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  1. Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Schaeffer, Doris

    2016-11-09

    Health literacy is of increasing importance in public health research. It is a necessary pre-condition for the involvement in decisions about health and health care and related to health outcomes. Knowledge about limited health literacy in different age groups is crucial to better target public health interventions for subgroups of the population. However, little is known about health literacy in Germany. The study therefore assesses the prevalence of limited health literacy and associated factors among different age groups. The Health Literacy Survey Germany is a cross-sectional study with 2,000 participants aged 15 years or older in private households. Perceived health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using the HLS-EU-Q-47 questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and odds ratios were performed stratified for different age groups. The population affected by limited perceived health literacy increases by age. Of the respondents aged 15-29 years, 47.3 % had limited perceived health literacy and 47.2 % of those aged 30-45 years, whereas 55.2 % of the respondents aged 46-64 years and 66.4 % aged 65 years and older showed limited perceived health literacy. In all age groups, limited perceived health literacy was associated with limited functional health literacy, low social status, and a high frequency of doctor visits. The results suggest a need to further investigate perceived health literacy in all phases of the life-course. Particular attention should be devoted to persons with lower social status, limited functional health literacy and/or a high number of doctor visits in all age groups.

  2. Alcohol consumption among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--results from a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmatov, Manas K; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Meier, Sabine; Krämer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information (response rate of 88%). Problem drinking was measured by the CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol consumption in the last 3 months was reported by >90 % of students. About 80% reported heavy drinking, and 20% displayed problem drinking. Male students, students living in residence halls, and students from sport faculties had a higher risk of heavy drinking and problem drinking. When students were compared across study years, frequency of heavy drinking decreased with higher semesters. Overall, heavy drinking and problem drinking are common among university students in this sample. Intervention programs should be designed for students at a particularly high risk.

  3. Potential determinants of obesity among children and adolescents in Germany: results from the cross-sectional KiGGS study

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    Prinz-Langenohl Reinhild

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity among children and adolescents is a growing public health problem. The aim of the present paper is to identify potential determinants of obesity and risk groups among 3- to 17-year old children and adolescents to provide a basis for effective prevention strategies. Methods Data were collected in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, a nationally representative and comprehensive data set on health behaviour and health status of German children and adolescents. Body height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI was classified according to IOTF cut-off points. Statistical analyses were conducted on 13,450 non-underweight children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years. The association between overweight, obesity and several potential determinants was analysed for this group as well as for three socio-economic status (SES groups. A multiple logistic regression model with obesity as the dependent variable was also calculated. Results The strongest association with obesity was observed for parental overweight and for low SES. Furthermore, a positive association with both overweight (including obesity and obesity was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy, high weight gain during pregnancy (only for mothers of normal weight, high birth weight, and high media consumption. In addition, high intakes of meat and sausages, total beverages, water and tea, total food and beverages, as well as energy-providing food and beverages were significantly associated with overweight as well as with obesity. Long sleep time was negatively associated with obesity among 3- to 10-year olds. Determinants of obesity occurred more often among children and adolescents with low SES. Conclusion Parental overweight and a low SES are major potential determinants of obesity. Families with these characteristics should be focused on in obesity prevention.

  4. Which chronic diseases and disease combinations are specific to multimorbidity in the elderly? Results of a claims data based cross-sectional study in Germany

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    Schäfer Ingmar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest in multimorbidity is observable in industrialized countries. For Germany, the increasing attention still goes still hand in hand with a small number of studies on multimorbidity. The authors report the first results of a cross-sectional study on a large sample of policy holders (n = 123,224 of a statutory health insurance company operating nationwide. This is the first comprehensive study addressing multimorbidity on the basis of German claims data. The main research question was to find out which chronic diseases and disease combinations are specific to multimorbidity in the elderly. Methods The study is based on the claims data of all insured policy holders aged 65 and older (n = 123,224. Adjustment for age and gender was performed for the German population in 2004. A person was defined as multimorbid if she/he had at least 3 diagnoses out of a list of 46 chronic conditions in three or more quarters within the one-year observation period. Prevalences and risk-ratios were calculated for the multimorbid and non-multimorbid samples in order to identify diagnoses more specific to multimorbidity and to detect excess prevalences of multimorbidity patterns. Results 62% of the sample was multimorbid. Women in general and patients receiving statutory nursing care due to disability are overrepresented in the multimorbid sample. Out of the possible 15,180 combinations of three chronic conditions, 15,024 (99% were found in the database. Regardless of this wide variety of combinations, the most prevalent individual chronic conditions do also dominate the combinations: Triads of the six most prevalent individual chronic conditions (hypertension, lipid metabolism disorders, chronic low back pain, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis and chronic ischemic heart disease span the disease spectrum of 42% of the multimorbid sample. Gender differences were minor. Observed-to-expected ratios were highest when purine

  5. Total cross section results for deuterium electrodisintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopik, D.M.; Murphy, J.J. II; Shin, Y.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical total cross sections for deuterium electrodisintegration are presented as a function of incident electron energy. The cross section has been calculated using virtual photon theory with Partovi's photodisintegration calculation for E/subx/ > 10 MeV and effective range theory for E/subx/ 2 H(e, n) reaction in Tokamak reactors

  6. Association of sociodemographic and environmental factors with the mental health status among preschool children-Results from a cross-sectional study in Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Angelika; Meyer, Nicole; Hendrowarsito, Lana; Kolb, Stefanie; Bolte, Gabriele; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Herr, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    It has been reported that a great proportion of mental health disorders have an origin in early childhood. In order to evaluate factors possibly associated with children's health, the health monitoring units have been established since 2004 in six study regions in Bavaria, Germany. The second health monitoring survey, implemented in 2005-06, focuses on the mental health status of preschool children. The goal of this study is (1) to examine the association of sociodemographic and environmental factors with mental health and (2) to analyze the applicability of the results of the health monitoring units to all preschool children in Bavaria by calculating weighting factors. Data on 6206 preschool children are available. Logistic regression analysis is applied to analyze possible associations with mental health. A weighting method is applied to correct for deviances compared to the whole population of preschool children in Bavaria (N=132,783). 11% of preschool children show mental health problems. Regarding different indicators of sociodemographic status, low household income [unadjusted OR 3.34, 95% CI: 2.23-4.98] shows the strongest association of mental health problems. Non-accessibility of green space [unadjusted OR 2.74, 95% CI: 1.87-4.00] is also strongly associated with mental health. The results of the unweighted and weighted analysis are similar. Our findings suggest that sociodemographic status and factors in the living environment show associations with mental health of children. Based on the results of the unweighted and weighted analyses, the second health monitoring analysis shows little deviances compared to data of all Bavarian preschool children. Therefore, the results can be compared to all Bavarian preschool children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. [Nutrition and exercise of schoolchildren. Results of a cross-sectional study at the Lessing Gymnasium (secondary) school in Mannheim, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H; Neumann, P

    2007-12-01

    During the last few years there have been many articles in various newspapers about the unhealthy nutrition of children. It was the aim of this study to find out about the state of nutrition and exercise among the children at our school, a Gymnasium (secondary or grammar school) in Mannheim, Germany. We distributed questionnaires to 729 fellow pupils at the school to get some data/information about their exercise, nutrition and leisure activities. We developed a point-based system to record the quality of the food eaten; the time spent on sports, playing musical instruments; looking at television (TV) etc. or using the computer; and other leisure activities (e.g. reading, meeting friends, playing games). 84% of completed questionnaires were returned (98% of those sent to pupils in the lower forms). Food served at our school was reasonably good, but could have been improved by having a proper dining room or cafeteria. The situation regarding exercise tended to get worse in the younger pupils, because the school day has been lengthened. We found gender-related differences between school marks and other parameters. There was a positive relationship between good marks and a low [normal?] body mass index (BMI) and a negative effect on nutrition/exercise of hours spent watching TV or on the computer (PC). We also found a strong correlation in girls between school marks and their leisure. The number of points for wholesome meals, how much time the pupils spent on sports and music led to better school marks. Pupils of the lower grades exercised much less than older ones. Body weight index and their TV/computer time had similar effects in girls and boys. A low BMI correlated with better school marks, while high TV/PC time worsened them At our school relatively few pupils were overweight. Good nutrition and good amounts of exercise correlated positively with good marks. The amount of exercise taken by the pupils decreased as they advanced to the higher grades.

  8. Hospital choice in Germany from the patient’s perspective: a cross-sectional study

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    Werner de Cruppé

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries health policy encourages patients to choose their hospital, preferably by considering information of performance reports. Previous studies on hospital choice mainly have focused on patients undergoing elective surgery. This study examined a representative sample of hospital inpatients across disciplines and treatment interventions in Germany. Its research questions were: How many patients decide where to go for hospital treatment? How much time do patients have before admission? Which sources of information do they use, and which criteria are relevant to their decision? Methods Cross-sectional observational study covering 1925 inpatients of 46 departments at 17 hospitals in 2012. The stratified survey comprised 11 medical disciplines (internal medicine, gynaecology, obstetrics, paediatrics, psychiatry, orthopaedics, neurology, urology, ENT and geriatrics on 3 hospital care levels representing 91.9% of all hospital admissions to inpatient care in Germany in 2012. The statistical analysis calculated the frequency distributions and 95% confidence intervals of characteristics related to the hospital choice. Results 63.0% [60.9–65.2] of patients in Germany chose the hospital themselves, but only 21.1% [19.3–22.9] had more than one week to decide prior to admission. Major sources of information were personal knowledge of hospitals, relatives, outpatient health professionals and the Internet. Main criteria for the decision were personal experience with a hospital, recommendations from relatives and providers of outpatient services, a hospital’s reputation and distance from home. Specific quality information as provided by performance reports were of secondary importance. Conclusions A majority of patients in the German health system choose their hospital freely. Providers of outpatient health care can have an important “agent” function in the quality-oriented hospital choice especially for patients with

  9. [Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Health and Social Structure in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Nadine; Meinlschmidt, Gerhard; Czaja, Mario

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted to find out if there are differences in health and social structure and, thus, living conditions within Germany on a federal state level. So far, research projects have mainly focused on either more aggregate or more small-scale, regional planning areas. However, due to the political, governmental, and institutional structures prevalent in Germany, it seems necessary to conduct health and social structure analyses not only on the macro and micro but also on the meso level. This would enable meeting the specific information requirements of all existing German political spheres and public health planning levels comprehensively. A set of 53 indicators taken from official German statistics was used to conduct a factor analysis. The latter revealed that the health and social structures could be thoroughly depicted by a total of 3 factors (indices) that, in total, explain roughly 80% of the total variance. In this case, the first index accounts for about 38%, the second for about 31%, and the third index explain roughly 11%. Testing the results through hierarchical as well k-Means cluster analyses provided additional confirmation. Overall, the results show great differences in health and social structures in Germany on a federal state level. In addition, a more in-depth look at the nature of the results shows that one needs to distinguish between 4, or rather even a total of 8 subregions. Most importantly, these findings reveal that the frequently and widely discussed East-West discrepancies do not enable an adequately differentiated approach to this issue. Rather, aside from aspects such as federal city state and state area differences, structures in Germany show several different and highly significant types of North-South divides. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. METHODS: The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross......-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations...... affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. RESULTS: Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18...

  11. More mentoring needed? A cross-sectional study of mentoring programs for medical students in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite increasing recognition that mentoring is essential early in medical careers, little is known about the prevalence of mentoring programs for medical students. We conducted this study to survey all medical schools in Germany regarding the prevalence of mentoring programs for medical students as well as the characteristics, goals and effectiveness of these programs. Methods A definition of mentoring was established and program inclusion criteria were determined based on a review of the literature. The literature defined mentoring as a steady, long-lasting relationship designed to promote the mentee's overall development. We developed a questionnaire to assess key characteristics of mentoring programs: the advocated mentoring model, the number of participating mentees and mentors, funding and staff, and characteristics of mentees and mentors (e.g., level of training). In addition, the survey characterized the mentee-mentor relationship regarding the frequency of meetings, forms of communication, incentives for mentors, the mode of matching mentors and mentees, and results of program evaluations. Furthermore, participants were asked to characterize the aims of their programs. The questionnaire consisted of 34 questions total, in multiple-choice (17), numeric (7) and free-text (10) format. This questionnaire was sent to deans and medical education faculty in Germany between June and September 2009. For numeric answers, mean, median, and standard deviation were determined. For free-text items, responses were coded into categories using qualitative free text analysis. Results We received responses from all 36 medical schools in Germany. We found that 20 out of 36 medical schools in Germany offer 22 active mentoring programs with a median of 125 and a total of 5,843 medical students (6.9 - 7.4% of all German medical students) enrolled as mentees at the time of the survey. 14 out of 22 programs (63%) have been established within the last 2 years. Six

  12. More mentoring needed? A cross-sectional study of mentoring programs for medical students in Germany

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    Störmann Sylvère

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing recognition that mentoring is essential early in medical careers, little is known about the prevalence of mentoring programs for medical students. We conducted this study to survey all medical schools in Germany regarding the prevalence of mentoring programs for medical students as well as the characteristics, goals and effectiveness of these programs. Methods A definition of mentoring was established and program inclusion criteria were determined based on a review of the literature. The literature defined mentoring as a steady, long-lasting relationship designed to promote the mentee's overall development. We developed a questionnaire to assess key characteristics of mentoring programs: the advocated mentoring model, the number of participating mentees and mentors, funding and staff, and characteristics of mentees and mentors (e.g., level of training. In addition, the survey characterized the mentee-mentor relationship regarding the frequency of meetings, forms of communication, incentives for mentors, the mode of matching mentors and mentees, and results of program evaluations. Furthermore, participants were asked to characterize the aims of their programs. The questionnaire consisted of 34 questions total, in multiple-choice (17, numeric (7 and free-text (10 format. This questionnaire was sent to deans and medical education faculty in Germany between June and September 2009. For numeric answers, mean, median, and standard deviation were determined. For free-text items, responses were coded into categories using qualitative free text analysis. Results We received responses from all 36 medical schools in Germany. We found that 20 out of 36 medical schools in Germany offer 22 active mentoring programs with a median of 125 and a total of 5,843 medical students (6.9 - 7.4% of all German medical students enrolled as mentees at the time of the survey. 14 out of 22 programs (63% have been established within the

  13. More mentoring needed? A cross-sectional study of mentoring programs for medical students in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Felix G; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; von der Borch, Philip; Störmann, Sylvère; Niedermaier, Sophie; Fischer, Martin R

    2011-09-24

    Despite increasing recognition that mentoring is essential early in medical careers, little is known about the prevalence of mentoring programs for medical students. We conducted this study to survey all medical schools in Germany regarding the prevalence of mentoring programs for medical students as well as the characteristics, goals and effectiveness of these programs. A definition of mentoring was established and program inclusion criteria were determined based on a review of the literature. The literature defined mentoring as a steady, long-lasting relationship designed to promote the mentee's overall development. We developed a questionnaire to assess key characteristics of mentoring programs: the advocated mentoring model, the number of participating mentees and mentors, funding and staff, and characteristics of mentees and mentors (e.g., level of training). In addition, the survey characterized the mentee-mentor relationship regarding the frequency of meetings, forms of communication, incentives for mentors, the mode of matching mentors and mentees, and results of program evaluations. Furthermore, participants were asked to characterize the aims of their programs. The questionnaire consisted of 34 questions total, in multiple-choice (17), numeric (7) and free-text (10) format. This questionnaire was sent to deans and medical education faculty in Germany between June and September 2009. For numeric answers, mean, median, and standard deviation were determined. For free-text items, responses were coded into categories using qualitative free text analysis. We received responses from all 36 medical schools in Germany. We found that 20 out of 36 medical schools in Germany offer 22 active mentoring programs with a median of 125 and a total of 5,843 medical students (6.9 - 7.4% of all German medical students) enrolled as mentees at the time of the survey. 14 out of 22 programs (63%) have been established within the last 2 years. Six programs (27%) offer mentoring

  14. Physical activity patterns in older men and women in Germany: a cross-sectional study

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    Trampisch Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on physical activity in older adults in Germany is scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity patterns and to explore factors associated with physical activity in different domains, i.e. sporting activities (SA and domestic activities (DA, in older men and women. Methods As part of the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort (community-dwelling older adults in Germany, the PRISCUS-PAQ was used to survey participants about their everyday physical activity patterns. Time per week (hh:mm spent in SA and DA (heavy housework, gardening was analyzed for men and women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed in order to assess the odds of participating in SA and DA for at least 2.5 hours/week in association with sociodemographic factors, a broad range of physical health-related factors and interview date (season of the year. Results A total of 1,610 primary health care patients (51.6% women with a median age of 77 (range 72-93 years were included in the analyses. Men engaged in SA more often than women (01:45 vs. 01:10, whereas women did more DA per week than men (04:00 vs. 03:00. Being interviewed in spring or summer was associated with increased performance of DA in both sexes. Participation in these activities was reduced in more highly educated men and women. Living alone increased the odds of sports participation in women, but not in men. Most physical health-related factors were only selectively associated with either SA or DA, in men or women, respectively. The need for a walking aid was the only factor that consistently lowered the odds of being active in both activity domains and sexes. Conclusions This exploratory study delivers reliable and relevant data on the participation in and correlates of sporting and domestic activities of community-dwelling older adults for whom there had previously been only limited information at a population level in Germany

  15. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and body composition in an elderly cohort from Germany: a cross-sectional study

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    Jungert Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging evidence indicates that there is an association between vitamin D and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] in the elderly is influenced by parameters of anthropometry and body composition independent of potential confounding lifestyle factors and the level of serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Methods Cross-sectional data of 131 independently living participants (90 women, 41 men; aged 66–96 years of the longitudinal study on nutrition and health status in senior citizens of Giessen, Germany were analysed. Concentrations of 25(OHD3 and iPTH were ascertained by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Body composition was measured by a bioelectrical impedance analysis. We performed univariate and multiple regression analyses to examine the influence of body composition on 25(OHD3 with adjustments for age, iPTH and lifestyle factors. Results In univariate regression analyses, 25(OHD3 was associated with body mass index (BMI, hip circumference and total body fat (TBF in women, but not in men. Using multiple regression analyses, TBF was shown to be a negative predictor of 25(OHD3 levels in women even after controlling for age, lifestyle and iPTH (ß = −0.247; P = 0.016, whereas the associations between BMI, hip circumference and 25(OHD3 lost statistical significance after adjusting for iPTH. In men, 25(OHD3 was not affected by anthropometric or body composition variables. Conclusions The results indicate that 25(OHD3 levels are affected by TBF, especially in elderly women, independent of lifestyle factors and iPTH.

  16. Barriers to physical activity in older adults in Germany: a cross-sectional study

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    Moschny Anna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on barriers to physical activity in older adults in Germany are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyse barriers to physical activity in a cohort of older adults, allowing comparisons between men and women, and age groups. Methods 1,937 older adults with a median age of 77 (range 72-93 years (53.3% female took part in the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort. Participants who stated that they did not get enough physical activity were surveyed with respect to barriers to physical activity. Barriers were analysed for all respondents, as well as by sex and age group for cases with complete data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate differences between sexes and age groups. The level of significance (alpha Results 1,607 (83.0% participants stated that they were sufficiently physically active. 286 participants rated their physical activity as insufficient and responded to questions on barriers to physical activity completely. The three most frequently cited barriers were poor health (57.7%, lack of company (43.0%, and lack of interest (36.7%. Lack of opportunities for sports or leisure activities (30.3% vs. 15.6%, and lack of transport (29.0% vs. 7.1% were more frequently stated by female respondents than male respondents. These differences between men and women were significant (p = .003; p Conclusions The present study provides relevant data on barriers to physical activity in older adults. By revealing appreciable differences between men and women, and age groups, this study has implications for efforts to increase older adults' physical activity. Promotion and intervention strategies should consider the barriers and tailor measures to the specific needs of older adults in order to reduce their constraints to physical activity.

  17. Drug utilization patterns and reported health status in ethnic German migrants (Aussiedler in Germany: a cross-sectional study

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    Kostev Karel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate utilization of healthcare services by migrant populations is an important public health concern. Inadequate drug consumption and poor compliance to the therapeutic regimen are common manifestations of low health-care seeking behavior present in migrants even in the countries with well-established healthcare systems. There are few studies on the use of medicines among the different groups of migrants in Germany. The objective of this study is to investigate drug consumption patterns of ethnic German migrants (Aussiedler and their current health status. Methods A cross-sectional study nested into a cohort of 18,621 individuals aged 20-70 years who migrated to Germany from the former Soviet Union between 1990 and 2005 was conducted. Data on consumption of drugs, drug handling, major health risk factors, and one-year disease prevalence were obtained for 114 individuals through a self-administered questionnaire and phone interviews. Results were compared to the data on the German population derived from the Disease Analyzer database and Robert Koch Institute (RKI annual reports. Direct age standardization, test of differences, Chi-square test, and descriptive statistics were applied as appropriate. For drug classification the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC system was used. Results Of the respondents, 97% reported to have at least one disease within a 12-month period. The one-year prevalence of asthma (6.9%, hypertension (26.7%, chronic bronchitis (8.6%, and diabetes (4.9% in migrants was similar to the general German population. 51% regularly took either over-the-counter (OTC medication or prescription medicines. Six ATC groups were analyzed. The highest drug consumption was reported for the ATC cardiovascular (22%, nervous (9%, and muskulo-skeletal system (8%. 30% used OTC medicines obtained in the country of origin. Difficulties with drug handling were rare. Alcohol consumption did not differ from the German

  18. Effort-reward imbalance and perceived quality of patient care: a cross-sectional study among physicians in Germany

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    Adrian Loerbroks

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work stress may impair physicians’ ability to provide high quality patient care. Prior research remains however sparse and has insufficiently explored explanations for this relationship. It has been suggested that physicians’ poor mental health is one potential explanatory factor. We drew on a well-established model to measure work stress (the effort-reward imbalance [ERI] model in order to test this hypothesis. Further, to address another research gap and to potentially inform the development of better-targeted interventions, we aimed to examine associations of individual ERI constructs with the quality of care. Methods We used cross-sectional data, which had been collected in 2014 among 416 physicians in Germany. ERI constructs (i.e. effort, reward, the ERI ratio, and overcommitment were measured by the established 23-item questionnaire. Physicians’ perceptions of quality of care were assessed by a six-item instrument inquiring after poor care practices or attitudes. Physicians’ mental health was operationalized by the state scale of the Spielberger's State-Trait Depression Scales. We used both continuous and categorized dependent and independent variables in multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Both an increasing ERI ratio and increasing effort were associated with poorer quality of care while increasing rewards were related to better care. Physicians’ depressive symptoms did not affect these associations substantially. Associations with overcommitment were weak and attenuated to non-significant levels by correction for depressive symptoms. The level of overcommitment did not modify associations between the ERI ratio and quality of care. Conclusions Our study suggests that high work-related efforts and low rewards are associated with reports of poorer patient care among physicians, irrespectively of physicians’ depressive symptoms. Quality of patient care may thus be improved by

  19. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study.

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    Romina di Giuseppe

    Full Text Available Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population.We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items.Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function.In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk.

  20. More mentoring needed? A cross-sectional study of mentoring programs for medical students in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Meinel, Felix G; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; von der Borch, Philip; St?rmann, Sylv?re; Niedermaier, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite increasing recognition that mentoring is essential early in medical careers, little is known about the prevalence of mentoring programs for medical students. We conducted this study to survey all medical schools in Germany regarding the prevalence of mentoring programs for medical students as well as the characteristics, goals and effectiveness of these programs. Methods A definition of mentoring was established and program inclusion criteria were determined based ...

  1. [Acceptance of post-mortem organ donation in Germany : Representative cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackmann, E; Dettmer, S

    2018-02-01

    The German post-mortem organ donation rate has dropped by one third since 2010. Furthermore, 958 patients died in 2015 in Germany while waiting for an organ. To decrease organ shortage, an amendment of the transplantation law was established in 2012. An information package including an organ donor card is sent to all German citizens via the postal service. A voluntary national transplantation register was introduced in 2016 to improve transparency in the organ donation process. The influence of several transplantation scandals starting in 2012 on organ donation rates is in question. Therefore, the objective of this article is to discuss approval and objections to post-mortem organ donation among the next of kin of potential donors and the general public in Germany. Binary logistic regression of data from the 2014 survey by the Federal Centre for Health Education on attitudes towards organ and tissue donation in Germany was conducted, aiming to identify influencing factors on the likelihood of organ donor card possession. Additionally, data of the German Organ Transplantation Foundation on post-mortem organ donations in Germany in 2014 were studied to highlight reasons for approval and objections by next of kin of potential and explanted post-mortem organ donors. Methods of documentation of the deceased's will according to data of the German Organ Transplantation Foundation were analyzed. Male gender and lack of knowledge about organ donation decrease the likelihood of having an organ donor card. Of the respondents in the survey of the Federal Centre for Health Education 71.0% would donate their own organs, whereas only one third possess an organ donor card. Health insurances and physicians are the most important providers of organ donor cards in Germany. An increase in the percentage of organ donor card possession following the amendment of the transplantation law could not be observed by 2016. Fear of organ trade and unjust organ allocation are the main reasons

  2. Reasons for elderly patients GP visits: results of a cross-sectional study

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    Frese T

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Frese, Jarmila Mahlmeister, Tobias Deutsch, Hagen Sandholzer Department of General Practice, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the frequency of reasons for elderly patients visits to a general practice (GP setting. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional data from 8,877 randomly selected patients were assessed during a 1-year period by 209 GPs in the German federal state of Saxony. The reasons for visits, performed procedures, and results of visits were documented. In this study, the data of patients aged 65 years and older are analyzed and the procedural and nonprocedural reasons for visits are described. Results: In all, 2,866 patients aged 65 years and older were included. The majority of patients (1,807 were female. A total of 4,426 reasons for visits were found, distributed on 363 International Classification of Primary Care-2 codes. In the mean, there were 1.5 reasons for a GP visit from each patient. The top five nonprocedural reasons for visiting the GP were: cough (1.8%, back complaints (1.6%, shoulder complaints (1.3%, knee complaints (1.1%, and dyspnea (1.0% of all reasons for visit. The top five procedural reasons for visiting the GP included follow-up investigations of cardiovascular or endocrine disorders and immunizations. The top 30 nonprocedural reasons for visits covered 21.9% of all reasons for visiting. The top 30 procedural reasons covered 54.3% of all reasons for visits. Conclusion: The current work indicates that people aged 65 years and older consult the GP more frequently for procedural than for nonprocedural reasons. The top 30 procedural and nonprocedural reasons for visits cover ~75% of all reasons for visits in these patients. Keywords: elderly, geriatric, general practice, primary care, reason for visit, reason for consultation

  3. Cross-sectional study on antibiotic usage in pigs in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa van Rennings

    Full Text Available To be able to analyze the relationship between the level of resistance and the use of antimicrobials, it is necessary to collect detailed data on antimicrobial usage. For this reason, data on antimicrobial use on 495 pig farms from entire Germany were collected and analyzed. In Germany, each application and dispensing of medicines to food-producing animals is documented in detail obligatorily by the veterinarian. This information was collected retrospectively for the year 2011. The analyses undertook separate examinations on the age groups sow, piglet, weaner and fattening pig; both the route of administration and indication per active ingredient, and active ingredient class, were evaluated. In total, 20,374 kg of antimicrobial substances were used in the study population. Tetracyclines were used in highest amounts, followed by beta-lactams, trimethoprim-sulfonamides and macrolides. Concerning the frequency of using an active substance per animal, polypeptides were most commonly administered. In all age groups, respiratory infections were the main indication for using antimicrobials, followed by intestinal diseases in piglets, weaners and fattening pigs and diseases of reproductive organs in sows. Over a period of 100 days, the median number of treatment days with one antimicrobial substance for piglets was 15 days, for weaners about 6 days, for fattening pigs about 4 days and for sows about 1 day. A multifactorial ANOVA was conducted to investigate which factors are associated with the treatment frequency. The factors "veterinarian" and "age group" were related to the treatment frequency, just as the interaction between "veterinarian" and "farm size" as well as the interaction between "veterinarian" and "age group".

  4. Capture Cross Section of 236U: the n_TOF Results

    CERN Document Server

    Barbagallo, M; Vermeulen, M J; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Hernández-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Rubbia, C; Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Neutron induced capture cross section on U-236 has been measured with high accuracy and high resolution at n\\_TOF, in order to improve data libraries needed for the development of advanced nuclear reactors. Preliminary results obtained with two different detection systems are reported.

  5. Validation of the WIMSD4M cross-section generation code with benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, J.R.; Woodruff, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Leal, L.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The WIMSD4 code has been adopted for cross-section generation in support of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Subsequently, the code has undergone several updates, and significant improvements have been achieved. The capability of generating group-collapsed micro- or macroscopic cross sections from the ENDF/B-V library and the more recent evaluation, ENDF/B-VI, in the ISOTXS format makes the modified version of the WIMSD4 code, WIMSD4M, very attractive, not only for the RERTR program, but also for the reactor physics community. The intent of the present paper is to validate the WIMSD4M cross-section libraries for reactor modeling of fresh water moderated cores. The results of calculations performed with multigroup cross-section data generated with the WIMSD4M code will be compared against experimental results. These results correspond to calculations carried out with thermal reactor benchmarks of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) unreflected HEU critical spheres, the TRX LEU critical experiments, and calculations of a modified Los Alamos HEU D{sub 2}O moderated benchmark critical system. The benchmark calculations were performed with the discrete-ordinates transport code, TWODANT, using WIMSD4M cross-section data. Transport calculations using the XSDRNPM module of the SCALE code system are also included. In addition to transport calculations, diffusion calculations with the DIF3D code were also carried out, since the DIF3D code is used in the RERTR program for reactor analysis and design. For completeness, Monte Carlo results of calculations performed with the VIM and MCNP codes are also presented.

  6. Validation of the WIMSD4M cross-section generation code with benchmark results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, J.R.; Woodruff, W.L.; Leal, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    The WIMSD4 code has been adopted for cross-section generation in support of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Subsequently, the code has undergone several updates, and significant improvements have been achieved. The capability of generating group-collapsed micro- or macroscopic cross sections from the ENDF/B-V library and the more recent evaluation, ENDF/B-VI, in the ISOTXS format makes the modified version of the WIMSD4 code, WIMSD4M, very attractive, not only for the RERTR program, but also for the reactor physics community. The intent of the present paper is to validate the WIMSD4M cross-section libraries for reactor modeling of fresh water moderated cores. The results of calculations performed with multigroup cross-section data generated with the WIMSD4M code will be compared against experimental results. These results correspond to calculations carried out with thermal reactor benchmarks of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) unreflected HEU critical spheres, the TRX LEU critical experiments, and calculations of a modified Los Alamos HEU D 2 O moderated benchmark critical system. The benchmark calculations were performed with the discrete-ordinates transport code, TWODANT, using WIMSD4M cross-section data. Transport calculations using the XSDRNPM module of the SCALE code system are also included. In addition to transport calculations, diffusion calculations with the DIF3D code were also carried out, since the DIF3D code is used in the RERTR program for reactor analysis and design. For completeness, Monte Carlo results of calculations performed with the VIM and MCNP codes are also presented

  7. Health status and disease burden of unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents in Bielefeld, Germany: cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, L; Krämer, A; Fischer, F; Prüfer-Krämer, L

    2016-02-01

    This exploratory pilot study aimed to investigate the physical and mental disease burden of unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents arriving in Bielefeld, a medium-size city in Germany. A cross-sectional survey with purposive sampling of 102 unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents aged 12-18 years was performed. Information on general health status, selected infectious and non-communicable diseases, iron deficiency anaemia and mental illness was collected during routine check-up medical examinations upon arrival in Bielefeld, Germany. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The analysis revealed a complex disease burden with a high prevalence of infections (58.8%), mental illness (13.7%) and iron deficiency anaemia (17.6%) and a very low prevalence of non-communicable diseases (<2.0%). One in five of the refugees were infected with parasites. Whilst sub-Saharan Africans showed the highest prevalence of infections (86.7%), including highest prevalences of parasites (46.7%), West Asians had the highest prevalence of mental disorders (20.0%). Overall, the disease burden in females was higher. A thorough medical and psychological screening after arrival is highly recommended to reduce the individual disease burden and the risk of infection for others. This promotes good physical and mental health, which is needed for successful integration into the receiving society. Barriers to health service access for unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents need to be lowered to allow need-specific health care and prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Job satisfaction of foreign-national physicians working in patient care: a cross-sectional study in Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantenburg, Birte; Kitze, Katharina; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2016-01-01

    Physician migration is gaining attention worldwide. Despite increasing numbers of foreign physicians in Germany, their perceptions on working in Germany remain unexplored. Within a large survey on Saxon physicians, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether foreign-national physicians' job satisfaction differed from German physicians' job satisfaction. The study was designed as a comprehensive cross-sectional survey. All physicians ≤40 years and registered with the State Chamber of Physicians of Saxony (n = 5956) were mailed a paper-pencil questionnaire, of which 2357 were returned (response rate = 40 %). Questionnaires addressed socio-demographics and assessed job satisfaction by asking participants to rate their satisfaction with the overall job situation and 20 different aspects on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = very dissatisfied to 5 = very satisfied). Ten percent of participants were foreign-national physicians. The three main countries of origin were the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Poland. Foreign-national physicians were more satisfied with aspects related to patient care, such as "possibility to treat patients as you deem optimal" and "relationship with patients". However, they were less satisfied with aspects related to human relations, such as "work atmosphere", relationship with co-workers, and "social status". Foreign-national physicians were also less satisfied with the aspect "work enjoyment". Further research on determinants promoting foreign-national physicians' job satisfaction is needed as their professional well-being may influence quality of patient care. Measures teaching cross-cultural competence and awareness may be beneficial for both foreign-national and German physicians.

  9. Advising vaccinations for the elderly: a cross-sectional survey on differences between general practitioners and physician assistants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett-Tammen, Carolina Judith; Krause, Gérard; von Lengerke, Thomas; Castell, Stefanie

    2016-07-29

    In Germany, the coverage of officially recommended vaccinations for the elderly is below a desirable level. It is known that advice provided by General Practitioners and Physician Assistants influences the uptake in patients ≥60 years. Therefore, the predictors of advice-giving behavior by these professions should be investigated to develop recommendations for possible actions for improvement. We conducted a postal cross-sectional survey on knowledge, attitudes and advice - giving behavior regarding vaccinations in the elderly among General Practitioners and Physician Assistants in 4995 practices in Germany. To find specific predictors, we performed logistic regressions with non-advising on any officially recommended vaccination or on three specific vaccinations as four separate outcomes, first using all participants, then only General Practitioners and lastly only Physician Assistants as our study population. Participants consisted of 774 General Practitioners and 563 Physician Assistants, of whom overall 21 % stated to have not advised an officially recommended vaccination in elderly patients. The most frequent explanation was having forgotten about it. The habit of not counselling on vaccinations at regular intervals was associated with not advising any vaccination (OR: 2.8), influenza vaccination (OR: 2.3), and pneumococcal vaccination (OR: 3.1). While more General Practitioners than Physician Assistants felt sufficiently informed (90 % vs. 79 %, p vaccinations (ORs: 1.8-2.8). To reduce the high risk of forgetting to advice on vaccinations, we recommend improving and promoting standing recall-systems, encouraging General Practitioners and Physician Assistants to counsel routinely at regular intervals regarding vaccinations, and providing Physician Assistants with better, tailor-made information on official recommendations and their changes.

  10. Cross-sectional survey in pig breeding farms in Hesse, Germany: seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp. and Neospora caninum in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damriyasa, I.M.; Bauer, C.; Edelhofer, R.

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to estimate the prevalences of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii (ELISA, IFAT), Sarcocystis spp. (ELISA, using S. miescheriana as antigen) and Neospora caninum (ELISA, immunoblotting) in sows from breeding farms in southern Hesse, Germany. A total of 2041 plas...... and the confirmatory immunoblotting technique. This may indicate the first natural N. caninum infection in pigs....

  11. Effort-reward imbalance and perceived quality of patient care: a cross-sectional study among physicians in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Weigl, Matthias; Li, Jian; Angerer, Peter

    2016-04-18

    Work stress may impair physicians' ability to provide high quality patient care. Prior research remains however sparse and has insufficiently explored explanations for this relationship. It has been suggested that physicians' poor mental health is one potential explanatory factor. We drew on a well-established model to measure work stress (the effort-reward imbalance [ERI] model) in order to test this hypothesis. Further, to address another research gap and to potentially inform the development of better-targeted interventions, we aimed to examine associations of individual ERI constructs with the quality of care. We used cross-sectional data, which had been collected in 2014 among 416 physicians in Germany. ERI constructs (i.e. effort, reward, the ERI ratio, and overcommitment) were measured by the established 23-item questionnaire. Physicians' perceptions of quality of care were assessed by a six-item instrument inquiring after poor care practices or attitudes. Physicians' mental health was operationalized by the state scale of the Spielberger's State-Trait Depression Scales. We used both continuous and categorized dependent and independent variables in multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Both an increasing ERI ratio and increasing effort were associated with poorer quality of care while increasing rewards were related to better care. Physicians' depressive symptoms did not affect these associations substantially. Associations with overcommitment were weak and attenuated to non-significant levels by correction for depressive symptoms. The level of overcommitment did not modify associations between the ERI ratio and quality of care. Our study suggests that high work-related efforts and low rewards are associated with reports of poorer patient care among physicians, irrespectively of physicians' depressive symptoms. Quality of patient care may thus be improved by concurrently reducing effort and increasing rewards among physicians.

  12. Neutron cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Donald J; Dunworth, J V

    1957-01-01

    Neutron Cross Sections presents the principles of cross-section measurement and use, as well as sufficient theory so that the general behavior of cross sections is made understandable. This compilation is a direct result of experiences connected with the collection and evaluation of cross-section data during the past eight years at """"Sigma Centre"""", Brookhaven National Laboratory. Here, experimental results received from laboratories throughout the world are carefully evaluated and compiled in the curves and tables of the large volume Neutron Cross Sections, The most recent version of the

  13. High Quality of Diabetes Care Based Upon Individualised Treatment Goals - A Cross Sectional Study in 4784 Patients in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, C; Müller, N; Hartmann, P; Lehmann, T; Sämann, A; Roth, J; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2016-05-01

    Recent guidelines recommend an individualized approach towards patients with diabetes mellitus. Data of a programme dealing with quality of diabetes care, "Diabetes TÜV" of the Deutsche BKK was reappraised in the light of recent evidence applying these recommendations. Data originates from a population-based study in primary diabetes care in Germany. Patients with diabetes mellitus insured by the Deutsche BKK were invited to participate. From 2000 to 2004 data of 4 784 patients participated. Double or multiple visits were not included. HbA1c was analysed in 0.5% categories and in age groups below and above 70 years. HbA1c was DCCT adjusted. A total of 368 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) (42% women, HbA1c 54 mmol/mol (7.1%), BP 136/79 mmHg) and 4 416 patients with diabetes type 2 (DM2) (44% women, HbA1c 48.6 mmol/mol (6.6%), BP 142/81 mmHg) were included.). An HbA1c of 53 mmol/mol (7%) or less was found in 70%, less than 64 mmol/mol (8%) in 87% of all patients, and higher than 86 mmol/mol (10%) in 2.8%. The detailed analysis shows that an HbA1c of  70 years 144 mmHg/diastolic BP:  70 years 80 mmHg). Using WHO grading, BP is mainly mildly elevated (grade 1: 41% (n=1942); grade 2, 17% (n=820) grade 3 6% (n=281). In 10 patients (0.2%) HbA1c above 86 mmol/mol (10.0%) coincides with a BP WHO grade 3. In recent years new evidence is available regarding treatment targets. The reappraisal of a cross sectional study of a quality assurance programme of a German health insurance in a differentiated way demonstrates that more than 2/3 of the people with diabetes mellitus meet their specific goals. Only very few patients are at imminent risk due to bad glycaemic control and high blood pressure. Old patients may be at risk of overtreatment. Strategies aiming at adapting pharmacological interventions in older patients must be conceived. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Education and employment status of adults with autism spectrum disorders in Germany - a cross-sectional-survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Fabian; Jablotschkin, Martina; Arthen, Tobias; Riedel, Andreas; Fangmeier, Thomas; Hölzel, Lars P; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2018-03-27

    Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience challenges in participating in the labour market and struggle to achieve and maintain appropriate professional positions, possibly due to impairments of communication and social interaction. Studies have shown high rates of unemployment as well as evidence of inadequate employment. As knowledge on the participation in the German labour market is scarce, the aim of our study was to examine employment status, type of occupation and inadequate employment in a sample of clinically mostly late-diagnosed and most likely not intellectually disabled adults with ASD in Germany. We conducted a cross-sectional-survey in clinically mostly late-diagnosed adults with ASD. Employment status, type of occupation, and the level of formal education and training were examined through a postal questionnaire. Inadequate employment regarding participants' current and longest practised occupation was assessed by transforming participants' information into skill levels of the "Classification of Occupations 2010" of the German Federal Employment Agency, and comparing these with participants' level of formal education and training. The response rate was 43.2% (N = 185 of N = 428 potential participants). 94.6% were first-time diagnosed when being 18 years of age or older. 56.8% held a general university entrance-level qualification and 24.9% had obtained a Masters' or diploma degree as their highest vocational qualification. 94.1% had been employed at some time. Of these, 68.4% reported being currently employed, 13.5% being currently unemployed and 17.0% being retired for health reasons. Regarding the longest-practised and the current occupation, the highest proportion of participants was found in the occupational area "health and social sector, teaching and education" (22.4% and 23.3%, respectively). With respect to inadequate employment, 22.1% were found to be overeducated in relation to their longest-practised occupation and 31

  15. Cross-sectional study of bluetongue virus serotype 8 infection in South American camelids in Germany (2008/2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Claudia; Eschbaumer, Michael; Ziller, Mario; Wäckerlin, Regula; Beer, Martin; Gauly, Matthias; Grevelding, Christoph G; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bauer, Christian

    2012-11-09

    Bluetongue (BT) is a major disease of ruminant livestock that can have a substantial impact on income and animal welfare. In South American camelids (SAC), fatalities related to bluetongue virus (BTV) infection were reported in Germany and France during the recent BTV-8 and BTV-1 epizootics, which raised concern about the role of SAC in the epidemiology of BTV. Therefore, a large-scale serological and virological study was conducted in Germany from autumn 2008 to spring 2009. Risk factors associated with BTV infection were analysed by multiple logistic regression. These included age, species, gender and housing arrangements of SAC as well as the location of the herds and the presence of ruminants on farms.Altogether, 249 (14.3%) of 1742 SAC were found seropositive by BTV ELISA, and 43 (47.3%) of the 91 herds had at least one BTV-seropositive SAC. However, no BTV RNA was detected in any of the seropositive samples. Seroprevalence depended on the sampling region and probably on age, but not on any other analysed risk factors associated with BTV infection in ruminants. The highest seroprevalence was found in the west of Germany where the BTV-8 epizootic started in 2006. Recorded BTV-8 related disease and fatalities are discussed. Although the prevalence of BTV-8 antibodies was high in some regions, the virological results indicate that SAC play a negligible role in the epidemiology of this virus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of cross-sectional HIV incidence assay results from dried blood spots and plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Schlusser

    Full Text Available Assays have been developed for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation using plasma samples. Large scale surveillance programs are planned using dried blood spot (DBS specimens for incidence assessment. However, limited information exists on the performance of HIV cross-sectional incidence assays using DBS.The assays evaluated were: Maxim HIV-1 Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA (LAg-Avidity, Sedia HIV-1 BED-Capture EIA (BED-CEIA, and CDC modified BioRad HIV-1/2 Plus O Avidity-based Assay (CDC-BioRad Avidity using pre-determined cutoff values. 100 matched HIV-1 positive plasma and DBS samples, with known duration of infection, from the Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays repository were tested. All assays were run in duplicate. To examine the degree of variability within and between results for each sample type, both categorical and continuous results were analyzed. Associations were assessed with Bland Altman, R2 values and Cohen's kappa coefficient (ĸ.Intra-assay variability using the same sample type was similar for all assays (R2 0.96 to 1.00. The R2 values comparing DBS and plasma results for LAg-Avidity, BED-CEIA, and CDC-BioRad Avidity were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.84, respectively. The concordance and ĸ values between DBS and plasma for all three assays were >87% and >0.64, respectively. The Bland-Altman analysis showed significant differences between plasma and DBS samples. For all three assays, a higher number of samples were classified as recent infections using DBS samples.DBS and plasma sample results were highly correlated. However, when compared to plasma, each assay performed somewhat differently in DBS at the lower and higher ends of the dynamic range. DBS samples were more likely to be classified as recently infected by all three assays, which may lead to overestimation of incidence in surveys using performance criteria derived for plasma samples.

  17. Cycling and Female Sexual and Urinary Function: Results From a Large, Multinational, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Murphy, Gregory P; Metzler, Ian; Sanford, Thomas; Eisenberg, Michael L; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Osterberg, E Charles; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2018-04-01

    and sampling methods. We found that women cyclists were no more likely to report sexual dysfunction or urinary symptoms than swimmers or runners. Gaither TW, Awad MA, Murphy GP, et al. Cycling and Female Sexual and Urinary Function: Results From a Large, Multinational, Cross-Sectional Study. J Sex Med 2018;15:510-518. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Internet use, Facebook intrusion, and depression: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, A; Przepiórka, A; Pantic, I

    2015-09-01

    Facebook has become a very popular social networking platform today, particularly among adolescents and young adults, profoundly changing the way they communicate and interact. However, some reports have indicated that excessive Facebook use might have detrimental effects on mental health and be associated with certain psychological problems. Because previous findings on the relationship between Facebook addiction and depression were not unambiguous, further investigation was required. The main objective of our study was to examine the potential associations between Internet use, depression, and Facebook intrusion. A total of 672 Facebook users took part in the cross-sectional study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used. For collecting the data, the snowball sampling procedure was used. We showed that depression can be a predictor of Facebook intrusion. Our results provides additional evidence that daily Internet use time in minutes, gender, and age are also predictors of Facebook intrusion: that Facebook intrusion can be predicted by being male, young age, and an extensive number of minutes spent online. On the basis of this study, it is possible to conclude that there are certain demographic - variables, such as age, gender, or time spent online - that may help in outlining the profile of a user who may be in danger of becoming addicted to Facebook. This piece of knowledge may serve for prevention purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-02-12

    Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization's practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. The mean score of hospitals' social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals' ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals' social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff's working environment. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. How do people respond to self-test results? A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests, tests on medical conditions that can be performed by consumers without consulting a doctor first, are frequently used. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the safety of self-testing, as it may delay diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the case of inappropriate use of the test, or false-negative results. It is unclear whether self-tests stimulate appropriate follow-up behaviour. Our aim was to examine the frequency of self-test use, consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour. Methods A two step cross-sectional survey was designed. A random sample of 6700 Internet users in an existing Internet panel received an online questionnaire on the use of self-tests. Self-tests were defined as tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim to diagnose a disease or risk factor. A second questionnaire on consumers' response to self-test results was sent to the respondents that were identified as a self-tester in the first questionnaire (n = 703. Results 18.1% (799/4416 of the respondents had ever performed a self-test, the most frequently used tests being those for diabetes (5.3%, kidney disease (4.9%, cholesterol (4.5%, urinary tract infection (1.9% and HIV/AIDS and Chlamydia (both 1.6%. A total of 78.1% of the testers with a normal test result and 81.4% of those with an abnormal result reported confidence in this result. Almost all (95.6% of the testers with a normal result felt reassured. After a normal result, 78.1% did not take any further action and 5.8% consulted a doctor. The corresponding figures after an abnormal test result were 9.3% and 72.2%, respectively. Conclusions Respondents who had performed a self-test seemed to base their follow-up behaviour on the result of the test. They had confidence in the test result, and were often reassured by a normal result. After an abnormal result, most self

  1. Nurses’ perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M.; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses’ survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Results: Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Conclusion: Nurses are highly aware of adherence

  2. Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Benjamin C; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Bänziger, Tanja; Axelsson, John; Sundelin, Tina

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization. Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1). The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS IN NEONATOLOGY: RESULTS OF THE RETROSPECTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey S. Kolbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infectious diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Against the background of ever-increasing resistance of bacteria, it is necessary to develop effective measures aimed at the structure optimization of consumption of antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the pharmacoepidemiological data describing either the consumption of antimicrobial agents or the resistance level to them is required. Objective: Our aim was to assess the antimicrobial load in term and preterm newborns during their stay in the maternity wards and/or in the intensive care units (ICU. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study has been carried out. The analysis included data of 419 newborns from 5 medical centers. The study has been carried out as part of a multi-purpose program on antibiotic resistance containment being held in St. Petersburg from 2014. Results. The antimicrobial load on the child's body expressed in days of the antimicrobial therapy was 1,838 per 1,000 patient-days in children staying in the ICU for not more than 16 days, and 1,434 per 1,000 patient-days when staying in the ICU for more than 16 days. The average duration of the antimicrobial therapy is 28 days in the ICU and 5 days out the ICU (department for newborns, physiological departments. The most commonly, the children were treated with ampicillin — 384 (92%, gentamicin — 254 (61%, and fluconazole — 150 (36%. The prevalence of off-label prescriptions was 41% (of 1,557 analyzed prescriptions, unlicensed prescriptions — 10%. Congenital infections were the main reasons for prescription of antimicrobial drugs — 225 (62%. Conclusion. The high anti-bacterial load in newborns has been established. The indicator 'days of antimicrobial therapy' in the ICU is 4 times higher than that in the United States. The prevalence of off-label and unlicensed prescriptions is comparable with foreign data.

  4. Nurses' perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses' survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Nurses are highly aware of adherence issues faced by their patients; further patient

  5. Quality of life among schoolchildren with acne: Results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavenka Jankovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne is a common problem in adolescent children and has a considerable impact on their quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL among Serbian adolescents with acne, using 2 questionnaires: The Children′s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI and the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI and to provide a cross validation of 2 scales. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the pupils of the secondary railway-technical school in Belgrade, Serbia. 478 pupils (aged 15 - 18 years completed 2 HRQoL questionnaires: CDLQI and CADI. We used t-test for differences between mean values of CDLQI and CADI and Spearman′s rho coefficient for correlation between 2 questionnaires. Results: Self-reported acne was present in 71.6% of pupils (64.3% boys and 35.7% girls. The overall mean CDLQI score (4.35 of max. 30 and the overall mean CADI score (3.57 of max. 15 were low, indicating a mild impairment of HRQoL among adolescants. There was good correlation between the 2 questionnaires (Spearman′ rho = 0.66. Conclusion: The CADI and the CDLQI questionnaires represent simple and reliable instruments for the assesment of HRQoL among schoolchildren with acne. In this study, we identified 17% of boys and 18% of girls perceived their acne as a major problem. It is important to detect and treat such adolescents on time to reduce the psychosocial burden associated with acne.

  6. The contribution of databases to the results of systematic reviews: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Hartling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the best sources for high quality information about healthcare interventions is a systematic review. A well-conducted systematic review includes a comprehensive literature search. There is limited empiric evidence to guide the extent of searching, in particular the number of electronic databases that should be searched. We conducted a cross-sectional quantitative analysis to examine the potential impact of selective database searching on results of meta-analyses. Methods Our sample included systematic reviews (SRs with at least one meta-analysis from three Cochrane Review Groups: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI, Infectious Diseases (ID, Developmental Psychosocial and Learning Problems (DPLP (n = 129. Outcomes included: 1 proportion of relevant studies indexed in each of 10 databases; and 2 changes in results and statistical significance of primary meta-analysis for studies identified in Medline only and in Medline plus each of the other databases. Results Due to variation across topics, we present results by group (ARI n = 57, ID n = 38, DPLP n = 34. For ARI, identification of relevant studies was highest for Medline (85 % and Embase (80 %. Restricting meta-analyses to trials that appeared in Medline + Embase yielded fewest changes in statistical significance: 53/55 meta-analyses showed no change. Point estimates changed in 12 cases; in 7 the change was less than 20 %. For ID, yield was highest for Medline (92 %, Embase (81 %, and BIOSIS (67 %. Restricting meta-analyses to trials that appeared in Medline + BIOSIS yielded fewest changes with 1 meta-analysis changing in statistical significance. Point estimates changed in 8 of 31 meta-analyses; change less than 20 % in all cases. For DPLP, identification of relevant studies was highest for Medline (75 % and Embase (62 %. Restricting meta-analyses to trials that appeared in Medline + PsycINFO resulted in only one change in

  7. Measurement of {sup 238}Np fission cross-section by neutrons near thermal point (preliminary results)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramo; vich, S.N.; Andreev, M.F.; Bol`shakov, Y.M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Measurements have been carried out of {sup 238}Np fission cross-section by thermal neutrons. The isotope {sup 238}Np was built up through the reaction {sup 238}U(p,n) on an electrostatic accelerator. Extraction and cleaning of the sample were done by ion-exchange chromatography. Fast neutrons were generated on the electrostatic accelerator through the reaction {sup 9}Be(d,n); a polyethylene block was used to slow down neutrons. Registration of fission fragments was performed with dielectric track detectors. Suggesting that the behavior of {sup 238}Np and {sup 238}U. Westscott`s factors are indentical the fission cross-section of {sup 238}Np was obtained: {sigma}{sub fo}=2110 {plus_minus} 75 barn.

  8. Attitudes towards organ donation among waitlisted transplant patients: results of a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Merola, Jonathan; Pei, Kevin; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I.; Gan, Geliang; Deng, Yanhong; Mulligan, David C.; Davis, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Organ shortage remains a major barrier to transplantation. While many efforts have focused on educating the general population regarding donation, few studies have examined knowledge regarding donation and donor registration rates among waitlisted candidates. We aimed to determine waitlisted patients' willingness to donate, elucidate attitudes surrounding organ allocation, and identify barriers to donation. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to assess demographics, knowledge regarding o...

  9. Oral Health and Quality of Life in Old Age: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Project in Germany and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skośkiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Noack, Barbara; Kaderali, Lars; Malicka, Barbara; Lorenz, Katrin; Walczak, Katarzyna; Weber, Marie-Theres; Mendak-Ziółko, Magdalena; Hoffmann, Thomas; Ziętek, Marek; Walter, Michael; Kaczmarek, Urszula; Hannig, Christian; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata; Raedel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The process of ageing influences all dimensions of social life and personal well-being, but the influence of health on different dimensions of quality of life (QoL) among the elderly is rarely examined. The aim of the pilot study is to test the feasibility of a comprehensive study design to evaluate general and dental health as well as QoL in a bi-national sample. In addition, this pilot study should allow for the exploration of potential interactions between QoL, socioeconomic, health and oral health variables. Individuals aged 64 years and older (n = 100) from university dental clinics of the Wroclaw Medical University, Poland (n = 50) and of the University Hospital in Dresden, Germany (n = 50) were examined. The oral health status of participants was assessed by clinical examination. Socio-demographic, environmental and general health status were evaluated during the medical interview. General quality of life (GQoL) was assessed by an overall question with a visual analogue scale (VAS) from -5 (worst) to +5 (best). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) were measured with the EQ-5D and OHIP-14 questionnaires. Statistical analyses comprised Pearson's c2 test, Wilcoxon test, linear regression model for statistical analysis and different multivariate linear regression analyses. For the GQoL-VAS-Score the results for QoL measurements were 1.22 ± 2.62 (x± SD), for EQ-5D-Score 7.45 ± 2.25 (x± SD), and for OHIP-14-ADD-Score 11.04 ± 13.56 (x± SD). Differences between Polish and German populations were observed. The study design proved to be feasible for a senior population. The overall GQoL question, EQ-5D and OHIP-14 were regarded as appropriate instruments. Subjective and objective (oral) health measures showed differences between Germany and Poland. For methodological reasons, these differences are not generalizable, but of value for study hypotheses in larger samples.

  10. [Cross-sectional study of satisfaction with studies and lifestyle among medical students in Austria, Germany and Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschera, Dominik; Westermann, Leonard; Isenegger, Patrick; Zellweger, René

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to examine potential differences in various aspects of life as well as study satisfaction amongst medical students of three German speaking countries. Data was collected between February and June 2010 using an online survey with the open source survey tool Limesurvey (Version 1.85 RC3). 1179 medical students in year 4-6 completed the online questionnaire (798 in Germany (Ger), 265 in Austria (A) and 116 in Switzerland (CH)). Mean age was similar (25.0-25.3) for the countries (p = 0.14). Respondents from Austria were significantly more often (17.4 %) smoking than Swiss (12.1 %) or German (10 %) medical students (p = 0.002). The average number of hours spent studying per week and desired weekly work hours varied significantly between countries. The average desired working week post-graduation was 42 hours. The perceived ability to work as junior doctor post-graduation was below 5 on a visual analogue scale of 1-10. Results of consumption, work life balance and activity were similar to statistics of the population of each country. With regard to the desired work time after graduation this is in clear contrast to the reality as a doctor. Improvement of medical courses can be achieved with better preparation for the internship. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Bernaards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of

  12. Antihypertensive combination therapy in primary care offices: results of a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland

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    Roas S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Roas,1 Felix Bernhart,2 Michael Schwarz,3 Walter Kaiser,4 Georg Noll5 1Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, 2Private Practice, Biberist, 3Ambulatorium Wiesendamm, Basel, 4Healthworld (Schweiz AG, Steinhausen, 5HerzKlinik Hirslanden, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Most hypertensive patients need more than one substance to reach their target blood pressure (BP. Several clinical studies indicate the high efficacy of antihypertensive combinations, and recent guidelines recommend them in some situations even as initial therapies. In general practice they seem widespread, but only limited data are available on their effectiveness under the conditions of everyday life. The objectives of this survey among Swiss primary care physicians treating hypertensive patients were: to know the frequency of application of different treatment modalities (monotherapies, free individual combinations, single-pill combinations; to see whether there are relationships between prescribed treatment modalities and patient characteristics, especially age, treatment duration, and comorbidities; and to determine the response rate (percentage of patients reaching target BP of different treatment modalities under the conditions of daily practice. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational survey among 228 randomly chosen Swiss primary care physicians analyzed data for 3,888 consecutive hypertensive patients collected at one single consultation. Results: In this survey, 31.9% of patients received monotherapy, 41.2% two substances, 20.9% three substances, and 4.7% more than three substances. By combination mode, 34.9% took free individual combinations and 30.0% took fixed-dose single-pill combinations. Combinations were more frequently given to older patients with a long history of hypertension and/or comorbidities. In total, 67.8% of patients achieved their BP target according to their physician's judgment. When compared, single

  13. Direct measurement of nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest: Results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Francesca; Prati, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis are interconnected by a wide network of nuclear reactions: the study of such connection is usually known as nuclear astrophysics. The main task of this discipline is the determination of nuclear cross-section and hence of the reaction rate in different scenarios, i.e. from the synthesis of a few very light isotopes just after the Big Bang to the heavy element production in the violent explosive end of massive stars. The experimental determination of reaction cross-section at the astrophysical relevant energies is extremely difficult, sometime impossible, due to the Coulomb repulsion between the interacting nuclei which turns out in cross-section values down to the fbar level. To overcome these obstacles, several experimental approaches have been developed and the adopted techniques can be roughly divided into two categories, i.e. direct and indirect methods. In this review paper, the general problem of nuclear astrophysics is introduced and discussed from the point of view of experimental approach. We focus on direct methods and in particular on the features of low-background experiments performed at underground laboratory facilities. The present knowledge of reactions involved in the Big Bang and stellar hydrogen-burning scenarios is discussed as well as the ongoing projects aiming to investigate mainly the helium- and carbon-burning phases. Worldwide, a new generation of experiment in the MeV range is in the design phase or at the very first steps and decisive progresses are expected to come in the next years.

  14. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prevalence of Buruli ulcer in Akonolinga health district, Cameroon: results of a cross sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Porten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is a chronic, indolent necrotizing disease of the skin and underlying tissues caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, which may result in functional incapacity. In 2002, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF opened a BU programme in Akonolinga Hospital, Cameroon, offering antibiotic treatment, surgery and general medical care. Six hundred patients have been treated in the project to date. However, due to the nature of the disease and its stigmatization, determining the exact prevalence and burden of disease is difficult and current estimates may not reflect the magnitude of the problem. The objectives of this survey were to estimate the prevalence of BU in the health district of Akonolinga, describe the geographic extension of the highly endemic area within the health district, and determine the programme coverage and its geographical distribution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional population survey using centric systematic area sampling (CSAS. A 15x15 km grid (quadrats of 225 km(2 was overlaid on a map of Akonolinga district with its position chosen to maximize the area covered by the survey. Quadrats were selected if more than 50% of the quadrat was inside of the health district. The chiefdom located closest to the centre of each quadrat was selected and Buruli cases were identified using an active case finding strategy (the sensitivity of the strategy was estimated by capture-recapture. WHO-case definitions were used for nodules, plaque, ulcer, oedema and sequelae. Out of a total population of 103,000 inhabitants, 26,679 were surveyed within the twenty quadrats. Sensitivity of the case finding strategy was estimated to be 84% (95%CI 54-97%. The overall prevalence was 0.47% (n = 105 for all cases including sequelae and 0.25% (n = 56 for active stages of the disease. Five quadrats had a high prevalence of >0.6% to 0.9%, 5 a prevalence >0.3% to 0.6% and 10 quadrats <0.3%. The quadrats with the high

  16. First results of total and partial cross-section measurements of the 107Ag(p,γ)108Cd reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Felix; Mayer, Jan; Scholz, Philipp; Spieker, Mark; Zilges, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The γ process is assumed to play an important role in the nucleosynthesis of the majority of the p nuclei. Since the network of the γ process includes so many different reactions and - mainly unstable - nuclei, cross-section values are predominantly calculated in the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. The values heavily depend on the nuclear-physics input parameters. The results of total and partial cross-section measurements are used to improve the accuracy of the theoretical calculations. In order to extend the experimental database, the 107Ag(p,γ)108Cd reaction was studied via the in-beam method at the high-efficiency HPGe γ-ray spectrometer HORUS at the University of Cologne. Proton beams with energies between 3.5 MeV and 5.0 MeV were provided by the 10 MV FN-Tandem accelerator leading to the determination of four new total cross-section values. After slight adjustments of the nuclear level density and γ-ray strength function an excellent agreement between theoretical calculations and experimentally deduced values for both total and partial cross sections has been obtained.

  17. Practice and bias in intraoperative pain management: results of a cross-sectional patient study and a survey of anesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Ward,1 Charlotte Guest,2 Ian Goodall,2 Carsten Bantel3,4 1Pain Service, Barts Health, St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, UK; 2Pain Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 3Section of Anaesthetics, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK; 4Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine, Emergency Medicine and Pain Management, Universität Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany Background: Perioperative pain carries a considerable risk of becoming persistent; hence aggressive preventive approaches are advocated. Persistently high prevalence of postoperative pain, however, suggests anesthesiologists underuse these strategies. A prospective cross-sectional study of patients in the postanesthetic care unit (PACU and a survey of anesthesiologists were thus conducted to evaluate practice and uncover bias in intraoperative pain management. Methods: Notes of PACU patients were reviewed and information regarding surgical context, comorbidities, and analgesic administration was retrieved. Variables were analyzed for their predictive properties on pain and intraoperative analgesic management. Furthermore, clinical dose–effect estimates for intraoperative morphine were determined. Finally, anesthesiologists completed a questionnaire comprising statements regarding pain relating to surgical context and morphine administration. Results: Data of 200 patients and 55 anesthesiologists were analyzed. Prevalence of pain in PACU was 28% and was predicted by local anesthetic (LA and low-dose morphine administration. Additionally, when LA was used, little coanalgesics were employed. These results suggest a restrained approach by anesthesiologists toward intraoperative pain management. It is supported by their reluctance to administer more than 10 mg morphine, despite these individuals regarding this practice as insufficient. The hesitancy toward morphine also transpired

  18. Attitudes towards organ donation among waitlisted transplant patients: results of a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Jonathan; Pei, Kevin; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I.; Gan, Geliang; Deng, Yanhong; Mulligan, David C.; Davis, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Organ shortage remains a major barrier to transplantation. While many efforts have focused on educating the general population regarding donation, few studies have examined knowledge regarding donation and donor registration rates among waitlisted candidates. We aimed to determine waitlisted patients' willingness to donate, elucidate attitudes surrounding organ allocation, and identify barriers to donation. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to assess demographics, knowledge regarding organ donation, and attitudes regarding the allocation process. Responses from 225 of 579 (39%) waitlisted patients were collected. 71 respondents (32%) were registered donors, while 64 patients (28%) noted no interest in participating in donation. 19% of respondents felt their medical treatment would change by being a donor, while 86 patients (38%) felt their condition precluded them from donation. 40 patients (18%) felt they should be prioritized on the waitlist if they agreed to donate. A minority of patients (28%) reported discussion of organ donation with their physician. Waitlisted candidates constitute a population of willing, though often unregistered, organ donors. Moreover, many endorse misconceptions regarding the allocation process and their donation eligibility. In a population for which transplantation is not always possible, education is needed regarding organ donation among waitlisted patients, as this may enhance donation rates. PMID:27582432

  19. Attitudes toward organ donation among waitlisted transplant patients: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Jonathan; Pei, Kevin Y; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Gan, Geliang; Deng, Yanhong; Mulligan, David C; Davis, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Organ shortage remains a major barrier to transplantation. While many efforts have focused on educating the general population regarding donation, few studies have examined knowledge regarding donation and donor registration rates among waitlisted candidates. We aimed to determine waitlisted patients' willingness to donate, elucidate attitudes surrounding organ allocation, and identify barriers to donation. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to assess demographics, knowledge regarding organ donation, and attitudes regarding the allocation process. Responses from 225 of 579 (39%) waitlisted patients were collected. Seventy-one respondents (32%) were registered donors, while 64 patients (28%) noted no interest in participating in donation. A total of 19% of respondents felt their medical treatment would change by being a donor, while 86 patients (38%) felt their condition precluded them from donation. Forty patients (18%) felt they should be prioritized on the waitlist if they agreed to donate. A minority of patients (28%) reported discussion of organ donation with their physician. Waitlisted candidates constitute a population of willing, although often unregistered, organ donors. Moreover, many endorse misconceptions regarding the allocation process and their donation eligibility. In a population for which transplantation is not always possible, education is needed regarding organ donation among waitlisted patients, as this may enhance donation rates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Quality of life among schoolchildren with acne: results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Slavenka; Vukicevic, Jelica; Djordjevic, Sanja; Jankovic, Janko; Marinkovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common problem in adolescent children and has a considerable impact on their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Serbian adolescents with acne, using 2 questionnaires: The Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) and to provide a cross validation of 2 scales. This cross-sectional study was conducted among the pupils of the secondary railway-technical school in Belgrade, Serbia. 478 pupils (aged 15 - 18 years) completed 2 HRQoL questionnaires: CDLQI and CADI. We used t-test for differences between mean values of CDLQI and CADI and Spearman's rho coefficient for correlation between 2 questionnaires. Self-reported acne was present in 71.6% of pupils (64.3% boys and 35.7% girls). The overall mean CDLQI score (4.35 of max. 30) and the overall mean CADI score (3.57 of max. 15) were low, indicating a mild impairment of HRQoL among adolescants. There was good correlation between the 2 questionnaires (Spearman' rho = 0.66). The CADI and the CDLQI questionnaires represent simple and reliable instruments for the assesment of HRQoL among schoolchildren with acne. In this study, we identified 17% of boys and 18% of girls perceived their acne as a major problem. It is important to detect and treat such adolescents on time to reduce the psychosocial burden associated with acne.

  1. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J; Kowall, B; Schmiedel, S; Reis, U; Potthoff, P; Schüz, J; Berg-Beckhoff, G

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations affected their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18.7% of participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who were concerned about or attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station (500 m) reported slightly more health complaints than others. A substantial proportion of the German population is concerned about adverse health effects caused by exposure from mobile phone base stations. The observed slightly higher prevalence of health complaints near base stations can not however be fully explained by attributions or concerns.

  2. Preparation of 3-7 MeV neutron source and preliminary results of activation cross section measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, T.; Masuda, T.; Tsurita, Y.; Hashimoto, A.; Miyajima, N. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Sakane, H.; Shibata, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K.

    1999-03-01

    A d-D gas target producing monoenergetic neutrons has been constructed for measurement of activation cross sections in the energy region of 3 to 7 MeV at Van de Graaff accelerator of Nagoya University. Neutron spectra and neutron fluxes were measured as a function of the incident deuteron energy. Preliminary results of activation cross sections were obtained for reactions {sup 27}Al(n, p){sup 27}Mg, {sup 27}Al(n, {alpha}){sup 24}Na, {sup 47}Ti(n, p){sup 47}Sc, {sup 56}Fe(n, p){sup 56}Mn, {sup 58}Ni(n, p){sup 58}Co and {sup 64}Zn(n, p){sup 64}Cu. The results are compared with the evaluated values of JENDL-3.2. A well-type HPGe detector was used for highly efficient detection. (author)

  3. Sharing Responsibilities within the General Practice Team - A Cross-Sectional Study of Task Delegation in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karola Mergenthal

    Full Text Available Expected growth in the demand for health services has generated interest in the more effective deployment of health care assistants. Programs encouraging German general practitioners (GPs to share responsibility for care with specially qualified health care assistants in the family practice (VERAHs have existed for several years. But no studies have been conducted on the tasks German GPs are willing to rely on specially qualified personnel to perform, what they are prepared to delegate to all non-physician practice staff and what they prefer to do themselves.As part of an evaluation study on the deployment of VERAHs in GP-centered health care, we used a questionnaire to ask about task delegation within the practice team. From a list of tasks that VERAHs are specifically trained to carry out, GPs were asked to indicate which they actually delegate. We also asked GPs why they had employed a VERAH in their practice and for their opinions on the benefits and limitations of assigning tasks to VERAHs. The aim of the study was to find out which tasks GPs delegate to their specially qualified personnel, which they permit all HCAs to carry out, and which tasks they do not delegate at all.The survey was filled in and returned by 245 GPs (83%. Some tasks were exclusively delegated to VERAHs (e.g. home visits, while others were delegated to all HCAs (e.g. vaccinations. About half the GPs rated the assessment of mental health, as part of the comprehensive assessment of a patient's condition, as the sole responsibility of a GP. The possibility to delegate more complex tasks was the main reason given for employing a VERAH. Doctors said the delegation of home visits provided them with the greatest relief.In Germany, where GPs are solely accountable for the health care provided in their practices, experience with the transfer of responsibility to other non-physician health care personnel is still very limited. When HCAs have undergone special training, GPs seem

  4. On the influence of sample and target properties on the results of energy-dependent cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, G.

    1988-01-01

    The impact of sample and target properties on the accuracy of experimental nuclear cross section data is discussed in the context of the basic requirements in order to obtain reliable results from the respective measurements from the user's point of view. Special emphasis is put on activation measurements with fast neutrons. Some examples are given and suggestions are made based on experiences and recent investigations by the author and his coworkers. (author). Abstract only

  5. Orthostatic hypotension and cognitive function: cross-sectional results from the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemoto, Claudia K; Baena, Cristina P; Mill, Jose G; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela

    2018-03-20

    The association between orthostatic hypotension (OH) and cognitive impairment is controversial, and most studies have investigated older white adults from Western Europe and the United States. Therefore, we investigated the association between OH and cognitive performance in a large and racially diverse sample of adults using cross-sectional data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). OH was defined when systolic blood pressures (SBP) decreased 20 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased 10 mmHg from supine to standing position. We investigated the association between OH and composite global cognition, memory, verbal fluency (VF), and Trail Making test z-scores, using multiple linear regression models. We also investigated the association of orthostatic hypertension and SBP/DBP changes with cognitive performance, as well as the interaction between OH and compensatory heart rate (HR) after postural change on cognitive performance. We evaluated 12,826 participants (mean age=51.5±9.0 years, 46% male, 53% white). Participants with OH (4% of the sample) had poorer z-scores for VF (β=-0.108, 95% CI=-0.189; -0.025, p=0.01) than participants without OH. Orthostatic hypertension was also associated with worse performance on the VF test (β=-0.080, 95% CI=-0.157; -0.003, p=0.04). SBP orthostatic change had a non-linear association with VF. The interaction terms between OH and compensatory increase in HR for the Trail Making Test z-score (p=0.09) was borderline significant, suggesting that participants who lack compensatory HR after postural change might have poorer performance. OH and orthostatic hypertension were associated with poorer performance on the VF test in participants from Brazil.

  6. Use of point-of-care tests among general practitioners: a cross-sectional study in Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Thomas; Steger, Kathleen; Deutsch, Tobias; Schmid, Gordian L; Sandholzer, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    There is little knowledge about the use of point-of-care (POC) tests among general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study was to determine which POC tests are known and used by GPs and how they estimate the usefulness of those tests. The use of POC tests among GPs and university-associated general practitioners who teach undergraduates (GPTUs) was elucidated. Differences between GPs working in urban and rural areas were also investigated. The knowledge, utilisation and usefulness (as estimated by the responders) of 27 POC tests were assessed with a self-designed questionnaire in a random sample of GPs (n=244) and GPTUs (n=48) in Saxony, Germany. A total of 63 GPs and 31 GPTUs (response rates 26.5% and 64.6%, respectively) responded. No relevant difference between GPs and GPTUs was found. The GPs were familiar with 22.5±4.5 (mean ± standard deviation) of the laboratory parameters, the GPTUs with 22.9±4.3 (p=0.427). The amount of recognised POC tests was 11.6±4.9 vs 12.4±5.5 (GPs vs GPTUs; p=0.441). The amount of utilised POC tests was 5.5±2.3 vs 6.0±2.5 (GPs vs GPTUs; p=0.431). Rural GPs were familiar with more POC tests than urban GPs (mean number of tests (rural vs urban): 13.3±5.5 vs 10.6±4.4; p=0.011), but there was no difference in the amount of utilised POC tests. Twelve of the 27 POC tests were estimated as useful by more than 50% of the responders who answered this item. Only a limited number of rapid tests are estimated as useful and are used by GPs in Saxony.

  7. The Impact of Migration Background on the Health Outcomes of Preschool Children: Linking a Cross-Sectional Survey to the School Entrance Health Examination Database in Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Thu Giang Le; Heißenhuber, Annette; Schneider, Thomas; Schulz, Rebekka; Herr, Caroline Eva Wella; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; Hölscher, Gabriele

    2018-01-19

    This study investigated the impact of migration background on the health outcomes of preschool children from families of various social status levels. During the school entrance health examination (Schuleingangsuntersuchung (SEU)) from October 2012 to August 2013, the parents of 5052 preschool children (62% response rate) participated in a cross-sectional health survey within the framework of health-monitoring units (Gesundheits-Monitoring-Einheiten (GME)) in Bavaria, Germany. They were handed a self-administered questionnaire with questions relating to the language spoken at home and other socio-demographic characteristics. By applying the record linkage method, 3747 participants were correctly linked to the corresponding data of the SEU. Based on the merged dataset, 4 definitions of migration background were explored regarding demographic indicators, the parents' mother tongue, and the language spoken at home. The association between migration background and health outcomes of preschool children was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models separately. The risk estimates were presented for the study population and stratified into high, medium, and low social status. The models were repeated for each of the 4 migration background variables. The results show significant associations between migration background and health outcomes of preschool children (except in pronunciation). A migration background had the strongest impact on the development of word/sentence formation disorder. Compared to non-migrant preschool children, migrant children had twice the chances for full vaccination coverage (OR [95% CI]: 2.4 [1.9-3.1]) but only half the chance to participate in all health examinations from U1 to U9 (0.5 [0.4-0.6]). These children were also at two-fold increased risk to be overweight/obese (2.2 [1.7-2.8]). Moreover, preschool children with double-sided migration from medium social status families faced the highest risk for word/sentence formation

  8. Do socio-cultural factors influence medical students’ health status and health-promoting behaviors? A cross-sectional multicenter study in Germany and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Riemenschneider

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and mental health is important for coping with the high requirements of medical studies that are associated with a higher risk for severe stress, insomnia, smoking, harmful alcohol consumption and easier access to drugs. Health behaviors of medical students influence not just their own health but also the health of their future patients. We examined whether socio-cultural factors can explain differences in students’ health status and health-promoting behaviors. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional survey in Germany (Dresden, Munich and Hungary (Budapest, Pécs enclosed international medical students in their 1st, 3rd and 5th academic years. The students were invited to voluntarily and anonymously complete a questionnaire on different aspects of health behavior during obligatory seminars and lectures in 2014. The response rate of the total sample was 56.2 % (n = 2935; the subgroup analysis enclosed data of German (n = 1289, Hungarian (n = 1057 and Norwegian (n = 148 students. Results A high number of Norwegian students (84.5 % assessed their health status as very good/excellent. In comparison, only 60.3 % of the Hungarian and 70.7 % of the German participants reported a very good/excellent health status. The distributions were comparable between the study sites. Although gender, financial situation and nationality were significant health status predictors, they could explain only 8.2 % of the total variance of health status in the multivariable model. A comparably high number of Hungarian students (95.3 % vs. 67.4 % German and 56.7 % Norwegian reported that they can currently do a lot/very much for their health. In contrast, a significant number of Norwegians (73.0 % vs. 63.7 % Hungarian and 51.5 % German reported that they currently do a lot/very much for their health (chi2-test, p ≤ 0.001. Financial situation, study site and study year were the strongest predictors for health

  9. Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Elementary School Children: Results of a Cross-Sectional Teacher Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Lauren N; Chuang, Kai-wen; Champeau, Angelique; Allen, I Elaine; Copp, Hillary L

    2016-04-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction in school-aged children is common and yet data are lacking on current teacher practice regarding bathroom use and daytime incontinence during classroom hours. We determined the prevalence of elementary school teachers who promote lower urinary tract health and identified predictors for and against such behavioral promotion. We performed an electronic cross-sectional survey among self-identified teachers using targeted social media advertisement during a 1-week period in July 2014. The empirical survey tool consisted of 27 questions and collected data on 5 principal domains, including 1) teacher demographics, 2) rules and regulations on water intake and bathroom use during classroom hours, 3) characteristics of school bathrooms in terms of safety, supervision and suitability for use, 4) experience with and management of students with daytime incontinence and 5) training on the topic of lower urinary tract health. Predictors for promoting lower urinary tract health were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Of the 4,166 teachers who completed the survey 88% indicated that they encourage students to hold urine. Despite strict bathroom protocols 81% of teachers allowed children unlimited access to water. Of the teachers 82% reported never having undergone any professional development on bathroom regulations for children. Overall only 24% of surveyed teachers met criteria for promoting lower urinary tract health. The odds of promoting lower urinary tract health decreased with ascending grade level (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.84). Conversely it increased if teaching experience was greater than 5 years (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.39-1.98) or professional development on the subject had been received (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.18-1.70). Of elementary school teachers 76% are not promoting lower urinary tract health in school-aged children. Professional development training on the topics of lower urinary tract dysfunction and/or lower urinary tract

  10. Searching for a relevant definition of sarcopenia: results from the cross-sectional EPIDOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Charlotte; Lauwers-Cances, Valérie; Guyonnet, Sophie; Gentil, Catherine; Abellan Van Kan, Gabor; Beauchet, Olivier; Schott, Anne-Marie; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of definitions proposed for sarcopenia has been rarely tested in the same population, and so far, their clinical utilities for predicting physical difficulties could not be clearly understood. Our objective is to report the prevalence of sarcopenia and the characteristics of sarcopenic community-dwelling older women according to the different definitions of sarcopenia currently proposed. We also assessed these definitions for their incremental predictive value over currently standard predictors for some self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength. Cross-sectional analysis included data from 3025 non-disabled women aged 75 years or older without previous history of hip fracture from the inclusion visit of the EPIDémiologie de l'OStéoporose study. A total body composition evaluation was available for 2725 women. Sarcopenia was defined using six different definitions of sarcopenia based on different muscle mass, gait speed, and grip strength cut-offs. Self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength were collected. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression models were built for each physical dysfunction, and the predictive capacity of sarcopenia (one model for each definition) was studied using the C-statistic, the net reclassification index, or adjusted R(2). The estimated prevalence of sarcopenia ranged from 3.3-20.0%. Only 85 participants (3.1%) were identified having sarcopenia according to all definitions. All definitions were, to some degree, associated with self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength, but none improved the predictive ability of the self-reported difficulties in physical function. Conversely, all definitions accounted for a small but significant amount of explained variation for predicting knee extension strength. Prevalence of sarcopenia varies widely depending on the definition adopted. Based on this research, the current

  11. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2016-10-26

    Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.

  12. The intergenerational production of depression in South Korea: results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, B G; Veenstra, G

    2017-01-13

    Although a number of studies have uncovered relationships between parental capital and the manifestation of depression in their children, little is known about the mechanisms that undergird the relationships. This study investigates the intergenerational effects of the cultural and economic capitals of South Korean parents on depressive symptoms in their adult children and the degree to which the capitals of the adult children explain them. We employed nationally representative cross-sectional survey data from the 2006 Korea Welfare Panel Study. A sample of 11,576 adults over thirty years of age was used to investigate the intergenerational production of depression in South Korea. We applied binary logistic regression modelling to the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Parental education (institutionalized cultural capital) manifested an independent and statistically significant inverse association with depressive symptoms [OR = 1.680 (95% CI: 1.118-2.523) for men; OR = 2.146 (95% CI: 1484-3.102) for women]. Childhood economic circumstances (economic capital) had an independent and statistically significant inverse association with depressive symptoms among adult women only [OR = 2.009 (95% CI: 1.531-2.635)]. The education of the adult children themselves was strongly associated with depressive symptoms in the expected direction [OR = 4.202 (95% CI: 2.856-6.181) for men; OR = 4.058 (95% CI: 2.824-5.830)] and the most of the association between parental capitals and depressive symptoms was explained by the educational attainment of the children. Receipt of monetary inheritance from parents had a weak but statistically significant association with depression among men [OR = 1.248 (95% CI: 1.041-1.496)] but was unrelated to depression among women. A large portion of the association between respondent education and depressive symptoms was explained by household income. Finally, childhood economic circumstances were

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in ethnic populations within Canada: results from national cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard; So, Lawrence; Mohan, Sailesh; Khan, Nadia; King, Kathryn; Quan, Hude

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors have been noted across ethnic groups both within and between countries. The Canadian population is becoming increasingly diverse because of immigration. Understanding ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors is critically important in planning appropriate prevention strategies for the country's rapidly changing population. We sought to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in various Canadian ethnic groups. We analyzed 3 cross-sectional cycles (for 2000, 2003 and 2005) of the Canadian Community Health Survey of people aged 12 years and older. The surveys were conducted by means of self-reported questionnaires. We used stratified analysis to evaluate the relation between risk factors and ethnicity. The effect of participants' ethnicity on the prevalence of risk factors was estimated by means of logistic regression, with adjustment for differences in age, sex, marital status, education, household income, language spoken, immigration status, residency type (urban or rural), household size, region (province or territory) and chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, cancer, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bowel disease, arthritis, epilepsy, ulcers, thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus). We included 371 154 individuals in the analysis. Compared with white people, people from visible minorities (i.e., neither white nor Aboriginal) had a lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus (4.5% v. 4.0%), hypertension (14.7% v. 10.8%), smoking (20.4% v. 9.7%) and obesity (defined as body mass index ≥ 30; 14.8% v. 9.7%) but a higher prevalence of physical inactivity (50.3% v. 58.1%). More specifically, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, people from most visible minorities, in comparison with the white population, were less likely to smoke; were more likely to be physically inactive, with the exception of people of Korean, Japanese and

  14. An explorative cross-sectional study examining self-reported health and nutritional status of disadvantaged people using food banks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depa, Julia; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Tinnemann, Peter; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2015-11-24

    Even in high-income countries some population groups depend on food banks to support their food intake. We aimed to explore and compare health and nutritional status of food bank clients (Tafel e.V.) in different cities in Germany. In a cross-sectional study, self-reported health and nutritional status of food bank clients living in three cities (Berlin - capital, Ludwigsburg- affluent city, Fulda - small town) which differ in size, available income and poverty rate, were assessed and compared to survey variables of the low socioeconomic status population of national surveys (DEGS and GEDA). Across cities, food bank clients (N = 276, response rate of 21.5 %) did not differ in main socio-demographic characteristics (age, nationality, education, professional qualification, household income). Smoking, having at least one chronic illness, estimating their own health status as moderate to poor and low consumption of fruits and vegetables were common characteristics. Comparing selected variables with the low socioeconomic status population of DEGS and GEDA, differences were found for a higher prevalence of diabetes among food bank clients and a worse self-reported health status. Considerably lower fruit consumption and lower hypertension prevalence among female and lower overweight rates among male food bank clients were found. Although people using food banks vary in socio-demographic background, no differences for main demographics across the cities were found. In addition, the study suggests that for some health- and nutrition-related variables, national surveys in Germany might underestimate socioeconomic differences.

  15. Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines in dental practices in Hesse, Germany: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, Mardjan; Hack, Alfons

    2013-03-01

    The quality of water from dental units is of considerable importance since patients and dental staff are regularly exposed to water and aerosols generated from the dental unit. This study analyzed the microbial quality of water obtained for periodical monitoring from 56 dental units in different dental practices in Hesse. Contamination by Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and increased total colony counts were detected in 27.8%, 3.5%, and 17% of samples. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 accounted for 28% of Legionella isolates. The Legionella concentration was >100 cfu/100 ml in 84% of contaminated samples. Samples collected from an instrument channel were more frequently contaminated by Legionella than those from cup filler (41.7% vs. 18.6%, p = 0.02). After release of these results, decontamination measures were performed in units that had revealed unsatisfactory results. The outcome of the intervention was followed-up by microbiological analysis. At follow-up, 65.2% and 72.7% of waterlines that had previously been contaminated by Legionella or had shown increased total colony counts were free of contamination. Our results show a high rate of contamination of water from dental units in dental practices in Hesse. They highlight the risk of exposure for patients and personnel and the need for effective strategies to reduce microbial contamination.

  16. Preoperative micronutrient status in morbidly obese patients before undergoing bariatric surgery: results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eva; Utech, Markus; Stehle, Peter; Büsing, Martin; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Ellinger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Reliable information on micronutrient status before bariatric surgery is needed to optimize preoperative nutritional status and postoperative nutritional therapy. To investigate the pro-/vitamin and mineral status and its association with nutrient intake in morbidly obese patients seeking bariatric surgery Klinikum Vest, Recklinghausen, Germany. The cross-sectional study investigated retinol, ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and β-carotene (high-pressure liquid chromatography), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and calcium, phosphate, and magnesium (photometry) in serum/plasma in 43 patients (body mass index: 52.6±10.5 kg/m(2)) before sleeve gastrectomy. Albumin, parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase were analyzed. Data were compared with accepted cutoff values. Dietary intake was estimated by 3-day food records, and nutrient intake was compared with recommended values. One third of participants had ascorbic acid concentrations2.8 µmol/mmol. Of the patients, 84% had 25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels below 50 nmol/L. Parathyroid hormone was elevated in 23% (>6.5 pmol/L). Calcium, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase were always, and phosphate was mostly (98%) above cutoff values. Intake of retinol (23%), ascorbic acid (55.8%), vitamin D (90.7%), tocopherol (48.8%), and β-carotene (nutritional intake and associations between low concentrations and inadequate intake were not observed. Many morbidly obese patients in Germany suffer from deficiencies in multiple micronutrients, particularly vitamin D, ascorbic acid, and β-carotene before sleeve gastrectomy. Measurement of preoperative micronutrient status will help supplement patients before, and optimize nutritional therapy after, surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Use in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskote, Aparna U; Tume, Lyvonne N; Trieschmann, Uwe; Menzel, Christoph; Cogo, Paola; Brown, Katherine L; Broadhead, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of near-infrared spectroscopy across pediatric cardiac ICUs, there is significant variability and equipoise with no universally accepted management algorithms. We aimed to explore the use of near-infrared spectroscopy in pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany. A cross-sectional multicenter, multinational electronic survey of one consultant in each pediatric cardiac ICU. Pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n = 13), Italy (n = 12), and Germany (n = 33). Questionnaire targeted to establish use, targets, protocols/thresholds for intervention, and perceived usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring. Overall, 42 of 58 pediatric cardiac ICUs (72%) responded: United Kingdom and Ireland, 11 of 13 (84.6%); Italy, 12 of 12 (100%); and Germany, 19 of 33 (57%, included all major centers). Near-infrared spectroscopy usage varied with 35% (15/42) reporting that near-infrared spectroscopy was not used at all (7/42) or occasionally (8/42); near-infrared spectroscopy use was much less common in the United Kingdom (46%) when compared with 78% in Germany and all (100%) in Italy. Only four units had a near-infrared spectroscopy protocol, and 18 specifically used near-infrared spectroscopy in high-risk patients; 37 respondents believed that near-infrared spectroscopy added value to standard monitoring and 23 believed that it gave an earlier indication of deterioration, but only 19 would respond based on near-infrared spectroscopy data alone. Targets for absolute values and critical thresholds for intervention varied widely between units. The reasons cited for not or occasionally using near-infrared spectroscopy were expense (n = 6), limited evidence and uncertainty on how it guides management (n = 4), difficulty in interpretation, and unreliability of data (n = 3). Amongst the regular or occasional near-infrared spectroscopy users (n = 35), 28 (66%) agreed that a multicenter study is warranted

  18. Determinants of HIV, viral hepatitis and STI prevention needs among African migrants in Germany; a cross-sectional survey on knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Hövener, Claudia; Marcus, Ulrich; Koschollek, Carmen; Oudini, Hapsatou; Wiebe, Mara; Ouedraogo, Omer Idrissa; Thorlie, Adama; Bremer, Viviane; Hamouda, Osamah; Dierks, Marie-Luise; An der Heiden, Matthias; Krause, Gérard

    2015-08-06

    Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (MisSA) are a relevant sub-group for HIV-transmission in Germany. A total of 10-15 % of all newly diagnosed cases are MisSA, and approximately one third acquired HIV in Germany. There is limited information on knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices (KABP) regarding sexual health in African communities residing in Germany. From October-December 2013 we conducted a cross-sectional survey on KABP regarding HIV, viral hepatitis (HEP), and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among MisSA in Hamburg as a community-based participatory research project to identify knowledge gaps, sexual risk behavior regarding HIV/HEP/STI, HIV/STI-testing history and attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH). Trained peer researchers recruited participants through outreach. Questionnaires in German, English or French were either administered face-to-face or self-completed. Questions on knowledge about HIV/HEP/STI presented true statements; participants were asked if they knew the information before. To detect differences in sub-groups, unadjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated, and a multivariate analysis for knowledge on HIV/HEP/STI was performed. The final sample included 569 participants of whom 57 % were men. Most participants originated from Western and Central sub-Saharan Africa. Median time living in Germany was 6 years. Overall, 28 % had a university degree and 54 % reported a good level of German language. Over 80 % knew the risks for HIV transmission. A total of 44 % of respondents wrongly assumed that an HIV-diagnosis might lead to deportation and 64 % were not aware of the free and anonymous local HIV/STI-testing service. The proportion of participants with knowledge of presented facts on HEP varied from 40-58 %. The respective proportion on STI was 28-68 % and better among women compared to men (44 % vs. 54 %; OR = 1.45; 95 % CI 1.22-1.74). Men reported more often casual sex partners than women (43 % vs. 23 %; OR = 2.6; 95 % CI 1

  19. Prevalence of multimorbidity in Germany: impact of age and educational level in a cross-sectional study on 19,294 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puth, Marie-Therese; Weckbecker, Klaus; Schmid, Matthias; Münster, Eva

    2017-10-18

    Multimorbidity is one of the most important and challenging aspects in public health. Multimorbid people are associated with more hospital admissions, a large number of drug prescriptions and higher risks of mortality. As there is evidence that multimorbidity varies with age and socioeconomic disparity, the main objective aimed at determining age-specific prevalence rates as well as exploring educational differences relating to multimorbidity in Germany. This cross-sectional analysis is based on the national telephone health interview survey "German Health Update" (GEDA2012) conducted between March 2012 and March 2013 with nearly 20,000 adults. GEDA2012 provides information on 17 self-reported health conditions along with sociodemographic characteristics. Multimorbidity was defined as the occurrence of two or more chronic conditions in one individual at the same time. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to examine multimorbidity according to age and education, which was defined by the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 1997). Overall, 39.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 38.7%-40.6%) of the 19,294 participants were multimorbid and the proportion of adults with multimorbidity increased substantially with age: nearly half (49.2%, 95% CI 46.9%-51.5%) of the adults aged 50-59 years had already two or more chronic health conditions. Prevalence rates of multimorbidity differed considerably between the levels of education. Low-level educated adults aged 40-49 years were more likely to be multimorbid with a prevalence rate of 47.4% (95% CI 44.2%-50.5%) matching those of highly educated men and women aged about ten years older. Our findings demonstrate that both, age and education are associated with a higher risk of being multimorbid in Germany. Hence, special emphasis in the development of new approaches in national public health and prevention programs on multimorbidity should be given to low-level educated people aged <65 years.

  20. Facebook use and chronotype: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Díaz-Morales, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Facebook has become the most popular social networking site round the world. In seeking an explanation for this phenomenon, individual differences in circadian functioning seem to be an interesting issue. The main aim of this study was to examine the potential associations between morningness/eveningness and Facebook use (intrusion and intensity). The participants were 663 Facebook users. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, Facebook Intensity Scale and the Composite Scale of Morningness were used. Our results indicate that chronotype is negatively related with Facebook usage. Eveningness people use Facebook intensively and their Facebook use is more intrusive. Moreover, eveningness in combination with young age predicted Facebook intensity.

  1. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

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    Lee-Jones Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  2. HELICOBACTER PYLORI PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE: results from a cross-sectional study

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    Juan LASA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Some previously published studies have suggested an inverse relationship between celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori, raising the possibility of the protective role Helicobacter pylori could have against celiac disease development. Nevertheless, this association is inconclusive. Objectives To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in celiac subjects. Methods Between January 2013 and June 2014, patients over 18 years old undergoing upper endoscopy who required both gastric and duodenal biopsies were included for analysis. Enrolled subjects were divided in two groups: those with a diagnosis of celiac disease and those without a celiac disease diagnosis. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence was compared between groups. Among celiac patients, endoscopic markers of villous atrophy as well as histological damage severity were compared between those with and without Helicobacter pylori infection. Results Overall, 312 patients were enrolled. Seventy two of them had a diagnosis of celiac disease. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence among celiac disease patients was 12.5%, compared to 30% in non-celiac patients [OR=0.33 (0.15-0.71]. There was not a significant difference in terms of the severity of villous atrophy in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection compared to those without it. There was a slight increase in the prevalence of endoscopic markers in those Helicobacter pylori-negative celiac subjects. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori infection seems to be less frequent in celiac patients; among those celiac subjects with concomitant Helicobacter pylori infection, histological damage degree and presence of endoscopic markers suggesting villous atrophy seem to be similar to those without Helicobacter pylori infection.

  3. Un análisis transversal y longitudinal en el estado de pobreza en Alemania = A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of poverty in Germany

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    González Rodríguez, María Rosario

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo se centra en un análisis transversal y longitudinal de la pobreza en Alemania en el período de 1985 a 1996, utilizando la base de datos Panel Comparability Project. El análisis transversal nos permite conocer cómo el proceso de reunificación alemana influye en el nivel de pobreza y en la intensidad de la misma. Por su parte, el análisis longitudinal nos permite seguir a los individuos en el tiempo, posibilitando la observación de los períodos en el estado de pobreza, la transición al estado de no pobreza, así como la longitud de su permanencia por debajo del umbral de pobreza. Dado que los datos contienen información de características individuales y del hogar, un análisis basado en las estimaciones de la función riesgo y de supervivencia hace posible la identificación de aquellas características socioeconómicas más destacables de la población que son propias de la pobreza permanente y transitoria. = The objective of this research focuses on both a cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of poverty in Germany from 1986 to 1996, using the Panel Comparability Project data set. On the one hand, the cross-sectional analysis allows us to know how the Reunification Process influences on the level and the intensity of poverty. On the other hand, the longitudinal analysis allows us to follow up the individuals in time, and therefore to observe the permanence in poverty, and the transition out of poverty. Since the data set contains information about household and individual characteristics, an analysis based on the estimations of the risk and survival function makes possible the identification of those socioeconomic characteristics of the population which are more proper of the permanent and transitory poverty.

  4. Area deprivation and its association with health in a cross-sectional study: are the results biased by recent migration?

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    Piro Fredrik

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between area deprivation and health has mostly been examined in cross-sectional studies or prospective studies with short follow-up. These studies have rarely taken migration into account. This is a possible source of misclassification of exposure, i.e. an unknown number of study participants are attributed an exposure of area deprivation that they may have experienced too short for it to have any influence. The aim of this article was to examine to what extent associations between area deprivation and health outcomes were biased by recent migration. Methods Based on data from the Oslo Health Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2000 in Oslo, Norway, we used six health outcomes (self rated health, mental health, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking and exercise and considered migration nine years prior to the study conduct. Migration into Oslo, between the areas of Oslo, and the changes in area deprivation during the period were taken into account. Associations were investigated by multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results After adjustment for individual socio-demographic variables we found significant associations between area deprivation and all health outcomes. Accounting for migration into Oslo and between areas of Oslo did not change these associations much. However, the people who migrated into Oslo were younger and had lower prevalences of unfavourable health outcomes than those who were already living in Oslo. But since they were evenly distributed across the area deprivation quintiles, they had little influence on the associations between area deprivation and health. Evidence of selective migration within Oslo was weak, as both moving up and down in the deprivation hierarchy was associated with significantly worse health than not moving. Conclusion We have documented significant associations between area deprivation and health outcomes in Oslo after

  5. The male-female earnings gap for nurses in Germany: A pooled cross-sectional study of the years 2006 and 2012.

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    Muench, Ulrike; Dietrich, Hans

    2017-07-14

    Nursing is one of the largest occupations for women in every country. Evidence suggests a substantial male-female pay gap for registered nurses in the U.S., possibly contributing to disparities between genders more broadly. Differences in motivation and skills between men and women have long been considered important factors in the gender earnings gap, but these factors are difficult to measure. Because of country specific educational pathways and limited upward job mobility in Germany, nurses tend to be more homogenous in their motivation to work and their work skills compared to the U.S. To study male-female earnings in the nursing labor market in Germany. This is a pooled cross-sectional study of survey data collected for the years 2006 and 2012. We used a representative survey of nurses (n=828) who are active labor force participants. In a multivariate ordinary least squares regression, the analysis estimated the log of monthly earnings for male and female nurses. The full model accounted for demographic, human capital, and geographic characteristics, in addition to employment characteristics, such as hours worked, additional education obtained, years of nursing experience, years of labor market experience, career inactivity, years with the employer, and responsibilities at work, among other factors. We conducted follow-up analyses to test alternative explanations for the pay gap, examining earnings for nurses who no longer worked in nursing and testing potential differences in motivation with the likelihood of working nightshifts and length of time with current employer. Unadjusted monthly earnings for full-time male nurses were 30% higher, or 700 Euros more, than monthly earnings for full-time female nurses. In the fully adjusted analysis, male nurses out-earned female nurses by approximately 9.3%, or 260 Euros per month. Follow-up analyses suggested that better outside options exist for male than female nurses in the German labor market, while we found no

  6. Oral Health and nutritional status in nursing home residents-results of an explorative cross-sectional pilot study.

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    Ziebolz, Dirk; Werner, Christine; Schmalz, Gerhard; Nitschke, Ina; Haak, Rainer; Mausberg, Rainer F; Chenot, Jean-François

    2017-01-31

    This study was performed to assess oral and nutritional status of nursing home residents in a region of Lower Saxony, Germany. The aim was to show potential associations between oral status (dentate or edentulous), further anamnestic factors (dementia, age, smoking) and the risk for malnutrition in this population. In this observational cross-sectional pilot study of residents from four nursing homes Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Body-Mass-Index (BMI), dental status (DMF-T) and periodontal situation (PSR ® /PSI) were recorded. Associations of recorded factors with oral health and nutritional status were examined in univariate and multivariate analysis. Eighty-seven residents participated in the study (mean age: 84.1 years; female: 72%, demented: 47%). Average BMI was 26.2 kg/m 2 ; according MNA 52% were at risk for malnutrition. 48% of the residents were edentulous, and the average DMF-T of dentulous was 25.0 (3.7) (D-T: 2.0 [3.1], M-T: 15.0 [8.3], F-T: 8.0 [7.4]); PSR ® /PSI 3 and 4 (need for periodontal treatment) showed 79% of residents. In univariate analysis dementia (OR 2.5 CI 95 1.1-5.6) but not being edentulous (OR 2.0 CI 95 0.8-5.8) were associated with being at risk for malnutrition. Dementia remained associated in multivariate analysis adjusting for age and sex, (OR 3.1 CI 95 1.2-8.2) and additionally being edentulous (OR 2.8 CI 95 1.1-7.3) became associated significantly. Furthermore, nursing home residents with dementia had more remaining teeth (OR 2.5 CI 95 1.1-5.9). Dementia was a stronger predictor for risk of malnutrition in nursing home residents than being edentulous. Further studies to elucidate the possible role of oral health as cofactor for malnutrition in dementia are needed.

  7. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  8. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

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    Pyörälä Satu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. Results The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39% responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308, dogs (n = 989 and cats (n = 311. For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%, followed by dry-cow therapy (21%, subclinical mastitis (6% and treatment for acute enteritis (4%. The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459, benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379, while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%. Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%, followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%. Conclusion This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful

  9. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: results of use in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja; Hautala, Maria; Pyörälä, Satu; Kaartinen, Liisa

    2008-04-14

    Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39%) responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308), dogs (n = 989) and cats (n = 311). For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%), followed by dry-cow therapy (21%), subclinical mastitis (6%) and treatment for acute enteritis (4%). The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459), benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379), while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%). Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%), followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%). This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful method for the collection of information on

  10. Is emotional functioning related to academic achievement among university students? Results from a cross-sectional Iranian sample

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    Dena Sadeghi Bahmani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Whereas several studies have predicted academic achievement (AA as a function of favorable cognitive factors and low negative emotional functioning (such as depression and anxiety, little is known about its associations with cognitive-emotional states of positive emotional functioning, such as social satisfaction. The present study sought to evaluate associations of AA with dimensions of negative and positive emotional functioning. Method: This cross-sectional study enrolled 275 students (mean age, 21.24 years; 66.1% females, who completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic parameters and AA scores, as well as measures of loneliness and depression (representing negative emotional functioning and social satisfaction (representing positive emotional functioning. Results: Lower scores for negative and higher scores for positive emotional functioning were associated with higher AA scores. Multiple regression analysis showed that AA was predicted independently by both low negative and high positive emotional functioning. No gender differences were observed. Conclusions: The pattern of results observed in this study suggests that opposing dimensions of emotional functioning are independently related to AA. Students, educators, and health professionals dealing with students should focus both on increasing social satisfaction and on decreasing feelings of loneliness and depression.

  11. Postpartum anxiety and adjustment disorders in parents of infants with very low birth weight: Cross-sectional results from a controlled multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Nadine; Barkmann, Claus; Ehrhardt, Stephan; von der Wense, Axel; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Bindt, Carola

    2016-04-01

    Both preterm delivery and survival rates of very low birth weight (VLBW: anxiety in parents after VLBW birth. Parents with VLBW infants and parents with term infants were recruited into the longitudinal HaFEn-study at the three largest centers of perinatal care in Hamburg, Germany. State anxiety was assessed with the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory and anxiety and adjustment disorders with a clinical interview one month postpartum. Psychiatric lifetime diagnoses, social support, trait anxiety, stress during birth, socioeconomic status, risks during pregnancy, and mode of delivery were also evaluated. To examine predictors of postpartum state anxiety in both parents simultaneously a multiple random coefficient model was used. 230 mothers and 173 fathers were included. The risk for minor/major anxiety symptoms and adjustment disorders was higher in parents with VLBW infants compared to the term group. The risk for anxiety disorders was not higher in parents with VLBW infants. The most important predictors for postpartum state anxiety were high trait anxiety, the birth of a VLBW infant, high stress during birth, and low social support. Data reported here are cross-sectional. Thus, temporal relationships cannot be established. Our results emphasize the importance of early screening for postpartum anxiety in both parents with VLBW infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Equity in access to health care among asylum seekers in Germany: evidence from an exploratory population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Schneider, Christine; Joos, Stefanie

    2015-11-09

    Research on inequities in access to health care among asylum-seekers has focused on disparities between asylum-seekers and resident populations, but little attention has been paid to potential inequities in access to care within the group of asylum-seekers. We aimed to analyse the principles of horizontal equity (i.e., equal access for equal need irrespective of socioeconomic status, SES) and vertical equity (higher allocation of resources to those with higher need) among asylum-seekers in Germany. We performed a secondary exploratory analysis on cross-sectional data obtained from a population-based questionnaire survey among all asylum-seekers (aged 18 or above) registered in three administrative districts in Germany during the three-month study period (N = 1017). Data were collected on health care access (health care utilisation of four types of services and unmet medical need), health care need (approximated by sex, age and self-rated health status), and SES (highest educational attainment and subjective social status, SSS). We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in multiple logistic regression models to analyse associations between SES indicators and access to health care under control of need. We contacted 60.4% (614) of the total asylum-seekers population, of which 25.4% (N = 156) participated in the study. Educational attainment showed no significant effect on health care access in crude models, but was positively associated with utilisation of psychotherapists and hospital admissions in adjusted models. Higher SSS was positively associated with health care utilisation of all types of services. The odds of hospitals admissions for asylum-seekers in the medium and highest SSS category were 3.18 times [1.06, 9.59] and 1.6 times [0.49, 5.23] the odds of those in the lowest SSS category. After controlling for need variables none of the SES indicators were significantly associated with measures of access to care, but a positive

  13. Medication documentation in a primary care network serving North Carolina medicaid patients: results of a cross-sectional chart review

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    Olson Matthew D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical records that do not accurately reflect the patient’s current medication list are an open invitation to errors and may compromise patient safety. Methods This cross-sectional study compares primary care provider (PCP medication lists and pharmacy claims for 100 patients seen in 8 primary care practices and examines the association of congruence with demographic, clinical, and practice characteristics. Medication list congruence was measured as agreement of pharmacy claims with the entire PCP chart, including current medication list, visit notes, and correspondence sections. Results Congruence between pharmacy claims and the PCP chart was 65%. Congruence was associated with large chronic disease burden, frequent PCP visits, group practice, and patient age ≥45 years. Conclusion Agreement of medication lists between the PCP chart and pharmacy records is low. Medication documentation was more accurate among patients who have more chronic conditions, those who have frequent PCP visits, those whose practice has multiple providers, and those at least 45 years of age. Improved congruence among patients with multiple chronic conditions and in group practices may reflect more frequent visits and reviews by providers.

  14. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland

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    Krzysztof Buczkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors—including genetics, personality, and environment—affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers’ scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers’ activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers’ dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism and compliance (a component of agreeableness. The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals’ needs.

  15. Cigarette and Waterpipe Smoking Decrease Respiratory Quality of Life in Adults: Results from a National Cross-Sectional Study

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    Salamé Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is gaining an importance over the world, and its effect on quality of life is better grasped. Our objective was to use the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ to describe the respiratory quality of life in the Lebanese population, stressing on differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Methods. Using data from a cross-sectional national study, we checked the construct validity and reliability of the CCQ. Factors and items correlation with postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC were reported, in addition to factors and scale association with COPD and its severity. We then conducted a multiple regression to find predictors of quality of life. Results. The CCQ demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, with adequacy to the sample and high consistency. Smokers had a decreased respiratory quality of life versus nonsmokers, independently of their respiratory disease status and severity. This finding was confirmed in COPD individuals, where several environmental factors, lower education, and cumulative smoking of cigarette and of waterpipe were found to be independent predictors of a lower quality of life, after adjusting for COPD severity. Conclusions. Smoking decreases the respiratory quality of life of Lebanese adults; this issue has to be further emphasized during smoking cessation and patients’ education.

  16. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors-including genetics, personality, and environment-affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process. : In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers' scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers' activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers' dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals' needs.

  17. The trend of pressure ulcer prevalence rates in German hospitals: results of seven cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Wilborn, Doris; Dassen, Theo; Lahmann, Nils

    2009-05-01

    Pressure ulcer prevalence rates provide useful information about the magnitude of this health problem. Only limited information on pressure ulcers in Germany was available before 2001. The purpose of this study was to compare results of seven pressure ulcer prevalence surveys which were conducted annually between 2001 and 2007 and to explore whether pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased. The second aim was to evaluate if the measured prevalence rates of our sample could be generalised for all German hospitals. Results of seven point pressure ulcer prevalence studies conducted in 225 German hospitals were analysed. Chi-square tests, chi-square trend tests and one-way ANOVA to assess differences and trends across the years were applied. The sample was stratified according to pressure ulcer risk and speciality. Finally, study samples were compared with the potential population. In total data of 40,247 hospital patients were analysed. The overall pressure ulcer prevalence rate in German hospitals was 10.2%. Patient samples of each year were comparable regarding gender, age and pressure ulcer risk. Pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased from 13.9% (year 2001) to 7.3% (year 2007) (pcare units remained stable. With some limitations our study results are representative for all hospitals within Germany. It is highly probable that the decrease of prevalence rates was due to an increased awareness of the pressure ulcer problem in Germany and subsequent efforts to improve pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. The quality of clinical practice regarding pressure ulcer prevention and treatment has improved. However, pressure ulcers are still relevant and require attention. In 2007, one out of 10 hospital patients who were at pressure ulcer risk had at least one pressure related skin damage.

  18. Interpretation of Results of Studies Evaluating an Intervention Highlighted in Google Health News: A Cross-Sectional Study of News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Romana; Lazarus, Clement; Ravaud, Philippe; Yavchitz, Amélie; Boutron, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Mass media through the Internet is a powerful means of disseminating medical research. We aimed to determine whether and how the interpretation of research results is misrepresented by the use of "spin" in the health section of Google News. Spin was defined as specific way of reporting, from whatever motive (intentional or unintentional), to emphasize that the beneficial effect of the intervention is greater than that shown by the results. We conducted a cross-sectional study of news highlighted in the health section of US, UK and Canada editions of Google News between July 2013 and January 2014. We searched for news items for 3 days a week (i.e., Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) during 6 months and selected a sample of 130 news items reporting a scientific article evaluating the effect of an intervention on human health. In total, 78% of the news did not provide a full reference or electronic link to the scientific article. We found at least one spin in 114 (88%) news items and 18 different types of spin in news. These spin were mainly related to misleading reporting (59%) such as not reporting adverse events that were reported in the scientific article (25%), misleading interpretation (69%) such as claiming a causal effect despite non-randomized study design (49%) and overgeneralization/misleading extrapolation (41%) of the results such as extrapolating a beneficial effect from an animal study to humans (21%). We also identified some new types of spin such as highlighting a single patient experience for the success of a new treatment instead of focusing on the group results. Interpretation of research results was frequently misrepresented in the health section of Google News. However, we do not know whether these spin were from the scientific articles themselves or added in the news.

  19. Interpretation of Results of Studies Evaluating an Intervention Highlighted in Google Health News: A Cross-Sectional Study of News.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Haneef

    Full Text Available Mass media through the Internet is a powerful means of disseminating medical research. We aimed to determine whether and how the interpretation of research results is misrepresented by the use of "spin" in the health section of Google News. Spin was defined as specific way of reporting, from whatever motive (intentional or unintentional, to emphasize that the beneficial effect of the intervention is greater than that shown by the results.We conducted a cross-sectional study of news highlighted in the health section of US, UK and Canada editions of Google News between July 2013 and January 2014. We searched for news items for 3 days a week (i.e., Monday, Wednesday, and Friday during 6 months and selected a sample of 130 news items reporting a scientific article evaluating the effect of an intervention on human health.In total, 78% of the news did not provide a full reference or electronic link to the scientific article. We found at least one spin in 114 (88% news items and 18 different types of spin in news. These spin were mainly related to misleading reporting (59% such as not reporting adverse events that were reported in the scientific article (25%, misleading interpretation (69% such as claiming a causal effect despite non-randomized study design (49% and overgeneralization/misleading extrapolation (41% of the results such as extrapolating a beneficial effect from an animal study to humans (21%. We also identified some new types of spin such as highlighting a single patient experience for the success of a new treatment instead of focusing on the group results.Interpretation of research results was frequently misrepresented in the health section of Google News. However, we do not know whether these spin were from the scientific articles themselves or added in the news.

  20. Sex differences in urea breath test results for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisdorfer, Ido; Shalev, Varda; Goren, Sophy; Chodick, Gabriel; Muhsen, Khitam

    2018-01-02

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer only in a subset of infected persons. Sex differences were shown in results of urea breath test (UBT), a commonly used test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. However, factors that might explain these differences, or affect UBT values, are not fully understood. We examined differences in UBT values between H. pylori-infected men and women while adjusting for background characteristics such as age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using coded data from the computerized database of Maccabi Health Services in Israel. Included were adults examined for UBT during 2002-2012 and were found H. pylori positive (UBT > 3.5‰). Multivariable linear mixed models were performed to assess the relationship between sex and UBT quantitative results, while adjusting for background characteristics. A total of 76,403 patients were included (52% of examined patients during the study period). Adjusted mean UBT value was significantly higher in women 33.8‰ (95% CI 33.4, 34.1) than in men 24.9‰ (95% CI 24.5, 25.3). A significant (P sex and smoking, showing diminished sex-differences in UBT results in smokers. Adjusted mean UBT values increased significantly with age and decreased with BMI, and it was higher in people who lived in low vs high socioeconomic status communities and lower in smokers vs non-smokers. Systemic differences exist between men and women in quantitative UBT results. Host-related and environmental factors might affect UBT quantitative results. These findings have clinical implications regarding confirmation of the success of H. pylori eradication after treatment in various subgroups.

  1. The role of cognitive schemata in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Bohdan; Szymczak, Wiesław

    2011-03-01

    There are two theories (by Horowitz and by Foa) which attempt at explaining the process of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development by information dissonance. The purpose of the present study was to verify these theories via cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The study based on a cross-sectional design was performed on a representative group of Polish firefighters. The study using a longitudinal protocol was conducted among police officers. The level of PTSD was assessed using the Questionnaire for PTSD Measurement (K-PTSD). The sense of coherence (SOC) was measured with the Polish adaptation of the Orientation to Life Questionnaire by A. Antonovsky. In the cross-sectional study, the correlation coefficients between K-PTSD and SOC were -0.35 (p 0.05 indicated that the tendency we observed was not statistically significant. We would like to propose two possible explanations for the difference in the relationships between SOC and PTSD symptoms obtained in the studies employing the cross-sectional and the longitudinal protocols.

  2. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  3. Studying the excitation function of the full cross section of a reaction using a modified transmission technique: Initial results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobolev, Yuri, G.; Penionyhkevich, Y. E.; Borcha, K.; Ivanov, M. P.; Kugler, Andrej; Kulko, A. A.; Kroha, Václav; Maslov, V. A.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Negret, A.; Rvenko, R. V.; Savrov, Ya. Yu.; Skobelev, N. K.; Trzaska, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 8 (2012), s. 952-957 ISSN 1062-8738 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08002 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross sections * excitation functions * radioactive beams Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  4. How older people in the United States and Germany fared in the growth years of the 1980s: a cross-sectional versus a longitudinal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhauser, R V; Cutts, A C; Lillard, D R

    1999-09-01

    The goal of the study was to show that cross-sectional and longitudinal data yield dramatically different answers to a basic question: "How did older persons fare in the recovery years of the 1980s?" The United States Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the German Socio-Economic Panel are used cross-sectionally to capture changes in the economic well-being of older persons in the trough and peak years of the 1980s business cycle, and longitudinally to trace how the economic well-being of a given cohort of older persons changed over those years. Kernel density estimation is then used to show how the distribution of economic well-being of these populations changed over these years. Cross-sectional comparisons confirm that persons aged 65 and over in the peak year were better off than persons aged 65 and over in the trough year in both countries. Longitudinal comparisons, however, show that persons aged 65 and over in the trough year who survived to the peak year received a substantially smaller share of the rewards of economic recovery than cross-sectional comparisons imply. Moreover, the entire income distribution of older persons in the United States shifted downwards. Compositional changes in the cross-sectional data, caused by the entry of high-income persons who are young in the peak year but old in the trough year, obscure the decline in the economic well-being of the cohort of older persons who survived the trough year, in cross-sectional comparisons of older populations in the United States in the 1980s.

  5. Road traffic noise and hypertension: results from a cross-sectional public health survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östergren Per-Olof

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from studies of road traffic noise and hypertension are heterogeneous with respect to effect size, effects among males and females and with respect to effects across age groups. Our objective was to further explore these associations. Methods The study used cross-sectional public health survey data from southern Sweden, including 24,238 adults (18 - 80 years old. We used a geographic information system (GIS to assess the average road noise (LAeq 24 hr at the current residential address. Effects on self-reported hypertension were estimated by logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, alcohol intake, exercise, education, smoking and socioeconomic status. Results Modest exposure effects (OR ≈ 1.1 were generally noted in intermediate exposure categories (45 -64 dB(A, and with no obvious trend. The effect was more pronounced at > 64 dB(A (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04 - 2.02. Age modified the relative effect (p = 0.018. An effect was seen among middle-aged (40 - 59 years old at noise levels 60 - 64 dB(A (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.58 and at > 64 dB(A (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.19 - 3.06. An effect was also indicated among younger adults but not among elderly. No apparent effect modification by gender, country of origin, disturbed sleep or strained economy was noted. Conclusion The study supports an association between road traffic noise at high average levels and self-reported hypertension in middle-aged. Future studies should use age group -specific relative effect models to account for differences in prevalence.

  6. Alcohol misuse, drinking contexts and intimate partner violence in St. Petersburg, Russia: results from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skochilov Roman V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse has been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV. However, this association is not usually examined in Russia. Moreover, more investigation is required as to whether specific drinking contexts are also associated with IPV. The objectives of this study are: to investigate whether alcohol misuse is associated with IPV and to further examine whether specific drinking contexts among drinkers are associated with IPV. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, health status, alcohol use, and violence involving sexual partners among 440 participants who were recruited from an STI (sexually transmitted infection clinic center in St. Petersburg, Russia for a cross-sectional study from 2008 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Overall, 47.0% participants were classified as misusing alcohol and 7.2% participants perpetrated IPV in the past three months. Participants with alcohol misuse were 3.28 times (OR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.34-8.04 as likely as those without alcohol misuse to perpetrate IPV. Among participants who had consumed alcohol in the past three months, those who usually drank on the streets or in parks (OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.67-18.90 were more likely to perpetrate IPV. Conclusions Both alcohol misuse and certain drinking contexts (e.g., drinking on the streets or at parks were associated with IPV. The association between drinking contexts and IPV needs further investigation, as do the underlying mechanisms for this association. IPV prevention initiatives might benefit from reducing alcohol misuse. Drinking contexts such as drinking on the streets or at parks as well as the factors related to the use of alcohol in these contexts may also need to be addressed.

  7. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Raggi

    Full Text Available To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+.In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately.Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4. The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation, chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6% and a wide and rich social network (4.6%. Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics.Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of

  8. [Impact of disabling chronic pain: results of a cross-sectional population study with face-to-face interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Leon, Andrés; Cantero-Braojos, Miguel Ángel

    2017-11-16

    To assess the impact of disabling chronic pain (DCP) on quality of life, work, consumption of medication and usage of health services. Cross-sectional population study with face-to-face interview. Andalusian Health Survey (2011 edition). 6,507 people over the age of 16 (p=q=0.5; confidence level=95%; sampling error=1.49, design effect=1.52). Not applicable. Dependent variable: DCP: population limited in their activity by any of the CP specified in the survey. quality of life, absence from work, consumption of medication and utilization of health services. Compared to a population without CP, DCP impact is 6 points less on the mental quality of life and 12 points on the physical one, medication consumption is triple, health services utilization is almost double, and long absence from work is triple. On the other hand, a population with nondisabling chronic pain (nDCP) presents similar results to a population without CP. We have considered DCP as another CP category because of its huge impact, as is shown in our study, on the study variables. On the contrary, the population with nDCP does not obtain significant impact differences when compared to the population without CP. Therefore, we believe that Primary Care and Public Health should lead different prevention strategies for DCP as well as for the identification of the nDCP population to decrease its possible deterioration towards DCP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of overactive bladder in China, Taiwan and South Korea: Results from a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Liao, Limin; Wang, Jianye; Yoo, Tag Keun; Chu, Romeo; Sumarsono, Budiwan

    2017-10-02

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in individuals aged ≥40 years in China, Taiwan, and South Korea. The present cross-sectional population-representative Internet-based study investigated OAB symptoms in men and women aged ≥40 years using the overactive bladder symptom score. Additional instruments included the International Index of Erectile Function (men only) and the Sexual Quality of Life - Female (women only) questionnaires, as well as Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC). In all, 8284 individuals participated in the study. The prevalence of OAB was 20.8% overall (women 22.1%, men 19.5%) and increased significantly with age, from 10.8% in those aged 40-44 years to 27.9% in those aged >60 years (P = .001). The presence of comorbid conditions (e.g. neurological disease, diabetes) was associated with a significantly increased prevalence of OAB. Increasing symptom severity was associated with significantly worsening patient perception of bladder condition responses. Just under half (48%) of those with no OAB had no lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), whereas 88% of those with severe symptoms had all 3 LUTS (International Continence Society definition) symptom categories (voiding, post-micturition, and storage symptoms). Of those without OAB, 10% reported visiting healthcare professionals for urinary symptoms, compared with 64% of those with severe OAB symptoms (P = .001). Increased symptom severity was significantly associated with lower sexual quality of life in both men and women. OAB symptoms were found to affect 1 in 5 individuals aged ≥40 years in China, Taiwan, and South Korea, becoming more common with increasing age. The results suggest that many more individuals with OAB could benefit by consulting healthcare professionals. © 2017 The Authors. LUTS Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. The quality of preventive health care delivered to adults: results from a cross-sectional study in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobile Carmelo GA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is assumed that providing clinical preventive services to patients can identify or detect early important causes of adult mortality. The aim of this study was to quantify access to preventive services in Southern Italy and to assess whether and how the provision of preventive care was influenced by any specific characteristics of patients. Methods In a cross-sectional study adults aged 18 years and over attending primary care physician (PCP offices located in Southern Italy were interviewed from June through December 2007. Quality indicators of preventive health care developed from RAND's Quality Assessment Tools and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS were used. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify and to assess the role of patients' characteristics on delivery of clinical preventive services. Results A total of 1467 subjects participated in the study. Excepting blood pressure preventive check (delivered to 64.4% of eligible subjects and influenza vaccination (recommended to 90.2% of elderly, the rates of delivery of clinical preventive services were low across all measures, particularly for screening and counseling on health habits. Rates for providing cancer screening tests at recommended times were 21.3% for colonoscopy, 51.5% for mammography and 52.4% for Pap smear. Statistical analysis showed clear disparities in the provision of clinical preventive services associated with age, gender, education level, perceived health status, current health conditions and primary care access measures. Conclusions There is overwhelming need to develop and implement effective interventions to improve delivery of routine clinical preventive services.

  11. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli in dairy and beef cattle farms-Joint analyses of two cross-sectional investigations in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, Katja; Ruddat, Inga; Schmid, Annette; Hering, Johanna; Hartmann, Maria; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Schneider, Bettina; Messelhäusser, Ute; Friese, Anika; Mansfeld, Rolf; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Roesler, Uwe; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2017-07-01

    Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics is of major concern for animal and human health. Knowledge of the prevalence of resistant bacteria in primary production is an important element to estimate transmission along the stages in the food production chain and the exposure of the human population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant commensal E. coli in dairy and beef cattle production units throughout Germany. Secondarily, the association between management factors and the presence of cefotaxime resistance was investigated. In total, 60 beef cattle and 52 dairy cattle production units all over Germany were included. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were isolated from at least one sample in 70% (95% CI: 58-83%) of the farms keeping beef cattle and 85% (95% CI: 75-94%) of the farms keeping dairy cattle. The sample prevalence was 35% (161/455; 95% CI: 31-40%) and 48% (156/323; 95% CI: 43-54%), respectively. Most factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime indicate that less intensive production results in a lower number of positive samples. For beef cattle, antimicrobial treatment of the whole animal group was significantly associated with an increased proportion of samples containing cefotaxime resistant E. coli. In addition, our results indicate that better hygiene management could improve the resistance situation on cattle farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja; Hautala, Maria; Pyörälä, Satu; Kaartinen, Liisa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country...

  13. Selective enrollment in Disease Management Programs for coronary heart disease in Germany - An analysis based on cross-sectional survey and administrative claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttger, Julia; Blümel, Miriam; Busse, Reinhard

    2017-04-04

    In 2002, Disease Management Programs (DMPs) were introduced within the German healthcare system with the aim to increase the quality of chronic disease care. Due to the enrollment procedures, it can be assumed a) that only certain patients actively decide to enroll in a DMP and/or b) that only certain patients get the recommendation for DMP enrollment from their physician. How strong this assumed effect of self- and/or professional selection is, is still unclear. We used data from a cross-sectional postal-survey linked on individual level with administrative claims data from a German sickness fund. The sample consisted of individuals suffering from coronary heart disease (CHD) who i) were either enrolled in the respective DMP or ii) fulfilled the disease related criteria for enrollment but were not enrolled. We applied multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess factors on patient level associated with DMP enrollment. We included 7070 individuals in our analyses. Male sex, higher age and receiving old age pension, a higher Charlson Score and a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes increased the odds for DMP-CHD enrollment significantly. Individuals with a diagnosed myocardial infarction (MI) were also more likely to be enrolled in the DMP-CHD. We found a significant interaction effect for MI and sex, indicating that the association between MI and DMP enrollment is stronger for women than for men. DMP-enrollees and non-enrollees differ in various factors. Studies analyzing the effectiveness of DMP-CHD should carefully take into account these group differences. Furthermore, the results suggest that the DMP-CHD assessed reaches men better than women.

  14. Relation Between Reading and Quality of Life of Adolescents: Results of Cohort Cross-Sectional Sequential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G. Vikhareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination and monitoring of the quality of life of adolescents are needed to examine the social conditions of their life.Objective: Our aim was to study the relation between reading books and the number of read books with the quality of life of adolescents. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study where examined the quality of life of children aged 13–18 years attending secondary educational institutions of Izhevsk city and Udmurtia rural districts. Using PedsQL questionnaire, we analyzed the physical, emotional and social component of the quality of life of adolescents, school functioning and overall assessment score of the quality of life. The attitude to reading was determined by the results of the answers to questions about the love of reading (yes/no and the number of read books.Results: The study included 2,947 high school students, in which 2,473 (83.9% adolescents indicated their attitude toward reading. It has been shown that students who enjoy reading (42.2% have a lower assessment score of the quality of life on the scale of «emotional functioning» (66 ± 17 and higher — on the scale of «school functioning» (69 ± 15 than their peers not liking to read (68 ± 16 and 66 ± 15, respectively; p < 0.001. The number of read books was associated with the quality of life assessment on the scale of «physical functioning» and «school functioning» as well as with the assessment of the social component of quality of life for girls.Conclusion: The studied factors («reading books» and «the number of read books» are related to the quality of life of adolescents that may be taken into account in the preparation of educational programs.

  15. Influence of internal migration on reproductive health in Myanmar: results from a recent cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sudhinaraset

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and reproductive health remains a significant public health issue in Myanmar. Little data exists on women’s health issues, including social and demographic influences. While past studies have demonstrated rural/urban health disparities, an increasingly important population resulting from urban growth in Myanmar is the internal migrant population, individuals moving within the country for better job or educational opportunities. Past studies suggest that women make up more than half of internal migrants, yet there is a dearth of information on this new wave of migration, particularly on women’s reproductive health issues. The objective of this study is to assess the influence of women’s migration in Myanmar on reproductive health outcomes, including delivering in a facility, using a skilled birth attendant, and using a modern method of family planning. Methods Data from a cross-sectional household survey using multistage cluster sampling design conducted between September to October 2014 was used to assess the accessibility and the use of maternal and child health products and services. A total of 1800 currently married women of reproductive age, including 348 from urban and 1452 from rural areas, were recruited to complete surveys. A set of multivariable regressions was performed to assess reproductive health outcomes and predictors. Results Across health indicators, female migrants had better health outcomes compared to non-migrants. Controlling for demographic characteristics, migrants were 1.60 times more likely to use a modern form of family planning compared to non-migrants (p < 0.01 and use antenatal care during pregnancy (p < 0.05. While not statistically significant, migrants were 1.29 times more likely to deliver with a skilled attendant and 1.08 times more likely to deliver in a facility. Conclusions This study found that female migrants in Myanmar reported better health outcomes compared to

  16. Paediatric CT scan usage and referrals of children to computed tomography in Germany-a cross-sectional survey of medical practice and awareness of radiation related health risks among physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merzenich Hiltrud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computed tomography (CT is a major source of ionizing radiation exposure in medical diagnostic. Compared to adults, children are supposed to be more susceptible to health risks related to radiation. The purpose of a cross-sectional survey among office-based physicians in Germany was the assessment of medical practice in paediatric CT referrals and to investigate physicians' knowledge of radiation doses and potential health risks of radiation exposure from CT in children. Methods A standardized questionnaire was distributed to all paediatricians and surgeons in two defined study areas. Furthermore, the study population included a random sample of general practitioners in the two areas. The questionnaire covered the frequency of referrals for paediatric CT examinations, the medical diagnoses leading to paediatric CT referrals, physicians' knowledge of radiation doses and potential health risks of radiation exposure from CT in children. Results A total of 295 (36.4% physicians responded. 59% of the doctors had not referred a child to CT in the past year, and approximately 30% referred only 1-5 children annually. The most frequent indications for a CT examination in children were trauma or a suspected cancer. 42% of the referrals were related to minor diagnoses or unspecific symptoms. The participants underestimated the radiation exposure due to CT and they overestimated the radiation exposure due to conventional X-ray examinations. Conclusions In Germany, the frequency of referrals of children to computed tomography is moderate. The knowledge on the risks from radiation exposure among office-based physicians in our sample varied, but there was a tendency to underestimate potential CT risks. Advanced radiological training might lead to considerable amendments in terms of knowledge and practice of CT referral.

  17. [Diagnostic and treatment patterns in management of male patients with nongonococcal urethritis: results of Russian multicentral cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, I V; Kozlov, S N; Korolev, S V; Belikov, A N; Grinev, A V; Evstaf'ev, V V; Kirpicheva, N N; Serdiutskaia, M V; Stetsiuk, O U; Fokin, A A; Khrianin, A A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the diagnostic and treatment patterns in the management of acute nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) in males in some cities of Russia. Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 in 5 centers of 4 cities in the Central Part of Russia (Kaluga, Pskov, Smolensk - 2 centres and Tula). The data on the diagnostic and treatment approaches to the management of NGU in male subjects >16 years old were collected and analyzed with the use of specially designed case report forms. 556 cases of acute urethritis were analyzed during the study. The diagnosis of NGU was confirmed in 401 cases. The average age of the patients was 29.8 years (16-68 years). The following diagnostic methods were used in 95% of the cases: urethral smear microscopy (314/82.4%), C. trachomatis - PCR (113/29.7%), ELISA (155/40.7%); T. vaginalis - PCR (106/27.8%); U. urealyricum and M. hominis, respectively - bacteriology (140/36.7% and 126/33.1%), PCR (110/28.9% and 108/28.3%); M. genitalium - PCR (110/28.9%). The treatment patterns included antimicrobials AMs alone in 60.3, and AMs + non-AMs in 37.8% of the cases. The most frequently prescribed AMs were azithromycin (27.5%), fluconazole (16.4%), doxycycline (13.6%), metronidazole (11.2%), ofloxacine (7.3%), ceftriaxone (4.4%), josamycin (4.2). According to the results use of the standard methods for NGU diagnosis was rather rare. The use of PCR for atypical pathogens was the following: C. trachomatis 29.7%, U. urealyticum 36.7%, M. hominis 28.9%, M. genitalium 28.3%. Doubtful culture methods were used for detection of U. urealyticum and M. hominis (36.7% and 33.1%). The AMs treatment in some cases was not in compliance with the up-to-date practical guidelines for STD and NGU.

  18. What do Key Stakeholders Think About HIV Self-Testing in Canada? Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, N Pant; Smallwood, M; Gulati, D; Lapczak, N; Musten, A; Gaydos, C; Johnston, C; Steben, M; Wong, T; Engel, N; Kim, J

    2018-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing presents an empowering alternative to facility-based testing for reaching undiagnosed HIV infected individuals, but is not currently available in Canada. We surveyed stakeholders (clinical providers, public health professionals, researchers) engaged in HIV testing initiatives nationwide to identify the concerns, opportunities and challenges to implementing HIV self-testing in Canada. An online cross-sectional survey was disseminated by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Centre for REACH 2.0 National HIV & sexually transmitted and blood borne infections working group to stakeholders nationwide, with a target sample size of 200. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed using a mixed-methods, respondent-informed approach, to inform subsequent HIV self-testing in a country where self-testing is not yet accessible. A total of 183 responses were received. A majority (70.7%) (128/181) felt that self-testing was a necessary investment to reach the undiagnosed. 64.6% (117/181) felt that self-tests should be made available to their clients and 71.5% (128/179) of respondents agreed that self-test instructions required improvements. However, 50% (90/180) felt that self-testing will pose an economic challenge to current HIV testing models. Regardless, 21% urged for timely action and availability of HIV self-tests. Thematic analyses reflected the following concerns: (a) need for affordable self-tests, (b) need for expedited, customized, and accessible linkages to counselling, (c) concern for patients to cope with positive self-test results, (d) accuracy of self-tests to detect acute HIV and (e) liability in the context of non-disclosure. Stakeholders agreed to the provision of an option of HIV self-testing to reach the undiagnosed individuals. Concerns regarding costs and accuracy of self-tests, expedited linkages to counselling, and integration of self-test within prevailing HIV testing models, will need to be

  19. Open Availability of Patient Medical Photographs in Google Images Search Results: Cross-Sectional Study of Transgender Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Zack; Brunger, Fern; Welch, Vivian; Asghari, Shabnam; Kaposy, Chris

    2018-02-26

    This paper focuses on the collision of three factors: a growing emphasis on sharing research through open access publication, an increasing awareness of big data and its potential uses, and an engaged public interested in the privacy and confidentiality of their personal health information. One conceptual space where this collision is brought into sharp relief is with the open availability of patient medical photographs from peer-reviewed journal articles in the search results of online image databases such as Google Images. The aim of this study was to assess the availability of patient medical photographs from published journal articles in Google Images search results and the factors impacting this availability. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from an evidence map of research with transgender, gender non-binary, and other gender diverse (trans) participants. For the original evidence map, a comprehensive search of 15 academic databases was developed in collaboration with a health sciences librarian. Initial search results produced 25,230 references after duplicates were removed. Eligibility criteria were established to include empirical research of any design that included trans participants or their personal information and that was published in English in peer-reviewed journals. We identified all articles published between 2008 and 2015 with medical photographs of trans participants. For each reference, images were individually numbered in order to track the total number of medical photographs. We used odds ratios (OR) to assess the association between availability of the clinical photograph on Google Images and the following factors: whether the article was openly available online (open access, Researchgate.net, or Academia.edu), whether the article included genital images, if the photographs were published in color, and whether the photographs were located on the journal article landing page. We identified 94 articles with medical photographs

  20. Detection, Management Approach of Depression and Antidepressant Utilization in Adult Patients: Results of a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newale, Sanket; Bachani, Deepak S

    2017-10-01

    The study was conducted to understand the demographics, prevalence of co-morbid conditions and treatment modalities of depression. A cross-sectional, nationwide observational study was conducted to understand the management pattern of depression in India. Depression was majorly diagnosed with DSM-IV TR criteria. The data of 2276 Indian patients across 18 states were collected through 135 mental health professionals. The study population was predominantly from urban (81.2%) area. The prevalence of uneducated and employed patients in the study was 7.2% and 54.6% respectively. The main co-morbidities observed were diabetes, hypertension, anxiety and insomnia. Overall, escitalopram monotherapy was used in 67.2% patients. Escitalopram was found to be the preferred antidepressant in patients with co-morbid conditions including hypertension and diabetes. Counseling was the most common non-pharmacological therapy practiced. This large cross sectional study in real life settings demonstrates high prevalence of depression among employed and educated adult Indian patients. Hypertension and diabetes are the two most common co-morbidites in patients with depression. Escitalopram is commonly used and preferred antidepressant in all studied age groups and even in co-morbid depression.

  1. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  2. Prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in France, Germany, and the UK - a cross-sectional study including 4,270,142 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in general practices in France, Germany, and the UK. This study included all patients aged ≥18 years followed in 2016 in general practitioner practices in France, Germany and the UK. The primary outcome was the prevalence of patients receiving prescriptions for pain medications in France, Germany, and the UK in 2016. The following drugs were included in the analysis: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, non-steroids and analgesics including opioids, antimigraine preparations, and other analgesics and antipyretics. Demographic variables included age and gender. This study included 4,270,142 patients. The prevalences of pain medication prescriptions were 57.3% in France, 29.6% in Germany, and 21.7% in the UK. Although this prevalence generally remained consistent between age groups in France (54.3%-60.3%), it increased with age in Germany (18-30 years: 23.8%; >70 years: 35.8%) and in the UK (18-30 years: 9.3%; >70 years: 43.8%). Finally, the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in women than in men in all three countries. Paracetamol was prescribed to 82.3% and 60.1% of patients receiving pain medication in France and the UK, respectively, whereas ibuprofen was prescribed to 46.5% of individuals in Germany. The prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in France than in Germany and the UK. Further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the differences in the prescription patterns between these three European countries.

  3. Nationwide cross-sectional adherence to mammography screening guidelines: national behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Anand; Fischer, Alexander; Zhang, Zihe; Woods, Ryan; Morris, Elizabeth; Harvey, Susan

    2017-08-01

    Varying recommendations about breast cancer screening have generated much confusion about when and how often to undergo mammography screening, yet there is limited population-based data about the extent to which patients adhere to various mammographic screening guidelines in practice. Our purpose was to evaluate population-based adherence to mammographic screening using criteria from major guideline-producing organizations. Women aged 40-74 in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were included. Self-reported mammographic screening within 1 or 2 years, according to major guideline-producing organizations (American Cancer Society [ACS], US Preventative Services Task Force [USPSTF], American College of Radiology [ACR], American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG]) was calculated with logistic regression, adjusting for demographics and indices of access to health care. 159,123 women were included. By age category, cross-sectional adherence to USPSTF guidelines ranged from 76 to 81%, ACS (55-81%) and ACR/ACOG (45-64%) with increasing age being associated improved adherence. The highest proportions of women undergoing mammographic screening were seen in women ages 65-69 (66% within last year, 81% within last 2 years). Statistically significant predictors of adherence to mammography screening included increased income category (OR 1.08, 1.07-1.09), higher education category (OR 1.13, 1.11-1.16), and increased access to health care (OR 2.25, 1.94-2.60), adjusted for age categories. Adherence to mammography screening was closest to USPSTF guidelines with 76-81% cross-sectional adherence. Frequency of screening increases with age with highest screening proportions in women ages 65-69 (66% within last year, 81% within last 2 years). For all screening guidelines, adherence to mammography screening remains poor in women with limited access to health insurance with less than half of women obtaining recommended screening.

  4. Association between organic food consumption and metabolic syndrome: cross-sectional results from the NutriNet-Santé study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Julia; Lelong, Hélène; Adriouch, Solia; Julia, Chantal; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-08-02

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a multicomponent condition, is a cardiovascular disease predictor. Although exposure to agricultural pesticides has been suggested as a potential contributor to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other features of metabolic disorders, no studies have focused on the association between consumption of organic food (produced without synthetic pesticides) and MetS. We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between organic food consumption and MetS in French adults to determine whether it would be worth conducting further studies, particularly large prospective and randomised trials. A total of 8174 participants from the NutriNet-Santé study who attended a clinical visit and completed an organic food frequency questionnaire were included in this cross-sectional analysis. We evaluated the association between the proportion of organic food in the diet (overall and by food group) and MetS using Poisson regression models while adjusting for potential confounders. Higher organic food consumption was negatively associated with the prevalence of MetS: adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.69 (95% CI 0.61, 0.78) when comparing the third tertile of proportion of organic food in the diet with the first one (p value organic plant-based foods was also related to a lower probability of having MetS. In addition, when stratifying by lifestyle factors (nutritional quality of the diet, smoking status, and physical activity), a significant negative association was detected in each subgroup (p values organic food consumption was associated with a lower probability of having MetS. Additional prospective studies and randomised trials are required to ascertain the relationship between organic food consumption and metabolic disorders.

  5. A cross-sectional multicenter study of osteogenesis imperfecta in North America - results from the linked clinical research centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R M; Nagamani, S C S; Cuthbertson, D; Campeau, P M; Krischer, J P; Shapiro, J R; Steiner, R D; Smith, P A; Bober, M B; Byers, P H; Pepin, M; Durigova, M; Glorieux, F H; Rauch, F; Lee, B H; Hart, T; Sutton, V R

    2015-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common skeletal dysplasia that predisposes to recurrent fractures and bone deformities. In spite of significant advances in understanding the genetic basis of OI, there have been no large-scale natural history studies. To better understand the natural history and improve the care of patients, a network of Linked Clinical Research Centers (LCRC) was established. Subjects with OI were enrolled in a longitudinal study, and in this report, we present cross-sectional data on the largest cohort of OI subjects (n = 544). OI type III subjects had higher prevalence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, severe scoliosis, and long bone deformities as compared to those with OI types I and IV. Whereas the mean lumbar spine area bone mineral density (LS aBMD) was low across all OI subtypes, those with more severe forms had lower bone mass. Molecular testing may help predict the subtype in type I collagen-related OI. Analysis of such well-collected and unbiased data in OI can not only help answering questions that are relevant to patient care but also foster hypothesis-driven research, especially in the context of 'phenotypic expansion' driven by next-generation sequencing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Cross-sectional Multicenter Study of Osteogenesis Imperfecta in North America – Results from the Linked Clinical Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak M; Nagamani, Sandesh CS; Cuthbertson, David; Campeau, Philippe M; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Shapiro, Jay R; Steiner, Robert D; Smith, Peter A; Bober, Michael B; Byers, Peter H; Pepin, Melanie; Durigova, Michaela; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank; Lee, Brendan H; Smith, Tracy; Sutton, V. Reid

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is the most common skeletal dysplasia that predisposes to recurrent fractures and bone deformities. In spite of significant advances in understanding the genetic basis of OI, there have been no large-scale natural history studies. To better understand the natural history and improve the care of patients, a network of Linked Clinical Research Centers (LCRC) was established. Subjects with OI were enrolled in a longitudinal study, and in this report, we present cross-sectional data on the largest cohort of OI subjects (n=544). OI type III subjects had higher prevalence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, severe scoliosis, and long bone deformities as compared to those with OI types I and IV. Whereas the mean LS aBMD was low across all OI subtypes, those with more severe forms had lower bone mass. Molecular testing may help predict the subtype in type I collagen-related OI. Analysis of such well-collected and unbiased data in OI can not only help answer questions that are relevant to patient care but also foster hypothesis-driven research, especially in the context of “phenotypic expansion” driven by next-generation sequencing. PMID:24754836

  7. Correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sikkim, Northeast India - Results from a cross-sectional pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Amit; Rai, Tekendra K; Sharma, Bijaya; Rai, Bhim Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and consequences of unrecorded alcohol consumption, defined as home brewed or clandestinely produced illicit liquor or surrogate alcoholic beverage has been little investigated in India. A significant portion of all alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded, therefore these consumers constitute a significant population. Sikkim, a province in Northeast India, lies in the foothills of the Himalayas. Unrecorded alcohol use is traditionally prevalent, with more than ten types available. This study investigated correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in rural and urban communities of Sikkim. A cross-sectional, community-based pilot survey was conducted. Intensive case-finding recruited current heavy users (at least 3 days/week) of unrecorded alcohol of either sex above 16 years of age. On enrolment, participants responded to a socio-demographic instrument including 12 questions on their pattern of alcohol consumption and a 4-item CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol problems exist significantly among the young adult population. Although consumption of unrecorded alcohol is traditional in Sikkim, it has emerged as an important public health problem, with alarmingly high rates of problematic consumption. This is also expected to have significant economic costs. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures are an urgent need as well as policy decisions on production and sales of unrecorded alcohol.

  8. Hyperphosphatemia Is an Independent Risk Factor for Mortality in Critically Ill Patients: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik G Haider

    Full Text Available Phosphate imbalances or disorders have a high risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is unknown if this finding extends to mortality in patients presenting at an emergency room with or without normal kidney function.This cross sectional analysis included all emergency room patients between 2010 and 2011 at the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland. A multivariable cox regression model was applied to assess the association between phosphate levels and in-hospital mortality up to 28 days.22,239 subjects were screened for the study. Plasma phosphate concentrations were measured in 2,390 patients on hospital admission and were included in the analysis. 3.5% of the 480 patients with hypophosphatemia and 10.7% of the 215 patients with hyperphosphatemia died. In univariate analysis, phosphate levels were associated with mortality, age, diuretic therapy and kidney function (all p0.05.Hyperphosphatemia is associated with 28-day in-hospital mortality in an unselected cohort of patients presenting in an emergency room.

  9. Treatment patterns in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: results from a Belgian cross-sectional study (DISCOVER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julien; Ghislain, Pierre-Dominique; Lambert, Jo; Cauwe, Bénédicte; Van den Enden, Maria

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate current treatment patterns and achievement of treatment goals in Belgian patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. This cross-sectional observational study (DISCOVER) was conducted in 2011 - 2012 in Belgian dermatology centers. Patient data were collected during a single visit and included information on psoriasis management and severity (PASI and DLQI). Treatment success was defined according to the current European consensus treatment goal algorithm. Of the 556 patients included in the study, 38.1% reported no current treatment or only topicals, 34.2% were being treated with traditional systemics and/or phototherapy, and 29.5% with biologics. Methotrexate (11.7%) was the most commonly prescribed traditional systemic and adalimumab (14.2%) was the most commonly prescribed biologic agent at the time of the study. The percentage of patients achieving treatment goals was significantly higher in biologic-treated patients (73.1%) compared to those using traditional systemics (50.6%), phototherapy (41.1%), or no treatment/only topicals (20.9%; p psoriasis in the DISCOVER study were undertreated despite the severity of their disease. Undertreatment of psoriasis remains a problem in Belgium and more effective educational strategies are needed to ensure the best treatment outcome for these patients. [Formula: see text].

  10. [Psycho-oncology care in rural areas : Results from a cross-sectional survey on the utilisation of community-based psychosocial support services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Markus W; Sklenarova, Halina; Zimmermann-Schlegel, Verena; Herzog, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Mechthild

    2018-01-01

    Clinically relevant distress and unmet psychosocial needs frequently occur in the course of cancer diseases. Particularly for thinly populated rural areas in Germany rates of distressed patients and uptake of community-based psycho-oncology services are unknown. Determination of a) the proportion of cancer patients with psychosocial distress and unmet needs and b) the utilisation of community-based psycho-oncology services in thinly populated rural areas. Prospective cross-sectional study of 229 cancer patients (colon, breast, prostate cancer) living in thinly populated rural areas. Indicators for clinically relevant distress and utilisation of psychosocial services were assessed by applying screening instruments. We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses. More than one third of all cancer patients (39.3%) in thinly populated areas exhibited clinically relevant distress. However, only 15.6% of distressed patients consulted community-based psycho-oncology services. Most frequently, medical or psychological psychotherapists were contacted. Information deficits of patients and attending physicians alongside dispositional factors emerged as the main reasons for non-utilisation. This study presents first data on psycho-oncology care in rural areas in Germany stratifying the degree of urbanisation in line with the standards of the European Commission. Concerning limitations, we only accounted for structural service coverage, leaving aside other indicators for socio-spatial deprivation.

  11. Uptake and correlates of contraception among postpartum women in Kenya: results from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achwoka, Dunstan; Pintye, Jillian; McGrath, Christine J; Kinuthia, John; Unger, Jennifer A; Obudho, Norah; Langat, Agnes; John-Stewart, Grace; Drake, Alison L

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to characterize uptake and correlates of effective contraceptive use postpartum. We analyzed data from a national, cross-sectional evaluation of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs that enrolled women attending 6-week or 9-month infant immunization visits at 120 Kenyan maternal and child health clinics. We classified women who resumed sexual activity postpartum and did not desire a child within 2 years as having a need for family planning (FP). We included 955 (94%) of 1012 women 8-10 months postpartum in the analysis. Mean age was 25.8 years and 36% were primigravidas. By 9 months postpartum, 62% of all women used contraception and 59% used effective contraception [injectables, implants, intrauterine devices [IUDs], oral contraceptives [OCs] and tubal ligations]. Most contraceptive users (61%) used injectables, followed by implants (10%), OCs (6%), IUDs (4%) and condoms alone (2%). The majority (n=733, 77%) had a need for FP, and 67% of 733 women with FP need used effective contraception. Among women with a need for FP, effective contraception use was higher among those who discussed FP in postnatal care (PNC) than who did not discuss FP in PNC [prevalence ratio (PR) for PNC alone: 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.58; PR for PNC and antenatal care (ANC): 1.42, 95% CI: 1.21-1.67; p=.001 for both]. Two thirds of postpartum women with a need for FP used effective contraception at 9 months postpartum, and use was associated with discussing FP during PNC. Integrating FP counseling in ANC/PNC could be an effective strategy to increase effective contraception use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Sexual and romantic challenges among young Danes diagnosed with cancer Results from a cross-sectional nationwide questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graugaard, Christian; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Boisen, Kirsten A; Petersen, Gitte Stentebjerg

    2018-03-12

    The negative impact of malignant disease on sexual and relational functioning is well-documented among adults, but scarcely investigated among adolescents and young adults. This study explored the body image, self-perceived attractiveness and sexual/romantic experiences of Danes diagnosed with cancer at the age of 15-29 years. It also aimed to clarify whether self-perceived needs for counseling were in fact met by health-care providers. All Danes who had been diagnosed with cancer at the age of 15-29 years during the period 2009-2013 were included in a cross-sectional nationwide questionnaire study. 822 questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 45%. More than half of the respondents (53.8%) reported that cancer had altered their body image negatively, while 44.6% felt that disease had lowered their feeling of being attractive. Nearly one-third (31.3%) and one-fourth (23.6%), respectively, had experienced a negative impact on their desire to have sex or to flirt/date/have a partner. Female responders were more affected than males on most variables, and breast cancer patients were approximately four times more at risk for sexual and romantic adversities than patients with melanoma of the skin. Although more than 80% indicated a need to discuss issues of sexuality and intimacy with a health professional, 49.5% and 61.7%, respectively, had talked little or not at all with professionals during hospitalization and follow-up consultations. Young cancer patients experience sexual and romantic challenges along with a lack of self-perceived attractiveness. Their substantial need for dialogue and counselling should be met in health-care settings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-sectional association between physical activity and serum testosterone levels in US men: Results from NHANES 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.; Bradwin, Gary; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Joshu, Corinne E.

    2018-01-01

    Background Testosterone levels and physical activity (PA) each play important roles in men’s health, but the relationship between the two remains unclear. Methods We evaluated the cross-sectional association between self-reported total PA and serum testosterone levels in 738 men (mean age 42.4 yrs, range 20-≥85yrs) who participated in NHANES 1999–2004. We compared geometric mean testosterone concentrations measured by RIA and calculated the odds ratio (OR) of having low or low normal testosterone (≤3.46 ng/mL) across tertiles of total PA in all men, and men stratified by age (20–49, ≥ 50 years), and obesity status (BMI testosterone concentration was 5.31 ng/mL; 18.6% of the men had low or low normal serum testosterone levels. PA tertiles were not associated with testosterone levels overall, or when stratified by age or obesity status. Similarly, there was no association between PA tertiles and the odds of low or low normal testosterone, overall or by age. However, among non-obese men, those in the highest PA tertile were significantly less likely to have low or low normal testosterone than those in the lowest tertile (OR 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.95); there was no association among obese men. Conclusions Greater PA was not associated with testosterone levels, but may be associated with a reduced odds of low or low normal testosterone in non-obese men, but not in obese men. PMID:26991734

  14. Disclosure of sexual orientation to health professionals in China: results from an online cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiming; Mao, Jessica; Tang, Songyuan; Liu, Chuncheng; Mollan, Katie; Cao, Bolin; Wong, Terrence; Zhang, Ye; Hudgens, Michael; Qin, Yilu; Han, Larry; Ma, Baoli; Yang, Bin; Ma, Wei; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-02-06

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) in China are "in the closet." The low rate of disclosure may impact sexual behaviours, testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and diseases transmission. This study examines factors associated with overall sexual orientation disclosure and disclosure to healthcare professionals. A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted from September 2014 to October 2014 in China. Participants completed questions covering socio-demographic information, sexual behaviours, HIV/STI testing history, and self-reported HIV status. We defined healthcare professional disclosure as disclosing to a doctor or other medical provider. A total of 1819 men started the survey and 1424 (78.3%) completed it. Among the 1424 participants, 62.2% (886/1424) reported overall disclosure, and 16.3% (232/1424) disclosed to healthcare professionals. In multivariate analyses, the odds of sexual orientation disclosure were 56% higher among MSM who used smartphone-based, sex-seeking applications [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.25-2.95], but were lower among MSM reporting sex while drunk or recreational drug use. The odds of disclosure to a healthcare professional were greater among MSM who had ever tested for HIV or STIs (aOR = 3.36, 95% CI: 2.50-4.51 for HIV, and aOR = 4.92, 95% CI: 3.47-6.96 for STIs, respectively) or self-reported as living with HIV (aOR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.93-2.72). Over 80% of MSM had not disclosed their sexual orientation to health professionals. This low level of disclosure likely represents a major obstacle to serving the unique needs of MSM in clinical settings. Further research and interventions to facilitate MSM sexual orientation disclosure, especially to health professionals, are urgently needed.

  15. Association between health behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents: results from the cross-sectional MoMo-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhans, Eliane; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between adolescent and familial health behavioral factors and cardiorespiratory fitness in German adolescent boys and girls. This study is based on a large nationwide cross-sectional study and its substudy on physical activity and fitness of children and adolescents ("Motorik-Modul"). For 1,328 adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age, data on cardiorespiratory fitness (Physical working capacity 170, PWC(170)) and familial and adolescent health behavioral factors were collected. Health behavior was assessed using psychometric questionnaires (socioeconomic status, pubertal stage, daily physical activity, sports-club time, parental physical activity habits, etc.). A hierarchical multiple regression model was used to quantify the association between relative PWC(170) values and health behavior. The relationship between adolescents' health behavioral factors and cardiorespiratory fitness was stronger than the relationship between age, social status, familial health behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness. Familial health behavioral factors explained 4.1% and 2.1% of variance in cardiorespiratory fitness in girls and boys, respectively. Adolescents' health behavioral factors explained 15.2% of variance in girls and 25.7% of variance in boys. For both girls (β = .273) and boys (β = .400), being normal weight had the greatest effect on relative PWC(170) values. The difference in explained variance in cardiorespiratory fitness by familial and adolescents' health behavioral factors between girls and boys indicates that different predictors for cardiorespiratory fitness are important for girls and boys. Hence, sex specific research and interventions aimed at improving familial and adolescent health behavior may be important. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between maternal dental periapical infections and pregnancy outcomes: results from a cross-sectional study in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Alho, Lotta; Dewey, Kathryn G; Cheung, Yin Bun; Deitchler, Megan; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Klein, Nigel J; Ashorn, Per

    2015-11-01

    Maternal infections are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth (PTB). Dental infections are common in low-income settings, but their contribution to adverse pregnancy outcomes is unknown. We studied the epidemiology of dental periapical infections among pregnant women and their association to foetal growth restriction and the duration of pregnancy in a rural sub-Saharan African population. This was a cross-sectional study on the association between maternal dental periapical infections and birth outcomes, in Malawi, Africa. We assessed oral health clinically and radiologically among recently delivered women with known duration of pregnancy and measured birthweight (BW), length and head circumference of their infants. Of 1024 analysed participants, 23.5% had periapical infections. Mean duration of pregnancy was 39.4 weeks, BW 2979 g and length 49.7 cm. Women with periapical infection had mean (95% CI) pregnancy duration 0.4 weeks (0.1-0.8) shorter and delivered infants with 79 g (13-145) lower BW and 0.5 cm (0.2-0.9) shorter neonatal length than women without periapical infection. The incidence of PTB was 10.0% among women with periapical infection and 7.3% among those without (adjusted difference 3.5%, 95% CI -1.1-8.1%). Corresponding prevalences for stunting were 20.9% and 14.2% (adjusted difference 9.0%, 95% CI 2.7%-15.2%). The population-attributable risk fraction attributable to periapical infection was 9.7% for PTB and 12.8% for stunting. Periapical infection was associated with shorter pregnancy duration and IUGR in the study area; interventions addressing this risk factor may improve birth outcomes in low-income settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Medical students' attitudes and wishes towards extending an educational general practice app to be suitable for practice: A cross-sectional survey from Leipzig, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholzer, Maximilian; Deutsch, Tobias; Frese, Thomas; Winter, Alfred

    2016-06-01

    In medical education and practice, smartphone apps are increasingly becoming popular. In general practice, apps could play an important future role in supporting medical education and practice. To explore medical students' perceptions regarding the potential of a general practice app for training and subsequent work as a physician. Cross-sectional survey among Leipzig fourth-year medical students who were provided with an app prototype for a mandatory general practice course. Response rate was 99.3% (n = 305/307); 59.0% were female and mean age was 24.5 years. Students certified that the app had a higher potential than textbooks in both education (57.4% vs. 18.0%) and practice (47.1% vs. 22.8%). Students' most desired possible app extensions when anticipating its use for subsequent work as a physician were looking up information for diagnostics, therapy and prediction (85.1%), access to electronic patient files (48.1%), communication and networking (44.3%), organization of medical training (42.9%) and online monitoring of patients (38.1%). Students experienced with medical smartphone apps were more interested in app extensions. Consideration to use the app to support the opening of their own practice was significantly associated with higher interest in accessing electronic patient files, networking with colleagues and telemedicine. Fourth year medical students from Leipzig see a high potential in smartphone apps for education and practice and are interested in further using the technology after undergraduate education.

  18. SUSY Production cross sections.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E. L.; Harris, B.; Klasen, M.; Tait, T.

    1999-03-19

    We summarize the status of next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) calculations of the cross sections for the production of squarks, gluinos, neutralinos, charginos, and sleptons as a function of the produced particle masses in proton-antiproton collisions at the hadronic center-of-mass energy 2 TeV.

  19. Measurement of the 240Pu(n,f cross-section at the CERN n_TOF facility: First results from experimental area II (EAR-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatopoulos A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate knowledge of the neutron-induced fission cross-sections of actinides and other isotopes involved in the nuclear fuel cycle is essential for the design of advanced nuclear systems, such as Generation-IV nuclear reactors. Such experimental data can also provide the necessary feedback for the adjustment of nuclear model parameters used in the evaluation process, resulting in the further development of nuclear fission models. In the present work, the 240Pu(n,f cross-section was measured at CERN's n_TOF facility relative to the well-known 235U(n,f cross section, over a wide range of neutron energies, from meV to almost MeV, using the time-of-flight technique and a set-up based on Micromegas detectors. This measurement was the first experiment to be performed at n_TOF's new experimental area (EAR-2, which offers a significantly higher neutron flux compared to the already existing experimental area (EAR-1. Preliminary results as well as the experimental procedure, including a description of the facility and the data handling and analysis, are presented.

  20. Associated factors of different nutrition indicators in German nursing home residents: comparative results of a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, R; Reuther, S; Bartholomeyczik, S

    2012-10-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most important care problems in the nursing home care sector. The subject of this analysis is the investigation of associative factors for different indicators of malnutrition of residents in nursing homes in Germany. A secondary data analysis was conducted using data from 4,478 nursing home residents. Unintended weight loss or reduced intake and BMI ≤ 20 were analysed as indicators for malnutrition. The influence of age, sex, co-morbidities and care dependency were investigated in logistic regression models. Residents with a high care dependency had a higher risk of suffering weight loss/reduced intake. With regard to BMI ≤ 20, residents aged > 85 years, female gender, cancer, musculoskeletal disease as well as high care dependency had a higher risk. In both models, care dependency plays a major role in explaining malnutrition. Associative factors for malnutrition must be interpreted according to the indicators used to define malnutrition.

  1. What shape do UK trainees want their training to be? Results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Rhiannon L; Rashid, Mustafa; Smitham, Peter; Vesey, Alex; McGregor, Richard; Scheeres, Karl; Bailey, Jon; Sohaib, Syed Mohammed Afzal; Prior, Matthew; Frost, Jonathan; Al-Deeb, Walid; Kugathasan, Gana; Gokani, Vimal J

    2016-10-07

    The British Government is acting on recommendations to overhaul postgraduate training to meet the needs of the changing population, to produce generalist doctors undergoing shorter broad-based training (Greenaway Review). Only 45 doctors in training were involved in the consultation process. This study aims to obtain a focused perspective on the proposed reforms by doctors in training from across specialities. Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Following validation, a 31-item electronic questionnaire was distributed via trainee organisations and Postgraduate Local Education and Training Board (LETB) mailing lists. Throughout the 10-week study period, the survey was publicised on several social media platforms. Of the 3603 demographically representative respondents, 69% knew about proposed changes. Of the respondents, 73% expressed a desire to specialise, with 54% keen to provide general emergency cover. A small proportion (12%) stated that current training pathway length is too long, although 86% felt that it is impossible to achieve independent practitioner-level proficiency in a shorter period of time than is currently required. Opinions regarding credentialing were mixed, but tended towards disagreement. The vast majority (97%) felt credentialing should not be funded by doctors in training. Respondents preferred longer placement lengths with increasing career progression. Doctors in training value early generalised training (65%), with suggestions for further improvement. This is the first large-scale cross-specialty study regarding the Shape of Training Review. Although there are recommendations which trainees support, it is clear that one size does not fit all. Most trainees are keen to provide a specialist service on an emergency generalist background. Credentialing is a contentious issue; however, we believe removing aspects from curricula into post-Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT) credentialing programmes with shortened

  2. Demographics and husbandry of pet cats living in Sydney, Australia: results of cross-sectional survey of pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M; Norris, Jacqueline M; White, Joanna D; Dhand, Nanveet K; Hamilton, Samuel A; Malik, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Our aim was to collect baseline data on the age, gender, breed, reproductive status and husbandry (housing, diet, vaccination, veterinary attention) of pet cats living in Sydney. Accordingly, a cross-sectional survey of 2768 households was conducted using a postal questionnaire. The 2006 Sydney residential phone book was used as the sampling frame. Non-responders were re-mailed the questionnaire on two further occasions, 2 and 4 weeks after the first posting. Completed questionnaires were received from 884 households. No pets were kept by 387 (43.8%) respondents. Dogs and cats were owned by 295 (33.4%) and 198 (22.5%) of households, respectively, with 7.8% of households having both cat(s) and dog(s). Fish and birds were the next most popular pets. Of the 198 cat-owning households, 54.0% kept only cat(s), while 46.5% kept cats with other pets. The distribution of cat ownership across Sydney was non-uniform. Each cat-owning household kept 1.3 cats on average, with the majority keeping one (75.8% households) or two (18.7%). For the 260 cats, the mean age was 7.1 years, the median 6 years, with a range of 3 months to 22 years. There were significantly more female (143; 55%) than male cats (117; 45%). Only seven cats (2.7%) were sexually entire, and these were all pet park enclosures'. Pedigree cats were significantly more likely than crossbreds to be housed indoors. Most owners fed their cats a combination of commercial dry and canned food (38.1%), although fresh meat was popular also and either fed alone (1.6%) or in combination with dry food (14.4%), tinned food (1.6%) or canned and dry food (25.8%). A diet consisting of dry food alone was fed to cats in 13.4% of households. Ninety percent of cats had been vaccinated at least once, while 72.2% received a vaccination in the last 3 years. Older cats were less likely to have been vaccinated recently than younger cats. Only 5.8% of cats had never visited a veterinarian. For the 243 cats that had received veterinary

  3. Menstrual hygiene management among Bangladeshi adolescent schoolgirls and risk factors affecting school absence: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Islam, Khairul; Opel, Aftab; Shoab, Abul K; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mahon, Therese; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-07-09

    Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche. We sampled 700 schools from 50 urban and 50 rural clusters using a probability proportional to size technique. We interviewed 2332 schoolgirls and conducted spot checks in each school for menstrual hygiene facilities. To assess factors associated with reported school absence, we estimated adjusted prevalence difference (APD) for controlling confounders' effect using generalised estimating equations to account for school-level clustering. Among schoolgirls who reached menarche, 41% (931) reported missing school, an average of 2.8 missed days per menstrual cycle. Students who felt uncomfortable at school during menstruation (99% vs 32%; APD=58%; CI 54 to 63) and who believed menstrual problems interfere with school performance (64% vs 30%; APD=27; CI 20 to 33) were more likely to miss school during menstruation than those who did not. School absence during menstruation was less common among girls attending schools with unlocked toilet for girls (35% vs 43%; APD=-5.4; CI -10 to -1.6). School absence was more common among girls who were forbidden from any activities during menstruation (41% vs 33%; APD=9.1; CI 3.3 to 14). Risk factors for school absence included girl's attitude, misconceptions about menstruation, insufficient and inadequate facilities at school, and family restriction. Enabling girls to manage menstruation at school by providing knowledge and management methods prior to menarche, privacy and a

  4. Food and Beverage Selection Patterns among Menu Label Users and Nonusers: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Jessie; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2017-06-01

    By May 5, 2017, restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Previous research shows that those who use menu labels purchase fewer calories, but how users are saving calories is unknown. To assess food and beverage selection patterns among menu label users and nonusers. Secondary, cross-sectional analysis using data from a study examining sociodemographic disparities in menu label usage at a national fast-food restaurant chain. Participants were recruited outside restaurant locations, using street-intercept survey methodology. Consenting customers submitted receipts and completed a brief oral survey. Receipt data were used to categorize food and beverage purchases. Side, beverage, and entrée purchases. Sides and beverages were classified as healthier and less-healthy options consistent with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Healthier options contained items promoted in the guidelines, such as whole fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and 100% fruit juice; less-healthy options contained solid fat or added sugar. Entrées were categorized as lower-, medium-, and higher-calorie options, based on quartile cutoffs. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for purchases among menu label users and nonusers, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and total price paid. Healthier sides were selected by 7.5% of users vs 2.5% of nonusers; healthier beverages were selected by 34.0% of users vs 11.6% of nonusers; and lowest-calorie entrées were selected by 28.3% of users vs 30.1% of nonusers. Compared with nonusers (n=276), users (n=53) had a higher probability of purchasing healthier sides (PR=5.44; P=0.034), and healthier beverages (PR=3.37; P=0.005). No significant differences were seen in the purchasing patterns of entrées. Targeting educational campaigns to side and beverage purchasing behaviors may increase the effectiveness of menu

  5. Association of Mediterranean diet, dietary supplements and alcohol consumption with breast density among women in South Germany: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodina, Olga; Billich, Christian; Arand, Birke; Nagel, Gabriele

    2013-03-07

    Effects of dietary factors, such as adherence to Mediterranean diet, multivitamin-multimineral supplements use and alcohol consumption on mammographic breast density, an important biomarker of breast cancer risk, are not sufficiently consistent to elaborate preventive recommendations. This study aims to investigate the association between current diet and mammographic density. We performed a cross-sectional study in 424 pre- and post-menopausal women aged 21 to 84 years. Current Mediterranean dietary pattern, multivitamin-multimineral supplements use, alcohol consumption and potential confounders were assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in the University Hospital Ulm (2007-2008). Radiologists evaluated mammographic density according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) classification, which was summarized in low = ACR1/2 and high = ACR3/4 mammographic density. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between current diet and mammographic density. Adherance to Mediterranean dietary pattern was inversely associated with mammographic density in the models adjusted for age and BMI (per 1 unit increase of score OR 0.95; 95%CI 0.90-0.997). Current use of multivitamin-multimineral supplements was also inversely associated with mammographic density (OR 0.53; 95%CI 0.34-0.83). Further adjustment revealed similar point estimates but the associations were no longer statistically significant. Compared to non-drinkers, excessive alcohol consumption (dietary factors are associated with mammographic density. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and current use of multivitamin-multimineral supplements could be inversely associated with mammographic density and may suggest a protective effect against breast cancer, whereas high alcohol consumption was associated with increased mammographic density.

  6. Colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis in migrants versus non-migrants (KoMigra): study protocol of a cross-sectional study in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlhaus, Anne; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Blettner, Maria; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Guethlin, Corina; Schall, Arthur; Taubenroth, Maja; Ewijk, Reyn van; Zeeb, Hajo; Albay, Zeycan; Schulz-Rothe, Sylvia; Beyer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, about 20% of the total population have a migration background. Differences exist between migrants and non-migrants in terms of health care access and utilisation. Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignant tumour in Germany, and incidence, staging and survival chances depend, amongst other things, on ethnicity and lifestyle. The current study investigates whether stage at diagnosis differs between migrants and non-migrants with colorectal cancer in an area of high migration and attempts to identify factors that can explain any differences. Data on tumour and migration status will be collected for 1,200 consecutive patients that have received a new, histologically verified diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a high migration area in Germany in the previous three months. The recruitment process is expected to take 16 months and will include gastroenterological private practices and certified centres for intestinal diseases. Descriptive and analytical analysis will be performed: the distribution of variables for migrants versus non-migrants and participants versus non-participants will be analysed using appropriate χ2-, t-, F- or Wilcoxon tests. Multivariable, logistic regression models will be performed, with the dependent variable being the dichotomized stage of the tumour (UICC stage I versus more advanced than UICC stage I). Odds ratios and associated 95%-confidence intervals will be calculated. Furthermore, ordered logistic regression models will be estimated, with the exact stage of the tumour at diagnosis as the dependent variable. Predictors used in the ordered logistic regression will be patient characteristics that are specific to migrants as well as patient characteristics that are not. Interaction models will be estimated in order to investigate whether the effects of patient characteristics on stage of tumour at the time of the initial diagnosis is different in migrants, compared to non-migrants. An association of migration status or

  7. Colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis in migrants versus non-migrants (KoMigra): study protocol of a cross-sectional study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhaus, Anne; Guethlin, Corina; Schall, Arthur; Taubenroth, Maja; van Ewijk, Reyn; Zeeb, Hajo; Albay, Zeycan; Schulz-Rothe, Sylvia; Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Blettner, Maria; Siebenhofer, Andrea

    2014-02-24

    In Germany, about 20% of the total population have a migration background. Differences exist between migrants and non-migrants in terms of health care access and utilisation. Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignant tumour in Germany, and incidence, staging and survival chances depend, amongst other things, on ethnicity and lifestyle. The current study investigates whether stage at diagnosis differs between migrants and non-migrants with colorectal cancer in an area of high migration and attempts to identify factors that can explain any differences. Data on tumour and migration status will be collected for 1,200 consecutive patients that have received a new, histologically verified diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a high migration area in Germany in the previous three months. The recruitment process is expected to take 16 months and will include gastroenterological private practices and certified centres for intestinal diseases. Descriptive and analytical analysis will be performed: the distribution of variables for migrants versus non-migrants and participants versus non-participants will be analysed using appropriate χ2-, t-, F- or Wilcoxon tests. Multivariable, logistic regression models will be performed, with the dependent variable being the dichotomized stage of the tumour (UICC stage I versus more advanced than UICC stage I). Odds ratios and associated 95%-confidence intervals will be calculated. Furthermore, ordered logistic regression models will be estimated, with the exact stage of the tumour at diagnosis as the dependent variable. Predictors used in the ordered logistic regression will be patient characteristics that are specific to migrants as well as patient characteristics that are not. Interaction models will be estimated in order to investigate whether the effects of patient characteristics on stage of tumour at the time of the initial diagnosis is different in migrants, compared to non-migrants. An association of migration status or

  8. Occlusive gloves and skin conditions: is there a problem? Results of a cross-sectional study in a semiconductor company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhöfer, W; Wacker, M; Bernet, F; Uter, W; Drexler, H

    2015-04-01

    Although there is poor scientific evidence that working with occlusive gloves is as damaging as wet work, prolonged glove occlusion is considered to be a risk factor for developing hand eczema similar to wet work. To assess the effects of wearing occlusive gloves during the whole working day, without exposure to any additional hazardous substances, on skin condition and skin barrier function. We investigated 323 employees of a semiconductor production company in Germany: 177 clean-room workers wearing occlusive gloves during the whole shift (exposed group) and 146 employees working in administration (control group). A standardized interview was performed, the skin condition of both hands was studied using the quantitative skin score HEROS, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration were measured. There was no significant difference in skin condition between the two subgroups. Values for TEWL and corneometry were significantly higher in exposed participants (P gloves at least 30 min before the measurement. Hence, the effect of occlusion on skin barrier function seems to be transient. Prolonged wearing of occlusive gloves with clean hands and without exposure to additional hazardous substances does not seem to affect the skin negatively. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. How much psychological distress is experienced at home by patients with palliative care needs in Germany? A cross-sectional study using the Distress Thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küttner, Stefanie; Wüller, Johannes; Pastrana, Tania

    2017-04-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to describe the prevalence of psychosocial distress in palliative care patients living at home and the related factors, and (2) to test implementation of the Distress Thermometer (DT) within a home-based palliative care service. Ours was a 15-month prospective study beginning in September of 2013 in western Germany with consecutive patients cared for by a home care palliative care service. The research was implemented during the first visit by the home care team. Patients were excluded if they were under 18 years of age, mentally or physically unable to complete the assessment questionnaires as judged by their healthcare worker, or unable to understand the German language. During the first encounter, the Distress Thermometer (DT), a Problem List (PL), and a structured questionnaire for evaluation were applied and sociodemographic and medical data collected. A total of 103 patients (response rate = 70%; mean age = 67; female = 54%; married = 67%; oncological condition = 91%; Karnofsky Performance Status [KPS] score 0-40 = 34%, 50-70 = 60%, >80 = 6%) were included. The incidence of distress (DT score ≥4) was 89.3% (mean = 6.3 ± 2.5). No statistical association was found between level of distress and sociodemographic or medical factors. The five most reported problems were "fatigue" (90%), "getting around" (84%), "eating" (63%), "bathing/dressing" (60%), and "sleep" (57%). The number of problems reported correlated with level of distress (ρ = 0.34). The DT was comprehensible, and 80% considered its completion as unremarkable, while 14% found it "relieving." A significant proportion of patients treated at home reported symptoms of distress. The most oft-mentioned problems were physical and emotional in nature. The findings of our study highlight the importance of creating new concepts and structures in order to address the psychosocial needs of patients in home care with palliative needs.

  10. Regional Deprivation and Non-Cancer Related Computed Tomography Use in Pediatric Patients in Germany: Cross-Sectional Analysis of Cohort Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Steffen; Krille, Lucian; Maier, Werner; Pokora, Roman; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting findings were observed in recent studies assessing the association between patients' area-level socio-economic status and the received number of computed tomography (CT) examinations in children. The aim was to investigate the association between area-level socio-economic status and variation in CT examination practice for pediatric patients in Germany. Data from Radiology Information Systems for children aged 0 to Deprivation (GIMD) was used to assess regional deprivation. The GIMD scores were classified into least, medium and most deprived areas and linked with the patient's last known postal code. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the association between patients' CT numbers and regional deprivation adjusting for age, sex, and location of residence (urban/rural). A total of 37,810 pediatric patients received 59,571 CT scans during the study period. 27,287 (72%) children received only one CT, while n = 885 (2.3%) received six or more. Increasing numbers of CT examinations in non-cancer patients were significantly associated with higher regional deprivation, which increased, although CI overlap, for higher CT categories: '2-3 CT' odds ratio (OR) = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.40-1.50; '4-5 CT' OR = 1.48, 95%CI: 1.38-1.59; '6+CT' OR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.41-1.69. In addition, male sex, higher age categories, and specific body regions were positively associated with increased numbers of CT examinations. We observed a positive association between regional deprivation and CT numbers in non-cancer pediatric patients. Limitations of the ecological approach and the lack of differentiation of CT details have to be acknowledged. More information on CT indications is necessary for a full assessment of this finding. In addition, further work on ways to assess socio-economic status more accurately may be required.

  11. pp Partial cross sections at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedettini, A.; Bertin, A.; Bruschi, M.; Capponi, M.; Collamati, A.; D'Antone, I.; De Castro, S.; Dona, R.; Ferretti, A.; Galli, D.; Giacobbe, B.; Marconi, U.; Massa, I.; Piccinini, M.

    1997-01-01

    New measurements of the pp total annihilation cross-section at very low momenta (around 50 MeV/c) confirm the previous results obtained by the OBELIX collaboration. The measured values are in general agreement with the scattering length approximation of the annihilation cross-section, where the pp scattering lengths are obtained from measurement of the protonium shifts and widths and which accounts for the Coulomb interaction. Partial annihilation cross-sections and annihilation frequencies for some channels have been measured too. The values of the total and partial cross sections at the lowest p momentum show an unexpected behaviour. (orig.)

  12. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  13. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemsitry in the region of Thulium, Lutetium, and Tantalum I. Results of Built in Spherical Symmetry in a Deformed Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-06

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from Terbium (Z = 65) to Rhenium (Z = 75). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Tm, Lu, and Ta including reactions on isomeric targets.

  14. No further increase in the parent reported prevalence of allergies in Bavarian preschool children: Results from three cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alisa; Herr, Caroline; Hendrowarsito, Lana; Meyer, Nicole; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; von Mutius, Erika; Bolte, Gabriele; Colon, Diana; Kolb, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    After three decades of an increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergies, new findings show a plateau in the prevalence of industrialized nations. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was a change in the parent reported prevalence of asthma and allergies among Bavarian preschool children since 2004. A parent questionnaire was administered as part of the Bavarian school entrance examination in three cross-sectional studies from 2004/2005, 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. The questionnaire included items on allergy testing history, identified allergens, symptoms (e.g. wheezing, itchy eyes, rash), medically diagnosed asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Logistic regression was performed to observe time patterns and adjust for risk factors. Data were available for 6350 (2004/2005), 6483 (2006/2007) and 5052 (2012/2013) individuals. Symptoms and diseases were more frequent in boys, except for allergies which affect the skin. From 2004 to 2012 the parent reported prevalence of asthma (2.6% to 2.8%), hay fever (4.7% to 4.0%) and atopic dermatitis (12.4% to 11.1%) either remained quite stable or decreased not significantly. Results from these three cross-sectional surveys of parent reports suggest that the parent reported prevalences of asthma and allergies are quite stable with small fluctuations since 2004 for Bavarian preschool children. Future research is needed to determine if this trend will continue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of tongue position and resulting vertical dimension on masticatory muscle activity. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, C; Gutiérrez, M; Falace, D; Astaburuaga, F; Manns, A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) compare the tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity of the temporalis and masseter muscles between two tongue positions, (b) compare the vertical dimension (VD) resulting from each tongue position and (c) determine the influence of the VD on the tonic EMG activity for each tongue position. Thirty-three healthy dental students with natural dentition and bilateral molar support, between the ages of 18 and 22 years, with no prior history of oro-facial injury, or current or past pain in the jaw, mouth, or tongue participated in the study. Tonic masseteric and temporalis EMG activities were recorded using surface electrodes. Subjects were instructed to passively place the tongue either on the anterior hard palate or in the floor of the mouth. At each tongue position, the resulting EMG and VD were recorded. No significant difference in EMG activity was found for either the masseter (P-value = 0·5376) or temporalis muscle (P-value = 0·7410), between the two tongue positions. However, there was a significant difference in the VD resulting from the two different tongue positions, being greater with the tongue placed in the floor of the mouth. There was no statistically significant correlation between VD and EMG activity for both tongue positions. In spite of the lack of difference in the effect of both tongue positions on the masseteric and temporalis EMG activity, an increment of the VD was registered for the floor of mouth-tongue position. However, VD was not correlated with EMG activity for both tongue positions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Dietary Patterns and Obesity among Chinese Adults: Results from a Household-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Zhang, Ronghua; Xia, Shichang; Huang, Lichun; Meng, Jia; Fang, Yueqiang; Ding, Gangqiang

    2017-05-05

    The key dietary pattern other than dietary factors influencing obesity has been reported by several large epidemiological studies. This study was carried out between 2010 and 2012 including 1613 adult residents in Zhejiang Province. Dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis based on 24-h dietary recall. Associations with dietary patterns and obesity were examined and adjusted for age and gender by logistic regression. Five dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis with their eigenvalues greater than 1: 'cereal, animal, and plant food', 'high protein food', 'plant food', 'poultry', and 'beverage'. After adjustment for age and gender, the 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' pattern was associated with obesity (OR = 2.924, 3.257; 95% CI = 1.147-7.463, 1.372-7.692). In conclusion, 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity. 'Cereal, animal, and plant food' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased protein and fat intake; while a 'beverage' dietary pattern may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased carbohydrate intake. The findings are valuable in targeting future nutrition education.

  17. Is Underweight Associated with more Positive Body Image? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanista, Adam; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Borowiec, Joanna; Osiński, Wiesław

    2017-02-09

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between body image and prevalence of underweight, normal weight, and overweight in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys, aged 14-16 years, who completed questionnaire assessing body satisfaction. The participants' BMI status: underweight, normal weight or overweight was determined on the basis of BMI cut-off values. Results revealed that more girls (p overweight individuals (p overweight (p adolescents. This should be taken into consideration when designing programs aimed at obesity and disordered eating prevention and body image improvement. Due to the fact that underweight girls and boys have high body satisfaction, this can lead to behaviors that maintain low body weight in adolescents and in turn this may have negative health consequences.

  18. Socio-economic determinants of health behaviours across age groups: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, T E; Stronegger, W J; Hoffmann, K; Stein, K Viktoria; Niederkrotenthaler, T

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of different socio-economic variables on the lifestyle factors, like lack of physical activity, diet rich in meat, and smoking, across sex and age groups in the general Austrian population to formulate more targeted public health measures. The Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006-07 contains data of 15,474 people, representative for the general population. Statistical analyses included linear and logistic regression models. Lack of physical activity was more prevalent in women, while unhealthy nutrition and daily smoking were more prevalent in men. Overall, profession was the strongest predictor for health behaviour in men, while the educational level played the most significant role in women. Subjects in higher age groups had a more healthy nutrition and were less likely to smoke, but had a higher chance for lack of physical activity. Socio-economic factors predict lifestyle choices differently in different age groups. For example, in men, the highest percentage of daily smokers was found in the middle age, while the youngest age group was the one that smoked the most in women. Furthermore, the educational level had a reverse effect on women in the oldest age group, where those with tertiary education smoked three times more than those with less education. Our results emphasise the importance of taking a holistic approach towards health, including educational, cultural and age-specific policies to improve the overall health status and health equality of a population.

  19. Helicobacter pylori colonization and diarrhoeal illness: Results of a population-based cross-sectional study in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, Guenter; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that Helicobacter pylori colonization may protect against diarrhoeagenic gastrointestinal infections. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and the frequency of diarrhoeal episodes among adults. Helicobacter pylori infection status was determined by 13 C-urea breath test. Overall, 784 adults (mean age: 48.7 ± 17.7; range 18-85 years) who participated in two epidemiological studies were included in the analysis. Overall H. pylori prevalence was 25.5%. Episodes of diarrhoea within prior 3 months were less often reported for H. pylori infected subjects compared with H. pylori negative subjects (40.2 vs. 51.6%, p = 0.016). Compared to H. pylori negative subjects the odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of diarrhoea within the prior 3 months was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.45-0.87) for H. pylori infected subjects. After adjustment for covariates the OR was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47-0.95). These results support the hypothesis that colonization with H. pylori may protect from gastrointestinal infections that cause diarrhoea

  20. Caregiving associated with selected cancer risk behaviors and screening utilization among women: cross-sectional results of the 2009 BRFSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Katherine W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informal caregiving is increasingly common as the U.S. population ages, and there is concern that caregivers are less likely than non-caregivers to practice health-promoting behaviors, including cancer screening. We examined caregiving effects on cancer risk behaviors and breast and cervical cancer screening in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Methods Women age ≥41 with data on breast and cervical cancer screening were included (weighted frequency 3,478,000 women. Cancer screening was classified according to American Cancer Society guidelines. We evaluated the association of caregiving with cancer risk behaviors (obesity, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking status, and fruit/vegetable consumption and cancer screening (mammography, clinical breast exam [CBE], and Pap test using logistic regression overall and with stratification on age ( Results Caregivers had greater odds of being obese, physically active, and current smokers. Subgroup analyses revealed that caregiving was associated with obesity in younger women and whites, and with less obesity in older women. Also, caregiving was associated with smoking only among younger women and non-whites. Caregivers had greater odds of ever having had a mammogram or CBE, yet there was no association with mammogram, CBE, or Pap test within guidelines. Conclusions Caregiving was associated with some health behaviors that increase cancer risk, yet not with cancer screening within guidelines. Effects of caregiving by age and race require confirmation by additional studies.

  1. Experiences of homophobia among gay and bisexual men: results from a cross-sectional study in seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, Anna N; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia--external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia--and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from seven countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the UK and the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook. Two outcomes were examined: reporting experiences of homophobic discrimination and reporting feelings of internalised homophobia. No covariates were consistently significantly associated with experiencing external homophobic discrimination across countries. Across all countries, bisexually identifying respondents reported significantly greater feelings of internalised homophobia. Respondents in Brazil and the UK reporting a main partner, and respondents in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand and the USA reporting a larger gay/bisexual social network, reported significantly fewer feelings of internalised homophobia. Results suggest an ameliorative effect of social networks on experiencing homophobia. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms through which social networks reduce feelings of internalised homophobia.

  2. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Metabolic Syndrome in Police Officers: Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, T.A.; Fekedulegn, D.; Andrew, M.E.; Burchfiel, C.M.; Hartley, T.A.; Knox, S.S.; Barbosa-Leiker, C.; Violanti, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Policing is one of the most dangerous and stressful occupations and such stress can have deleterious effects on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome (Met Syn) in male and female police officers from two study populations, Buffalo, NY and Spokane, WA. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Met Syn was defined using the 2005 AHA/NHBLI guidelines. Analysis of covariance was used to describe differences in number of Met Syn components across depressive symptom categories. The number of Met Syn components increased significantly across categories of CES-D for Spokane men only (p-trend = 0.003). For each 5-unit increase in CES-D score, odds increased by 47.6% for having hypertriglyceridemia, by 51.8% for having hypertension, and by 56.7% for having glucose intolerance. Exploring this association is important since both are predictors of future chronic health problems and the results could be helpful in developing future gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts among police officers

  3. [Influence and correlation of attitude, availability and institutional support to research implementation in nursing practice – results from an exploratory, cross-sectional quantitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger-Baumann, Elisabeth; Lang, Gert; Müller, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    The concrete application of research findings in nursing practice is a multidimensional process. In Austria, there are currently no results available that explain the impact of and association with the implementation of research in hospitals. The aim of the study was to investigate influences and relationships of individual attitudes towards research utilization, availability of research results and institutional support of nurses in Austrian hospitals with respect to research application. In a non-experimental quantitative cross-sectional design a multi-centre study (n = 10) was performed in 2011. The sample comprises 178 certified nurses who were interviewed with a survey questionnaire. The multiple regression analysis shows that a positive attitude towards research use (β = 0.388, p research results (β = 0.470, p research results. The path analysis proves that course attendance in evidence-based nursing has a strong positive influence towards research application (β = 0.464; p research results into the daily nursing practice.

  4. Chief physicians' attitudes towards early warning score systems in Switzerland: Results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Aline; Frank, Olga; Schwappach, David

    2018-04-01

    Early warning score systems (EWS-S) have been shown to be valuable tools to recognize otherwise unnoticed clinical deterioration (CDET) of patients. They have been associated with fewer unplanned transfers to the intensive care unit (UTICU) and lower in-hospital mortality. Little is known about their current usage in Switzerland and about the attitudes towards such tools among chief physicians. We aimed to assess the use of EWS-S in Switzerland and the attitudes of chief physicians towards EWS-S depending on previously experienced CDET followed by UTICU, reanimation, or death. Chief physicians of medical and surgical departments from all acute care hospitals in Switzerland were asked to participate within a project that aims to develop recommendations for the use of EWS-S in Switzerland (n = 118). The explorative study assessed perceived CDET, which led to UTICU, reanimation, or death of a patient, the knowledge and usage about different EWS-S and attitudes towards EWS-S in a written questionnaire. Means and percentages were used, and differences were assessed with independent t tests, chi-square, or Fisher exact test, as appropriate. Adverse events based on CDET were reported frequently, and awareness among chief physicians was high. Less than half of the chief physicians knew tools that systematically assess CDET with one-fifth of responders reporting using tools at their department. Previous experiences of UTICU, reanimation, or death after due to CDET were associated with more positive attitudes towards EWS-S. Adverse events based on CDET of patients are frequent and the awareness of this problem is high among chief physicians. Positive attitudes were more common with previous experiences of adverse events due to CDET. Our results strengthen the argumentation that the recommendation and future implementation of EWS-S in Switzerland would be meaningful. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The comparative burden of mild, moderate and severe Fibromyalgia: results from a cross-sectional survey in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg Don

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized by chronic, widespread pain, fatigue, and other symptoms; yet few studies have comprehensively assessed its humanistic burden. This observational study evaluates the impact of FM severity on patients' symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, and productivity in the United States. Methods 203 FM subjects were recruited from 20 physician offices. Subjects completed a questionnaire including the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-SS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and questions about demographics, pain and other symptoms, HRQoL and productivity. FIQ total scores were used to define FM severity, with 0- Results Mean (SD age was 47.9 (10.9; 95% were female. Most (92% were prescribed medication for FM; 24% and 66% reported moderate and severe FM, respectively. Mean (SD scores were: 6.3 (2.1 for pain intensity; 0.35 (0.35 for EQ-5D; 30.7 (14.2 for MAF; 57.5 (18.4 for MOS-SS Sleep Problems Index; 10.2 (4.8 for HADS anxiety and 9.4 (4.4 for HADS depression. Subjects with worse FM severity reported significantly increased pain severity, HRQoL, fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety and depression (p Conclusions FM imposes a substantial humanistic burden on patients in the United States, and leads to substantial productivity loss, despite treatment. This burden is higher among subjects with worse FM severity.

  6. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L. Grosso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW in The Gambia.Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners; and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner.Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167 reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70–7.07] compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11–30.65] and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09–7.89] if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15–0.97] to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner.Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted

  7. Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea in children under 5 in rural Niger: results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djibo Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea varies by context and has important implications for developing appropriate care strategies and estimating burden of disease. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of children under five with diarrhea who consulted at a health structure in order to identify the appropriate health care levels to set up surveillance of severe diarrheal diseases. Methods A cluster survey was done on 35 clusters of 21 children under 5 years of age in each of four districts of the Maradi Region, Niger. Caretakers were asked about diarrhea of the child during the recall period and their health seeking behavior in case of diarrhea. A weighted cluster analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of diarrhea, as well as the proportion of consultations and types of health structures consulted. Results In total, the period prevalence of diarrhea and severe diarrhea between April 24th and May 21st 2009 were 36.8% (95% CI: 33.7 - 40.0 and 3.4% (95% CI: 2.2-4.6, respectively. Of those reporting an episode of diarrhea during the recall period, 70.4% (95% CI: 66.6-74.1 reported seeking care at a health structure. The main health structures visited were health centers, followed by health posts both for simple or severe diarrhea. Less than 10% of the children were brought to the hospital. The proportion of consultations was not associated with the level of education of the caretaker, but increased with the number of children in the household. Conclusions The proportion of consultations for diarrhea cases in children under 5 years old was higher than those reported in previous surveys in Niger and elsewhere. Free health care for under 5 years old might have participated in this improvement. In this type of decentralized health systems, the WHO recommended hospital-based surveillance of

  8. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  9. Physical function and associations with diet and exercise: Results of a cross-sectional survey among elders with breast or prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clipp Elizabeth C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional decline threatens independent living and is common among individuals diagnosed with cancer, especially those who are elderly. The purpose of this study was to explore whether dietary and exercise practices are associated with physical function status among older cancer survivors. Methods Mailed surveys were used to ascertain data on physical function, dietary fat, fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption, and exercise among elderly diagnosed with early stage (I-II breast (N = 286 or prostate cancer (N = 402 within the past 18 months. Results Sixty-one percent of respondents reported diets with Conclusions Results of this cross-sectional survey suggest that regular vigorous exercise and consumption of diets low in fat and rich in F&Vs are associated with higher levels of physical functioning among older cancer survivors. Interventions that promote healthful lifestyle change may deliver considerable benefit within this ever increasing and vulnerable population.

  10. Individual development of preschool children-prevalences and determinants of delays in Germany: a cross-sectional study in Southern Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stich Heribert L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even minor abnormalities of early child development may have dramatic long term consequences. Accurate prevalence rates for a range of developmental impairments have been difficult to establish. Since related studies have used different methodological approaches, direct comparisons of the prevalence of developmental delays are difficult. The understanding of the key factors affecting child development, especially in preschool aged children remains limited. We used data from school entry examinations in Bavaria to measure the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children beginning primary school in 1997–2009. Methods The developmental impairments of all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing- Landau, Bavaria were assessed using modified “Bavarian School Entry Model” examination from 1997 to 2009 (N=13,182. The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardised medical protocol. Prevalence rates of impairments in twelve domains of development were estimated. Using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models, association between selected factors and development delays were assessed. Results The highest prevalence existed for impairments of pronunciation (13.8% followed by fine motor impairments (12.2%, and impairments of memory and concentration (11.3% and the lowest for impairments of rhythm of speech (3.1%. Younger children displayed more developmental delays. Male gender was strongly associated with all developmental impairments (highest risk for fine motor impairments = OR 3.22, 95% confidence interval 2.86-3.63. Preschool children with siblings (vs. children without any siblings were at higher risk of having impairments in pronunciation (OR 1.31, 1.14-1.50. The influence of the non-German nationality was strong, with a maximum risk increase for the subareas of grammar and psychosocial development. Although children with non

  11. Unmet needs and service satisfaction of victim support for the direct and indirect victims of serious violence: Results from a cross-sectional survey in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanying Huang

    Full Text Available Victim support services, in mature societies, aim to help victims recover after suffering a traumatic event. The effectiveness of victim support has traditionally been evaluated through rates of service utilization and incidence of psychopathology such as posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study, instead, inquires into service users' unmet needs and satisfaction, and identifies factors that mediate such subjective measures, using data from a national cross-sectional survey on victims and surviving families of violent crime in Taiwan in 2011. The results reveal: 1 a gap between available and expected services, and 2 a correlation between service utilization and satisfaction, both consistent with previous studies. In addition, the current study identifies unsatisfied service users: They are homicidally bereaved, live with their spouse, suffer from post-crime financial distress and are still waiting for a court verdict on the incident. Victim support that helps victims heal through tailored services incorporating relationship counseling is proposed.

  12. The impact of self-perceived limitations, stigma and sense of coherence on quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients : results of a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Feddrik; Oeseburg, Barth; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wynia, Klaske

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of perceived limitations, stigma and sense of coherence on quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Multiple sclerosis patients.

  13. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trocsanyi, Z.

    2010-06-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)

  14. Differences between LASL- and ANL-processed cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidman, R.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Becker, M.

    1978-03-01

    As part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) cross-section processing development, LASL cross sections and results from MINX/1DX system are compared to the Argonne National Laboratory cross sections and results from the ETOE-2/MC 2 -2 system for a simple reactor problem. Exact perturbation theory is used to establish the eigenvalue effect of every isotope group cross-section difference. Cross sections, cross-section differences, and their eigenvalue effects are clearly and conveniently displayed and compared on a group-by-group basis

  15. Barriers to HIV and sexual and reproductive health care for female sex workers in Tete, Mozambique: results from a cross-sectional survey and focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lafort

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of an operational research project in Tete, Mozambique, use of, and barriers to, HIV and sexual and reproductive health (HIV/SRH commodities and services for female sex workers (FSWs were assessed as part of a baseline situational analysis. Methods In a cross-sectional survey 311 FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling and interviewed face-to-face, and three focus group discussions were held with respectively 6 full-time Mozambican, 7 occasional Mozambican and 9 full-time Zimbabwean FSWs, to investigate use of, and barriers to, HIV/SRH care. Results The cross-sectional survey showed that 71 % of FSWs used non-barrier contraception, 78 % sought care for their last sexually transmitted infection episode, 51 % of HIV-negative FSWs was tested for HIV in the last 6 months, 83 % of HIV-positive FSWs were in HIV care, 55 % sought help at a health facility for their last unwanted pregnancy and 48 % after sexual assault, and none was ever screened for cervical cancer. Local public health facilities were by far the most common place where care was sought, followed by an NGO-operated clinic targeting FSWs, and places outside the Tete area. In the focus group discussions, FSWs expressed dissatisfaction with the public health services, as a result of being asked for bribes, being badly attended by some care providers, stigmatisation and breaches of confidentiality. The service most lacking was said to be termination of unwanted pregnancies. Conclusions The use of most HIV and SRH services is insufficient in this FSW population. The public health sector is the main provider, but access is hampered by several barriers. The reach of a FSW-specific NGO clinic is limited. Access to, and use of, HIV and SRH services should be improved by reducing barriers at public health facilities, broadening the range of services and expanding the reach of the targeted NGO clinic.

  16. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada): results of a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunescu, Alexandra-Cristina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI) and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada). Methods SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik. PMID:23730628

  17. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cristina Paunescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada. Methods. SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results. Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion. Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik.

  18. Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes

  19. Ultrasonic measurement of scleral cross-sectional strains during elevations of intraocular pressure: method validation and initial results in posterior porcine sclera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun

    2012-09-01

    Scleral biomechanical properties may be important in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. The goal of this study is to develop and validate an ultrasound method for measuring cross-sectional distributive strains in the sclera during elevations of intraocular pressure (IOP). Porcine globes (n = 5) were tested within 24 hs postmortem. The posterior scleral shells were dissected and mounted onto a custom-built pressurization chamber. A high-frequency (55-MHz) ultrasound system (Vevo660, VisualSonics Inc., Toronto) was employed to acquire the radio frequency data during scans of the posterior pole along both circumferential and meridian directions. The IOP was gradually increased from 5 to 45 mmHg. The displacement fields were obtained from correlation-based ultrasound speckle tracking. A least-square strain estimator was used to calculate the strains in both axial and lateral directions. Experimental validation was performed by comparing tissue displacements calculated from ultrasound speckle tracking with those induced by an actuator. Theoretical analysis and simulation experiments were performed to optimize the ultrasound speckle tracking method and evaluate the accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in strain estimation. Porcine sclera exhibited significantly larger axial strains (e.g., -5.1 ± 1.5% at 45 mmHg, meridian direction) than lateral strains (e.g., 2.2 ± 0.7% at 45 mmHg, meridian direction) during IOP elevations (P's estimation SNR on the strain level, as well as signal processing parameters such as kernel size. Simulation results showed that ultrasound speckle tracking had a high accuracy for estimating strains of 1-5% and a high SNR for strains of 0.5-5%. A new experimental method based on ultrasound speckle tracking has been developed for obtaining cross-sectional strain maps of the posterior sclera. This method provides a useful tool to examine distributive strains through the thickness of the sclera during elevations of IOP.

  20. [Outpatient psychosocial counseling--results of a user-based cross-sectional study about patient reported needs and its consideration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jochen; Eichhorn, Svenja; Kuhnt, Susanne; Giesler, Jürgen M; Schreib, Melanie; Brähler, Elmar; Weis, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results of a user-based cross-sectional study about patient reported needs and its consideration in the course of outpatient psychosocial counseling. In addition, patient satisfaction with consultations was evaluated. A sample of 1 930 cancer patients or family caregivers who consulted one of 26 psychosocial counseling units funded by German Cancer Aid completed a questionnaire sent by mail. Younger and female patients/care-givers, and those with ovarian, pancreatic and cns tumours were more likely to seek counseling. Overall, patient reported needs were met to a high degree. The majority of the participants was very satisfied with different aspects of counseling. However, 16% of participants reported unmet needs and had suggestions for improvements primarily with regard to the counselor (4% of the participants) and time management (2% of the participants). In addition, 10% of the participants suggested optimizing the counseling location and setting as well as the accessibility, time scheduling and the work approach of the staff (1-5%). Our findings represent a part of the core evaluation of psychosocial counseling for cancer patients. Overall, it can be highlighted that cancer patients are very satisfied with outpatient psychosocial counseling offers. However, few critical aspects could be identified from the clients' perspective. Our results are discussed in the context of methodological aspects of the study. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Physiotherapy departments in Australian tertiary hospitals regularly participate in and disseminate research results despite a lack of allocated staff: a prospective cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Hough, Janet; Wang, Yi Tian; Hough, Catherine R; Southby, Alesha; Snowdon, David A; Sturgess, Tamica; Haines, Terry P

    2015-03-01

    To establish the level of research activity in physiotherapy departments of Australian tertiary hospitals. Prospective cross-sectional survey. Physiotherapy managers from 37 principal referral hospitals and specialist women's and children's hospitals as identified from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011). A purpose-designed predominantly open-response questionnaire investigating site demographics, research activity and research support was developed, piloted and administered. Thirty-seven surveys were completed (54% response rate). Median [IQR] respondent equivalent full-time staffing was 23.8 (19-39). Respondents represented a median [IQR] 6.5 (3-20) publication output in the past 2 years. Twelve respondents (32%) reported that staff had completed a doctorate in the past 5 years and 49% of respondents reported no staff had completed higher degrees. A total of 71 grants had been received and 73% of respondents indicated they had no allocated staffing for research activity. The most common indicators of research culture were organization-led research dissemination events and research training (i.e. manager attending research events and celebrating research achievements). This is the first study to report on research activity in hospital-based Australian physiotherapy departments. Few sites allocate staff to conduct or support research. Despite this, physiotherapy departments regularly publish and present research results. Future studies could investigate how hospital-based physiotherapy departments can optimize research culture and output.

  2. Barriers to healthy eating by National Health Service (NHS hospital doctors in the hospital setting: results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sue

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With high levels of obesity and related illness, improving the health of the nation is a major public health concern. This study aimed to identify factors that prevent healthy eating among doctors, and that are associated with satisfaction with catering services. Findings Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 328 NHS doctors working in two NHS Trusts with on-site hospital canteen. Questionnaire to establish perceived barriers to healthy eating, weekly use and satisfaction with the hospital canteen, lifestyle and dietary habits, gender, age, height, weight, job details, and affect. Results: 70% of doctors reported using their hospital canteen each week, with 2 visits per week on average. Canteen opening times, lack of selection and lack of breaks were the most commonly perceived barriers to healthy eating. Availability of healthy options caused the most dissatisfaction. Only 12% felt the NHS was supportive of healthy eating. 74% did not feel their canteen advocated healthy eating. Canteen use is associated with younger age (r = -0.254, p Conclusion Interventions to encourage regular meal breaks, eating breakfast and drinking more water each day need developing. Improved canteen accessibility and availability of healthy options at evenings and weekends may be beneficial.

  3. Racial and ethnic differences in personal cervical cancer screening amongst post-graduate physicians: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Joseph S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in cervical cancer screening have been attributed to socioeconomic, insurance, and cultural differences. Our objective was to explore racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations among female post-graduate physicians. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey at one university hospital among a convenience sample of 204 female post-graduate physicians (52% of all potential participants, examining adherence to United States Preventive Services Task Force cervical cancer screening recommendations, perception of adherence to recommendations, and barriers to obtaining care. Results Overall, 83% of women were adherent to screening recommendations and 84% accurately perceived adherence or non-adherence. Women who self-identified as Asian were significantly less adherent when compared with women who self-identified as white (69% vs. 87%; Relative Risk [RR] = 0.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.64–0.97; P Conclusion Among a small group of insured, highly-educated physicians who have access to health care, we found racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations, suggesting that culture may play a role in cervical cancer screening.

  4. Zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin C status are associated with leptin concentrations and obesity in Mexican women: results from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Olga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity among Mexican women is high and it could be related to micronutrient status. We evaluated in a cross-sectional study the associations of zinc and vitamins A, C and E concentrations with BMI, central adiposity, body fat and leptin concentration. Methods Women aged 37 ± 7.5 years (n = 580 from 6 rural communities in Mexico were evaluated. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist and hip circumference. A fasting blood sample was taken for the analysis of glucose, lipid profile, leptin, zinc, and vitamins A, C and E. Body composition was determined by DEXA (Hologic Mod Explorer. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 36% (BMI > 25 Kg/m2 and 44% (BMI > 30 Kg/m2, respectively. Prevalence of zinc and vitamins C and E deficiencies were similar in obese, overweight and normal weight women. No vitamin A deficiency was found. Vitamin C was negatively associated with BMI, waist-to-height ratio, and leptin concentrations (p . Vitamin A was positively associated with leptin (p  Conclusion Zinc and vitamins A and C are associated with obesity, adiposity and leptin concentration in women from rural Mexico, and may play an important role in fat deposition. The causality of these associations needs to be confirmed.

  5. Determinants of first and second trimester induced abortion - results from a cross-sectional study taken place 7 years after abortion law revisions in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnen, Kristine Ivalu; Tuijje, Dereje Negussie; Rasch, Vibeke

    2014-12-19

    In 2005 Ethiopia took the important step to protect women's reproductive health by liberalizing the abortion law. As a result women were given access to safe pregnancy termination in first and second trimester. This study aims to describe socio-economic characteristics and contraceptive experience among women seeking abortion in Jimma, Ethiopia and to describe determinants of second trimester abortion. A cross-sectional study conducted October 2011 - April 2012 in Jimma Town, Ethiopia among women having safely induced abortion and women having unsafely induced abortion. In all 808 safe abortion cases and 21 unsafe abortion cases were included in the study. Of the 829 abortions, 729 were first trimester and 100 were second trimester abortions. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine risk factors associated with second trimester abortion. The associations are presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidential intervals. Age stratified analyses of contraceptive experience among women with first and second trimester abortions are also presented. Socio-economic characteristics associated with increased ORs of second trimester abortion were: age abortion where only 15% and 19% stated they had ever used contraception. Young age, poor education and the prospect of single parenthood were associated with second trimester abortion. Young girls and young women were using contraception comparatively less often than older women. To ensure women full right to control their fertility in the setting studied, modern contraception should be made available, accessible and affordable for all women, regardless of age.

  6. Sociodemographic Factors and Prejudice toward HIV and Hepatitis B/C Status in a Working-Age Population: Results from a National, Cross-Sectional Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. Methods An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items), basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items), and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item). The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. Results In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (pprejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (pprejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. Conclusion Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers. PMID:24792095

  7. Methods and baseline results of a repeated cross-sectional survey to assess the public health impact of antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giganti, Mark J; Levy, Jens W; Banda, Yolan; Kusanthan, Thankian; Sinkala, Moses; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H

    2010-05-01

    Although the individual-level impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is well documented, there are few available data describing the public health impact of services for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus in resource-constrained settings. We describe the methods and baseline results of a household survey that assessed the population-level impact of the national program for HIV care in Zambia and treatment in the city of Lusaka. The survey was timed with the staggered expansion of services and repeated cross-sectional surveys planned for pre-implementation and post-implementation comparisons made by community. In the initial survey round, which was performed during the early phases of the program (November-December 2004), 18,110 persons were enumerated from 3,600 households surveyed. Respondents were asked questions designed to evaluate community-level mortality and respondent knowledge and attitudes towards HIV. These findings will serve as a reliable reference in the future analysis of the population-level impact of this HIV treatment and care program in Zambia.

  8. 26Al(n,p)26Mg reaction: Comparison between the Hauser-Feshbach formula and the exact random-matrix result for the cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.; Zirnbauer, M.R.; Langanke, K.

    1986-01-01

    We have calculated the 26 Al(n,p) 26 Mg reaction rate using an exact expression for the compound-nucleus cross section derived recently by Verbaarschot et al. This reaction is astrophysically important, and it happens to fall in a kinematic regime where the exact expression is expected to yield large deviations from the standard Hauser-Feshbach formula. We find that the exact statistical cross section is 20% lower at energies greater than 300 keV, and drops to 40% lower at 0 energy but still does not describe the available data. These deviations are quite similar to those predicted by the formula of Tepel et al

  9. The magnitude of diabetes and its association with obesity in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, Samuel O.; van de Vijver, Steven J. M.; Agyemang, Charles; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes and to examine the relationship of obesity with raised blood glucose in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya. We used data from a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted in 2008-2009, involving a random sample of 5190 (2794 men

  10. Does self-efficacy mediate the cross-sectional relationship between perceived quality of health care and self-management of diabetes? : Results from Diabetes MILES - Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tregea, Hannah; Lee, Christina; Browne, Jessica L.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Quality of health care (QoC) and self-efficacy may affect self-management of diabetes, but such effects are not well understood. We examined the indirect role of diabetes-specific self-efficacy (DSE) and generalised self-efficacy (GSE) in mediating the cross-sectional relationship between

  11. Cross sections for (p,n) and (d,2n) reactions on /sup 79/Br and /sup 127/I: An evaluation of literature and model calculated results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanier, R.G.; Mustafa, M.G.; West, H.I. Jr.

    1989-02-01

    We have evaluated (p,n) and (d,2n) cross sections on /sup 79/Br and /sup 127/I, and made these cross sections available for test diagnostics. We believe that these interim cross sections are of reasonable accuracy and should be used for diagnostic interpretations until more precise measurements can be made. Our evaluation consisted of a literature search and an examination of the available experimental data. These data were supplemented by statistical model calculations using both the STAPRE and ALICE codes. We found reasonably good measured data (from threshold to the peak of the excitation function) for the (p,n) reaction on both /sup 79/Br and /sup 127/I. The literature data for the (d,2n) reaction on /sup 127/I are questionable and no data were found for the (d,2n) reaction on /sup 79/Br. We have, therefore, relied completely on calculations for the (d,2n) cross sections for both /sup 79/Br and /sup 127/I. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Emmision cross section of OI (135.6nm) at 100 eV resulting from electron-inpact dissociative excitation of O-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, C.; Kanik, I.; Ajello, J.; McCartney, P.; Makarov, O.; McClintock, W.; Drake, V.

    2001-01-01

    In this Letter, we report for the first time, the ratio of the O I (135.6 nm)/O I (130.4 nm) absolute emission cross sections from electron-impact dissociative excitation of O-2 at 100 eV using facilities located at the University of Colorado, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP).

  13. Cross-sectional associations of total sitting and leisure screen time with cardiometabolic risk in adults. Results from the HUNT Study, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Grunseit, A.; Midthjell, K.; Holmen, J.; Holmen, T.L.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations of total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adults. Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Methods: Waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, non-fasting

  14. [What are the Prerequisites for a Successful Cooperation between Nursing Homes and Physicians? - Results of a Mixed-methods Cross-Sectional Study in Bavarian Nursing Homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch-Völk, M; Lüssenheide, J; Linde, K; Schmid, E; Schneider, A

    2016-11-01

    Aim: This mixed-methods cross-sectional study examined the cooperation between nursing home staff and physicians in Bavarian nursing homes in order to understand which organisational and communication measures are resulting in satisfying teamwork among professional groups in nursing homes. Methods: In 3 interview rounds nursing home staff, general practitioners, medical specialists, dentists, nursing home residents, and relatives in 52 nursing homes were interviewed using a questionnaire that was enhanced after every round. Additionally, focus group interviews have been performed in 2 nursing homes. Results: 443 persons involved in patient care, 50 residents and 47 relatives participated in the structured interviews. 22 persons attended the focus group interviews. 65% of the nursing homes required regular visits of general practitioners and 36% or, respectively, 27% required regular or on demand visits of specialists. 47% of the nursing home staff that was asked about this issue stated that it would make their work easier if only a small number of physicians were in charge of their institution. Measures for improvement of medical care in nursing homes most frequently suggested by interview partners responsible for patient care were: better communication (9%), better remuneration of physicians' nursing home visits (7%, nurses and physicians) and less bureaucracy and regular physicians' visits (5% in each question). Conclusion: Because of the composition of our study sample it cannot be assumed that the results are representative for all Bavarian nursing homes. Confidence in one another, low number of persons in charge, binding agreements and regular physicians' nursing home visits are essential for a successful cooperation between providing physicians and nursing home staff. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Obesity-related behaviours and BMI in five urban regions across Europe: sampling design and results from the SPOTLIGHT cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Ben Rebah, Maher; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Charreire, Hélène; Compernolle, Sofie; Glonti, Ketevan; Bardos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-27

    To describe the design, methods and first results of a survey on obesity-related behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in adults living in neighbourhoods from five urban regions across Europe. A cross-sectional observational study in the framework of an European Union-funded project on obesogenic environments (SPOTLIGHT). 60 urban neighbourhoods (12 per country) were randomly selected in large urban zones in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK, based on high or low values for median household income (socioeconomic status, SES) and residential area density. A total of 6037 adults (mean age 52 years, 56% female) participated in the online survey. Self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviours, dietary habits and BMI. Other measures included general health; barriers and motivations for a healthy lifestyle, perceived social and physical environmental characteristics; the availability of transport modes and their use to specific destinations; self-defined neighbourhood boundaries and items related to residential selection. Across five countries, residents from low-SES neighbourhoods ate less fruit and vegetables, drank more sugary drinks and had a consistently higher BMI. SES differences in sedentary behaviours were observed in France, with residents from higher SES neighbourhoods reporting to sit more. Residents from low-density neighbourhoods were less physically active than those from high-density neighbourhoods; during leisure time and (most pronounced) for transport (except for Belgium). BMI differences by residential density were inconsistent across all countries. The SPOTLIGHT survey provides an original approach for investigating relations between environmental characteristics, obesity-related behaviours and obesity in Europe. First descriptive results indicate considerable differences in health behaviours and BMI between countries and neighbourhood types. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  16. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government) of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES). Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES) students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES) students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; pbreakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; pbreakfast daily (14.6%) was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2%) or never (22.9%) consumed breakfast (pbreakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive peer and parental influence were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while depression was negatively associated. Conclusion Daily breakfast consumption is associated with less overweight and obesity and with healthier dietary- and physical activity-related behaviors among urban Indian students. Although prospective studies should confirm the present results, intervention programs to prevent or treat childhood obesity in

  17. Consumption of ultra-processed food and obesity: cross sectional results from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda Marcelina; Giatti, Luana; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; de Oliveira Cardoso, Letícia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2018-04-12

    To verify if the intake of ultra-processed foods is associated with higher BMI and waist circumference (WC) among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. Cross-sectional analysis of the ELSA-Brasil baseline (2008-2010). Dietary information obtained through an FFQ was classified according to characteristics of food processing (NOVA) and used to estimate the percentage energy contribution from ultra-processed foods (i.e. industrial formulations, elaborated from food processing, synthetic constituents and food additives) to individuals' total energy intake. BMI and WC and their respective cut-off points served as response variables. Associations were estimated through linear and multinomial logistic regression models, after adjusting for confounders and total energy intake. Six Brazilian capital cities, 2008-2010. Active and retired civil servants, aged 35-64 years, from universities and research organizations (n 8977). Ultra-processed foods accounted for 22·7 % of total energy intake. After adjustments, individuals in the fourth quartile of percentage energy contribution from ultra-processed foods presented (β; 95 % CI) a higher BMI (0·80; CI 0·53, 1·07 kg/m2) and WC (1·71; 1·02, 2·40 cm), and higher chances (OR; 95 % CI) of being overweight (1·31; 1·13, 1·51), obese (1·41; 1·18, 1·69) and having significantly increased WC (1·41; 1·20, 1·66), compared with those in the first quartile. All associations suggest a dose-response gradient. Results indicate the existence of associations between greater energy contribution from ultra-processed foods and higher BMI and WC, which are independent of total energy intake. These findings corroborate public policies designed to reduce the intake of this type of food.

  18. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Peiling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China. Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique, haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test. Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005. Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004. Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002 and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001 compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs.

  19. Is body weight dissatisfaction a predictor of depression independent of body mass index, sex and age? Results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Aline; Rohrmann, Sabine; Lohse, Tina; Eichholzer, Monika

    2016-08-24

    Little is known about the association of dissatisfaction with body weight - a component of body image - with depression in individuals of different sex, age, and with different body mass index (BMI). Hence, the aim of our study was to evaluate the association of body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) with depression in different sub-groups. We analyzed data of 15,975 individuals from the cross-sectional 2012 Swiss Health Survey. Participants were asked about their body weight satisfaction. The validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to ascertain depression. Age was stratified into three groups (18-29, 30-59, and ≥60 years). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported body height and weight and categorized into underweight (BMI obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). The association between body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) and depression was assessed with logistic regression analyses and odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were computed. BWD was associated with depression in the overall group (OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.66-2.50) as well as in men (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.34-2.56) and women (OR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.71-2.96) independent of BMI. The stratification by age groups showed significant associations of BWD with depression in young (OR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.16-2.74), middle-aged (OR 2.10, 95 % CI 1.61-2.74) and old individuals (OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.30-4.23) independent of BMI. Stratification by BMI categories resulted in statistically significant positive associations of BWD and depression in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese individuals. BWD was associated with depression independent of BMI, sex and age.

  20. Association between perceived depression, anxiety and stress with Body Mass Index: results from a community-based cross-sectional survey in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Moghimi-Dehkordi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Objective: The findings of studies concerning the association between obesity and psychological disorders
    are conflicting. Some have reported a positive association, some a negative association while some found no association at all. This study aimed to investigate the associations between obesity and perceived depression, anxiety and stress.
    Methods: This study was a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted from May 2006 to December 2007 in Tehran, Iran. The sample size of 3,000 people (age≥20 years was determined using a sample size formula and participants were selected by random sampling. Survey participants were asked to state their height and weight as well as answer questions concerning whether they had experienced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in the past six months. Some demographic variables such as sex, age, marital status, education and tobacco smoking habits were included in the analysis.
    Results: The prevalence of perceived depression, anxiety, and stress were higher in women than in men. A higher proportion of underweight and obesity was observed in women. Being underweight, overweight and obese were associated with a one to four-fold increased risk for perceived depression, anxiety and stress.
    Conclusions: Abnormal body weight is associated with an increased risk of perceived depression in both men and women. Prospective and experimental studies in large samples are needed to explore possible explanations of the association and the direction of causal association between BMI and psychological disorders.

  1. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Monika; Nazar, Gaurang P; Gupta, Vinay K; Perry, Cheryl L; Reddy, K Srinath; Stigler, Melissa H

    2012-10-17

    In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Cross-sectional study. Eight schools (Private and Government) of Delhi in the year 2006. 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES). Significantly more Government school (lower SES) students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES) students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; pbreakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; pbreakfast daily (14.6%) was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2%) or never (22.9%) consumed breakfast (pbreakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive peer and parental influence were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while depression was negatively associated. Daily breakfast consumption is associated with less overweight and obesity and with healthier dietary- and physical activity-related behaviors among urban Indian students. Although prospective studies should confirm the present results, intervention programs to prevent or treat childhood obesity in India should consider emphasizing regular breakfast consumption.

  2. Associations of Circulating Lymphocyte Subpopulations with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-Sectional Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nels C Olson

    Full Text Available Distinct lymphocyte subpopulations have been implicated in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and obesity-associated inflammation in mouse models of insulin resistance. Information on the relationships of lymphocyte subpopulations with type 2 diabetes remain limited in human population-based cohort studies.Circulating levels of innate (γδ T, natural killer (NK and adaptive immune (CD4+ naive, CD4+ memory, Th1, and Th2 lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 929 free-living participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. Cross-sectional relationships of lymphocyte subpopulations with type 2 diabetes (n = 154 and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were evaluated by generalized linear models.Each standard deviation (SD higher CD4+ memory cells was associated with a 21% higher odds of type 2 diabetes (95% CI: 1-47% and each SD higher naive cells was associated with a 22% lower odds (95% CI: 4-36% (adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and BMI. Among participants not using diabetes medication, higher memory and lower naive CD4+ cells were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations (p<0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. There were no associations of γδ T, NK, Th1, or Th2 cells with type 2 diabetes, glucose, or insulin.A higher degree of chronic adaptive immune activation, reflected by higher memory and lower naive CD4+ cells, was positively associated with type 2 diabetes. These results are consistent with a role of chronic immune activation and exhaustion augmenting chronic inflammatory diseases, and support the importance of prospective studies evaluating adaptive immune activation and type 2 diabetes.

  3. Results of a cross-sectional study on the association of electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phone base stations and health complaints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenkamp, Juergen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Reis, Ursula; Potthoff, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the fact that adverse health effects are not confirmed for exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RFEMF) levels below the limit values, as defined in the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, many persons are worried about possible adverse health effects caused by the RF-EMF emitted from mobile phone base stations, or they attribute their unspecific health complaints like headache or sleep disturbances to these fields. Method: In the framework of a cross-sectional study a questionnaire was sent to 4150 persons living in predominantly urban areas. Participants were asked whether base stations affected their health. Health complaints were measured with standardized health questionnaires for sleep disturbances, headache, health complaints and mental and physical health. 3,526 persons responded (85%) to the questionnaire and 1,808 (51%) agreed to dosimetric measurements in their flats. Exposure was measured in 1,500 flats. Results: The measurements accomplished in the bedrooms in most cases showed very low exposure values, most often below sensitivity limit of the dosimeter. An association of exposure with the occurrence of health complaints was not found, but an association between the attribution of adverse health effects to base stations and the occurrence of health complaints. Conclusions: However, concerns about health and the attribution of adverse health effects to these mobile phone base stations should be taken serious and require a risk communication with concerned persons. Future research should focus on the processes of perception and appraisal of RF-EMF risks, and ascertain the determinants of concerns and attributions in the context of RF-EMF. (orig.)

  4. Mobile Technology and Social Media in the Clinical Practice of Young Radiation Oncologists: Results of a Comprehensive Nationwide Cross-sectional Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Leroy, Thomas; Blanchard, Pierre; Biau, Julian; Cervellera, Mathilde; Diaz, Olivia; Faivre, Jean Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Social media and mobile technology are transforming the way in which young physicians are learning and practicing medicine. The true impact of such technologies has yet to be evaluated. Methods and Materials: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey to better assess how young radiation oncologists used these technologies. An online survey was sent out between April 24, 2013, and June 1, 2013. All residents attending the 2013 radiation oncology French summer course were invited to complete the survey. Logistic regressions were performed to assess predictors of use of these tools in the hospital on various clinical endpoints. Results: In all, 131 of 140 (93.6%) French young radiation oncologists answered the survey. Of these individuals, 93% owned a smartphone and 32.8% owned a tablet. The majority (78.6%) of the residents owning a smartphone used it to work in their department. A total of 33.5% had more than 5 medical applications installed. Only 60.3% of the residents verified the validity of the apps that they used. In all, 82.9% of the residents had a social network account. Conclusions: Most of the residents in radiation oncology use their smartphone to work in their department for a wide variety of tasks. However, the residents do not consistently check the validity of the apps that they use. Residents also use social networks, with only a limited impact on their relationship with their patients. Overall, this study highlights the irruption and the risks of new technologies in the clinical practice and raises the question of a possible regulation of their use in the hospital

  5. Prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis among homeless people in the Paris region: results from two randomized cross-sectional surveys (HYTPEAC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A; Chosidow, O; Détrez, M-A; Bitar, D; Huber, F; Foulet, F; Le Strat, Y; Vandentorren, S

    2016-01-01

    Dermatological infections constitute the most common health problem in the homeless population. To estimate the prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis and to identify associated factors in the homeless population. Two randomized cross-sectional surveys were performed, one on the homeless population sleeping in public places in Paris, and the other on the homeless population in various shelters in the Ile-de-France administrative region. Overall 341 and 667 people, respectively, were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and hygiene practices, and were examined by a nurse. In individuals sleeping in public places the prevalence of scabies was estimated at 6·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·5-12·5] and for pediculosis corporis at 5·4% (95% CI 1·7-9·1). For those sleeping in shelters these values were 0·4% (95% CI 0·1-1·8) and 0·15% (95% CI 0·0-9·7), respectively (P < 0·01 in both cases). In public places, after multivariate analysis, being a woman, citing squats among the three main types of accommodation and not possessing a sleeping bag were significantly associated with diagnosis of scabies. Likewise, begging, a history of pubic lice, and not taking showers in municipal baths were associated with pediculosis corporis in public places. Firstly, this study highlights the real existence of two distinct subpopulations having different sociodemographic characteristics, with specific lifestyles and practices, and with different prevalences of ectoparasitism. Secondly, the results of the multivariate analyses will help the implementation of specific actions targeting the group of people who sleep in public places. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and hepatitis B/C status in a working-age population: results from a national, cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Eguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. METHODS: An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items, basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items, and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item. The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (p<0.01 and negatively associated with prejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (p<0.01. Statistically significant associations were not observed between other sociodemographic characteristics and potential prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.

  7. Influence of gender, working field and psychosocial factors on the vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff: results of an Austrian cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadenhofer, Petra; Kundi, Michael; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Stummer, Harald; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    According to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), hospitals represent a work environment with high job strain. Prolonged perceived occupational stress may result in symptoms of burnout, such as emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Understanding which factors may reduce vulnerability for burnout is an important requirement for well-targeted occupational stress prevention in mental hospital staff. To identify the influence of gender, age, working field, family structure, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job on occupational stress perception. In a cross-sectional design, 491 employees (311 female, 180 male) of an Austrian mental health centre participated in the study. The extent of perceived occupational stress was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with the scales for emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Participants were divided according to their working field in those working with/without patients. Prevalence of emotional exhaustion was higher in women working with patients compared to men working with patients (25% vs. 18%, p = 0.003). Age above 45 years was significantly associated with decreased vulnerability for burnout in men (EE p = 0.040, DP p = 0.010, PA p = 0.007), but not in women. A lower level of education had a significant impact on depersonalisation in both sexes (p = 0.001 for men, p = 0.048 for women). Length of stay on job showed a significant influence on emotional exhaustion. No significant relationship was found between family structure and vulnerability for burnout. Gender had a differential effect on perceived occupational stress indicating a need for gender-tailored preventive strategies. Age, working field, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job affect vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff.

  8. Occupational status as a determinant of mental health inequities in French young people: is fairness needed? Results of a cross-sectional multicentre observational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquet, Marie; Labbe-Lobertreau, Emilie; Sass, Catherine; Berger, Dominique; Gerbaud, Laurent

    2017-08-08

    Employment conditions are associated with health inequities. In 2013, French young people had the highest unemployment rate and among those who worked as salaried workers most of them had temporary job. The purpose of the study was to assess mental health state of French young people through the prism of their occupational status and to measure whether occupational status is a determinant of health inequities. A cross-sectional multicentre observational survey was performed in June and July 2010 in 115 French Local Social Centres and 74 Health Examination Centres, who were available to participate. The survey was based on an anonymous self-administrated questionnaire delivered by social workers or healthcare professionals to young people age from 16 to 25 years old. The questionnaire was composed of 54 items. Several health outcomes were measured: self-perceived health, mental health, addictions and to be victim of violence. The association of occupational status and mental health was assessed by adjusting results on age and gender and by introducing other explanatory variables such as social deprivation. A total of 4282 young people completed the questionnaire, a response rate of 83%, 1866 men and 2378 women, sex-ratio 0.79. French young people having a non-working occupational status or a non-permanent working status were more exposed to poor self-perceived health, poor mental health, addictions and violence. To be at school particularly secondary school was a protective factor for addiction. Occupational status of French young people was a determinant of mental health inequities. Young people not at work and not studying reported greater vulnerability and should be targeted therefore by appropriate and specific social and medical services.

  9. Factors Associated with Dog Rabies Vaccination in Bohol, Philippines: Results of a Cross-Sectional Cluster Survey Conducted Following the Island-Wide Rabies Elimination Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davlin, S.; Lapiz, S. M.; Miranda, M. E.; Murray, K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The Philippines has a long history of rabies control efforts in their dog populations; however, long-term success of such programmes and the goal of rabies elimination have not yet been realized. The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Program was developed as an innovative approach to canine rabies control in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned-dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination two years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross-sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization’s Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy-seven percent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human to dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of dogs owned per household was 1.6. Based on this ratio, we calculated an owned-dog population of almost 300 000. Overall, 71% of dogs were reported as having been vaccinated for rabies at some time in their lives; however, only 64% of dogs were reported as having been recently vaccinated. Dogs in our study were young (median age = 24 months). The odds of vaccination increased with increasing age. Dogs aged 12 – 23 months had 4.6 times the odds of vaccination compared to dogs aged 3 – 11 months (95% CI 1.8 – 12.0; P = 0.002). Confinement of the dog both day and night was also associated with increased odds of vaccination (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.9 – 4.9; P = 0.07), and this result approached statistical significance. While the programme is on track to meet its goal of 80% vaccination coverage, educational efforts should focus on the need to confine dogs and vaccinate young dogs. PMID:23280122

  10. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  11. Mobile Technology and Social Media in the Clinical Practice of Young Radiation Oncologists: Results of a Comprehensive Nationwide Cross-sectional Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel, E-mail: jebibault@gmail.com [Academic Radiation Oncology Department, Oscar Lambret Center, Lille (France); French Society of Young Radiation Oncologists (SFjRO), Centre Antoine-Béclère, Paris (France); Leroy, Thomas [Academic Radiation Oncology Department, Oscar Lambret Center, Lille (France); French Society of Young Radiation Oncologists (SFjRO), Centre Antoine-Béclère, Paris (France); Blanchard, Pierre [Academic Radiation Oncology Department, Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif Cedex (France); Biostatistics and Epidemiology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif Cedex (France); Biau, Julian [Radiation Oncology Department, Jean-Perrin Center, Clermont-Ferrand cedex (France); French Society of Young Radiation Oncologists (SFjRO), Centre Antoine-Béclère, Paris (France); Cervellera, Mathilde [Radiation Oncology Department, Jean-Godinot Center, Reims (France); French Society of Young Radiation Oncologists (SFjRO), Centre Antoine-Béclère, Paris (France); Diaz, Olivia [Radiation Oncology Department, Lyon Sud University Hospital, Pierre-Bénite Cedex (France); French Society of Young Radiation Oncologists (SFjRO), Centre Antoine-Béclère, Paris (France); Faivre, Jean Christophe [Academic Radiation Oncology and Brachytherapy Departement, Alexis-Vautrin Center, Avenue de Bourgogne, 54511 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); French Society of Young Radiation Oncologists (SFjRO), Centre Antoine-Béclère, Paris (France); and others

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Social media and mobile technology are transforming the way in which young physicians are learning and practicing medicine. The true impact of such technologies has yet to be evaluated. Methods and Materials: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey to better assess how young radiation oncologists used these technologies. An online survey was sent out between April 24, 2013, and June 1, 2013. All residents attending the 2013 radiation oncology French summer course were invited to complete the survey. Logistic regressions were performed to assess predictors of use of these tools in the hospital on various clinical endpoints. Results: In all, 131 of 140 (93.6%) French young radiation oncologists answered the survey. Of these individuals, 93% owned a smartphone and 32.8% owned a tablet. The majority (78.6%) of the residents owning a smartphone used it to work in their department. A total of 33.5% had more than 5 medical applications installed. Only 60.3% of the residents verified the validity of the apps that they used. In all, 82.9% of the residents had a social network account. Conclusions: Most of the residents in radiation oncology use their smartphone to work in their department for a wide variety of tasks. However, the residents do not consistently check the validity of the apps that they use. Residents also use social networks, with only a limited impact on their relationship with their patients. Overall, this study highlights the irruption and the risks of new technologies in the clinical practice and raises the question of a possible regulation of their use in the hospital.

  12. a cross sectional study.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Frequency, percentages and means were used to present data. To assess the associations of treatment outcomes with sex, age, type of TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), logistic regression was used. Results: The proportion of smear positive and negative pulmonary ...

  13. Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional and prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Norborg, Malene; Sørensen, Tilde Sand

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze if adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), increase the risk of sleep disturbances in the Danish workforce. METHODS: Analyses were conducted both cross-sectionally and prospectively in a representative...... disturbances in the Danish workforce. Among women, an association between ERI and sleep disturbances was restricted to the cross-sectional sample. Improving psychosocial working conditions might reduce the risk of sleep disturbances and subsequently also help to prevent clinical disorders related to sleep.......82, 95% CI=1.46-2.28). In the prospective analysis, a 1 S.D. increase of the ERI ratio at baseline predicted the onset of sleep disturbances among men (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.03-1.87) but not among women (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.76-1.24). CONCLUSION: Among men, ERI is a risk factor for the development of sleep...

  14. The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Airín D; Juon, Hee-soon; Levine, David M; Lyford-Pike, Victoria; Peters, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that US Latinos have a higher prevalence of obesity than White Americans. However, obesity may differ by pre-immigration factors and Latinos’ cultural representations of ideal body image. This paper explores whether country of origin’s stage in the nutrition transition is related to Latino immigrants’ BMI category and self-perception of weight. Methods Primary data originated from a cross-sectional questionnaire of Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore in 2011. A conveni...

  15. Interpretation of Illness in Patients with Chronic Diseases from Poland and Their Associations with Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Escape from Illness—Results from a Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt Büssing; Janusz Surzykiewicz

    2015-01-01

    To analyse how patients with chronic diseases would interpret their illness, and how these interpretations were related to spirituality/religiosity, life satisfaction, and escape from illness, we performed a cross-sectional survey among patients with chronic diseases from Poland (n = 275) using standardized questionnaires. Illness was interpreted mostly as an Adverse Interruption of life (61%), Threat/Enemy (50%), Challenge (42%), and rarely as a Punishment (8%). Regression analyses revealed ...

  16. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes: results of a Dutch cross-sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, I. van der; Uiters, E.; Rademakers, J.; Struijs, J.N.; Schuit, A.J.; Baan, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes knowledge is a mechanism in this association. The study was based on cross-sectional data retrieved from patient registrations and questionnaires completed in 2010. The sample included 1,714 predominantly...

  17. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Arora Monika; Nazar Gaurang P; Gupta Vinay K; Perry Cheryl L; Reddy K Srinath; Stigler Melissa H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight scho...

  18. Knowledge, opinions and compliance related to the 100% smoke-free law in hospitality venues in Kampala, Uganda: cross-sectional results from the KOMPLY Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gravely, Shannon; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Okello, Gabriel; Robertson, Lindsay; Heng, Kelvin Khow Chuan; Ndikum, Achiri Elvis; Oginni, Adeniyi Samuel; Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Kakoulides, Socrates; Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim; Bianco, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda’s comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. Design This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda’s comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). Setting Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. Procedure and participants A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was us...

  19. Determinants of adherence to seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers from an Italian region: results from a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Durando, P; Alicino, C; Dini, G; Barberis, I; Bagnasco, A M; Iudici, R; Zanini, M; Martini, M; Toletone, A; Paganino, C; Massa, E; Orsi, A; Sasso, L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Notwithstanding decades of efforts to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination among European healthcare workers (HCWs), the immunisation rates are still unsatisfactory. In order to understand the reasons for the low adherence to flu vaccination, a study was carried out among HCWs of two healthcare organisations in Liguria, a region in northwest Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study based on anonymous self-administered web questionnaires was carried out between ...

  20. New measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section at n_TOF-EAR1 for MOX fuels: Preliminary results in the RRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Guerrero, C.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Quesada, J. M.; Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Eberhardt, K.; Junghans, A.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bečvář, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Göbel, K.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; García, A. R.; Gawlik, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Kalamara, A.; Kavrigin, P.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kurtulgil, D.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Meo, S. Lo; Lonsdale, S. J.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mazzone, A.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Radeck, D.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rout, P. C.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schumann, D.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N. V.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    The spent fuel of current nuclear reactors contains fissile plutonium isotopes that can be combined with 238U to make mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. In this way the Pu from spent fuel is used in a new reactor cycle, contributing to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy. The use of MOX fuels in thermal and fast reactors requires accurate capture and fission cross sections. For the particular case of 242Pu, the previous neutron capture cross section measurements were made in the 70's, providing an uncertainty of about 35% in the keV region. In this context, the Nuclear Energy Agency recommends in its "High Priority Request List" and its report WPEC-26 that the capture cross section of 242Pu should be measured with an accuracy of at least 7-12% in the neutron energy range between 500 eV and 500 keV. This work presents a brief description of the measurement performed at n_TOF-EAR1, the data reduction process and the first ToF capture measurement on this isotope in the last 40 years, providing preliminary individual resonance parameters beyond the current energy limits in the evaluations, as well as a preliminary set of average resonance parameters.

  1. New measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section at n_TOF-EAR1 for MOX fuels: Preliminary results in the RRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerendegui-Marco J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The spent fuel of current nuclear reactors contains fissile plutonium isotopes that can be combined with 238U to make mixed oxide (MOX fuel. In this way the Pu from spent fuel is used in a new reactor cycle, contributing to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy. The use of MOX fuels in thermal and fast reactors requires accurate capture and fission cross sections. For the particular case of 242Pu, the previous neutron capture cross section measurements were made in the 70's, providing an uncertainty of about 35% in the keV region. In this context, the Nuclear Energy Agency recommends in its “High Priority Request List” and its report WPEC-26 that the capture cross section of 242Pu should be measured with an accuracy of at least 7–12% in the neutron energy range between 500 eV and 500 keV. This work presents a brief description of the measurement performed at n_TOF-EAR1, the data reduction process and the first ToF capture measurement on this isotope in the last 40 years, providing preliminary individual resonance parameters beyond the current energy limits in the evaluations, as well as a preliminary set of average resonance parameters.

  2. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1-12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintoft, I D; Robinson, M P; Melia, G C R; Marvin, A C; Dawson, J F

    2014-07-07

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1-12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m(2); for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1-6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6-12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human

  3. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ye; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...

  4. Television viewing and its association with overweight in Colombian children: results from the 2005 National Nutrition Survey: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucumi Diego I

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an ongoing discussion about the relationship between time spent watching television and childhood obesity. This debate has special relevance in the Latin American region were the globalization process has increased the availability of screen-based entertainment at home. The aim of this study is to examine the association between television viewing and weight status in Colombian children. Methods This cross sectional investigation included children aged 5 to12 yrs from the National Nutrition Survey in Colombia (ENSIN 2005. Weight and height were measured in 11,137 children in order to calculate body mass index. Overweight was defined by international standards. Time spent viewing television was determined for these children through parental reports. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for different subgroups and adjusted for potential confounders in order to study the association between television viewing and weight status in this population. Results Among the surveyed children, 41.5% viewed television less than two hours/day; 36.8% between two and 3.9 hours/day and 21.7% four or more hours/day. The prevalence of overweight (obesity inclusive in this population was 11.1%. Children who were classified as excessive television viewers (between two and 3.9 hours/day or 4 or more hours/day were more likely to be overweight (OR: 1.44 95% CI: 1.41–1.47 and OR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.30–1.34, respectively than children who reported to watch television less than 2 hours/day. Stratified analyses by age, gender and urbanization levels showed similar results. Conclusion Television viewing was positively associated with the presence of overweight in Colombian children. A positive association between urbanization level and television viewing was detected. Considering that the majority of Colombian children lives in densely populated cities and appear to engage in excessive television viewing these findings are

  5. Is body weight dissatisfaction a predictor of depression independent of body mass index, sex and age? Results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Richard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the association of dissatisfaction with body weight - a component of body image - with depression in individuals of different sex, age, and with different body mass index (BMI. Hence, the aim of our study was to evaluate the association of body weight dissatisfaction (BWD with depression in different sub-groups. Methods We analyzed data of 15,975 individuals from the cross-sectional 2012 Swiss Health Survey. Participants were asked about their body weight satisfaction. The validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 was used to ascertain depression. Age was stratified into three groups (18–29, 30–59, and ≥60 years. The body mass index (BMI was calculated from self-reported body height and weight and categorized into underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2, normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The association between body weight dissatisfaction (BWD and depression was assessed with logistic regression analyses and odds ratios (OR with 95 % confidence intervals (CI were computed. Results BWD was associated with depression in the overall group (OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.66–2.50 as well as in men (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.34–2.56 and women (OR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.71–2.96 independent of BMI. The stratification by age groups showed significant associations of BWD with depression in young (OR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.16–2.74, middle-aged (OR 2.10, 95 % CI 1.61–2.74 and old individuals (OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.30–4.23 independent of BMI. Stratification by BMI categories resulted in statistically significant positive associations of BWD and depression in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese individuals. Conclusion BWD was associated with depression independent of BMI, sex and age.

  6. Assessing predictors of contraceptive use and demand for family planning services in underserved areas of Punjab province in Pakistan: results of a cross-sectional baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Ishaque, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Khan, Omar Farooq; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Munroe, Erik

    2015-03-28

    Although Pakistan was one of the first countries in Asia to launch national family planning programs, current modern contraceptive use stands at only 26% with a method mix skewed toward short-acting and permanent methods. As part of a multiyear operational research study, a baseline survey was conducted to understand the predictors of contraceptive use and demand for family planning services in underserved areas of Punjab province in Pakistan. This paper presents the baseline survey results; the outcomes of the intervention will be presented in a separate paper after the study has been completed. A cross-sectional baseline household survey was conducted with randomly selected 3,998 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in the Chakwal, Mianwali, and Bhakkar districts of Punjab. The data were analyzed on SPSS 17.0 using simple descriptive and logistic regression. Most of the women had low socio-economic status and were younger than 30 years of age. Four-fifths of the women consulted private sector health facilities for reproductive health services; proximity, availability of services, and good reputation of the provider were the main predicators for choosing the facilities. Husbands were reported as the key decision maker regarding health-seeking and family planning uptake. Overall, the current contraceptive use ranged from 17% to 21% across the districts: condoms and female sterilization were widely used methods. Woman's age, husband's education, wealth quintiles, spousal communication, location of last delivery, and favorable attitude toward contraception have an association with current contraceptive use. Unmet need for contraception was 40.6%, 36.6%, and 31.9% in Chakwal, Mianwali, and Bhakkar, respectively. Notably, more than one fifth of the women across the districts expressed willingness to use quality, affordable long-term family planning services in the future. The baseline results highlight the need for quality, affordable long-term family planning

  7. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Nobuko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11–17 years and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11–17 years were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. Results ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of “Friends” and “School” subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41 were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61. Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Conclusions Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose

  8. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

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    Arora Monika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES. Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p. More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p. A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6% was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2% or never (22.9% consumed breakfast (p. This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5 times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive

  9. The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Airín D; Juon, Hee-soon; Levine, David M; Lyford-Pike, Victoria; Peters, Sadie

    2014-07-07

    Studies suggest that US Latinos have a higher prevalence of obesity than White Americans. However, obesity may differ by pre-immigration factors and Latinos' cultural representations of ideal body image. This paper explores whether country of origin's stage in the nutrition transition is related to Latino immigrants' BMI category and self-perception of weight. Primary data originated from a cross-sectional questionnaire of Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore in 2011. A convenience sample of self-identified Latinos, ≥18 years old, living in Baltimore was recruited from a community-based organization. Data for each country represented in the sample were obtained from the WHO Demographic and Health Surveys and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Each country was scored for its stage in the nutrition transition using a six-point scoring system. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and the predictors. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine whether a country's stage in the nutrition transition increased one's odds of having an obese BMI score (≥30 kg/cm2) and perceiving one's weight as overweight, while controlling for socio-demographic variables. The sample (n = 149) consisted of immigrants from 12 Latin American countries. Participants lived in the US for x=10.24 years. About 40% of the sample had BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (obese). The longer Latina immigrants' lived in the US, the less likely their country of origin's nutrition transition score would increase their odds of having a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (OR = 0.97 p nutrition transition score, the more likely BMI influenced Latino immigrants' perception of their weight as above normal (OR = 1.06, p nutrition transition score had a stronger effect on females than males. These results suggest that country of origin's nutrition transition score and gender affect Latino

  10. [Gender-specific differences relating to depressiveness in 1st and 2nd generation migrants: results of a cross-sectional study amongst employees of a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimović, S; Ziegenbein, M; Graef-Calliess, I T; Ersöz, B; Machleidt, W; Sieberer, M

    2014-10-01

    This study analysed the risk of depression in men and women with a background of immigration by means of a cross-sectional study amongst employees of a German university hospital. In addition we identified gender-specific differences related to risk factors for depressiveness in the subgroups. 7062 employees with or without a 1st (1G) or 2nd (2G) generation background of migration were questioned with regard to their socio-economic status, to single markers of acculturation, and to existing symptoms of depression assessed on the general depression scale (CES-D). Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression. The response rate was 41.7% (n=2932). In comparison to non-migrants a higher risk of clinically relevant depressiveness was found for 1G male migrants (OR 2.35, 95% Cl 1.11-4.96), 1G female migrants (OR 1.94, 95% Cl 1.26-2.97) and for 2G female migrants (OR 1.82, 95% Cl 1.03-3.19). There was no significant increase in risk for 2G male migrants (OR 1.06, 95% Cl 0.31-3.62). 2G female migrants who considered themselves to retain a "close relationship to their native culture" had a significantly higher risk of depression than 2G male immigrants (OR 7.31; p = 0.032). Male 1G migrants without a "close relationship to their native culture" had a significantly higher risk of depression than those with a "close relationship to their native culture" (OR 5.79; p = 0.010). The results of this study point to gender-specific risk constellations for depression amongst 1st and 2nd generation migrants. It would appear that a strong orientation to the native culture increases the risk of depression for 2G female migrants, whereas for 1G male migrants this factor is associated with a lower risk of depression. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Factors associated with consistent condom use and STIs among foreign female entertainment workers: results from a cross-sectional survey in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Wong, Mee Lian; Cheung, Olive N Y; Tham, Dede Kam Tyng; Tai, Bee Choo; Chan, Roy

    2017-03-01

    We assessed the prevalence of consistent condom use and laboratory-confirmed STIs among foreign female entertainment workers (FEWs) who engaged in paid or casual sex in Singapore and the factors associated with these characteristics. A cross-sectional survey, using time-location sampling, was conducted on 220 FEWs (115 Vietnamese and 105 Thai) in 2015. For multivariable analysis, we used a mixed-effects Poisson regression model with backward stepwise approach to account for clustering by venue and to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) of factors associated with consistent condom use and STI positivity, respectively. Consistent condom use with paid or casual partners in the past month was 39.6% and 36.2% for vaginal and oral sex, respectively. The prevalence of STI (cervical chlamydia, cervical gonorrhoea or pharyngeal gonorrhoea) positivity was 13.6%. In multivariable analysis, consistent condom use for both vaginal and oral sex increased with high self-perceived risk of getting STI/HIV (vaginal: aPR 2.09; 95% CI 1.26 to 3.46; oral: aPR 2.41; 95% CI 1.23 to 4.69) and condom negotiation (vaginal: aPR 3.74; 95% CI 2.07 to 6.75; oral: aPR 2.81; 95% CI 1.51 to 5.26). STI positivity decreased with consistent condom use for vaginal sex (aPR 0.22; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.75) and increased with number of sexual partners (aPR 1.43; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.92). In addition to advocating for policy decisions to provide a safer work environment, behavioural interventions on condom negotiation skills and condom use and biomedical interventions on STI/HIV testing and treatment interventions are needed among the FEWs in Singapore. NCT02780986; pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Factors associated with dog rabies vaccination in Bhol, Philippines: results of a cross-sectional cluster survey conducted following the island-wide rabies elimination campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davlin, S; Lapiz, S M; Miranda, M E; Murray, K

    2013-11-01

    The Philippines has a long history of rabies control efforts in their dog populations; however, long-term success of such programmes and the goal of rabies elimination have not yet been realized. The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Program was developed as an innovative approach to canine rabies control in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned-dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination 2 years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross-sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy-seven per cent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human-to-dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of dogs owned per household was 1.6. Based on this ratio, we calculated an owned-dog population of almost 300 000. Overall, 71% of dogs were reported as having been vaccinated for rabies at some time in their lives; however, only 64% of dogs were reported as having been recently vaccinated. Dogs in our study were young (median age = 24 months). The odds of vaccination increased with increasing age. Dogs aged 12-23 months had 4.6 times the odds of vaccination compared to dogs aged 3-11 months (95% CI 1.8-12.0; P = 0.002). Confinement of the dog both day and night was also associated with increased odds of vaccination (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.9-4.9; P = 0.07), and this result approached statistical significance. While the programme is on track to meet its goal of 80% vaccination coverage, educational efforts should focus on the need to confine dogs and vaccinate young dogs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in people with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a United Kingdom based cross-sectional survey

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    Oonagh Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA derive from a combination of inflammation, altered foot mechanics, deformity and secondary skin lesions. Guidelines recommend regular review of patients’ feet, but the extent to which the general population of RA patients report foot symptoms and access foot care has not been established. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in all patients with RA in one geographical area and identify factors associated with accessing foot care. Methods Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of patients with RA, who resided within a single community-based National Health Service (NHS podiatry service. The questionnaire collected demographic data (age, gender, local deprivation score, clinical data (disease duration, arthritis medications, disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, current foot problems, foot care accessed (podiatry, orthotics and/or orthopaedics and care received, measures of impact (Foot Impact Scale and ability to work. Results Of 1003 total eligible patients in the target population, 739 were posted survey packs. Of these 413 (56% replied. Responders and non-responders had similar age (63.5 yr. vs.61.5 yr, gender (74.1%F vs. 75.2%F, and highest deprivation category (13.3% vs.15.9%. Of the responders 92.1% reported current foot problems: articular 73.8%, cutaneous lesions 65.4%, structural 57.6%, extra-articular 42.6%. Responders’ median (IQR disease duration 10 (5–20 years, HAQ 1.5 (0.75–2.0, FISIF 10 (6–14 and FISAP 16 (7–23 and 37.8% reported impacts on work. While 69.5% had accessed foot care there were differences in the route of access (by gender and whether independent or NHS provision and were older (64.9 yr. vs 60.4 yr. p = 0.001, had longer disease duration (12 yr. vs 7 yr. p < 0.001 and had a greater proportion of females (72.2% vs 61.7% p = 0.04 than those who had not accessed

  14. Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Dalgard, Florence; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies with conflicting findings have investigated the association between acne and mental health problems. Acne usually starts in adolescents, as does an increase in the prevalence of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been more focus on the link between diet and acne and diet and mental health problems. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between acne and mental distress and to explore a possible influence of dietary factors on the relation. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study in Oslo of 18 or 19 year old adolescents. The participation rate was 80%. Acne was self-reported. To measure mental distress, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 was used. Diet and lifestyle variables were also collected by questionnaire and socio-demographic variables were obtained from Statistics Norway. Results The prevalence of acne was 14.4% among the males and 12.8% among the females. The mean score of mental distress increased when the severity of acne increased. In the crude analyses, the significant associations with acne among the males were: mental distress OR = 1.63, frequent consumption of chocolate/sweets OR = 1.40, frequent consumption of potato chips OR = 1.54. The significant crude associations with acne among the females were: mental distress OR = 2.16, infrequent consumption of raw vegetables OR = 1.41, non-Western background OR = 1.77 and low family income OR = 2.14. No crude associations with acne were identified in either gender for the consumption of sugary soft drinks, fatty fish, cigarette smoking or alcohol. In adjusted models which included diet and socio-demographic variables, the association between acne and mental distress was unchanged for both males (OR = 1.68) and females (OR = 2.04), and between acne and infrequent consumption of raw vegetables among the females (OR = 1.38). Conclusion Among late adolescents in Oslo, self-reported acne is significantly associated with mental distress and

  15. Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoresen Magne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies with conflicting findings have investigated the association between acne and mental health problems. Acne usually starts in adolescents, as does an increase in the prevalence of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been more focus on the link between diet and acne and diet and mental health problems. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between acne and mental distress and to explore a possible influence of dietary factors on the relation. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study in Oslo of 18 or 19 year old adolescents. The participation rate was 80%. Acne was self-reported. To measure mental distress, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 was used. Diet and lifestyle variables were also collected by questionnaire and socio-demographic variables were obtained from Statistics Norway. Results The prevalence of acne was 14.4% among the males and 12.8% among the females. The mean score of mental distress increased when the severity of acne increased. In the crude analyses, the significant associations with acne among the males were: mental distress OR = 1.63, frequent consumption of chocolate/sweets OR = 1.40, frequent consumption of potato chips OR = 1.54. The significant crude associations with acne among the females were: mental distress OR = 2.16, infrequent consumption of raw vegetables OR = 1.41, non-Western background OR = 1.77 and low family income OR = 2.14. No crude associations with acne were identified in either gender for the consumption of sugary soft drinks, fatty fish, cigarette smoking or alcohol. In adjusted models which included diet and socio-demographic variables, the association between acne and mental distress was unchanged for both males (OR = 1.68 and females (OR = 2.04, and between acne and infrequent consumption of raw vegetables among the females (OR = 1.38. Conclusion Among late adolescents in Oslo, self-reported acne is significantly associated with

  16. Perceptions about the cause of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior in a Pakistani population – results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Wajeeha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a cultural variability around the perception of what causes the syndrome of schizophrenia. Generally patients with schizophrenia are considered dangerous. They are isolated and treatment is delayed. Studies have shown favorable prognosis with good family and social support, early diagnosis and management. Duration of untreated psychosis is a bad prognostic indicator. We aimed to determine the perceptions regarding the etiology of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 people at the out patient departments of Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi. Data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Questions were related to a vignette of a young man displaying schizophrenic behavior. Data was analyzed on SPSS v 14. Results The mean age of the participants was 31.4 years (range = 18–72 and 77% of them were males. The majorities were graduates (61.9% and employed (50%. Only 30% of the participants attributed 'mental illness' as the main cause of psychotic symptoms while a large number thought of 'God's will' (32.3%, 'superstitious ideas' (33.1%, 'loneliness' (24.8% and 'unemployment' (19.3% as the main cause. Mental illness as the single most important cause was reported by only 22%. As far as management is concerned, only 40% reported psychiatric consultation to be the single most important management step. Other responses included spiritual healing (19.5% and Sociachanges (10.6 while 14.8% of respondents said that they would do nothing. Gender, age, family system and education level were significantly associated with the beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia (p Conclusion Despite majority of the study population being well educated, only a few recognized schizophrenia as a mental illness and many held superstitious beliefs. A vast majority of Pakistanis have non-biomedical beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia. Their

  17. Physicians’ attitudes towards office-based delivery of methadone maintenance therapy: results from a cross-sectional survey of Nova Scotia primary-care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dooley Jessica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 90,000 Canadians use opioids each year, many of whom experience health and social problems that affect the individual user, families, communities and the health care system. For those who wish to reduce or stop their opioid use, methadone maintenance therapy (MMT is effective and supporting evidence is well-documented. However, access and availability to MMT is often inconsistent, with greater inequity outside of urban settings. Involving community based primary-care physicians in the delivery of MMT could serve to expand capacity and accessibility of MMT programs. Little is known, however, about the extent to which MMT, particularly office-based delivery, is acceptable to physicians. The aim of this study is to survey physicians about their attitudes towards MMT, particularly office-based delivery, and the perceived barriers and facilitators to MMT delivery. Methods In May 2008, facilitated by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia, a cross-sectional, e-mail survey of 950 primary-care physicians practicing in Nova Scotia, Canada was administered via the OPINIO on-line survey software, to assess the acceptability of office-based MMT. Logistic regressions, adjusted for physician sociodemographic characteristics, were used to examine the association between physicians’ willingness to participate in office-based MMT, and a series of measures capturing physician attitudes and knowledge about treatment approaches, opioid use, and methadone, as well as perceived barriers to MMT. Results Overall, 19.8% of primary-care physicians responded to the survey, with 56% who indicated that they would be willing to be involved in MMT under current or similar circumstances; however, willingness was associated with numerous attitudinal and systemic factors. The barriers to involvement in MMT that were frequently cited included a lack of training or experience in MMT, lack of support services, and potential

  18. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuko; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-10

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11-17 years) and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11-17 years) were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR) questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of "Friends" and "School" subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41) were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61). Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose parents were unaffected by leprosy. Thus, mental health support

  19. Marital status and cardiovascular risk in French and Swedish automotive industry workers--cross sectional results from the Renault-Volvo Coeur study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlin, L; Latscha, G; Orth-Gomér, K; Dimberg, L; Lanoiselée, C; Simon, A; Eriksson, B

    2001-04-01

    To compare the coronary risk profiles in a sample of the French and Swedish automotive industry employees who were married/cohabitant, divorced or single (never married). A cross-sectional study comparison from biological and questionnaire data between the French and Swedish samples. Occupational health departments at Renault (employees from the north-west of France) and Volvo (employees from the south-west of Sweden). Two random samples of males aged between 45 and 50 years were examined in 1993, from Renault 1000, and from Volvo 1000. Biological data including cholesterol, blood pressure as well as the Framingham risk index. Self reported information regarding marital status, smoking, exercise, alcohol habits, and work stress assessed by the Karasek method, private social support indices, and type A behaviour according to the Bortner scale. More employees were married/cohabitant and fewer divorced or single at Renault. Apart from waist/hip ratio being marginally lower in Swedish single men, compared with married and divorced, no significant difference in biological cardiac risk factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure or Framingham risk index) was seen between the subgroups from any of the two countries. Compared with married/cohabitant men, it was shown that in men living alone smoking was more prevalent at Renault and Volvo. These men also showed less type A behaviour, a lower work control and a lower work support and fewer close friends. Alcohol consumption was reported in smaller amounts for Volvo employees living alone compared with married or divorced employees. Married/cohabitant and divorced staff showed similar values regarding all measured variables when compared within each country. Employees living alone in both France (Renault) and Sweden (Volvo) automotive companies seem to have increased nontraditional cardiac risk factors pertaining to life style and social network compared with married or divorced men. These results, in combination with the

  20. Social-ecological factors associated with selling sex among men who have sex with men in Jamaica: results from a cross-sectional tablet-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Kenny, Kathleen S.; Levermore, Kandasi; Jones, Nicolette; Baral, Stefan D.; Wang, Ying; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience social marginalization and criminalization that increase HIV vulnerability by constraining access to HIV prevention and care. People who sell sex also experience criminalization, rights violations, and violence, which elevate HIV exposure. MSM who sell sex may experience intersectional stigma and intensified social marginalization, yet have largely been overlooked in epidemiological and social HIV research. In Jamaica, where same sex practices and sex work are criminalized, scant research has investigated sex selling among MSM, including associations with HIV vulnerability. Objective: We aimed to examine social ecological factors associated with selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, including exchanging sex for money, shelter, food, transportation, or drugs/alcohol (past 12 months). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a peer-driven sample of MSM in Kingston, Ocho Rios, and Montego Bay. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate intrapersonal/individual, interpersonal/social, and structural factors associated with selling sex. Results: Among 556 MSM, one-third (n = 182; 32.7%) reported selling sex. In the final multivariable model, correlates of selling sex included: individual/intrapersonal (lower safer sex self-efficacy [AOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.94]), interpersonal/social (concurrent partnerships [AOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 1.56, 19.53], a higher need for social support [AOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12], lifetime forced sex [AOR: 2.74, 95% 1.65, 4.55]) and structural-level factors (sexual stigma [AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], food insecurity [AOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.41, 4.02], housing insecurity [AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.26], no regular healthcare provider [AOR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.60, 4.64]). Conclusions: This study highlights social ecological correlates of selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, in particular elevated stigma and economic insecurity. Findings

  1. Pre-incarceration police harassment, drug addiction and HIV risk behaviours among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X (2)=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug users and that such harassment may

  2. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bondor, Cosmina I.; Veresiu, Ioan A.; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Gavan, Norina A.

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The...

  3. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ''clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ''data production'' phase

  4. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  5. Preparation of next generation set of group cross sections. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kunio

    2002-03-01

    This fiscal year, based on the examination result about the evaluation energy range of heavy element unresolved resonance cross sections, the upper energy limit of the energy range, where ultra-fine group cross sections are produced, was raised to 50 keV, and an improvement of the group cross section processing system was promoted. At the same time, reflecting the result of studies carried out till now, a function producing delayed neutron data was added to the general-purpose group cross section processing system , thus the preparation of general purpose group cross section processing system has been completed. On the other hand, the energy structure, data constitution and data contents of next generation group cross section set were determined, and the specification of a 151 groups next generation group cross section set was defined. Based on the above specification, a concrete library format of the next generation cross section set has been determined. After having carried out the above-described work, using the general-purpose group cross section processing system , which was complete in this study, with use of the JENDL-3. 2 evaluated nuclear data, the 151 groups next generation group cross section of 92 nuclides and the ultra fine group resonance cross section library for 29 nuclides have been prepared. Utilizing the 151 groups next generation group cross section set and the ultra-fine group resonance cross-section library, a bench mark test calculation of fast reactors has been performed by using an advanced lattice calculation code. It was confirmed, by comparing the calculation result with a calculation result of continuous energy Monte Carlo code, that the 151 groups next generation cross section set has sufficient accuracy. (author)

  6. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome: Results from Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongni; Zhang, Haiying; Gao, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Yao, Ziting; Jiang, Yonghua; Lin, Xinggu; Wu, Chunlei; Yang, Xiaobo; Tan, Aihua; Mo, Zengnan

    2015-06-15

    It is controversial whether serum uric acid (SUA) is a risk factor for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The current study was designed to highlight the association of SUA and MetS and its components. Data on 3675 healthy male subjects, aged 17-88 years, were collected for the cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 2575 individuals who did not suffer from MetS at baseline was involved in the cohort study. A cox regression model was applied to evaluate causality for the 2- and 4-year large scale longitudinal study. In the cross-sectional analysis, SUA showed a statistically significant negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and a positive correlation with blood pressure (BP), triglycerides (TG), waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI) (all P<0.001). In longitudinal analysis, examining the risk of developing MetS, SUA concentrations (hazard ratios comparing fourth quartile to the first quartile of 1.75; 95% CI, 1.26-2.41) were positively associated with incident MetS after adjusted for age, blood pressure, glucose, TG, HDL-c, smoking, alcohol drinking and education. SUA is positively correlated with the prevalence of MetS. Increased SUA concentration may be an independent risk factor for MetS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A program to measure new energetic particle nuclear interaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.; Albergo, S.; Chen, C. X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Engelage, J.; Ferrando, P.; Flores, I.; Greiner, L.; Jones, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Transport Collaboration, consisting of researchers from institutions in France, Germany, Italy, and the USA, has established a program to make new measurements of nuclear interaction cross sections for heavy projectiles (Z greater than or equal to 2) in targets of liquid H2, He and heavier materials. Such cross sections directly affect calculations of galactic and solar cosmic ray transport through matter and are needed for accurate radiation hazard assessment. To date, the collaboration has obtained data using the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac HISS facility with 20 projectiles from He-4 to Ni-58 in the energy range 393-910 MeV/nucleon. Preliminary results from the analysis of these data are presented here and compared to other measurements and to cross section prediction formulae.

  8. Health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction in patients with gout: results from a cross-sectional study in a managed care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna PP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Puja P Khanna,1 Aki Shiozawa,2 Valery Walker,3 Tim Bancroft,3 Breanna Essoi,3 Kasem S Akhras,4 Dinesh Khanna11Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Global Outcome Research, Takeda Pharmaceuticals International, Inc., Deerfield, IL, USA; 3Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Optum, Eden Prairie, MN, USA; 4Novartis Pharmacy Services AG, Dubai, United Arab EmiratesBackground: Patient satisfaction with treatment directly impacts adherence to medication.Objective: The objective was to assess and compare treatment satisfaction with the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM, gout-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL with the Gout Impact Scale (GIS, and generic HRQoL with the SF-12v2® Health Survey (SF-12 in patients with gout in a real-world practice setting.Methods: This cross-sectional mail survey included gout patients enrolled in a large commercial health plan in the US. Patients were ≥18 years with self-reported gout diagnosis, who filled ≥1 prescription for febuxostat during April 26, 2012 to July 26, 2012 and were not taking any other urate-lowering therapies. The survey included the TSQM version II (TSQM vII, score 0–100, higher scores indicate better satisfaction, GIS (score 0–100, higher scores indicate worse condition, and SF-12 (physical component summary and mental component summary. Patients were stratified by self-report of currently experiencing a gout attack or not to assess the discriminant ability of the questionnaires.Results: A total of 257 patients were included in the analysis (mean age, 54.9 years; 87% male. Patients with current gout attack (n=29, 11% had worse scores than those without gout attack on most instrument scales. Mean differences between current attack and no current attack for the TSQM domains were: -20.6, effectiveness; -10.6, side effects; -12.1, global satisfaction (all P<0.05; and -6.1, convenience (NS. For the GIS, mean

  9. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy in Brazil: cross-sectional results from the Birth in Brazil National Survey, 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Miranda Theme-Filha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy, a pregnancy that have been either unwanted or mistimed, is a serious public health issue in Brazil. It is reported for more than half of women who gave birth in the country, but the characteristics of women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence and the association between unintended pregnancy and a set of sociodemographic characteristics, individual-level variables and history of obstetric outcomes. Methods Birth in Brazil is a cross-sectional study with countrywide representation that interviewed 23,894 women after birth. The information about intendedness of pregnancy was obtained after birth at the hospital and classified into three categories: intended, mistimed or unwanted. Multinomial regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between intendedness of a pregnancy, and sociodemographic and obstetric variables, calculating odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals. All significant variables in the bivariate analysis were included in the multinomial multivariate model and the final model retaining variables that remained significant at the 5 % level. Results Unintended pregnancy was reported by 55.4 % of postpartum women. The following variables maintained positive and significant statistical associations with mistimed pregnancy: maternal age < 20 years (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.68–2.14; brown (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.27 or yellow skin color (OR = 1.56, 95 % CI: 1.05–2.32; having no partner (OR = 2.32, 95 % CI: 1.99–2.71; having no paid job (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.27; alcohol abuse with risk of alcoholism (OR = 1.25, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.50 and having had three or more births (OR = 2.01, 95 % CI: 1.63–2.47. The same factors were associated with unwanted pregnancy, though the strength of the associations was generally stronger. Women with three or more births were 14

  10. Differential cross section of He

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angular distribution; differential cross section; electronic excitation; ionization of molecules. PACS Nos 34.50.Fa; 34.80.Dp. 1. Introduction. It is well known that ... proper accounting of electron–electron correlation in the final state, there are complica- tions due to the multi-electron structure of the target and the residual ion.

  11. Interpretation of Illness in Patients with Chronic Diseases from Poland and Their Associations with Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Escape from Illness—Results from a Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Büssing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyse how patients with chronic diseases would interpret their illness, and how these interpretations were related to spirituality/religiosity, life satisfaction, and escape from illness, we performed a cross-sectional survey among patients with chronic diseases from Poland (n = 275 using standardized questionnaires. Illness was interpreted mostly as an Adverse Interruption of life (61%, Threat/Enemy (50%, Challenge (42%, and rarely as a Punishment (8%. Regression analyses revealed that escape from illness was the best predictor of negative disease perceptions and also strategy associated disease perceptions, and a negative predictor of illness as something of Value, while Value was predicted best by specific spiritual issues. Patients’ religious Trust and partner status were among the significant contributors to their life satisfaction. Data show that specific dimensions of spirituality are important predictors for patients’ interpretation of illness. Particularly the fatalistic negative perceptions could be indicators that patients may require further psychological assistance to cope with their burden.

  12. Occupational Exposures and Metabolic Syndrome Among Hispanics/Latinos: Cross-Sectional Results From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulka, Catherine M; Daviglus, Martha L; Persky, Victoria W; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Gallo, Linda C; Hosgood, H Dean; Singer, Richard H; Talavera, Gregory A; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Zeng, Donglin; Argos, Maria

    2017-11-01

    We assessed the cross-sectional relationships of self-reported current occupational exposures to solvents, metals, and pesticides with metabolic syndrome and its components among 7127 participants in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Metabolic syndrome was defined as a clustering of abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and/or high fasting glucose. Regression models that incorporated inverse probability of exposure weighting were used to estimate prevalence ratios. Solvent exposure was associated with a 32% higher prevalence of high blood pressure (95% confidence interval: 1.09 to 1.60) than participants not reporting exposure. No associations were observed for occupational exposures with abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein, or metabolic syndrome. Our findings suggest that solvent exposure may be an important occupational risk factor for high blood pressure among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  13. Association between household food access insecurity and nutritional status indicators among children aged <5 years in Nepal: results from a national, cross-sectional household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Subramaniam, Mayoori

    2015-11-01

    To examine the association between household food insecurity score and Z-scores of childhood nutritional status indicators. Population-based, cross-sectional survey, Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. A nationally representative sample of 11 085 households selected by a two-stage, stratified cluster sampling design to interview eligible men and women. Children (n 2591) aged 0-60 months in a sub-sample of households selected for men's interview. Prevalence of moderate and severe household food insecurity was 23·2% and 19·0%, respectively, for children aged 0-60 months. Weighted prevalence rates for stunting (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) underweight (weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) underweight by level of household food insecurity were statistically significant (Punderweight. Community nutrition interventions may use household food insecurity scales for identifying those households where children may be at risk of growth faltering.

  14. Validation of evaluated neutron standard cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badikov, S.; Golashvili, T.

    2008-01-01

    Some steps of the validation and verification of the new version of the evaluated neutron standard cross sections were carried out. In particular: -) the evaluated covariance data was checked for physical consistency, -) energy-dependent evaluated cross-sections were tested in most important neutron benchmark field - 252 Cf spontaneous fission neutron field, -) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation for preparation of specialized libraries of the neutron standards was verified. The results of the validation and verification of the neutron standards can be summarized as follows: a) the covariance data of the evaluated neutron standards is physically consistent since all the covariance matrices of the evaluated cross sections are positive definite, b) the 252 Cf spectrum averaged standard cross-sections are in agreement with the evaluated integral data (except for 197 Au(n,γ) reaction), c) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation was tested, as a result a specialized library of neutron standards in the ABBN 28-group structure was prepared for use in reactor applications. (authors)

  15. Top Quark Production Cross Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sectionsinproton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at centre of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association witha W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of t...

  16. Elastic and inelastic neutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmore, D.

    1967-01-01

    Computer programmes have been developed for the calculation of elastic and inelastic scattering of particles from nuclei. These programmes are written in the S2 dialect of FORTRAN, and run on an IBM-7030 computer. One programme calculates the shape elastic cross-section, the total cross-section and the absorption cross-section according to the optical model. The time taken in performing an optical calculation depends mainly upon the efficiency of the method used to perform the integration of the radial Schroedinger equation. A method is used which takes advantage of the absence of the first derivative term, and this gives a great improvement over more general methods. A least-squares fitting procedure is used which enables any number of parameters to be varied. The number of optical model calculations which are needed for a least-squares fit is less than with usual methods. Another programme will calculate compound nucleus reactions according to the Hauser-Feshbach theory, with or without the fluctuation correction. This programme will accept target and projectiles of any spin and parity, so that deuteron and alpha channels, as well as nucleon channels, may be taken into account. A third programme enables least-squares fits of elastic scattering to be done by taking into account the compound elastic contribution as calculated by the Hauser-Feshbach theory. The use of these programmes is illustrated by the analysis of the inelastic scattering of neutrons from 238 U. The elastic scattering cross-sections were used to obtain optical potentials by a least-squares fitting method. These potentials were subsequently used to predict the inelastic cross-sections to a large number of excited states. The results using the fluctuation correction are in good agreement with experiment. A further example of their use is shown in the analysis of neutron and proton scattering from light nuclei. Proton cross-sections were analysed to obtain potentials which were then used to

  17. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  18. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional rad...... information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm....

  19. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  20. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.; Goriely, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations.While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  1. Does self-efficacy mediate the cross-sectional relationship between perceived quality of health care and self-management of diabetes? Results from Diabetes MILES - Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregea, Hannah; Lee, Christina; Browne, Jessica L; Pouwer, Frans; Speight, Jane

    2016-05-01

    Quality of health care (QoC) and self-efficacy may affect self-management of diabetes, but such effects are not well understood. We examined the indirect role of diabetes-specific self-efficacy (DSE) and generalised self-efficacy (GSE) in mediating the cross-sectional relationship between self-reported QoC and diabetes self-management. Diabetes MILES-Australia was a national survey of 3,338 adults with diabetes. We analysed data from 1,624 respondents (age: M = 52.1, SD = 13.9) with type 1 (T1D; n = 680) or type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 944), who responded to a version of the survey containing key measures. self-reported healthy eating, physical activity, self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency, HbA1c, medication/insulin adherence. We used Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping method, controlling for age, gender and diabetes duration, to test mediation of DSE and GSE on the relationship of QoC with each self-management variable. We found statistically significant but trivial mediation effects of DSE and of GSE on most, but not all, variables (all effect sizes diabetes.

  2. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes: results of a dutch cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Iris; Uiters, Ellen; Rademakers, Jany; Struijs, Jeroen N; Schuit, A Jantine; Baan, Caroline A

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes knowledge is a mechanism in this association. The study was based on cross-sectional data retrieved from patient registrations and questionnaires completed in 2010. The sample included 1,714 predominantly type 2 diabetes patients, with a mean age of 67 years. Diabetes self-management was indicated by HbA1c level, glucose self-control and self-reported monitoring of glucose levels, physical activity, and smoking. Multilevel analyses were applied based on multiple imputed data. Lower health literacy was significantly associated with less diabetes knowledge, higher HbA1c level, less self-control of glucose level, and less physical activity. Participants with more diabetes knowledge were less likely to smoke and more likely to control glucose levels. Diabetes knowledge was a mediator in the association between health literacy and glucose self-control and between health literacy and smoking. This study indicates that higher health literacy may contribute to participation in certain self-management activities, in some cases through diabetes knowledge. Diabetes knowledge and health literacy skills may be important targets for interventions promoting diabetes self-management.

  3. Occupational Social Class and Personality Traits in Relation to Leisure-Time Physical Activity Level: Cross-Sectional Results From the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gitte L; Mortensen, Erik L; Rod, Naja H; Lange, Theis; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Hansen, Åse M; Lund, Rikke

    2017-06-01

    To investigate separate and combined associations of occupational social class and personality traits with late midlife leisure-time physical activity duration and intensity. Cross-sectional data from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank ( N = 4,649) were analyzed using linear regression models with leisure-time physical activity (metric equivalence) as outcome. Low versus high occupational social class was associated with 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [3%, 5%]) greater leisure-time physical activity duration, but 2% (CI = [1%, 3%]) lower intensity. Each 10-unit increase in extraversion was associated with 5% (CI = [2%, 8%]) greater duration. Intensity increased by each 10-unit increase in conscientiousness (6%, CI = [4%, 7%]), openness (3%, CI = [1%, 4%]), neuroticism (3%, CI = [1%, 4%]), and extraversion (5%, CI = [4%, 7%]). Conscientiousness was positively associated with duration in low, but not in high, occupational social class (interaction p value = .002). Higher occupational social class was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity duration, but higher intensity. Extraversion was positively associated with duration and intensity. Conscientiousness, openness, and neuroticism were positively associated with intensity. Overall, interactions were not consistent.

  4. Weather, day length and physical activity in older adults: Cross-sectional results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Norfolk Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzu Wu

    Full Text Available A wide range of environmental factors have been related to active ageing, but few studies have explored the impact of weather and day length on physical activity in older adults. We investigate the cross-sectional association between weather conditions, day length and activity in older adults using a population-based cohort in England, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Norfolk study.Physical activity was measured objectively over 7 days using an accelerometer and this was used to calculate daily total physical activity (counts per minute, daily minutes of sedentary behaviour and light, moderate and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA. Day length and two types of weather conditions, precipitation and temperature, were obtained from a local weather station. The association between these variables and physical activity was examined by multilevel first-order autoregressive modelling.After adjusting for individual factors, short day length and poor weather conditions, including high precipitation and low temperatures, were associated with up to 10% lower average physical activity (p<0.01 and 8 minutes less time spent in LMVPA but 15 minutes more sedentary time, compared to the best conditions.Day length and weather conditions appear to be an important factor related to active ageing. Future work should focus on developing potential interventions to reduce their impact on physical activity behaviours in older adults.

  5. Use of Diuretics is not associated with mortality in patients admitted to the emergency department: results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Dominik G; Lindner, Gregor; Wolzt, Michael; Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt; Fiedler, Georg-Martin; Sauter, Thomas C; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2016-02-01

    Patients with diuretic therapy are at risk for drug-induced adverse reactions. It is unknown if presence of diuretic therapy at hospital emergency room admission is associated with mortality. In this cross sectional analysis, all emergency room patients 2010 and 2011 at the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland were included. A multivariable logistic regression model was performed to assess the association between pre-existing diuretic medication and 28 day mortality. Twenty-two thousand two hundred thirty-nine subjects were included in the analysis. A total of 8.5%, 2.5%, and 0.4% of patients used one, two, or three or more diuretics. In univariate analysis spironolactone, torasemide and chlortalidone use were associated with 28 day mortality (all p 0.05). No difference existed between patients with or without diuretic therapy (P > 0.05). Age and creatinine were independent risk factors for mortaliy (both p diuretics is not associated with mortality in an unselected cohort of patients presenting in an emergency room.

  6. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina I. Bondor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20–29-year age group (6.62% and the highest in the 80–89-year age group (17.68%. The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70–79-year age group (largest group. Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p<0.001. This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs.

  7. HIV symptom burden and anemia among HIV-positive individuals: cross-sectional results of a community-based positive living with HIV (POLH) study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Catherine; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Poudel, Krishna C

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has reported high rates of anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in hospital or tertiary care settings. The objective of this community-based study was to measure the prevalence of anemia and describe the risk factors, with a specific emphasis on HIV symptom burden, in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 319 PLWHA residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We recruited participants from five non-governmental organizations in the Kathmandu Valley. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Our study found a 55.8% prevalence of anemia in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley. The prevalence of anemia among the participants with first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of HIV symptom burden was 44.8%, 49.3%, 60.3%, and 69.6%, respectively. Compared to the participants with lowest level of HIV symptom burden, the participants with highest level of HIV symptom burden were more likely to have anemia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 4.30). Due to a high prevalence of anemia in a community-based sample of PLWHA, HIV patients should be counseled on their risk of developing anemia and encouraged to seek timely care for HIV symptoms.

  8. HIV symptom burden and anemia among HIV-positive individuals: cross-sectional results of a community-based positive living with HIV (POLH study in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Martin

    Full Text Available Previous research has reported high rates of anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in hospital or tertiary care settings. The objective of this community-based study was to measure the prevalence of anemia and describe the risk factors, with a specific emphasis on HIV symptom burden, in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 319 PLWHA residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We recruited participants from five non-governmental organizations in the Kathmandu Valley. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used.Our study found a 55.8% prevalence of anemia in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley. The prevalence of anemia among the participants with first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of HIV symptom burden was 44.8%, 49.3%, 60.3%, and 69.6%, respectively. Compared to the participants with lowest level of HIV symptom burden, the participants with highest level of HIV symptom burden were more likely to have anemia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 4.30.Due to a high prevalence of anemia in a community-based sample of PLWHA, HIV patients should be counseled on their risk of developing anemia and encouraged to seek timely care for HIV symptoms.

  9. Degree of solidarity with lifestyle and old age among citizens in the Netherlands: cross-sectional results from the longitudinal SMILE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie, Linda H A; van den Akker, Marjan; van Steenkiste, Ben; Vos, Rein

    2010-12-01

    With the increasing interest in lifestyle, health and consequences of unhealthy lifestyles for the healthcare system, a new kind of solidarity is gaining importance: lifestyle solidarity. While it might not seem fair to let other people pay for the costs arising from an unhealthy lifestyle, it does not seem fair either to punish people for their lifestyle. However, it is not clear how solidarity is assessed by people, when considering disease risks or lifestyle risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of solidarity with lifestyle as well as with other factors that are related to health outcomes-for example, old age-and the relation between this degree of solidarity and various characteristics. This cross-sectional study is part of the Dutch longitudinal SMILE study. Data on the degree of solidarity with different lifestyles and old age, and the relation between the degree of solidarity and various demographic and other variables were obtained in a questionnaire survey. Solidarity with smokers and overweight people was moderate, as was solidarity with older people. Respondents were ambivalent about athletes. Respondents who were younger, male and highly educated, and those with a healthy lifestyle, a small social network, high quality of life and an internal locus of control, showed low solidarity. Solidarity with an unhealthy lifestyle and old age is moderate and the degree of solidarity varies among the different subgroups.

  10. Is the association between various emotion-regulation skills and mental health mediated by the ability to modify emotions? Results from two cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Matthias; Poppe, Christine; Luhmann, Maike; Wupperman, Peggilee; Jaggi, Verena; Seifritz, Erich

    2012-09-01

    In order to clarify mechanisms underlying the association between emotion regulation and psychopathology, we tested whether the ability to modify negative emotions mediates the associations of other emotion-regulation skills with psychopathological symptoms in two studies. The first study included 151 college students; the second included 121 psychiatric inpatients. Bootstrapping-enhanced mediation analyses were utilized to assess associations between self-reports of emotion-regulation skills and psychopathology, as well as potential mediation effects. In both samples, the ability to modify emotions completely mediated the association between symptoms and skills for most skills, but not for the skill of accepting/tolerating negative emotions. Major limitations include the use of a cross-sectional design as well as exclusive use of self-report data. The ability to modify negative emotions may be the common pathway by which many emotion-regulation skills exert their influence on mental health; however, the skill of accepting/tolerating negative emotions may be beneficial to mental health regardless of whether or not it facilitates modification of emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Minority Stress and Safer Sex Practices Among Sexual Minority Women in Toronto, Canada: Results from a Cross-Sectional Internet-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; MacKenzie, Rachel K; Poteat, Tonia

    2016-12-01

    Sexual stigma is a chronic stressor that enhances vulnerability to mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer people. Sexual stigma has also been associated with reduced uptake of safer sex practices, such as condom use, among gay and bisexual men. Scant research has examined the relationship between sexual stigma and safer sex practices among sexual minority women (SMW), including lesbian, bisexual, and queer women. We explored associations between sexual stigma and safer sex practices among SMW. We also tested the interaction between sexual stigma, social support, and resilient coping in this relationship. A cross-sectional internet-based survey was administered to SMW in Toronto, Canada. Among 388 participants with complete measurement data, simple linear regression indicated both perceived and enacted sexual stigma were positively associated with uptake of safer sex practices. In multivariable analyses, significant interactions were found between perceived sexual stigma and resilient coping, and between enacted sexual stigma and social support. At low levels of resilient coping, higher levels of perceived sexual stigma were associated with fewer safer sex practices, while at high levels of resilient coping the relationship was reversed. At low levels of social support, higher levels of enacted sexual stigma were associated with fewer safer sex practices, while at high levels of social support the relationship was reversed. These findings document complex relationships between sexual stigma dimensions, coping, social support, and safer sex practices. Understanding the role these variables play in uptake of safer sex practices can inform sexual health interventions tailored for SMW.

  12. Sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and hepatitis B/C status in a working-age population: results from a national, cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items), basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items), and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item). The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (pprejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (pprejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.

  13. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.

  14. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended

  15. [Left ventricular hypertrophy in black African subjects with artery hypertension: Results of a cross-sectional survey conducted in semi-rural area in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, A; Dodo, B; Ngaïde, A A; Sy, N F; Babaka, K; Mingou, J S; Faye, M; Niang, K; Sarr, S A; Dioum, M; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Kane, A D; Ndour-Mbaye, M; Diao, M; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diagne-Sow, D; Thiaw, I; Kane, A

    2017-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy according to electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria among hypertensive patients living in semi-rural Senegalese area. According to the World Health Organization STEPSwise approach, we conducted, in November 2012, a cross-sectional and exhaustive study in the population aged at least 35 years old and living for at least six months in the semi-rural area of Guéoul. We researched electrocardiographic and echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive subjects. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18.0 software version. The significance level was agreed for a value of P<0.05. We examined 1411 subjects aged on average of 48.5±12.7 years. In total, 654 subjects were hypertensive and screening of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was effective in 515 of them. According to Sokolow-Lyon index, 86 subjects (16.7%) presented electrocardiographic LVH, more frequently in men (P=0.002). According to Cornell index and Cornell product, LVH was founded respectively in 66 (12.8%) and 52 subjects (10.1%), more frequently in female (P=0.0001; P=0.004). It was more common in grade 3 of hypertension however criteria. In echocardiography, prevalence of LVH was 2.2% (13 cases) according to the left ventricular mass, 9.3% (48 cases) according to the left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area and 8.2% (42 cases) according to the left ventricular mass indexed to height 2.7 . LVH was significantly correlated with the electrocardiographic LVH according to Sokolow-Lyon index (P<0.0001) and the grade 3 of hypertension (P=0.003). Although rare in hypertensive Senegalese living in semi-rural area, left ventricular hypertrophy is correlated with severity of grade of hypertension. Screening by electrocardiogram will allow better follow-up of these hypertensive subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The association of point-of-sale cigarette marketing with cravings to smoke: results from a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Dodd, Michael; Carlson, Les; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Meza, Jane; Wan, Neng; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-07-01

    To examine the association between recalled exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing (ie, pack displays, advertisements and promotions such as discounts) and reported cravings to smoke while visiting a store. Data were collected using a telephone survey of a cross-sectional sample of 999 adult smokers in Omaha, Nebraska. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents about noticing (a) pack displays, (b) advertisements and (c) promotions in store in their neighbourhood. A 3-item scale indicating the frequency of experiencing cravings to smoke in locations where cigarettes are sold was created by asking respondents: (1) "feel a craving for a cigarette?" (2) "feel like nothing would be better than smoking a cigarette?" and (3) "feel like all you want is a cigarette?" The association between recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing and cravings was estimated using ordinary least squares linear regression models, controlling for nicotine dependence, gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, education, frequency of visiting stores in one's neighbourhood and method of recruitment into the study. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette displays (p<0.001) and advertisements (p=0.002), but not promotions (p=0.06), was associated with more frequent cravings to smoke. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing is associated with cravings to smoke as predicted by laboratory studies on the effects of smoking cues on cigarette craving. Policies that reduce or eliminate POS cigarette marketing could reduce cigarette cravings and might attenuate impulse buying of cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Occupational and Biomass Exposure in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Results of a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the On-Sint Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Campos, José Luis; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Calero-Acuña, Carmen; Represas-Represas, Cristina; López-Ramírez, Cecilia; Fernández, Virginia Leiro; Casamor, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    Although tobacco smoke is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), other inhaled toxics have also been associated with the disease. The present study analyzes data from exposure to these substances in a cohort of patients with COPD and assesses their impact on the clinical presentation of the disease. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the Clinical presentation, diagnosis and course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (On-Sint) study. All patients were smokers or ex-smokers as per protocol. In addition, during the inclusion visit patients were enquired about their occupational and biomass exposure history. The clinical features of patients with and without an added risk factor to tobacco were compared and those significant were entered in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, expressed as odds ratio (OR). The sample size was 1214 patients with COPD, of which 1012 (83.4%) had tobacco as the only risk factor and 202 (16.6%) had additional ones, mainly 174 (14.3%) with occupational gases and 32 (2.6%) with biomass exposure. The geographical distribution of this exposure showed a preference for the northern parts of the country and the East coast. The biomass exposure was rather low. Male gender (OR: 2.180), CAT score (OR: 1.036) and the use of long-term oxygen therapy (OR: 1.642) were associated with having an additional risk factor in the multivariate analysis. Occupational exposures are more common than biomass in Spain. COPD caused by tobacco plus other inhalants has some differential features and a more impaired quality of life. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The family role in children׳s sleep disturbances: Results from a cross-sectional study in a Portuguese Urban pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andreia Luís; Chaves, Petra; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Loureiro, Helena Cristina

    2015-11-01

    Sleep Disorders (SlD) are frequently undervalued complaints in childhood. Several factors influence sleep, particularly socio-cultural environment and medical conditions such as breathing disorders. Poor sleep hygiene has physical, educational and social consequences. In Portugal, there are few published studies about children׳s sleep habits and rarely based on validated questionnaires. To study the prevalence of SlD and associated factors, in an outpatient pediatric population of a Primary Health Care Center (PHCC). Cross-sectional study of children admitted to a PHCC on a suburban area of Lisbon. Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire, validated for the Portuguese population (CSHQ-PT) for the screening of SlD (cut-off=44), was applied to parents, as well as a demographic inquiry. Body mass index z-score was evaluated. Children scoring 44 or above were sent to Pediatric Sleep Disorders consultation (PSDC). Parametric and non-parametric tests were used whenever appropriate. From 128 children, 57.8% were male; the median age was 6.0 years (P 25=5.0; P 75=8.0). The median of cohabitants per family was 4.0 (P 25=3.0; P 75=5.0); 21.1% lived in a single-parent family. From CSHQ-PT, 59.4% (76) scored above the cut-off. Data showed that children from a single-parent family have more SlD (p=0.048), particularly parasomnia (p=0.019). Children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) suffer more daytime sleepiness (p=0.034). From 63 children sent to PSDC, 33 attended. Regarding these children, a difference was found between BMI z-scores of those with and without SDB (p=0.06). Family structure plays a non-negligible role in children's sleep habits. Daily performance of children with SDB may become compromised.

  19. Mental and somatic health complaints associated with school bullying between 10th and 12th grade students; results from cross sectional studies in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Green, Kristian; Welander-Vatn, Audun; Bjertness, Espen

    2009-03-23

    Bullying is a widespread and serious problem that might influence both mental and psychical well being as well as school performance and social life. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of bullying, mental health problems and psychical complaints among 10th and 12th grade students and to analyze the association between bullying, mental health problems and muscle and skeletal complaints. Two cross sectional studies of adolescents living in Oslo, Norway the first conducted in 2001 among 10th grade students (15/16 years old) and the second in 2004 among 12th grade students (18/19 years old). Both surveys were based on self report, were mostly school based and had almost identical questionnaires. There were around 3700 participants in both surveys, but the participation rate was lower in the latter survey (88 versus 80%). The Hopkins Symptoms Check List (HSCL-10) and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to measure mental health problems. Bullying is decreasing both among boys and girls while the prevalence of internalized mental health problems are increasing from 10th to 12th grade. For muscle and skeletal pain there is a diverging trend between boys and girls, with an increase among girls and a decrease among boys. The highest Odds Ratios, as a measure for the association between bullying, mental health problems and pain, were found for internalized mental health problems at both 10th and 12th grade both for boys and girls. Both internalized and externalized mental health problems together with pain seem to be associated with bullying irrespective of school type and gender.

  20. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J; Pascual, Thomas N B; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V; Mahmarian, John J; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V Peter C; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J; Underwood, S Richard; Rehani, Madan M; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-07-07

    To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing 'best practices' worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March-April 2013. Eight 'best practices' relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more 'best practices' had lower EDs. Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  1. Inverse association between intelligence quotient and urinary retinol binding protein in Chinese school-age children with low blood lead levels: results from a cross-sectional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Chen, Wen; Wang, Dongyue; Jin, Yinlong; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yan; Huang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Examine the relationship between blood lead concentration and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) in Chinese children 8-12 years old. This is a cross-sectional study, and participants included 446 children from three primary schools in Jiangsu, China. We collected environmental and genetic information from questionnaires. Blood lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). IQ was assessed using the Combined Raven's Test and then converted to a standard IQ score according to Chinese children's norm. Morning urine samples were collected to measure retinol binding protein (RBP). The average blood lead concentration was 33.13 μg L(-1) (geometric mean), and the blood lead concentration (BoxCox transform) was inversely and significantly associated with IQ (r=-0.11, p=0.02). The geometric mean of blood Mn, Cd and Se was 7.02 μg L(-1), 0.18 μg L(-1) and 94.77 μg L(-1), respectively. Blood Mn, Cd and Se showed no association with IQ, but all of them associated with urinary RBP. Urinary RBP was identified as a new factor associated with IQ (β=-6.49, p=0.011). Urinary RBP was recognized as a new indicated factor associated with children's IQ. Mn, Cd and Se exposure might affect urinary RBP concentration and further IQ. Findings also support that blood lead concentrations in 8-12 years old children, even IQ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities and associations with caregivers' educational attainment: results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Gelaye, Bizu; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-12-07

    To use wrist-actrigrphy to collect objective measures of sleep and to characterise actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities. We also assessed the extent to which, if at all, caregivers' education is associated with children's sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional study. A rehabilitation centre in the Patagonia region, Chile. This study was conducted among 125 children aged 6-12 years with disabilities (boys: 55.2%) and their primary caregivers in Chile. Children wore ActiSleep monitors for 7 days. A general linear model was fitted to generate least-square means and SEs of sleep efficiency (proportion of the sleep period spent asleep) across caregivers' education levels adjusting for children's age, sex, disability type, caregiver-child relationship and caregivers' age. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of longer sleep latency (≥ 30 min) and longer wake after sleep onset (WASO) (≥ 90 min) (a measure of sleep fragmentation) in relation to caregivers' educational attainment. Median sleep latency was 27.3 min, WASO 88.1 min and sleep duration 8.0 h. Mean sleep efficiency was 80.0%. Caregivers' education was positively and significantly associated with children's sleep efficiency (p trendeducation, and 81.9% (SE=1.0) among children of caregivers >high school education. Compared to children whose caregivers had >high school, children of caregivers with education is associated with more sleep disturbances. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Adolescent tobacco use practices and user profiles in a mature Swedish moist snuff (snus) market: Results from a school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ingeborg; Scheffels, Janne

    2016-06-23

    The aim of this work was to study the diversity of tobacco use among Norwegian adolescent tobacco users and to investigate how different user groups compared with each other in terms of lifestyle and risk correlates. Swedish moist snuff (snus) use has increased dramatically in Norway over the last few years and is now more prevalent than smoking in younger age groups. The participants were 736 15-year-old tobacco users obtained from a large school-based cross-sectional survey (response rate 73%). Leisure time activity and risk behaviour factors were extracted by principal components analysis. Associations between tobacco use, leisure activities, risk behaviours, alcohol use and sex were studied bivariately and by logistic regression. In total, 41.5% of the tobacco users were dual users (smokers and snus users). Problem behaviour and risk-taking lifestyles were associated with tobacco use frequency and high-frequency dual use, with a low risk profile for all types of occasional users (snus, cigarettes or dual users), a medium risk profile for all types of daily single-product users, including those who occasionally used the other product (i.e. dual users) and a high-risk profile for those who used both products daily (daily dual users). FRAGMENTED USE PATTERNS IN ADOLESCENCE UNDERMINE THE DICHOTOMY OFTEN APPLIED BETWEEN SMOKERS AND SNUS USERS FOR ASSOCIATIONS WITH LIFESTYLE AND RISK CORRELATES, USE FREQUENCY AND HIGH-FREQUENCY DUAL USE SEEM TO BE MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE CHOICE OF PRODUCT. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  4. Interaction of ACE genotype and salt intake on hypertension among Chinese Kazakhs: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuyan; Zhang, Biao; Hou, Lei; Han, Wei; Xue, Fang; Wang, Yanhong; Tang, Yong; Liang, Shaohua; Wang, Weizhi; Asaiti, Kuliqian; Wang, Zixing; Hu, Yaoda; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Changchun; Zhang, Mingtao; Jiang, Jingmei

    2017-05-17

    To explore the effect of interaction between ACE genotype and salt intake on hypertension among Chinese Kazakhs, and to compare applications of interactions between logistic model and generalised partially linear tree-based regression (GPLTR) model. Population-based cross-sectional study. Hong Dun, North Xinjiang, China. Non-consanguineous Chinese Kazakh participants (n=916, 342 men and 574 women) aged ≥30 years. Association between ACE genotype and hypertension, association between salt intake and hypertension, and interaction of ACE genotype and salt intake on hypertension in two models. Associations between salt intake and hypertension were different in ACE genotype of II and ID+DD. Under the logistic models, main and interaction effects were not observed for men, but effects were present in opposite directions for women (main effect of ACE: OR=0.20, p=0.003; interaction effect: OR=1.07, p=0.027). Under the GPLTR model, Bayesian information criterion trees included both salt intake and ACE genotype as split variables. Individuals with a salt intake ≥19.5 g/day and ID+DD genotypes had a 3.99-fold (p=0.004) higher risk of hypertension compared with the II genotype for men, whereas salt intake salt intake on hypertension was observed among Chinese Kazakhs but in different ways according to sex. The GPLTR model appears to be more suitable for an exploration of interactions in complex diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Characterizing short stature by insulin-like growth factor axis status and genetic associations: results from the prospective, cross-sectional, epidemiogenetic EPIGROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Peter; Bonnemaire, Mireille; Dutailly, Pascale; Maisonobe, Pascal; Naudin, Laurent; Pham, Emmanuel; Zhang, Zhidong; Grupe, Andrew; Thiagalingam, Arunthathi; Denèfle, Patrice

    2013-06-01

    Serum IGF-I levels are often low in patients with short stature (SS) without defined etiology. Hence, genetic investigations have focused on the GH-IGF-I axis. Our objectives were to characterize IGF-I axis status and search for a broader range of genetic associations in children with SS and normal GH. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, epidemiogenetic case-control study in 9 European countries (2008-2010). Children (n = 275) aged ≥2 years with SS without defined etiology (≤-2.5 height SD score [SDS]) and ≥1 peak GH ≥7 μg/L) were recruited. Serum IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and acid-labile subunit (ALS) levels were measured in a central laboratory. Candidate gene exome sequencing was performed in this cohort and ethnicity-matched controls. Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS levels were highly correlated, but there was a discrepancy between prevalence of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS deficiencies (53%, 30%, and 0.8%, respectively). An insertion-deletion (Indel) on the IGF1 gene (P = 1.2 × 10(-5), Bonferroni-corrected; case vs control frequency: 0.04 vs 0.112), an Indel on NFKB1 (P = 1.36 × 10(-10); case vs control frequency: 0.464 vs 0.272), and 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms on ZBTB38 (P < 2.3 × 10(-6)) were associated with SS. At P < 10(-4), single-nucleotide polymorphisms on genes related to protein kinase regulation, MAPK, and Fanconi pathways were also associated with SS. IGF-I deficiency is a common feature in SS without defined etiology; an Indel in the IGF1 gene was associated with SS. However, genes involved in transcriptional regulation (NFKB1 and ZBTB38) and growth factor signaling were also associated, providing further candidates for genetic investigations on individual patients.

  6. Obstetric and psychological characteristics of women seeking multiple abortions in the region of Monastir (Tunisia): results of a cross-sectional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mhamdi, Sana; Ben Salah, Arwa; Bouanene, Ines; Hlaiem, Imen; Hadhri, Saloua; Maatouk, Wahiba; Soltani, Mohamed

    2015-05-10

    Repeat abortion is a public health concern favored by many obstetric and social factors. The purpose of our study was to identify associated factors to repeated abortion in the region of Monastir (Tunisia). Common mental disorders (CMD) such as anxiety and depression were also evaluated in women seeking voluntary repeated abortion. We carried out a cross sectional study between January and April 2013 in the Reproductive Health Center (RHC) of the region of Monastir in Tunisia (This study is part of a prospective design on mental disorders and intimate partner violence among women seeking abortions in the RHC). Among women referred to the RHC we selected those seeking voluntary abortion (medical or surgical method). Data on women's demographic characters, knowledge and practices about contraceptive methods and abortion were collected the abortion day via a structured questionnaire. Data about anxiety and depression status were evaluated during the post-abortal control visit at 3-4 weeks following pregnancy termination. Of the 500 interviewed women, 211 (42.2 %; CI95% [37.88 - 46.52]) were seeking repeated abortions. Multivariate analysis showed that increased age, lower level of women school education, single status, poor knowledge about birth control methods and history of conflict/abuse by a male partner, were uniquely associated with undergoing repeat compared with initial abortion. CMD were significantly higher in women undergoing second or subsequent abortion (51.1 %) single and lower educated women. Women relating a history of conflicts/abuse report more CMD than others (30.6 % vs 20.8 %). Health facilities providing abortion services need to pay more attention to women seeking repeat abortion. Further studies are needed to well establish the relation between the number of abortion and the occurrence and the severity of CMD.

  7. Predictors of family caregiver ratings of patient quality of life in Alzheimer disease: cross-sectional results from the Canadian Alzheimer's Disease Quality of Life Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglie, Gary; Hogan, David B; Krahn, Murray; Black, Sandra E; Beattie, B Lynn; Patterson, Christopher; Macknight, Chris; Freedman, Morris; Borrie, Michael; Byszewski, Anna; Bergman, Howard; Streiner, David; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul; Comrie, Janna; Kowgier, Matthew; Tomlinson, George

    2011-10-01

    To assess whether the core symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) and caregiver factors consistently predict family caregiver ratings of patient quality of life (QOL) as assessed by a variety of QOL measures in a large national sample. : Cross-sectional. Fifteen dementia and geriatric clinics across Canada. : Family caregivers (n = 412) of community-living patients with AD of all severities. Caregiver ratings of patient QOL using three utility indexes, the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, Quality of Well-Being Scale and Health Utilities Index; a global QOL visual analogue scale; a disease-specific measure, the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease; and a generic health status measure, the Short Form-36. Patient cognition was assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination, function with the Disability Assessment for Dementia, and behavioral and psychological symptoms with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Caregiver burden was assessed with the Zarit Burden Interview and caregiver depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. One-way analysis of variance and fully adjusted multiple linear regression were used to assess the relationship between patient dementia symptom and caregiver variables with QOL ratings. In multivariable analyses, caregiver ratings of patient function and depressive symptoms were the only consistent independent predictors of caregiver-rated QOL across the QOL measures. Caregiver ratings of patient function and depression were consistent independent predictors of caregiver-rated QOL, using a spectrum of QOL measures, while measures of patient cognition and caregiver burden and depression were not. These findings support the continued use of caregiver ratings as an important source of information about patient QOL and endorse the inclusion in AD clinical trials of caregiver-rated measures of patient function, depression

  8. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Artery Calcium Score: Cross-Sectional Results of ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andreia M; Steluti, Josiane; Goulart, Alessandra C; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Marchioni, Dirce M

    2018-03-24

    Available evidence for the relationship between coffee intake and subclinical atherosclerosis is limited and inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). This cross-sectional study is based on baseline data from participants of the ELSA-Brasil cohort. Only participants living in São Paulo, Brazil, who underwent a CAC measurement (n=4426) were included. Coffee consumption was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. CAC was detected with computed tomography and expressed as Agatston units. CAC was further categorized as an Agatson score ≥100 (CAC ≥100). In multiple logistic regression analysis considering intake of coffee and smoking status interaction, significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption (>3 cups/d) and CAC≥100 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.85 [95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.24] for ≤1 cup/d; OR: 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.05] for 1-3 cups/d; OR: 0.33 [95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.65] for >3 cups/d). Moreover, there was a statistically significant interaction effect for coffee consumption and smoking status ( P =0.028 for interaction). After stratification by smoking status, the analysis revealed a lower OR of coronary calcification in never smokers drinking >3 cups/d (OR: 0.37 [95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.91]), whereas among current and former smokers, the intake of coffee was not significantly associated with coronary calcification. Habitual consumption of >3 cups/d of coffee decreased odds of subclinical atherosclerosis among never smokers. The consumption of coffee could exert a potential beneficial effect against coronary calcification, particularly in nonsmokers. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Effects of age, gender, and retirement on perceived sleep problems: results from the VISAT combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquiáe, Jean-Claude; Folkard, Simon; Ansiau, David; Tucker, Philip

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effects of age, gender, and retirement on the subjective frequency of various sleep problems in individuals on a normal work schedule. Data were taken from the VISAT study (Aging, Health, - Work), which allowed both cross-sectional and longitudinal aspects of age-related changes to be examined. Various sorts of companies in southern France. The cohorts comprised 623 male and female, employed and retired, wage earners who were 32, 42, 52, and 62 years old at the time of the first measurement (t1, 1996), and who were seen again 5 (t2) and 10 (t3) years later. N/A. Subjective ratings of the frequency of sleep problems and hypnotic usage were recorded on all 3 occasions, as was the employment status of the individuals. After controlling for age and gender, an effect of decade was observed for difficulty falling asleep and difficulty maintaining sleep, indicating that the frequency of these sleep problems was rated higher in 2006 than in 1996 by people of the same age at both measurement occasions. The perceived frequency of difficulty maintaining sleep, difficulty getting back to sleep, and premature awakening was found to increase up to the mid-50s but to then remain relatively constant, or even in the case of premature awakening to reduce, up to the age of 72. There was also a significant improvement in premature awakening among those individuals who changed from being active to being retired during the study period (n = 111). In contrast, the rated frequency of difficulty falling asleep and hypnotic usage increased fairly linearly over the entire age range. Sleep complaints were reported early in the workers' lives, and were more frequent with age, but some of them improved after retirement, especially the complaint of premature awakening.

  10. Cognitive function alone is a poor predictor of health-related quality of life in employed patients with MS: results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Schiavolin, Silvia; Brenna, Greta; Brambilla, Laura; Confalonieri, Paolo; Cortese, Francesca; Covelli, Venusia; Frangiamore, Rita; Leonardi, Matilde; Mantegazza, Renato; Moscatelli, Marco; Ponzio, Michela; Torri Clerici, Valentina; Zaratin, Paola; Raggi, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Depression, anxiety, disease severity, and cognitive functions impact on the quality of life of people with MS. However, the majority of studies were not based on multivariate models and did not target employed patients. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of HRQoL in persons with MS in the workforce considering cognitive, psychological, disease severity, and disability-related variables. Cross-sectional study. Hierarchical block regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of physical and mental components of HRQoL, measured with the MSQOL-54. Candidate predictors included cognitive functioning (a selection of Rao's BRB-NT), sample features (age, education, MS duration), depressive symptoms (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI-Y), disability (WHODAS 2.0), and MS severity (EDSS): those that correlated with PCS and MCS with p .800 were excluded from regression analyses. In total, 181 patients (60.8% females, mean age 39.6, median EDSS 1.5) were included. In both models, cognitive variables had a poor explicative power. The models improved significantly when psychological, as well as, disease severity and disability variables were added. R(2) of complete models was 0.732 for the physical component, 0.697 for the mental one: BDI-II, STAI-State and, some WHODAS 2.0 scales were significant predictors of HRQoL. Monitoring anxiety, depressive symptoms, and level of disability through self-reported questionnaires may provide useful suggestions to improve the HRQoL of persons with MS in the workforce, permitting to address possible problems in the work context and plan corrective actions.

  11. Is the concept of quality of life relevant for multiple sclerosis patients with cognitive impairment? Preliminary results of a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Baumstarck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment occurs in about 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, and the use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care among subjects with cognitive dysfunction has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcomes for use in this specific population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL instrument, the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQoL. METHODS: DESIGN: cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: MS patients of any disease subtype. DATA COLLECTION: sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, education level, and occupational activity and clinical data (MS subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration; QoL (MusiQoL and SF36; and neuropsychological performance (Stroop color-word test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: confirmatory factor analysis, item-dimension correlations, Cronbach's alpha coefficients, Rasch statistics, relationships between MusiQoL dimensions and other parameters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled. QoL scores did not differ between the 69 cognitively non-impaired patients and the 55 cognitively impaired patients, except for the symptoms dimension. The confirmatory factor analysis performed among the impaired subjects showed that the structure of the questionnaire matched with the initial structure of the MusiQoL. The unidimensionality of the MusiQoL dimensions was preserved, and the internal validity indices were satisfactory and close to those of the reference population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that executive dysfunction did not compromise the reliability and the validity of the self-reported QoL questionnaires.

  12. Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-04-15

    We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in electron-positron annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-next-to-leading order. (orig.)

  13. Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow

    2011-04-01

    We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in electron-positron annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-next-to-leading order. (orig.)

  14. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  15. Electron-collision cross sections for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Hargreaves, L.R.; Jones, D.B.; Murrie, R.; Brunton, J.R.; Brunger, M.J.; Hoshino, M.; Buckman, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study of elastic electron scattering from atomic iodine. The experimental results were obtained by subtracting known cross sections from the measured data obtained with a pyrolyzed mixed beam containing a variety of atomic and molecular species. The calculations were performed using both a fully relativistic Dirac B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method and an optical model potential approach. Given the difficulty of the problem, the agreement between the two sets of theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the angle-differential and the angle-integrated elastic cross sections at 40 eV and 50 eV is satisfactory.

  16. Obstetric care quality indicators and outcomes based on the degree of acculturation of immigrants-results from a cross-sectional study in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matthias; Borde, Theda; Brenne, Silke; Ramsauer, Babett; Hinkson, Larry; Henrich, Wolfgang; Razum, Oliver; Breckenkamp, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    Acculturation is a complex, multidimensional process involving the integration of the traditional norms, values, and lifestyles of a new cultural environment. It is, however, unclear what impact the degree of acculturation has on obstetric outcomes. Data collection was performed in 2011 and 2012 at three obstetric tertiary centers in Berlin, Germany. Standardized interviews (20-30 min.) were performed with support of evaluated questionnaires. The primary collected data were then linked to the perinatal data recorded at the individual clinics provided from the obstetric centers which correspond with the routinely centralized data collected for quality assurance throughout Germany. The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographic, health care, and migrant-related aspects. Migrant women and women with a migration background were assessed using the Frankfurt Acculturation Scale, a one-dimensional measurement tool to assess the degree of acculturation (15 items on language and media usage as well as integration into social networks). In summary, 7100 women were available for the survey (response rate of 89.6%) of which 3765 (53%) had a migration background. The probability of low acculturation is significantly (p relationships between the degree of acculturation and obstetric parameters show no significant differences for prematurity, 5 min.-Apgar values > 7, arterial umbilical cord pH values > 7.00 and admissions to the neonatal unit. In Berlin, among migrant women a low degree of acculturation may have an unfavorable effect on the utilization of pregnancy care provision. However, there were no relevant differences in obstetric outcome parameters in relation to the degree of acculturation within the migrant population of Berlin.

  17. Mental health of college students and their non-college-attending peers: results from a large French cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Leray, Emmanuelle; Denis, Laure; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-04-21

    The great majority of mental disorders begin during adolescence or early adulthood, although they are often detected and treated later in life. To compare mental health status of college students and their non-college-attending peers whether working, attending a secondary school, or non-college-attending peers who are neither employed nor students or trainees (NENST) will allow to focus on high risk group. Data were drawn from a large cross-sectional survey conducted by phone in 2005 in four French regions in a randomly selected sample of 22,138 adults. Analyses were restricted to the college-age subsample, defined as those aged 18 to 24 (n = 2424). Sociodemographic, educational, and occupational status were determined. In addition, respondents were administered standardized instruments to assess mental health and well-being (CIDI-SF, SF-36, Sheehan Disability Scale, CAGE), mastery, social support, and isolation. The four occupational groups were compared. All analyses were stratified by gender. Mental health disorders were more prevalent among the NENST group, with significant differences among men for anxiety disorders including phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and panic disorder, impairing at least one role in their daily life. This was also true among women except for panic disorder. The NENST group also reported the lowest level of mastery and social support for both genders and the highest level of social isolation for women only. After adjustment, occupational status remained an independent correlate of PTSD (OR = 2.92 95 % CI = 1.4-6.1), agoraphobia (OR = 1.86 95 % CI 1.07-3.22) and alcohol dependence (OR = 2.1 95 % CI = 1.03-4.16). Compared with their peers at work or in education/training, the prevalence of certain common mental health disorders was higher among college-aged individuals in the NENST group. Efforts should be made to help young adults in the transition between school or academic contexts and joining the workforce. It is also

  18. Association of common mental disorder symptoms with health and healthcare factors among women in rural western India: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Apurv; Fahey, Nisha; Byatt, Nancy; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Vankar, Jagdish; Phatak, Ajay; O'Keefe, Eileen; Allison, Jeroan; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2016-07-07

    Information about common mental disorders (CMD) is needed to guide policy and clinical interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. This study's purpose was to characterise the association of CMD symptoms with 3 inter-related health and healthcare factors among women from rural western India based on a representative, cross-sectional survey. Surveys were conducted in the waiting area of various outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital and in 16 rural villages in the Anand district of Gujarat, India. 700 Gujarati-speaking women between the ages of 18-45 years who resided in the Anand district of Gujarat, India, were recruited in a quasi-randomised manner. CMD symptoms, ascertained using WHO's Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20), were associated with self-reported (1) number of healthcare visits in the prior year; (2) health status and (3) portion of yearly income expended on healthcare. Data from 658 participants were used in this analysis; 19 surveys were excluded due to incompleteness, 18 surveys were excluded because the participants were visiting hospitalised patients and 5 surveys were classified as outliers. Overall, 155 (22·8%) participants screened positive for CMD symptoms (SRQ-20 score ≥8) with most (81.9%) not previously diagnosed despite contact with healthcare provider in the prior year. On adjusted analyses, screening positive for CMD symptoms was associated with worse category in self-reported health status (cumulative OR=9.39; 95% CI 5·97 to 14·76), higher portion of household income expended on healthcare (cumulative OR=2·31; 95% CL 1·52 to 3.52) and increased healthcare visits in the prior year (incidence rate ratio=1·24; 95% CI 1·07 to 1·44). The high prevalence of potential CMD among women in rural India that is unrecognised and associated with adverse health and financial indicators highlights the individual and public health burden of CMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  19. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviours in female seasonal farm workers in Souss Massa Draa, Morocco: results from a cross-sectional survey using cluster-based sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Guezzar, Fatiha; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Bennani, Aziza; Handanagic, Senad; Barbaric, Jelena; El Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Khattabi, Hamida; Riedner, Gabriele; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2017-06-08

    To determine prevalence of HIV and HIV-related behaviours in female seasonal farm workers (FSFWs) in two provinces of Souss Massa Draa (SMD) region in Morocco. SMD has a higher burden of HIV compared with other parts of Morocco and is characterised by a substantial aggregation of FSFW. We carried out a cross-sectional HIV biobehavioural survey using cluster-based sampling of farms in the provinces Chtouka Aït Baha and Taroudant Ouled Teïma in 2014. HIV testing was done using the Determine HIV-1/2 rapid test and reactive specimens were tested using ELISA and western blot. Collected data were post hoc weighted for region-based stratification and adjusted for clustering effects using complex survey functions of SPSS (V.21). Among those eligible to participate, the response rate was 92.8%. HIV prevalence was 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 2.4%) among 520 recruited participants. A high proportion of respondents (67.7%) had no education. Ever having sex was reported by 79.8% and among these, 12.7% ever exchanged sex for money or goods. Sixty-one per cent reported condom use at most recent commercial vaginal sex in the past 12 months. STI symptom recognition was found to be low because 62.4% and 46.8% of FSFW could not report any STI symptoms in men and women, respectively. Twenty-seven per cent of respondents had an HIV test in the past 12 months. In multivariable analysis, those with primary or higher education (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.38, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.27) and those who participated in an HIV educational session at their workplace (aOR=11.00, 95% CI 3.99 to 30.31) had higher odds of ever been tested for HIV. Although we found a relatively low HIV prevalence among FSFW in SMD, HIV interventions should be intensified, in particular, in a subgroup of women who are involved in sex work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Dietary intake and sources of sodium and potassium among Australian schoolchildren: results from the cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; Beckford, Kelsey; Baxter, Janet R; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2017-10-30

    To examine sodium and potassium urinary excretion by socioeconomic status (SES), discretionary salt use habits and dietary sources of sodium and potassium in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools located in Victoria, Australia. 666 of 780 children aged 4-12 years who participated in the Salt and Other Nutrients in Children study returned a complete 24-hour urine collection. 24-hour urine collection for the measurement of sodium and potassium excretion and 24-hour dietary recall for the assessment of food sources. Parent and child reported use of discretionary salt. SES defined by parental highest level of education. Participants were 9.3 years (95% CI 9.0 to 9.6) of age and 55% were boys. Mean urinary sodium and potassium excretion was 103 (95% CI 99 to 108) mmol/day (salt equivalent 6.1 g/day) and 47 (95% CI 45 to 49) mmol/day, respectively. Mean molar Na:K ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.5). 72% of children exceeded the age-specific upper level for sodium intake. After adjustment for age, sex and day of urine collection, children from a low socioeconomic background excreted 10.0 (95% CI 17.8 to 2.1) mmol/day more sodium than those of high socioeconomic background (p=0.04). The major sources of sodium were bread (14.8%), mixed cereal-based dishes (9.9%) and processed meat (8.5%). The major sources of potassium were dairy milk (11.5%), potatoes (7.1%) and fruit/vegetable juice (5.4%). Core foods provided 55.3% of dietary sodium and 75.5% of potassium while discretionary foods provided 44.7% and 24.5%, respectively. For most children, sodium intake exceeds dietary recommendations and there is some indication that children of lower socioeconomic background have the highest intakes. Children are consuming about two times more sodium than potassium. To improve sodium and potassium intakes in schoolchildren, product reformulation of lower salt core foods combined with strategies that seek to reduce the consumption of

  1. The use and preference of artemether as a first-choice treatment for malaria: results from a cross-sectional survey in the Bata district, Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romay-Barja, Maria; Ncogo, Policarpo; Nseng, Gloria; Santana-Morales, Maria A; Berzosa, Pedro; Herrador, Zaida; Valladares, Basilio; Riloha, Matilde; Benito, Agustin

    2018-03-09

    Malaria is endemic in Equatorial Guinea with stable transmission, and it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria is critical to malaria control. Six years after the introduction of artesunate-amodiaquine (AS/AQ) therapy in Equatorial Guinea, adherence to the first-line treatment seems to be low in the Bata district. The factors associated with the choice of malaria treatment have not been studied previously in this area; therefore, this study aimed to analyse the preference and use of artemether as malaria treatment and its related factors in the Bata district of Equatorial Guinea. In 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the Bata district, which involved 428 households. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted to determine the relevance of socio-economic, geographical, and behavioural factors that played a role in the preference and use of artemether as malaria treatment. Artemether was considered the best treatment for malaria by 110 caregivers (26%), and was the antimalarial most administrated in the Bata district. It was prescribed to 117 children (27.34%); while, only 6.78% were administered AS/AQ. Caregivers living ≤ 3 km from the nearest health facility were almost two times more likely to consider artemether as the best treatment than those living farther away (95% CI 0.31-0.86). Caregivers with at least a secondary school education were 2.7 times more likely to consider artemether as the best treatment than those less educated. Children whose caregivers considered artemether the best treatment against malaria were five times more likely to be treated with artemether than children with caregivers who did not consider it the best (OR 5.07, 95% CI 2.93-8.78). In contrast, children that reported weakness as a symptom were less likely to be treated with artemether than those

  2. Does cheese intake blunt the association between soft drink intake and risk of the metabolic syndrome? Results from the cross-sectional Oslo Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Haug, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A high soft drink intake may promote, whereas intake of cheese may reduce risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but will cheese intake blunt the soft drink versus MetS association? Cross-sectional study. The Oslo Health Study. Among the 18 770 participants of the Oslo Health Study there were 5344 men and 6150 women having data on cheese and soft drink intake and on risk factors for MetS, except for fasting glucose. The MetSRisk index=the weighted sum of triglycerides (TG), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) divided by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were used as a combined risk estimate to examine the cheese/soft drink versus MetS interaction, and the SumRisk index was used to assess whether increasing intake of soft drinks/cheese would include an increasing number of MetS factors being above the cut-off values. We analysed the data using non-parametric correlation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). In all three groups of soft drink intake (seldom/rarely, 1-6 glasses/week, ≥1 glass/day), there was a negative cheese versus MetSRisk correlation (p≤0.003), but in the highest intake group the influence of cheese seemed to level off, suggesting interaction. However, there was no interaction between cheese and soft drinks within the fully adjusted models. Conversely, at all four levels of cheese intake, MetSRisk increased with an increasing intake of soft drinks (p≤0.001 at all cheese levels). Similar associations were found with the SumRisk index. When controlling for a large number of covariates (eg, sex, age group, smoking, education, physical activity, intake of fruits/berries and vegetables), the above associations prevailed. Cheese intake blunted the association between soft drink intake and MetS, an influence possibly related to fatty acid desaturation, or to undetected covariates.

  3. Knowledge, opinions and compliance related to the 100% smoke-free law in hospitality venues in Kampala, Uganda: cross-sectional results from the KOMPLY Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely, Shannon; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Okello, Gabriel; Robertson, Lindsay; Heng, Kelvin Khow Chuan; Ndikum, Achiri Elvis; Oginni, Adeniyi Samuel; Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Kakoulides, Socrates; Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim; Bianco, Eduardo

    2018-01-05

    This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was used to select hospitality sites stratified by all five divisions in Kampala. A total of 222 establishments were selected for the study. One hospitality representative from each of the visited sites agreed to take part in a face-to-face administered questionnaire. A subsample of hospitality venues were randomly selected for tobacco air quality testing (n=108). Data were collected between June and August 2016. Knowledge and opinions of the smoke-free law among hospitality venue staff and owners. The level of compliance with the smoke-free law in hospitality venues through: (1) systematic objective observations (eg, active smoking, the presence of designated smoking areas, 'no smoking' signage) and (2) air quality by measuring the levels of tobacco particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in both indoor and outdoor venues. Active smoking was observed in 18% of venues, 31% had visible 'no smoking' signage and 47% had visible cigarette remains. Among interviewed respondents, 57% agreed that they had not been adequately informed about the smoke-free law; however, 90% were supportive of the ban. Nearly all respondents (97%) agreed that the law will protect workers' health, but 32% believed that the law would cause financial losses at their establishment. Indoor PM 2.5 levels were hazardous (267.6 µg/m 3 ) in venues that allowed smoking and moderate (29.6 µg/m 3 ) in smoke-free establishments. In the early phase of Uganda's smoke-free law, the level of compliance in hospitality venues settings in Kampala was suboptimal. Civil society and the

  4. Educational outcomes associated with childhood obesity in the United States: cross-sectional results from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Felicia R; Singh, Gopal K; Brown, H Shelton; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2015-07-27

    that these are cross-sectional data, we suggest that 1) health-related and sociodemographic factors should be a focus point of intervention, and 2) a socio-structural approach including Coordinated School Health intervention is crucial to reducing childhood obesity and improving educational outcomes in this population.

  5. Determinants of adherence to seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers from an Italian region: results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durando, P; Alicino, C; Dini, G; Barberis, I; Bagnasco, A M; Iudici, R; Zanini, M; Martini, M; Toletone, A; Paganino, C; Massa, E; Orsi, A; Sasso, L

    2016-05-17

    Notwithstanding decades of efforts to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination among European healthcare workers (HCWs), the immunisation rates are still unsatisfactory. In order to understand the reasons for the low adherence to flu vaccination, a study was carried out among HCWs of two healthcare organisations in Liguria, a region in northwest Italy. A cross-sectional study based on anonymous self-administered web questionnaires was carried out between October 2013 and February 2014. Through univariate and multivariate regression analysis, the study investigated the association between demographic and professional characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of the study participants and (i) the seasonal flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season and (ii) the self-reported number of flu vaccination uptakes in the six consecutive seasons from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. A total of 830 HCWs completed the survey. Factors statistically associated with flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season were: being a medical doctor and agreeing with the statements 'flu vaccine is safe', 'HCWs have a higher risk of getting flu' and 'HCWs should receive flu vaccination every year'. A barrier to vaccination was the belief that pharmaceutical companies influence decisions about vaccination strategies. All the above-mentioned factors, except the last one, were (significantly) associated with the number of flu vaccination uptakes self-reported by the respondents between season 2008/2009 and season 2013/2014. Other significantly associated factors appeared to be level of education, being affected by at least one chronic disease, and agreeing with mandatory flu vaccination in healthcare settings. This survey allows us to better understand the determinants of adherence to vaccination as a fundamental preventive strategy against flu among Italian HCWs. These findings should be used to improve and customise any future promotion campaigns to overcome identified

  6. The provision of family-centred intensive care bereavement support in Australia and New Zealand: Results of a cross sectional explorative descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marion; Coombs, Maureen; Wetzig, Krista

    2017-05-01

    Caring for the bereaved is an intrinsic part of intensive care practice with family bereavement support an important aspect of the nursing role at end of life. However, reporting on provision of intensive care family bereavement support at a national level has not been well reported since an Australian paper published ten years ago. The objective was to investigate provision of family bereavement support in intensive care units (ICU) across New Zealand (NZ) and Australia. A cross-sectional exploratory descriptive web-based survey was used. All ICUs [public/private, neonatal/pediatrics/adults] were included. The survey was distributed to one nursing leader from each identified ICU (n=229; 188 in Australia, 41 in NZ). Internal validity of the survey was established through piloting. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Ethical approval was received by the ethics committees of two universities. One-hundred and fifty-three (67%) responses were received from across New Zealand and Australia with 69.3% of respondents from the public sector. Whilst respondents reported common bereavement practices to include debriefing for staff after a traumatic death (87.9%), there was greater variation in sending a sympathy card to families (NZ 54.2%, Australia 20.8%). Fifty percent of responding New Zealand units had a bereavement follow-up service compared to 28.3% of Australian unit respondents. Of those with follow-up services, 92.3% of New Zealand units undertook follow-up calls to families compared to 76.5% of Australian units. Bereavement follow-up services were mainly managed by social workers in Australia and nursing staff in New Zealand. This is the first Australia and New Zealand-wide survey on ICU bereavement support services. Whilst key components of family bereavement support remain consistent over the past decade, there were fewer bereavement follow-up services in responding Australian ICUs in 2015. As a quality improvement initiative, support for this

  7. Cross sections for multistep direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriou, Paraskevi; Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Marianski, Bohdan

    2002-01-01

    Inelastic scattering and charge-exchange reactions have been analysed at energies ranging from 14 to 27 MeV using the modified multistep direct reaction theory (MSD) of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin. The modified theory considers the non-DWBA matrix elements in the MSD cross section formulae and includes both incoherent particle-hole excitations and coherent collective excitations in the continuum, according to the prescriptions. The results show important contributions from multistep processes at all energies considered. (author)

  8. Neutron cross section measurements at WNR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Archampaugh, G.F.; Moore, M.S.; Morgan, G.L.; Shamu, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Weapons Neutron Research Facility has been used to obtain moderate-resolution total neutron cross section data for H, C, 208 Pb, 232 Th, 238 U, and 242 Pu over the energy range 5 to 200 MeV. Neutrons were produced by bombarding a 2.5-cm diam by 15-cm long Ta target with an 800 MeV pulsed proton beam from LAMPF. A 10.2-cm diam by 15.2-cm thick NE110 proton recoil detector was used at a flight path of 32 meters, giving a time-of-flight resolution of 60 ps/m. The total cross section results are compared to ENDF/BV evaluations and to previous data where possible

  9. Influence of the workplace on physical activity and cardiometabolic health: Results of the multi-centre cross-sectional Champlain Nurses' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Prince, Stephanie A; Pipe, Andrew L; Attallah, Suzanne; Adamo, Kristi B; Tulloch, Heather E; Manuel, Douglas; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Fodor, George; Reid, Robert D

    2018-02-13

    Nurses are the largest professional group within the health care workforce, and their work is perceived as being physically demanding. Regular physical activity helps to prevent or ameliorate cardiometabolic conditions (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes). It is not known whether Canadian nurses are meeting current physical activity guidelines. To assess the influence of the workplace on the physical activity and cardiometabolic health of nurses from hospitals in the Champlain region of Ontario, Canada. A multi-centre, cross-sectional study. Hospitals in the Champlain Local Health Integration Network of Ontario. Nurses wore an ActiGraph accelerometer to objectively assess levels of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity measured in minutes/day in bouts ≥10 min. All completed the Perceived Workplace Environment (PWE) scale and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Height, body mass, waist circumference, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was determined. Each nurse's 5-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Harvard Score. A total of 410 nurses (94% female; mean ± SD: age = 43 ± 12 years) from 14 hospitals participated. Nurses spent an average of 96 ± 100 min/week in bouts ≥10 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity; 23% of nurses met recommended physical activity guidelines. Nurses working 8- vs. 12-h shifts (16 ± 16 vs. 10 ± 11 min/day, p = 0.026), fixed vs. rotating shifts (15 ± 15 vs. 12 ± 13 min/day, p = 0.012) and casual vs. full-time (29 ± 17 vs. 13 ± 15 min/day, p physical activity in bouts ≥10 min. The average PWE score was 2.4 ± 0.9, with no association between PWE scores and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity in bouts ≥10 min (p > 0.05). Nurses working 8-h shifts, fixed shifts and in urban hospitals reported better PWE scores (p physical activity guidelines

  10. Gender Differences in Homicide of Neonates, Infants, and Children under 5 y in South Africa: Results from the Cross-Sectional 2009 National Child Homicide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Nannan, Nadine; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Homicide of children is a global problem. The under-5-y age group is the second largest homicide age group after 15-19 y olds, but has received little research attention. Understanding age and gender patterns is important for assisting with developing prevention interventions. Here we present an age and gender analysis of homicides among children under 5 y in South Africa from a national study that included a focus on neonaticide and infanticide. A retrospective national cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 38 medico-legal laboratories operating in 2009 to identify homicides of children under 5 y. Child data were abstracted from the mortuary files and autopsy reports, and both child and perpetrator data data were collected from police interviews. We erred towards applying a conservative definition of homicide and excluded sudden infant death syndrome cases. We estimated that 454 (95% CI 366, 541) children under the age of 5 y were killed in South Africa in 2009. More than half (53.2%; 95% CI 46.7%, 59.5%) were neonates (0-28 d), and 74.4% (95% CI 69.3%, 78.9%) were infants (under 1 y), giving a neonaticide rate of 19.6 per 100,000 live births and an infanticide rate of 28.4 per 100,000 live births. The majority of the neonates died in the early neonatal period (0-6 d), and abandonment accounted for 84.9% (95% CI 81.5%, 87.8%) of all the neonates killed. Distinct age and gender patterns were found, with significantly fewer boy children killed in rural settings compared to urban settings (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.9; p = 0.015). Abuse-related killings and evidence of sexual assault were more common among older girls than in all other age and gender groups. Mothers were identified as the perpetrators in all of the neonaticides and were the most common perpetrators overall (71.0%; 95% CI 63.9%, 77.2%). Abandoned neonates were mainly term babies, with a mean gestational age of 38 wk. We did not have information on abandonment motives for all

  11. Gender Differences in Homicide of Neonates, Infants, and Children under 5 y in South Africa: Results from the Cross-Sectional 2009 National Child Homicide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Homicide of children is a global problem. The under-5-y age group is the second largest homicide age group after 15-19 y olds, but has received little research attention. Understanding age and gender patterns is important for assisting with developing prevention interventions. Here we present an age and gender analysis of homicides among children under 5 y in South Africa from a national study that included a focus on neonaticide and infanticide.A retrospective national cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 38 medico-legal laboratories operating in 2009 to identify homicides of children under 5 y. Child data were abstracted from the mortuary files and autopsy reports, and both child and perpetrator data data were collected from police interviews. We erred towards applying a conservative definition of homicide and excluded sudden infant death syndrome cases. We estimated that 454 (95% CI 366, 541 children under the age of 5 y were killed in South Africa in 2009. More than half (53.2%; 95% CI 46.7%, 59.5% were neonates (0-28 d, and 74.4% (95% CI 69.3%, 78.9% were infants (under 1 y, giving a neonaticide rate of 19.6 per 100,000 live births and an infanticide rate of 28.4 per 100,000 live births. The majority of the neonates died in the early neonatal period (0-6 d, and abandonment accounted for 84.9% (95% CI 81.5%, 87.8% of all the neonates killed. Distinct age and gender patterns were found, with significantly fewer boy children killed in rural settings compared to urban settings (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.9; p = 0.015. Abuse-related killings and evidence of sexual assault were more common among older girls than in all other age and gender groups. Mothers were identified as the perpetrators in all of the neonaticides and were the most common perpetrators overall (71.0%; 95% CI 63.9%, 77.2%. Abandoned neonates were mainly term babies, with a mean gestational age of 38 wk. We did not have information on abandonment

  12. Daily Patterns of Preschoolers' Objectively Measured Step Counts in Six European Countries: Cross-Sectional Results from the ToyBox-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stappen, Vicky; Van Dyck, Delfien; Latomme, Julie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Koletzko, Berthold; Manios, Yannis; Androutsos, Odysseas; Cardon, Greet; De Craemer, Marieke

    2018-02-07

    This study is part of the ToyBox-study, which is conducted in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain), aiming to develop a cost-effective kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent overweight and obesity in four- to six-year-old preschool children. In the current study, we aimed to examine and compare preschoolers' step count patterns, across the six European countries. A sample of 3578 preschoolers (mean age: 4.8 ± 0.4) was included. Multilevel analyses were performed to take clustering of measurements into account. Based on the average hourly steps, step count patterns for the six European countries were created for weekdays and weekend days. The step count patterns during weekdays were related to the daily kindergarten schedules. Step count patterns during weekdays showed several significant peaks and troughs ( p patterns did not show clear peaks and troughs, which can be explained by a less structured kindergarten schedule. On weekend days, differences in step count patterns were observed in the absolute number of steps in the afternoon trough and the period in which the evening peak occurred. Differences in step count patterns across the countries can be explained by differences in (school) policy, lifestyle habits, and culture. Therefore, it might be important to respond to these step count patterns and more specifically to tackle the inactive periods during interventions to promote physical activity in preschoolers.

  13. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification in a lith......Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....

  14. The 10B(n,α)7Li cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The data base relevant to an evaluation of the 10 B(n,α) standard cross sections have been improved through interlaboratory collaboration. Changes in the evaluated 10 B(n,α) cross sections resulted form the measurements made since the ENDF/B-VI evaluation have been estimated. 12 refs, 4 figs

  15. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  16. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months

  17. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The neutron activation of components in a nuclear device can provide useful signatures of weapon design or sophistication. This lecture will cover some of the basics of neutron reaction cross sections. Nuclear reactor cross sections will also be presented to illustrate the complexity of convolving neutron energy spectra with nuclear excitation functions to calculate useful effective reactor cross sections. Deficiencies in the nuclear database will be discussed along with tools available at Los Alamos to provide new neutron cross section data.

  18. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs

  19. ASCAP. Resonance Region Cross Section Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.; Young, R.C. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1972-09-01

    ACSAP may be used to compute neutron cross section data from neutron resonance input. Total, fission, capture, or scattering cross section data may be computed. Experimental data may be compared by means of a wide selection of representations. ACSAP can also determine cross section resonance parameters from input experimental data.

  20. Integral nucleus-nucleus cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Kumawat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Expressions approximating the experimental integral cross sections for elastic and inelastic interactions of light and heavy nuclei at the energies up to several GeV/nucleon are presented. The calculated cross sections are inside the corridor of experimental errors or very close to it. Described in detail FORTRAN code and a numerical example of the cross section approximation are also presented

  1. Classical scattering cross section in sputtering transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhulin

    2002-01-01

    For Lindhard scaling interaction potential scattering commonly used in sputtering theory, the authors analyzed the great difference between Sigmund's single power and the double power cross sections calculated. The double power cross sections can give a much better approximation to the Born-Mayer scattering in the low energy region (m∼0.1). In particular, to solve the transport equations by K r -C potential interaction given by Urbassek few years ago, only the double power cross sections (m∼0.1) can yield better approximate results for the number of recoils. Therefore, the Sigmund's single power cross section might be replaced by the double power cross sections in low energy collision cascade theory

  2. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovesson, Fredrik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Tony S [INL

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  3. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  4. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in hunters from a district in Central Germany, 2013: a cross-sectional study providing evidence for the benefit of protective gloves during disembowelling of wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielke, A; Ibrahim, V; Czogiel, I; Faber, M; Schrader, C; Dremsek, P; Ulrich, R G; Johne, R

    2015-10-22

    In Germany, 17% of the general human population have antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) (recomLine HEV-IgG/IgM immunoassay [Mikrogen GmbH]). Wild boars represent an animal reservoir for HEV genotype 3, which is the common genotype in Germany. We estimated the seroprevalence among hunters with contact to wild boars to identify factors that may be associated with past or present HEV infection. In 2013, the local veterinarian authority in a district in Central Germany attended meetings of hunters who provided blood specimens and completed a questionnaire collecting information on age, sex, hunting-related activities and consumption of wild boar meat. Specimens of wild boars were taken during drive hunts in this district during the season 2012/2013. All specimens were tested for HEV RNA and anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for the hunters. Of 126 hunters (median age 55; 94% male) 21% tested positive for anti-HEV IgG antibodies (95% confidence interval [CI] 13-28%) (recomWell HEV IgG assay [Mikrogen GmbH]). Anti-HEV prevalence was highest in the age group of the 70-79-year-olds (67%; 95% CI 39-95%). Wild boars showed an average anti-HEV prevalence of 41%. HEV RNA was detected in 4/22 (18%) liver specimens and in 1/22 (4.5%) muscle specimens. Most wild boars were tested positive for HEV RNA (3/10; 30%) and HEV-specific antibodies (7/15; 47%) in the southwestern part of the district. Hunters preferring this hunting ground had a lower anti-HEV prevalence when gloves were frequently used during disembowelling of wild boars compared to hunters using gloves never or infrequently (age-adjusted PR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.86). Hunters may benefit from wearing gloves when in contact with blood or body fluids of HEV animal reservoirs. Anti-HEV prevalence among the hunters of this study did not significantly differ from that of the general population suggesting that other factors play a major role in the

  5. Hormonal and metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: results from a cross-sectional analysis and a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Niamh

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by an adverse metabolic profile. Although dietary changes are advocated, optimal nutritional management remains uncertain. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, improve metabolic health, but their therapeutic potential in PCOS is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the associations between plasma PUFAs and metabolic and hormonal aspects of PCOS to investigate the efficacy of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation and to support the findings with mechanistic cellular studies. DESIGN: We selected a cross-sectional PCOS cohort (n = 104) and conducted a principal component analysis on plasma fatty acid profiles. Effects of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation on fasting and postprandial metabolic and hormonal markers were determined in PCOS subjects (n = 22) by a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention. Direct effects of n-6 (omega-6) compared with n-3 PUFAs on steroidogenesis were investigated in primary bovine theca cells. RESULTS: Cross-sectional data showed that a greater plasma n-6 PUFA concentration and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were associated with higher circulating androgens and that plasma LC n-3 PUFA status was associated with a less atherogenic lipid profile. LC n-3 PUFA supplementation reduced plasma bioavailable testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05), with the greatest reductions in subjects who exhibited greater reductions in plasma n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios. The treatment of bovine theca cells with n-6 rather than with n-3 PUFAs up-regulated androstenedione secretion (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sectional data suggest that PUFAs modulated hormonal and lipid profiles and that supplementation with LC n-3 PUFAs improves androgenic profiles in PCOS. In bovine theca cells, arachidonic acid modulated androstenedione secretion, which suggests an indirect effect of n-3 PUFAs through the displacement of or increased competition with n-6 PUFAs. This trial was

  6. The Economic Burden of Obesity in Germany: Results from the Population-Based KORA Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Yates

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the excess costs of obese compared to normal-weight persons in Germany based on self-reported resource utilisation and work absence. Methods: Five cross sectional surveys of cohort studies in southern Germany were pooled resulting in 9,070 observations for 6,731 individuals (31-96 years. BMI was measured in the study centre. Self-reported health care utilisation and work absence was used to estimate direct and indirect costs for the year 2011 based on unit costs. Using regression analyses, adjusted costs for different BMI groups were calculated. Results: Overweight and obese people showed significantly higher odds of health care utilisation and productivity losses compared with normal-weight people in most categories. Total direct/indirect costs were significantly higher with increasing severity of obesity (pre-obese (1.05 (0.90-1.23 / 1.38 (1.11-1.71, obesity level I (1.18 (1.00-1.39 / 1.33 (1.02-1.73, obesity level II (1.46 (1.14-1.87 / 1.77 (1.18-2.65 or level III (2.04 (1.40-2.97 / 1.99 (1.20-3.30 compared to normal-weight participants. In particular, higher obesity classes were significantly associated with increased costs for medication, general practitioner utilisation and work absence. Conclusion: Our results show that overweight and obesity are associated with enormous societal direct and indirect costs in Germany. This supports the evidence from previous top-down studies, but provides important new information based on a large pooled data set and measured BMI.

  7. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  8. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  9. Mechanized evaluation of neutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, A.; Parker, J.B.

    1967-01-01

    The evaluation work to provide accurate and consistent neutron cross-section data for multigroup neutronics calculations is not fully exploiting the available theoretical and experimental results; this has been so particularly since the introduction of on-line data handling techniques enabled experimenters to turn out vast quantities of numbers. This situation can be radically improved only by mechanizing the evaluation processes. Systems such as the SC1SRS tape will not only largely overcome the task of collecting data but will provide speedy access to it; by using computers and graph-plotting machines to tabulate and display this data, the labour of evaluation can be very greatly reduced. With some types of cross-section there is hope that by using modern curve-fitting techniques the actual evaluation and statistical accounting of the data can be performed automatically. Some areas where automatic evaluation would seem likely to succeed are specified and a discussion of the mathematical difficulties incurred, such as the elimination of anomalous data, is given. Particularly promising is the use of splines in the mechanized evaluation of data. Splines are the mathematical analogues of the draughtsman's spline used in drawing smooth curves. Their principal properties are the excellent approximations they give to the derivatives of a function; in contrast to conventional polynomial fitting, this feature ensures good interpolation and, when required, stable extrapolation. Various methods of using splines in data graduation and the problem of marrying these methods to standard statistical procedures are examined. The results of work done at AWRE with cubic splines on the mechanized evaluation of neutron scattering total cross-section and angular distribution data are presented. (author)

  10. Can consumption of raw vegetables decrease the count of sister chromatid exchange? Results from a cross-sectional study in Krakow, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Galas, Aleksander; Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina

    2014-01-01

    Background Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is a widely used sensitive cytogenetic biomarker of exposure to genotoxic and cancerogenic agents. Results of human monitoring studies and cytogenetic damage have revealed that biological effects of genotoxic exposures are influenced by confounding factors related to life-style. Vegetable and fruit consumption may play a role, but available results are not consistent. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of consumption of raw and co...

  11. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Haberer, Jessica E; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Ware, Norma C; Bangsberg, David R

    2012-06-21

    Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a) cell phone use practices and literacy, b) preferences for laboratory results communication, c) privacy and confidentiality, and d) acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  12. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Zhu Geng

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM, and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents, especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings.

  13. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a) cell phone use practices and literacy, b) preferences for laboratory results communication, c) privacy and confidentiality, and d) acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied. PMID:22720901

  14. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedner Mark J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a cell phone use practices and literacy, b preferences for laboratory results communication, c privacy and confidentiality, and d acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  15. Cross sections and transport properties for Na+ in (DXE gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Željka D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we select most probable reactions of alkali metal ion Na+ with dimethoxyethane (DXE molecule. Appropriate gas phase enthalpies of formation for the products were used to calculate scattering cross section as a function of kinetic energy with Denpoh-Nanbu theory. Calculated cross sections were compared with existing experimental results obtained by guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry. Three body association reactions of ions with DXE is studied and compared to experimental results. Calculated cross sections were used to obtain transport parameters for alkali metal ion in DXE gas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 171037 i br. III 410011

  16. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Kristin; Barkmann, Claus; Klasen, Fionna; Bullinger, Monika; Glaeske, Gerd; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative ...

  17. Can consumption of raw vegetables decrease the count of sister chromatid exchange? Results from a cross-sectional study in Krakow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Aleksander; Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina

    2015-03-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is a widely used sensitive cytogenetic biomarker of exposure to genotoxic and cancerogenic agents. Results of human monitoring studies and cytogenetic damage have revealed that biological effects of genotoxic exposures are influenced by confounding factors related to life-style. Vegetable and fruit consumption may play a role, but available results are not consistent. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of consumption of raw and cooked vegetables and fruits on SCE frequency. A total of 62 participants included colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, hospital-based controls and healthy laboratory workers. SCE frequency was assessed in blood lymphocytes. Frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was gathered by structured semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. SCE frequency was lowest among hospital-based controls (4.4 ± 1.1), a bit higher in CRC patients (4.5 ± 1.0) and highest among laboratory workers (7.4 ± 1.2) (p consumption, but not so for intake of cooked vegetables and fruits. The results of the study have shown the beneficial effect of consumption of raw vegetables on disrupted replication of DNA measured by SCE frequency, implying protection against genotoxic agents. Further effort is required to verify the role of cooked vegetables and fruits.

  18. Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.

  19. Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, João Cláudio Batista; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Leal, Luiz C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work describes a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor. • Parameterization enables a quick determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. • This work allows generating group cross-section data to perform PWR core calculations without computer code calculations. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Chebyshev polynomials, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 92 U enrichment. The cross-section data analyzed are fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. The parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. The methodology presented in this paper will allow generation of group cross-section data from stored polynomials to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by the proposed methodology when compared with results from the SCALE code calculations show very good agreement

  20. Cross section measurement for the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) three-body reaction at 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 MeV. II. Experimental setup and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhimin; Bai, Huaiyong; Zhang, Luyu; Jiang, Haoyu; Lu, Yi; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Guohui; Gledenov, Yu. M.; Sedysheva, M. V.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.

    2017-10-01

    Cross sections of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) three-body reaction were measured at En=4.0 , 4.5, and 5.0 MeV using a twin gridded ionization chamber and a thin-film 10B sample. The present paper is the second part of the work. A digital data-acquisition system was developed for the gridded ionization chamber based on the waveform digitizer. A thin-film 10B sample was designed and prepared. The number of 10B atoms in the sample was determined by the relative method using the thermal neutron induced 10B(nt h,α )7Li and 6Li(nt h,t )4He reactions with a 6LiF sample as the reference. The measurement of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) reaction was performed at the 4.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of Peking University. In the measurement, the double-coincidence technique was used, which involves the forward-backward and the grid-anode coincidence. In the data processing, the effective event area in the forward two-dimensional spectrum and the time window in the drift-time spectrum were employed to reject the background events. Cross sections of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) and 10B(n ,α )7Li reactions were obtained. The present results are compared with the data of existing measurements and evaluations.

  1. Higher self-reported prevalence of hypertension among Moluccan-Dutch than among the general population of The Netherlands: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Junus M; Bodewes, Adee J; Agyemang, Charles O; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-12-15

    Several studies in The Netherlands revealed ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence, but none have focused on the Moluccan-Dutch, a migrant group from Indonesia that settled in The Netherlands in 1951. The Moluccan-Dutch are considered to be fairly well integrated in Dutch society. The aim of this study was to compare hypertension prevalence among the Moluccan-Dutch to the native Dutch and to explore the contribution of known risk factors. A health interview survey was conducted from August 2012 till March 2013 among nineteen Moluccan neighborhoods, resulting in the inclusion of 708 participants. The primary outcome variable was self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Explanatory variables were BMI, exercise, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health status. Data on the control group was extracted from the Dutch National Health Survey 2011, using a similar questionnaire. Differences in risk factor exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and the contribution of risk factors, separately and combined, was explored using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moluccan-Dutch showed higher odds for reporting hypertension when compared to native Dutch, after adjusting for age and level of education (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.13-1.69) and additional risk factors (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.19-1.88). A higher prevalence of hypertension was found in both Moluccan-Dutch men (26.4% vs. 16.7%; p < 0.001) and women (26.7% vs. 17.9%; p < 0.001), when compared to the control group. Not only middle-aged, but also young Moluccan-Dutch men showed higher prevalence of hypertension. The Moluccan-Dutch may be at increased risk for reporting hypertension. These results suggest that long-term stay over several generations does not necessarily result in similar levels of hypertension prevalence as the host population.

  2. Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumogola Yusufu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania. HIV prevalence from ANC surveys in 2000 and 2002 was 10.5% and 10.8% respectively. In previous rounds urban residence, residential mobility, the length of time sexually active before marriage, time since marriage and age of the partner were associated with HIV infection. Methods A third round of HIV sentinel surveillance was conducted at ante-natal clinics in Mwanza region, Tanzania during 2006. We interviewed women attending 27 ante-natal clinics. In 15 clinics we also anonymously tested women for syphilis and HIV infection and linked these results to the questionnaire data. Results HIV prevalence was 7.6% overall in 2006 and 7.4% at the 11 clinics used in previous rounds. Geographical variations in HIV prevalence, apparent in previous rounds, have largely disappeared but syphilis prevalence is still higher in rural clinics. HIV prevalence has declined in urban clinics and is stable in rural clinics. The correlates of HIV infection have changed over time. In this round older age, lower gravidity, remarriage, duration of marriage, sexual activity before marriage, long interval between last birth and pregnancy and child death were all associated with infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence trends concur with results from a community-based cohort in the region. Correlates of HIV infection have also changed and more proximate, individual level factors are now more important, in line with the changing epidemiology of infection in this population.

  3. Negative appraisals of insulin therapy are common among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin: Results from Diabetes MILES - Australia cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, E.; Holmes-Truscott, E.; Skinner, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    -9), anxiety (GAD-7), diabetes distress (PAID) and diabetes-specific self-efficacy (DES-SF). Results: Insulin was perceived to be very important, and its benefits (e.g. improves health) were endorsed by most (82%). Fifty-one per cent believed that taking insulin means their diabetes has become worse...... negative insulin appraisals were significantly younger (Mean Diff. = 5 years, P diabetes-specific self-efficacy (P diabetes distress...... (all P diabetes using insulin, and are associated with lower general and diabetes-specific emotional well-being, reduced diabetes-specific self-efficacy and satisfaction with blood glucose. What...

  4. Patient assessed symptoms are poor predictors of objective findings. Results from a cross sectional study in patients treated with radiotherapy for pharyngeal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Lambertsen, Karin; Torkov, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the value of the EORTC questionnaires C30 and H&N35, as an instrument for the study of side effects. Patients and methods. We invited all recurrence free patients, treated with radical radiotherapy for pharyngeal cancer between 1998 and 2002 at our...... institution, to participate in the study. Data was retrieved using questionnaires, functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, dental examination with orthopantomography and saliva flow measurements. Thirty-five (55% of invited) participated. Results. Side effects were omnipresent and often severe...

  5. Deep frontal and periventricular age related white matter changes but not basal ganglia and infratentorial hyperintensities are associated with falls: cross sectional results from the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blahak, C; Baezner, H; Pantoni, L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global age related white matter changes (ARWMC) are associated with progressive gait disturbances and falls, hypothesised to result from interruptions of cortico-subcortical circuits controlling balance, posture and locomotion. METHODS: The location of ARWMC in a large cohort of elderly...... scale, in multivariate analysis, periventricular (p = 0.006) and frontal deep (p = 0.033) ARWMC were independently associated with falls. Furthermore, logistic regression identified frontal deep (p = 0.003) ARWMC, but not basal ganglia and infratentorial hyperintensities, as significantly associated...

  6. MINERvA - neutrino nucleus cross section experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Recent results from MINERvA, a neutrino cross section experiment at Fermilab, are presented. MINERVA has the goal of providing precision results which will have important impact on oscillation experiments.  Initial data runs for muon neutrino and antineutrino beams of ~3.5 GeV have produced a large number of new results. This seminar will introduce the experiment and describe results for quasielastic, pion production, and inclusive cross sections.

  7. Healthcare utilization and lost productivity due to infectious gastroenteritis, results from a national cross-sectional survey Australia 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Ford, L; Hall, G; Dobbins, T; Kirk, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the healthcare usage and loss of productivity due to gastroenteritis in Australia using the National Gastroenteritis Survey II. In 2008-2009, 7578 participants across Australia were surveyed about infectious gastroenteritis by telephone interview. A gastroenteritis case was defined as a person experiencing ⩾ 3 loose stools and/or ⩾ 2 vomits in a 24-h period, excluding cases with a non-infectious cause for their symptoms, such as pregnancy or consumption of alcohol. Lost productivity was considered any lost time from full- or part-time paid work due to having gastroenteritis or caring for someone with the illness. Interference with other daily activities was also examined along with predictors of healthcare-seeking practices using multivariable regression. Results were weighted to obtain nationally representative estimates using Stata v. 13·1. Of the 341 cases, 52 visited a doctor due to gastroenteritis, 126 reported taking at least one medication for their symptoms and 79 cases reported missing ⩾ 1 days' paid work due to gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis results in a total of 13·1 million (95% confidence interval 6·7-19·5) days of missed paid work each year in Australia. The indirect costs of gastroenteritis are significant, particularly from lost productivity.

  8. Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

    1982-02-01

    Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

  9. Occupational health legislation and practices related to seafarers on passenger ships focused on communicable diseases: results from a European cross-sectional study (EU SHIPSAN PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Christopher LR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seafarers play an important role in the transmission of communicable diseases. The aim of the present study is to draw information and identify possible gaps on occupational health practices related to seafarers sailing on ships within the European Union Member States (EU MS with focus on communicable diseases. Methods A structured questionnaire was sent to competent authorities from 21 EU MS. The questionnaire included questions about occupational health policies, medical certification of seafarers, communicable diseases reporting and relevant legislation. Descriptive analysis of the data was conducted by the use of Epi Info software: EU MS were categorized in four priority groups (A, B, C, D based on: number of passenger ships visits, volume of passengers, and number of ports in each country. Moreover, EU MS were categorized to old and new, based on the date of entry in the EU. Results All 21 countries with relevant competent authorities responded to the questionnaire. The existence of specific national legislation/regulation/guidelines related to vaccination of seafarers was reported by three out of the 21 (14% responding authorities. Surveillance data of communicable diseases related to seafarers are collected and analyzed by 4 (19% authorities. Five out of 21 of the responding countries (24% reported that tuberculin test result is required for the issuance of seafarer's medical certificate while a great variety of medical examination is required for the issuance of this certificate among countries. Gaps on occupational health services focused on communicable diseases related to maritime occupation have been reported by 33% of the responding countries. Responding authorities from Group A and B had the highest percentage of reported gaps followed by groups C and D. Old MS reported a higher frequency regarding gaps on occupational health services in comparison to new MS. Conclusion Our results revealed heterogeneity

  10. A cross-sectional study assessing the association between online ratings and structural and quality of care measures: results from two German physician rating websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Martin; Adelhardt, Thomas; Sander, Uwe; Wambach, Veit; Lindenthal, Jörg

    2015-09-24

    Even though physician rating websites (PRWs) have been gaining in importance in both practice and research, little evidence is available on the association of patients' online ratings with the quality of care of physicians. It thus remains unclear whether patients should rely on these ratings when selecting a physician. The objective of this study was to measure the association between online ratings and structural and quality of care measures for 65 physician practices from the German Integrated Health Care Network "Quality and Efficiency" (QuE). Online reviews from two German PRWs were included which covered a three-year period (2011 to 2013) and included 1179 and 991 ratings, respectively. Information for 65 QuE practices was obtained for the year 2012 and included 21 measures related to structural information (N = 6), process quality (N = 10), intermediate outcomes (N = 2), patient satisfaction (N = 1), and costs (N = 2). The Spearman rank coefficient of correlation was applied to measure the association between ratings and practice-related information. Patient satisfaction results from offline surveys and the patients per doctor ratio in a practice were shown to be significantly associated with online ratings on both PRWs. For one PRW, additional significant associations could be shown between online ratings and cost-related measures for medication, preventative examinations, and one diabetes type 2-related intermediate outcome measure. There again, results from the second PRW showed significant associations with the age of the physicians and the number of patients per practice, four process-related quality measures for diabetes type 2 and asthma, and one cost-related measure for medication. Several significant associations were found which varied between the PRWs. Patients interested in the satisfaction of other patients with a physician might select a physician on the basis of online ratings. Even though our results indicate associations

  11. Determinants of first and second trimester induced abortion - results from a cross-sectional study taken place 7 years after abortion law revisions in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnen, K. I.; Tuijje, D. N.; Rasch, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2005 Ethiopia took the important step to protect women's reproductive health by liberalizing the abortion law. As a result women were given access to safe pregnancy termination in first and second trimester. This study aims to describe socio-economic characteristics and contraceptive......: age education. The contraceptive prevalence rate varied across age groups and was particularly low among young girls and young women experiencing second trimester abortion...... where only 15% and 19% stated they had ever used contraception. Conclusion: Young age, poor education and the prospect of single parenthood were associated with second trimester abortion. Young girls and young women were using contraception comparatively less often than older women. To ensure women full...

  12. Antepartum depression and anxiety associated with disability in African women: cross-sectional results from the CDS study in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Bindt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders, particularly unipolar depressive disorders, rank among the top 5 with respect to the global burden of disease. As a major public health concern, antepartum depression and anxiety not only affects the individual woman, but also her offspring. Data on the prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We provide results from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: We subsequently recruited and screened n = 1030 women in the third trimester of their pregnancy for depressed mood, general anxiety, and perceived disability using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9, the 7-item Anxiety Scale (GAD-7, and the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS 2.0, 12-item version. In addition to estimates of means and prevalence, a hierarchical linear regression model was calculated to determine the influence of antepartum depression and anxiety on disability. RESULTS: In Ghana, 26.6% of women showed substantially depressed mood. In Côte d'Ivoire, this figure was even higher (32.9%. Clear indications for a generalized anxiety disorder were observed in 11.4% and 17.4% of pregnant women, respectively. Comorbidity of both conditions was common, affecting about 7.7% of Ghanaian and 12.6% of Ivorian participants. Pregnant women in both countries reported a high degree of disability regarding everyday activity limitations and participation restrictions. Controlled for country and age, depression and anxiety accounted for 33% of variance in the disability score. CONCLUSIONS: Antepartum depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in our sample and contributed substantially to perceived disability. These serious threats to health must be further investigated and more data are needed to comprehensively quantify the problem in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Suicidal tendencies and attitude towards freedom to choose suicide among Lithuanian schoolchildren: results from three cross-sectional studies in 1994, 1998, and 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborskis Apolinaras

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicidal behaviour is increasingly becoming a phenomenon associated with young people and an important public health issue in Lithuania. However, there are very few studies evaluating impact of young peoples' attitudes towards suicide to their suicidal behaviour. A better understanding of the relations among the variables associated with suicidal ideation and threats in the normal population of adolescents may eventually result in a better understanding of the more serious forms of adolescent suicidal behaviour. The aim of the present study was to evaluate prevalence of suicidal tendencies among Lithuanian schoolchildren and to estimate its association with an attitude towards suicide in 1994 – 2002. Methods Three country representative samples of schoolchildren, aged 11, 13 and 15, were surveyed in 1994 (n = 5428, 1998 (n = 4513, and 2002 (n = 5645 anonymously in conformity with the methodology of the World Health Organization Cross – National study on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC. Results About one third of respondents reported about suicidal ideation, plans or attempts to commit suicide. In the study period of eight years, the percentage of adolescents who reported sometime suicidal ideation decreased but the percentage of adolescents who declared serious suicidal behaviour remained on the same high level (8.1%, 9.8% and 8.4% correspondingly in 1994, 1998 and 2002. Moreover, the number of suicidal attempts changed from 1.0% in 1994 to 1.8% in the year 1998 and to 1,7% in the year 2002. The schoolchildren's attitude towards suicide became more agreeable: 36.6%, 41.9% and 62.5% of respondents, correspondingly in 1994, 1998 and 2002, answered that they agree with a person's freedom to make a choice between life and suicide. A multiple logistic regression analysis with low level of suicidality and high level of suicidality versus non suicidal behaviour as dependent variables for gender, age, year of the

  14. Healthcare Quality Improvement and 'work engagement'; concluding results from a national, longitudinal, cross-sectional study of the 'Productive Ward-Releasing Time to Care' Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark; Butterworth, Tony; Wells, John Sg

    2017-08-01

    Concerns about patient safety and reducing harm have led to a particular focus on initiatives that improve healthcare quality. However Quality Improvement (QI) initiatives have in the past typically faltered because they fail to fully engage healthcare professionals, resulting in apathy and resistance amongst this group of key stakeholders. Productive Ward: Releasing Time to Care (PW) is a ward-based QI programme created to help ward-based teams redesign and streamline the way that they work; leaving more time to care for patients. PW is designed to engage and empower ward-based teams to improve the safety, quality and delivery of care. The main objective of this study was to explore whether PW sustains the 'engagement' of ward-based teams by examining the longitudinal effect that the national QI programme had on the 'work-engagement' of ward-based teams in Ireland. Utilising the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale questionnaire (UWES-17), we surveyed nine PW (intervention) sites from typical acute Medical/Surgical, Rehabilitation and Elderly services (representing the entire cohort of a national phase of PW implementation in Ireland) and a cohort of matched control sites. The numbers surveyed from the PW group at T1 (up to 3 months after commencing the programme) totalled 253 ward-team members and 249 from the control group. At T2 (12 months later), the survey was repeated with 233 ward-team members from the PW sites and 236 from the control group. Overall findings demonstrated that those involved in the QI initiative had higher 'engagement' scores at T1 and T2 in comparison to the control group. Total 'engagement' score (TES), and its 3 dimensions, were all significantly higher in the PW group at T1, but only the Vigour dimension remained significantly higher at T2 (p = 0.006). Our results lend some support to the assertions of the PW initiative itself and suggest that when compared to a control group, ward-based teams involved in the QI programme are more likely

  15. Is there an association between mild cognitive impairment and dietary pattern in chinese elderly? Results from a cross-sectional population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Binyou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet has an impact on cognitive function in most prior studies but its association with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI in Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians has not been explored. Methods 870 elder dujiangyan residents aged 90 years or more in 2005 census were investigated at community halls or at home. They underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE for assessment of cognitive function and replied to our questionnaire comprised of 12 food items and other risk factors. MCI was defined by two steps: first, subjects with post-stroke disease, Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and MMSE Results 364 elderly finally included, 108 (38.71% men and 171 (61.29% women of whom were classified as MCI. A significant correlation between MCI and normal in legume was observed (OR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.72-0.97, and also in animal oil (any oil that obtained from animal substances (OR, 0.93; 95%CI, 0.88-0.98. There was no statistical difference of other food items between normal and MCI. Conclusions Among Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians, we found there were significant associations between inadequate intake of legume and animal oil and the prevalence of MCI. No significant correlation between other food items and the prevalence of MCI were demonstrated in this study.

  16. Extrapulmonary Conditions, Concomitant of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, in Babies of the First 3 Years of Life: Results of a Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kazakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few data on co-occurring with bronchopulmonary dysplasia diseases but there is no single point of view on their mutual effect.Objective: Our aim was to learn the structure and frequency of extrapulmonary disease, concomitant of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, in children aged up to 3 years.Methods. A retrospective analysis of histories of 93 children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia with an analysis of the consequences of perinatal pathology structure was carried out.Results. On average, each patient with bronchopulmonary dysplasia accounted for 5 comorbidities. The most common (89; 96% were perinatal lesions of the nervous system and their consequences. In children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia at the age of 3 years there was a relatively low incidence of hydrocephalus and, on the contrary, high — of infantile cerebral palsy. Violations of the organs of vision were found in 58 (62% children, malnutrition and other violations of physical development — in 58 (62% and 27 (29%, respectively, and the cardiovascular system pathology — in 59 (63%.Conclusion. The most commonly, extrapulmonary pathology, co-occuring with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, includes neurological deficit with psychomotor retardation, violations of organs of vision, pathology of the cardiovascular system, malnutrition/delay in physical development.

  17. Coinfection of Sexually Transmitted Infections among HIV-Positive Individuals: Cross-Sectional Results of a Community-Based Positive Living with HIV (POLH) Study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Krishna C; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Palmer, Paula H; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Jimba, Masamine; Kobayashi, Jun; Acharya, Bishnu; Pandey, Basu Dev; Oka, Shinichi

    In Asian concentrated HIV epidemics, data on coinfection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-positive individuals are limited. The authors measured the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), and syphilis, and their correlates among 319 HIV-positive individuals in Kathmandu, Nepal. The authors tested blood samples for syphilis and urine samples for CT and NG. Overall, 17 (5.3%) participants had at least 1 STI (CT: 1.3%, NG: 2.8%, and syphilis: 1.2%). Of 226 participants who had sex in past 6 months, 51.3% did not always use condoms. Older (aged 35-60 years) participants were more likely (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-12.33; P = .024) and those who were currently married (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.09-0.97; P = .046) or on antiretroviral therapy (AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.06-0.71; P = .012) were less likely to have at least 1 STI. Our results suggest the need to strengthen the efforts to screen and treat STIs and to promote safer sexual practices among Nepalese HIV-positive individuals.

  18. Therapeutic education and self-care: Results from the cross-sectional study Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs 2 (DAWN2) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Rubio, Mercedes; Jansà Morató, Margarida; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro

    2015-10-01

    Therapeutic education (TE) has been gradually introduced progressively into diabetes mellitus care programs with the aim of providing patients and their families or caregivers with the necessary skills for the self-management of the disease. The Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs 2 (DAWN2) study helps to clarify what are the unmet needs with regards to self-management and the TE offer available to patients and their families. The objective of this paper is to analyse the results of the DAWN2 study regarding self-care habits and participation in TE activities in Spain. The DAWN2 is an observational, cross-national study. In this paper, an analysis was performed on the Spanish sample of diabetic patients (502) and family members (123). Patients report taking their medications as recommended by their doctor an average of 6.4 days/week, and self-monitor their blood glucose an average of 3.4 days/week. The large majority (86%) of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1, 59% of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, and 21% of family members state to have participated in education activities. Diabetes educators should reinforce the messages about the benefits of self-care, particularly for patients who are in the early stages of the disease. Likewise, access for family members and people with diabetes mellitus type 2 to TE programs should be improved, and these programs for diabetic patients and their families should be included in the services portfolio of health centres. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in China, Taiwan, and South Korea: Results from a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Christopher; Castro-Diaz, David; Chuang, Yao-Chi; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Liao, Limin; Liu, Shih-Ping; Wang, Jianye; Yoo, Tag Keun; Chu, Romeo; Sumarsono, Budiwan

    2017-08-01

    Few population-based data are available evaluating the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Asia. The objective of our study was to determine LUTS prevalence in China, Taiwan, and South Korea using International Continence Society (ICS) 2002 criteria. An Internet-based self-administered survey among individuals aged at least 40 years with the ability to use a computer and to read the local language. Survey questions included ICS symptom definitions and the international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Data analysis was based on descriptive statistics and post hoc significance testing. There were 8284 participants, of whom 51% were women and 34% were aged at least 60 years. LUTS prevalence was slightly higher in men than women (62.8% vs. 59.6%; p = 0.004), increasing significantly with age (p = 0.001). All three ICS symptom groups (voiding, storage, and post-micturition) were present in 35% of individuals with LUTS. Symptoms with the highest overall prevalence were nocturia, frequency, incomplete emptying, and terminal dribble. The most bothersome symptoms were terminal dribble, nocturia, and urgency. According to IPSS scores, 87% of participants had at least mild symptoms; 43% of those aged over 60 years had moderate/severe symptoms. The percentage of participants with any LUTS who had visited healthcare professionals because of urinary symptoms was 26%, rising to 45% amongst individuals with all three symptom groups (p = 0.001 vs. other ICS symptom groups). LUTS are highly prevalent in men and women aged at least 40 years who participated in this study in China, Taiwan, and South Korea and increases with increasing age. A minority of individuals with LUTS seek healthcare and our results suggest an increased patient awareness of LUTS is required. Astellas Pharma Singapore Pte. Ltd. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02618421.

  20. Work stress and hair cortisol levels among workers in a Bangladeshi ready-made garment factory - Results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinisch, Maria; Yusuf, Rita; Li, Jian; Stalder, Tobias; Bosch, Jos A; Rahman, Omar; Strümpell, Christian; Ashraf, Hasan; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    that job promotion may result in poorer mental well-being. Moreover, being promoted in the Bangladeshi RMG industry may represent a stressful experience: job promotions are rare in this setting and are associated with the need to meet exceptional job-related demands. Further research from ethnic and culturally diverse occupational settings is needed to test this hypothesis, to shed light on the reproducibility of our findings and to improve our understanding of the psychobiological implications of psychosocial working conditions across cultures and contexts. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Measures of excess body weight and anthropometry among adult Albertans: cross-sectional results from Alberta’s tomorrow project cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren R. Brenner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess body weight during adulthood has been consistently associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at multiple sites among other chronic diseases. We describe the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity reported by participants enrolled in Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (ATP. Methods ATP is a geographically-based cohort study conducted among adults aged 35–69 years from across the province of Alberta. Participants completed anthropometric measures and health and lifestyle questionnaires at enrolment. Overweight and obese were categorized as a body mass index (BMI of 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was categorized using cut-offs of waist circumference of >94 cm for men and >80 cm for women and waist-tp-hip ratio cut-offs of >0.90 for men and >0.85 for women. Results BMI and hip and waist circumference data were obtained from 12,062 men and 18,853 women enrolled between 2001 and 2009. Overall, 76.8% of men and 59.5% of women reported a BMI ≥25 kg/m2. The proportions of overweight and obese were significantly higher in older age groups (p < 0.001. In addition, the proportion of participants reporting being overweight and obese was higher among lower education (p < 0.001 and lower income groups (p < 0.001. Overall, approximately two thirds of men and women in ATP cohort reported abdominal obesity. Overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity were all associated with a history of several cardiometabolic chronic conditions including hypertension, heart attack, angina, high cholesterol, stroke and diabetes. Conclusion A large majority of ATP participants were overweight and carried excess abdominal fat. Strategies to improve energy balance among Albertans are encouraged and may have a notable impact on future chronic disease burden.

  2. Urban rural differences in diet, physical activity and obesity in India: are we witnessing the great Indian equalisation? Results from a cross-sectional STEPS survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising morbidity and mortality due to non-communicable diseases can be partly attributed to the urbanized lifestyle leading to unhealthy dietary practices and increasing physical levels of inactivity. The demographic and nutrition transition in India has also contributed to the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in this country. In this context, there is limited information in India on dietary patterns, levels of physical activity and obesity. The aim of the present study was thus to assess the urban rural differences in dietary habits, physical activity and obesity in India. Methods A household survey was done in the state of Punjab, India in a multistage stratified sample of 5127 individuals using the WHO STEPS questionnaire. Results No rural urban difference was found in dietary practices and prevalence of overweight and obesity except the fact that a significantly higher proportion of respondents belonging to rural area (15.6 % always/often add salt before/when eating as compared to urban area (9.1 %. Overall 95.8 % (94.6–97.0 of participants took less than 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables on average per day. No significant urban rural difference was noted in both sexes in all three domains of physical activity such as work, transport and recreation. However, rural females (19.1 % were found to be engaged in vigorous activity more than the urban females (6.3 %. Males reported high levels of physical activity in both the settings. Absence of recreational activity was reported by more than 95 % of the subjects. Higher prevalence of obesity (asian cut offs used was seen among urban females (34.3 % as compared to their rural counterparts (23.2 %. Abdominal obesity was found to be significantly higher among females in both the settings compared to males (p < 0.001. Conclusions Poor dietary practices and physical inactivity seems to fuel the non-communicable disease epidemic in India. Non

  3. Are joint and soft tissue injections painful? Results of a national French cross-sectional study of procedural pain in rheumatological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poncet Coralie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint, spinal and soft tissue injections are commonly performed by rheumatologists in their daily practice. Contrary to other procedures, e.g. performed in pediatric care, little is known about the frequency, the intensity and the management of procedural pain observed in osteo-articular injections in daily practice. Methods This observational, prospective, national study was carried out among a French national representative database of primary rheumatologists to evaluate the prevalence and intensity of pain caused by intra-and peri-articular injections, synovial fluid aspirations, soft tissue injections, and spinal injections. For each physician, data were collected over 1 month, for up to 40 consecutive patients (>18-years-old for whom a synovial fluid aspiration, an intra or peri-articular injection or a spinal injection were carried out during consultations. Statistical analysis was carried out in order to compare patients who had suffered from pain whilst undergoing the procedure to those who had not. Explanatory analyses were conducted by stepwise logistic regression with the characteristics of the patients to explain the existence of pain. Results Data were analysed for 8446 patients (64% female, mean age 62 ± 14 years recruited by 240 physicians. The predominant sites injected were the knee (45.5% and spine (19.1%. Over 80% of patients experienced procedural pain which was most common in the small joints (42% and spine (32% Pain was severe in 5.3% of patients, moderate in 26.6%, mild in 49.8%, and absent in 18.3%. Pain was significantly more intense in patients with severe pain linked to their underlying pathology and for procedures performed in small joints. Preventative or post-procedure analgesia was rarely given, only to 5.7% and 36.3% of patients, respectively. Preventative analgesia was more frequently prescribed in patients with more severe procedural pain. Conclusion Most patients undergoing intra-or peri

  4. Revealing a cancer diagnosis to patients: attitudes of patients, families, friends, nurses, and physicians in Lebanon—results of a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, F.; Othman, A.; el Baba, G.; Kattan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Disclosure of a cancer diagnosis to patients is a major problem for physicians in Lebanon. Our survey aimed to identify the attitudes of patients, families and friends, nurses, and physicians regarding disclosure of a cancer diagnosis. Methods Study participants included 343 physicians, nurses, cancer patients, families, and friends from clinics in two major hospitals in Lebanon. All completed a 29-item questionnaire that assessed, by demographic group, the information provided about cancer, opinions about the disclosure of the diagnosis to cancer patients, perceived consequences to patients, and the roles of family, friends, and religion. Results Overall, 7.8% of the patients were convinced that cancer is incurable. Nearly 82% preferred to be informed about their diagnosis. Similarly, 83% of physicians were in favour of disclosing a cancer diagnosis to their patients. However, only 14% of the physicians said that they revealed the truth to the patients themselves, with only 9% doing so immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis. Disclosure of a cancer diagnosis was preferred before the start of the treatment by 59% of the patients and immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis by 72% of the physicians. Overall, 86% of physicians, 51% of nurses, and 69% of patients and their families believed that religion helped with the acceptance of a cancer diagnosis. A role for family in accepting the diagnosis was reported by 74% of the patients, 56% of the nurses, and 88% of the physicians. All participants considered that fear was the most difficult feeling (63%) experienced by cancer patients, followed by pain (29%), pity (8%), and death (1%), with no statistically significant difference between the answers given by the participant groups. Conclusions The social background in Lebanese society is the main obstacle to revealing the truth to cancer patients. Lebanese patients seem to prefer direct communication of the truth, but families take the opposite

  5. Ionization cross section of partially ionized hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimbetov, F B; Kudyshev, Z A [Department of Physics, al - Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: Bfb77@kazsu.kz, E-mail: Z.Kudyshev@mail.ru

    2008-05-01

    In present work the electron impact ionization cross section is considered. The electron impact ionization cross section is calculated, based on pseudopotential model of interaction between plasma particles which accounts correlation effects. It is calculated with help of two methods: classical and quantum - mechanical (Born approximation). The ionization cross section is compared with corresponding results of other authors and experimental data. It has been shown that it is very important to take into account an influence of the surrounding during consideration of ionization processes.

  6. Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V

  7. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR-INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar; Das, Hiranya Kumar; Adhikari, Prabha; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Saboo, Banshi; Kumar, Ajay; Bhansali, Anil; John, Mary; Luaia, Rosang; Reang, Taranga; Ningombam, Somorjit; Jampa, Lobsang; Budnah, Richard O; Elangovan, Nirmal; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Venkatesan, Ulagamathesan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Das, Ashok Kumar; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Ali, Mohammed K; Pandey, Arvind; Dhaliwal, Rupinder Singh; Kaur, Tanvir; Swaminathan, Soumya; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-08-01

    identified as having diabetes had not been diagnosed previously. States with higher per-capita GDP seemed to have a higher prevalence of diabetes (eg, Chandigarh, which had the highest GDP of US$ 3433, had the highest prevalence of 13·6%, 12.8-15·2). In rural areas of all states, diabetes was more prevalent in individuals of higher SES. However, in urban areas of some of the more affluent states (Chandigarh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu), diabetes prevalence was higher in people with lower SES. The overall prevalence of prediabetes in all 15 states was 10·3% (10·0-10·6). The prevalence of prediabetes varied from 6·0% (5·1-6·8) in Mizoram to 14·7% (13·6-15·9) in Tripura, and the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was generally higher than the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance. Age, male sex, obesity, hypertension, and family history of diabetes were independent risk factors for diabetes in both urban and rural areas. There are large differences in diabetes prevalence between states in India. Our results show evidence of an epidemiological transition, with a higher prevalence of diabetes in low SES groups in the urban areas of the more economically developed states. The spread of diabetes to economically disadvantaged sections of society is a matter of great concern, warranting urgent preventive measures. Indian Council of Medical Research and Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Burden of illness associated with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy among adults seeking treatment in the US: results from a retrospective chart review and cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadosky A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Alesia Sadosky,1 Caroline Schaefer,2 Rachael Mann,3 Felicia Bergstrom,2 Rebecca Baik,2 Bruce Parsons,1 Srinivas Nalamachu,4 Edward Nieshoff,5 Brett R Stacey,6 Alan Anschel,7 Michael Tuchman81Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 2Covance Market Access Services Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, 3Covance Market Access Services Inc, San Diego, CA, 4International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, 5Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan/Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 6Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, 7Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 8Palm Beach Neurological Center, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to characterize the burden of illness among adult subjects with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN seeking treatment in the US.Methods: This observational study recruited 112 subjects with pDPN during routine visits from general practitioner and specialist sites. Subjects completed a one-time questionnaire, which included demographics, symptom duration, health care resource use, out-of-pocket costs, employment status, and validated measures that assessed pain, functioning, sleep, anxiety and depression, health status, and productivity. Investigators completed a case report form based on a 6-month retrospective chart review to capture clinical information, pDPN-related treatments, and other pDPN-related health care resource use over the past 6 months. Annualized costs were extrapolated based on reported 6-month health care resource use.Results: The mean age of the subjects was 61.1 years, 52.7% were female, and 17.9% were in paid employment. The most common comorbid conditions were sleep disturbance/insomnia (43.8%, depressive symptoms (41.1%, and anxiety (35.7%. The mean pain severity score was 5.2 (0–10 scale, and 79.5% reported moderate or severe pain. The mean pain interference with function score was 5.0 (0–10 scale overall, with 2.0 among mild, 5.1 among moderate, and 7

  9. Sampling Key Populations for HIV Surveillance: Results From Eight Cross-Sectional Studies Using Respondent-Driven Sampling and Venue-Based Snowball Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrita; Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James; Weir, Sharon; Edwards, Jessie; Rice, Brian; Kochelani, Duncan; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo; Baral, Stefan

    2017-10-20

    In using regularly collected or existing surveillance data to characterize engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services among marginalized populations, differences in sampling methods may produce different pictures of the target population and may therefore result in different priorities for response. The objective of this study was to use existing data to evaluate the sample distribution of eight studies of female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM), who were recruited using different sampling approaches in two locations within Sub-Saharan Africa: Manzini, Swaziland and Yaoundé, Cameroon. MSM and FSW participants were recruited using either respondent-driven sampling (RDS) or venue-based snowball sampling. Recruitment took place between 2011 and 2016. Participants at each study site were administered a face-to-face survey to assess sociodemographics, along with the prevalence of self-reported HIV status, frequency of HIV testing, stigma, and other HIV-related characteristics. Crude and RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates were calculated. Crude prevalence estimates from the venue-based snowball samples were compared with the overlap of the RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates, between both FSW and MSM in Cameroon and Swaziland. RDS samples tended to be younger (MSM aged 18-21 years in Swaziland: 47.6% [139/310] in RDS vs 24.3% [42/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon: 47.9% [99/306] in RDS vs 20.1% [52/259] in Snowball; FSW aged 18-21 years in Swaziland 42.5% [82/325] in RDS vs 8.0% [20/249] in Snowball; in Cameroon 15.6% [75/576] in RDS vs 8.1% [25/306] in Snowball). They were less educated (MSM: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 42.6% [109/310] in RDS vs 4.0% [7/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon 46.2% [138/306] in RDS vs 14.3% [37/259] in Snowball; FSW: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 86.6% [281/325] in RDS vs 23.9% [59/247] in Snowball, in Cameroon 87.4% [520/576] in RDS vs 77.5% [238/307] in Snowball) than the snowball

  10. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Khuukhenkhuu, Gonchigdorj; Davaa, Suren [Nuclear Research Center, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kato, Kiyoshi [Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  11. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmarjav Odsuren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  12. Photoelectric cross sections around the K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingam, S.C.; Babu, K.S.; Reddy, D.V.K.

    1983-01-01

    Total attenuation cross sections for four elements, Ta, W, Au and Pb, were measured at the photon energies 32.1, 52, 72.1, 84.3, 145.4 and 279.2 keV. A good narrow beam geometry with two NaI (Tl) scintillation counters in conjunction with a single-channel analyser was used for the detection of low and medium energy photons. The measured total attenuation cross sections are compared with the theoretical compilations of Storm and Israel and the available earlier investigations. The scattering cross sections obtained by interpolation using the atomic data tables of Storm and Israel were subtracted from the measured total cross sections to obtain the photoelectric cross sections. The photoelectric cross sections thus derived are compared with the latest theoretical values of Scofield. (orig.)

  13. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, T

    2003-01-01

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  14. Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, E

    2005-01-01

    Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available.

  15. Cross-section methodology in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.

    1975-11-01

    The cross-section methodology incorporated in the SIMMER code is described. Data base for all cross sections is the ENDF/B system with various progressing computer codes to group collapse and modify the group constants which are used in SIMMER. Either infinitely dilute cross sections or the Bondarenko formalism can be used in SIMMER. Presently only a microscopic treatment is considered, but preliminary macroscopic algorithms have been investigated

  16. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238 U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  17. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young, E-mail: mysong@nfri.re.kr; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyuck [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Itikawa, Yukikazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Karwasz, Grzegorz P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, University Nicolaus Copernicus, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Toruń (Poland); Kokoouline, Viatcheslav [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Nakamura, Yoshiharu [6-1-5-201 Miyazaki, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0033 (Japan); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  18. Patients' intention to speak up for health care providers' hand hygiene in inpatient diabetic foot wound treatment: a cross-sectional survey in diabetes outpatient centres in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lengerke, Thomas; Kröning, Barbara; Lange, Karin

    2017-12-01

    Hand hygiene in wound care by health care providers (HCPs) is a key principle in treating hospitalized patients with diabetic foot infections. This study aimed to estimate the extent to which patients with type-2-diabetes (T2D) intend to speak up for HCPs' hand hygiene during inpatient foot treatment, test whether this motivation increases given the hospital would invite patients to speak up, and identify associations with socio-demographics, knowledge of hand hygiene requirements, and diabetes-related factors. A questionnaire-survey was conducted in eight diabetes outpatient centres in Lower Saxony/Germany. Intentions to speak up (without and with institutional encouragement) and knowledge about hand hygiene during foot-care were assessed. Analyses of variance were conducted, partly as repeated measures-models with intention-items as within-subject factor. N = 473 patients participated (response = 77.4%). N = 177 (41%) strongly intended to speak up. Institutional encouragement was associated with an increased rate of strong (54% vs. 41%; p speak for HCPs' hand hygiene in inpatient foot treatment, and are receptive to institutional encouragement. However, this presupposes at least medium education and knowledge about hand hygiene, emphasizing that patient empowerment begins with knowledge.

  19. Models for photon-photon total cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, R.M.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents here a brief overview of recent models describing the photon-photon cross-section into hadrons. It shall be showed in detail results from the eikonal minijet model, with and without soft gluon summation

  20. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Asami, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Tadashi

    1990-07-01

    Neutron cross-section curves from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library version 3, JENDL-3, are presented in both graphical and tabular form for users in a wide range of application areas in the nuclear energy field. The contents cover cross sections for all the main reactions induced by neutrons with an energy below 20 MeV including; total, elastic scattering, capture, and fission, (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,α), (n,p) reactions. The 2200 m/s cross-section values, resonance integrals, and Maxwellian- and fission-spectrum averaged cross sections are also tabulated. (author)

  1. Depression stigma and migration - results of a survey from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Anna C; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2017-11-29

    There are barely any studies focusing on migration in relation to mental illness stigma. We explore present attitudes regarding depression among migrants (either born in Germany or born abroad) and non-migrants in Germany, drawing upon three components of public stigma: stereotypes, emotional reactions and desire for social distance. Furthermore, differences in self-stigma of depression between the two groups are analyzed. Analyses are based on a representative telephone survey (N = 2013) in Germany. Respondents were presented with a vignette depicting either someone from Turkey or from Germany affected by depression, followed by questions on stereotypes, emotional reactions and desire for social distance. The (anticipated) self-stigma of depression was also assessed. Analyses of variance tested for differences between migrant and non-migrant respondents, stratified by migrant status in the vignette. Regarding the depression vignette depicting a non-migrant, there were only few differences between subgroups. However, when presented with a vignette describing someone from Turkey, respondents with migrant background who were foreign-born expressed greater stigmatizing attitudes, e.g. when it comes to stereotypes or desire for social distance. Furthermore, this subsample displayed higher levels of self-stigma of depression, especially regarding the ascription of own responsibility. The results underline the need to incorporate migration status/ethnicity in stigma research. Differences in attitudes as well as in (anticipated) self-stigma of depression identify foreign-born migrants in Germany as important target groups for tailored anti-stigma interventions, which need to consider diverse cultural backgrounds.

  2. Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlights of the measurements of top quark production in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector are presented. The inclusive measurements of the top-pair production cross section have reached high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. The differential cross section measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers. Measurements of the single top quark production cross section are presented in the t-channel and s-channel, and with associated production with a W boson. For the t-channel production, results on the ratio between top quark and antitop quark production cross sections and differential measurements are also included.

  3. Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00349738; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The highlights of the measurements of top quark production in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector are presented. The inclusive measurements of the top-pair production cross section have reached high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. The differential cross section measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers. Measurements of the single top quark production cross section are presented in the t-channel and s-channel, and with associated production with a W boson. For the t-channel production, results on the ratio between top quark and antitop quark production cross sections and differential measurements are also included.

  4. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmaier, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Alekhin, S; Alwall, J; Bagnaschi, E A; Banfi, A; Blumlein, J; Bolognesi, S; Chanon, N; Cheng, T; Cieri, L; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cutajar, M; Dawson, S; Davies, G; De Filippis, N; Degrassi, G; Denner, A; D'Enterria, D; Diglio, S; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Ellis, R K; Farilla, A; Farrington, S; Felcini, M; Ferrera, G; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Ganjour, S; Garzelli, M V; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Glazov, S; Goria, S; Grazzini, M; Guillet, J -Ph; Hackstein, C; Hamilton, K; Harlander, R; Hauru, M; Heinemeyer, S; Hoche, S; Huston, J; Jackson, C; Jimenez-Delgado, P; Jorgensen, M D; Kado, M; Kallweit, S; Kardos, A; Kauer, N; Kim, H; Kovac, M; Kramer, M; Krauss, F; Kuo, C -M; Lehti, S; Li, Q; Lorenzo, N; Maltoni, F; Mellado, B; Moch, S O; Muck, A; Muhlleitner, M; Nadolsky, P; Nason, P; Neu, C; Nikitenko, A; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Palmer, S; Paganis, S; Papadopoulos, C G; Petersen, T C; Petriello, F; Petrucci, F; Piacquadio, G; Pilon, E; Potter, C T; Price, J; Puljak, I; Quayle, W; Radescu, V; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rojo, J; Rosco, D; Salam, G P; Sapronov, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schonherr, M; Schumacher, M; Siegert, F; Slavich, P; Spira, M; Stewart, I W; Stirling, W J; Stockli, F; Sturm, C; Tackmann, F J; Thorne, R S; Tommasini, D; Torrielli, P; Tramontano, F; Trocsanyi, Z; Ubiali, M; Uccirati, S; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Waalewijn, W J; Wackeroth, D; Warsinsky, M; Weber, M; Wiesemann, M; Weiglein, G; Yu, J; Zanderighi, G

    2012-01-01

    This Report summarises the results of the second year's activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) focuses on predictions (central values and errors) for total Higgs production cross sections and Higgs branching ratios in the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, covering also related issues such as Monte Carlo generators, parton distribution functions, and pseudo-observables. This second Report represents the next natural step towards realistic predictions upon providing results on cross sections with benchmark cuts, differential distributions, details of specific decay channels, and further recent developments.

  5. Nonelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1980-06-01

    Neutron total cross sections of elemental nickel were measured from 1.3 to 4.5 MeV, at intervals of approx. 50 keV, with resolutions of 30 to 50 keV and to accuracies of 1 to 2.5%. Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from 1.45 to 3.8 MeV, at intervals and with resolutions comparable to those of the total cross sections, and to accuracies of 3 to 5%. The nonelastic-scattering cross section is derived from the measured values to accuracies of greater than or equal to 6%. The experimental results are compared with previously reported values as represented by ENDF/B-V, and areas of consistency and discrepancy, noted. The measured results are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions of a model previously reported by the authors. 4 figures, 1 table

  6. Near-death experiences, attacks by family members, and absence of health care in their home countries affect the quality of life of refugee women in Germany: a multi-region, cross-sectional, gender-sensitive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesuthasan, Jenny; Sönmez, Ekin; Abels, Ingar; Kurmeyer, Christine; Gutermann, Jana; Kimbel, Renate; Krüger, Antje; Niklewski, Guenter; Richter, Kneginja; Stangier, Ulrich; Wollny, Anja; Zier, Ulrike; Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Shouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2018-02-01

    The year 2016 has marked the highest number of displaced people worldwide on record. A large number of these refugees are women, yet little is known about their specific situation and the hurdles they have to face during their journey. Herein, we investigated whether sociodemographic characteristics and traumatic experiences in the home country and during the flight affected the quality of life of refugee women arriving in Germany in 2015-2016. Six hundred sixty-three women from six countries (Afghanistan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Somalia, and Eritrea) living in shared reception facilities in five distinct German regions were interviewed by native speakers using a structured questionnaire. Sociodemographic data and information about reasons for fleeing, traumatic experiences, symptoms, quality of life, and expectations towards their future were elicited. All information was stored in a central database in Berlin. Descriptive analyses, correlations, and multivariate analyses were performed. The most frequent reasons cited for fleeing were war, terror, and threat to one's life or the life of a family member. Eighty-seven percent of women resorted to smugglers to make the journey to Europe, and this significantly correlated to residence in a war zone (odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-4.6, p = 0.003) and homelessness prior to fleeing (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1-4.3, p = 0.04). Overall the described quality of life by the women was moderate (overall mean = 3.23, range of 1-5) and slightly worse than that of European populations (overall mean = 3.68, p Refugee women experience multiple traumatic experiences before and/or during their journey, some of which are gender-specific. These experiences affect the quality of life in their current country of residence and might impact their integration. We encourage the early investigation of these traumatic experiences to rapidly identify women at higher risk and to improve health

  7. On effective cross section fluctuations in unitary theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyuboshits, V.L.; Podgoretskij, M.I.

    1975-01-01

    In the framework of a single-channel theory of overlapping resonances, satisfying the unitarity condition, there were studied the fluctuations of the effective cross sections and the structure of the correlation coefficients for the amplitudes and cross sections. It is shown that at a high overlapping of the resonance levels the characteristic correlation period is determined by an average distance between the levels, but not by the width. The obtained results differ from the conclusions of the statistical Erikson theory

  8. Total cross sections for positron and electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecca, A; Chiari, L; Trainotti, E; GarcIa, G; Blanco, F; Brunger, M J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report original measurements of total cross sections for positron scattering from the important biomolecule pyrimidine. The energy range of these measurements was 0.3-45 eV, while the energy resolution was ∼260 meV. In addition, we report theoretical results, calculated within the independent atom-screened additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) formalism, for the corresponding electron impact total cross sections. In that case the energy range is 1-10 000 eV. Total cross sections are very important input data for codes that seek to simulate charged-particle tracks in matter, as they define the mean-free path between collisions. As the present data and computations are to the best of our knowledge the first total cross sections to be reported for either positron or electron scattering from pyrimidine, they fill an important void in our available knowledge in the literature.

  9. Generalized reorientation cross section for cylindrically symmetric velocity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalized reorientation cross sections are derived for the case of atom--molecule collisions where the molecules initially have a velocity distribution cylindrically symmetric about an axis in the laboratory reference frame. This spatial ordering of the velocity can come about, for instance, by exciting molecular electronic states with a light source whose linewidth is much narrower than the Doppler-broadened absorption line. A simple kinetic theory can be set up in terms of state multipoles that are not completely irreducible; the resulting reorientation cross sections are only slightly more complex than the cross sections occurring in a spherically symmetric velocity field. Two approximations are investigated: a McGuire--Kouri m/sub j/-conserving model and a semiclassical model where the orientation of the rotation plane is conserved. The import of the generalized cross sections for several types of experiment and the applicability of the approximate models are discussed

  10. Damage cross-section library DAMSIG81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.; Rieffe, H.Ch.

    1981-11-01

    The damage cross-section library DAMSIG81 is an updated and extended version of the damage cross-section library (DAMSIG77). The library contains energy dependent group cross section data for a number of materials to facilitate the calculations of damage production (based on displacements of atoms), the calculation of probable zones and the calculation of gas production due to (n,α) and (n,p) reactions. The group cross-section data are given for a fine group structure of the SAND-II type with 640 groups. This library contains for some materials more than one cross-section set originating from different evaluations. Cross section data sets for the activation reactions 54 Fe(n,p), 58 Ni(n,p), and 63 Cu(n,α), which reactions are commonly used to determine thermal and fast neutron fluences, have been included also. Moreover also some artificial cross-sections are incorporated in this library which can be used to calculate values for some physical quantities characterizing neutron spectra, such as mean lethargy , mean energy . Also cross-sections for B, Al, and Cd are included; these are required to reach compatibility with other libraries in the SAND-II format

  11. Total cross section of highly excited strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.

    1990-01-01

    The unpolarized total cross section for the joining of two highly excited strings is calculated. The calculation is performed by taking the average overall states in the given excitation levels of the initial strings. We find that the total cross section grows with the energy and momentum of the initial states. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  12. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Tolstenkov, A.N.; Yushchenko, O.P.; Baldini, A.; Cobal, M.; Flaminio, V.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Serra, P.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1987-01-01

    This is the fourth volume in our series of data compilations on integrated cross-sections for weak, electromagnetic, and strong interaction processes. This volume covers data on reactions induced by photons, neutrinos, hyperons, and K L 0 . It contains all data published up to June 1986. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  13. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaminio, V.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1983-01-01

    A compilation of integral cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  14. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  15. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F. [German Wind Energy Inst, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Electron Swarm Parameters and Electron Collision Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu

    2012-01-01

    Electron collision cross section data for atoms and molecules and electron swarm data in respective gases are important for quantitative modeling of related plasmas. This fact and wide application of plasmas in various fields boos data collection and evaluation activities worldwide. We have been measuring electron swarm parameters (drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion coefficient, ionization/attachment coefficients, and so on) over a wide E/N range (where E is the electric field and N the gas number density) in a number of gases. We also derived a set of electron collision cross sections for each gas so that the set was consistent with our experimental swarm data. Our speciality in studying molecular target is to measure swarm parameters not only in the pure molecular gas but also in dilute molecular gas-argon gas mixtures, the mix rations of the molecule are 0.5-5.0%. The swarm parameters in pure molecular gas depend primarily on the elastic momentum transfer cross section of the molecule and its vibrational excitation cross sections. Those in the mixtures, on the other hand, depend mainly on the elastic momentum transfer cross section of major argon atom and the vibrational cross sections of minor admixed molecule. Alternative use of swarm parameters in pure molecular gas and those in the mixtures enable us to derive the momentum transfer cross section and vibrational cross sections for the molecule separately. Combination of the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum of argon atom and sharp structures in vibrational cross sections of the molecule frequently gives rise prominent E/N dependences in swarm parameters, which can be used to determine the position and magnitude of resonances in the vibrational excitation cross sections. Detailed accounts of the procedure, including estimated uncertainty in our electron swarm data and also in the resultant set of electron collision cross sections, will be given in the presentation by referring to our recent results. Stress will be

  17. Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis B: results from the repeated cross-sectional Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, Perry J J; van Thiel, Pieter P A M; Mulder, Paul G H; Overbosch, D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the travellers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. In the years 2002-2009 an annually repeated cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the Dutch Schiphol Airport with the aim to study trends in KAP of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis B. The frequently encountered risk groups last-minute travellers, solo-travellers, business travellers, travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and elderly travellers were specifically studied. A total of 3045 respondents were included in the survey. Travellers to destinations with a high risk for hepatitis B had significantly less accurate risk perceptions (knowledge) than travellers to low-risk destinations but no differences were observed in past risk-taking attitude. Protection rates against hepatitis B were significantly higher in travellers to high-risk destinations. There was a positive trend over the years in the proportion of travellers to high-risk destinations seeking travel health advice. In accordance with this, trend analyses also indicated rising protection rates against hepatitis B. No significant trends in protection over time were observed for the travel risk groups. The results of this repeated cross-sectional survey suggest an annual 10% increase in protection rates against hepatitis B in Dutch travellers, both to destinations with a high risk and to destinations with a lower risk of hepatitis B, but these trends in protection rates were not observed for the travel risk groups to high-risk destinations. The KAP profile of last-minute travellers and (to a lesser extent) VFRs showed an increased relative risk in hepatitis B, irrespective of the travel destination, underlining the need for specific targeting of these travel risk groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Activation cross section and isomeric cross section ratios for the (n ,2 n ) reaction on 153Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhua; Jiang, Li; Li, Suyuan

    2017-10-01

    The 153Eu(n ,2 n ) m1,m2,g152Eu cross section was measured by means of the activation technique at three neutron energies in the range 13-15 MeV. The quasimonoenergetic neutron beam was formed via the 3H(d ,n ) 4He reaction, in the Pd-300 Neutron Generator at the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. The cross section of the population of the second high-spin (8-) isomeric state was measured along with the reaction cross section populating both the ground (3-) and the first isomeric state (0-). Cross sections were also evaluated theoretically using the numerical code TALYS-1.8, with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature.

  19. Porosity effects in the neutron total cross section of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R; Dawidowski, J; Petriw, S. N

    2009-01-01

    Graphite has been used in nuclear reactors since the birth of the nuclear industry due to its good performance as a neutron moderator material. Graphite is still an option as moderator for generation IV reactors due to its good mechanical and thermal properties at high operation temperatures. So, there has been renewed interest in a revision of the computer libraries used to describe the neutron cross section of graphite. For sub-thermal neutron energies, polycrystalline graphite shows a larger total cross section (between 4 and 8 barns) than predicted by existing theoretical models (0.2 barns). In order to investigate the origin of this discrepancy we measured the total cross section of graphite samples of three different origins, in the energy range from 0.001 eV to 10 eV. Different experimental arrangements and sample treatments were explored, to identify the effect of various experimental parameters on the total cross section measurement. The experiments showed that the increase in total cross section is due to neutrons scattered around the forward direction. We associate these small-angle scattered neutrons (SANS) to the porous structure of graphite, and formulate a very simple model to compute its contribution to the total cross section of the material. This results in an analytic expression that explicitly depends on the density and mean size of the pores, which can be easily incorporated in nuclear library codes. [es

  20. ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.

    2010-04-30

    We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.

  1. Sudakov resummation of multiparton QCD cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Bonciani, R; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Nason, P

    2003-01-01

    We present the general expressions for the resummation, up to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, of Sudakov-type logarithms in processes with an arbirtrary number of hard-scattering partons. These results document the formulae used by the authors in several previous phenomenological studies. The resummation formulae presented here, which are valid for phase-space factorizable observables, determine the resummation correction in a process-independent fashion. All process dependence is encoded in the colour and flavour structure of the leading order and virtual one-loop amplitudes, and in Sudakov weights associated to the cross section kinematics. We explicitly illustrate the application to the case of Drell--Yan and prompt-photon production.

  2. Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis B: Results from the repeated cross-sectional Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genderen, Perry J. J.; van Thiel, Pieter P. A. M.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Overbosch, D.; Hoebe, Christian; Felix, Sietse; Overbosch, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies investigating the travellers knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. Methods: In the years 2002-2009 an annually repeated cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was

  3. Developing cross section sets for fluorocarbon etchants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Successful modeling of plasmas used in materials processing depends on knowledge of a variety of collision cross sections and reaction rates, both within the plasma and at the surface. Electron-molecule collision cross sections are especially important, affecting both electron transport and the generation of reactive fragments by dissociation and ionization. Because the supply of cross section data is small and measurements are difficult, computational approaches may make a valuable contribution, provided they can cope with the significant challenges posed. In particular, a computational method must deal with the full complexity of low-energy electron-molecule interactions, must treat polyatomic molecules, and must be capable of computing cross sections for electronic excitation. These requirements imply that the method will be numerically intensive and thus must exploit high-performance computers to be practical. We have developed an ab initio computational method, the Schwinger multichannel (SMC) method, that possesses the characteristics just described, and we have applied it to compute cross sections for a variety of molecules, with particular emphasis on fluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon etchants used in the semiconductor industry. A key aspect of this work has been an awareness that cross section sets, validated when possible against swarm data, are more useful than individual cross sections. To develop such sets, cross section calculations must be integrated within a focused collaborative effort. Here we describe electron cross section calculations carried out within the context of such a focused effort, with emphasis on fluorinated hydrocarbons including CHF3 (trifluoromethane), c-C4F8 (octafluorocyclobutane), and C2F4 (tetrafluoroethene)

  4. Differential Top Cross-section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Michael James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. The measurement of the differential top-quark pair production cross-section provides a stringent test of advanced perturbative QCD calculations. The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed measurements of those differential cross sections at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. This talk focuses on differential cross-section measurements in the lepton+jets final state, including using boosted top quarks to probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime.

  5. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaminio, V.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1984-01-01

    A compilation of integrated cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data, particularly those from the CERN Collider, have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. This volume III contains cross-sections for p and anti p induced reactions. (orig.)

  6. Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs

  7. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  8. Measurement of multinucleon transfer cross-sections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ni(C, ), Fe(C, ), =C, C, B, B, Be, Be, Be, Be, Li, Li; = 60 MeV; measured reaction cross-section; elastic scattering angular distribution; deduced transfer probabilities and enhancement factors.

  9. Parity violating total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Preston, D.

    1988-01-01

    A diquark-quark scattering model for the parity-violating asymmetry in nucleon-nucleon scattering is described. Criticism of the model by Simonius and Unger is refuted. The strong energy dependence of the result, and the possibility of important non-valence contributions to the nucleon polarization, both support the need for further measurements at Fermilab and at Brookhaven energies. 9 refs., 7 figs

  10. The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Barva, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Carboni, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D.; Lu, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Petrolo, E.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tabidze, M.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Villella, I.; Xu, G.

    2005-01-01

    KLOE uses the radiative return to measure cross section σ(e + e - ->π + π - γ) at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE. Divinding by a theoretical radiator function, we obtain the cross section σ(e + e - ->π + π - γ) for the mass range 0.35 π 2 . We calculate the hadronic contribution to the muon anomaly for the given mass range: a μ =388.7+/-0.8 stat +/-3.5syst+/-3.5 th

  11. Sudetic larch in Germany - Results of provenance and progeny research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisgerber, H. [Forest Centre for Management Planning, Research and Ecology, Hann Muenden (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    There are only a few older sources of Sudetic larch in Germany. They distinguish themselves by outstanding growth and low susceptibility to canker. This impression was confirmed by results of provenance research. The Sudetic larch tested in comparison with numerous other provenances proved to be fast-growing, site-tolerant, to a large extent insusceptible to canker, with straight but also slightly to moderately curved stems. The Sudetic provenances behave remarkably uniformly as regards these characteristics. In addition to provenance research investigations have been going on for a long time in Germany into individual differences within the Sudetic larch populations. A report is given on the results of progeny tests from free and controlled pollination, using the example of a seed orchard consisting of 54 clones. We point also to possibilities for improving stem quality by selection steps. The results of provenance and progeny research on Sudetic larch are in the meantime being put to use to a large extent in practical forestry. The forest administrations of various federal lands recommend the use of reproductive material of Sudetic origin and from seed orchards. 20 refs, 3 figs

  12. Measurement of the 242Pu neutron capture cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Dance Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Precision (n,f) and (n, γ) cross sections are important for the network calculations of the radiochemical diagnostic chain for the U.S. DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is relevant to the network calculations of Pu and Am. Additionally, new reactor concepts have catalyzed considerable interest in the measurement of improved cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on key actinides. To date, little or no experimental data has been reported on 242Pu(n, γ) for incident neutron energy below 50 keV. A new measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) reaction was performed with the DANCE together with an improved PPAC for fission-fragment detection at LANSCE during FY14. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section spans four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ~ 30 keV. The absolute scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is set according to the measured 239Pu(n,f) resonance at 7.8 eV; the target was spiked with 239Pu for this measurement. The absolute 242Pu(n, γ) neutron capture cross section is ~ 30% higher than the cross section reported in ENDF for the 2.7 eV resonance. Latest results to be reported. Funded by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC52-06NA25396 (LANL). U.S. DOE/NNSA Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development. Isotopes (ORNL).

  13. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  14. Health-related quality of life and self-esteem in patients with diabetic foot ulcers: results of a cross-sectional comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meneses, Luiz Carlos; Blanes, Leila; Francescato Veiga, Daniela; Carvalho Gomes, Heitor; Masako Ferreira, Lydia

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-esteem in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), a cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among 35 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) attending outpatient clinics in Pouso Alegre, Brazil. Fifteen (15) patients with and 20 without a DFU participated in the study. Demographic variables were obtained and HRQoL and self-esteem were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. In both groups, 80% of patients were women. Average age did not differ significantly between the DFU and control groups (average 56 [SD 8.42] and 52 years [SD 6.68], respectively) but disease duration was significantly longer (P Self-esteem scores were similar in both groups. The results of this study confirm that patient HRQoL is negatively affected by the presence of a DFU. Wound prevention programs for patients with DM may help reduce the scope of this problem while DFU treatment programs that include psychological support may improve patient QoL.

  15. Actinide cross section program at ORELA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, J.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    The actinide cross section program at ORELA, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, is aimed at obtaining accurate neutron cross sections (primarily fission, capture, and total) for actinide nuclides which occur in fission reactors. Such cross sections, measured as a function of neutron energy over as wide a range of energies as feasible, comprise a data base that permits calculated predictions of the formation and removal of these nuclides in reactors. The present program is funded by the Division of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, and has components in several divisions at ORNL. For intensively α-active nuclides, many of the existing fission cross section data have been provided by underground explosions. New measurement techniques, developed at ORELA, now permit linac measurements on fissionable nuclides with alpha half-lives as short as 28 years. Capture and capture-plus-fission measurements utilize scintillation detectors (of capture γ rays and fission neutrons) in which pulse shape discrimination plays an important role. Total cross sections can be measured at ORELA on samples of only a few milligrams. A simultaneous program of chemical and isotopic analyses of samples irradiated in EBR-II is in progress to provide benchmarks for the existing differential measurements. These analyses are being studied with updated versions of ORIGEN and with sensitivity determinations. Calculations of the sensitivity to cross section changes of various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are also being made. Even in this relatively mature field, many cross sections still require improvements to provide an adequate data base. Examples of recent techniques and measurements are presented. 12 figures, 3 tables

  16. JENDL-2 fission-product cross section data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The evaluation of the new set of the fission-product cross section data for JENDL-2 was started in 1979 and completed in October 1984. This data file contains 100 nuclides (Z = 36 - 65) which make contributions of about 195 % of the total fission yield from Pu-239 fission, and 99.6 % of the total neutron capture by fission products in a typical fast breeder reactors. Cross section data in the neutron energy range of 10 -5 eV - 20 MeV for the following reactions are stored; total, capture, elastic and inelastic scattering. Recent resonance and KeV capture data and the integral test results on JENDL-1 library were reflected on the new evaluation. The evaluated 2200 m/s capture cross sections and resonance integrals are listed in a table. The values of 30 KeV capture cross sections multiplied by Pu-239 cumulative fission yield for long-lived fission products are also listed in decreasing order, representing the rough order of importance of nuclides for long burnup in a large fast breeder reactor. The integral tests and limited adjustment of cross sections based on integral data are planned as well as the extension of the number of nuclides. (Aoki, K.)

  17. Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B.

    2002-01-01

    When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes than can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured electron energy spectra. (author)

  18. Penning ionization cross sections of excited rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Masatoshi; Hatano, Yoshihiko.

    1988-01-01

    Electronic energy transfer processes involving excited rare gas atoms play one of the most important roles in ionized gas phenomena. Penning ionization is one of the well known electronic energy transfer processes and has been studied extensively both experimentally and theoretically. The present paper reports the deexcitation (Penning ionization) cross sections of metastable state helium He(2 3 S) and radiative He(2 1 P) atoms in collision with atoms and molecules, which have recently been obtained by the authors' group by using a pulse radiolysis method. Investigation is made of the selected deexcitation cross sections of He(2 3 S) by atoms and molecules in the thermal collisional energy region. Results indicate that the cross sections are strongly dependent on the target molecule. The deexcitation probability of He(2 3 S) per collision increases with the excess electronic energy of He(2 3 S) above the ionization potential of the target atom or molecule. Another investigation, made on the deexcitation of He(2 1 P), suggests that the deexcitation cross section for He(2 1 P) by Ar is determined mainly by the Penning ionization cross section due to a dipole-dipole interaction. Penning ionization due to the dipole-dipole interaction is also important for deexcitation of He(2 1 P) by the target molecules examined. (N.K.)

  19. Radiative neutron capture cross section from 236U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baramsai, B.; Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Roman, A. R.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C. L.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Kawano, T.

    2017-08-01

    The 236U(n ,γ ) reaction cross section has been measured for the incident neutron energy range from 10 eV to 800 keV by using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) γ -ray calorimeter at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The cross section was determined with the ratio method, which is a technique that uses the 235U(n ,f ) reaction as a reference. The results of the experiment are reported in the resolved and unresolved resonance energy regions. Individual neutron resonance parameters were obtained below 1 keV incident energy by using the R -matrix code sammy. The cross section in the unresolved resonance region is determined with improved experimental uncertainty. It agrees with both ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 nuclear data libraries. The results above 10 keV agree better with the JEFF-3.2 library.

  20. Charged particle cross-section data and their systematization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassif, S.

    1982-07-01

    The reaction cross-sections and the thick target yields of (α,αxn) and (α,xn), induced by the alpha particles from the Buenos Aires 60 inch synchrocyclotron for Cu, Y, Zr, Rh, Te, Ta, Au and Pb were obtained. The ''stocked foil'' method was applied. The ''nuclear spin density'' parameter was determined using a phenomenological approximation from the cross section data for 181 Ta(α,n) reaction producing isomeric pairs of sup(184m)Re and sup(184g)Re. The systematic behaviour of the present result and the results of other authors were demonstrated

  1. Top quark pair cross section measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results in the measurement of the top-quark pair production cross section obtained with data collected by the CMS detector at LHC accelerator. The analyses are performed in the dilepton, single lepton and full hadronic decay modes. Additionally to the inclusive measurements of $\\mathrm{\\sigma_{\\mathrm{t\\bar{t}}}}$ at 7, 8 and 13$\\mathrm{\\;TeV}$, the CMS collaboration provides for the first time the cross section at 5.02$\\mathrm{\\;TeV}$. Results are confronted with the latest and most precise theoretical calculations.

  2. Results from transcranial Doppler examination on children and adolescents with sickle cell disease and correlation between the time-averaged maximum mean velocity and hematological characteristics: a cross-sectional analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hokazono

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Transcranial Doppler (TCD detects stroke risk among children with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Our aim was to evaluate TCD findings in patients with different sickle cell disease (SCD genotypes and correlate the time-averaged maximum mean (TAMM velocity with hematological characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study in the Pediatric Hematology sector, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: 85 SCD patients of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, were evaluated, divided into: group I (62 patients with SCA/Sß0 thalassemia; and group II (23 patients with SC hemoglobinopathy/Sß+ thalassemia. TCD was performed and reviewed by a single investigator using Doppler ultrasonography with a 2 MHz transducer, in accordance with the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP protocol. The hematological parameters evaluated were: hematocrit, hemoglobin, reticulocytes, leukocytes, platelets and fetal hemoglobin. Univariate analysis was performed and Pearson's coefficient was calculated for hematological parameters and TAMM velocities (P < 0.05. RESULTS: TAMM velocities were 137 ± 28 and 103 ± 19 cm/s in groups I and II, respectively, and correlated negatively with hematocrit and hemoglobin in group I. There was one abnormal result (1.6% and five conditional results (8.1% in group I. All results were normal in group II. Middle cerebral arteries were the only vessels affected. CONCLUSION: There was a low prevalence of abnormal Doppler results in patients with sickle-cell disease. Time-average maximum mean velocity was significantly different between the genotypes and correlated with hematological characteristics.

  3. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.

  4. Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard

    2015-06-14

    Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.

  5. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-07-01

    Neutron total cross sections of niobium were measured from approx. = 0.7 to 4.5 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV with broad resolution. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 0.1 to 0.2 MeV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Inelastically-scattered neutrons, corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 788 +- 23, 982 +- 17, 1088 +- 27, 1335 +- 35, 1504 +- 30, 1697 +- 19, 1971 +- 22, 2176 +- 28, 2456 +- (.), and 2581 +- (.) keV, were observed. An optical-statistical model, giving a good description of the observables, was deduced from the measured differential-elastic-scattering cross sections. The experimental-results were compared with the respective evaluated quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  6. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-07-01

    Neutron total cross sections of niobium were measured from approx. = 0.7 to 4.5 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV with broad resolution. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 0.1 to 0.2 MeV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Inelastically-scattered neutrons, corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 788 +- 23, 982 +- 17, 1088 +- 27, 1335 +- 35, 1504 +- 30, 1697 +- 19, 1971 +- 22, 2176 +- 28, 2456 +- (.), and 2581 +- (.) keV, were observed. An optical-statistical model, giving a good description of the observables, was deduced from the measured differential-elastic-scattering cross sections. The experimental-results were compared with the respective evaluated quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

  7. Development of Cross Section Library and Application Programming Interface (API)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Marin-Lafleche, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-04-09

    The goal of NEAMS neutronics is to develop a high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code termed PROTEUS for use on all reactor types of interest, but focused primarily on sodium-cooled fast reactors. While PROTEUS-SN has demonstrated good accuracy for homogeneous fast reactor problems and partially heterogeneous fast reactor problems, the simulation results were not satisfactory when applied on fully heterogeneous thermal problems like the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This is mainly attributed to the quality of cross section data for heterogeneous geometries since the conventional cross section generation approach does not work accurately for such irregular and complex geometries. Therefore, one of the NEAMS neutronics tasks since FY12 has been the development of a procedure to generate appropriate cross sections for a heterogeneous geometry core.

  8. Total fusion cross section for the 160+160 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tserruya, I.; Eisen, Y.; Pelte, D.; Gavron, A.; Oeschler, H.; Berndt, D.; Harney, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Total fusion cross sections Σsub(F) have been measured for 16 0+ 16 0 at bombarding energies 27-66 MeV using the E-Δ or the time-of-flight techniques. The fusion excitation function shows oscillations in agreement with the resonances produced in the total reaction cross section by a surface-transparent potential. The results are compared to those obtained via the γ-ray technique and th importance of direct decay to ground states is discussed. Mass and total angular distributions are well reproduced by statistical model calculations which take angular momentum into account explicitly. Barrier and critical parameters are extracted from the average energy behavior of Σ sub(F). No evidence for shell effects as predicted by Glas and Mosel is found on the measured fusion cross sections. (author)

  9. Improving activation cross section data with TALYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzysiuk, Nataliia; Koning, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Needs for accurate (n,x) activation cross sections for fusion technology have been considered with reference to the current status of the TENDL library. The current work is focused on improving activation cross section data for nuclear reactions relevant mainly for fusion and astrophysical needs. The fits have been performed with the TALYS-1.8 code by means of nuclear model parameter variation, mostly for the optical model and level densities, followed by comparison to recent experimental data taken from EXFOR and other evaluated nuclear databases. The updated cross section data are going to be adopted into the new version of TENDL. The improvements have been performed both for differential as well as integral data sets.

  10. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  11. Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups toward prevention of hepatitis B: Results from the repeated cross-sectional Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); P.P.A.M. van Thiel (Pieter P. A.); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); D. Overbosch (David)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Previous studies investigating the travellers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. Methods In the years 2002-2009 an annually repeated cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey

  12. Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapico, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillman, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Kappeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; Oshima, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2006-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

  13. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  14. The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Barva, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Carboni, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lu, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Petrolo, E.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tabidze, M.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Villella, I.; Xu, G

    2005-07-15

    KLOE uses the radiative return to measure cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) at the electron-positron collider DA{phi}NE. Divinding by a theoretical radiator function, we obtain the cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) for the mass range 0.35

  15. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  16. Research on the display of nuclear cross-section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shien; Wang Kan; Yu Ganglin

    2008-01-01

    Minutely parsed the dot cross-section format (ACE format) data of the ENDF/ B-6.8 database, which is the foundation of the program that achieved the reading and related handling of ACE format data. This program achieved the plotting, zooming and comparing display functions of nuclear cross section-energy of ENDF/B-6.8 database. It also provides the standard picture formatting file output and/or standard text formatting file output of interesting nuclear data. It accomplished some appropriate validations of this program via the comparing between program results and reference data. (authors)

  17. Geodesic acoustic modes in noncircular cross section tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com; Lakhin, V. P. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The influence of the shape of the plasma cross section on the continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in a tokamak is analyzed in the framework of the MHD model. An expression for the frequency of a local GAM for a model noncircular cross section plasma equilibrium is derived. Amendments to the oscillation frequency due to the plasma elongation and triangularity and finite tokamak aspect ratio are calculated. It is shown that the main factor affecting the GAM spectrum is the plasma elongation, resulting in a significant decrease in the mode frequency.

  18. Electromagnetic Cylindrical Transparent Devices with Irregular Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic transparent device is very important for antenna protection. In this paper, the material parameters for the cylindrical transparent devices with arbitrary cross section are developed based on the coordinate transformation. The equivalent two-dimensional (2D transparent devices under TE plane and cylindrical wave irradiation is designed and studied by full-wave simulation, respectively. It shows that although the incident waves are distorted in the transformation region apparently, they return to the original wavefronts when passing through the device. All theoretical and numerical results validate the material parameters for the cylindrical transparent devices with arbitrary cross section we developed.

  19. D meson branching ratios and hadronic charm production cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ferrando, A.; Hernandez, J.; Allison, W.W.M.; Hughes, P.T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bizzarri, R.; Ciapetti, G.; Di Capua, E.; Gentile, S.; Iori, M.; Marzano, F.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, L.; Baland, J.; Herquet, P.; Pilette, P.; Poiret, C.; Bettini, A.; Checchia, P.; Gasparini, U.; Mazzucato, M.; Pinori, C.; Ventura, L.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Boratov, M.; Duboc, J.; Nguyen, H.; Touchard, A.M.; Bruyant, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Johansson, K.E.; Leutz, H.; Montanet, L.; Nilsson, S.; Poppleton, A.; Reucroft, S.; Richardson, J.; Subramanian, A.; Touboul, M.C.; Wright, P.R.S.; Castelli, E.; Poropat, P.; Sessa, M.; Troncon, C.; Crennell, D.; Fisher, C.; MacDermott, M.; Kittel, W.; Stergiou, A.; Toet, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Lemonne, J.; Immerseel, M. van; Vilain, P.; Vonck, B.; Wickens, J.

    1984-01-01

    A determination of branching ratios for D meson decays into all charged particle final states is reported. The values obtained :(D + -> Ksup(+-)πsup(+-)πsup(+-)/all Dsup(+-)) = (14 +- 6)% and (anti D 0 /D 0 -> Ksup(+-)πsup(+-)ππ + π - /all anti D 0 /D 0 ) = (10 +- 4)%, are higher than those currently accepted. This result, if confirmed, implies a corresponding reduction in the accepted values for some total cross section measurements. Revised inclusive cross sections for D meson production in the forward hemisphere in π - p and pp interactions at 360 GeV/c, are presented. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of the W + Jets Production Cross Section with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Jen-La Plante, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The associated production of jets with a W-boson provides a proving ground for perturbative QCD predictions and an important background to other interesting processes in the Standard Model and beyond. In both the electron and muon decay modes of the W-boson, measurements using the ATLAS detector are presented. These include cross sections as a function of jet multiplicity, jet transverse momentum, and the sum of transverse momenta of energetic jets and leptons in each event, as well as ratios of cross sections. The results are corrected to particle level and compared with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.

  1. Measurement of the W + Jets Production Cross Section with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Jen-La Plante, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The associated production of jets with a W-boson provides a proving ground for perturbative QCD predictions and a formidable background to other interesting processes in the Standard Model and beyond. In both the electron and muon decay modes of the W-boson, measurements using the ATLAS detector are presented. These include cross sections as a function of jet multiplicity, jet transverse momentum, and the sum of transverse momenta of energetic jets and leptons in each event, as well as ratios of cross sections. The results are corrected to particle level and compared with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.

  2. Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-12-01

    Differential neturon-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV. Inelastic-neutron-scattering cross sections corresponding to the excitation of levels at observed energies of: 914 +- 25, 1476 +- 37, 1787 +- 23, 2101 +- 26, 2221 +- 17, 2363 +- 14, 2791 +- 15 and 3101 +- 25 keV are determined. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the optical-statistical model and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  3. Evaluation of the 238U neutron total cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Poenitz, W.P.; Howerton, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Experimental energy-averaged neutron total cross sections of 238 U were evaluated from 0.044 to 20.0 MeV using regorous numerical methods. The evaluated results are presented together with the associated uncertainties and correlation matrix. They indicate that this energy-averaged neutron total cross section is known to better than 1% over wide energy regions. There are somwewhat larger uncertainties at low energies (e.g., less than or equal to 0.2 MeV), near 8 MeV and above 15 MeV. The present evaluation is compard with values given in ENDF/B-V

  4. Partial photoneutron cross section measurements on 209Bi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New data of total and partial (γ,xn cross sections with x = 1–3 are proposed to be measured by direct neutron multiplicity sorting using Laser Compton scattering (LCS gamma ray beams at the ELI-NP to solve long standing discrepancies between existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA and France Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay photonuclear data. Pioneering experiments are currently performed at the NewSUBARU facility. We present here preliminary results on 209Bi(g,xn cross section measurements.

  5. Total reaction cross section calculations in proton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellisch, H.P.; Axen, D.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a general semiempirical total reaction cross section formula for proton-nucleus reactions. It is applicable for all materials with nuclear charge Z greater than 5, and all proton kinetic energies from the lowest measured energies up to ≅20 GeV. While the regime of applicability is greatly enlarged, agreement between the calculated cross sections and the experimental data is comparable to or better than all earlier published results in their regime of applicability. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Inclusive jet cross sections and jet shapes at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainer, N.

    1991-09-01

    The inclusive jet cross section and jet shapes at √s = 1.8 TeV have been measured by CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. results are compared to recent next-to-leading order QCD calculations, which predict variation of the cross section with cone size, as well as variation of the jet shape with energy. A lower limit on the parameter Λ c , which characterize a contact interaction associated with quark sub-structure is determined to be 1400 GeV at the 95% confidence level. 3 refs., 4 figs

  7. Neutrino–nucleus cross sections for oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Teppei; Martini, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations physics is entering an era of high precision. In this context, accelerator-based neutrino experiments need a reduction in systematic errors to the level of a few percent. Today, one of the most important sources of systematic errors are neutrino–nucleus cross sections which, in the energy region of hundreds of MeV to a few GeV, are known to a precision not exceeding 20%. In this article we review the present experimental and theoretical knowledge of neutrino–nucleus interaction physics. After introducing neutrino-oscillation physics and accelerator-based neutrino experiments, we give an overview of general aspects of neutrino–nucleus cross sections, from both the theoretical and experimental point of view. Then, we focus on these cross sections in different reaction channels. We start with the quasi-elastic and quasi-elastic-like cross section, placing a special emphasis on the multinucleon emission channel, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. We review the main aspects of the different microscopic models for this channel by discussing analogies and the differences among them. The discussion is always driven by a comparison with the experimental data. We then consider the one-pion production channel where agreement between data and theory remains highly unsatisfactory. We describe how to interpret pion data, and then analyze, in particular, the puzzle related to the difficulty of theoretical models and Monte Carlo to simultaneously describe MiniBooNE and MINERvA experimental results. Inclusive cross sections are also discussed, as well as the comparison between the {ν }μ and {ν }e cross sections, relevant for the charge-conjugation-parity violation experiments. The impact of nuclear effects on the reconstruction of neutrino energy and on the determination of the neutrino-oscillation parameters is also reviewed. Finally, we look to the future by discussing projects and efforts in relation to future detectors

  8. SU-E-I-43: Photoelectric Cross Section Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, A; Nakagawa, K; Kotoku, J; Horikawa, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The importance of the precision in photoelectric cross-section value increases for recent developed technology such as dual energy computed tomography, in which some reconstruction algorithms require the energy dependence of the photo-absorption in each material composition of human being. In this study, we revisited the photoelectric cross-section calculation by self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic model and compared with that widely distributed as “XCOM database” in National Institute of Standards and Technology, which was evaluated with localdensity approximation for electron-exchange (Fock)z potential. Methods: The photoelectric cross section can be calculated with the electron wave functions in initial atomic state (bound electron) and final continuum state (photoelectron). These electron states were constructed based on the selfconsistent HF calculation, where the repulsive Coulomb potential from the electron charge distribution (Hartree term) and the electron exchange potential with full electromagnetic interaction (Fock term) were included for the electron-electron interaction. The photoelectric cross sections were evaluated for He (Z=2), Be (Z=4), C (Z=6), O (Z=8), and Ne (Z=10) in energy range of 10keV to 1MeV. The Result was compared with XCOM database. Results: The difference of the photoelectric cross section between the present calculation and XCOM database was 8% at a maximum (in 10keV for Be). The agreement tends to be better as the atomic number increases. The contribution from each atomic shell has a considerable discrepancy with XCOM database except for K-shell. However, because the photoelectric cross section arising from K-shell is dominant, the net photoelectric cross section was almost insensitive to the different handling in Fock potential. Conclusion: The photoelectric cross-section program has been developed based on the fully self-consistent relativistic HF atomic model. Due to small effect on the Fock

  9. Decreased management of genital warts in young women in Australian general practice post introduction of national HPV vaccination program: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional general practice study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Since the introduction of Australia's human papillomavirus vaccination program, the management rate of genital warts in sexual health clinics and private hospitals has decreased in women of vaccine-eligible age. However, most genital warts in Australia are managed in general practice. This study examines whether a similar decrease occurred in Australian general practice after the introduction of the program. METHODS: Analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional database of Australian general practice activity (1,175,879 patient encounters with 11,780 general practitioners. Genital warts management rates were estimated for the periods before and after introduction of the program (Pre-program, July 2002-June 2006; Post-program, July 2008-June 2012. Control conditions included genital herpes and gardnerella/bacterial vaginosis in female patients and genital herpes and urethritis in male patients. Trends in management rates by year, pre-vaccine (July 2000-June 2007 and post-vaccine (July 2007-June 2012 were also calculated. RESULTS: Management rate of genital warts among women potentially covered by program (aged 15-27 years decreased by 61% from 4.33 per 1,000 encounters in the Pre-program period to 1.67 in the Post-program period. Trend analysis of the post-vaccine period showed, among women of vaccine eligible age, a significant year-on-year reduction in the rate of genital warts management (p<0.0001 and a significant increase in the management rate of control conditions per year (p<0.0001. For all other age-sex groups there was no significant change in the management rate of genital warts between the Pre- and Post-program periods. CONCLUSION: The large decrease in general practice management of genital warts in women of vaccine-eligible age highlights the success of the program in the wider community.

  10. Validation of the Italian Tinnitus Questionnaire Short Form (TQ 12-I as a Brief Test for the Assessment of Tinnitus-Related Distress: Results of a Cross-Sectional Multicenter-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Moschen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The use of reliable and valid psychometric tools to assess subjectively experienced distress due to tinnitus is broadly recommended. The purpose of the study was the validation of the Italian version of Tinnitus Questionnaire 12 item short form (TQ 12-I as a brief test for the assessment of patient reported tinnitus-related distress.Design: Cross-sectional multicenter questionnaire study.Setting: Tinnitus Center, European Hospital (Rome, the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, “Guglielmo da Saliceto” Hospital (Piacenza, and the Department of Audiology and Phoniatry, “Mater Domini” University Hospital (Catanzaro.Participants: One hundred and forty-three outpatients with tinnitus treated at one of the participating medical centers.Main Outcome Measures: Tinnitus Questionnaire Short Form (TQ 12-I, compared to the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, and Short Form (SF-36 Health Survey.Results: Our factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution (health anxiety, cognitive distress, accounting for 53.5% of the variance. Good internal consistency for the total score (α = 0.86 and both factors (α = 0.79–0.87 was found. Moderate correlations with the THI (r = 0.65, p < 0.001 indicated good convergent validity. Tinnitus distress was further correlated to increased psychological distress (r = 0.31, p < 0.001 and reduced emotional well-being (r = -0.34, p < 0.001.Conclusion: The study clearly showed that the TQ 12-I is a reliable and valid instrument to assess tinnitus-related distress which can be used in clinical practice as well as for research.

  11. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans: results from a