. This has been demonstrated drastically during and after the energy crisis in 1973. Therefore, the aim of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany is to make energy available: (1) in always sufficient quantities; (2) with a maximum degree of security of supply; (3) in a way to protect the environment to a maximum extent; (4) at the cheapest possible cost to the economy. The other aim of our energy policy is to diversify the basis of primary energy sources in order to reduce our dependence on imported oil as fast as this is possible under reasonable economic conditions. For these reasons our efforts are concentrated on the development of nuclear and new non-nuclear energy sources as well as on the development of technologies on energy conservation. The concept of the Federal Republic of Germany for the development of new energy sources is outlined in the FRG program of energy research and technology. It combines the continuation of the 4. nuclear program of FRG (1973-1976) and the skeleton program of non-nuclear energy research (1974-1977). In continuation of existing activites the main object of the new program will be again the development of nuclear energy concentrating on advanced reactor systems, nuclear fuel cycle and safety and radiation protection research. In addition large efforts are made in the area of coal technology, the development of new primary and secondary energy sources and methods for energy conservation. Until 1985 in the FRG the percentage of nuclear energy will be increased from 2% of today to 15% in 1985, i.e. approximately 45.000 MWe. The development of nuclear power systems will be performed by industry and nuclear research centers. At present there are about 25.000 people working in this area

  16. Radiation exposure control of nuclear power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of exposure records of all persons engaged in radiation work at nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany has shown that annual collective doses increase rapidly with time. The annual gross electrical energy generated from nuclear power also increases rapidly with time, corresponding to about 11% of the total gross electrical energy produced in 1977/78. Therefore, it is obvious that there is an increase of both the risk and the benefit from nuclear power production. Whether in the course of time the situation develops more towards the risk or the benefit side is learned from the history of the annual ratio of the collective dose per gross electrical energy generated. This ratio shows a significant decrease since 1972. The decrease is due to the experience gained from operation of the first-generation plants, which led to several administrative measures aimed at an improved control of the collective doses of power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany. The administrative measures include, among others, the introduction of the following requirements: (a) Everyone who applies for a nuclear power plant construction licence has to provide evidence that, in the design of the plant, full use is made of the experience gained from plants in operation with respect to reduction of collective doses of the power plant personnel. (b) Everyone who engages his employees on radiation work within operations for which an operation licence is required, but which is held by others, requires a special 'contractor licence'. (c) Every person engaged in radiation work on the basis of a contractor licence must carry a special exposure record book which is registered by the competent national authority. (author)

  17. Organizational aspects of the handling of radiation accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is a legal requirement that persons exposed to ionizing radiation as a consequence of their employment in radiation facilities should be monitored. Some 90000 persons constitute the population 'at risk' for occupational radiation exposure. The actual radiation accident rate has been very low indeed. Nevertheless, precautions must be taken. Four radiation accident categories may be distinguished: uncomplicated, complicated, contamination and incorporation accidents. In the Federal Republic, the 'Berufsgenossenschaften' (BGS) are required to organize radiation accident care if necessary and take all measures to prevent them. The BGS has issued a pamphlet 'First Aid in case of Increased Exposure to Ionizing Radiation' as a guide to all personnel concerned. The BGS has also organized 5 'Regional Radiation Protection Centres' available to give advice 7 days a week, 24 hours a day in Hamburg, Homburg (Saar), Juelich, Karlsruhe und Munich. These centres are all equipped to provide first aid and decontamination and to cater for a short term stay until a decision is reached as to how to handle a particular accident. The special burns hospital of the BGS in Ludwigshafen is equipped with sterile rooms to handle 'complicated accidents', in particular when skin burns are involved. Two mobile 'radiation protection units' are available in Karlsruhe and Munich to provide help in all problems of dosimetry and health physics. A medical advisory team has been formed to supplement local physicians in dealing with special problems in the handling of radiation accident victims. (author)

  18. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in Central Europe. It covers an area of 250,000 square kilometres and has a population of 60 millions. The Federal Republic consists of 10 individual states. The capital of the country is Bonn. The northern and northwestern parts of the country are formed of flat lowlands, the Norddeutsche Tiefebene. Towards the south follow hilly and mountainous regions with elevations not exceeding 1000 m. In the southwestern and southeastern regions the elevations may reach 1500m in the Black Forest and Bayerischer Wald. The foreland of the Alps and the northern part of the Alps itself with elevations close to 3000 m make up the southern part of the Federal Republic. The main rivers - Rhine, Weser and Elbe - are directed towards northwest and drain the country to the North Sea. Only the southern part is drained by the southeast running river Danube. The climate is moderate, generally with frequent snow during the winter season and warm periods during the summer. The precipitation is distributed uniformly throughout the year. Due to the high industrialization a dense network of railroads, highways and motorroads exists.According to what is geologically known about the country, the chances for the discovery of large quantities of low-coast uranium resources must be considered to be limited. The potential for new discoveries of those deposits can be estimated to be around 10 000 t U. The potential for very low-grade uranium ore, such as granites, low-grade sedimentary rocks (sandstones, shales) can be estimated to range between 10,000 - 50,000 t U or possibly more taking into account very low-grade concentrations in shales. This material is not mineable under present conditions. Environmental considerations may prevent mining in the future

  19. Beyond the hype? The response to sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2011 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilhorst, Dorothea; Douma, Nynke

    2018-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has witnessed a high prevalence of sexual violence since the wars of the mid-1990s. The huge response to it commenced around the turn of the century, but turned to 'hype' towards 2010. The paper defines 'hypes' as phenomena characterised by a media frenzy, eagerness by non-governmental organisations, and pragmatic local responses. Interviews and analyses conducted in 2011 revealed misuse of services and misrepresentation at different levels. The paper goes on to review medical and legal assistance and to provide evidence of incremental improvements in the response since 2012. It has become better coordinated, with more engagement by the DRC government, more community-oriented, and has incorporated a broader notion of gender-based violence. Nonetheless, concern remains about its impact and its continued dependence on international resources. There is apprehension too about social reactions to the problems of corruption and impunity, seemingly adding to the confusion surrounding gender relations in the country. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  20. Use and limitations of malaria rapid diagnostic testing by community health workers in war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Michael; Katsuva, Jean Paul; Masumbuko, Claude K

    2009-12-23

    Accurate and practical malaria diagnostics, such as immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), have the potential to avert unnecessary treatments and save lives. Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) represent a potentially valuable human resource for expanding this technology to where it is most needed, remote rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa with limited health facilities and personnel. This study reports on a training programme for CHWs to incorporate RDTs into their management strategy for febrile children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a tropical African setting ravaged by human conflict. Prospective cohort study, satisfaction questionnaire and decision analysis. Twelve CHWs were trained to safely and accurately perform and interpret RDTs, then successfully implemented rapid diagnostic testing in their remote community in a cohort of 357 febrile children. CHWs were uniformly positive in evaluating RDTs for their utility and ease of use. However, high malaria prevalence in this cohort (93% by RDTs, 88% by light microscopy) limited the cost-effectiveness of RDTs compared to presumptive treatment of all febrile children, as evidenced by findings from a simplified decision analysis. CHWs can safely and effectively use RDTs in their management of febrile children; however, cost-effectiveness of RDTs is limited in zones of high malaria prevalence.

  1. Use and limitations of malaria rapid diagnostic testing by community health workers in war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuva Jean

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate and practical malaria diagnostics, such as immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, have the potential to avert unnecessary treatments and save lives. Volunteer community health workers (CHWs represent a potentially valuable human resource for expanding this technology to where it is most needed, remote rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa with limited health facilities and personnel. This study reports on a training programme for CHWs to incorporate RDTs into their management strategy for febrile children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a tropical African setting ravaged by human conflict. Methods Prospective cohort study, satisfaction questionnaire and decision analysis. Results Twelve CHWs were trained to safely and accurately perform and interpret RDTs, then successfully implemented rapid diagnostic testing in their remote community in a cohort of 357 febrile children. CHWs were uniformly positive in evaluating RDTs for their utility and ease of use. However, high malaria prevalence in this cohort (93% by RDTs, 88% by light microscopy limited the cost-effectiveness of RDTs compared to presumptive treatment of all febrile children, as evidenced by findings from a simplified decision analysis. Conclusions CHWs can safely and effectively use RDTs in their management of febrile children; however, cost-effectiveness of RDTs is limited in zones of high malaria prevalence.

  2. Healthcare providers' perspectives on the social reintegration of patients after surgical fistula repair in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Lin, Nichole; Namugunga, Esperance N; Lussy, Justin P; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-08-01

    To understand perspectives of local health providers on the social reintegration of patients who have undergone fistula repair in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. In a qualitative study, semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with patient-care professionals working with women with fistula at HEAL Africa Hospital (Goma) and Panzi Hospital (Bukavu) between June and August 2011. The interviews were transcribed and themes elicited through manual coding. Overall, 41 interviews were conducted. Successful surgical repair was reported to be the most important factor contributing to patients' ability to lead a normal life by all providers. Family acceptance-especially from the husband-was deemed crucial for reintegration by 39 (95%) providers, and 29 (71%) believed this acceptance was more important than the ability to work. Forty (98%) providers felt that, on the basis of African values, future childbearing was key for family acceptance. Because of poor access and the high cost of cesarean deliveries, 28 (68%) providers were concerned about fistula recurrence. Providers view postsurgical childbearing as crucial for social reintegration after fistula repair. However, cesarean deliveries are costly and often inaccessible. More work is needed to improve reproductive health access for women after fistula repair. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Unwanted pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and other risk factors for intimate partner violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Fentanesh Nibret; Chuang, Kun-Yang; Ntenda, Peter A M; Chuang, Ying-Chih

    2017-11-07

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has one of the highest rates of violence against women in the world; however, few studies have focused on this issue. In this study, we assessed the interrelationship among intimate partner violence (IPV), unintended pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and other sociodemographic factors in the DRC. Our analyses were based on data from the DRC demographic and health survey, conducted from November 2013 to February 2014. We constructed generalized estimating equation models to analyze the data from a sample of 5,120 married women. Our results showed that having a husband or partner who exhibited controlling behaviors, women who justified wife-beating, having a mother who had experienced IPV, and having a husband or partner who consumed alcohol were positively associated with IPV, whereas decision-making autonomy among women was negatively associated with IPV. In the community, the proportion of women who had experienced IPV and that of those who had completed secondary or higher education were positively and negatively associated with any IPV type, respectively. In addition, emotional IPV and any IPV type were positively associated with pregnancy loss. Our results indicate the necessity of implementing programs targeting gender equality at both individual and community levels.

  4. Promoting children's learning and development in conflict-affected countries: Testing change process in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, J Lawrence; Tubbs, Carly; Torrente, Catalina; Halpin, Peter F; Johnston, Brian; Starkey, Leighann; Shivshanker, Anjuli; Annan, Jeannie; Seidman, Edward; Wolf, Sharon

    2017-02-01

    Improving children's learning and development in conflict-affected countries is critically important for breaking the intergenerational transmission of violence and poverty. Yet there is currently a stunning lack of rigorous evidence as to whether and how programs to improve learning and development in conflict-affected countries actually work to bolster children's academic learning and socioemotional development. This study tests a theory of change derived from the fields of developmental psychopathology and social ecology about how a school-based universal socioemotional learning program, the International Rescue Committee's Learning to Read in a Healing Classroom (LRHC), impacts children's learning and development. The study was implemented in three conflict-affected provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and employed a cluster-randomized waitlist control design to estimate impact. Using multilevel structural equation modeling techniques, we found support for the central pathways in the LRHC theory of change. Specifically, we found that LRHC differentially impacted dimensions of the quality of the school and classroom environment at the end of the first year of the intervention, and that in turn these dimensions of quality were differentially associated with child academic and socioemotional outcomes. Future implications and directions are discussed.

  5. Rape in Armed Conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabengele Mpinga, Emmanuel; Koya, Mapendo; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Jeannot, Emilien; Rehani, Sylvie B; Chastonay, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 1996 and 2013 on rape in war-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to better understand the interest of the scientific community in describing the magnitude and characteristics of the problem. The literature search was conducted in French and English using several databases (Pubmed, PsycInfo, Sapphire, BDSP, Embase, Rero, and Web of Science) with the key words "rape and DRC" combined with several Medical Subject Headings concepts. Our systematic review yielded 2,087 references, among which only 27 are original studies, that is 20 are based on population surveys and the remaining 7 are original data based on case studies and reviews. Ten studies provided prevalence rates of rape victims, 18 provided specific information on the profile of the victims, 10 reported that most of the perpetrators of rape were military personnel, 14 referred to the negligence of the government in protecting victims, and 10 reported a lack of competent health-care facilities. The awareness of rape in conflict-ridden DRC is still limited as reported in the scientific literature: Published scientific papers are scarce. Yet more research would probably help mobilize local authorities and the international community against this basic human rights violation.

  6. Serosurveillance of Coxiellosis (Q-fever and Brucellosis in goats in selected provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah J L Burns

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Goat raising is a growing industry in Lao People's Democratic Republic, with minimal disease investigation to date, especially zoonoses. This study determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases: Q fever (causative agent Coxiella burnetii and Brucellosis (Brucella species in goats across five provinces (Vientiane Capital, Xayaboury, Xiengkhuang, Savannakhet and Attapeu. A total of 1458 goat serum samples were tested using commercial indirect ELISA for both pathogens, plus Rose Bengal agglutination test for Brucellosis. Overall individual seropositivity of C. burnetii was 4.1% and Brucella spp. was 1.4%. A multiple logistic regression model identified that province (Vientiane Capital, p = 0.05, breed (introduced Boer mixed breed, p = 0.006 and age (goats ≥3 years old, p = 0.014 were significant risk factors for C. burnetii seropositivity. The results of the survey indicated that province (Vientiane Capital, p<0.001, breed (introduced Boer mixed breed, p<0.001, production system (commercial, p<0.001, age (adult, p = 0.004, and farm size (large, 0.001 were all significant risk factors seropositivity for Brucella spp. It was concluded that Lao goats have been exposed to both C. burnetii and Brucella spp. however the risk of clinical disease has not yet been determined and there is an urgent need to determine human health risks and economic losses caused by Q fever and Brucellosis.

  7. Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Hayley R; Kuang, Brandon; Gadoth, Adva; Alfonso, Vivian H; Mukadi, Patrick; Doshi, Reena H; Hoff, Nicole A; Sinai, Cyrus; Mossoko, Mathias; Kebela, Benoit Ilunga; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response. Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. With official case counts from active surveillance of EVD outbreaks, we assessed accuracy of reporting through the IDSR passive surveillance system. Although the active and passive surveillance represent distinct sets of data, the two were correlated, suggesting that passive surveillance based only on clinical evaluation may be a useful predictor of true cases prior to laboratory confirmation. There were 438 suspect VHF cases reported through the IDSR system and 416 EVD cases officially recorded across the outbreaks examined. Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008 and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all outbreak areas experienced increases in suspected cases for both malaria and typhoid fever during EVD outbreaks, underscoring the importance of training health care workers in recognising EVD differential diagnoses and the potential for co-morbidities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Four Health Areas of Kisantu Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khonde Kumbu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Democratic Republic of the Congo but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated risk factors among children in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. 388 children randomly selected were screened for S. mansoni using Kato Katz technique and the sociodemographic data was collected. Data were entered and encoded using software EpiData version 3.1. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 software. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 26.5% (103; almost two-thirds (63 (61.2% had light infection intensity. A significant association was found between S. mansoni infection and age (p=0.005, educational level (p=0.001, and practices of swimming/bathing (p<0.001 and using water from river/lake/stream for domestic use (p<0.001. Kipasa health area had high prevalence of schistosomiasis (64.6% (64/99; 95% CI 54.4–74.0 compared to other health areas. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection still remains a public health problem in these areas. There is a need to promote health education and promote behavioral changes in children towards schistosomiasis.

  9. Evidence for partial melt in the crust beneath Mt. Paektu (Changbaishan), Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyong-Song, Ri; Hammond, James O. S.; Chol-Nam, Ko; Hyok, Kim; Yong-Gun, Yun; Gil-Jong, Pak; Chong-Song, Ri; Oppenheimer, Clive; Liu, Kosima W.; Iacovino, Kayla D.; Kum-Ran, Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Mt. Paektu (also known as Changbaishan) is an enigmatic volcano on the border between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and China. Despite being responsible for one of the largest eruptions in history, comparatively little is known about its magmatic evolution, geochronology, or underlying structure. We present receiver function results from an unprecedented seismic deployment in the DPRK. These are the first estimates of the crustal structure on the DPRK side of the volcano and, indeed, for anywhere beneath the DPRK. The crust 60 km from the volcano has a thickness of 35 km and a bulk VP/VS of 1.76, similar to that of the Sino-Korean craton. The VP/VS ratio increases ~20 km from the volcano, rising to >1.87 directly beneath the volcano. This shows that a large region of the crust has been modified by magmatism associated with the volcanism. Such high values of VP/VS suggest that partial melt is present in the crust beneath Mt. Paektu. This region of melt represents a potential source for magmas erupted in the last few thousand years and may be associated with an episode of volcanic unrest observed between 2002 and 2005.

  10. Serosurveillance of Coxiellosis (Q-fever) and Brucellosis in goats in selected provinces of Lao People’s Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Rebekah J. L.; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Khounsy, Syseng; Mukaka, Mavuto; Selleck, Paul W.; Hansson, Eric; Wegner, Matthew D.; Windsor, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    Goat raising is a growing industry in Lao People’s Democratic Republic, with minimal disease investigation to date, especially zoonoses. This study determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases: Q fever (causative agent Coxiella burnetii) and Brucellosis (Brucella species) in goats across five provinces (Vientiane Capital, Xayaboury, Xiengkhuang, Savannakhet and Attapeu). A total of 1458 goat serum samples were tested using commercial indirect ELISA for both pathogens, plus Rose Bengal agglutination test for Brucellosis. Overall individual seropositivity of C. burnetii was 4.1% and Brucella spp. was 1.4%. A multiple logistic regression model identified that province (Vientiane Capital, p = 0.05), breed (introduced Boer mixed breed, p = 0.006) and age (goats ≥3 years old, p = 0.014) were significant risk factors for C. burnetii seropositivity. The results of the survey indicated that province (Vientiane Capital, pfarm size (large, 0.001) were all significant risk factors seropositivity for Brucella spp. It was concluded that Lao goats have been exposed to both C. burnetii and Brucella spp. however the risk of clinical disease has not yet been determined and there is an urgent need to determine human health risks and economic losses caused by Q fever and Brucellosis. PMID:29649313

  11. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human–Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Doty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax. Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0% of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus; one Cricetomys emini; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus, and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus; no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  12. Genomics of an emerging clone of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium ST313 from Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Friis, Carsten; Zankari, Ea; Svendsen, Christina Aaby; Price, Lance B; Rahmani, Maral; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Fashae, Kayode; Vandenberg, Olivier; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2013-10-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 is an invasive and phylogenetically distinct lineage present in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the presence of S. Typhimurium ST313 from patients in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria. Eighteen S. Typhimurium ST313 isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Additionally, six of the isolates were characterized by whole genome sequence typing (WGST). The presence of a putative virulence determinant was examined in 177 Salmonella isolates belonging to 57 different serovars. All S. Typhimurium ST313 isolates harbored resistant genes encoded by blaTEM1b, catA1, strA/B, sul1, and dfrA1. Additionally, aac(6')1aa gene was detected. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close genetic relationships among Congolese and Nigerian isolates from both blood and stool. Comparative genomic analyses identified a putative virulence fragment (ST313-TD) unique to S. Typhimurium ST313 and S. Dublin. We showed in a limited number of isolates that S. Typhimurium ST313 is a prevalent sequence-type causing gastrointestinal diseases and septicemia in patients from Nigeria and DRC. We found three distinct phylogenetic clusters based on the origin of isolation suggesting some spatial evolution. Comparative genomics showed an interesting putative virulence fragment (ST313-TD) unique to S. Typhimurium ST313 and invasive S. Dublin.

  13. High prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in six health areas of - Kasansa health zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: short report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Linsuke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An epidemiological and parasitological study was carried out in 2011 in the health zone of Kasansa. Six health areas (HA were included in the study. In each health area, one primary school was selected. School-aged children were screened for S. mansoni infection using parallel Kato-Katz and direct microscopy techniques. A total of 335 school-aged children were screened. The average prevalence was 82.7% and ranged between 59.5-94.9%. Four of the six HAs had a prevalence level over 91%. Of all infected children, about half 112 (43.2% had light parasite density. These results demonstrate that Schistosoma mansoni infection is a bigger problem than anticipated and there is an urgent need to implement effective control measures.

  14. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human-Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jeffrey B; Malekani, Jean M; Kalemba, Lem's N; Stanley, William T; Monroe, Benjamin P; Nakazawa, Yoshinori U; Mauldin, Matthew R; Bakambana, Trésor L; Liyandja Dja Liyandja, Tobit; Braden, Zachary H; Wallace, Ryan M; Malekani, Divin V; McCollum, Andrea M; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Kondas, Ashley; Peterson, A Townsend; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E; Karem, Kevin L; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S

    2017-10-03

    During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax). Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0%) of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus ; one Cricetomys emini ; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus , and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus ); no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  15. Impoverishing and dehumanising violence against women: An opportunity for service by churches in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah K. Tenai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An ongoing armed conflict in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo continues to impoverish and dehumanise women. Sexual violence meted on women has negative consequences that affect whole communities. Churches nationally and in the region have not done enough to respond to the challenge of armed conflict in general and the nefariousness of sexual violence towards women in particular. By utilising the sustainable livelihoods framework, churches in the region can be re-positioned for a constructive advocacy response to armed conflict(s and sexual violence(s, particularly in solidarity with the women.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This study is made feasible through extensive intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary research. The subject matter demands on the investigator the necessity to make use of the knowledge from across the socio-scientific spectrum to understand the ongoing conflict and its impact on the local people. The study entrenches an advocacy role on regional churches as a means to lend a voice to the vulnerable women, who are impoverished and dehumanised by and within the context of an armed conflict.

  16. [Knowledge of the general population about hypertension and diabetes mellitus in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchunga, P B; Malanda, B; Mweze, M C; Dupont, B; M'Buyamba-Kabangu, J R; Kashongwe, Z; Kabinda, J M; Buysschaert, M

    2012-04-01

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a country in a post-conflict period, high priority cannot be given to non-communicable diseases other than to emergencies. This certainly involves inadequacy in raising awareness for prevention of these diseases. To evaluate the level of knowledge of the Congolese general population on hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Responses to a questionnaire from 3% of the general population aged 15 and older in the city of Bukavu and two rural areas: Hombo and Walungu (South Kivu, eastern DRC), recruited after stratification by ward in the city of Bukavu and a group of prone villages were expected. The questions focused on identification, testing, causes, complications and treatment of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Of the 7770 respondents, screening for hypertension and diabetes mellitus affected only 14.9% and 7.3% of subjects respectively. Knowledge of these two conditions was generally low in the general population, although better in the subgroups of patients and those with higher socioeconomic level (Pknowledge (Pknowledge about hypertension and diabetes mellitus and their testing in South Kivu is low. It is imperative that the Congolese government includes non-communicable diseases in its priorities of the millennium. Similarly, the WHO should actively contribute to screening for them in low-income countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Social support under siege: An analysis of forced migration among women from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Karin; Gulbas, Lauren E

    2018-05-03

    In 2016, researchers conducted a qualitative study in a mid-sized town in the United States to address gaps in research and practice related to psychosocial consequences of forced migration among women. The loss of social support and its impacts on the well-being of women are rarely addressed in refugee resettlement policy or practice overwhelmingly concerned with economic self-sufficiency. The study sought to develop theory to explain how women (n = 27) who migrated from the Democratic Republic of the Congo recreate social support post-resettlement in the United States. An interpretive approach informed by postcolonial feminist perspectives guided the grounded theory methodology. A theoretical model emerged explaining pivots in the internal and relational lives of women as social support systematically constricted over time as a result of war, displacement, and resettlement. Upon arrival to the United States, women experienced partitioned lives through changing relationships to space and time, which contributed to women being alone and impacted well-being. Converging processes propelled women towards learning to stand alone, through which women could develop a sense self-reliance, but not without internal and relational consequences. The analysis contributes to the empirical literature knowledge of how resettlement is a life altering event that sets into motion psychosocial processes with implications for well-being and health. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gendered forests: exploring gender dimensions in forest governance and REDD+ in Équateur Province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Achu Samndong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze gender relations legitimatized by socio-political institutions of forest governance in REDD+ pilots in Équateur Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Using data from interviews, focus group discussions, and field observations, we show that men and women have different knowledge and use of forests, but these differences are not given due consideration in forest governance. Women's voices are often muted in decision-making arenas and they occupy only a nominal position in both forestry and development initiatives as compared with men. This status quo is extended to the REDD+ pilot projects as well. Women have limited information about REDD+ compared with men. The mechanisms used to establish new village organization for REDD+ exclude women from decision making in the ongoing REDD+ pilot project. We show that women's bargaining power for equal inclusion in decision-making processes and for sharing benefits are constrained by existing social norms regarding local access to land and material resources, existing gender division of labor, local perceptions regarding women's roles and contributions/responsibilities, as well as men's dominant position in rural settings. For a gender transformative REDD+, we suggest that REDD+ actors should attempt to bring about institutional changes that transform gender relations and thereby increase women's bargaining power.

  19. Lead exposure and early child neurodevelopment among children 12-24 months in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Mumbere, Pépé Penghele; Mishika, Jeannette Mukanya; Ndjukendi, Ally Omba; Mpaka, Davin Beya; Bumoko, Makila-Mabe Guy; Kayembe, Tharcisse Kalula; Tshala-Katumbay, Désiré; Kazadi, Théodore Kayembe; Okitundu, Daniel Luwa E-Andjafono

    2016-12-01

    Childhood lead exposure remains a problem in developing countries, and little is known about its effects on early child neurodevelopment and temperament in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We, therefore, conducted this study to determine the association between lead exposure and the neurodevelopment and behaviour of children aged 12-24 months in Kinshasa, DRC. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2012, and parents of 104 children were invited to participate. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of each child were tested using the flame atomic spectrophotometry method. All children were subject to a clinical examination and assessed with two selected early child neurodevelopmental tools, the Gensini-Gavito and the baby characteristics questionnaire, to measure their neurodevelopment and temperament. Detectable BLLs ranged from 1 to 30 μg/dl with a geometric mean of 6.9 (SD 4.8) μg/dl. BLLs at 5-9 and ≥10 μg/dl were significantly associated with the child temperament (p early child neurodevelopment and temperament. Children exposed to lead were reported with more temperament difficulties at even blood lead levels <10 μg/dl, suggesting the need for preventive and intervention measures to reduce lead exposure among children in Kinshasa, DRC.

  20. [On the history of the German Democratic Republic Journal Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology (1949-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitge, M; Kumbier, E

    2015-05-01

    Scientific journals were established in the Soviet occupied zone following WWII in order to distinguish themselves from the other occupying powers. Starting in 1949 a journal with the title "Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology" was founded as no publishing house existed in the field of psychiatry and neurology and it became necessary to establish a new journal that was competitive. The journal was primarily distributed in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1990 but the interest internationally was very limited. State affairs had a great influence from the very beginning so that the political involvement was reflected in the selection of staff, such as the publishers and the head of the editorial department and by the close interconnection between the Society for Psychiatry and Neurology of the GDR and the editorship of the journal. The publishers who were primarily responsible and the authors were at the interface of politics and science. Nevertheless, in an international comparison many parallels can be found in the orientation with respect to the content.

  1. Radioactive effluents and present and future radiation exposure to the population from nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.; Edelhauser, H.; Gans, I.; Wolter, R.

    1977-01-01

    As this time ten light water cooled nuclear power plants are operated outside of nuclear research centers in the Federal Republic of Germany. A review of the releases of radioactivity in gaseous and liquid effluents shows that increasing operational experience and improved technology combined with restrictive licensing policy and comprehensive control systems have resulted in decreasing release rates. Therefore radiation exposure to the population and critical groups calculated from these release rates on a local scale via different exposure pathways have been low until now. Predictions of future radiation exposure are based on the energy program of the Federal Republic of Germany up to 1985 and continuing forecasts for future energy demands, release rates of new reactor types and reprocessing plants being taken into account. In calculations of exposures to the population local models are combined with regional models superimposing contributions from sources in the Federal Republic and neighbouring countries and with a global multi-compartment model. If, with view to a continued development of the present state of science and technology in connection with major reprocessing plants, retention rates from 90-99% are assumed to be obtainable for H 3 and Kr 85, 99,5-99,9% for iodine and approximately 90% for C 14 from reprocessing plants, it can be demonstrated that also the future radiation exposure can be kept below the dose limits established in the Federal Republic of Germany

  2. Radon concentration studies in houses on the territory of the former German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, R.

    1993-01-01

    In cooperation with the Federal Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, studies have been made since March 1990 in mining centers in the South of the former GDR territory on radon concentration in as many differently used houses as possible, predominantly in dwelling houses, but also in plant buildings, schools, kindergartens, recreation homes, etc. Under this program, measurements were performed until October 1990 in the cities of Schneeberg, Johanngeorgenstadt and Ronneburg and in the municipality of Schlema. The results obtained from this radon screening covering almost the whole affected area, qualitatively correspond to those obtained from small random samples taken under a regional measuring program performed in the respective muncipalities. A summary presentation is given of the range of radon concentration in houses to be expected in East Germany, relating it to geologically different areas in accordance with the present state of knowledge. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Mining in the Federal Republic of Germany 2012. Mining industries and statistics. 64th year 2013. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    The annual report of the series ''The mining industry in the Federal Republic of Germany - Mountain Economics and Statistics'' is published by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology in cooperation with the mining authorities of the federal states. It contains comprehensive data of all production facilities of mining industry in Germany and describes the position of the German industry in the context of the overall economic development. The report shows an interest in local raw materials as well as on the international raw materials economy. Moreover, the present publication provides a detailed statistics section. [de

  4. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-06

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2016. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  5. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-07

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2015. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  6. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2017; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-14

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter of 2017. Statistical data are presented for mining, exports and imports of hard coal and lignite and for employees.

  7. The fuel cycle of the LWR system in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalthoff, F.J.; Messer, K.P.

    1977-01-01

    Within the framework of a system analysis conducted to forecast the nuclear output capacity that would presumably be installed by the year 2000 in the Federal Republic of Germany, the demands for uranium, enrichment and reprocessing, the fuel fabrication of elements and transportation capacity are determined. The factors of uncertainty involved in forecasts concerning the demand are discussed (analysis of sensitivity). Furthermore, the study points out to what extent the demand for uranium and fuel cycle services is being covered in the FRG and what aspects related to the coverage not yet secured are important. The situation in the field of reprocessing and ultimate disposal in the FRG, and the role which the electrical utilities are to play are in particular dealt with. After a brief survey of the Federal Republic's plans concerning the reprocessing and ultimate disposal issues, the pending problems related to the technology, organization and financing of this sector of the fuel cycle are analyzed. Moreover, the paper deals with the past and probable future development of fuel cycle costs as well as with their influence on the further development of nuclear energy as a whole. It will be examined whether and to what extent the considerable increase in the costs for uranium, enrichment and reprocessing occurring simultaneously with the rise of capital expense for new nuclear power plants has affected the profitability of nuclear energy as compared with fossil primary energies. Finally, the paper discusses how the security of supply for nuclear power plants with fuel and all necessary services could be improved under economically justifiable conditions, and what measures could be taken in this area by the electric utilities, the fuel cycle industries, and the public authorities

  8. Water Supply Interruptions and Suspected Cholera Incidence: A Time-Series Regression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandron, Aurélie; Saidi, Jaime Mufitini; Kapama, Alois; Burhole, Manu; Birembano, Freddy; Vandevelde, Thierry; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC) admissions in a medium-sized town. Methods and Findings Time-series patterns of daily incidence of suspected cholera cases admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centre in Uvira in South Kivu Province between 2009 and 2014 were examined in relation to the daily variations in volume of water supplied by the town water treatment plant. Quasi-poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models up to 12 d were used, adjusting for daily precipitation rates, day of the week, and seasonal variations. A total of 5,745 patients over 5 y of age with acute watery diarrhoea symptoms were admitted to the CTC over the study period of 1,946 d. Following a day without tap water supply, the suspected cholera incidence rate increased on average by 155% over the next 12 d, corresponding to a rate ratio of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.54–4.24), compared to the incidence experienced after a day with optimal production (defined as the 95th percentile—4,794 m3). Suspected cholera cases attributable to a suboptimal tap water supply reached 23.2% of total admissions (95% CI 11.4%–33.2%). Although generally reporting less admissions to the CTC, neighbourhoods with a higher consumption of tap water were more affected by water supply interruptions, with a rate ratio of 3.71 (95% CI: 1.91–7.20) and an attributable fraction of cases of 31.4% (95% CI: 17.3%–42.5%). The analysis did not suggest any

  9. Water supply interruptions and suspected cholera incidence: a time-series regression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandron, Aurélie; Saidi, Jaime Mufitini; Kapama, Alois; Burhole, Manu; Birembano, Freddy; Vandevelde, Thierry; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2015-10-01

    The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC) admissions in a medium-sized town. Time-series patterns of daily incidence of suspected cholera cases admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centre in Uvira in South Kivu Province between 2009 and 2014 were examined in relation to the daily variations in volume of water supplied by the town water treatment plant. Quasi-poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models up to 12 d were used, adjusting for daily precipitation rates, day of the week, and seasonal variations. A total of 5,745 patients over 5 y of age with acute watery diarrhoea symptoms were admitted to the CTC over the study period of 1,946 d. Following a day without tap water supply, the suspected cholera incidence rate increased on average by 155% over the next 12 d, corresponding to a rate ratio of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.54-4.24), compared to the incidence experienced after a day with optimal production (defined as the 95th percentile-4,794 m3). Suspected cholera cases attributable to a suboptimal tap water supply reached 23.2% of total admissions (95% CI 11.4%-33.2%). Although generally reporting less admissions to the CTC, neighbourhoods with a higher consumption of tap water were more affected by water supply interruptions, with a rate ratio of 3.71 (95% CI: 1.91-7.20) and an attributable fraction of cases of 31.4% (95% CI: 17.3%-42.5%). The analysis did not suggest any association between levels of residual

  10. Consequences of large-scale implementation of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1978-10-01

    Three scenarios of the future installation of nuclear capacity in the Federal Republic of Germany are selected on the basis of assumptions concerning long-term demand of primary energy and other factors of influence for the expansion of nuclear energy. The corresponding demand for natural uranium, the requirements for separative work and fuel fabrication, and the situation with regard to reactor construction capacity are described. Because of the heavy dependence of the Federal Republic of Germany on uranium imports, the world-wide development of uranium demand and supply is discussed in some detail. For this purpose, the dependence of the yearly and cumulative uranium demand on the type and the time and speed of introducting of breeding or high converting reactors is analysed. The uranium demand situation and possible difficulties on the supply side are described against the background of uranium reserve and resource data. (orig.) [de

  11. Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Zur staatlichen Marktregulierung in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltwedel, R; Busch, A; Gross, A; Laaser, C F

    1987-01-01

    The major part of the expertise 'Deregulation Potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany' - theoretical fundaments, justifying analysis of the regulation and the proposals relating to deregulation - was published as 'Kieler Studie No. 202'. However, the synopsis of the relevant legal prescriptions of the regulation systems, the historical development courses of regulations, analytic excursions and statistical information about the structures of the markets could not be included in the investigation. This gap is now closed by the special issue 'Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany'. Among others, it deals with the regulation of the supplying industry: it shows the structures of the most important sections and the market-regulating acts of the government: competition-restricting instruments, price regulation by the government and the restraint to contract. (orig./HSCH).

  12. Burden of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer and the underreporting ratio in the territory of Songololo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphin Mavinga Phanzu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium ulcerans, also known as Buruli ulcer (BU, represents the third most common mycobacterial disease in the world after tuberculosis and leprosy. Data on the burden of BU disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo are scanty. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence rate and the distribution of BU in the Songololo Territory, and to assess the coverage of the existing hospital-based reporting system. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (July-August 2008 using the door-to-door method simultaneously in the two rural health zones (RHZ of the Songololo Territory (RHZ of Kimpese and Nsona-Mpangu, each containing twenty health areas. Cases were defined clinically as active BU and inactive BU in accordance with WHO-case definitions. RESULTS: We detected 775 BU patients (259 active and 516 inactive in a total population of 237,418 inhabitants. The overall prevalence of BU in Songololo Territory was 3.3/1000 inhabitants, varying from 0 to 27.5/1000 between health areas. Of the 259 patients with active BU, 18 (7% had been reported in the hospital-based reporting system at Kimpese in the 6-8 months prior to the survey. CONCLUSION: The survey demonstrated a huge variation of prevalence between health areas in Songololo Territory and gross underreporting of BU cases in the hospital-based reporting system. Data obtained may contribute to better targeted and improved BU control interventions, and serve as a baseline for future assessments of the control program.

  13. Experiences of female survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC is the deadliest since World War II. Over a decade of fighting amongst an array of armed groups has resulted in extensive human rights abuses, particularly the widespread use of sexual violence against women. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach, we surveyed a non-random sample of 255 women attending a referral hospital and two local non-governmental organizations to characterize their experiences of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. We then conducted focus groups of 48 women survivors of SGBV to elaborate on survey findings. Quantitative and qualitative data underwent thematic and statistical analysis respectively. Findings Of the women surveyed, 193 (75.7% experienced rape. Twenty-nine percent of raped women were rejected by their families and 6% by their communities. Thirteen percent of women had a child from rape. Widowhood, husband abandonment, gang rape, and having a child from rape were significant risk factors for social rejection. Mixed methods findings show rape survivors were seen as "contaminated" with HIV, contributing to their isolation and over 95% could not access prophylactic care in time. Receiving support from their husbands after rape was protective against survivors' feelings of shame and social isolation. Interpretation Rape results not only in physical and psychological trauma, but can destroy family and community structures. Women face significant obstacles in seeking services after rape. Interventions offering long-term solutions for hyper-vulnerable women are vital, but lacking; reintegration programs on SGBV for women, men, and communities are also needed.

  14. Association between oral health habits and dental caries among children in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvonen, P-L; Suominen, A L; Yang, G S; Ri, Y S; Sipilä, K

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the self-reported oral health habits and their association with the occurrence of dental caries among children in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), after 6 years of activities under the auspices of the Children's Oral Health Promotion Programme (COHPP). The data were collected in September 2013 in two of the most central districts of Pyongyang City, DPRK. The sample consisted of 492 children aged 10 and 13 years who had participated in the COHPP for 6 years. The children filled in a self-completed, structured questionnaire on oral health habits and were examined clinically by a dentist. The differences in mean (SD) number of decayed primary (dt) and permanent teeth (DT) and their sum (dt + DT) subdivided according to genders, age groups, districts and self-reported oral health habits were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U-test. The associations between self-reported oral health habits and the occurrence of dental caries were evaluated with chi-square test and logistic regression analyses. The school-aged children commonly reported healthy oral hygiene habits but sweet snacks were commonly used. The occurrence of dental caries associated statistically significantly with the frequency of sweet snacking (p=0.011) but not with the frequency of tooth brushing (p=0.725) or the use of water for thirst instead of sugary beverages (p=0.189). A more effective promotion of healthy dietary habits with innovative approaches and close collaboration with different social actors will be needed in future. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prevalence study of yaws in the Democratic Republic of Congo using the lot quality assurance sampling method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Gerstl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until the 1970s the prevalence of non-venereal trepanomatosis, including yaws, was greatly reduced after worldwide mass treatment. In 2005, cases were again reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We carried out a survey to estimate the village-level prevalence of yaws in the region of Equator in the north of the country in order to define appropriate strategies to effectively treat the affected population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a community-based survey using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method to classify the prevalence of active yaws in 14 groups of villages (lots. The classification into high, moderate, or low yaws prevalence corresponded to World Health Organization prevalence thresholds for identifying appropriate operational treatment strategies. Active yaws cases were defined by suggestive clinical signs and positive rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination serological tests. The overall prevalence in the study area was 4.7% (95% confidence interval: 3.4-6.0. Two of 14 lots had high prevalence (>10%, three moderate prevalence (5-10% and nine low prevalence (<5%.. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although yaws is no longer a World Health Organization priority disease, the presence of yaws in a region where it was supposed to be eradicated demonstrates the importance of continued surveillance and control efforts. Yaws should remain a public health priority in countries where previously it was known to be endemic. The integration of sensitive surveillance systems together with free access to effective treatment is recommended. As a consequence of our study results, more than 16,000 people received free treatment against yaws.

  16. High Prevalence and Diversity of Hepatitis Viruses in Suspected Cases of Yellow Fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiala-Mandanda, Sheila; Le Gal, Frédéric; Ngwaka-Matsung, Nadine; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Onanga, Richard; Bivigou-Mboumba, Berthold; Pukuta-Simbu, Elisabeth; Gerber, Athenaïs; Abbate, Jessica L; Mwamba, Dieudonné; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric Maurice; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Becquart, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    The majority of patients with acute febrile jaundice (>95%) identified through a yellow fever surveillance program in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) test negative for antibodies against yellow fever virus. However, no etiological investigation has ever been carried out on these patients. Here, we tested for hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis D (HDV), and hepatitis E (HEV) viruses, all of which can cause acute febrile jaundice, in patients included in the yellow fever surveillance program in the DRC. On a total of 498 serum samples collected from suspected cases of yellow fever from January 2003 to January 2012, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were used to screen for antibodies against HAV (IgM) and HEV (IgM) and for antigens and antibodies against HBV (HBsAg and anti-hepatitis B core protein [HBc] IgM, respectively), HCV, and HDV. Viral loads and genotypes were determined for HBV and HVD. Viral hepatitis serological markers were diagnosed in 218 (43.7%) patients. The seroprevalences were 16.7% for HAV, 24.6% for HBV, 2.3% for HCV, and 10.4% for HEV, and 26.1% of HBV-positive patients were also infected with HDV. Median viral loads were 4.19 × 10 5 IU/ml for HBV (range, 769 to 9.82 × 10 9 IU/ml) and 1.4 × 10 6 IU/ml for HDV (range, 3.1 × 10 2 to 2.9 × 10 8 IU/ml). Genotypes A, E, and D of HBV and genotype 1 of HDV were detected. These high hepatitis prevalence rates highlight the necessity to include screening for hepatitis viruses in the yellow fever surveillance program in the DRC. Copyright © 2017 Makiala-Mandanda et al.

  17. Identification of Dengue and Chikungunya Cases Among Suspected Cases of Yellow Fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiala-Mandanda, Sheila; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Abbate, Jessica L; Pukuta-Simbu, Elisabeth; Nsio-Mbeta, Justus; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric Maurice; Becquart, Pierre; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques

    2018-05-16

    For more than 95% of acute febrile jaundice cases identified through surveillance for yellow fever, a reemerging arthropod-borne viral disease, no etiological exploration is ever done. The aim of this study was to test for other arthropod-borne viruses that can induce the same symptoms in patients enrolled in the yellow fever surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of 652 patients included in the surveillance of yellow fever in DRC from January 2003 to January 2012, 453 patients that tested negative for yellow fever virus (YFV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were selected for the study. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for the detection of dengue, West Nile, Chikungunya, O'nyong-nyong, Rift Valley fever, Zika, and YFV. The average age of patients was 22.1 years. We reported 16 cases (3.5%; confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-5.2) of dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) and 2 cases (0.4%; CI: 0.0-1.0) of Chikungunya. Three patients were co-infected with the two serotypes of dengue virus. Three cases of dengue were found in early July 2010 from the city of Titule (Oriental province) during a laboratory-confirmed outbreak of yellow fever, suggesting simultaneous circulation of dengue and yellow fever viruses. This study showed that dengue and Chikungunya viruses are potential causes of acute febrile jaundice in the DRC and highlights the need to consider dengue and Chikungunya diagnosis in the integrated disease surveillance and response program in the DRC. A prospective study is necessary to establish the epidemiology of these diseases.

  18. Quantification of land cover and land use within the rural complex of the Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M. C.; Potapov, P. V.; Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S.; Barker, B.; Humber, M.

    2017-10-01

    The rural complex is the inhabited agricultural land cover mosaic found along the network of rivers and roads in the forest of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is a product of traditional small-holder shifting cultivation. To date, thanks to its distinction from primary forest, this area has been mapped as relatively homogenous, leaving the proportions of land cover heterogeneity within it unknown. However, the success of strategies for sustainable development, including land use planning and payment for ecosystem services, such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation, depends on the accurate characterization of the impacts of land use on natural resources, including within the rural complex. We photo-interpreted a simple random sample of 1000 points in the established rural complex, using 3106 high resolution satellite images obtained from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, together with 406 images from Google Earth, spanning the period 2008-2016. Results indicate that nationally the established rural complex includes 5% clearings, 10% active fields, 26% fallows, 34% secondary forest, 2% wetland forest, 11% primary forest, 6% grasslands, 3% roads and settlements and 2% commercial plantations. Only a small proportion of sample points were plantations, while other commercial dynamics, such as logging and mining, were not detected in the sample. The area of current shifting cultivation accounts for 76% of the established rural complex. Added to primary forest (11%), this means that 87% of the rural complex is available for shifting cultivation. At the current clearing rate, it would take ~18 years for a complete rotation of the rural complex to occur. Additional pressure on land results in either the cultivation of non-preferred land types within the rural complex (such as wetland forest), or expansion of agriculture into nearby primary forests, with attendant impacts on emissions, habitat loss and other ecosystems services.

  19. Surgical care for the direct and indirect victims of violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Ford Nathan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of surgical assistance in conflict is often associated with care for victims of violence. However, there is an increasing appreciation that surgical care is needed for non-traumatic morbidities. In this paper we report on surgical interventions carried out by Médecins sans Frontières in Masisi, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo to contribute to the scarce evidence base on surgical needs in conflict. Methods We analysed data on all surgical interventions done at Masisi district hospital between September 2007 and December 2009. Types of interventions are described, and logistic regression used to model associations with violence-related injury. Results 2869 operations were performed on 2441 patients. Obstetric emergencies accounted for over half (675, 57% of all surgical pathology and infections for another quarter (160, 14%. Trauma-related injuries accounted for only one quarter (681, 24% of all interventions; among these, 363 (13% were violence-related. Male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 20.0, p Conclusions In this study, most surgical interventions were unrelated to violent trauma and rather reflected the general surgical needs of a low-income tropical country. Programs in conflict zones in low-income countries need to be prepared to treat both the war-wounded and non-trauma related life-threatening surgical needs of the general population. Given the limited surgical workforce in these areas, training of local staff and task shifting is recommended to support broad availability of essential surgical care. Further studies into the surgical needs of the population are warranted, including population-based surveys, to improve program planning and resource allocation and the effectiveness of the humanitarian response.

  20. Surgical care for the direct and indirect victims of violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Chu, Kathryn; Havet, Philippe; Ford, Nathan; Trelles, Miguel

    2010-04-14

    The provision of surgical assistance in conflict is often associated with care for victims of violence. However, there is an increasing appreciation that surgical care is needed for non-traumatic morbidities. In this paper we report on surgical interventions carried out by Médecins sans Frontières in Masisi, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo to contribute to the scarce evidence base on surgical needs in conflict. We analysed data on all surgical interventions done at Masisi district hospital between September 2007 and December 2009. Types of interventions are described, and logistic regression used to model associations with violence-related injury. 2869 operations were performed on 2441 patients. Obstetric emergencies accounted for over half (675, 57%) of all surgical pathology and infections for another quarter (160, 14%). Trauma-related injuries accounted for only one quarter (681, 24%) of all interventions; among these, 363 (13%) were violence-related. Male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 20.0, p violence-related injury. Immediate peri-operative mortality was 0.2%. In this study, most surgical interventions were unrelated to violent trauma and rather reflected the general surgical needs of a low-income tropical country. Programs in conflict zones in low-income countries need to be prepared to treat both the war-wounded and non-trauma related life-threatening surgical needs of the general population. Given the limited surgical workforce in these areas, training of local staff and task shifting is recommended to support broad availability of essential surgical care. Further studies into the surgical needs of the population are warranted, including population-based surveys, to improve program planning and resource allocation and the effectiveness of the humanitarian response.

  1. Micromapping of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in diferent regions of northeast Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic.

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    Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Phollarp, Prachatip; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Schelp, Frank P

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in different regions of northeast (NE) Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic (PDR), a total of 1,809 blood samples were collected consecutively from individuals attending antenatal care services at 11 community hospitals in different regions of NE Thailand and three hospitals in Vientiane, Laos PDR, from May 2009 to April 2010. All individuals were investigated for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies using standard methods. For individuals from NE Thailand, the carrier frequencies were 41.7% for Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG], 5.8% for α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal), and 0.9% for β-thal. The THAI deletion type of α(0)-thal was found in one individual from an ethnic minority. From a group of pregnant Laotian women, 30.1% were Hb E carriers. The prevalence of α(0)-thal of 8.6% for the Laotian women was similar to that found in the upper northeastern part of Thailand. The frequency of β-thal was 2.3 %. The proportion of carriers of α(+)-thal and Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, α142, Term→Gln (TAA>CAA in α2)] ) from Thailand and Laos was significantly different. The frequency of Hb Paksé [α142, Term→Tyr (TAA>TAT in α2)] was relatively low for Thailand as well as for Laos. The results indicate that thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are a significant health burden in the region and that a prevention and control program for severe thalassemia diseases should be established in Laos.

  2. Facing medical care problems of victims of sexual violence in Goma/Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Dünser Martin W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1998, the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo has been torn by a military conflict. A particular atrocity of the war is widespread sexual violence. Methods In this combined retrospective analysis and prospective survey, we sought to identify hospital facilities and resources available to treat victims of sexual violence in Goma, the capital city of the North Kivu province. Results Of twenty-three acute care hospitals registered in the area of Goma, four (17% regularly cared for victims of sexual violence. One hospital had all resources always available to appropriately care for victims of sexual violence. From Jan 2009 until Oct 2010, 7,048 females sought medical care because of physical or psychological sequelae from sexual violence in the four hospitals of Goma. Only half of the hospitals had physicians specialized in gynaecology or gynaecological surgery available. Similarly, anaesthetists and psychiatrists/psychologists were available in two (50% and one (25% hospital, respectively. Post-discharge care facilities, material resources, such as surgical and anaesthesiological equipment and drugs, were inconsistently available in the hospitals caring for sexually abused females. At one selected hospital, acyclovir and/or antibiotics were administered to 1,202 sexually abused females (89.5%, whereas post-exposure HIV prophylaxis and surgery because of vesico-vaginal fistula was provided to only 75 (5.6% and 121 (9% patients, respectively. Conclusions This study provides data that only few hospitals in Goma care for victims of sexual violence. In addition, these hospitals suffer from a relevant shortage of human and material resources to provide adequate care for sexually abused females. Aside from establishment of adequate protection strategies, steps must be taken to increase the availability of trained health care professionals and resources to provide adequate care for victims of sexual violence in Goma and the

  3. Improving financial access to health care in the Kisantu district in the Democratic Republic of Congo: acting upon complexity

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    Stéphanie Stasse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Comzmercialization of health care has contributed to widen inequities between the rich and the poor, especially in settings with suboptimal regulatory frameworks of the health sector. Poorly regulated fee-for-service payment systems generate inequity and initiate a vicious circle in which access to quality health care gradually deteriorates. Although the abolition of user fees is high on the international health policy agenda, the sudden removal of user fees may have disrupting effects on the health system and may not be affordable or sustainable in resource-constrained countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods and Results: Between 2008 and 2011, the Belgian development aid agency (BTC launched a set of reforms in the Kisantu district, in the province of Bas Congo, through an action-research process deemed appropriate for the implementation of change within open complex systems such as the Kisantu local health system. Moreover, the entire process contributed to strengthen the stewardship capacity of the Kisantu district management team. The reforms mainly comprised the rationalization of resources and the regulation of health services financing. Flat fees per episode of disease were introduced as an alternative to fee-for-service payments by patients. A financial subsidy from BTC allowed to reduce the height of the flat fees. The provision of the subsidy was made conditional upon a range of measures to rationalize the use of resources. Conclusions: The results in terms of enhancing people access to quality health care were immediate and substantial. The Kisantu experience demonstrates that a systems approach is essential in addressing complex problems. It provides useful lessons for other districts in the country.

  4. [Inaccurate information about the size of the penis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: about 21 information sources].

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    Mulenga, Philippe Cilundika; Kazadi, Alex Bukasa

    2016-01-01

    Penis size is a huge topic of anxiety for a lot of men. Some of them are unhappy with their penis size as shown in the study conducted by Tiggemann in 2008. There are relatively few studies on erect penis size. This may reflect cultural taboos of researchers or doctors interacting with men who are in a state of sexual arousal. On the other hand, it is important for people who announce details on penis size to give the average penis size first and then sizes suggested by the researchers. We performed a cross-sectional survey in the two major urban centres of the Democratic Republic of Congo namely Kinshasa and Lubumbashi over a period of two years from May 2014 to May 2016. A total of 21 information sources constituted our sample, 8 in Kinshasa and 13 in Lubumbashi. We found it sufficient because in our culture discussing about sexual matter is rare. The parameters studied were: the nature of the source, the accuracy of the measurement method, the presence of bibliographical reference, the announced penis size. The majority of information sources used were radio or television broadcastings (23,8%); this can be explained by the fact that there are an increasing number of radio and television stations in our country and especially in large cities. With regard to accuracy of information about penis measurement method when sharing the message about penis size, our study showed that the majority of information sources did not indicate it when they announced penis size to the public (85,7%). Several sources did not report bibliographical references (57,1%). Announced data analysis on penis size showed that the average penis size was: 14 cm (28,6%), 15 cm (23,8%) and 15-20 cm (19%). All these results are intended to offer a warning to all players responsible for diffusing information on sexual health (penis size): scientific rigor consists in seeking information from reliable sources.

  5. Quality of Life Perception by Inmates in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Muasa Patoka Guillaume Kalonji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, quality of prison life remains a challenge in public health. The present study aimed at determining the quality of life as perceived by inmates during their imprisonment at the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out over a 3-month period (between December 2015 and February 2016 at the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi. Three hundred inmates participated to the survey. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF was used to estimate health and problems affecting inmates’ everyday life. Results: Mean age of inmates was 33 ± 10 years (range: 18-70 years and most of them were male (88.7%. The quality of life score estimated was below 50, on the WHOQOL-BREF scale weighted over 100 points (average overall score: 26 ± 7. When considering each WHOQOLBREF domain, the lowest scores (0-100 normalized scale were registered for: perception of physical health (24 ± 11, psychological health (18 ± 8, social relationship (39 ± 15 and environmental relationships (24 ± 8. Overall, inmates aged over 30 years old presented an average score slightly lower than younger inmates (25 ± 6 vs. 27 ± 7; p=0.005. Depending on the length of incarceration, the average score was lower for inmates imprisoned for more than 6 months compared to others (26 ± 6 vs. 28 ± 8; p=0.015. Correlations between domain scores were low but statistically significant; no correlation was highlighted between environment and mental health domains. Conclusion: Most inmates considered their quality of life as negative, regardless of the WHOQOL-BREF domain. Efforts to improve quality of life should remain a priority for political authorities.

  6. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14.

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    Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition

  7. Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a descriptive study.

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    Yotebieng, Marcel; Chalachala, Jean Lambert; Labbok, Miriam; Behets, Frieda

    2013-10-01

    Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65% of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo. Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital. All 66 mothers interviewed were breastfeeding. Before initiating breastfeeding, 23 gave their infants something other than their milk, including: sugar water (16) or water (2). During the twenty-four hours prior to interview, 26 (39%) infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF), whereas 18 (27%), 12 (18%), and 10 (15%) received water, tea, formula, or porridge, respectively, in addition to human milk. The main reasons for water supplementation included "heat" and cultural beliefs that water is needed for proper digestion of human milk. The main reason for formula supplementation was the impression that the baby was not getting enough milk; and for porridge supplementation, the belief that the child was old enough to start complementary food. Virtually all mothers reported that breastfeeding was discussed during antenatal clinic visit and half reported receiving help regarding breastfeeding from a health provider either after birth or during well-child clinic visit. Despite a median of at least 14 years of experience in these facilities, healthcare workers surveyed had little to no formal training on how to support breastfeeding and inadequate breastfeeding-related knowledge and skills. The facilities lacked any written policy about breastfeeding. Addressing cultural beliefs, training healthcare providers adequately on breastfeeding support skills, and providing structured breastfeeding support after maternity discharge is needed to promote EBF in the DR Congo.

  8. Taenia solium Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Does Pork Trade Affect the Transmission of the Parasite?

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    Kabwe, Constantin; Maketa, Vivi; Lukanu, Philippe; Lutumba, Pascal; Polman, Katja; Matondo, Peter; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Sumbu, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC), makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. Methods An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1) on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2) in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. Findings The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI95%: 34–43] versus 41.2% [CI95%: 33–49], respectively). However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA). Interpretation Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map. PMID:20838646

  9. Quantifying gas emissions from the 946 CE Millennium Eruption of Paektu volcano, Democratic People's Republic of Korea/China

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    Iacovino, Kayla; Ju-Song, Kim; Sisson, Thomas W.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ku-Hun, Ri; Jong-Nam, Jang; Kun-Ho, Song; Song-Hwan, Ham; Clive Oppenheimer,; James O.S. Hammond,; Amy Donovan,; Kosima Weber-Liu,; Kum-Ran , Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Paektu volcano (Changbaishan) is a rhyolitic caldera that straddles the border between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and China. Its most recent large eruption was the Millennium Eruption (ME; 23 km3 DRE) circa 946 CE, which resulted in the release of copious magmatic volatiles (H2O, CO2, sulfur, and halogens). Accurate quantification of volatile yield and composition is critical in assessing volcanogenic climate impacts but is elusive, particularly for pre-historic or unmonitored eruptions. Here we employ a geochemical technique to quantify volatile composition and yield from the ME by examining trends in incompatible trace and volatile element concentrations in crystal-hosted melt inclusions. We estimate a maximum of 45 Tg S was injected into the stratosphere during the ME. If true yields are close to this maximum, this equates to more than 1.5 times the S released during the 1815 eruption of Tambora, which contributed to the "Year Without a Summer". Our maximum gas yield estimates place the ME among the strongest emitters of climate forcing gases in recorded human history in stark contrast to ice core records that indicate minimal atmospheric sulfate loading after the eruption. We conclude that the potential lack of strong climate forcing occurred in spite of the substantial S yield and suggest that other factors predominated in minimizing climatic effects. This paradoxical case in which high S emissions do not result in substantial climate forcing may present a way forward in building more generalized models for predicting which volcanic eruptions will produce large climate impacts.

  10. Mapping and characterizing the vegetation types of the Democratic Republic of Congo using SPOT VEGETATION time series

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    Vancutsem, C.; Pekel, J.-F.; Evrard, C.; Malaisse, F.; Defourny, P.

    2009-02-01

    The need for quantitative and accurate information to characterize the state and evolution of vegetation types at a national scale is widely recognized. This type of information is crucial for the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains the majority of the tropical forest cover of Central Africa and a large diversity of habitats. In spite of recent progress in earth observation capabilities, vegetation mapping and seasonality analysis in equatorial areas still represent an outstanding challenge owing to high cloud coverage and the extent and limited accessibility of the territory. On one hand, the use of coarse-resolution optical data is constrained by performance in the presence of cloud screening and by noise arising from the compositing process, which limits the spatial consistency of the composite and the temporal resolution. On the other hand, the use of high-resolution data suffers from heterogeneity of acquisition dates, images and interpretation from one scene to another. The objective of the present study was to propose and demonstrate a semi-automatic processing method for vegetation mapping and seasonality characterization based on temporal and spectral information from SPOT VEGETATION time series. A land cover map with 18 vegetation classes was produced using the proposed method that was fed by ecological knowledge gathered from botanists and reference documents. The floristic composition and physiognomy of each vegetation type are described using the Land Cover Classification System developed by the FAO. Moreover, the seasonality of each class is characterized on a monthly basis and the variation in different vegetation indicators is discussed from a phenological point of view. This mapping exercise delivers the first area estimates of seven different forest types, five different savannas characterized by specific seasonality behavior and two aquatic vegetation types. Finally, the result is compared to two recent land cover maps derived from

  11. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

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    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Madungu, Tumwaka P; Emina, Jacques B O; Nzita, Kikhela P D; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2011-04-25

    Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures.Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in provinces such as Bas-Congo that produce foods, childhood malnutrition is

  12. Clinical Spectrum, Etiology, and Outcome of Neurological Disorders in the Rural Hospital of Mosango, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Mukendi, Deby; Lilo Kalo, Jean-Roger; Mpanya, Alain; Minikulu, Luigi; Kayembe, Tharcisse; Lutumba, Pascal; Barbé, Barbara; Gillet, Philippe; Jacobs, Jan; Van Loen, Harry; Yansouni, Cédric P; Chappuis, François; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Verdonck, Kristien; Boelaert, Marleen; Winkler, Andrea S; Bottieau, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    There is little published information on the epidemiology of neurological disorders in rural Central Africa, although the burden is considered to be substantial. This study aimed to investigate the pattern, etiology, and outcome of neurological disorders in children > 5 years and adults admitted to the rural hospital of Mosango, province of Kwilu, Democratic Republic of Congo, with a focus on severe and treatable infections of the central nervous system (CNS). From September 2012 to January 2015, 351 consecutive patients hospitalized for recent and/or ongoing neurological disorder were prospectively evaluated by a neurologist, subjected to a set of reference diagnostic tests in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and followed-up for 3-6 months after discharge. No neuroimaging was available. Severe headache (199, 56.7%), gait/walking disorders (97, 27.6%), epileptic seizure (87, 24.8%), and focal neurological deficit (86, 24.5%) were the predominant presentations, often in combination. Infections of the CNS were documented in 63 (17.9%) patients and mainly included bacterial meningitis and unspecified meningoencephalitis (33, 9.4%), second-stage human African trypanosomiasis (10, 2.8%), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related neurological disorders (10, 2.8%). Other focal/systemic infections with neurological manifestations were diagnosed in an additional 60 (17.1%) cases. The leading noncommunicable conditions were epilepsy (61, 17.3%), psychiatric disorders (56, 16.0%), and cerebrovascular accident (23, 6.6%). Overall fatality rate was 8.2% (29/351), but up to 23.8% for CNS infections. Sequelae were observed in 76 (21.6%) patients. Clinical presentations and etiologies of neurological disorders were very diverse in this rural Central African setting and caused considerable mortality and morbidity.

  13. Demographics and care-seeking behaviors of sexual violence survivors in South Kivu province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Bartels, Susan A; Scott, Jennifer A; Leaning, Jennifer; Kelly, Jocelyn T; Joyce, Nina R; Mukwege, Denis; Vanrooyen, Michael J

    2012-12-01

    One of the most striking features of the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is the use of sexual violence. In spite of the brutality of these crimes, the experiences of women affected by sexual violence in Eastern DRC remain poorly characterized. This analysis aimed to (1) provide detailed demographics of sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital; (2) examine how demographic factors might impact patterns of sexual violence; and (3) describe care-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors. The demographics and care-seeking behavior of sexual violence survivors in South Kivu Province were described from a retrospective registry-based study of sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital (2004-2008). A total of 4311 records were reviewed. The mean age of survivors was 35 years. Most women (53%) were married, self-identified with the Bashi tribe (65%), and reported agriculture as their livelihood (74%). The mean time delay between sexual assault and seeking care was 10.4 months. Five reasons were identified to help explain the lengthy delays to seeking care: waiting for physical symptoms to develop or worsen before seeking medical attention, lack of means to access medical care, concerns that family would find out about the sexual assault, stigma surrounding sexual violence, and being abducted into sexual slavery for prolonged periods of time. Many sexual assault survivors have very delayed presentations to medical attention. Promoting timely access of medical care may best be facilitated by reducing stigma and by educating women about the benefits of early medical care, even in the absence of injuries or symptoms.

  14. Factors associated with behavioral problems and cognitive impairment in children with epilepsy of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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    Matonda-Ma-Nzuzi, Thierry; Mampunza Ma Miezi, Samuel; Mpembi, Magloire Nkosi; Mvumbi, Diane Muanza; Aloni, Michel Ntentani; Malendakana, Fanny; Mpaka Mbeya, Davin; Lelo, Gilbert Mananga; Charlier-Mikolajczak, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral problems and cognitive impairment are common in children with epilepsy (CWE). In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about these comorbidities particularly their relationships with socioeconomic features. The goal of this study was to identify clinical and socioeconomic factors associated with behavioral problems and cognitive impairment in CWE of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). This cross-sectional hospital-based study had included 104 CWE aged 6 to 17years. Behavioral problems were assessed by the child behavior checklist. The Wechsler nonverbal scale of ability was used to assess cognitive impairment. At least one behavioral problem was found in 34.6% of CWE. Internalized problems were increasing with father's age (p=0.034). Externalized problems were increasing with the decreased of mother's age (p=0.009) and with a previous antiepileptic treatment (p=0.032). Total behavioral problems were increasing with a previous antiepileptic treatment (p=0.029). Cognitive impairment was present in 73.3% of CWE. It was more common in boys (p=0.013), and it was increasing with a low household daily expenses (p=0.034), with a previous antiepileptic treatment (p=0.041), with an early onset of epileptic seizures (p=0.042), and with a high frequency of epileptic seizures (p=0.011). Behavioral problems and cognitive impairment are common in CWE. Multivariate analysis has shown that behavioral problems were associated with socioeconomic features only. Contrariwise, cognitive impairment was associated with both socioeconomic factors and clinical features. There is a need of more studies to improve knowledge of these comorbidities in the sub-Saharan Africa context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of different measles vaccination strategies for children in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Reena H; Eckhoff, Philip; Cheng, Alvan; Hoff, Nicole A; Mukadi, Patrick; Shidi, Calixte; Gerber, Sue; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Muyembe-Tafum, Jean-Jacques; Kominski, Gerald F; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-10-27

    One of the goals of the Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan is the reduction in global measles mortality, with high measles vaccination coverage as one of its core components. While measles mortality has been reduced more than 79%, the disease remains a major cause of childhood vaccine preventable disease burden globally. Measles immunization requires a two-dose schedule and only countries with strong, stable immunization programs can rely on routine services to deliver the second dose. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), weak health infrastructure and lack of provision of the second dose of measles vaccine necessitates the use of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to administer the second dose. We modeled three vaccination strategies using an age-structured SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered) model to simulate natural measles dynamics along with the effect of immunization. We compared the cost-effectiveness of two different strategies for the second dose of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV) to one dose of MCV through routine immunization services over a 15-year time period for a hypothetical birth cohort of 3 million children. Compared to strategy 1 (MCV1 only), strategy 2 (MCV2 by SIA) would prevent a total of 5,808,750 measles cases, 156,836 measles-related deaths and save U.S. $199 million. Compared to strategy 1, strategy 3 (MCV2 by RI) would prevent a total of 13,232,250 measles cases, 166,475 measles-related deaths and save U.S. $408 million. Vaccination recommendations should be tailored to each country, offering a framework where countries can adapt to local epidemiological and economical circumstances in the context of other health priorities. Our results reflect the synergistic effect of two doses of MCV and demonstrate that the most cost-effective approach to measles vaccination in DRC is to incorporate the second dose of MCV in the RI schedule provided that high enough coverage can be achieved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. National-scale estimation of gross forest aboveground carbon loss: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyukavina, A; Potapov, P V; Turubanova, S A; Hansen, M C; Stehman, S V; Baccini, A; Goetz, S J; Laporte, N T; Houghton, R A

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing enable the mapping and monitoring of carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where national forest inventories (NFI) are either non-existent or out of date. Here we demonstrate a method for estimating national-scale gross forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss and associated uncertainties using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Lidar data were used as a surrogate for NFI plot measurements to estimate carbon stocks and AGC loss based on forest type and activity data derived using time-series multispectral imagery. Specifically, DRC forest type and loss from the FACET (Forêts d’Afrique Centrale Evaluées par Télédétection) product, created using Landsat data, were related to carbon data derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Validation data for FACET forest area loss were created at a 30-m spatial resolution and compared to the 60-m spatial resolution FACET map. We produced two gross AGC loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000–2010): a map-scale estimate (53.3 ± 9.8 Tg C yr −1 ) accounting for whole-pixel classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a sub-grid estimate (72.1 ± 12.7 Tg C yr −1 ) that took into account 60-m cells that experienced partial forest loss. Our sub-grid forest cover and AGC loss estimates, which included smaller-scale forest disturbances, exceed published assessments. Results raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and validation, and subsequent impacts on remotely sensed carbon stock change estimation, particularly for smallholder dominated systems such as the DRC. (letter)

  17. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  18. Wealth and under-nourishment among married women in two impoverished nations: evidence from Burkina Faso and Congo Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Palamuleni, Martin Enoch; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby

    2015-02-08

    Burkina Faso (BF) and Congo Democratic Republic (CDR) are among the top-ten poverty and hunger stricken countries globally. The influence of poverty and hunger on health is enormous. The objectives of the study are to; examine the association between poverty and nutritional status, it also identified socio-demographic and health related mediating factors that contribute to the relationship between poverty and poor nutritional status. The study focused on married or cohabiting women aged 15-49 years and utilized 2010 and 2007 DHS dataset from BF and CDR respectively. Mean age of the women in BF and CDR were 34.4 ± 9.3 and 34.7 ± 9.0 years respectively. About 19.4% and 18.4% of the poor were malnourished as against 7.7% and 9.7% of the rich women in BF and CDR respectively. Obesity and overweight were more prominent among the rich than the poor. Higher prevalence of under-nourish women was found among the older than the younger women in BF. In the countries, the prevalence of malnutrition was significantly higher among women; in the rural areas, with no formal education, anaemic and those who are not working. Multivariate analysis revealed that in the countries, the risk of under-nourishment was significantly higher among poor and middle class than the rich women despite controlling for confounding variables. Undernourished women were more common among the poor and those with no formal education. Programs that target nutrition of women of reproductive age should be strengthened in BF and CDR.

  19. The Challenges of Research Informed Consent in Socio-Economically Vulnerable Populations: A Viewpoint From the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalabuanga, Marion; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Maketa, Vivi; Muhindo Mavoko, Hypolite; Fungula, Blaise; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    In medical research, the ethical principle of respect for persons is operationalized into the process of informed consent. The consent tools should be contextualized and adapted to the different socio-cultural environment, especially when research crosses the traditional boundaries and reaches poor communities. We look at the challenges experienced in the malaria Quinact trial, conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and describe some lessons learned, related to the definition of acceptable representative, the role of independent witness and the impact of socio-economic vulnerability. To ensure children's protection, consent is required by the parents or, in their absence, by a legally mandated representative. In our setting, children's responsibility is often entrusted permanently or temporarily to relatives or friends without a tribunal mandate. Hence, a notion of 'culturally acceptable representative' under supervision of the local Ethics Committee may be more suitable. To ensure protection of illiterate subjects, an independent witness is required to confirm that the consent was freely given. However, in low-literacy contexts, potential witnesses often don't have any previous relationship with patient and there may be power-unbalance in their relationship, rather than genuine dialogue. In poor communities, trial participation may be seen as an opportunity to secure access to healthcare. Poverty may also lead to 'competition' to access the research-related benefits, with a risk of disturbance at societal or household level. Adjusting consent procedures to sociocultural and socioeconomic realities is essential for fulfilling the underlying ethical principles. This requires a collaborative dialogue between researchers, regulators and ethics committees. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Health care seeking and financial behaviours of the elderly during wartime in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prosper Lutala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health and social services utilisation is seen to be more closely related to age than to other socio-demographic characteristics. Many health problems are known to increase with age and this demographic trend may lead to an increase in the absolute number of health conditions in this population. However, questions are still emerging as to how the elderly seek care in response to their needs in the context of a war-torn region. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the behaviour of the elderly in seeking care during a time of conflict. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the health district Goma, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, using a multistage sampling of 500 senior citizens. Eight trained field-workers were deployed in the field where they administered a structured questionnaire. Results: The public health sector was well known and preferred by 186 participants (37.2%, but only used by 16 (3.2% participants. Financial support received by the elderly came from their own relatives and fellow believers in 33.5% and 20.2% of cases, respectively. Almost 71% of monetary support is the result of begging and unknown sources – there is no government involvement whatsoever. Much of the external support that the elderly receive involves support in the form of food. Disease expenses remain a main concern of the elderly themselves. Conclusion: Government support for the elderly in the DRC is non-existent. There is an overuse of private sector and traditional medicine, despite the preference indicated for the public health sector. As a recommendation, a general increase in income-related activities could contribute to alleviating the health state of the elderly in a war situation. Further studies might explore in future the contribution of those results on the health of elders.

  1. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC: does geographic location matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzita Kikhela PD

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures. Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Results Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Conclusion Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in

  2. Taenia solium cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: how does pork trade affect the transmission of the parasite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Praet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite that is endemic in most developing countries where pork is consumed, is recognised as the main cause of acquired epilepsy in these regions. T. solium has been reported in almost all of the neighboring countries of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC but data on the current prevalence of the disease in the country itself are lacking. This study, focusing on porcine cysticercosis (CC, makes part of a first initiative to assess whether cysticercosis is indeed actually present in DRC. METHODS: An epidemiological study on porcine CC was conducted (1 on urban markets of Kinshasa where pork is sold and (2 in villages in Bas-Congo province where pigs are traditionally reared. Tongue inspection and ELISA for the detection of circulating antigen of the larval stage of T. solium were used to assess the prevalence of active CC in both study sites. FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of pigs with active cysticercosis did not significantly differ between the market and the village study sites (38.8 [CI 95%: 34-43] versus 41.2% [CI 95%: 33-49], respectively. However, tongue cysticercosis was only found in the village study site together with a significantly higher intensity of infection (detected by ELISA. INTERPRETATION: Pigs reared at village level are sold for consumption on Kinshasa markets, but it seems that highly infected animals are excluded at a certain level in the pig trade chain. Indeed, preliminary informal surveys on common practices conducted in parallel revealed that pig farmers and/or buyers select the low infected animals and exclude those who are positive by tongue inspection at village level. This study provides the only recent evidence of CC presence in DRC and gives the first estimates to fill an important gap on the African taeniasis/cysticercosis distribution map.

  3. Status and programme of development of the fast breeder reactor systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeunert, U.; Kessler, G.

    1977-01-01

    Owing to the dependence of the Federal Republic of Germany on imports of raw materials for energy purposes, special importance is given to nuclear energy for reasons of energy policy. Against the background of a nuclear power station capacity amounting to 24,000 MWe in 1976 (power stations being either on order, under construction or actually in operation), the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) has quite outstanding significance in this country where the economical utilization both of uranium and of the plutonium accumulating in light water reactors is concerned. Work in this sector started in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1960. Milestones on the path of development were the initial activities on the plutonium critical SNEAK at Karlsruhe, the successful operation of the KNK 20 MWe experimental reactor (sodium-cooling) with the KNK II (plutonium core) follow-up stage, the construction of the 300 MWe FBR prototype nuclear power station at Kalkar, as well as the initial planning work carried out in connection with a 1,300 MWe FBR demonstration nuclear power station. The provision of a viable infrastructure for safety assessment must go hand in hand with the development of new reactor systems. For this reason, prototype reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany are already subjected to the same strict licensing procedures under nuclear legislation as are commercial nuclear power stations. After several years' practical experience, it is becoming evident that this approach was the right one to take. Already early on, it was recognized in the Federal Republic of Germany that the execution of long-term technological major projects were increasingly exceeding the capacities of unaided development by single nations. The SNR 300 FBR prototype project combines the efforts of the governments, power supply companies, reactor manufacturers and nuclear research centres of the Federal Republic of Germany and of the Kingdoms of both Belgium and the Netherlands. The Agreement signed

  4. In-situ stress measurements - results of experiments performed at the ASSE salt mine - Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feddersen, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    High-level nuclear wastes are heat generating wastes. Heat will be transferred to the surrounding salt formation. This heating of the host rock will result in an increased temperature and in stress changes. From 1983 through 1985 two underground tests were conducted in the Asse Salt Mine (Federal Republic of Germany) in which, among others, thermally induced stress changes were investigated. These tests are discussed in this paper

  5. The bomb as option. Motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanel, Tilmann

    2015-01-01

    The book on the motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963 discusses the following issues: History of the German reactor development during the time of the National Socialism and World War II, reactor research abroad (examples Sweden and Switzerland), protagonists and motivation (politics, science, economy, army), the development of a nuclear infrastructure, results and consequences of the German nuclear policy until 1963.

  6. The Lives of Others: re-remembering the German Democratic Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Montgomerie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In the period since the popular uprising of 1989, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the re-unification of Germany, a range of representations of the GDR have emerged and gained popularity with audiences in the former GDR and the West. This article will investigate the ways in which three films, Good bye Lenin! (Becker, 2003, Germany , The Lives of Others  (von Donnersmarck,  2006, Germany and Mrs Ratcliffe’s Revolution (Eltringham, 2007, UK recall the East German past, invoking memories, or the sense of memory, through an articulation of the detail of the everyday lives of ordinary people. These films are immersed in the discursive practices associated with ‘Ostalgie’, a term coined to characterise the critical, often humorous nostalgia for the life and style of the former East.  The article will also explore the use of references to state coercion and surveillance which draws on a set of representational tropes and which continue the West’s Cold War representation of the paranoid and intrusively watchful state.

     

    Where are the differences between France and the Federal Republic of Germany in the final storage of radioactive waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1990-01-01

    Given similar points of departure in the two countries compared here, the differences in the goals of final storage do not seem to be too marked. The state is responsible and executes the projects by working through state organizations. The practical execution of theses tasks, however, is characterized by major discrepancies. While most of the radioactive waste in France is disposed of by shallow land burial, all radioactive waste in the Federal Republic from the outset had been planned for final storage in an underground repository. Different waste categories result from this difference between the two countries. Other differences can be found in the progress attained in final storage. In France, shallow land burial of waste has been practiced since 1969, while low level radioactive waste was disposed of by repository storage for only one decade in the Federal Republic of Germany; since then, there has only been intermediate storage. Both countries have decided in favor of deep geologic formations to be used for the final storage of high level radioactive waste. The Federal Republic has opted for salt, while France has not yet decided on the type of rock to be used. The main differences, however, are of a political, organizational and administrative nature. In France, nuclear power is accepted by all political parties and receives neutral treatment in most of the media. Neither is true of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  7. State and development of nuclear energy utilization in the Federal Republic of Germany 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredberg, Ines; Hutter, Johann; Kuehn, Kerstin; Philippczyk, Frank; Dose, Julia

    2013-11-15

    This report describes the use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany as of December 2012. It contains the essential data of all nuclear power plants, research reactors and the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. At the reporting moment 31{sup st} of December in 2012, nine nuclear power plants were still in operation. The power generation from nuclear energy in 2012 amounted to 99.5 TWh (2011: 108.0 TWh). That is a share of 16.1 % of the total gross electricity production (2011: 17.7 %). The report summarises the essential operational results of the nuclear power plants and information on granted licences. A short description of the present state of the nuclear power plants that have been shut down or decommissioned and of the stopped projects is given. Concerning research reactors essential data on type, characteristics (thermal power, thermal neutron flux) and purpose of the facility are represented. Furthermore, an overview of the licensing and operation history and the present state of the operating condition is given. For the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle data on purpose and capacity, the licensing history and the present state of operation and licensing are given. The current status of repository projects is presented. To give a survey, the data is summarised in tabular form in the report Annexes. The report will be updated and published once a year.

  8. Radioactive waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany: Industrial practices and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabener, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the production and use of nuclear-generated electricity expanded steadily despite the fact that opposition from the environmentalists led to the impression of an upcoming moratorium for nuclear energy. With this increase in capacity--by the year 1990, nearly 25 000 MW will be on the line--there will be an increase in the volume of low-level (non-heat-generating) radwaste originating from nuclear power plants. Radwaste management has been influenced to a considerable extent by the requirements of the final repository. Following a period of trial storage in the Asse repository, preparations are now being made for storage in the Konrad ore mine. It is intended to begin storage in 1991. Requirements for the packages specify containers with a volume from 3.9 to 10.9 m/sup 3/ or cast iron safety drums. These drums are suitable for radioactive materials in powder form (resins, dried concentrates) without the need for embedding materials. Storage in standard 55-gal drums is no longer permitted. The costs for final storage will be very high so that volume reduction is of prime importance. Kraftwerk Union (KWU) as a supplier of nuclear power plants (NPPs) examined the radwaste market and decided to combine delivery of radwaste treatment systems to NPPs with service jobs including radwaste handling and conditioning in its own service and maintenance plant at Karlstein

  9. Program status of the high temperature reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The status of the HTR development program in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1984 is characterized by the beginning of a transition phase from a national program to a commercial program. In the last 20 years the HTR technology program was strongly, nearly completely supported by the Federal Government and the State Government of North-Rhine-Westfalia. Funding of the program up to now exceeded 5 billion DM. Within this framework it was possible to establish competent-reactor-system companies, to enable industries to supply HTR- specific components including fuel elements and nuclear graphites, to maintain the strong engagement of the national centre KFA Juelich in general R and D activities, to build and operate the AVR-plant for more than 16 years, to erect the demonstration plant THTR-300 now approaching completion and to build and operate many efficient test facilities. Thereby the HTR technology development achieved a stage of maturity which is not only considered to be most advanced, but is also ready now for commerical deployment. The assessment report which comprised both the fast breeder and the HTR development included all major impacts, such as history, status, prospects, benefits, industrial aspects and international developments of the technology. The program description is facilitated by distinguishing the five major program elements: AVR, THTR-300, THTR follow-up plant, nuclear process heat program, fuel cycle activities

  10. Amount of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany - waste inquiry for the year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.

    1986-09-01

    On December 31, 1985, about 61 400 waste packages were stored in intermediate storage facilities. The unconditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 6 300 m 3 . The volume of the conditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 29 600 m 3 . Thereof the waste from nuclear research establishments made up about 11 200 m 3 , the waste from the operation of nuclear power plants about 9 900 m 3 and the waste from reprocessing of spent fuel elements about 5 800 m 3 . In addition the future amount of conditioned radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation was prognosticated. Due to this forecast an amount of about 227 600 m 3 of these wastes is expected in the year 2000. In 1985 a capacity of about 88 700 m 3 for the intermediate storage of radioactive wastes was available in the Federal Republic of Germany. On December 31, 1985, this capacity was utilized by unconditioned and conditioned radioactive wastes at an average of about 40%. It may be concluded from the data on the expected amount of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation and on the utilization factor of the intermediate storage facilities that no bottlenecks are to be assumed up to the planned operation of the Konrad repository. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Yield of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany - waste survey for the year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.

    1987-05-01

    On December 31, about 67600 waste packages were stored in interim storage facilities. The unconditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 6600 m 3 . The volume of the conditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 33900 m 3 . Thereof the waste from nuclear research establishments made up about 13300 m 3 , the waste from the operation of nuclear power plants about 10700 m 3 and the waste from reprocessing of spent fuel elements about 6700 m 3 . In addition the future amount of conditioned radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation was prognosticated. According to this forecast, the waste package volume will be approximately in the order of 218200 m 3 up to the year 2000. In 1986 a capacity of about 97500 m 3 for the interim storage of radioactive wastes was available in the Federal Republic of Germany. On December 31, 1986, this capacity was utilized by unconditioned and conditioned radioactive wastes at an average of about 38%. It may be concluded from the data on the expected amount of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation and on the utilization factor of the interim storage facilities that no bottlenecks are to be assumed up to the planned operation of the Konrad repository. (orig./RB) [de

  12. Present and future use of TRIGA reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, H.; Junker, D.; Krauss, O.

    1986-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany nine research reactors are presently in operation, three of which are TRIGA reactors. These are the TRIGA Mark I reactors at Hannover and Heidelberg with a steady state power of 250 kW and the TRIGA Mark II reactor at Mainz with a steady power of 100 kW and a peak pulsing power of 250 MW. The decommissioning of a number of research reactors, including the TRIGA Mark III reactor at Neuherberg near Munich, is reason enough to think about the present and future use of our reactors. The German TRIGA reactors met a lively interest of scientists, since they went into operation. Presently they are well used especially in biomedical (Hannover, Heidelberg) and basic research (Mainz). In the course of about 20 years of operation the techniques and requirements of experiments changed and consequently the use of the reactors too. Certainly this will be so in the future. But thanks to its versatile experimental facilities, this type of reactor can meet the various experimental demands. So we are looking forward to a good utilisation of our German TRIGA reactors in future and taking into account the low costs for personal, energy and fuel, we are quite confident that they will be in operation still for many years. (author)

  13. Road transport of LWR spent fuel in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, R.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1967, when fuel from LWRs was first transported by road from the Kahl reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany to the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, a total of more than 400 road transports have been performed without any adverse effect on the environment. In the beginning, road transport was the dominant mode. However, in recent years large capacity rail flasks with a weight ranging from 80 to 110 tonnes have been put into service in order to cope with the increasing demand of transport services and to replace existing smaller flasks designed primarily for road transport. Therefore, the number of spent fuel transports by road has declined. However, road transport of heavy flasks from reactor sites without a direct rail link to a nearby rail terminal has become an important task and a number of special problems have had to be solved. The following items are discussed, with special emphasis placed on heavy load transports by road from the reactor to a nearby rail terminal: design of road transport equipment to meet the requirements of the national traffic law; application of technical and administrative procedures to meet the IAEA Regulations; transport restrictions due to overload/oversize; transfer of the flask from the reactor to the transport vehicle; handling of the flask at the rail terminal; turn-around inspection and periodic maintenance of equipment to ensure safe performance of transport; and physical protection during transport and handling at rail terminals. (author). 4 figs

  14. The structure of the electricity market in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany can be subdivided into the three subareas of public electricity supply, industrial power generation, and electricity supply to the Federal Railways. The most important sector, public electricity supply, is organized in private companies. Its special characteristics are its decentralized, pluralistic structure. The public electricity supply sector is made up of approximately 1000 firms, half of which only have a market share of approx. 1%, however. 89% of the total deliveries of useful electricity come from the 91 largest companies; the 26 biggest firms are responsible for 64% of the total deliveries of useful electricity. In terms of electricity generation, the two largest firms contribute 43%, the 25 largest, 72%, and the 116 largest, 99%. The firms in the public electricity supply sector contributed well over 80% of the total electricity production in 1988 of approx. 425 billion kWh. Since its origins late in the past century, the public power industry has been arranged in a comprehensive network of agreements restricting competition. At the distribution level, for instance, the supply regions of the electricity utilities are divided up by agreements excluding competition, so-called demarcation agreements. (orig.) [de

  15. Status of Fast Breeder Reactor Development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hüper, R.

    1988-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: - Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) - Interatom, Bergisch Gladbach Alkem, Hanau - SCK/CEN, Mol - Belgonucleaire, Brussels - ECN, Petten - TNO, Apeldoorn - Neratoom, The Hague. The first three institutions mentioned above have been associated in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Schneller Brüter since 1977. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1987 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants, which is followed by an R&D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1987

  16. Report on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation activities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1986-01-01

    The overall situation in I and C of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany can be characterized by three aspects. a) The improvement of man-machine communication by introducing integral information concepts for the control room by means of VDUs. b) Along with a) new data acquisition systems based upon process computers which facilitate the integration of operator aids like alarm analyses, disturbance analyses, post-mortem analyses, etc. c) The penetration of programmable processors into limitation systems in order to provide soft setback measures. d) The transition to I and C systems making use of the new generation of electronic components. The most important step towards advanced control rooms was the development of the Process Information System (PRINS) by KWU, which will be used with the German convoi-plants. The main emphasis regarding further R and D work in the field of operator aids is placed upon expert systems. Work will begin with a two years project aiming at the development of a basic module for a laboratory prototype

  17. Federal Republic of Germany: Prospects for nuclear energy from 1972-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilger-Haunschild, H [Federal Ministry for Education and Science, Bonn (Germany)

    1972-07-01

    The number of nuclear power stations, both built and planned, in the Federal Republic of Germany, bears witness to what has been achieved so far. At present, nuclear power stations in operation generate a total of about 2000 MWe, while power stations with a total capacity for a further 10 000 MWe are under construction. The first export orders demonstrate the competitiveness of the German nuclear power industry -power stations are now being built by West German firms at Atucha in Argentina, Borselle in the Netherlands, and Zwentendorf in Austria. Because of parallel technological advances reached by the world's major industrialized nations, and the large funds necessary for further nuclear development, international cooperation is increasingly important. The federal Government therefore follows a policy of joint-development projects, particularly within a European framework. The SNR 300 fast breeder reactor, which is to be constructed with Belgium and the Netherlands, and the development of the gas centrifuge technique being carried out with the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, are excellent examples of this policy.

  18. Family and community rejection and a Congolese led mediation intervention to reintegrate rejected survivors of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Tosha, Maphie; Ramazani, Paul; Safari, Octave; Bachunguye, Richard; Zahiga, Isaya; Iragi, Aline; Glass, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in this study is to describe the multiple and inter-related health, economic, and social reasons for rejection and to provide an example of a Congolese-led family mediation program to reintegrate survivors into their families. We conducted this study in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and included two focus group discussions and twenty-seven interviews. Rejection extends beyond physical dislocation to include economic and social aspects. Family mediation is a process requiring knowledge of traditions and norms. Understanding the context of rejection and supporting promising local reintegration efforts will likely improve health, economic, and social outcomes for the survivor, her family, and her community.

  19. “But the forest does know it...” Persistence of omusitu in the BaNande culture and thought (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Remotti

    2016-01-01

    The BaNande, farmers of the hills of the North Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo), call themselves proudly abakondi, the young and strong men who cut down the trees, who destroy the forest. Almost their entire culture is based on the principle of the “cut” (eritwa), as well as their social and political organization is due to the historical achievement of their territory wrested from the forest. Even the erotic activity is designed with the typical categories of abakondi. But the traditi...

  1. Creators of private health care businesses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: profile and sources of start-up funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukonda, Ngoyi K Zacharie; Chand, Masud; Disashi, Tumba G

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Jury 2010 to explore the creation of private health care businesses in Mbuji Mayi, the capital city of the Eastern Kasai Province (EKP), Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The survey yielded 68 responses. The results indicated that the entrepreneurs were predominantly Congolese men with backgrounds in the health services field who had raised their start-up capital mostly from personal savings or from friends and family. Their businesses, which were mostly in the form of sole proprietorships, were likely to be located in areas underserved by government-owned medical facilities.

  2. Household determinants of bushmeat and eru (Gnetum africanum) harvesting for cash in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Peri-urban pressure on the Luki Biosphere Reserve in Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, is fuelled by growing demand in urban markets coupled with easy access. With data from 175 randomly selected households, this paper examines factors that motivate households to collect two major forest....... Greater market distance being a female-headed household and greater age of household heads negatively affected selection into eru collection, reflecting characteristics of cash harvesting activities. Low education and more local knowledge characterised more successful outcome of eru collection, whereas...... of these activities in providing a pathway out of poverty and stress the needs for better integration of conservation and development policies....

  3. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-03

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  4. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2014; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-03-10

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  5. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-08

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  6. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2017; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-03-12

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2017. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  7. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  8. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2013. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  9. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2014; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  10. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  11. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  12. Methods and practice in the evaluation of potential radiation exposure around nuclear installations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.; Franzen, L.F.; Handge, P.; Meurin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The estimation and evaluation of potential radiation exposure around nuclear installations resulting from airborne and aquatic releases of radioactivity has always been included in the Nuclear Authorization Procedures (atomrechtliches Genehmigungsverfahren) in the Federal Republic of Germany. Basic investigations have shown that first of all the radiological burden is expected via the pathway of external radiation exposure. Since about 1970 the pasture - cow - milk -pathway has been accorded an increased importance by introducing a corresponding dose rate guideline for the thyroid burden. With the rapid increase of energy production from nuclear power plants, a detailed analysis of the environmental radiological burden possibly brought about by these facilities was inserted into the Nuclear Authorization Procedures. In order to estimate in detail the consequences resulting from the release of radioactivity, nowadays the potential radiation exposure for a site is evaluated for exposures resulting from airborne discharges and for exposures resulting from aquatic discharges. Furthermore, some other pathways of exposure depending on local characteristics are taken into account. Particularly, extensive inquiry is needed concerning the deposition of radionuclides and the reconcentration by food chains. The choice of appropriate parameters often is difficult as site-specific values are not available. The determination of critical population groups and critical persons and their behavioral or dietary habits results in comparable difficulties. Therefore, a site-independent model for the evaluation of the potential radiological exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany was worked out and submitted to the nuclear regulatory commission. Moreover, some other groups - among others the Radiation Protection Commission (Strahlenschutzkommission) and the Federal Health Office (Bundesgesundheitsamt) - are investigating by theory and experiment ecological procedures and parameters

  13. Agreement of 27 February 1992 between the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a research reactor from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement of 27 February 1992 between the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a 15 MW (thermal) research reactor from the People's Republic of China. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1992

  14. Agreement of 27 February 1992 between the government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a research reactor from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The document informs that the Agreement between the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Supply of a Research Reactor from the People's Republic of China, which has been applied provisionally as from 27 February 1992, entered into force on 2 June 1992

  15. Status and development programme of the fast breeder reactor system in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeunert, U.; Kessler, G.

    1977-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany depends on imports of raw materials for energy purposes, and special importance is therefore given to nuclear energy for reasons of energy policy. Against the background of a nuclear power station capacity amounting to 24,000MW(e) in 1976 (power stations being either on order, under construction or actually in operation), the fast breeder reactor (FBR) is outstandingly significant in the Federal Republic for the economic use both of the uranium and the plutonium accumulating in light-water reactors (LWRs). Work in this sector started in the FRG in 1960. Important stages in development were: the initial activities on the plutonium critical SNEAK at Karlsruhe; successful operation of the KNK 20-MW(e) experimental reactor (sodium-cooled) with the KNK II (plutonium core) follow-up stage; costruction of the 300-MW(e) FBR prototype nuclear power station at Kalkar; and initial planning carried out for a 1300-MW(e) FBR demonstration nuclear power station. A viable infrastructure for safety assessment must go hand in hand with the development of new reactor systems. Prototype reactors in the FRG are therefore already subjected to the same strict licensing procedures under nuclear legislation as are commercial nuclear power stations. Several years' practical experience have shown that this was the right approach. It was recognized in the FRG early on that major long-term technological projects could no longer be implemented by unaided single nations. The SNR-300 FBR prototype project combines the efforts of the governments, power supply companies, reactor manufacturers and nuclear research centres of the FRG, Belgium and the Netherlands. The agreement signed in 1971 by the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG (FRG), Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica (Italy) and Electricite de France (France) power supply companies on the joint construction of the Super-Phenix and SNR-2 FBR demonstration nuclear power stations, and the German

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic [es

  17. Studies on sprout inhibition of onions by irradiation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, T.

    1978-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany imports about 97% of the onions for human consumption, especially from the Netherlands and from 7 other countries. The onions are distributed for sale immediately without long storage in storehouses. Therefore the objective of this study was not primarily to clear the irradiation and storage processing but to obtain better information about the quality of imported irradiated onions and about the parameters influencing the quality. Seven varieties cultivated in Germany with different physical and sensory properties were irradiated with 10MeV electrons at doses of 5 or 10krad and stored at temperatures of +4, +9, +10 or +20 0 C. The time between harvest and irradiation and the storage conditions for this time were also varied. In all periods physical, chemical and sensory properties of fresh and cooked bulbs were tested and statistically analysed during the storage periods of 8 to 10 months after harvest. It could be demonstrated that a dose of 5krad of 10MeV electrons was high enough to inhibit sprouting in all varieties, independent of the storage conditions, if the irradiation was applied within 4 weeks after harvest. If more time elapsed between harvest and irradiation, reduced sprout suppression was obtained. The sensory quality of the onion bulbs, irradiated and stored for 8 months, was evaluated as only 1 or 2 points lower than at the beginning of storage, when tested as cooked vegetables. The influence of the variety and storage conditions on the properties was more evident than the influence of irradiation, apart from sprouting. However, the browning in the growth centre of the irradiated onion bulbs could not be ignored. Varying the time between harvest and irradiation had no effect, and different storage conditions demonstrated only that lower storage temperatures delayed the browning but did not prevent it. This will probably not influence the marketability of the onions and would be compensated by lower prices for the

  18. Primates in peril: the significance of Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo for global primate conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermeier, Russell A.; Wich, Serge; Gouveia, Sidney; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Nijman, Vincent; Rylands, Anthony B.; Johnson, Steig; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Schwitzer, Christoph; Roos, Christian; Cheyne, Susan M.; Martins Kierulff, Maria Cecilia; Raharivololona, Brigitte; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Supriatna, Jatna; Boonratana, Ramesh; Wedana, Made; Setiawan, Arif

    2018-01-01

    Primates occur in 90 countries, but four—Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)—harbor 65% of the world’s primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservation, we examine the anthropogenic pressures each country is facing that place their primate populations at risk. Habitat loss and fragmentation are main threats to primates in Brazil, Madagascar, and Indonesia. However, in DRC hunting for the commercial bushmeat trade is the primary threat. Encroachment on primate habitats driven by local and global market demands for food and non-food commodities hunting, illegal trade, the proliferation of invasive species, and human and domestic-animal borne infectious diseases cause habitat loss, population declines, and extirpation. Modeling agricultural expansion in the 21st century for the four countries under a worst-case-scenario, showed a primate range contraction of 78% for Brazil, 72% for Indonesia, 62% for Madagascar, and 32% for DRC. These pressures unfold in the context of expanding human populations with low levels of development. Weak governance across these four countries may limit effective primate conservation planning. We examine landscape and local approaches to effective primate conservation policies and assess the distribution of protected areas and primates in each country. Primates in Brazil and Madagascar have 38% of their range inside protected areas, 17% in Indonesia and 14% in DRC, suggesting that the great majority of primate populations remain vulnerable. We list the key challenges faced by the four countries to avert primate extinctions now and in the future. In the short term, effective law enforcement to stop illegal hunting and illegal forest destruction is absolutely key. Long-term success can only be achieved by focusing local and global public

  19. Patterns of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: reports from survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the signing of international peace agreements, a deadly war continues in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and sexual violence is a prominent modus operandi of many military groups operating in the region. Methods Retrospective cohort study of women who presented to Panzi Hospital in 2006 requesting post-sexual violence care. Data was extracted and analyzed to describe the patterns of sexual violence. Results A total of 1,021 medical records were reviewed. A majority of attacks occurred in individual homes (56.5%), with the fields (18.4%) and the forest (14.3%) also being frequent locations of attack. In total, 58.9% of all attacks occurred at night. Of the four primary types of sexual violence, gang rape predominated (59.3%) and rape Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) was also common (21.5%). Sexual slavery was described by 4.9% of the survivors and a combination of gang rape and sexual slavery was described by 11.7%. The mean number of assailants per attack was 2.5 with a range of one to > 15. There were several demographic predictors for sexual slavery. Controlling for age, education level and occupation, a marital status of "single" increased the risk of sexual slavery (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.12-7.85). Similarly, after controlling for other variables, age was a significant predictor of sexual slavery with older women being at a slightly reduced risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99). Women who experienced sexual slavery were 37 times more likely to have a resultant pregnancy in comparison to those who reported other types of sexual violence (OR = 37.50, 95% CI = 14.57-99.33). Conclusions Among sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006, the majority of attacks occurred in women's own homes, often at night. This represents a pattern of violence that differs from other conflict settings and has important implications regarding protection strategies. Sexual violence in South Kivu was also marked with a predominance of gang rape

  20. Patterns of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: reports from survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipton Robert I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the signing of international peace agreements, a deadly war continues in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC and sexual violence is a prominent modus operandi of many military groups operating in the region. Methods Retrospective cohort study of women who presented to Panzi Hospital in 2006 requesting post-sexual violence care. Data was extracted and analyzed to describe the patterns of sexual violence. Results A total of 1,021 medical records were reviewed. A majority of attacks occurred in individual homes (56.5%, with the fields (18.4% and the forest (14.3% also being frequent locations of attack. In total, 58.9% of all attacks occurred at night. Of the four primary types of sexual violence, gang rape predominated (59.3% and rape Not Otherwise Specified (NOS was also common (21.5%. Sexual slavery was described by 4.9% of the survivors and a combination of gang rape and sexual slavery was described by 11.7%. The mean number of assailants per attack was 2.5 with a range of one to > 15. There were several demographic predictors for sexual slavery. Controlling for age, education level and occupation, a marital status of "single" increased the risk of sexual slavery (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.12-7.85. Similarly, after controlling for other variables, age was a significant predictor of sexual slavery with older women being at a slightly reduced risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99. Women who experienced sexual slavery were 37 times more likely to have a resultant pregnancy in comparison to those who reported other types of sexual violence (OR = 37.50, 95% CI = 14.57-99.33. Conclusions Among sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006, the majority of attacks occurred in women's own homes, often at night. This represents a pattern of violence that differs from other conflict settings and has important implications regarding protection strategies. Sexual violence in South Kivu was also marked with a

  1. Challenges of controlling sleeping sickness in areas of violent conflict: experience in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jacqueline; Valverde, Olaf; Mahoudeau, Claude; Yun, Oliver; Chappuis, François

    2011-05-26

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a fatal neglected tropical disease if left untreated. HAT primarily affects people living in rural sub-Saharan Africa, often in regions afflicted by violent conflict. Screening and treatment of HAT is complex and resource-intensive, and especially difficult in insecure, resource-constrained settings. The country with the highest endemicity of HAT is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which has a number of foci of high disease prevalence. We present here the challenges of carrying out HAT control programmes in general and in a conflict-affected region of DRC. We discuss the difficulties of measuring disease burden, medical care complexities, waning international support, and research and development barriers for HAT. In 2007, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) began screening for HAT in the Haut-Uélé and Bas-Uélé districts of Orientale Province in northeastern DRC, an area of high prevalence affected by armed conflict. Through early 2009, HAT prevalence rate of 3.4% was found, reaching 10% in some villages. More than 46,000 patients were screened and 1,570 treated for HAT during this time. In March 2009, two treatment centres were forced to close due to insecurity, disrupting patient treatment, follow-up, and transmission-control efforts. One project was reopened in December 2009 when the security situation improved, and another in late 2010 based on concerns that population displacement might reactivate historic foci. In all of 2010, 770 patients were treated at these sites, despite a limited geographical range of action for the mobile teams. In conflict settings where HAT is prevalent, targeted medical interventions are needed to provide care to the patients caught in these areas. Strategies of integrating care into existing health systems may be unfeasible since such infrastructure is often absent in resource-poor contexts. HAT care in conflict areas must balance logistical and medical capacity

  2. Social accountability for maternal health services in Muanda and Bolenge Health Zones, Democratic Republic of Congo: a situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuta, Eric M; Dieleman, Marjolein A; Hogema, Lisanne M; Khomba, Paul N; Zioko, François M; Kayembe, Patrick K; de Cock Buning, Tjard; Mambu, Thérèse N M

    2015-11-23

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo is one of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with the highest maternal mortality ratio estimated at 846 deaths per 100,000 live births. Innovative strategies such as social accountability are needed to improve both health service delivery and utilization. Indeed, social accountability is a form of citizen engagement defined as the 'extent and capability of citizens to hold politicians, policy makers and providers accountable and make them responsive to their needs.' This study explores existing social accountability mechanisms through which women's concerns are expressed and responded to by health providers in local settings. An exploratory study was conducted in two health zones with purposively sampled respondents including twenty-five women, five men, five health providers, two health zone officers and eleven community stakeholders. Data on women's voice and oversight and health providers' responsiveness were collected using semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. In the two health zones, women rarely voiced their concerns and expectations about health services. This reluctance was due to: the absence of procedures to express them, to the lack of knowledge thereof, fear of reprisals, of being misunderstood as well as factors such as age-related power, ethnicity backgrounds, and women's status. The means most often mentioned by women for expressing their concerns were as individuals rather than as a collective. They did not use them instead; instead they looked to intermediaries, mostly, trusted health providers, community health workers and local leaders. Their perceptions of health providers' responsiveness varied. For women, there were no mechanisms for oversight in place. Individual discontent with malpractice was not shown to health providers. In contrast, health providers mentioned community health workers, health committee, and community based organizations as formal oversight mechanisms. All

  3. Violence against civilians and access to health care in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: three cross-sectional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encinas Luis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The province of North Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo has been afflicted by conflict for over a decade. After months of relative calm, offences restarted in September 2008. We did an epidemiological study to document the impact of violence on the civilian population and orient pre-existing humanitarian aid. Methods In May 2009, we conducted three cross-sectional surveys among 200 000 resident and displaced people in North Kivu (Kabizo, Masisi, Kitchanga. The recall period covered an eight month period from the beginning of the most recent offensives to the survey date. Heads of households provided information on displacement, death, violence, theft, and access to fields and health care. Results Crude mortality rates (per 10 000 per day were below emergency thresholds: Kabizo 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.4, Masisi 0.5 (0.4-0.6, Kitchanga 0.7 (0.6-0.9. Violence was the reported cause in 39.7% (27/68 and 35.8% (33/92 of deaths in Masisi and Kitchanga, respectively. In Masisi 99.1% (897/905 and Kitchanga 50.4% (509/1020 of households reported at least one member subjected to violence. Displacement was reported by 39.0% of households (419/1075 in Kitchanga and 99.8% (903/905 in Masisi. Theft affected 87.7% (451/514 of households in Masisi and 57.4% (585/1019 in Kitchanga. Access to health care was good: 93.5% (359/384 of the sick in Kabizo, 81.7% (515/630 in Masisi, and 89.8% (651/725 in Kitchanga received care, of whom 83.0% (298/359, 87.5% (451/515, and 88.9% (579/651, respectively, did not pay. Conclusions Our results show the impact of the ongoing war on these civilian populations: one third of deaths were violent in two sites, individuals are frequently subjected to violence, and displacements and theft are common. While humanitarian aid may have had a positive impact on disease mortality and access to care, the population remains exposed to extremely high levels of violence.

  4. A qualitative analysis of psychosocial outcomes among women with sexual violence-related pregnancies in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer; Mullen, Colleen; Rouhani, Shada; Kuwert, Philipp; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Burkhardt, Gillian; Onyango, Monica; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Sexual violence is prevalent in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and has potentially devastating psychosocial consequences. Previous studies have reported on sexual violence and its impact on the mental health of survivors, but there are few studies conducted among women with sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs). Women with SVRPs may be at greater risk of complex psychosocial outcomes, including social stigmatization. This study aimed to describe psychosocial outcomes among this subgroup of sexual violence survivors in order to inform future interventions. A mixed methods study was conducted in Bukavu, DRC in 2012 among adult women who self-reported an SVRP and either (1) were currently raising a child from an SVRP (parenting group) or (2) had terminated an SVRP (termination group). This manuscript presents qualitative findings from the mixed methods study. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and a proportion engaged in semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted by trained female interviewers. Thematic content analysis was conducted and key themes were identified. In total, 55 women were interviewed, of whom 38 were in the parenting group and 17 in the termination group. Women with SVRPs experienced a myriad of emotional responses as they navigated their social environments following the SVRPs. Negative reactions, including social stigmatization and/or social rejection, toward women with SVRPs and toward children born from SVRPs were important influences on psychological well-being. Women expressed both internalized emotionality intertwined with externalized experiences in the social environment. Many women demonstrated resilience, or what could be termed post-traumatic growth, identifying avenues of agency to advance the social conditions for women. The findings from the qualitative study, and in particular, the respondents' needs and suggested strategies, may be useful to inform future research, programs, and

  5. Reduced perinatal mortality following enhanced training of birth attendants in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a time-dependent effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant. In these countries, the major causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, infection, and low-birth-weight/prematurity. Death from these causes is potentially modifiable using low-cost interventions, including neonatal resuscitation training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on perinatal mortality of training birth attendants in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC using two established programs. Methods This study, a secondary analysis of DRC-specific data collected during a multi-country study, was conducted in two phases. The effect of training using the WHO Essential Newborn Care (ENC program was evaluated using an active baseline design, followed by a cluster randomized trial of training using an adaptation of a neonatal resuscitation program (NRP. The perinatal mortality rates before ENC, after ENC training, and after randomization to additional NRP training or continued care were compared. In addition, the influence of time following resuscitation training was investigated by examining change in perinatal mortality during sequential three-month increments following ENC training. Results More than two-thirds of deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants and occurred in homes; these proportions decreased after ENC training. There was no apparent decline in perinatal mortality when the outcome of all deliveries prior to ENC training was compared to those after ENC but before NRP training. However, there was a gradual but significant decline in perinatal mortality during the year following ENC training (RR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96, which was independently associated with time following training. The decline was attributable to a decline in early neonatal mortality

  6. Reduced perinatal mortality following enhanced training of birth attendants in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a time-dependent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matendo, Richard; Engmann, Cyril; Ditekemena, John; Gado, Justin; Tshefu, Antoinette; Kinoshita, Rinko; McClure, Elizabeth M; Moore, Janet; Wallace, Dennis; Carlo, Waldemar A; Wright, Linda L; Bose, Carl

    2011-08-04

    In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant. In these countries, the major causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, infection, and low-birth-weight/prematurity. Death from these causes is potentially modifiable using low-cost interventions, including neonatal resuscitation training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on perinatal mortality of training birth attendants in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) using two established programs. This study, a secondary analysis of DRC-specific data collected during a multi-country study, was conducted in two phases. The effect of training using the WHO Essential Newborn Care (ENC) program was evaluated using an active baseline design, followed by a cluster randomized trial of training using an adaptation of a neonatal resuscitation program (NRP). The perinatal mortality rates before ENC, after ENC training, and after randomization to additional NRP training or continued care were compared. In addition, the influence of time following resuscitation training was investigated by examining change in perinatal mortality during sequential three-month increments following ENC training. More than two-thirds of deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants and occurred in homes; these proportions decreased after ENC training. There was no apparent decline in perinatal mortality when the outcome of all deliveries prior to ENC training was compared to those after ENC but before NRP training. However, there was a gradual but significant decline in perinatal mortality during the year following ENC training (RR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96), which was independently associated with time following training. The decline was attributable to a decline in early neonatal mortality. NRP training had no demonstrable effect on early

  7. Task shifting in the management of hypertension in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulebo, Aimée M; Kaba, Didine K; Atake, Silvestre E-H; Mapatano, Mala A; Mafuta, Eric M; Mampunza, Julien M; Coppieters, Yves

    2017-12-04

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is characterized by a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and a high proportion of uncontrolled HTN, which is indicative of poor HTN management. Effective management of HTN in the African region is challenging due to limited resources, particularly human resources for health. To address the shortage of health workers, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends task shifting for better disease management and treatment. Although task shifting from doctors to nurses is being implemented in the DRC, there are no studies, to the best of our knowledge, that document the association between task shifting and HTN control. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between task shifting and HTN control in Kinshasa, DRC. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Kinshasa from December 2015 to January 2016 in five general referral hospitals (GRHs) and nine health centers (HCs). A total of 260 hypertensive patients participated in the study. Sociodemographic, clinical, health care costs and perceived health care quality assessment data were collected using a structured questionnaire. To examine the association between task shifting and HTN control, we assessed differences between GRH and HC patients using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Almost half the patients were female (53.1%), patients' mean age was 59.5 ± 11.4 years. Over three-fourths of patients had uncontrolled HTN. There was no significant difference in the proportion of GRH and HC patients with uncontrolled HTN (76.2% vs 77.7%, p = 0.771). Uncontrolled HTN was associated with co-morbidity (OR = 10.3; 95% CI: 3.8-28.3) and the type of antihypertensive drug used (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.3-16.1). The mean healthcare costs in the GRHs were significantly higher than costs in the HCs (US$ 34.2 ± US$3.34 versus US$ 7.7 ± US$ 0.6, respectively). Uncontrolled HTN was not associated with the type of health facility. This finding suggests that the

  8. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013–14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallgeir Kismul

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. Methods This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013–14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Results Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother’s age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother’s BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother’s education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Conclusions Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address

  9. Primates in peril: the significance of Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo for global primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A; Mittermeier, Russell A; Wich, Serge; Gouveia, Sidney; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Nekaris, K A I; Nijman, Vincent; Rylands, Anthony B; Maisels, Fiona; Williamson, Elizabeth A; Bicca-Marques, Julio; Fuentes, Agustin; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Johnson, Steig; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Oliveira, Leonardo; Schwitzer, Christoph; Roos, Christian; Cheyne, Susan M; Martins Kierulff, Maria Cecilia; Raharivololona, Brigitte; Talebi, Mauricio; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Supriatna, Jatna; Boonratana, Ramesh; Wedana, Made; Setiawan, Arif

    2018-01-01

    Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservation, we examine the anthropogenic pressures each country is facing that place their primate populations at risk. Habitat loss and fragmentation are main threats to primates in Brazil, Madagascar, and Indonesia. However, in DRC hunting for the commercial bushmeat trade is the primary threat. Encroachment on primate habitats driven by local and global market demands for food and non-food commodities hunting, illegal trade, the proliferation of invasive species, and human and domestic-animal borne infectious diseases cause habitat loss, population declines, and extirpation. Modeling agricultural expansion in the 21st century for the four countries under a worst-case-scenario, showed a primate range contraction of 78% for Brazil, 72% for Indonesia, 62% for Madagascar, and 32% for DRC. These pressures unfold in the context of expanding human populations with low levels of development. Weak governance across these four countries may limit effective primate conservation planning. We examine landscape and local approaches to effective primate conservation policies and assess the distribution of protected areas and primates in each country. Primates in Brazil and Madagascar have 38% of their range inside protected areas, 17% in Indonesia and 14% in DRC, suggesting that the great majority of primate populations remain vulnerable. We list the key challenges faced by the four countries to avert primate extinctions now and in the future. In the short term, effective law enforcement to stop illegal hunting and illegal forest destruction is absolutely key. Long-term success can only be achieved by focusing local and global public

  10. Use of facility assessment data to improve reproductive health service delivery in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Aveledi Blandine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged exposure to war has severely impacted the provision of health services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Health infrastructure has been destroyed, health workers have fled and government support to health care services has been made difficult by ongoing conflict. Poor reproductive health (RH indicators illustrate the effect that the prolonged crisis in DRC has had on the on the reproductive health (RH of Congolese women. In 2007, with support from the RAISE Initiative, the International Rescue Committee (IRC and CARE conducted baseline assessments of public hospitals to evaluate their capacities to meet the RH needs of the local populations and to determine availability, utilization and quality of RH services including emergency obstetric care (EmOC and family planning (FP. Methods Data were collected from facility assessments at nine general referral hospitals in five provinces in the DRC during March, April and November 2007. Interviews, observation and clinical record review were used to assess the general infrastructure, EmOC and FP services provided, and the infection prevention environment in each of the facilities. Results None of the nine hospitals met the criteria for classification as an EmOC facility (either basic or comprehensive. Most facilities lacked any FP services. Shortage of trained staff, essential supplies and medicines and poor infection prevention practices were consistently documented. All facilities had poor systems for routine monitoring of RH services, especially with regard to EmOC. Conclusions Women's lives can be saved and their well-being improved with functioning RH services. As the DRC stabilizes, IRC and CARE in partnership with the local Ministry of Health and other service provision partners are improving RH services by: 1 providing necessary equipment and renovations to health facilities; 2 improving supply management systems; 3 providing comprehensive competency

  11. Availability and Quality of Family Planning Services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: High Potential for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpunga, Dieudonné; Lumbayi, J P; Dikamba, Nelly; Mwembo, Albert; Ali Mapatano, Mala; Wembodinga, Gilbert

    2017-06-27

    To determine the availability and quality of family planning services within health facilities throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Data were collected for the cross-sectional study from April 2014 to June 2014 by the Ministry of Public Health. A total of 1,568 health facilities that reported data to the National Health Information System were selected by multistage random sampling in the 11 provinces of the DRC existing at that time. Data were collected through interviews, document review, and direct observation. Two dependent variables were measured: availability of family planning services (consisting of a room for services, staff assigned to family planning, and evidence of client use of family planning) and quality of family planning services (assessed as "high" if the facility had at least 1 trained staff member, family planning service delivery guidelines, at least 3 types of methods, and a sphygmomanometer, or "low" if the facility did not meet any of these 4 criteria). Pearson's chi-square test and odds ratios (ORs) were used to test for significant associations, using the alpha significance level of .05. We successfully surveyed 1,555 facilities (99.2%) of those included in the sample. One in every 3 facilities (33%) offered family planning services as assessed by the index of availability, of which 20% met all 4 criteria for providing high-quality services. Availability was greatest at the highest level of the health system (hospitals) and decreased incrementally with each health system level, with disparities between provinces and urban and rural areas. Facilities in urban areas were more likely than in rural areas to meet the standard for high-quality services ( P facilities were less likely than private facilities to have high-quality services ( P =.02). Among all 1,555 facilities surveyed, 14% had at least 3 types of methods available at the time of the survey; the most widely available methods were male condoms, combined oral

  12. Improving hepatitis B birth dose in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic through the use of mobile phones to facilitate communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Datta, Siddhartha Sankar; Moturi, Edna; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Philakong, Phanmanisone; Vongxay, Viengnakhone; Vilayvone, Vansy; Patel, Minal K

    2016-11-11

    Hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) was introduced in Lao People's Democratic Republic to prevent perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in 2008; high coverage is challenging since only 38% of births occur in a health facility. Healthcare workers report being unaware of home births and thus unable to conduct timely postnatal care (PNC) home visits. A quasi-experimental pilot study was conducted wherein mobile phones and phone credits were provided to village health volunteers (VHV) and healthcare workers (HCWs) to assess whether this could improve HepB-BD administration, as well as birth notification and increase home visits. From April to September 2014, VHVs and HCWs in four selected intervention districts were trained, supervised, received outreach per diem for conducting home visits, and received mobile phones and phone credits. In three comparison districts, VHVs and HCWs were trained, supervised, and received outreach per diem for conducting home visits. A post-study survey compared HepB-BD coverage among children born during the study and children born one year before. HCWs and VHVs were interviewed about the study. Among intervention districts, 463 study children and 406 pre-study children were enrolled in the survey; in comparison districts, 347 study children and 309 pre-study children were enrolled. In both arms, there was a significant improvement in the proportion of children reportedly receiving a PNC home visit (intervention p<0.0001, comparison p=0.04). The median difference in village level HepB-BD coverage (study cohort minus pre-study cohort), was 57% (interquartile range [IQR] 32-88%, p<0.0001) in intervention districts, compared with 20% (IQR 0-50%, p<0.0001) in comparison districts. The improvement in the intervention districts was greater than in the comparison districts (p=0.0009). Our findings suggest that the provision of phones and phone credits might be one important factor for increasing coverage. However, reasons for improvement

  13. Factors associated with routine immunization coverage of children under one year old in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Yamamoto, Eiko; Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Louangpradith, Viengsakhone; Keohavong, Bounxou; Saw, Yu Mon; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2018-05-03

    Routine vaccination is administered free of charge to all children under one year old in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and the national goal is to achieve at least 95% coverage with all vaccines included in the national immunization program by 2025. In this study, factors related to the immunization system and characteristics of provinces and districts in Lao PDR were examined to evaluate the association with routine immunization coverage. Coverage rates for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis-Hepatitis B (DTP-HepB), DTP-HepB-Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), polio (OPV), and measles (MCV1) vaccines from 2002 to 2014 collected through regular reporting system, were used to identify the immunization coverage trends in Lao PDR. Correlation analysis was performed using immunization coverage, characteristics of provinces or districts (population, population density, and proportion of poor villages and high-risk villages), and factors related to immunization service (including the proportions of the following: villages served by health facility levels, vaccine session types, and presence of well-functioning cold chain equipment). To determine factors associated with low coverage, provinces were categorized based on 80% of DTP-HepB-Hib3 coverage (<80% = low group; ≥80% = high group). Coverages of BCG, DTP-HepB3, OPV3 and MCV1 increased gradually from 2007 to 2014 (82.2-88.3% in 2014). However, BCG coverage showed the least improvement from 2002 to 2014. The coverage of each vaccine correlated with the coverage of the other vaccines and DTP-HepB-Hib dropout rate in provinces as well as districts. The provinces with low immunization coverage were correlated with higher proportions of poor villages. Routine immunization coverage has been improving in the last 13 years, but the national goal is not yet reached in Lao PDR. The results of this study suggest that BCG coverage and poor villages should be targeted to improve

  14. Frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related road traffic accident (RTA) in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangana, Luzitu Severin; Monga, Ben; Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Mbelambela, Etongola Papy; Mbutshu, Lukuke Hendrick; Malonga, Kaj Francoise

    2016-09-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)-related trauma remains a public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related RTA in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the first semester of the year 2015 in which 288 drivers (144 RTA-causing drivers and 144 control drivers who have been declared not guilty by road safety agents) involved in 144 motor vehicle-related RTA were interviewed, and only data on all RTA involving two motor vehicles with at least four wheels were recorded and analyzed. Results showed a total of 144 RTA that involved two motor vehicles with four wheels occurring during the study period which affected 104 people, including 93 injury and 11 fatality cases. The mean age of RTA-causing drivers was 33.8 ± 7.4, whereas it was 35 ± 8.8 for control drivers. The majority of RTA-causing drivers (53.4 %) did not attend a driving school. Over speeding (32 %), distracted driving (22 %), overtaking (16 %) and careless driving/risky maneuver (15 %) and driving under the influence of alcohol (9 %) were the main causes of RTA occurrence. In addition, the absence of a valid driving license [aOR = 12.74 (±2.71); 95 % CI 3.877-41.916; p = 0.015], unfastened seat belt for the RTA-causing driver [aOR = 1.85 (±0.62); 95 % CI 1.306-6.661; p = 0.048] and presence of damages on RTA-causing vehicle [aOR = 33.56 (24.01); 95 % CI 1.429-78.352; p = 0.029] were associated with the occurrence of RTA-related fatality. This study showed a relatively high frequency of RTA occurring in Lubumbashi and suggests the necessity to reinforce road traffic regulation.

  15. Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Isiro, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012: Signs and Symptoms, Management and Outcomes.

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    Thomas Kratz

    Full Text Available Data collected during the 2012 Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo were analysed for clinical signs, symptoms and case fatality of EVD caused by Bundibugyo virus (BDBV, establishment of differential diagnoses, description of medical treatment and evaluation of the quality of clinical documentation. In a quantitative observational prospective study, global epidemiological data from 52 patients (34 patients within the community, 18 patients treated in the Ebola Treatment Centre were entered anonymously into a database, subsequently matched and analysed. Relevant findings include an over-representation of females among community EVD cases (85.3% and of community EVD cases in the age group of 15-54 years (82.4%. All ETC patients had fever (55.6% of all 18 ETC patients during their hospital stay or self-reported fever (88.2% upon admission at some point of time during their illness. Major symptoms of ETC patients during hospital stay included asthenia (82.4%, anorexia (82.4%, myalgia (70.6%, sore throat/difficulty swallowing (70.6%, arthralgia (76.5% and nausea (70.6%. Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms (nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting (76.4% as well as general pain (94.1% were frequent in ETC patients. The median duration of EVD was 18 days, while the mean incubation period was 11.3 days. Differential diagnosis of EVD included malaria (28.3%, intestinal parasitosis (10.9%, and infectious syndrome (10.9%. There was also an important variation in clinical evolvement. Quality of documentation was adversely affected by the way patient file contents were transferred from inside to outside the high-risk zone, entailing a mean mismatch value of 27.3% between patient file contents inside vs. outside the high-risk zone. This study adds further description of EVD (frequently non-specific signs and symptoms, non frequent bleeding, a long incubation period, long duration of disease and emphasizes the need for improving

  16. Challenges of controlling sleeping sickness in areas of violent conflict: experience in the Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Yun Oliver

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, or sleeping sickness, is a fatal neglected tropical disease if left untreated. HAT primarily affects people living in rural sub-Saharan Africa, often in regions afflicted by violent conflict. Screening and treatment of HAT is complex and resource-intensive, and especially difficult in insecure, resource-constrained settings. The country with the highest endemicity of HAT is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, which has a number of foci of high disease prevalence. We present here the challenges of carrying out HAT control programmes in general and in a conflict-affected region of DRC. We discuss the difficulties of measuring disease burden, medical care complexities, waning international support, and research and development barriers for HAT. Discussion In 2007, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF began screening for HAT in the Haut-Uélé and Bas-Uélé districts of Orientale Province in northeastern DRC, an area of high prevalence affected by armed conflict. Through early 2009, HAT prevalence rate of 3.4% was found, reaching 10% in some villages. More than 46,000 patients were screened and 1,570 treated for HAT during this time. In March 2009, two treatment centres were forced to close due to insecurity, disrupting patient treatment, follow-up, and transmission-control efforts. One project was reopened in December 2009 when the security situation improved, and another in late 2010 based on concerns that population displacement might reactivate historic foci. In all of 2010, 770 patients were treated at these sites, despite a limited geographical range of action for the mobile teams. Summary In conflict settings where HAT is prevalent, targeted medical interventions are needed to provide care to the patients caught in these areas. Strategies of integrating care into existing health systems may be unfeasible since such infrastructure is often absent in resource-poor contexts. HAT care in

  17. Amount of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany - waste survey for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.

    1989-06-01

    On December 31, 1988, about 69 800 waste packages - about 40 700 m 3 - were stored in interim storage facilities. The unconditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 11 700 m 3 . The volume of the conditioned radioactive wastes amounted to about 40 700 m 3 . Of this, the waste from nuclear research centres made up about 16 300 m 3 , the waste from the operation of nuclear power plants about 12 900 m 3 and that from the reprocessing of spent fuel elements about 8 300 m 3 . A prognosis was also made of the future amount of conditioned radioactive wastes. According to this forecast, the cumulated waste package volume of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation will be approximately in the order of 173 400 m 3 up to the year 2000, whereas for heat-generating radioactive wastes a volume of about 5 800 m 3 is estimated. These figures already express the waste volume reduction according to modern conditioning techniques. In 1988 a capacity of about 123 800 m 3 for the interim storage of radioactive wastes was available in the Federal Republic of Germany. On December 31, 1988, an average of about 37% of this capacity was utilized by unconditioned and conditioned radioactive wastes. From the data on the expected amount of radioactive wastes and on the utilization factor of the interim storage facilities, it may be concluded that, taking an overall view, no bottlenecks in the interim storage of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation are to be anticipated up to the planned operation of the Konrad repository in 1994. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Materials and welding process development for nuclear application in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Stoppler, W.; Sinz, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of Basis Safety was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in order to achieve exclusion of catastrophic failure of pressure boundary components in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). This concept provides redundant safeties both for long-term service as well as for an accident by improving toughness properties of the base material (BM), heat-affected zone (HAZ) and deposited metal (DM) of components with relevance safety. With the help of the welding simulation technique, the toughness properties in the HAZ was investigated as a function of stress-relief temperature. Submerged-arc welding (SAW) on heavy section components were investigated during and after welding. This helped to delineate boundary conditions for a computer code for the design and optimization of a joint and its HAZ. The advantage of the narrow gap technique is the extremely low amount of sensitive coarse grained zones. Processing tough filler materials with optimum weld parameters will provide excellent material properties at an elevated strength level in shape-welded heavy section components. The martensitic steel X 20 CrMoV 12 has an excellent weldability of the BM (HAZ without problems), but it has not been possible up to now, to achieve equal properties for the deposited material. This is also the case for martensitic welding. As far as austenitic steels are concerned the sulfur content had also to be lowered. Sufficient toughness had to be proved also in the case of impact loading for austenitic welded joints subsequent to thermal aging. Susceptibility to corrosion of individual austenitic materials and material conditions was investigated and remedies elaborated. 33 figures, 7 tables

  19. Factors Affecting the Number of Visitors in National Parks in the Czech Republic, Germany and Austria

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    Josef Stemberk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of national-level strategies, the importance of tourism in national parks is on the rise. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the number of visitors to national parks and five variables: area, number of employees, budget, average employee salary and number of researchers in 12 national parks in the Czech Republic, Germany and Austria. Analysis of factors influencing the number of visitors to national parks uses the method of retrospective analysis of the data contained in internal documents and questionnaires among managers of national parks. The number of candidate predictors is relatively high when compared with the number of observations. Due to this fact, the Gilmour method for statistical analysis is used. Statistical results represented by the parameter β2 for number of employees is −33,016 (95% CI, −50,592–−15,441 and by the parameter β3 for budget is 0.586 (95% CI, 0.295–0.878, showing that the number of visitors increases with budget, while it decreases with the number of employees. The results of this study are a useful starting point for managers in their efforts to focus on developing key areas in an appropriate way. In conclusion, results show that increasing the economic benefits accruing from national parks regional policy could aim at a qualitative upgrading of tourist services, increased marketing of the unique national park label and the promotion of a diverse regional supply base.

  20. Planning and development of nuclear power programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunschild, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the peaceful utilization of nuclear science and technology in the Federal Republic of Germany started in 1955. It concentrated on the development of nuclear energy with its important potential for energy supply, in order to cover the growing energy demand of the recovering economy, and on the application of nuclear radiation and radioactive isotopes in various areas of science and technology such as biology, medicine, chemistry, physics, materials research and development. From the beginning, the nuclear energy programme was a joint undertaking of government, industry and science. To achieve the necessary impetus and to supplement the activities of industry and universities, several nuclear research centres, in particular at Juelich and Karlsruhe, were founded. This comprehensive approach was the basis for the following rapid development of nuclear technology, as well as for its competitive structure and its safety record. With regard to nuclear energy utilization for electricity generation, heat supply, and ship propulsion a broad range of reactor concepts such as light- and heavy-water reactors, high-temperature reactors, and fast-breeder reactors was examined. Today, nuclear energy meets about 17% of the country's electricity demand. Fifteen nuclear power plants with a capacity of about 10,000 MW(e) are in operation; 11 plants with a total capacity of about 12,000 MW(e) are under construction, and the construction of another 10 plants is definitely planned. Activities in uranium enrichment, fuel element fabrication, and reprocessing have reached the industrial stage. The paper indicates possible future trends of the nuclear programme. The successful development of a national nuclear energy programme goes in parallel with broad international co-operation. Therefore the efforts to re-establish a stable system for co-operation in nuclear commerce and technology, based on international safeguards, should be strengthened

  1. Types and treatment of sewage sludges: Practice in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasaran, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The sludge that is formed by the various processes in the sewage treatment plant consists mainly of water with a small amount of organic and inorganic suspended solids. It contains pathogenic agents and biological inhibitors, and must be prepared and brought into a form where it is less dangerous to the environment. The de-watering of the sludge is the first step in sludge handling. The solids content of the raw sludge, which is usually between 5 and 10%, can be increased by gravity thickening to 15%, by centrifuging or straining-band-pressing up to 30%, and by pressure-filtration up to 40%. The process of drying enables a substance with almost no moisture to be obtained. Generally the sludge will be either mixed before de-watering with coagulation agencies, or preheated, or its colloidal components biochemically oxidized in order to accelerate the withdrawal of the water. One of the most common methods of disposal is the transport of sludge to a land filling, usually together with the solid refuse of the community. For this purpose the moisture content of the sludge should not be more than 60 to 70 percent. The disposal of sludge into the sea can be practised in coastal towns, but the ecological effects of this kind of sludge removal are still disputed. More expedient is the agricultural utilization of sludge, particularly if the sludge is composted together with a carbon carrier such as city refuse which would make it a very suitable soil improver. In the Federal Republic of Germany the wet oxidation of sludge is applied in a few cases. The most common process is anaerobic alkaline digestion. The incineration of sludge is more economical than drying, but still too, expensive in comparison with other approved processes. (author)

  2. The nuclear licensing and supervisory procedures for nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1982-02-01

    A combined system has been developed in the Federal Republic of Germany: the States execute the Atomic Energy Act on behalf of the Federal Government. Despite these differences, the safety requirements and the safety standard achieved vary only insignificantly, as a result of a world-wide communication and of international cooperation. The legal prerequesites for the German nuclear licensing procedures have been established about 20 years ago, and, by a number of amendments have been adapted to new perceptions and developments. Several supplementary ordinances, due to further developments in nuclear technology, are being prepared. The work on associated technical provision, which had been neglected for a long time, has in recent years been tackled systematically and should, before long, lead to a comprehensive programme of safety standards, which simplifies and expedites the nuclear licensing procedures. Essential features of the licensing procedure are the phased structure and the division into intermediate steps which render it possible to adapt the safety requirements to the advancing state of science and technology. The responsible authorities call in experts for the safety verification of the application documents. It is the task of these experts to make assessments and to conduct quality examinations in the manufacturing plants and at the site, and to carry out recurrent tests. The public is involved by the announcement of the projects, the display of the documents and by the opportunity to raise objections during the licensing procedure. Licenses granted can be contested before the administrative courts. This procedure paves the way for the achievement of a satisfactory balance between private and public interests. (orig./HP)

  3. ATTITUDES OF SHOP FLOOR EMPLOYEES TOWARD WOMEN MANAGERS IN FUEL DEPOTS: A CASE OF THE FUEL DEPOTS IN LUBUMBASHI, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N. M. Nzuve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Labour Organization and all organizations of human rights advocate against any form of negative attitude in employment based on gender, its terms, promotion and relations. Shop floor employees play a very important role in the daily advancement and profitability of an organisation. The purpose of this study was to establish the attitude of shop floor employees toward women managers in fuel depots in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with the population consisting of one hundred and ninety three (193 shop floor employees. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. In total one hundred and twenty one (121 shop floor employees responded yielding a response rate of sixty three percent (63%. The findings of this study indicate that a negative attitude toward woman managers is prevalent in the Fuel Depots of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the fuel depots, the number of women working was less than a third of the males. In spite of this, women managers are rated higher in management qualities and are considered to be more honest, diligent, compassionate, creative and intelligent when compared to their male counterparts. The study recommends a culture change among employees in fuel depots in Lubumbashi in order to enable them perceive women as equal partners at the work place.

  4. Nuclear energy in a densely populated and built-up country such as the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnenberg, H.; Eschhaus, M.; Hensel, W.; Kayser, J.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear energy is absolutely necessary for the Federal Republic of Germany. By 1995, 75% of the energy used in that country for electricity production will be nuclear, which means an installed nuclear power of approximately 100 000 MW with all its nuclear infrastructure such as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste disposal and transport of a great deal of radioactive material between these services. Many sites are needed for these activities, including transport, which is, in fact, comprised of moving sites on special lines. Risk analysis is also needed for all this, the basis of which is the use of land in the western part of the country by population and industry. The Federal Republic of Germany is one of the most densely populated and built-up areas in the world. A computer program with a voluminous information system which stores all the relevant land-use data was written. A simulation program was also written to analyse the required regional capacity for transport of nuclear material in respect of different sites for power plants, reprocessing plants and waste disposal. This simulation program makes optimization with variable criteria. All the railway lines which can be used for heavy transport are stored in the computer as well as the traffic routes and rivers. The computer calculations show that, especially for selection of sites for reprocessing plants, the minimization of transport should be an important criterion in an intensely used country like the Federal Republic of Germany. The country will be forced to undertake detailed regional planning for the introduction of nuclear energy to achieve minimum risk to the population and minimum risk to the introduction itself. (author)

  5. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbel Raimund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29

  6. Cs-137 in roe-deer and other game species in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1986-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, U.

    1993-01-01

    The radiocesium contamination of several game species of the Federal Republic in Germany was studied between 1986 - 1987. There were large variations in Cs-137 activity concentration in game meat, depending on it's origin: the minimum measured value was 2 Bq.kg -1 , the maximum was 5400 Bq.kg -1 . The cesium-contamination of roe-deer, which is a good bioindicator, decreases significantly (P -1 , at the investigation site Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) there were 75 of 600 (13%). (orig.) [de

  7. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: United States/Federal Republic of Germany nuclear licensing comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In order to compare US and FRG Nuclear Licensing, a summary description of United States Nuclear Licensing is provided as a basis. This is followed by detailed information on the participants in the Nuclear Licensing process in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). FRG licensing procedures are described and the rules and regulations imposed are summarized. The status of gas reactor licensing in both the U.S. and the FRG is outlined and overall conclusions are drawn as to the major licensing differences. An appendix describes the most important technical differences between US and FRG criteria

  8. Evaluation of operating experience: The precursor study (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) are systematic and quantitative predictions of possible accident scenarios at technical installations on the basis of data gained from the past experience on similar technical installations. For supporting PSAs by operational experience as far as possible Precursor studies are performed. An Accident Sequence Precursor is defined as an observed event which could results, in coincidence with additional postulated events, in a potential severe core damage accident. In the presented case study the procedure of such Precursor studies is explained. Particularly, the methodology and the results of the plant-specific Precursor (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany are shown in detail. 26 refs, 13 figs, 8 tabs

  9. Evaluation of operating experience: The precursor study (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) are systematic and quantitative predictions of possible accident scenarios at technical installations on the basis of data gained from the past experience on similar technical installations. For supporting PSAs by operational experience as far as possible Precursor studies are performed. An Accident Sequence Precursor is defined as an observed event which could results, in coincidence with additional postulated events, in a potential severe core damage accident. In the presented case study the procedure of such Precursor studies is explained. Particularly, the methodology and the results of the plant-specific Precursor (GPS) performed in the Federal Republic of Germany are shown in detail. 26 refs, 13 figs, 8 tabs.

  10. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands - January 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (DeBeNe) agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about dose cooperation in the fast breeder field. The results of activities carried out by DeBeNe partners in 1985 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by the R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1985

  11. People’s Republic of China and Federal Republic of Germany in current international relations in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Tsvyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of the current Sino-German relations in the context of world politics and dynamics of international relations as exemplified by the Central Asia region. Basic problems and prospects for cooperation between China and Germany in this region, as well as possible ways of cooperation of the SCO and the EU are under consideration.

  12. The Text of the Agreement of 20 July 1977 between the Agency and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for the Application of Safeguards in Respect of a Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-11-14

    The text of the Agreement of 20 July 1977 between the Agency and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for the application of safeguards in respect of a research reactor facility is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 23, on 20 July 1977.

  13. The Text of the Agreement of 20 July 1977 between the Agency and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for the Application of Safeguards in Respect of a Research Reactor Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 20 July 1977 between the Agency and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for the application of safeguards in respect of a research reactor facility is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 23, on 20 July 1977

  14. Note by the IAEA Secretariat in connection with the statement of 11 October 1993 by the Minister of Atomic Energy of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (INFCIRC/422)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The attached Note by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in connection with the statement of 11 October 1993 by the Minister of Atomic Energy of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (INFCIRC/442) is being circulated for the information of Member States

  15. Understanding the local context and its possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives for maternal health services in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo : a contextual factor analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafuta, E.M.; Hogema, L.M.; Mambu, T.N.M.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Dieleman, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social accountability has to be configured according to the context in which it operates. This paper aimed to identify local contextual factors in two health zones in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and discuss their possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social

  16. Selection of Potential Therapeutic Bacteriophages that Lyse a CTX-M-15 Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Strain from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elene Kakabadze

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a Salmonella Typhi isolate producing CTX-M-15 extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility was isolated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We have selected bacteriophages that show strong lytic activity against this isolate and have potential for phage-based treatment of S. Typhi, and Salmonella in general.

  17. [Is the structure of surgical clinics in Germany changing? A current investigation into the structure of surgical clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, G; Lob, T; Bauer, H; Niethard, F; Polonius, J; Siebert, H

    2009-04-01

    Medical developments have led to extensive specialization in the field of surgery. This has already been reflected for many years in altered structure and organization forms of surgical clinics. Indispensable quality standards, statutory general conditions, increasing competition in service providers and health insurance with transparency of the service procedure all intensify this trend. The aim of this investigation was, therefore, to determine how far this differentiation of service supply in the field of surgery is also reflected in the area and in surgical departments and clinics of basic and routine supply. To achieve this, all available published information on the structure and organization of surgical clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany was classified according to current departmentalization into "undivided" or general/visceral surgery facilities compared to orthopedic/trauma surgery departments.

  18. Federal Republic of Germany R and D programme: A special issue of the journal radioactive waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines the issues of radioactive waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany. Topics considered include the challenges of waste handling and disposal, the borosilicate glass for Pamela, the treatment and conditioning of transuranelement bearing wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany, conditioning of low and intermediate level wastes, volume reduction of low level solid radioactive waste by incineration and compaction in the Federal Republic of Germany, MAW test emplacement in boreholes, treatment and disposal of special radioactive wastes comprising tritium, carbon 14, krypton 85 and iodine 129, and the German Project: ''Safety Studies for Nuclear Waste Management: Development of Safety Assessment Methodology for Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste in a Salt Dome

  19. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  20. Strontium measurement results from the Federal Republic of Germany and from Switzerland after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, A.; Goll, L.; Voelkle, H.; Winter, M.

    1987-10-01

    The Working Group Environmental Monitoring (AKU) of Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. (Radiation Protection Association) performed an inquiry about the time after the Chernobyl reactor accident concerning the results of strontium-90 measurements carried out for the territories of the Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland. The data suppliers listed in the report furnished to AKU results of Sr-90 measurements made on approximately 1000 samples in total. The individual measuring results have been entered into separate tables in a uniform representation. The tables also include the results of Sr-89-measurements as well as the Cs-137/Sr-90 ratios as far as they were available. The results of measurements presented here taken together prove that contamination with Sr-90 of the environmental media including food as a result of the Chernobyl fallout were only low in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Switzerland compared with the contamination due to the nuclides I-/131 and Cs-137. The same applies to the amount of Sr-90 transferred into the soil as compared with the level of existing contamination due to nuclear weapons fallout which has accumulated since the 60ies. (orig.) [de

  1. The African State and the role and nature of non-state sources of security in the Democratic Republic of Congo and South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    use of violence as being the domain of the modern state, which as a natural consequence, delegitimises non-state providers of security. Legitimacy is, therefore, tied to the formal state. Th e international debate concerning the role of PMSCs has been split primarily into two segments. One argues...... to control confl icts has led to low-intensity confl icts (LIC), which can be witnessed, for instance, in Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Colombia and Sri Lanka (O’Brien, 1998, p. 80). Since the end of the Cold War it has been common for weak state rulers with formal state legitimacy...... security contractors have led, both historically and at the present day, to fi erce academic and public debate. As Sarah Percy argues, the anti-mercenary discourse has two basic elements. One focuses on the fact that mercenaries use force outside what is considered to be legitimate, authoritative control...

  2. The Influence of Individual and Contextual Socioeconomic Status on Obstetric Care Utilization in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Population-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Aremu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal health care utilization continues to focus on the agenda of health care planners around the world, with high attention being paid to the developing countries. The devastating effect of maternal death at birth on the affected families is untold. This study examines the utilization of obstetric care in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: We have used the nationally representative data from the 2007. Democratic Republic of Congo Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel regression analysis has been applied to a nationally representative sample of 6,695 women, clustered around 299 communities in the country. Results: The results show that there are variations in the use of antenatal care and delivery care. Individual-level characteristics, such as women′s occupation and household wealth status are shown to be associated with the use of antenatal care. Uptake of facility-based delivery has been seen to be dependent on the household wealth status, women′s education, and partner′s education. The effect of the neighborhoods′ socioeconomic disadvantage on the use of antenatal care and facility-based delivery are the same. Women from highly socioeconomically disadvantaged communities, compared to their counterparts from less socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, are less likely to utilize both the antenatal services and healthcare facility for child delivery. The result of this study has shown that both individual and contextual socioeconomic status play an important role in obstetric care uptake. Conclusion: Thus, intervention aimed at improving the utilization of obstetrics care should target both the individual economic abilities of the women and that of their environment when considering the demand side.

  3. The Quality of Medicines Used in Children and Supplied by Private Pharmaceutical Wholesalers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: A Prospective Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavetti, Benedetta; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Mbinze, Geremie J; Kalenda, Nicodème; Marini, Roland; Melotte, Vera; Hasker, Epco; Meessen, Bruno; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Van der Elst, Josiane; Mutolo Ngeleka, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Poor-quality medicines are a threat to public health in many low- and middle-income countries, and prospective surveys are needed to inform corrective actions. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey on a sample of products used for children and available in the private market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic Congo: amoxicillin (AX) and artemether/lumefantrine (AL), powders for suspension, and paracetamol (PC) tablets 500 mg. Overall, 417 products were covertly purchased from 61 wholesalers. To obtain a representative sample, the products were weighted on their market shares and a subset of 239 samples was randomly extracted to undergo in-depth visual inspection locally, and they were chemically assessed at two accredited laboratories in Belgium. Samples were defined of "poor-quality" if they failed to comply with at least one specification of the International Pharmacopoeia (for AL) or United States Pharmacopoeia 37 (for AX and PC). Results are reported according to the Medicine Quality Assessment Reporting Guideline. The visual inspection detected nonconformities in the aspects of antimalarial powders for suspension, and poor-quality labels across all medicine types. According to chemical analysis, 27.2% samples were of poor quality and 59.5% of AL samples were underdosed in artemether. Poor quality was more frequent for locally manufactured antimalarials (83.3%, P = 0.021; 86.4%, P = 0.022) and PC (4.8%, P = 0.000). The poor quality of the surveyed products may decrease the treatment's efficacy and favor the development of resistances to antimalarials. It is hoped that these findings may guide the corrective actions of the Democratic Republic of Congo Regulatory Authority, which was the main partner in the research.

  4. Effects of a community scorecard on improving the local health system in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: qualitative evidence using the most significant change technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lara S; Labrecque, Guillaume; Batonon, Isatou; Salsi, Viviana; Ratnayake, Ruwan

    2015-01-01

    More than a decade of conflict has weakened the health system in the Democratic Republic of Congo and decreased its ability to respond to the needs of the population. Community scorecards have been conceived as a way to increase accountability and responsiveness of service providers, but there is limited evidence of their effects, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected contexts. This paper describes the implementation of community scorecards within a community-driven reconstruction project in two provinces of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Between June 2012 and November 2013, 45 stories of change in the health system were collected from village development committee, health committee, community members (20 men and 18 women) and healthcare providers (n = 7) in 25 sites using the Most Significant Change technique. Stories were analyzed qualitatively for content related to the types and mechanisms of change observed. The most salient changes were related to increased transparency and community participation in health facility management, and improved quality of care. Quality of care included increased access to services, improved patient-provider relationships, improved performance of service providers, and improved maintenance of physical infrastructure. Changes occurred through many different mechanisms including provider actions in response to information, pressure from community representatives, or supervisors; and joint action and improved collaboration by health facility committees and providers. Although it is often assumed that confrontation is a primary mechanism for citizens to change state-provided services, this study demonstrates that healthcare providers may also be motivated to change through other means. Positive experiences of community scorecards can provide a structured space for interface between community members and the health system, allowing users to voice their opinions and preferences and bridge information gaps for both

  5. The Quality of Medicines Used in Children and Supplied by Private Pharmaceutical Wholesalers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: A Prospective Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavetti, Benedetta; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Mbinze, Geremie J.; Kalenda, Nicodème; Marini, Roland; Melotte, Vera; Hasker, Epco; Meessen, Bruno; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Van der Elst, Josiane; Mutolo Ngeleka, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. Poor-quality medicines are a threat to public health in many low- and middle-income countries, and prospective surveys are needed to inform corrective actions. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey on a sample of products used for children and available in the private market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic Congo: amoxicillin (AX) and artemether/lumefantrine (AL), powders for suspension, and paracetamol (PC) tablets 500 mg. Overall, 417 products were covertly purchased from 61 wholesalers. To obtain a representative sample, the products were weighted on their market shares and a subset of 239 samples was randomly extracted to undergo in-depth visual inspection locally, and they were chemically assessed at two accredited laboratories in Belgium. Samples were defined of “poor-quality” if they failed to comply with at least one specification of the International Pharmacopoeia (for AL) or United States Pharmacopoeia 37 (for AX and PC). Results are reported according to the Medicine Quality Assessment Reporting Guideline. The visual inspection detected nonconformities in the aspects of antimalarial powders for suspension, and poor-quality labels across all medicine types. According to chemical analysis, 27.2% samples were of poor quality and 59.5% of AL samples were underdosed in artemether. Poor quality was more frequent for locally manufactured antimalarials (83.3%, P = 0.021; 86.4%, P = 0.022) and PC (4.8%, P = 0.000). The poor quality of the surveyed products may decrease the treatment’s efficacy and favor the development of resistances to antimalarials. It is hoped that these findings may guide the corrective actions of the Democratic Republic of Congo Regulatory Authority, which was the main partner in the research. PMID:29313479

  6. Foreign Assistance and Its Impact on Civil-Military Relations: A Case Study of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    leaders. This thesis will help bridge that gap. First, this thesis will review the available literature on theories of democratic civilian control... bastion of stability and provided military assistance to fulfill their own divergent interests, Nepal’s civil-military relations were impacted by such...became suspicious of the Maoists’ motives. The continued presence of a strong NA served the U.S. and Indian interests to keep it as a strong bastion

  7. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Updating for the year 2016; Umweltschaedliche Subventionen in Deutschland. Aktualisierte Ausgabe 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeder, Lea; Burger, Andreas

    2016-12-15

    The contribution on environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany (Updating for the year 2016) includes the following issues: Why the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions is necessary; subventions and related processes; international initiatives for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions, routes for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions.

  8. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Economy. Updating for the year 2010; Umweltschaedliche Subventionen in Deutschland. Wirtschaft. Aktualisierte Ausgabe 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    In the background paper under consideration, the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the following topics: (a) The most important environmentally harmful subsidies; (b) State of the art and development of environmentally harmful subsidies at a glance; (c) Environmentally oriented controlling of subsidies: The 'environmental check' for subsidies.

  9. External quality-control surveys of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays in the Federal Republic of Germany. The present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.; Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quality-control survey (QCS) of hormone assays are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the one survey, the participating laboratories are requested to determine seven or eight different hormones in two lyophilized sera that are distributed several times a year. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether they are ''correct'' or subject to systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. In the other survey, the participating laboratories are requested to assay only one given hormone in some 20 deep-frozen sera (including standards in hormone-free sera for derivation of a standard curve) that are distributed at relatively long intervals. The statistical analysis of the data derived from these QCSs allows - together with the methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for discrepancies in the results. (author)

  10. Regulations and control of fuel reprocessing plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with regard to environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The principles of radiation protection in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) are reviewed. These principles are based on ICRP recommendations and are laid down in the Atomgesetz (Atomic Energy Act, 1959) and in the Strahlenschutzverordnung (Radiological Protection Ordinance, 1976). The licencing procedure in the FRG is outlined together with the extent of the information on environmental protection to be submitted by the applicant for a licence. Information is required about the site, safety against external and internal hazards, control of occupational radiation exposure, control of gaseous and liquid effluents, environmental dose limits and accident situations. The methods used to monitor releases to the environment are briefly discussed. Finally, figures for occupational and general public exposure in respect of the operation of the WAK reprocessing facility at Karlsruhe are given

  11. Regionally differentiated air pollution control regulations in the installation-related emission control law of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The volume treats an issue from the boundary zone between environmental law and environmental economics, namely the regionalization of air pollution control standards in installation-related emission control law. In order to examine the question of whether this proposal, which originates in the field of environmental economics, can be adopted and is purposeful, the author initially performs a complete inventorization of applicable norms, this covering emission control law, the law of regional planning, and the provisions of international law. This status quo is then reviewed using conformity and optimization criteria developed by the political sciences. The assessment comes to the conclusion that the introduction of regionally differentiated air pollution control standards is not desirable. The author further submits proposals for the streamlining of the law of installation-related air pollution control in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  12. Energy and the environment. Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia, Germany, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore. Buildings and plants. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs has employed ten experts to help Danish exporters to penetrate the foreign markets. The experts working in the field identify sales potentials, stimulate prospective customers' interest in Danish products and services, and establish contacts to Danish suppliers, in this case within the field of energy and the environment. They work in close cooperation with the commercial/business/industrial sector and organizations and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The publication comprises the experts' descriptions of market conditions and potentials in Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia, Germany, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and the United Kingdom (in this latter case within the field of buildings). On this basis it is expected that Danish exporters will be able to evaluate possibilities for selling their products and services on these markets. (AB)

  13. Importance and topical problems of the industry of the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrikoff, A.

    1987-01-01

    32 companies belong to the industrial association 'Kernbrennstoffkreislauf e.V.'. They do business in the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany. This field comprises the different forms of dealing with nuclear fuels and the materials from which they are made, including the radioactive wastes resulting from the use of nuclear fuels, with the exception of the handling of such materials in nuclear power plants. Some 5000 persons - subcontractors not counted - are employed in this branch of industry. Turnover amounts to about 2 billion Deutsch Marks yearly. But it is a branch of industry that is important beyond the figures mentioned. Its existence constitutes the precondition for building, operating, and exporting nuclear power plants. This paper is concerned particularly with some topical political problems. (orig./UA) [de

  14. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands - February 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three Germany institutions mentioned above have been associated since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1984 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by a R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1984

  15. Comparative investigations of oiled seabirds and beaches in the Netherlands, Denmark, and the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlmann, G.; Timm, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Oiled Seabirds project (January 3, 1990, to March 31, 1993) consisted of two parts: regular surveillance of the beaches in the Netherlands, Denmark, and the Federal Republic of Germany, and sampling and analysis. The aims of the project were: To identify and compare the main sources of oil pollution in the countries involved; To trace definite sources (i.e., particular ships), in more severe cases, to promote prosecution of the offenders; and To gauge the efficiency of countermeasures, e.g., the joint material surveillance in the countries involved. Although the term open-quotes oiledclose quotes was used in the project title, the investigations were not restricted to petroleum. An attempt was made to identify all the products that could have caused the deaths of seabirds. The major sources of oil pollution in the Netherlands and Germany appear to be from normal shipping operations, e.g. engine room residues, while in Denmark the major component of chronic oil pollution is crude oil from tank washings of tanker ships

  16. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  17. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. January to September 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication presents statistical data on hard coal mining (production, stocks, performance per miner and shift, headcount, sales, foreign sales, imports) as well as brown coal mining (production, refining, headcount, domestic sales, imports) in Germany during the period from January through September 2017.

  18. Politics: Interest, Participation and Education. Comparing the Republic of Ireland with Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In order to generate higher levels of interest in politics and participation in political processes, political or citizenship, education in schools must be at the heart of the curriculum and be characterised by active, learner-centred approaches. This paper hypothesises that, when compared with Germany, a more limited form of political education…

  19. Letter from the Head of the Czechoslovak Delegation to the Conference, and the Letter from the Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic to Which it Refers, are Circulated for the Information of Delegates to the Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1956-09-25

    The letter from the Head of the Czechoslovak Delegation to the Conference, and the letter from the Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic to which it refers, are circulated for the information of delegations to the Conference. The Government of the German Democratic Republic watch with great interest the efforts being made for the peaceful use of atomic energy for the benefit of all States and to set up an International Atomic Energy Agency. In this the Government know that their views are in harmony with the demands of the German people as well as with those of all other peace-loving people in the world for the removal of the threat of an atomic war and for the use of atomic energy to develop their national economy, to raise the well-being and happiness of the population

  20. Letter from the Head of the Czechoslovak Delegation to the Conference, and the Letter from the Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic to Which it Refers, are Circulated for the Information of Delegates to the Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1956-01-01

    The letter from the Head of the Czechoslovak Delegation to the Conference, and the letter from the Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic to which it refers, are circulated for the information of delegations to the Conference. The Government of the German Democratic Republic watch with great interest the efforts being made for the peaceful use of atomic energy for the benefit of all States and to set up an International Atomic Energy Agency. In this the Government know that their views are in harmony with the demands of the German people as well as with those of all other peace-loving people in the world for the removal of the threat of an atomic war and for the use of atomic energy to develop their national economy, to raise the well-being and happiness of the population

  1. History of census in the Czech Republic and in France (or in Germany, in the USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Šťastný, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Principal objective of this bachelor thesis is comparing census in the Czech Republic, in France and in the USA. In introductory section concerns on history of census in particular countries, mainly on detailed describe of census during 20th century. This is followed by chapters which attend to methodology and last census in selected countries where illustrated different access in variable parts of the world is. The last part is concerned about following census and perspective to the future, ...

  2. The impact of hospital and urban wastewaters on the bacteriological contamination of the water resources in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Kayembe, John M; Laffite, Amandine; Thevenon, Florian; Devarajan, Naresh; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mubedi, Josué I; Yav, Zéphirin G; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-10-14

    Although the United Nations General Assembly recognized in 2010 the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights, the contamination of water supplies with faecal pathogens is still a major and unsolved problem in many parts of the world. In this study, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT), were quantified over the period of June/July 2014 and June/July 2015 to assess the quality of hospital effluents (n = 3: H1, H2 and H3) and of rivers receiving wastewaters from the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The water and sediment samples from the river-receiving systems were collected in, upstream and downstream of the hospital outlet pipe (HOP) discharge. The analysis of E. coli and ENT in water and sediment suspension was performed using the cultural membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for general E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) and human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results revealed very high FIB concentration in the hospital effluent waters, with E. coli reaching the values of 4.2 × 10(5), 16.1 × 10(5) and 5.9 × 10(5) CFU 100 mL(-1), for the hospital effluents from H1, H2, and H3, respectively; and Enterococcus reaching the values of 2.3 × 10(4), 10.9 × 10(4) and 4.1 × 10(4) CFU 100 mL(-1), respectively. Interestingly, the FIB levels in the water and sediment samples from river-receiving systems are spatially and temporally highly variable and present in some samples with higher values than the hospital effluents. The PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 further indicate that more than 98% of bacteria were from human origin. The results of this research therefore confirm the hypothesis of our previous studies, indicating that in developing countries (e.g., Democratic Republic of Congo and South India), the

  3. Chances and limits of solar hydrogen in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradke, H.; Masuhr, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Assuming that by the middle of the next century in West-Germany a CO 2 -reduction of over 60% may be necessary, the implementation of a hydrogen based economy is not only consistent with the condition of using the most economic energy supply; beside the use of other competitive technologies (energy conservation and renewables) the CO 2 -reduction targets even force the introduction of hydrogen technologies. To achieve the Toronto target of an 80% CO 2 -reduction by the year 2050, the potential share of hydrogen in primary energy consumption could be about 30%. In West-Germany the annual cash-flow for such a scenario would be about 150 mrd ECU higher than today. But taking into account the increasing GDP the total relative costs of the energy systems will not be higher. 4 figs

  4. Dying forests and environmental policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given on extent and causes of the dying forests in the Federal Republik of Germany and the scientific hypotheses of agents are discussed. The author focuses on the reasons of the widespread disease of forests and reviews from a historical-materialistic point of view the history of foresty and the coherences between industrial pollution and forest damages. A balance of the environmental policy since 1960 is given.

  5. Development of Democratic Processes in the People’s Republic of China: Prospects of Transformation of the Political Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Alexandrovich Semenov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth of the PRC has brought new challenges and promoted social transformation in Chinese society. China suffers profound changes involving fundamental principles of public relations. The political regime in China is in a changeable condition, and continues to transform. Some decisions of the Chinese government affect not only the economy and public administration, but also in some ways human rights and political changes. Chinese political regime takes on the pending social problems and begins to gently lift old political bans. There is development of processes which at least by the formal features can be attributed to be democratic or quasi-democratic. However, despite a number of political changes and improving of human rights situation in last decades, China is still an illiberal state. Moreover, the level of repression in China has increased in the last few years. All of these actions raise questions about the political future of China. The scale of the socio-economic changes that have occurred in the PRC is so significant, that the maintaining of the existing governance structure is not possible. Rapid economic growth reduced public discontent at the disregard to fundamental human rights. Yet the “economic miracle” is coming to an end, and the country desperately needs economic and political reforms. Lack of reforms or its incorrect implementation can put the existing system out of balance, which will lead to adverse effects not only in China but also in the world. Depending on the reforms we can assume several scenarios for further development of the PRC.

  6. Chernobyl and the future of energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has caused warning signals to sound internationally because of the intensity of the consequences of the accident and the degree of concern of the public. The 10 articles include descriptions of the course of the accident with its consequences regarding the radio-ecology, environment and safety. There are considerable consequences for the management of accident risks. The state of development of advanced nuclear energy techniques, fusion research and solar techniques are important for the prospects for future energy supplies, particularly for the Federal German Republic. (DG) [de

  7. Contrasts between the environmental restoration challenges posed by uranium mining and milling in the United States and the former German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.; Chernoff, A.R.; Mager, D.; Goldammer, W.

    1993-01-01

    The former Soviet Union demands for uranium feed materials were primarily met by the East German Republic. A small area 200 km long and 50 km wide in the provinces of Saxony and Thuringia provided more than half of the uranium concentrate processed by the Soviet Union, and used for nuclear weapons development and power generation. With the majority of the ore processed in Germany of an average lower grade than a number of deposits found around the world, the mining and milling resulted in an enormous scale of surface disturbance and quantities of mill tailings concentrated in a relatively small densely populated geographical area. As a result of the re-unification of the two Germanies, all uranium extraction and processing activities were suddenly brought to a halt for economic reasons. The former soviet-East German corporation responsible for the uranium concentrate production was changed into a German state-operated company tasked with the facility decommissioning and environmental restoration. Code-named WISMUT (the German word for Bismuth) during the cold war, this organization was literally changed overnight from a self-sufficient, autonomously operating and state controlled effort into a public works, environmentally conscious corporation

  8. [Obesity, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolaemia, and untreated diabetes in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Adults in Mbuji-Mayi (Democratic republic of congo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukeba-Tshialala, D; Nachega, J B; Mutombo-Tshingwali, M; Arendt, V; Gilson, G; Moutschen, M

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the major cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected as compared to the HIV-uninfected patients in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). We determined the prevalence of hypertension, obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ), total cholesterol > 200 mg/dl, HDLcholesterol &≤ 40 mg/dl, and glycemia > 126 mg/dl. We also calculated the average and/or median of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and glycemia among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients.We conducted a cross-sectional study that enrolled 592 HIV-uninfected and 445 HIV-infected patients of whom 425 (95.5%) were on first-line antiretroviral therapy based on stavudine-lamivudine-nevirapine. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients were collected. The results were analyzed by chi-square, t-student, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. 11.5% of HIV-infected patients had an average blood pressure suggesting hypertension versus 10.6% of HIV-uninfected (P = 0.751). But in absolute value, HIVinfected patients had a median of diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg versus 85 mmHg of HIV-uninfected (P 200 mg/dl and HDL-cholesterol ≤ 40 mg/dl. Proactive screening and prompt management of dyslipidemia and hypertension in this population should be a priority.

  9. Stigma modifies the association between social support and mental health among sexual violence survivors in the Democratic Republic of Congo: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Karin; Murray, Sarah M; Hall, Brian J; Annan, Jeannie; Bolton, Paul; Bass, Judy

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to further understanding of the relationship between social support, internalized and perceived stigma, and mental health among women who experienced sexual violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Drawing from baseline survey data collected in eastern DRC, researchers conducted a secondary cross-sectional analysis using data from 744 participants. Regression and moderation analyses were conducted to examine associations between social support variables, felt stigma, and depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional support seeking and felt stigma were positively associated with increased symptom severity across all three mental health variables. Stigma modified associations between emotional support seeking and depression (t = -2.49, p = .013), anxiety (t = -3.08, p = .002), and PTSD (t = -2.94, p = .003). Increased frequency of emotional support seeking was associated with higher mental health symptoms of anxiety and PTSD among women experiencing all levels of stigma. Enhancing understanding of social support and stigma may inform research and intervention among Congolese forced migrant populations across circumstances and geographic locations. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  10. Experience of the air medical evacuation team of Serbian armed forces in the united nations mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo - deployment stress and psychological adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joković Danilo B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Wars of the nineties in former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Rwanda imposed new tasks to the United Nations (UN forces, such as providing humanitarian aid, protection of civilians, peacekeeping, and in many instances providing armed enforcement of peace. The aim of this study was an observational analysis of Serbian participation in the UNs Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo with the emphasis on stress and coping techniques. Methods. Serbian contribution in this mission dates back to April 2003 till the present days with a military contingent consisting of six members as a part of Air Medical Evacuation Team. The observed stressogenous factors acted before arrival to the mission area and in the mission area. In this paper we analysed ways to overcome them. Results. The productive ways of overwhelming stress used in this mission were: honesty and openness in interpersonal communications, dedication to work, maintaining discipline and order, strict following of appropriate regime of work, diet, rest and recreation; regular communication with family and organizing and participation in various social, cultural and sports manifestations. Conclusion. This analysis indicates that out of all the observed factors, the most important is appropriate selection of personnel.

  11. Discovery of a Leptospirosis Cluster Amidst a Pneumonic Plague Outbreak in a Miners’ Camp in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertherat, Eric; Mueller, Melissa J.; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Conditions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo provide an ideal environment for leptospirosis and plague, both of which can cause severe pulmonary manifestations. In December 2004, an outbreak of lethal pneumonia occurred in a local mining camp, affecting 130 persons and killing 57 of them. Clinical signs, fast disease spread, and initial laboratory investigations suggested pneumonic plague. While leptospirosis had not recently been described in the region, it was considered as a differential diagnosis. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). A confirmed case of leptospirosis was defined as having consistent clinical signs and any one of the following: seroconversion or four-fold increase in MAT titre for paired serum samples, or a MAT titre ≥ 1:400 for acute-phase serum samples. Twenty-nine of the 54 patients or convalescents tested for leptospirosis were seropositive. Two cases showed a confirmed infection for both plague and leptospirosis. While evidence supports the plague nature of this outbreak, the results suggest that some of the suspected plague cases might be due to leptospirosis. In any case, this diagnosis will have to be evoked in the future if a similar outbreak occurs in this region of Africa. PMID:24514425

  12. Discovery of a leptospirosis cluster amidst a pneumonic plague outbreak in a miners' camp in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertherat, Eric; Mueller, Melissa J; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2014-02-07

    Conditions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo provide an ideal environment for leptospirosis and plague, both of which can cause severe pulmonary manifestations. In December 2004, an outbreak of lethal pneumonia occurred in a local mining camp, affecting 130 persons and killing 57 of them. Clinical signs, fast disease spread, and initial laboratory investigations suggested pneumonic plague. While leptospirosis had not recently been described in the region, it was considered as a differential diagnosis. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). A confirmed case of leptospirosis was defined as having consistent clinical signs and any one of the following: seroconversion or four-fold increase in MAT titre for paired serum samples, or a MAT titre ≥ 1:400 for acute-phase serum samples. Twenty-nine of the 54 patients or convalescents tested for leptospirosis were seropositive. Two cases showed a confirmed infection for both plague and leptospirosis. While evidence supports the plague nature of this outbreak, the results suggest that some of the suspected plague cases might be due to leptospirosis. In any case, this diagnosis will have to be evoked in the future if a similar outbreak occurs in this region of Africa.

  13. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tantalum processing plants, a critical part of the tantalum supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzes mineral and metal supply chains to identify and describe major components of mineral and metal material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. Supply chain analyses may be used (1) to identify risks to the United States associated with the supply of critical and strategic minerals and metals and (2) to provide greater supply chain transparency so that policymakers have the fact-based information needed to formulate public policy. This fact sheet focuses on the post-mining/pre-consumer-product part of the tantalum supply chain. The USGS National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) has been asked by governmental and non-governmental organizations to provide information about tantalum, tin, tungsten, and gold (collectively known as “3TG minerals”) processing facilities worldwide in response to U.S. legislation aimed at identifying and removing the supply chain links between the trade in these minerals and civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjacent countries.

  14. Assessment of temperatures in the vaccine cold chain in two provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tomomi; Bouakhasith, Viraneth; Phounphenghack, Kongxay; Pathammavong, Chansay; Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Norizuki, Masataro; Okabayashi, Hironori; Mori, Yoshio; Machida, Munehito; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2018-04-27

    All childhood vaccines, except the oral polio vaccine, should be kept at 2-8 °C, since the vaccine potency can be damaged by heat or freezing temperature. A temperature monitoring study conducted in 2008-2009 reported challenges in cold chain management from the provincial level downwards. The present cross-sectional pilot study aimed to assess the current status of the cold chain in two provinces (Saravan and Xayabouly) of Lao People's Democratic Republic between March-April 2016. Two types of temperature data loggers recorded the temperatures and the proportions of time exposed to  8 °C were calculated. The temperature remained within the appropriate range in the central and provincial storages. However, the vaccines were frequently exposed to > 8 °C in Saravan and  8 °C during the transportation in Saravan and to both > 8 and cold chain in the district storage and during transportation remain, despite improvements at the provincial storage. A detailed up-to-date nationwide analysis of the current situation of the cold chain is warranted to identify the most appropriate intervention to tackle the remaining challenges.

  15. Intestinal Helminths of Wild Bonobos in Forest-Savanna Mosaic: Risk Assessment of Cross-Species Transmission with Local People in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narat, Victor; Guillot, Jacques; Pennec, Flora; Lafosse, Sophie; Grüner, Anne Charlotte; Simmen, Bruno; Bokika Ngawolo, Jean Christophe; Krief, Sabrina

    2015-12-01

    Phylogenetic and geographic proximities between humans and apes pose a risk of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) of the Bolobo Territory, Democratic Republic of the Congo, live in a fragmented forest-savanna mosaic setting, a marginal habitat for this species used to living in dense forests. Human activities in the forest have increased the risk of contacts between humans and bonobos. Over 21 months (September 2010-October 2013), we monitored intestinal parasites in bonobo (n = 273) and in human (n = 79) fecal samples to acquire data on bonobo parasitology and to assess the risk of intestinal helminth transmission between these hosts. Coproscopy, DNA amplification, and sequencing of stored dried feces and larvae were performed to identify helminths. Little difference was observed in intestinal parasites of bonobos in this dryer habitat compared to those living in dense forests. Although Strongylids, Enterobius sp., and Capillaria sp. were found in both humans and bonobos, the species were different between the hosts according to egg size or molecular data. Thus, no evidence of helminth transmission between humans and bonobos was found. However, because humans and this threatened species share the same habitat, it is essential to continue to monitor this risk.

  16. Individual and household characteristics of persons with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sites with varying endemicities in Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Levitz, Lauren; Thwai, Kyaw L; Parr, Jonathan B; Goel, Varun; Janko, Mark; Tshefu, Antoinette; Emch, Michael; Meshnick, Steven R; Carrel, Margaret

    2017-11-09

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) bears a large share of global malaria burden despite efforts to control and eliminate the disease. More detailed understanding of individual and household level characteristics associated with malaria are needed, as is an understanding of how these characteristics vary spatiotemporally and across different community-level malaria endemicities. An ongoing study in Kinshasa Province is designed to address gaps in prior malaria surveillance in the DRC by monitoring malaria across seasons, age groups and in high and low malaria sites. Across seven sites, 242 households and 1591 individuals are participating in the study. Results of the enrollment questionnaire, rapid diagnostic tests and PCR testing of dried blood spots are presented. Overall malaria prevalence in the study cohort is high, 27% by rapid diagnostic test and 31% by polymerase chain reaction, and malaria prevalence is highly varied across very small geographic distances. Malaria prevalence is highest in children aged 6-15. While the majority of households own bed nets, bed net usage is less than 50%. The study cohort will provide an understanding of how malaria persists in populations that have varying environmental exposures, varying community-level malaria, and varying access to malaria control efforts.

  17. [Nosocomial urinary tract and surgical site infection rates in the Maternity Ward at the General Referral Hospital in Katuba, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukuke, Hendrick Mbutshu; Kasamba, Eric; Mahuridi, Abdulu; Nlandu, Roger Ngatu; Narufumi, Suganuma; Mukengeshayi, Abel Ntambue; Malou, Vicky; Makoutode, Michel; Kaj, Françoise Malonga

    2017-01-01

    In Intertropical Africa hospitalized patients are exposed to a risk of nosocomial infections. The dearth of published data on this subject limits the descriptive analysis of the situation. This study aimed to determine the incidence, the germs responsible for these infections and the risk factors of nosocomial infections in the Maternity Ward at the General Referral Hospital in Katuba, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted a descriptive, longitudinal study from 1 October 2014 to 1 January 2015. Our study population consisted of 207 women who had been hospitalized in the Maternity Ward at the General Referral Hospital in Katuba. We carried out a comprehensive data collection. Nosocomial infection rate accounted for 15.5%. Parturient women who had been hospitalized for more than three days were three times more likely to develop a nosocomial infection (p=0.003), while those who had had a complicated delivery were four times more likely to be at risk of developing nosocomial infection (p = 0.000). Escherichia coli was the most isolated causative agent (38.1%), followed by Citrobacter freundi (23.8%), Acinobacter baumani (.18, 2%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.2%), Enterococcus aureus (14.3%) and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (9.1%). Ampicillin was the most prescribed antibiotic, to which isolated microbes were resistant. It is necessary to improve hospital hygiene and to conduct further study to examine the similarity between germs strains in the environment and those in biological fluids.

  18. Post-partum depression in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: validation of a concept using a mixed-methods cross-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Judith K; Ryder, Robert W; Lammers, Marie-Christine; Mukaba, Thibaut N; Bolton, Paul A

    2008-12-01

    To determine if a post-partum depression syndrome exists among mothers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, by adapting and validating standard screening instruments. Using qualitative interviewing techniques, we interviewed a convenience sample of 80 women living in a large peri-urban community to better understand local conceptions of mental illness. We used this information to adapt two standard depression screeners, the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. In a subsequent quantitative study, we identified another 133 women with and without the local depression syndrome and used this information to validate the adapted screening instruments. Based on the qualitative data, we found a local syndrome that closely approximates the Western model of major depressive disorder. The women we interviewed, representative of the local populace, considered this an important syndrome among new mothers because it negatively affects women and their young children. Women (n = 41) identified as suffering from this syndrome had statistically significantly higher depression severity scores on both adapted screeners than women identified as not having this syndrome (n = 20; P depression and validated instruments to screen for this disorder. As the importance of compromised mental health in developing world populations becomes recognized, the methods described in this report will be useful more widely.

  19. Effects of untreated hospital effluents on the accumulation of toxic metals in sediments of receiving system under tropical conditions: case of South India and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubedi, Josué Ilunga; Devarajan, Naresh; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mputu, John Kayembe; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mpiana, Pius T; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses have been performed to assess the quality of sediments receiving untreated hospital effluents from Indian and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) hospitals. The sediments were collected monthly and characterized for grain size, organic matter, total organic carbon, total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, toxic metals and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals from the Indian hospital effluent receiving systems, especially for Cr, Cu, As, Zn and Hg. On the other hand, the metal concentrations in the sediment receiving system from DRC are low (e.g. maximum Hg and Zn concentration were 0.46 and 48.84 mg kg(-1) respectively). Ostracods exposed to sediment samples H2 (September month sample) and H3 (June and September month samples) were found dead after 6d of exposure whereas the higher mortality rate for Congo sediments was 23% but was accompanied with 33 ± 7% of growth inhibition. The results of this study show the variation of sediment composition on toxic metal levels as well as toxicity related to both, the type of hospitals and the sampling period. Additionally, hospital effluent disposal practices at the study sites can lead to the pollution of water resources and may generate risks for aquatic organisms and human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: global tungsten processing plants, a critical part of the tungsten supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzes supply chains to identify and define major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. Two major reasons necessitate these analyses: (1) to identify risks associated with the supply of critical and strategic minerals to the United States and (2) to provide greater supply chain transparency so that policymakers have the information necessary to ensure domestic legislation compliance. This fact sheet focuses on the latter. The USGS National Minerals Information Center has been asked by governmental and non-governmental organizations to provide information on tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold (collectively known as “3TG minerals”) processing facilities worldwide in response to U.S. legislation aimed at removing the link between the trade in these minerals and civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Post beneficiation processing plants (smelters and refineries) of 3TG mineral ores and concentrates were identified by company and industry association representatives as being the link in the 3TG mineral supply chain through which these minerals can be traced to their source of origin (mine); determining the point of origin is critical to establishing a transparent conflict mineral supply chain. This fact sheet, the first in a series of 3TG mineral fact sheets, focuses on the tungsten supply chain by listing plants that consume tungsten concentrates to produce ammonium paratungstate and ferrotungsten worldwide.

  1. Restoration Plan for Degraded Forest in The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Considering Suitable Tree Species and Spatial Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sle-gee Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem across the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK is threatened by deforestation. However, there is very little attention being given to government efforts for afforestation and rehabilitation plan. The most significant barriers to addressing this problem are technique limitations, availability of information, and lack of a stepwise forest management plan. This study identifies spatially suitable tree species, and establishes a stepwise restoration plan to support decision making for restoring degraded forest in the DPRK throughout a suitable restoration map. First off, target species were chosen from reference data, and spatial distribution maps for each tree species were prepared based on social needs as well as natural conditions in the DPRK. The suitable restoration map was calculated by two priorities in a weighting method; suitable priority, and distributional clustering level. Finally, the 23 afforestation species were selected for the suitable restoration map, including 11 coniferous and 12 deciduous tree species. We introduced a stepwise afforestation/restoration plan of degraded forest in the DPRK; general (long-term, detailed (medium-term, implementation (short-term plans. Maps with different spatial resolutions were prepared for each of the plans. A restoration map with 12.5 km spatial resolution can be used for the general plan at the national level, and maps with 5 km and 1 km spatial resolutions can be used for detailed plan at the local level and implementation plan at the site level, respectively.

  2. Awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Democratic People's Republic of Korea after a preventive programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvonen, Pirkko-Liisa; Sipilä, Kirsi; Ri, Yon Sil; Jang, Jong Hyon; Kim, Jong Hyok; Suominen, Anna L

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to examine awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), after a preventive programme. The data were collected in 2013 with self-completed, partly structured questionnaires from 1994 children aged 10 and 13 years and from 200 parents. Association between awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by the children and their parents was evaluated using Chi square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses, children's oral health habits according to themselves and their parents were analysed using McNemar's test. Both children and their parents seemed to be familiar with healthy oral habits, although the awareness was not directly related to the reports of the children's oral practices. Most of the children reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day, using fluoride toothpaste and drinking water for thirst but frequent sweet snacking was common. Children's and their parents' reports were consistent with regard to sweet snacking frequency (p = 0.736) and the main thirst quencher (p = 0.349). Awareness of healthy oral habits appeared to be good among children and their parents. Unhealthy oral habits seemed to coincide with one another.

  3. [Use of modern contraceptive methods in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: prevalence and barriers in the health zone of Dibindi, Mbuji-Mayi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntambue, Abel Mukengeshayi; Tshiala, Rachel Ngalula; Malonga, Françoise Kaj; Ilunga, Tabitha Mpoyi; Kamonayi, Josaphat Mulumba; Kazadi, Simon Tshimankinda; Matungulu, Charles Matungu; Musau, Angel Nkola; Mulamba, Diese; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Donnen, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine modern contraceptive prevalence and the barriers to using modern contraceptive methods among the couples in Dibindi health zone, Mbuji-Mayi, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study from May to June 2015. Nonpregnant married women aged 15-49 years old at the time of the investigation, living in Dibindi health zone for two years and having freely consented to participate in the study were included. Data were collected by open-ended interview of these women. Modern contraceptive prevalence was referred to women who were currently using, at the time of the investigation, modern contraceptives. The comparison between proportions was performed at the significance threshold of 5%. Bonferroni's test was used to compare, two by two, the proportions of barriers to using modern contraceptive methods. Modern contraceptive prevalence in Dibindi was 18.4% in 2015. It was low with regard to family planning services available in this health zone. Several women refused to use modern contraceptive methods despite available information because of their desire for motherhood, religious prohibition, opposition on the part of their husband and fear of side effects. Sufficient client-centered or couple-centered information and family planning information should be strengthened in order to eliminate the false beliefs and to increase the use of modern contraceptive methods.

  4. Use of Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Net among Pregnant Women and Guardians of Children under Five in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. Inungu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs are one of the most effective tools for preventing malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. This study examined knowledge, attitude, and practice on the use of ITNs in the prevention of malaria among pregnant women and guardians of children under five in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods. A total of 5,138 pregnant women and guardians of children under five were interviewed. Results. The majority of participants (>80% knew the signs and symptoms of malaria; 81.6% reported having an ITN in the household, but 78.4% reported using it the night before the interview. Only 71.4% of pregnant women used ITN the night compared to 68.2% of children under five. In the Logistic Regression model, women who believed that it is normal to use ITNs were 1.9 times more likely to use it than those who did not (OR: 1.930; women who were confident in their abilities to use ITNs were 1.9 times more likely than those who were not confident (OR: 1.915; and women who had a good attitude towards ITNs were also more likely to use ITNs compared to those who did not (OR: 1.529. Conclusion. New and innovative evidence-based behavior change interventions are needed to increase the utilization of ITNs among vulnerable groups.

  5. Flexibility of mobile laboratory unit in support of patient management during the 2007 Ebola-Zaire outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolla, A; Jones, S; Kobinger, G; Sprecher, A; Girard, G; Yao, M; Roth, C; Artsob, H; Feldmann, H; Strong, J E

    2012-09-01

    The mobile laboratory provides a safe, rapid and flexible platform to provide effective diagnosis of Ebola virus as well as additional differential diagnostic agents in remote settings of equatorial Africa. During the 2007 Democratic Republic of Congo outbreak of Ebola-Zaire, the mobile laboratory was set up in two different locations by two separate teams within a day of equipment arriving in each location. The first location was in Mweka where our laboratory took over the diagnostic laboratory space of the local hospital, whereas the second location, approximately 50 km south near Kampungu at the epicentre of the outbreak, required local labour to fabricate a tent structure as a suitable pre-existing structure was not available. In both settings, the laboratory was able to quickly set up, providing accurate and efficient molecular diagnostics (within 3 h of receiving samples) for 67 individuals, including four cases of Ebola, seven cases of Shigella and 13 cases of malaria. This rapid turn-around time provides an important role in the support of patient management and epidemiological surveillance. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. 2.5D change detection from satellite imagery to monitor small-scale mining activities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Olaf; Lang, Stefan; Schoepfer, Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    Mining natural resources serve fundamental societal needs or commercial interests, but it may well turn into a driver of violence and regional instability. In this study, very high resolution (VHR) optical stereo satellite data are analysed to monitor processes and changes in one of the largest artisanal and small-scale mining sites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is among the world's wealthiest countries in exploitable minerals To identify the subtle structural changes, the applied methodological framework employs object-based change detection (OBCD) based on optical VHR data and generated digital surface models (DSM). Results prove the DSM-based change detection approach enhances the assessment gained from sole 2D analyses by providing valuable information about changes in surface structure or volume. Land cover changes as analysed by OBCD reveal an increase in bare soil area by a rate of 47% between April 2010 and September 2010, followed by a significant decrease of 47.5% until March 2015. Beyond that, DSM differencing enabled the characterisation of small-scale features such as pits and excavations. The presented Earth observation (EO)-based monitoring of mineral exploitation aims at a better understanding of the relations between resource extraction and conflict, and thus providing relevant information for potential mitigation strategies and peace building.

  7. Structure and experience of the state system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC) in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, W.

    1989-01-01

    The legislative basis, structure, functions, records and experience of the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSAC) in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) are reviewed. The GDR's nuclear activities are characterized by research establishments and power reactors and by the absence of industrial bulk handling facilities such as fuel fabrication, reprocessing and enrichment plants. As a consequence both the national and the international safeguards approach can be based on the principles of item accountability which does not require the establishment of an elaborate measurement system. Right from the beginning the safeguards implemented were of the NPT type as the GDR was among the early parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The national rules and procedures of safeguards were thus established in harmony with the international requirements and have closely followed their development. The SSAC in the GDR is part of the comprehensive set-up of protective measures against the potential hazards in the use of nuclear energy under the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection which has established a number of inspectorates, among them the inspection group for nuclear material control -the Nuclear Material Inspectorate. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Methodological approach and tools for systems thinking in health systems research: technical assistants' support of health administration reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo as an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesse, Nathalie; Bossyns, Paul; Marchal, Bruno; Karemere, Hermes; Burman, Christopher J; Macq, Jean

    2017-03-01

    In the field of development cooperation, interest in systems thinking and complex systems theories as a methodological approach is increasingly recognised. And so it is in health systems research, which informs health development aid interventions. However, practical applications remain scarce to date. The objective of this article is to contribute to the body of knowledge by presenting the tools inspired by systems thinking and complexity theories and methodological lessons learned from their application. These tools were used in a case study. Detailed results of this study are in process for publication in additional articles. Applying a complexity 'lens', the subject of the case study is the role of long-term international technical assistance in supporting health administration reform at the provincial level in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Methods section presents the guiding principles of systems thinking and complex systems, their relevance and implication for the subject under study, and the existing tools associated with those theories which inspired us in the design of the data collection and analysis process. The tools and their application processes are presented in the results section, and followed in the discussion section by the critical analysis of their innovative potential and emergent challenges. The overall methodology provides a coherent whole, each tool bringing a different and complementary perspective on the system.

  9. Lesula: a new species of Cercopithecus monkey endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and implications for conservation of Congo's central basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Hart

    Full Text Available In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as "lesula" was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo's interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range.

  10. Situation analysis of rehabilitation service to support the national disability and rehabilitation plan in the Democratic People´s Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boya Nugraha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In 2013, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK signed the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN-CRPD. Since the concept of rehabilitation services in the DPRK did not meet international standards, the government, through the Korean Federation for Protection of the Disabled (KFPD and Munsu Rehabilitation Hospital (MRH, set up a technical consultation with external experts. Methods: Two rounds of consultations were performed, in August 2016 and March 2017, with available methodology, as used in previous consultation processes, but excluding site visits. The consultations started by collecting available data and holding workshops with representatives from the KFPD and the MRH. The results are listed as recommendations for the improvement of health-related rehabilitation services in the DPRK. The results were further developed by KFPD into a draft National Strategy and Action Plan on Comprehensive Rehabilitation (NSAPCR 2017–2020. The draft was discussed with external experts for further improvement prior to discussion with the government. Results and discussion: Overall, the consultation processes was successful, despite the limitation of not making site visits. Recent developments in the DPRK include ratification of the UN-CRPD in December 2016. The authors hope that the NSAPCR can be implemented successfully, leading to improved quality of life for people with disabilities in the DPRK.

  11. Earthquakes in the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Seismic activity in the territory of the Federal Republik of Germany with marginal areas in 1981 was low on the whole; in accordance with the maximum intensity observed-category VI - no damage was recorded. As compared to the previous years only few and predominantly slight events occured in the areas known for their proneness to earthquakes: local magnitudes of M1 0 N - 55 0 N and 5 0 E - 15 0 E and corresponded to the magnitude M1 >= 2.0 or were recorded macroseismically. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Siting of light-water reactor power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, H.A.G.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear power plant site requirements formulated for environment protection in Germany allow nuclear power plants to be built at any site provided these requirements are duly taken into account in preparing and monitoring the site and in the design of the proposed power plant. After a brief discussion of light water reactor power plant sites, prevailing practice in site planning, site selection criteria, licensing procedure and used criteria, rules and guidelines, this paper reports on some considerations taken into account by the expert advisers and by the licensing authorities and future site planning. (orig.) [de

  13. Status and future developments of risk analysis for repositories of radioactive wastes in salt formations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proske, R.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a hypothetical repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste in a salt formation was taken as basis for a first attempt to use the methodology of risk analysis in order to get statements on the safety of such a geologic and mining system. Several institutions were engaged in drawing up fault trees, development of release models and calculation of the risk. A lot of R+D-work is scheduled to be carried out in future which includes optimization of the application of risk analysis methodology to geologic and mining systems, further development of release models, development of a model describing the migration of radionuclides in typical geologic strata and soils of the Federal Republic of Germany and application of risk analysis methodology to different repositories and disposal technologies

  14. International outsourcing over the business cycle: some intuition for Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine LEVASSEUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the extent to which multinational firms – in the first instance, the German ones – may adjust their international outsourcing over the business cycle in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. For that purpose, we have used monthly data of production for the manufacturing sector as a whole and some of its sub-sectors, since 2000 onwards. Our econometrical estimates suggest that there would be an asymmetry in the international outsourcing across the states of the economy, meaning that multinationals firms would be engaged differently in outsourcing activities, depending on whether bad or good economic times occur. Yet, such an asymmetry is found increasing over the time for German and French multinationals operating in the transport equipment sector of Slovakia. Another conclusion is that international outsourcing made by multinational firms in Slovakia may account for a portion of its large business cycles volatility.

  15. US NRC/LLL liaison with the Federal Republic of Germany for the GKSS-PSS steam condensation tests. Progress report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    This progress report for the USNRC/LLL Liaison program with the Federal Republic of Germany regarding boiling water reactor containment multivent steam condensation tests being conducted by GKSS (Gesellschaft fuer Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt) address program activity during the period of May-June 1979. During this period the program scope was defined, initial contacts between LLL and GKSS were established, and the first trip by an LLL representative to the GKSS test facility was taken

  16. External and internal accidents in PWR power plants. Comparison of current regulations in Belgium, United States, France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maere, G. de; Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.; Preat, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this report a comparison is made of the rules and practices applied in various countries (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and United States of America) in designing PWR plants to resist natural hazards (first part of the report) and hazards associated with human activities (second part). The third part of the report deals with the practices in different countries concerning the protection against accidents of internal origin [fr

  17. Progress report on nuclear data research in the Federal Republic of Germany for the Period April 1, 1981 to March 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report has been prepared to promote exchange of nuclear data research information between the Federal Republic of Germany and the other member states of NEA and IAEA. The emphasis has been on measurement, evaluation and compilation of application-oriented nuclear data, such as those relevant to fission and fusion reactor technologies, development of intense spallation neutron sources, production of medically important short-lived radioisotopes, etc. Each contribution is presented under the laboratory heading where the work was done

  18. How can research be carried on without money. An interview with Andreas von Buelow, Minister of Research of Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Buelow, A

    1981-06-01

    When the treasury are not as full as they were, the question automatically arises as to public support for large-scale research facilities and basic research. The new Minister for Research in the Federal Republic of Germany clearly discloses what is possible at present and what is not in the way of State support for research. Therefore the Minister demands that industry should share in basic research and in the large-scale technological facilities required for research.

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  20. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  1. Aspects of the European energy debate: example Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, D.

    1980-01-01

    The European energy debate, especially with respect to nuclear energy, is drastically different between separate countries: France, UK, Germany. There is no definite answer why this is so, but a number of reasons are listed for discussion. However, the general structure of energy production and consumption is similar in all European countries and quite different from the US. The German debate is characterized by antiindustrial and antinuclear groups - the green movement - having less than 5% of the votes, but being influential due to the fact that government parties and opposition are nearly equally strong. The present approach of government therefore places great importance also on energy-saving, coal and development of renewable sources. The arguments are discussed in the light of the oil situation

  2. Nuclear fuel in water reactors: Manufacturing technology, operational experience and development objectives in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, R.; Knoedler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel industry in the Federal Republic of Germany comprises the full range of manufacturing capabilities for pressurized-, boiling- and heavy-water reactor technology. The existing manufacturing companies are Reaktor-Brennelement Union (RBU) and Alkem. RBU makes natural and enriched UO 2 -fuel assemblies, starting with powder preparation. Facilities to produce UO 2 -gadolinia and UO 2 -ThO 2 fuel are also available. Alkem manufactures mixed-oxide UO 2 /PuO 2 fuel and fuel rods. Zircaloy cladding tubes are produced by Nuklearrohr-Gesellschaft (NRG) and Mannesmannroehren-Werke (MRW). Construction of a new fuel manufacturing plant has been announced by Exxon. Supplementary to quality control, an integrated quality assurance system has been established between the reactor vendor's fuel design and engineering division and the existing manufacturing companies for fuel and tubing. Operating experience with LWR and HWR fuel dates back to 1964/65 and has shown good performance. Possible reasons for a small fraction of defective rods could be identified quickly by a fast feedback system incorporating close co-operation between Kraftwerk Union (KWU) and the utilities. KWU combines fuel development, hot-cell and pool-side service facilities as well as fuel technology linked to manufacturing. The responsibility of KWU for core and fuel design, which enabled an integral optimization, was also an important reason for the successful operation and design flexibility. (author)

  3. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and Netherlands - February 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1983-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three German institutions mentioned above have been connected since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. Kfk, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1982 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants and the political background, followed by an R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1982

  4. Mobile Learning Usage and Preferences of Vocational Secondary School Students: The cases of Austria, the Czech Republic, and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biloš Antun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the current status of mobile device usage and mobile learning adoption in vocational education and training (VET secondary schools in three European Union countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, and Germany. The research focused on exploring students’ mobile device usage habits, their attitudes toward education in the context of mobile application support, and preferences regarding mobile learning features. The research confirmed a high level of mobile device usage among secondary school students on a daily basis; smartphones and laptops were the most commonly used devices. The vast majority of participants perceived themselves to be advanced mobile device users, but reported a deficit of ICT-assisted mobile learning experience. However, the majority of respondents with prior ICT-assisted education experience described it as a positive or very positive experience. In addition, study participants tended to agree that mobile learning will play a significant role in education in the future. The paper also explored the reported differences among the students in the three countries and suggested several implications for understanding students’ views of mobile learning. The findings provide insights into possibilities of m-learning implementation while creating a framework for m-learning application development in the VET secondary school environment.

  5. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands - February 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1984-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three German institutions mentioned above have been connected since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeBe partners in 1983 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by an R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1983

  6. Status of the fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands, February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, R; Friese, R [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1981-05-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (DeBeNe) agreed to develop, in a joint program, breeder reactors to the point of commercial maturity. The following research organizations take part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEW, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TWO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The results of research and development activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1980 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a review of the energy policy background, followed by an R and D summary. The bulk of the report following next is organized by the Working Groups of the R and D Program Working Committee of the Fast Breeder Project; additional chapters provide information about the operation of KNK II and the construction of SNR 300. In the annexes a survey is given of international cooperation.

  7. Future plans for the design and construction of fast reactor power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempken, M.; Koehler, M.; Wolff, M.

    1978-01-01

    Some important design features of future fast reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) are presented, in particular for the demonstration plant SNR 2 which is to follow the prototype SNR 300, presently under construction in Kalkar. The SNR 2 conceptual design will be based on the SNR 300 design as far as possible. Programmes for the introduction of fast breeder reactor power stations on the part of the governments, the utilities and suppliers are based on broad international co-operation. The FRG is a country which imports a high proportion of its primary energy and it has rather small resources of natural uranium. The natural uranium realistically available to the FRG will allow nuclear energy to play a substantial role in the long-term energy supply only if present uranium utilization based on LWRs is supplemented and replaced by breeder reactor utilization later. To maintain this option, efforts towards the development, design and construction of fast breeder reactors have to be intensively continued in the FRG. The construction of the first large power station with a fast breeder reactor, SNR 2, will, according to present planning, start in the middle of the 80s. Operation can be expected to start at the beginning of the 90s. The present fast breeder programme in the FRG promises to develop reactors, reprocessing and fuel manufacturing plants to such a degree that by the end of this century the introduction of a substantial number of fast reactor power stations will be possible. (author)

  8. Threshold power. Nuclear energy and foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons is one of the most serious problems for international security today. Since the end of the Cold War states like India, Pakistan and North Korea performed tests of nuclear explosive devices and the number of nuclear weapons states seems to be growing even more. Iran is pursuing actively a nuclear programme with unclear prospects and despite the catastrophe at Fukushima other states remain interested in the use of nuclear energy. In principle it is not possible to distinguish clearly between civil and military use of nuclear technology. The international regime to prevent the misuse of nuclear power and the dissemination of nuclear weapons is based on the Nonproliferation Treaty of 1970 and several other treaties and informal agreements. While the legal aspects of the nonproliferation regime are well studied, much less attention has been paid to the evolution of this regime, which was set up during the Cold War. Especially the role of the nonnuclear weapons states in this process remains unclear. This work explores the influence of the Federal Republic of Germany, one of the most influential nuclear threshold powers, on the formulation of the international nonproliferation regime as well as the role of nuclear energy in German foreign policy in general.

  9. Status of the fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1982-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop, in a joint program, breeder reactors to the point of commercial maturity. The following research organizations take part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three German institutions mentioned above have been interrelated since 1977 by the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. Between KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique contracts were concluded in 1977 about close cooperation in the Fast Breeder field, with association of the Belgian and Dutch partners. The results of research and development activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1981 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a short survey of the fast reactor plants, followed by an R and D summary. The bulk of the report gives more detailed information about those plants and about results reported by the Working Groups of the R and D Program Working Committee of the Fast Breeder Project. In an additional chapter a survey is given of international cooperation. (author)

  10. Status of the fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands, February 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.; Friese, R.

    1981-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (DeBeNe) agreed to develop, in a joint program, breeder reactors to the point of commercial maturity. The following research organizations take part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEW, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TWO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The results of research and development activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1980 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a review of the energy policy background, followed by an R and D summary. The bulk of the report following next is organized by the Working Groups of the R and D Program Working Committee of the Fast Breeder Project; additional chapters provide information about the operation of KNK II and the construction of SNR 300. In the annexes a survey is given of international cooperation

  11. The accident at Gorleben: A case study of risk communication and risk amplification in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, H P; Hennen, L [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (USA). Center for Technology, Environment, and Development

    1988-07-01

    On May 12, 1987 an accident happened in the ``pilot mine`` at Gorleben in the Federal Republic of Germany where the feasibility of a repository or high-radioactive nuclear waste is currently being investigated. A miner was killed during that accident and two others were severely injured. Although this accident happened during conventional mining work and had nothing to do with radioactive waste, this event received much public attention and news coverage and had a strong impact on the political debate on the Gorleben project of a repository mine for radioactive waste and even on the nuclear power controversy in general. This study does not aim to evaluate the accident that happened in the Gorleben pilot mine from a geological point of view nor does it aim to evaluate the West German waste disposal concept. All information given in chapter 2 on these aspects should be considered as background information, useful in understanding the subject of this case study: the risk communication concerning the Gorleben project in general and the accident in the shaft in particular.

  12. Methods of promotion of nuclear research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, G.

    1987-01-01

    The promotion of nuclear research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany is part of the overall R and D policy and is geared to the long-term energy policy goals. Nuclear energy development has been successfully promoted for more than thirty years, the non-nuclear energy technologies for almost 15 years. As a result of this support for new technologies, energy production has become more efficient and cost-effective and with regard to fossil energy sources also markedly less detrimental to the environment. Nuclear energy research policy is an integral part of energy research policy as a whole, which particularly aims to increasingly promote renewable energy sources, above all photovoltaic and wind energy, the utilization of biomass and geothermal energy as well as the development of various energy storage methods. In addition to some mining projects which aim to reduce coal production costs, promotion in the field of fossil energy sources concentrates above all on power plant engineering and combustion techniques - i.e. environment-oriented technologies. In view of future supply patterns, projects on coal conversion are continued; with present supply and price structures for mineral oil and natural gas, however, commercialization of coal conversion cannot be expected to be launched on a large scale. (J.P.N.)

  13. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s.

  14. A Case of Successful Transitional Justice: Fritz Bauer and his Late Recognition in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gortat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Germany is an example of a country which has been implementing transitional justice for decades and is still active in this field. What is more, contemporary Germans have recently come to terms with their not-so-distant past and their negligence in this area by showing the falsehood, backwardness, and injustice as negative foundations of the young Federal Republic. This article evokes the person of Fritz Bauer, the prosecutor in the state of Hessen. His struggle for human dignity and the memory of his achievements after his death exemplify an accomplished case of transitional justice and the memory of it. During his lifetime he contributed to bringing to trial numerous Nazi criminals, even at the cost of habitual threats and disregard. Forgotten for a few decades, Bauer and his legacy have been recently rediscovered and studied. Eventually, Bauer became a movie character and was finally brought back to the collective memory of Germans. The belated, but a well-deserved wave of popularity of Fritz Bauer in the German culture memory proves that reflections on the transitional justice are still topical and important.

  15. The accident at Gorleben: A case study of risk communication and risk amplification in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.; Hennen, L.

    1988-07-01

    On May 12, 1987 an accident happened in the ''pilot mine'' at Gorleben in the Federal Republic of Germany where the feasibility of a repository or high-radioactive nuclear waste is currently being investigated. A miner was killed during that accident and two others were severely injured. Although this accident happened during conventional mining work and had nothing to do with radioactive waste, this event received much public attention and news coverage and had a strong impact on the political debate on the Gorleben project of a repository mine for radioactive waste and even on the nuclear power controversy in general. This study does not aim to evaluate the accident that happened in the Gorleben pilot mine from a geological point of view nor does it aim to evaluate the West German waste disposal concept. All information given in chapter 2 on these aspects should be considered as background information, useful in understanding the subject of this case study: the risk communication concerning the Gorleben project in general and the accident in the shaft in particular

  16. The workday routines of Turkish women in Federal Republic of Germany: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munscher, A

    1984-01-01

    Despite international economic crises which have pushed many immigrants out of employment, jobs that are insecure, unstable and poorly paid have become increasingly available, particularly to immigrant women, whose legal and economic insecurity forces them to accept such jobs. This is the case of Turkish women in West Germany. Even within these jobs, immigrant women are exchangeable and transferable. For women, the already narrow spectrum of available employment opportunity has become even more limited on account of restrictions, both legal and familial, on their entry into the labor force. The result of a pilot survey of Turkish women in West Germany, described in this article, finds that widespread stereotypes depict Turkish women as shy, isolated and uprooted housewives, though these characteristics do not fit all. Almost 1/3 of Turkish women are employed full time and an unknown number work part time or in household employment, which are not not registered. They are forced to take up jobs in spite of lack of child care arrangements. A split family is the rule for almost all the women. For many, especially those who are themselves heads of household, housework include "organizing management"--going to the bank, negotiating with landlords--which they have not done before. A poor knowledge of German is an additional handicap. The work at home is shared by children, but not necessarity by husbands. Their places of residence are often too small by German standards. In spite of the stress, hardship, legal and residential insecurity associated with restrictive laws, many of these women display a sense of pride in being able to fulfil what they perceive as their duties toward their families, and have gained a measure of financial independence. A strong desire to return home to Turkey is, however, hampered by several factors, which include, diminishing hopes of finding a job there, inability to save enough money to lead a financially independent life, and a fear that

  17. Physical protection of special nuclear materials in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Measures to protect special nuclear materials in West Germany are based on a relatively likely average threat and not on the less-likely but maximum credible threat. The reason is to avoid the costs of maintaining a very high level of security that is seldom needed. The concept of delayed action, which divides the responsibility for security between private protection forces and local police forces, would be insufficient in the event of the maximum credible threat. In principle, sufficient security is possible only when the facilities and transports are constantly protected by a police force large enough to deal with the maximum credible threat without assistance from outside. They must also be adequately armed to avert all possible attackers, and they must be paid by the licensees. The threat of an insider(s) diverting special nuclear material can be addressed only by strengthening the scope and depth of the checks on applicants and employees and the permanent work controls. It is recognized, however, that such security measures may not be compatible with constitutional civil liberties

  18. Agreement of 23 February 1989 Between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection With the Supply of a Research Reactor From the Republic of Argentina. Definitive Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to Section 28 of the Agreement between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of a Research Reactor from the Republic of Argentina, which entered into force provisionally on 23 February 1989, the Agreement entered into force definitively on 9 April 1990, the date on which the Agency received from the Government of Algeria written notification that the statutory and constitutional requirements of the Government of Algeria for the entry into force had been met.

  19. A cross-sectional study on obesity and related risk factors among women of the central market of Lusonga in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawaw, Paul; Yav, Thierry; Lukanka, Olivier; Mukuku, Olivier; Kakisingi, Christian; Kakoma, Jean-Baptiste; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is known as one of adjuvant factors for increase in non-communiable diseases (NCDs). The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity and identify its risk factors among women of the central market of Lusonga in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. In October 2014, we interviewed a total of 430 women selling in the central market of Lusonga in Lubumbashi. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health-related habits and behaviors, diet, physical activity, chronic diseases, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were collected. A multivariate logistic regression model was fitted. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 16.51% and 13.26% respectively. The logistic regression did not show any significant association between age and obesity. Risk of obesity was lower in married women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.23 (0.08-0.63)). Women with low educational profile (primary school or less) were more likely to be obese than those with higher education (secondary or high school) (aOR = 2.50 (1.12-5.63)). Risk of obesity increased with living in urban area (aOR = 2.52 (1.00-6.36)), use of oral birth control pills (aOR = 11.07 (3.52-34.83)) and low consumption of fruit (aOR = 5.47 (1.88-15.92)) and vegetable (aOR = 2.42 (1.05-5.56)). Obese women were more likely to be hypertensive than non-obese (aOR = 7.15 (2.46-20.75)) and diabetics (aOR = 3.62 (1.62-8.11)). This study has reported a prevalence of 13.26% of obesity among women selling at Lusonga's market. Marital status, education level, residence, use of oral birth control pills and consumption of fruit and vegetables had a significant association with the prevalence of obesity in this category of women.

  20. The impact of Cognitive Processing Therapy on stigma among survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S M; Augustinavicius, J; Kaysen, D; Rao, D; Murray, L K; Wachter, K; Annan, J; Falb, K; Bolton, P; Bass, J K

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence is associated with a multitude of poor physical, emotional, and social outcomes. Despite reports of stigma by sexual violence survivors, limited evidence exists on effective strategies to reduce stigma, particularly in conflict-affected settings. We sought to assess the effect of group Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) on stigma and the extent to which stigma might moderate the effectiveness of CPT in treating mental health problems among survivors of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Data were drawn from 405 adult female survivors of sexual violence reporting mental distress and poor functioning in North and South Kivu. Women were recruited through organizations providing psychosocial support and then cluster randomized to group CPT or individual support. Women were assessed at baseline, the end of treatment, and again six months later. Assessors were masked to women's treatment assignment. Linear mixed-effect regression models were used to estimate (1) the effect of CPT on feelings of perceived and internalized (felt) stigma, and (2) whether felt stigma and discrimination (enacted stigma) moderated the effects of CPT on combined depression and anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress, and functional impairment. Participants receiving CPT experienced moderate reductions in felt stigma relative to those in individual support (Cohen's D = 0.44, p  = value = 0.02) following the end of treatment, though this difference was no longer significant six-months later (Cohen's D = 0.45, p  = value = 0.12). Neither felt nor enacted stigma significantly moderated the effect of CPT on mental health symptoms or functional impairment. Group cognitive-behavioral based therapies may be an effective stigma reduction tool for survivors of sexual violence. Experiences and perceptions of stigma did not hinder therapeutic effects of group psychotherapy on survivors' mental health. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01385163.