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Sample records for germanium arsenides

  1. Metal Contacts to Gallium Arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fan

    1991-07-01

    While various high performance devices fabricated from the gallium arsenide (GaAs) and related materials have generated considerable interest, metallization are fundamental components to all semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. The essential roles of metallization systems are providing the desired electrical paths between the active region of the semiconductor and the external circuits through the metal interconnections and contacts. In this work, in-situ clean of native oxide, high temperature n-type, low temperature n-type and low temperature p-type ohmic metal systems have been studied. Argon ion mill was used to remove the native oxide prior to metal deposition. For high temperature process n-type GaAs ohmic contacts, Tungsten (W) and Tungsten Silicide (WSi) were used with an epitaxial grown graded Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) layer (0.2 eV) on GaAs. In addition, refractory metals, Molybdenum (Mo), was incorporated in the Gold-Germanium (AuGe) based on n-type GaAs ohmic contacts to replace conventional silver as barrier to prevent the reaction between ohmic metal and chlorine based plasma as well as the ohmic metallization intermixing which degrades the device performance. Finally, Indium/Gold-Beryllium (In/Au-Be) alloy has been developed as an ohmic contact for p-type GaAs to reduce the contact resistance. The Fermi-level pinning of GaAs has been dominated by the surface states. The Schottky barrier height of metal contacts are about 0.8 V regardless of the metal systems. By using p-n junction approach, barrier height of pulsed C-doped layers was achieved as high as 1.4 V. Arsenic implantation into GaAs method was also used to enhance the barrier height of 1.6 V.

  2. Toxicity of indium arsenide, gallium arsenide, and aluminium gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akiyo

    2004-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium arsenide (InAs), and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) are semiconductor applications. Although the increased use of these materials has raised concerns about occupational exposure to them, there is little information regarding the adverse health effects to workers arising from exposure to these particles. However, available data indicate these semiconductor materials can be toxic in animals. Although acute and chronic toxicity of the lung, reproductive organs, and kidney are associated with exposure to these semiconductor materials, in particular, chronic toxicity should pay much attention owing to low solubility of these materials. Between InAs, GaAs, and AlGaAs, InAs was the most toxic material to the lung followed by GaAs and AlGaAs when given intratracheally. This was probably due to difference in the toxicity of the counter-element of arsenic in semiconductor materials, such as indium, gallium, or aluminium, and not arsenic itself. It appeared that indium, gallium, or aluminium was toxic when released from the particles, though the physical character of the particles also contributes to toxic effect. Although there is no evidence of the carcinogenicity of InAs or AlGaAs, GaAs and InP, which are semiconductor materials, showed the clear evidence of carcinogenic potential. It is necessary to pay much greater attention to the human exposure of semiconductor materials

  3. Germanium soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Troy A.; Alexay, Christopher C.

    2006-05-01

    This paper addresses the variety and impact of dispersive model variations for infrared materials and, in particular, the level to which certain optical designs are affected by this potential variation in germanium. This work offers a method for anticipating and/or minimizing the pitfalls such potential model variations may have on a candidate optical design.

  4. Normal vibrations in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolling, G.; Waugh, J.L.T.

    1964-01-01

    The triple axis crystal spectrometer at Chalk River has been used to observe coherent slow neutron scattering from a single crystal of pure gallium arsenide at 296 o K. The frequencies of normal modes of vibration propagating in the [ζ00], (ζζζ], and (0ζζ] crystal directions have been determined with a precision of between 1 and 2·5 per cent. A limited number of normal modes have also been studied at 95 and 184 o K. Considerable difficulty was experienced in obtaining welt resolved neutron peaks corresponding to the two non-degenerate optic modes for very small wave-vector, particularly at 296 o K. However, from a comparison of results obtained under various experimental conditions at several different points in reciprocal space, frequencies (units 10 12 c/s) for these modes (at 296 o K) have been assigned: T 8·02±0·08 and L 8·55±02. Other specific normal modes, with their measured frequencies are (a) (1,0,0): TO 7·56 ± 008, TA 2·36 ± 0·015, LO 7·22 ± 0·15, LA 6·80 ± 0·06; (b) (0·5, 0·5, 0·5): TO 7·84 ± 0·12, TA 1·86 ± 0·02, LO 7·15 ± 0·07, LA 6·26 ± 0·10; (c) (0, 0·65, 0·65): optic 8·08 ±0·13, 7·54 ± 0·12 and 6·57 ± 0·11, acoustic 5·58 ± 0·08, 3·42 · 0·06 and 2·36 ± 004. These results are generally slightly lower than the corresponding frequencies for germanium. An analysis in terms of various modifications of the dipole approximation model has been carried out. A feature of this analysis is that the charge on the gallium atom appears to be very small, about +0·04 e. The frequency distribution function has been derived from one of the force models. (author)

  5. Normal vibrations in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolling, G; Waugh, J L T

    1964-07-01

    The triple axis crystal spectrometer at Chalk River has been used to observe coherent slow neutron scattering from a single crystal of pure gallium arsenide at 296{sup o}K. The frequencies of normal modes of vibration propagating in the [{zeta}00], ({zeta}{zeta}{zeta}], and (0{zeta}{zeta}] crystal directions have been determined with a precision of between 1 and 2{center_dot}5 per cent. A limited number of normal modes have also been studied at 95 and 184{sup o}K. Considerable difficulty was experienced in obtaining welt resolved neutron peaks corresponding to the two non-degenerate optic modes for very small wave-vector, particularly at 296{sup o}K. However, from a comparison of results obtained under various experimental conditions at several different points in reciprocal space, frequencies (units 10{sup 12} c/s) for these modes (at 296{sup o}K) have been assigned: T 8{center_dot}02{+-}0{center_dot}08 and L 8{center_dot}55{+-}02. Other specific normal modes, with their measured frequencies are (a) (1,0,0): TO 7{center_dot}56 {+-} 008, TA 2{center_dot}36 {+-} 0{center_dot}015, LO 7{center_dot}22 {+-} 0{center_dot}15, LA 6{center_dot}80 {+-} 0{center_dot}06; (b) (0{center_dot}5, 0{center_dot}5, 0{center_dot}5): TO 7{center_dot}84 {+-} 0{center_dot}12, TA 1{center_dot}86 {+-} 0{center_dot}02, LO 7{center_dot}15 {+-} 0{center_dot}07, LA 6{center_dot}26 {+-} 0{center_dot}10; (c) (0, 0{center_dot}65, 0{center_dot}65): optic 8{center_dot}08 {+-}0{center_dot}13, 7{center_dot}54 {+-} 0{center_dot}12 and 6{center_dot}57 {+-} 0{center_dot}11, acoustic 5{center_dot}58 {+-} 0{center_dot}08, 3{center_dot}42 {center_dot} 0{center_dot}06 and 2{center_dot}36 {+-} 004. These results are generally slightly lower than the corresponding frequencies for germanium. An analysis in terms of various modifications of the dipole approximation model has been carried out. A feature of this analysis is that the charge on the gallium atom appears to be very small, about +0{center_dot}04 e. The

  6. Thermodynamics of gallium arsenide electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrault, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Gallium Arsenide is well known as a very interesting compound for photoelectrical devices. Up to now, it has been prepared mostly by high temperature technology, and the authors considered that it might be of interest to set up an electrodeposition technique suitable to prepare thin layers of this compound. A reaction sequence similar to the one observed for Cadmium Sulfide or Cadmium Telluride could be considered. In these cases, the metal chalcogenide is obtained from the precipitation of the metal ions dissolved in the solutions by the reduction product of the metalloidic compound

  7. The germination of germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Shawn C.; Thornton, Brett F.

    2018-02-01

    Shawn C. Burdette and Brett F. Thornton explore how germanium developed from a missing element in Mendeleev's periodic table to an enabler for the information age, while retaining a nomenclature oddity.

  8. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  9. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  10. Precipitation of lithium in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaik, M.; Furgolle, B.

    1969-01-01

    The precipitation of Lithium in Germanium was studied. Taking account of the interactions Ga LI, LiO, we calculated the oxygen content in germanium samples from the resistivity measurements. (authors)

  11. Mesostructured metal germanium sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLachlan, M.J.; Coombs, N.; Bedard, R.L.; White, S.; Thompson, L.K.; Ozin, G.A.

    1999-12-29

    A new class of mesostructured metal germanium sulfide materials has been prepared and characterized. The synthesis, via supramolecular assembly of well-defined germanium sulfide anionic cluster precursors and transition-metal cations in formamide, represents a new strategy for the formation of this class of solids. A variety of techniques were employed to examine the structure and composition of the materials. Structurally, the material is best described as a periodic mesostructured metal sulfide-based coordination framework akin to periodic hexagonal mesoporous silica, MCM-41. At the molecular scale, the materials strongly resemble microstructured metal germanium sulfides, in which the structure of the [Ge{sub 4}S{sub 10}]{sup 4{minus}} cluster building-blocks are intact and linked via {mu}-S-M-S bonds. Evidence for a metal-metal bond in mesostructured Cu/Ge{sub 4}S{sub 10} is also provided.

  12. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debertin, K.

    1983-01-01

    The process of determining the energy-dependent detection probability with measurements using Ge (Li) and high-grade germanium detectors is described. The paper explains which standards are best for a given purpose and given requirements as to accuracy, and how to assess measuring geometry variations and summation corrections. (DG) [de

  13. Germanium and indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Kimball, Bryn E.; Tolcin, Amy C.; Guberman, David E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Germanium and indium are two important elements used in electronics devices, flat-panel display screens, light-emitting diodes, night vision devices, optical fiber, optical lens systems, and solar power arrays. Germanium and indium are treated together in this chapter because they have similar technological uses and because both are recovered as byproducts, mainly from copper and zinc sulfides.The world’s total production of germanium in 2011 was estimated to be 118 metric tons. This total comprised germanium recovered from zinc concentrates, from fly ash residues from coal burning, and from recycled material. Worldwide, primary germanium was recovered in Canada from zinc concentrates shipped from the United States; in China from zinc residues and coal from multiple sources in China and elsewhere; in Finland from zinc concentrates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo; and in Russia from coal.World production of indium metal was estimated to be about 723 metric tons in 2011; more than one-half of the total was produced in China. Other leading producers included Belgium, Canada, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. These five countries accounted for nearly 95 percent of primary indium production.Deposit types that contain significant amounts of germanium include volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits (including Irish-type zinc-lead deposits), Kipushi-type zinc-lead-copper replacement bodies in carbonate rocks, and coal deposits.More than one-half of the byproduct indium in the world is produced in southern China from VMS and SEDEX deposits, and much of the remainder is produced from zinc concentrates from MVT deposits. The Laochang deposit in Yunnan Province, China, and the VMS deposits of the Murchison greenstone belt in Limpopo Province, South Africa, provide excellent examples of indium-enriched deposits. The SEDEX deposits at Bainiuchang, China (located in

  14. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurman, B.; Erlandsson, B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes problems concerning the calibration of germanium detectors for the measurement of gamma-radiation from environmental samples. It also contains a brief description of some ways of reducing the uncertainties concerning the activity determination. These uncertainties have many sources, such as counting statistics, full energy peak efficiency determination, density correction and radionuclide specific-coincidence effects, when environmental samples are investigated at close source-to-detector distances

  15. Lead-germanium ohmic contact on to gallium arsenide formed by the solid phase epitaxy of germanium: A microstructure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Fabian

    2000-12-01

    Driven by the remarkable growth in the telecommunication market, the demand for more complex GaAs circuitry continued to increase in the last decade. As a result, the GaAs industry is faced with new challenges in its efforts to fabricate devices with smaller dimensions that would permit higher integration levels. One of the limiting factors is the ohmic contact metallurgy of the metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET), which, during annealing, induces a high degree of lateral diffusion into the substrate. Because of its limited reaction with the substrate, the Pd-Ge contact seems to be the most promising candidate to be used in the next generation of MESFET's. The Pd-Ge system belongs to a new class of ohmic contacts to compound semiconductors, part of an alloying strategy developed only recently, which relies on solid phase epitaxy (SPE) and solid phase regrowth to "un-pin" the Fermi level at the surface of the compound semiconductor. However, implementing this alloy into an integrated process flow proved to be difficult due to our incomplete understanding of the microstructure evolution during annealing and its implications on the electrical properties of the contact. The microstructure evolution and the corresponding solid state reactions that take place during annealing of the Pd-Ge thin films on to GaAs were studied in connection with their effects on the electrical properties of the ohmic contact. The phase transformations sequence, transition temperatures and activation energies were determined by combining differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for thermal analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for microstructure identification. In-situ TEM annealing experiments on the Pd/Ge/Pd/GaAs ohmic contact system have permitted real time determination of the evolution of contact microstructure. The kinetics of the solid state reactions, which occur during ohmic contact formation, were determined by measuring the grain growth rates associated with each phase from the videotape recordings. With the exception of the Pd-GaAs interactions, it was found that four phase transformations occur during annealing of the Pd:Ge thin films on top of GaAs. The microstructural information was correlated with specific ohmic contact resistivity measurements performed in accordance with the transmission line method (TLM) and these results demonstrated that the Ge SPE growth on top of GaAs renders the optimal electrical properties for the contact. By using the focused ion beam (FIB) method to produce microcantilever beams, the residual stress present in the thin film system was studied in connection with the microstructure. Although, the PdGe/epi-Ge/GaAs seemed to be the optimal microstructural configuration, the presence of PdGe at the interface with GaAs did not damage the contact resistivity significantly. These results made it difficult to establish a charge transport mechanism across the interface but they explained the wide processing window associated with this contact.

  16. Tunable conductivity in mesoporous germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Meghan N.; Bioud, Youcef A.; Hobson, David G.; Boucherif, Abderraouf; Valdivia, Christopher E.; Drouin, Dominique; Arès, Richard; Hinzer, Karin

    2018-05-01

    Germanium-based nanostructures have attracted increasing attention due to favourable electrical and optical properties, which are tunable on the nanoscale. High densities of germanium nanocrystals are synthesized via electrochemical etching, making porous germanium an appealing nanostructured material for a variety of applications. In this work, we have demonstrated highly tunable electrical conductivity in mesoporous germanium layers by conducting a systematic study varying crystallite size using thermal annealing, with experimental conductivities ranging from 0.6 to 33 (×10‑3) Ω‑1 cm‑1. The conductivity of as-prepared mesoporous germanium with 70% porosity and crystallite size between 4 and 10 nm is shown to be ∼0.9 × 10‑3 Ω‑1 cm‑1, 5 orders of magnitude smaller than that of bulk p-type germanium. Thermal annealing for 10 min at 400 °C further reduced the conductivity; however, annealing at 450 °C caused a morphological transformation from columnar crystallites to interconnecting granular crystallites and an increase in conductivity by two orders of magnitude relative to as-prepared mesoporous germanium caused by reduced influence of surface states. We developed an electrostatic model relating the carrier concentration and mobility of p-type mesoporous germanium to the nanoscale morphology. Correlation within an order of magnitude was found between modelled and experimental conductivities, limited by variation in sample uniformity and uncertainty in void size and fraction after annealing. Furthermore, theoretical results suggest that mesoporous germanium conductivity could be tuned over four orders of magnitude, leading to optimized hybrid devices.

  17. Germanium geochemistry and mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    Germanium is enriched in the following geologic environments: 1. (1) iron meteorites and terrestrial iron-nickel; 2. (2) sulfide ore deposits, particularly those hosted by sedimentary rocks; 3. (3) iron oxide deposits; 4. (4) oxidized zones of Ge-bearing sulfide deposits; 5. (5) pegmatites, greisens, and skarns; and 6. (6) coal and lignitized wood. In silicate melts, Ge is highly siderophile in the presence of native iron-nickel; otherwise, it is highly lithophile. Among silicate minerals, Ge is concentrated in those having less polymerized silicate tetrahedra such as olivine and topaz. In deposits formed from hydrothermal solutions, Ge tends to be enriched mostly in either sulfides or in fluorine-bearing phases; it is thus concentrated both in some hydrothermal sulfide deposits and in pegmatites, greisens, and skarns. In sulfide deposits that formed from solutions having low to moderate sulfur activity, Ge is concentrated in sphalerite in amounts up to 3000 ppm. Sulfide deposits that formed from solutions having higher sulfur activity allowed Ge to either form its own sulfides, particularly with Cu, or to substitute for As, Sn, or other metals in sulfosalts. The Ge in hydrothermal fluids probably derives from enrichment during the fractional crystallization of igneous fluids, or is due to the incorporation of Ge from the country rocks, particularly from those containing organic material. Germanium bonds to lignin-derivative organic compounds that are found in peat and lignite, accounting for its common concentration in coals and related organic material. Germanium is precipitated from water together with iron hydroxide, accounting for its concentration in some sedimentary and supergene iron oxide deposits. It also is able to substitute for Fe in magnetite in a variety of geologic environments. In the oxidized zone of Ge-bearing sulfide deposits, Ge is concentrated in oxides, hydroxides, and hydroxy-sulfates, sometimes forming its own minerals. It is particularly

  18. New hydrogen donors in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilo, Yu.M.; Petukh, A.N.; Litvinov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The electrophysical properties of the n-type conductivity germanium, irradiated through protons, is studied by the volt-farad method. It is shown that the heat treatment of the implanted germanium at the temperature of 200-300 deg C leads to formation of the fast-diffusing second-rate donors. It is established that the diffusion coefficient of the identified donors coincides with the diffusion coefficient of the atomic hydrogen with an account of the capture on the traps. The conclusion is made, that the atomic hydrogen is the second-rate donor center in germanium [ru

  19. Optical Characterization of Thick Growth Orientation-Patterned Gallium Arsenide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Joshua W

    2006-01-01

    .... Orientation patterned gallium arsenide (OPGaAs) is a promising nonlinear conversion material because it has broad transparency and can be engineered for specific pump laser and output wavelengths using quasi-phase matching techniques...

  20. Porous germanium multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garralaga Rojas, Enrique; Hensen, Jan; Brendel, Rolf [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany); Carstensen, Juergen; Foell, Helmut [Chair for General Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    We present the reproducible fabrication of porous germanium (PGe) single- and multilayers. Mesoporous layers form on heavily doped 4'' p-type Ge wafers by electrochemical etching in highly concentrated HF-based electrolytes with concentrations in a range of 30-50 wt.%. Direct PGe formation is accompanied by a constant dissolution of the already-formed porous layer at the electrolyte/PGe interface, hence yielding a thinner substrate after etching. This effect inhibits multilayer formation as the starting layer is etched while forming the second layer. We avoid dissolution of the porous layer by alternating the etching bias from anodic to cathodic. PGe formation occurs during anodic etching whereas the cathodic step passivates pore walls with H-atoms and avoids electropolishing. The passivation lasts a limited time depending on the etching current density and electrolyte concentration, necessitating a repetition of the cathodic step at suitable intervals. With optimized alternating bias mesoporous multilayer production is possible. We control the porosity of each single layer by varying the etching current density and the electrolyte (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Elastic properties of some transition metal arsenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.; Bisht, P. S.

    2018-05-01

    The elastic properties of transition metal arsenides (TMAs) have been studied by employing Wien2K package based on density functional theory in the zinc blende (ZB) and rock salt (RS) phase treating valance electron scalar relativistically. Further, we have also treated them non-relativistically to find out the relativistic effect. We have calculated the elastic properties by computing the volume conservative stress tensor for small strains, using the method developed by Charpin. The obtained results are discussed in paper. From the obtained results, it is clear that the values of C11 > C12 and C44 for all the compounds. The values of shear moduli of these compounds are also calculated. The internal parameter for these compounds shows that ZB structures of these compounds have high resistance against bond order. We find that the estimated elastic constants are in good agreement with the available data.

  2. Status report on the International Germanium Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Avignone, F.T.; Collar, J.I.; Courant, H.; Garcia, E.; Guerard, C.K.; Hensley, W.K.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Osetrov, S.B.; Pogosov, V.S.; Pomansky, A.A.; Puimedon, J.; Reeves, J.H.; Ruddick, K.; Saenz, C.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M.L.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Starostin, A.S.; Tamanyan, A.G.; Vasiliev, S.I.; Villar, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Phase II detector fabrication for the International Germanium Experiment is in progress. Sources of background observed during Phase I are discussed. Cosmogenic 7 Be is measured in germanium. Radium contamination, presumably in electroformed copper, is reported. (orig.)

  3. Status report on the International Germanium Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzinski, R L; Avignone, F.T.; Collar, J I; Courant, H; Garcia, E; Guerard, C K; Hensley, W K; Kirpichnikov, I V; Miley, H S; Morales, A; Morales, J; Nunez-Lagos, R; Osetrov, S B; Pogosov, V S; Pomansky, A A; Puimedon, J; Reeves, J H; Ruddick, K; Saenz, C; Salinas, A; Sarsa, M L; Smolnikov, A A; Starostin, A S; Tamanyan, A G; Vasiliev, S I; Villar, J A [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States) Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States) Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States) Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain) Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation) Inst. for Nuclear Research, Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Russian Federation) Yerevan Physical Inst., Yerevan (Armenia)

    1993-04-01

    Phase II detector fabrication for the International Germanium Experiment is in progress. Sources of background observed during Phase I are discussed. Cosmogenic [sup 7]Be is measured in germanium. Radium contamination, presumably in electroformed copper, is reported. (orig.)

  4. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, P. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom) and Nano-Electronics Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.mistry@surrey.ac.uk; Gomez-Morilla, I. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Smith, R.C. [Nano-Electronics Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thomson, D. [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Grime, G.W. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Webb, R.P. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gwilliam, R. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jeynes, C. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Cansell, A. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Merchant, M. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kirkby, K.J. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a direct write technique that employs a focused MeV proton beam which is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a target material which is subsequently electrochemically etched or chemically developed. By changing the energy of the protons the range of the protons can be changed. The ultimate depth of the structure is determined by the range of the protons in the material and this allows structures to be formed to different depths. PBW has been successfully employed on etchable glasses, polymers and semiconductor materials such as silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). This study reports on PBW in p-type GaAs and compares experimental results with computer simulations using the Atlas (copy right) semiconductor device package from SILVACO. It has already been proven that hole transport is required for the electrochemical etching of GaAs using Tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-m-benzenedisulfonic acid, di-sodium salt). PBW in GaAs results in carrier removal in the irradiated regions and consequently minimal hole transport (in these regions) during electrochemical etching. As a result the irradiated regions are significantly more etch resistant than the non-irradiated regions. This allows high aspect ratio structures to be formed.

  6. Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, P.; Gomez-Morilla, I.; Smith, R.C.; Thomson, D.; Grime, G.W.; Webb, R.P.; Gwilliam, R.; Jeynes, C.; Cansell, A.; Merchant, M.; Kirkby, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a direct write technique that employs a focused MeV proton beam which is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a target material which is subsequently electrochemically etched or chemically developed. By changing the energy of the protons the range of the protons can be changed. The ultimate depth of the structure is determined by the range of the protons in the material and this allows structures to be formed to different depths. PBW has been successfully employed on etchable glasses, polymers and semiconductor materials such as silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). This study reports on PBW in p-type GaAs and compares experimental results with computer simulations using the Atlas (copy right) semiconductor device package from SILVACO. It has already been proven that hole transport is required for the electrochemical etching of GaAs using Tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-m-benzenedisulfonic acid, di-sodium salt). PBW in GaAs results in carrier removal in the irradiated regions and consequently minimal hole transport (in these regions) during electrochemical etching. As a result the irradiated regions are significantly more etch resistant than the non-irradiated regions. This allows high aspect ratio structures to be formed

  7. White beam synchrotron x-ray topography of gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M. Jr.; Green, R.E. Jr.; Corak, W.S.

    1988-01-01

    The defect structure of gallium arsenide was investigated using white beam transmission topography. The samples were cut and polished monocrystal substrates from different suppliers. The goal of the work was to determine the viability of the method for documenting various crystallographic defect structures and establishing their effect on the performance of integrated microwave circuits fabricated on the wafers. The principles of the technique, essentially identical to classical Laue x-ray diffraction, are outlined. Two distinct defect structures were determined in the topographs. Reasons for the defect structures were postulated and the application of the method for quality control assessments of manufacturer-supplied gallium arsenide substrates was assessed

  8. Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelin, G

    1974-07-01

    The phonon dispersion relations of the DELTA-, LAMBDA-, and SIGMA-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field.

  9. Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelin, G.

    1974-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations of the Δ-, Λ-, and Σ-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field

  10. Superconductivity of tribolayers formed on germanium by friction between germanium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukhovskoi, A.; Karapetyan, S.S.; Morozov, Y.G.; Onishchenko, A.S.; Petinov, V.I.; Ponomarev, A.N.; Silin, A.A.; Stepanov, B.M.; Tal' roze, V.L.

    1978-04-05

    A superconducting state was observed for the first time in tribolayers of germanium produced by friction of germanium with lead at 42 K. The maximum value of T/sub c/ obtained in the experiment was 19 K, which is much higher than T/sub c/ of bulk lead itself or of lead films sputtered on germanium.

  11. Rutherford backscatter measurements on tellurium and cadmium implanted gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, E.C.

    1979-10-01

    The primary aim of the work described in this thesis was to examine implanted layers of the dopant impurities cadmium and tellurium in gallium arsenide and to experimentally assess their potential for producing electrically active layers. 1.5 MeV Rutherford backscattering measurements of lattice disorder and atom site location have been used to assess post implantation thermal annealing and elevated temperature implantations to site the dopant impurities on either gallium or arsenic lattice positions in an otherwise undisordered lattice. Pyrolitically deposited silicon dioxide was used as an encapsulant to prevent thermal dissociation of the gallium arsenide during annealing. It has been shown that high doses of cadmium and tellurium can be implanted without forming amorphous lattice disorder by heating the gallium arsenide during implantation to relatively low temperatures. Atom site location measurements have shown that a large fraction of a tellurium dose implanted at 180 0 C is located on or near lattice sites. Channeled backscatter measurements have shown that there is residual disorder or lattice strain in gallium arsenide implanted at elevated temperatures. The extent of this disorder has been shown to depend on the implanted dose and implantation temperature. The channeling effect has been used to measure annealing of the disorder. (author)

  12. Electron emission from individual indium arsenide semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, E.C.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Roest, A.L.; Kaiser, M.A.; Oosterkamp, T.H.; Jonge, de N.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure was developed to mount individual semiconductor indium arsenide nanowires onto tungsten support tips to serve as electron field-emission sources. The electron emission properties of the single nanowires were precisely determined by measuring the emission pattern, current-voltage curve,

  13. High purity liquid phase epitaxial gallium arsenide nuclear radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.

    1991-11-01

    Surface barrier radiation detector made from high purity liquid phase epitaxial gallium arsenide wafers have been operated as X- and γ-ray detectors at various operating temperatures. Low energy isotopes are resolved including 241 Am at 40 deg C. and the higher gamma energies of 235 U at -80 deg C. 15 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  14. Electrical properties of indium arsenide irradiated with fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolin, N.G.; Osvenskii, V.B.; Rytova, N.S.; Yurova, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of irradiation with fast reactor neutrons on electrical properties of indium arsenide samples with different dopant concentrations. The laws governing the formation and annealing of radiation defects in indium arsenide were found to be governed by the donor-acceptor interaction. Depending on the density of free carriers in the original crystal, irradiation could produce charged defects of predominantly donor or acceptor types. Donor defects in irradiated InAs samples were annealed practically completely, whereas a considerable fraction of residual acceptor defects was retained even after heat treatment at 900 degree C. The concentration of these residual acceptors depended on the electron density at the annealing temperature

  15. Assessment of arsenic exposures and controls in gallium arsenide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, J W; Jones, J H

    1993-02-01

    The electronics industry is expanding the use of gallium arsenide in the production of optoelectronic devices and integrated circuits. Workers in the electronics industry using gallium arsenide are exposed to hazardous substances such as arsenic, arsine, and various acids. Arsenic requires stringent controls to minimize exposures (the current OSHA PEL for arsenic is 10 micrograms/m3 and the NIOSH REL is 2 micrograms/m3 ceiling). Inorganic arsenic is strongly implicated in respiratory tract and skin cancer. For these reasons, NIOSH researchers conducted a study of control systems for facilities using gallium arsenide. Seven walk-through surveys were performed to identify locations for detailed study which appeared to have effective controls; three facilities were chosen for in-depth evaluation. The controls were evaluated by industrial hygiene sampling. Including personal breathing zone and area air sampling for arsenic and arsine; wipe samples for arsenic also were collected. Work practices and the use of personal protective equipment were documented. This paper reports on the controls and the arsenic exposure results from the evaluation of the following gallium arsenide processes: Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) and Horizontal Bridgeman (HB) crystal growing, LEC cleaning operations, ingot grinding/wafer sawing, and epitaxy. Results at one plant showed that in all processes except epitaxy, average arsenic exposures were at or above the OSHA action level of 5 micrograms/m3. While cleaning the LEC crystal pullers, the average potential arsenic exposure of the cleaning operators was 100 times the OSHA PEL. At the other two plants, personal exposures for arsenic were well controlled in LEC, LEC cleaning, grinding/sawing, and epitaxy operations.

  16. Study of current instabilities in high resistivity gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraud, A.

    1968-01-01

    We have shown the existence and made a study of the current oscillations produced in high-resistivity gallium arsenide by a strong electric field. The oscillations are associated with the slow travelling of a region of high electrical field across the whole sample. An experimental study of the properties of these instabilities has made it possible for us to distinguish this phenomenon from the Gunn effect, from acoustic-electric effects and from contact effects. In order to account for this type of instability, a differential trapping mechanism involving repulsive impurities is proposed; this mechanism can reduce the concentration of charge carriers in the conduction band at strong electrical fields and can lead to the production of a high-field domain. By developing this model qualitatively we have been able to account for all the properties of high-resistance gallium arsenide crystals subjected to a strong electrical field: increase of the Hall constant, existence of a voltage threshold for these oscillations, production of domains of high field, low rate of propagation of these domains, and finally the possibility of inverting the direction of the propagation of the domain without destroying the latter. A quantitative development of the model makes it possible to calculate the various characteristic parameters of these instabilities. Comparison with experiment shows that there is a good agreement, the small deviations coming especially from the lack of knowledge concerning transport properties in gallium arsenide subjected to high fields. From a study of this model, it appears that the instability phenomenon can occur over a wide range of repulsive centre concentrations, and also for a large range of resistivities. This is the reason why it appears systematically in gallium arsenide of medium and high resistivity. (authors) [fr

  17. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  18. Development of gallium arsenide gamma spectrometric detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Kuru, I.

    1975-03-01

    GaAs semiconductor material has been considered to be a suitable material for gamma-ray spectrometer operating at room temperature since it has a wid-band gap, larger than that of silicon and germanium. The basic objective of this work is to develop a GaAs gamma-ray spectrometric detector which could be used for gamma spectrometric measurement of uranium and plutonium in nuclear fuel safeguards. Liquid phase epitaxial techniques using iron (Fe) as dopant have been developed in making high purity GaAs crystals suitable for gamma-ray spectrometer operating at room temperature. Concentration of Fe in the epitaxial crystal was controlled by initial growth temperature. The best quality epitaxial crystal was obtained under the following conditions: starting temperature is about 800degC, the proportion of Fe to Ga solvent is 1 to 300. Carrier concentration of epitaxial crystals grown distributed in the ranges of 10 12 cm -3 to 10 14 cm -3 at room temperature. The thickness of the crystals ranged from 38 μm to 120 μm. Au-GaAs surface barrier detector was made of epitaxial crystal. Some of the detector were encapsulated in a can with a 50 μm Be window by welding a can to the detector holder. The detector with high energy resolution and good charge collecting characteristics was selected by alpha spectrometry at room temperature. Energy resolution of the detector for gamma-rays up to about 200 keV was very good at room temperature operation. The best energy resolutions taken with a GaAs detector were 3 keV (fwhm) and 3.8 keV for 241 Am 59.6 keV and 57 Co 122 keV, respectively, at room temperature. In order to study the applicability of the detector for nuclear safeguards, the measurements of 235 U gamma-ray spectrum have been carried out at room temperature. It was clarified that the gamma-ray spectrum of enriched U sample could be measured in high resolution with GaAs detector at room temperature, and that the content of 235 U in enriched U sources could be determined by

  19. Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerung, Henry [Albuquerque, NM; Boyle, Timothy J [Kensington, MD; Bunge, Scott D [Cuyahoga Falls, OH

    2009-09-22

    A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.

  20. Metal induced crystallization of silicon germanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjukic, M.

    2007-05-15

    In the framework of this thesis the applicability of the aluminium-induced layer exchange on binary silicon germanium alloys was studied. It is here for the first time shown that polycrstalline silicon-germanium layers can be fabricated over the whole composition range by the aluminium-induced layer exchange. The experimental results prove thet the resulting material exhibits a polycrystalline character with typocal grain sizes of 10-100 {mu}m. Raman measurements confirm that the structural properties of the resulting layers are because of the large crystallites more comparable with monocrystalline than with nano- or microcrystalline silicon-germanium. The alloy ratio of the polycrystalline layer correspondes to the chemical composition of the amorphous starting layer. The polycrystalline silicon-germanium layers possess in the range of the interband transitions a reflection spectrum, as it is otherwise only known from monocrystalline reference layers. The improvement of the absorption in the photovoltaically relevant spectral range aimed by the application of silicon-germanium could be also proved by absorption measurments. Strongly correlated with the structural properties of the polycrystalline layers and the electronic band structure resulting from this are beside the optical properties also the electrical properties of the material, especially the charge-carrier mobility and the doping concentration. For binary silicon-germanium layers the hole concentration of about 2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} for pure silicon increrases to about 5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sub -3} for pure germanium. Temperature-resolved measurements were applied in order to detect doping levels respectively semiconductor-metal transitions. In the last part of the thesis the hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline thin silicon-germanium layers, which were fabricated by means of aluminium-induced layer exchange, is treated.

  1. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  2. Testing of gallium arsenide solar cells on the CRRES vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    A flight experiment was designed to determine the optimum design for gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell panels in a radiation environment. Elements of the experiment design include, different coverglass material and thicknesses, welded and soldered interconnects, different solar cell efficiencies, different solar cell types, and measurement of annealing properties. This experiment is scheduled to fly on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). This satellite will simultaneously measure the radiation environment and provide engineering data on solar cell degradation that can be directly related to radiation damage

  3. Photo-dissociation of hydrogen passivated dopants in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, L.; Larsson, J.A.; Nolan, M.; Murtagh, M.; Greer, J.C.; Barbe, M.; Bailly, F.; Chevallier, J.; Silvestre, F.S.; Loridant-Bernard, D.; Constant, E.; Constant, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the photo-dissociation mechanisms of hydrogen passivated n- and p-type dopants in gallium arsenide is presented. The photo-induced dissociation of the Si Ga -H complex has been observed for relatively low photon energies (3.48 eV), whereas the photo-dissociation of C As -H is not observed for photon energies up to 5.58 eV. This fundamental difference in the photo-dissociation behavior between the two dopants is explained in terms of the localized excitation energies about the Si-H and C-H bonds

  4. Liquid phase epitaxy of gallium arsenide - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Edmondson, M.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Tansley, T.

    1992-07-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy of gallium arsenide has been investigated intensively from the late 1960's to the present and has now a special place in the manufacture of wide band, compound semiconductor radiation detectors. Although this particular process appears to have gained prominence in the last three decades, the authors point out that its origins reach back to 1836 when Frankenheim made his first observations. A brief review is presented from a semiconductor applications point of view on how this subject developed. 70 refs., 5 figs

  5. Anomalous tensoelectric effects in gallium arsenide tunnel diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, Z.M.; Vyatkin, A.P.; Krivorotov, N.P.; Shchegol' , A.A.

    1988-02-01

    Anomalous tensoelectric phenomena induced in a tunnel p-n junction by a concentrated load and by hydrostatic compression were studied. The anomalous tensoelectric effects are caused by the action of concentrators of mechanical stresses in the vicinity of the p-n junction, giving rise to local microplastic strain. Under the conditions of hydrostatic compression prolate inclusions approx.100-200 A long play the role of concentrators. Analysis of irreversible changes in the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions made it possible to separate the energy levels of the defects produced with plastic strain of gallium arsenide.

  6. Method of beryllium implantation in germanium substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, S.; Baba, Y.; Kaneda, T.; Shirai, T.

    1983-01-01

    A semiconductor device is disclosed, as well as a method for manufacturing it in which ions of beryllium are implanted into a germanium substrate to form a layer containing p-type impurity material. There after the substrate is heated at a temperature in the range of 400 0 C. to 700 0 C. to diffuse the beryllium ions into the substrate so that the concentration of beryllium at the surface of the impurity layer is in the order of 10 17 cm- 3 or more. In one embodiment, a p-type channel stopper is formed locally in a p-type germanium substrate and an n-type active layer is formed in a region surrounded by, and isolated from, the channel stopper region. In another embodiment, a relatively shallow p-type active layer is formed at one part of an n-type germanium substrate and p-type guard ring regions are formed surrounding, and partly overlapping said p-type active layer. In a further embodiment, a p-type island region is formed at one part of an n-type germanium substrate, and an n-type region is formed within said p-type region. In these embodiments, the p-type channel stopper region, p-type guard ring regions and the p-type island region are all formed by implanting ions of beryllium into the germanium substrate

  7. Lattice parameters guide superconductivity in iron-arsenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, Lance M. N.; Sefat, Athena S.

    2017-03-01

    The discovery of superconducting materials has led to their use in technological marvels such as magnetic-field sensors in MRI machines, powerful research magnets, short transmission cables, and high-speed trains. Despite such applications, the uses of superconductors are not widespread because they function much below room-temperature, hence the costly cooling. Since the discovery of Cu- and Fe-based high-temperature superconductors (HTS), much intense effort has tried to explain and understand the superconducting phenomenon. While no exact explanations are given, several trends are reported in relation to the materials basis in magnetism and spin excitations. In fact, most HTS have antiferromagnetic undoped ‘parent’ materials that undergo a superconducting transition upon small chemical substitutions in them. As it is currently unclear which ‘dopants’ can favor superconductivity, this manuscript investigates crystal structure changes upon chemical substitutions, to find clues in lattice parameters for the superconducting occurrence. We review the chemical substitution effects on the crystal lattice of iron-arsenide-based crystals (2008 to present). We note that (a) HTS compounds have nearly tetragonal structures with a-lattice parameter close to 4 Å, and (b) superconductivity can depend strongly on the c-lattice parameter changes with chemical substitution. For example, a decrease in c-lattice parameter is required to induce ‘in-plane’ superconductivity. The review of lattice parameter trends in iron-arsenides presented here should guide synthesis of new materials and provoke theoretical input, giving clues for HTS.

  8. Macroscopic diffusion models for precipitation in crystalline gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmerle, Sven-Joachim Wolfgang

    2009-09-21

    Based on a thermodynamically consistent model for precipitation in gallium arsenide crystals including surface tension and bulk stresses by Dreyer and Duderstadt, we propose two different mathematical models to describe the size evolution of liquid droplets in a crystalline solid. The first model treats the diffusion-controlled regime of interface motion, while the second model is concerned with the interface-controlled regime of interface motion. Our models take care of conservation of mass and substance. These models generalise the well-known Mullins- Sekerka model for Ostwald ripening. We concentrate on arsenic-rich liquid spherical droplets in a gallium arsenide crystal. Droplets can shrink or grow with time but the centres of droplets remain fixed. The liquid is assumed to be homogeneous in space. Due to different scales for typical distances between droplets and typical radii of liquid droplets we can derive formally so-called mean field models. For a model in the diffusion-controlled regime we prove this limit by homogenisation techniques under plausible assumptions. These mean field models generalise the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model, which can be derived from the Mullins-Sekerka model rigorously, and is well understood. Mean field models capture the main properties of our system and are well adapted for numerics and further analysis. We determine possible equilibria and discuss their stability. Numerical evidence suggests in which case which one of the two regimes might be appropriate to the experimental situation. (orig.)

  9. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaio, N.P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E.E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-02-01

    Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 16 and 1.88 x 10 18 cm - 2 . After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures ( 0 exp(δ/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

  10. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaio, N. P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-01-01

    Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 to the 16th and 1.88 x 10 to the 18th per sq cm. After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures (less than 4.2 K) and found to follow the relationship rho = rho sub 0 exp(Delta/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2 K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers.

  11. Status report on the International Germanium Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Miley, H.S.; Reeves, J.H.; Avignone, F.T.; Collar, J.I.; Guerard, C.K.; Courant, H.; Ruddick, K.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Starostin, A.S.; Osetrov, S.B.; Pomansky, A.A.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Vasiliev, S.I.

    1992-06-01

    Phase II detector fabrication for the International Germanium Experiment is awaiting resolution of technical details observed during Phase I. Measurements of fiducial volume, configuration of the tansistor-reset preamplifier stage, and sources of background are discussed. Cosmogenic 7 Be is measured in germanium. Radium contamination in electroformed copper reported. The 2ν double- beta decay half-life of 76 Ge measured with a Phase I detector is in reasonable agreement with previously reported values. No events are observed in the vicinity of the Oν double-beta decay energy

  12. Germanium-overcoated niobium Dayem bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdeman, L.B.; Peters, P.N.

    1976-01-01

    Overcoating constriction microbridges with semiconducting germanium provides additional thermal conductivity at liquid-helium temperatures to reduce the effects of self-heating in these Josephson junctions. Microwave-induced steps were observed in the I-V characteristics of an overcoated Dayem bridge fabricated in a 15-nm-thick niobium film; at 4.2 K (T/sub c/-T=2.6 K), at least 20 steps could be counted. No steps were observed in the I-V characteristics of the bridge prior to overcoating. In addition, the germanium overcoat can protect against electrical disturbances at room temperature

  13. GRAN SASSO: Enriched germanium in action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-12-15

    Two large crystals of carefully enriched germanium, one weighing 1 kilogram and the other 2.9 kilograms, and worth many millions of dollars, are being carefully monitored in the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory in the continuing search for neutrinoless double beta decay.

  14. GRAN SASSO: Enriched germanium in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Two large crystals of carefully enriched germanium, one weighing 1 kilogram and the other 2.9 kilograms, and worth many millions of dollars, are being carefully monitored in the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory in the continuing search for neutrinoless double beta decay

  15. Filtering microphonics in dark matter germanium experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.; Garcia, E.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Morales, A.; Nunz-Lagos, R.; Puimedon, J.; Saenz, C.; Villar, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for reducing the microphonic noise in a germanium spectrometer used in dark matter particles searches is described. Filtered energy spectra, corresponding to 48.5 kg day of data in a running experiment in the Canfranc tunnel are presented. Improvements of this filtering procedure with respect to the method of rejecting those events not distributed evenly in time are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Neutron Transmission of Germanium Poly- and Monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, N.

    2009-01-01

    The measured total neutron cross-sections of germanium poly- and mono-crystals were analyzed using an additive formula. The formula takes into account the germanium crystalline structure and its physical parameters. Computer programs have developed in order to provide the required analyses. The calculated values of the total cross-section of polycrystalline germanium in the neutron wavelength range from 0.001 up to 0.7 nm were fitted to the measured ones at ETRR-1. From the fitting the main constants of the additive formula were determined. The experimental data measured at ETRR-1 of the total cross-section of high quality Ge single crystal at 4400 K, room, and liquid nitrogen temperatures, in the wavelength range between 0.028 nm and 0.64 nm, were also compared with the calculated values using the formula having the same constants. An overall agreement is noticed between the formula fits and experimental data. A feasibility study is done for the use of germanium in poly-crystalline form, as cold neutron filter, and in mono-crystalline one as an efficient filter for thermal neutrons. The filtering efficiency of Ge single crystal is detailed in terms of its isotopic abundance, crystal thickness, mosaic spread, and temperature. It can be concluded that the 7.5 cm thick 76 Ge single crystal (0.10 FWHM mosaic spread) cooled at liquid nitrogen temperature is an efficient thermal neutron filter.

  17. Mesostructured germanium with cubic pore symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armatas, G S; Kanatzidis, M G [Michigan State Univ., Michigan (United States), Dept. of Chemistry

    2006-11-15

    Regular mesoporous oxide materials have been widely studied and have a range of potential applications, such as catalysis, absorption and separation. They are not generally considered for their optical and electronic properties. Elemental semiconductors with nanopores running through them represent a different form of framework material with physical characteristics contrasting with those of the more conventional bulk, thin film and nanocrystalline forms. Here we describe cubic meso structured germanium, MSU-Ge-l, with gyroidal channels containing surfactant molecules, separated by amorphous walls that lie on the gyroid (G) minimal surface as in the mesoporous silica MCM-48. Although Ge is a high-meltin covalent semiconductor that is difficult to prepare from solution polymerization, we succeeded in assembling a continuous Ge network using a suitable precursor for Ge{sup 4-} atoms. Our results indicate that elemental semiconductors from group 14 of the periodic table can be made to adopt meso structured forms such as MSU-Ge-1, which features two three-dimensional labyrinthine tunnels obeying la3d space group symmetry and separated by a continuous germanium minimal surface that is otherwise amorphous. A consequence of this new structure for germanium, which has walls only one nanometre thick, is a wider electronic energy bandgap (1.4 eV versus 0.66 eV) than has crystalline or amorphous Ge. Controlled oxidation of MSU-Ge-1 creates a range of germanium suboxides with continuously varying Ge:O ratio and a smoothly increasing energy gap. (author)

  18. Characterization of nanocrystalline silicon germanium film and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nanocrystalline silicon-germanium films (Si/Ge) and Si/Ge nanotubes have low band gaps and high carrier mobility, thus offering appealing potential for absorbing gas molecules. Interaction between hydrogen molecules and bare as well as functionalized Si/Ge nanofilm and nanotube was investigated using Monte ...

  19. Synchrotron white beam topographic studies of gallium arsenide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Graeff, W.

    1997-01-01

    A series of samples cut out from different types of gallium arsenide crystals with low dislocation density were studied by means of white beam synchrotron topography. The investigation was performed with transmission and black-reflection projection methods and transmission section method. Some of topographs in transmission geometry provided a very high sensitivity suitable for revealing small precipitates. The transmission section images significantly differed depending on the wavelength and absorption. In some cases a distinct Pendelloesung fringes and fine details of dislocation and precipitates images were observed. It was possible to reproduce the character of these images by means of numerical simulation based on integration of Takagi-Taupin equations. Due to more convenient choice of radiation, synchrotron back-reflection projection topography provided much better visibility of dislocations than analogous realized with conventional X-ray sources. (author)

  20. Density Functional Theory Study on Defect Feature of AsGaGaAs in Gallium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the defect feature of AsGaGaAs defect in gallium arsenide clusters in detail by using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT. Our calculations reveal that the lowest donor level of AsGaGaAs defect on the gallium arsenide crystal surface is 0.85 eV below the conduction band minimum, while the lowest donor level of the AsGaGaAs defect inside the gallium arsenide bulk is 0.83 eV below the bottom of the conduction band, consistent with gallium arsenide EL2 defect level of experimental value (Ec-0.82 eV. This suggests that AsGaGaAs defect is one of the possible gallium arsenide EL2 deep-level defects. Moreover, our results also indicate that the formation energies of internal AsGaGaAs and surface AsGaGaAs defects are predicted to be around 2.36 eV and 5.54 eV, respectively. This implies that formation of AsGaGaAs defect within the crystal is easier than that of surface. Our results offer assistance in discussing the structure of gallium arsenide deep-level defect and its effect on the material.

  1. Technology CAD for germanium CMOS circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A.R. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India)]. E-mail: ars.iitkgp@gmail.com; Maiti, C.K. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India)

    2006-12-15

    Process simulation for germanium MOSFETs (Ge-MOSFETs) has been performed in 2D SILVACO virtual wafer fabrication (VWF) suite towards the technology CAD for Ge-CMOS process development. Material parameters and mobility models for Germanium were incorporated in simulation via C-interpreter function. We also report on the device design issues along with the DC and RF characterization of the bulk Ge-MOSFETs, AC parameter extraction and circuit simulation of Ge-CMOS. Simulation results are compared with bulk-Si devices. Simulations predict a cut-off frequency, f {sub T} of about 175 GHz for Ge-MOSFETs compared to 70 GHz for a similar gate-length Si MOSFET. For a single stage Ge-CMOS inverter circuit, a GATE delay of 0.6 ns is predicted.

  2. Technology CAD for germanium CMOS circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.R.; Maiti, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    Process simulation for germanium MOSFETs (Ge-MOSFETs) has been performed in 2D SILVACO virtual wafer fabrication (VWF) suite towards the technology CAD for Ge-CMOS process development. Material parameters and mobility models for Germanium were incorporated in simulation via C-interpreter function. We also report on the device design issues along with the DC and RF characterization of the bulk Ge-MOSFETs, AC parameter extraction and circuit simulation of Ge-CMOS. Simulation results are compared with bulk-Si devices. Simulations predict a cut-off frequency, f T of about 175 GHz for Ge-MOSFETs compared to 70 GHz for a similar gate-length Si MOSFET. For a single stage Ge-CMOS inverter circuit, a GATE delay of 0.6 ns is predicted

  3. Germanium films by polymer-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Quanxi; Burrell, Anthony K.; Bauer, Eve; Ronning, Filip; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Zou, Guifu

    2013-01-15

    Highly ordered Ge films are prepared directly on single crystal Si substrates by applying an aqueous coating solution having Ge-bound polymer onto the substrate and then heating in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere. A coating solution was prepared by mixing water, a germanium compound, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and polyethyleneimine to form a first aqueous solution and then subjecting the first aqueous solution to ultrafiltration.

  4. Vacancy-indium clusters in implanted germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-04-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of heavily indium doped germanium samples revealed that a significant proportion of the indium dose is immobile. Using electronic structure calculations we address the possibility of indium clustering with point defects by predicting the stability of indium-vacancy clusters, InnVm. We find that the formation of large clusters is energetically favorable, which can explain the immobility of the indium ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vacancy-indium clusters in implanted germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.; Kube, R.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of heavily indium doped germanium samples revealed that a significant proportion of the indium dose is immobile. Using electronic structure calculations we address the possibility of indium clustering with point defects by predicting the stability of indium-vacancy clusters, InnVm. We find that the formation of large clusters is energetically favorable, which can explain the immobility of the indium ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Next Generation Germanium Systems for Safeguards Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, J.; Burks, M.; Hull, E.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing the latest generation of highly portable, mechanically cooled germanium systems for safeguard applications. In collaboration with our industrial partner, Ph.D.s Co, we have developed the Germanium Gamma Ray Imager (GeGI), an imager with a 2π field of view. This instrument has been thoroughly field tested in a wide range of environments and have performed reliably even in the harshest conditions. The imaging capability of GeGI complements existing safeguards techniques by allowing for the spatial detection, identification, and characterization of nuclear material. Additionally, imaging can be used in design information verification activities to address potential material diversions. Measurements conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant highlight the advantages this instrument offers in the identification and localization of LEU, HEU and Pu holdup. GeGI has also been deployed to the Savannah River Site for the measurement of radioactive waste canisters, providing information valuable for waste characterization and inventory accountancy. Measuring 30 x 15 x 23 cm and weighing approximately 15 kg, this instrument is the first portable germanium-based imager. GeGI offers high reliability with the convenience of mechanical cooling, making this instrument ideal for the next generation of safeguards instrumentation. (author)

  7. Smooth germanium nanowires prepared by a hydrothermal deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei1977@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhao, H.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Tan, W. [Henkel Huawei Electronics Co. Ltd., Lian' yungang, Jiangsu 222006 (China); Yu, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Chen, Y.W. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fan, C.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhang, Qian-Feng, E-mail: zhangqf@ahut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Smooth germanium nanowires were prepared using Ge and GeO{sub 2} as the starting materials and Cu sheet as the substrate by a simple hydrothermal deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations show that the germanium nanowires are smooth and straight with uniform diameter of about 150 nm in average and tens of micrometers in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum of the germanium nanowires display that the germanium nanowires are mainly composed of cubic diamond phase. PL spectrum shows a strong blue light emission at 441 nm. The growth mechanism is also discussed.

  8. Smooth germanium nanowires prepared by a hydrothermal deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Zhao, H.S.; Tan, W.; Yu, H.Y.; Chen, Y.W.; Fan, C.G.; Zhang, Qian-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Smooth germanium nanowires were prepared using Ge and GeO 2 as the starting materials and Cu sheet as the substrate by a simple hydrothermal deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations show that the germanium nanowires are smooth and straight with uniform diameter of about 150 nm in average and tens of micrometers in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum of the germanium nanowires display that the germanium nanowires are mainly composed of cubic diamond phase. PL spectrum shows a strong blue light emission at 441 nm. The growth mechanism is also discussed.

  9. Amorphous germanium as an electron or hole blocking contact on high-purity germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1976-10-01

    Experiments were performed in an attempt to make thin n + contacts on high-purity germanium by the solid phase/sup 1)/ epitaxial regrowth of arsenic doped amorphous germanium. After cleaning the crystal surface with argon sputtering and trying many combinations of layers, it was not found possible to induce recrystallization below 400 0 C. However, it was found that simple thermally evaporated amorphous Ge made fairly good electron or hole blocking contacts. Excellent spectrometers have been made with amorphous Ge replacing the n + contact. As presently produced, the amorphous Ge contact diodes show a large variation in high-voltage leakage current

  10. Semiconducting icosahedral boron arsenide crystal growth for neutron detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, C. E.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Y.; Bakalova, S.; Mayo, A.; Edgar, J. H.; Kuball, M.

    2011-03-01

    Semiconducting icosahedral boron arsenide, B12As2, is an excellent candidate for neutron detectors, thermoelectric converters, and radioisotope batteries, for which high quality single crystals are required. Thus, the present study was undertaken to grow B12As2 crystals by precipitation from metal solutions (nickel) saturated with elemental boron (or B12As2 powder) and arsenic in a sealed quartz ampoule. B12As2 crystals of 10-15 mm were produced when a homogeneous mixture of the three elements was held at 1150 °C for 48-72 h and slowly cooled (3.5 °C/h). The crystals varied in color and transparency from black and opaque to clear and transparent. X-ray topography (XRT), and elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed that the crystals had the expected rhombohedral structure and chemical stoichiometry. The concentrations of residual impurities (nickel, carbon, etc.) were low, as measured by Raman spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Additionally, low etch-pit densities (4.4×107 cm-2) were observed after etching in molten KOH at 500 °C. Thus, the flux growth method is viable for growing large, high-quality B12As2 crystals.

  11. Optical and Electrical Characterization of Melt-Grown Bulk Indium Gallium Arsenide and Indium Arsenic Phosphide Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    spectrum, photoluminescence (PL), and refractive index measurements. Other methods such as infrared imagery and micro probe wavelength dispersing ...States. AFIT/DS/ENP/11-M02 OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT- GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ...CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT-GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ALLOYS Jean Wei, BS, MS Approved

  12. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, P{sub max} was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  13. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna

    2015-05-01

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, Pmax was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  14. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, P max was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs

  15. Manufacturing P-N junctions in germanium bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing p-n junctions in Ge so as to facilitate their use as radiation detectors involves forming a body of high purity p-type germanium, diffusing lithium deep into the body, in the absence of electrolytic processes, to form a junction between n-type and p-type germanium greater than 1 mm depth. (UK)

  16. Effects of electronically neutral impurities on muonium in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clawson, C.W.; Crowe, K.M.; Haller, E.E.; Rosenblum, S.S.; Brewer, J.H.

    1983-04-01

    Low-temperature measurements of muonium parameters in various germanium crystals have been performed. We have measured crystals with different levels of neutral impurities, with and without dislocations, and with different annealing histories. The most striking result is the apparent trapping of Mu by silicon impurities in germanium

  17. Imaging capabilities of germanium gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steidley, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative methods of analysis based on the use of a computer simulation were developed and used to investigate the imaging capabilities of germanium gamma cameras. The main advantage of the computer simulation is that the inherent unknowns of clinical imaging procedures are removed from the investigation. The effects of patient scattered radiation were incorporated using a mathematical LSF model which was empirically developed and experimentally verified. Image modifying effects of patient motion, spatial distortions, and count rate capabilities were also included in the model. Spatial domain and frequency domain modeling techniques were developed and used in the simulation as required. The imaging capabilities of gamma cameras were assessed using low contrast lesion source distributions. The results showed that an improvement in energy resolution from 10% to 2% offers significant clinical advantages in terms of improved contrast, increased detectability, and reduced patient dose. The improvements are of greatest significance for small lesions at low contrast. The results of the computer simulation were also used to compare a design of a hypothetical germanium gamma camera with a state-of-the-art scintillation camera. The computer model performed a parametric analysis of the interrelated effects of inherent and technological limitations of gamma camera imaging. In particular, the trade-off between collimator resolution and collimator efficiency for detection of a given low contrast lesion was directly addressed. This trade-off is an inherent limitation of both gamma cameras. The image degrading effects of patient motion, camera spatial distortions, and low count rate were shown to modify the improvements due to better energy resolution. Thus, based on this research, the continued development of germanium cameras to the point of clinical demonstration is recommended

  18. Properties of gallium arsenide alloyed with Ge and Se by irradiation in nuclear reactor thermal column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolin, N.G.; Osvenskij, V.B.; Tokarevskij, V.V.; Kharchenko, V.A.; Ievlev, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Dependences of electrophysical properties as well as lattice unit spacing and density of nuclear-alloyed gallium arsenide on the fluence of reactor neutrons and heat treatment are investigated. Neutron radiation of gallium arsenide with different energy spectra is shown to differently affect material properties. Fast neutrons make the main contribution to defect formation. Concentration of compensating acceptor defects formed under GaAs radiation in a thermal column practically equals concentration of introduced donor impurities. Radiation defects of acceptor type are not annealed in the material completely even at 900-1000 deg C

  19. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhead, S. D.; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R.; Shah, V. A.; Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Reparaz, J. S.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge

  20. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhead, S. D., E-mail: S.Rhead@warwick.ac.uk; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Shah, V. A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Reparaz, J. S. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sotomayor Torres, C. M. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-04-28

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

  1. Array of germanium detectors for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Bernard, W.; Dowdy, E.J.; Garcia, C.; Lucas, M.C.; Pratt, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Our gamma-ray spectrometer system, designed for field use, offers high efficiency and high resolution for safeguards applications. The system consists of three 40% high-purity germanium detectors and a LeCroy 3500 data-acquisition system that calculates a composite spectrum for the three detectors. The LeCroy 3500 mainframe can be operated remotely from the detector array with control exercised through moderns and the telephone system. System performance with a mixed source of 125 Sb, 154 Eu, and 155 Eu confirms the expected efficiency of 120% with an overall resolution that is between the resolution of the best detector and that of the worst

  2. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  3. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed; Rubin, Andrew; Refaat, Mohamed; Sedky, Sherif; Abdo, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  4. Noble Metal Arsenides and Gold Inclusions in Northwest Africa 8186

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Rahman, Z.; Keller, L. P.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are a highly thermally altered group of carbonaceous chondrites, experiencing temperatures ranging between approximately 576-867 degrees Centigrade. Additionally, the mineralogy of the CK chondrites record the highest overall oxygen fugacity of all chondrites, above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. Me-tallic Fe-Ni is extremely rare in CK chondrites, but magnetite and Fe,Ni sulfides are commonly observed. Noble metal-rich inclusions have previously been found in some magnetite and sulfide grains. These arsenides, tellurides, and sulfides, which contain varying amounts of Pt, Ru, Os, Te, As, Ir, and S, are thought to form either by condensation from a solar gas, or by exsolution during metamorphism on the chondritic parent body. Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is a highly metamorphosed CK chondrite. This meteorite is predominately composed of NiO-rich forsteritic olivine (Fo65), with lesser amounts of plagioclase (An52), augite (Fs11Wo49), magnetite (with exsolved titanomagnetite, hercynite, and titanohematite), monosulfide solid solution (with exsolved pentlandite), and the phosphate minerals Cl-apatite and merrillite. This meteorite contains coarse-grained, homogeneous silicates, and has 120-degree triple junctions between mineral phases, which indicates a high degree of thermal metamorphism. The presence of NiO-rich olivine, oxides phases all bearing Fe3 plus, and the absence of metal, are consistent with an oxygen fugacity above the FMQ buffer. We also observed noble metal-rich phases within sulfide grains in NWA 8186, which are the primary focus of the present study.

  5. High-purity germanium crystal growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    The germanium crystals used for the fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors are required to have a purity and crystalline perfection which is unsurpassed by any other solid material. These crystals should not have a net electrically active impurity concentration greater than 10 10 cm - 3 and be essentially free of charge trapping defects. Such perfect crystals of germanium can be grown only because of the highly favorable chemical and physical properties of this element. However, ten years of laboratory scale and commercial experience has still not made the production of such crystals routine. The origin and control of many impurities and electrically active defect complexes is now fairly well understood but regular production is often interrupted for long periods due to the difficulty of achieving the required high purity or to charge trapping in detectors made from crystals seemingly grown under the required conditions. The compromises involved in the selection of zone refining and crystal grower parts and ambients is discussed and the difficulty in controlling the purity of key elements in the process is emphasized. The consequences of growing in a hydrogen ambient are discussed in detail and it is shown how complexes of neutral defects produce electrically active centers

  6. Cryogenic readout techniques for germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benato, G. [University of Zurich, (Switzerland); Cattadori, C. [INFN - Milano Bicocca, (Italy); Di Vacri, A. [INFN LNGS, (Italy); Ferri, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy); D' Andrea, V.; Macolino, C. [GSSI/INFN LNGS, (Italy); Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano/INFN Milano, (Italy); Salamida, F. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    High Purity Germanium detectors are used in many applications, from nuclear and astro-particle physics, to homeland security or environment protection. Although quite standard configurations are often used, with cryostats, charge sensitive amplifiers and analog or digital acquisition systems all commercially available, it might be the case that a few specific applications, e.g. satellites, portable devices, cryogenic physics experiments, etc. also require the development of a few additional or complementary techniques. An interesting case is for sure GERDA, the Germanium Detector Array experiment, searching for neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN - Italy. In GERDA the entire detector array, composed of semi-coaxial and BEGe naked crystals, is operated suspended inside a cryostat filled with liquid argon, that acts not only as cooling medium and but also as an active shield, thanks to its scintillation properties. These peculiar circumstances, together with the additional requirement of a very low radioactive background from all the materials adjacent to the detectors, clearly introduce significant constraints on the design of the Ge front-end readout electronics. All the Ge readout solutions developed within the framework of the GERDA collaboration, for both Phase I and Phase II, will be briefly reviewed, with their relative strength and weakness compared together and with respect to ideal Ge readout. Finally, the digital processing techniques developed by the GERDA collaboration for energy estimation of Ge detector signals will be recalled. (authors)

  7. Experience from operating germanium detectors in GERDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios; GERDA Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    Phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, searching for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge, was completed in September 2013. The most competitive half-life lower limit for the 0νββ decay of 76Ge was set (T-0ν1/2 > 2.1 · 1025 yr at 90% C.L.). GERDA operates bare Ge diodes immersed in liquid argon. During Phase I, mainly refurbished semi-coaxial high purity Ge detectors from previous experiments were used. The experience gained with handling and operating bare Ge diodes in liquid argon, as well as the stability and performance of the detectors during GERDA Phase I are presented. Thirty additional new enriched BEGe-type detectors were produced and will be used in Phase II. A subgroup of these detectors has already been used successfully in GERDA Phase I. The present paper gives an overview of the production chain of the new germanium detectors, the steps taken to minimise the exposure to cosmic radiation during manufacturing, and the first results of characterisation measurements in vacuum cryostats.

  8. Experience from operating germanium detectors in GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, searching for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76 Ge, was completed in September 2013. The most competitive half-life lower limit for the 0νββ decay of 76 Ge was set (T- 0ν 1/2 > 2.1 · 10 25 yr at 90% C.L.). GERDA operates bare Ge diodes immersed in liquid argon. During Phase I, mainly refurbished semi-coaxial high purity Ge detectors from previous experiments were used. The experience gained with handling and operating bare Ge diodes in liquid argon, as well as the stability and performance of the detectors during GERDA Phase I are presented. Thirty additional new enriched BEGe-type detectors were produced and will be used in Phase II. A subgroup of these detectors has already been used successfully in GERDA Phase I. The present paper gives an overview of the production chain of the new germanium detectors, the steps taken to minimise the exposure to cosmic radiation during manufacturing, and the first results of characterisation measurements in vacuum cryostats. (paper)

  9. Doping of germanium telluride with bismuth tellurides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrikosov, N.Kh.; Karpinskij, O.G.; Makalatiya, T.Sh.; Shelimova, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of germanium telluride doping with bismuth fellurides (Bi 2 Te 3 ; BiTe; Bi 2 Te) on phase transition temperature, lattice parameters and electrophysical properties of alloys is studied. It is shown that in alloys of GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 (BiTe)(Bi 2 Te) cross sections solid solution of GeTe with Bi 2 Te 3 , characterized by deviation from stoichiometry, and germanium in the second phase the quantity of which increases during the transition from GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 cross section to GeTe-Bi 2 Te are in equilibrium. Lower values of holes concentration and of electric conductivity and higher values of thermo e.m.f. coefficient in comparison with alloys of GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 cross section with the same bismuth content are characterized for GeTe-Bi 2 Te cross section alloys. It is shown that in the range of GeTe-base solid solution the α→γ phase transformation which runs trough the two-phase region (α→γ) is observed with tellurium content increase. Extension of α-phase existence region widens with the bismuth content increase. Peculiarities of interatomic interaction in GeTe-base solid solutions with isovalent and heterovalent cation substitution are considered [ru

  10. Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

    1999-01-01

    We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++, GAMANL, GRPANL and MGAU, typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service . The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted

  11. Noise suppression and long-range exchange coupling for gallium arsenide spin qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowski, Filip

    This thesis presents the results of the experimental study performed on spin qubits realized in gate-defined gallium arsenide quantum dots, with the focus on noise suppression and long-distance coupling. First, we show that the susceptibility to charge noise can be reduced by reducing the gradien...

  12. Continuum modelling of silicon diffusion in indium gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Henry Lee, Jr.

    A possible method to overcome the physical limitations experienced by continued transistor scaling and continue improvements in performance and power consumption is integration of III-V semiconductors as alternative channel materials for logic devices. Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) is such a material from the III-V semiconductor family, which exhibit superior electron mobilities and injection velocities than that of silicon. In order for InGaAs integration to be realized, contact resistances must be minimized through maximizing activation of dopants in this material. Additionally, redistribution of dopants during processing must be clearly understood and ultimately controlled at the nanometer-scale. In this work, the activation and diffusion behavior of silicon, a prominent n-type dopant in InGaAs, has been characterized and subsequently modelled using the Florida Object Oriented Process and Device Simulator (FLOOPS). In contrast to previous reports, silicon exhibits non-negligible diffusion in InGaAs, even for smaller thermal budget rapid thermal anneals (RTAs). Its diffusion is heavily concentration-dependent, with broadening "shoulder-like" profiles when doping levels exceed 1-3x1019cm -3, for both ion-implanted and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-grown cases. Likewise a max net-activation value of ˜1.7x1019cm -3 is consistently reached with enough thermal processing, regardless of doping method. In line with experimental results and several ab-initio calculation results, rapid concentration-dependent diffusion of Si in InGaAs and the upper limits of its activation is believed to be governed by cation vacancies that serve as compensating defects in heavily n-type regions of InGaAs. These results are ultimately in line with an amphoteric defect model, where the activation limits of dopants are an intrinsic limitation of the material, rather than governed by individual dopant species or their methods of incorporation. As a result a Fermi level dependent point

  13. Gallium interstitial contributions to diffusion in gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Joseph T.; Morgan, Caroline G.

    2011-09-01

    encountered in fitting experimental results for heavily p-type, Ga-rich gallium arsenide by simply extending a model for gallium interstitial diffusion which has been used for less p-doped material.

  14. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.; Sgourou, E. N.; Londos, C. A.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  15. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.

    2015-06-18

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  16. Germanium detectors and natural radioactivity in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbini, Lucia [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GeDet-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Potassium is a very important mineral for many physiological processes, like fluid balance, protein synthesis and signal transmission in nerves. Many aliments like raisins, bananas or chocolate contain potassium. Natural potassium contains 0.012% of the radioactive isotope Potassium 40. This isotope decays via β{sup +} decay into a metastable state of Argon 40, which reaches its ground state emitting a gamma of 1460 keV. A commercially produced Germanium detector has been used to measure the energy spectra of different selected food samples. It was calibrated with KCl and potassium contents were extracted. Results verify the high potassium content of commonly recommended food samples. However, the measurement quantitatively differ from the expectations in several cases. One of the most interesting results concerns chocolate bars with different percentages of cacao.

  17. Interactions of germanium atoms with silica surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Scott K.; Coffee, Shawn S.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2005-01-01

    GeH 4 is thermally cracked over a hot filament depositing 0.7-15 ML Ge onto 2-7 nm SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0) at substrate temperatures of 300-970 K. Ge bonding changes are analyzed during annealing with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ge, GeH x , GeO, and GeO 2 desorption is monitored through temperature programmed desorption in the temperature range 300-1000 K. Low temperature desorption features are attributed to GeO and GeH 4 . No GeO 2 desorption is observed, but GeO 2 decomposition to Ge through high temperature pathways is seen above 750 K. Germanium oxidization results from Ge etching of the oxide substrate. With these results, explanations for the failure of conventional chemical vapor deposition to produce Ge nanocrystals on SiO 2 surfaces are proposed

  18. Carbon in high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.; Luke, P.; McMurray, R.; Jarrett, B.

    1981-10-01

    Using 14 C-spiked pyrolytic graphite-coated quartz crucibles for the growth of nine ultra-pure germanium single crystals, we have determined the carbon content and distribution in these crystals. Using autoradiography, we observe a rapidly decreasing carbon cluster concentration in successively grown crystals. Nuclear radiation detectors made from the crystals measure the betas from the internally decaying 14 C nuclei with close to 100% efficiency. An average value for the total carbon concentration [ 14 C + 12 C] is approx. 2 x 10 14 cm -3 , a value substantially larger than expected from earlier metallurgical studies. Contrary to the most recent measurement, we find the shape of the beta spectrum to agree very well with the statistical shape predicted for allowed transitions

  19. Radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Experimentally investigated is the radiation-electromagnetic effect (REM) in germanium monocrystals on excitation of excess current carriers by α particles, protons and X-rays in magnetic fields up to 8 kOe. A cyclotron was used as an α particle source, and a standard X-ray tube with a copper anode - as an X-ray source. The e.m.f. of the REM effect linearly increases with the increase of the magnetic field and is proportional to the charged particle flux at small flux values, saturation occurs at great flux values (approximately 5x10 11 part./cm 2 xs). In the 4-40 MeV energy range the e.m.f. of the REM effect practically does not depend on the α particle energy. On irradiation of the samples with a grinding front surface the REM e.m.f. changes its sign. The REM and Hall effect measurement on α particle irradiated samples has shown that during irradiation a p-n transition is formed in the samples, which must be taken into account while studying the REM effect. The e.m.f. measured for the even REM effect quadratically increases with the magnetic field increase. The barrier radiation-voltaic effect (the effect e.m.f. is measured between the irradiated and nonirradiated sample faces) is studied. Using special masks the samples with a set of consecutive p-n transitions are produced by irradiation of germanium crystals by α particles. Investigation of the photovoltaic and photoelectromagnetic effects on such samples has shown that using this method the efficiency of the REM devices can be increased

  20. Reduction of Defects in Germanium-Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Crystals grown without contact with a container have far superior quality to otherwise similar crystals grown in direct contact with a container. In addition to float-zone processing, detached- Bridgman growth is a promising tool to improve crystal quality, without the limitations of float zoning or the defects introduced by normal Bridgman growth. Goals of this project include the development of the detached Bridgman process to be reproducible and well understood and to quantitatively compare the defect and impurity levels in crystals grown by these three methods. Germanium (Ge) and germanium-silicon (Ge-Si) alloys are being used. At MSFC, we are responsible for the detached Bridgman experiments intended to differentiate among proposed mechanisms of detachment, and to confirm or refine our understanding of detachment. Because the contact angle is critical to determining the conditions for detachment, the sessile drop method was used to measure the contact angles as a function of temperature and composition for a large number of substrates made of potential ampoule materials. Growth experiments have used pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) and fused silica ampoules with the majority of the detached results occurring predictably in the pBN. Etch pit density (EPD) measurements of normal and detached Bridgman-grown Ge samples show a two order of magnitude improvement in the detached-grown samples. The nature and extent of detachment is determined by using profilometry in conjunction with optical and electron microscopy. The stability of detachment has been analyzed, and an empirical model for the conditions necessary to achieve sufficient stability to maintain detached growth for extended periods has been developed. We have investigated the effects on detachment of ampoule material, pressure difference above and below the melt, and Si concentration; samples that are nearly completely detached can be grown repeatedly in pBN. Current work is concentrated on developing a

  1. Silicon and Germanium (111) Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, You Gong

    Silicon (111) surface (7 x 7) reconstruction has been a long standing puzzle. For the last twenty years, various models were put forward to explain this reconstruction, but so far the problem still remains unsolved. Recent ion scattering and channeling (ISC), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron diffraction (TED) experiments reveal some new results about the surface which greatly help investigators to establish better models. This work proposes a silicon (111) surface reconstruction mechanism, the raising and lowering mechanism which leads to benzene -like ring and flower (raised atom) building units. Based on these building units a (7 x 7) model is proposed, which is capable of explaining the STM and ISC experiment and several others. Furthermore the building units of the model can be used naturally to account for the germanium (111) surface c(2 x 8) reconstruction and other observed structures including (2 x 2), (5 x 5) and (7 x 7) for germanium as well as the (/3 x /3)R30 and (/19 x /19)R23.5 impurity induced structures for silicon, and the higher temperature disordered (1 x 1) structure for silicon. The model is closely related to the silicon (111) surface (2 x 1) reconstruction pi-bonded chain model, which is the most successful model for the reconstruction now. This provides an explanation for the rather low conversion temperature (560K) of the (2 x 1) to the (7 x 7). The model seems to meet some problems in the explanation of the TED result, which is explained very well by the dimer, adatom and stacking fault (DAS) model proposed by Takayanagi. In order to explain the TED result, a variation of the atomic scattering factor is proposed. Comparing the benzene-like ring model with the DAS model, the former needs more work to explain the TED result and the later has to find a way to explain the silicon (111) surface (1 x 1) disorder experiment.

  2. Lattice site and thermal stability of transition metals in germanium

    CERN Document Server

    Augustyns, Valérie; Pereira, Lino

    Although the first transistor was based on germanium, current chip technology mainly uses silicon due to its larger abundance, a lower price and higher quality silicon-oxide. However, a very important goal in microelectronics is to obtain faster integrated circuits. The advantages of germanium compared to silicon (e.g. a higher mobility of the charge carriers) motivates further research on germanium based materials. Semiconductor doping (e.g. introducing impurities into silicon and germanium in order to alter - and control - their properties) can be done by ion implantation or by in situ doping, whereby the host material is doped during growth. This thesis focuses on introducing dopants by ion implantation. The implantation as well as the subsequent measurements were performed in ISOLDE (CERN) using the emission channeling technique. Although ion implantation generates undesired defects in the host material (e.g. vacancies), such damage can be reduced by performing the implantation at an elevated temperature....

  3. Vacancy-acceptor complexes in germanium produced by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuser, U.; Vianden, R. (Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Univ. Bonn (Germany)); Alves, E.; Silva, M.F. da (Dept. de Fisica, ICEN/LNETI, Sacavem (Portugal)); Szilagyi, E.; Paszti, F. (Central Research Inst. for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Soares, J.C. (Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Univ. Lisbon (Portugal))

    1991-07-01

    Combining results obtained by the {gamma}-{gamma} perturbed angular correlation method, Rutherford backscattering and elastic recoil detection of hydrogen, a defect complex formed in germanium by indium implantation is identified as a vacancy trapped by the indium probe. (orig.).

  4. Near-infrared emission from mesoporous crystalline germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucherif, Abderraouf; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard, E-mail: richard.ares@usherbrooke.ca [Institut Interdisciplinaire d’Innovation Technologique (3IT), Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec (Canada); Laboratoire Nanotechnologies Nanosystèmes (LN2)-CNRS UMI-3463, Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec (Canada); Korinek, Andreas [Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Mesoporous crystalline germanium was fabricated by bipolar electrochemical etching of Ge wafer in HF-based electrolyte. It yields uniform mesoporous germanium layers composed of high density of crystallites with an average size 5-7 nm. Subsequent extended chemical etching allows tuning of crystallites size while preserving the same chemical composition. This highly controllable nanostructure exhibits photoluminescence emission above the bulk Ge bandgap, in the near-infrared range (1095-1360nm) with strong evidence of quantum confinement within the crystallites.

  5. Point defects in gallium arsenide characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mih, R.; Gronsky, R.; Sterne, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is a unique technique for detection of vacancy related defects in both as-grown and irradiated materials. The authors present a systematic study of vacancy defects in stoichiometrically controlled p-type Gallium Arsenide grown by the Hot-Wall Czochralski method. Microstructural information based on PALS, was correlated to crystallographic data and electrical measurements. Vacancies were detected and compared to electrical levels detected by deep level transient spectroscopy and stoichiometry based on crystallographic data

  6. Modeling an array of encapsulated germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    A probability model has been presented for understanding the operation of an array of encapsulated germanium detectors generally known as composite detector. The addback mode of operation of a composite detector has been described considering the absorption and scattering of γ-rays. Considering up to triple detector hit events, we have obtained expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the cluster detector, which consists of seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. Results have been obtained for the miniball detectors comprising of three and four seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. The formalism has been extended to the SPI spectrometer which is a telescope of the INTEGRAL satellite and consists of nineteen hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. This spectrometer comprises of twelve detector modules surrounding the cluster detector. For comparison, we have considered a spectrometer comprising of nine detector modules surrounding the three detector configuration of miniball detector. In the present formalism, the operation of these sophisticated detectors could be described in terms of six probability amplitudes only. Using experimental data on relative efficiency and fold distribution of cluster detector as input, the fold distribution and the peak-to-total, peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for the SPI spectrometer and other composite detectors at 1332 keV. Remarkable agreement between experimental data and results from the present formalism has been observed for the SPI spectrometer.

  7. Theoretical Investigations of the Hexagonal Germanium Carbonitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhai Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The structural, mechanical, elastic anisotropic, and electronic properties of hexagonal germanium carbonitride (h-GeCN are systematically investigated using the first-principle calculations method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of generalized gradient approximation in the present work. The h-GeCN are mechanically and dynamically stable, as proved by the elastic constants and phonon spectra, respectively. The h-GeCN is brittle because the ratio B/G and Poisson’s ratio v of the h-GeCN are less than 1.75 and 0.26, respectively. For h-GeCN, from brittleness to ductility, the transformation pressures are 5.56 GPa and 5.63 GPa for B/G and Poisson’s ratio v, respectively. The h-GeCN exhibits the greater elastic anisotropy in Young’s modulus and the sound velocities. In addition, the calculated band structure of h-GeCN reveals that there is no band gap for h-GeCN with the HSE06 hybrid functional, so the h-GeCN is metallic.

  8. Electrodeposition of germanium from supercritical fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jie; Bartlett, Philip N; Cook, David; Easun, Timothy L; George, Michael W; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Smith, David; Su, Wenta; Zhang, Wenjian

    2012-01-28

    Several Ge(II) and Ge(IV) compounds were investigated as possible reagents for the electrodeposition of Ge from liquid CH(3)CN and CH(2)F(2) and supercritical CO(2) containing as a co-solvent CH(3)CN (scCO(2)) and supercritical CH(2)F(2) (scCH(2)F(2)). For Ge(II) reagents the most promising results were obtained using [NBu(n)(4)][GeCl(3)]. However the reproducibility was poor and the reduction currents were significantly less than the estimated mass transport limited values. Deposition of Ge containing films was possible at high cathodic potential from [NBu(n)(4)][GeCl(3)] in liquid CH(3)CN and supercritical CO(2) containing CH(3)CN but in all cases they were heavily contaminated by C, O, F and Cl. Much more promising results were obtained using GeCl(4) in liquid CH(2)F(2) and supercritical CH(2)F(2). In this case the reduction currents were consistent with mass transport limited reduction and bulk electrodeposition produced amorphous films of Ge. Characterisation by XPS showed the presence of low levels of O, F and C, XPS confirmed the presence of Ge together with germanium oxides, and Raman spectroscopy showed that the as deposited amorphous Ge could be crystallised by the laser used in obtaining the Raman measurements.

  9. Tunnel current across linear homocatenated germanium chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yukihito

    2014-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of germanium oligomers catenating into linear chains (linear Ge chains) have been theoretically studied using first principle methods. The conduction mechanism of a Ge chain sandwiched between gold electrodes was analyzed based on the density of states and the eigenstates of the molecule in a two-probe environment. Like that of silicon chains (Si chains), the highest occupied molecular orbital of Ge chains contains the extended σ-conjugation of Ge 4p orbitals at energy levels close to the Fermi level; this is in contrast to the electronic properties of linear carbon chains. Furthermore, the conductance of a Ge chain is expected to decrease exponentially with molecular length L. The decay constant β, which is defined as e −βL , of a Ge chain is similar to that of a Si chain, whereas the conductance of the Ge chains is higher than that of Si chains even though the Ge–Ge bond length is longer than the Si–Si bond length

  10. Two years of on-orbit gallium arsenide performance from the LIPS solar cell panel experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R. W.; Betz, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    The LIPS on-orbit performance of the gallium arsenide panel experiment was analyzed from flight operation telemetry data. Algorithms were developed to calculate the daily maximum power and associated solar array parameters by two independent methods. The first technique utilizes a least mean square polynomial fit to the power curve obtained with intensity and temperature corrected currents and voltages; whereas, the second incorporates an empirical expression for fill factor based on an open circuit voltage and the calculated series resistance. Maximum power, fill factor, open circuit voltage, short circuit current and series resistance of the solar cell array are examined as a function of flight time. Trends are analyzed with respect to possible mechanisms which may affect successive periods of output power during 2 years of flight operation. Degradation factors responsible for the on-orbit performance characteristics of gallium arsenide are discussed in relation to the calculated solar cell parameters. Performance trends and the potential degradation mechanisms are correlated with existing laboratory and flight data on both gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells for similar environments.

  11. Determination of the Wetting Angle of Germanium and Germanium-Silicon Melts on Different Substrate Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Natalie; Croell, Arne; Szofran, F. R.; Cobb. S. D.; Dold, P.; Benz, K. W.

    1999-01-01

    During Bridgman growth of semiconductors detachment of the crystal and the melt meniscus has occasionally been observed, mainly under microgravity (microg) conditions. An important factor for detached growth is the wetting angle of the melt with the crucible material. High contact angles are more likely to result in detachment of the growing crystal from the ampoule wall. In order to achieve detached growth of germanium (Ge) and germanium-silicon (GeSi) crystals under 1g and microg conditions, sessile drop measurements were performed to determine the most suitable ampoule material as well as temperature dependence of the surface tension for GeSi. Sapphire, fused quartz, glassy carbon, graphite, SiC, pyrolytic Boron Nitride (pBN), AIN, and diamond were used as substrates. Furthermore, different cleaning procedures and surface treatments (etching, sandblasting, etc.) of the same substrate material and their effect on the wetting behavior were studied during these experiments. pBN and AIN substrates exhibited the highest contact angles with values around 170 deg.

  12. Reaction studies of hot silicon, germanium and carbon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, P.P.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this project was to increase the authors understanding of the interplay between the kinetic and electronic energy of free atoms and their chemical reactivity by answering the following questions: (1) what is the chemistry of high-energy carbon silicon and germanium atoms recoiling from nuclear transformations; (2) how do the reactions of recoiling carbon, silicon and germanium atoms take place - what are the operative reaction mechanisms; (3) how does the reactivity of free carbon, silicon and germanium atoms vary with energy and electronic state, and what are the differences in the chemistry of these three isoelectronic atoms? This research program consisted of a coordinated set of experiments capable of achieving these goals by defining the structures, the kinetic and internal energy, and the charge states of the intermediates formed in the gas-phase reactions of recoiling silicon and germanium atoms with silane, germane, and unsaturated organic molecules, and of recoiling carbon atoms with aromatic molecules. The reactions of high energy silicon, germanium, and carbon atoms created by nuclear recoil were studied with substrates chosen so that their products illuminated the mechanism of the recoil reactions. Information about the energy and electronic state of the recoiling atoms at reaction was obtained from the variation in end product yields and the extent of decomposition and rearrangement of primary products (usually reactive intermediates) as a function of total pressure and the concentration of inert moderator molecules that remove kinetic energy from the recoiling atoms and can induce transitions between electronic spin states. 29 refs

  13. Transport in silicon-germanium heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrastina, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The work presented here describes the electrical characterization of n- and p-type strained silicon-germanium systems. Theories of quantum transport m low magnetic fields at low temperature are discussed m terms of weak-localization: the traditional theory is shown not to account for the dephasing in a 2-dimensional hole gas behaving in a metallic manner and emergent alternative theories, while promising, require refinement. The mobility as a function of sheet density is measured in a p-type pseudomorphic Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 across the temperature range 350mK-282K; it is shown that calculations of the mobility based on semi-classical scattering mechanisms fail below 10K where quantum transport effects become relevant. A room temperature Hall scattering factor has been extracted. A new functional form has been presented to fit the resistivity as a function of temperature, below 20K: traditional theories of screening and weak localization appear not to be applicable. It is also demonstrated that simple protection circuitry is essential if commercial-scale devices are to be meaningfully investigated. Mobility spectrum analysis is performed on an n-type strained-silicon device. Established analysis methods are discussed and a new method is presented based on the Bryan's Algorithm approach to maximum entropy. The breakdown of the QHE is also investigated: the critical current density compares well to that predicted by an existing theory. Finally, devices in which both electron and hole gases can be induced are investigated. However, it is shown that the two cannier species never co-exist. Design rules are presented which may allow more successful structures to be created. Results are presented which demonstrate the success and the utility of implanted contacts which selectively reach different regions of the structure. (author)

  14. Silver-compensated germanium center in α-quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laman, F.C.; Weil, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A synthetic germanium-doped crystal of α-quartz was subjected to an electro-diffusion process (ca. 600 V/cm, 625 0 K), in which Ag + ions were introduced along the crystal's optic axis (c). A 9800 MHz electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum at room temperature, taken after room temperature X-irradiation, revealed the presence of a silver-compensated germanium center Asub(Ge-Ag) with large, almost isotropic 107 Ag and 109 Ag hyperfine splittings. Measurement of the spin-Hamiltonian discloses that a suitable model for the observed center utilizes germanium, substituted for silicon, with the accompanying silver interstitial in a nearby c-axis channel, and with electronic structure in which an appreciable admixture Ge 4+ - Ag 0 to Ge 3+ - Ag + exists. Estimates of the unpaired electron orbital are presented. (author)

  15. Modeling of dislocation dynamics in germanium Czochralski growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, V. V.; Smirnov, A. D.; Kalaev, V. V.; Mamedov, V. M.; Sidko, A. P.; Podkopaev, O. I.; Kravtsova, E. D.; Shimansky, A. F.

    2017-06-01

    Obtaining very high-purity germanium crystals with low dislocation density is a practically difficult problem, which requires knowledge and experience in growth processes. Dislocation density is one of the most important parameters defining the quality of germanium crystal. In this paper, we have performed experimental study of dislocation density during 4-in. germanium crystal growth using the Czochralski method and comprehensive unsteady modeling of the same crystal growth processes, taking into account global heat transfer, melt flow and melt/crystal interface shape evolution. Thermal stresses in the crystal and their relaxation with generation of dislocations within the Alexander-Haasen model have been calculated simultaneously with crystallization dynamics. Comparison to experimental data showed reasonable agreement for the temperature, interface shape and dislocation density in the crystal between calculation and experiment.

  16. Analytical product study of germanium-containing medicine by different ICP-MS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krystek, Petra; Ritsema, Rob

    2004-01-01

    For several years organo-germanium containing medicine has been used for special treatments of e.g. cancer and AIDS. The active substances contain germanium as beta-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide ((GeCH2CH 2COO-H)2O3/"Ge-132"), spirogermanium, germanium-lactate-citrate or unspecified forms. For

  17. Niobium nitride Josephson junctions with silicon and germanium barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cukauskas, E.J.; Carter, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    Niobium nitride based junctions with silicon, germanium, and composite silicon/germanium barriers were fabricated and characterized for several barrier compositions. The current-voltage characteristics were analyzed at several temperatures using the Simmons model and numerical integration of the WKB approximation for the average barrier height and effective thickness. The zero voltage conductance was measured from 1.5 K to 300 K and compared to the Mott hopping conductivity model and the Stratton tunneling temperature dependence. Conductivity followed Mott conductivity at temperatures above 60 K for junctions with less than 100 angstrom thick barriers

  18. In vitro binding of germanium to proteins of rice shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideaki; Takahashi, Eiichi

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of in vitro binding between proteins of rice shoots and germanium (Ge) was investigated. The proteins in mixtures of aqueous extracts of rice shoots and radioactive germanium ( 68 GeO 2 ) were fractionated. The binding of radioactivity to the proteins was observed even after 5 successive fractionation steps from the original mixtures. At the final fractionation step using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a constant proportionality between protein concentration and associated radioactivity was found in most samples although not all. These results indicate that the binding of 68 Ge to proteins is not due to the simple adsorption by proteins. (auth.)

  19. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colosimo, S.J.; Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S.; Lazarus, I.H.; Nolan, P.J.; Simpson, J.; Unsworth, C.

    2015-01-01

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array

  20. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colosimo, S.J., E-mail: sjc@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Unsworth, C. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array.

  1. Quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of germanium in lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.; Roca, M.

    1972-01-01

    A burning technique in a d.c. arc at 10 amp has been employed. The standards have been prepared from a natural lignite with a low germanium content. In order to enhance sensitivity, AgCl, K 2 SO 4 , CuF 2 , Sb 2 S 3 and Bi 2 S 3 have been tested as sweeping materials. Using 2% CuF 2 a detection limit of 1 ppm germanium is attainable. Bi, Cu, Sb and Sn have been studied as internal standards: the former leads to the, highest precision (1 6%. Results show good agreement with those obtained by the addition method. (Author) 6 refs

  2. Program LEPS to addition of gamma spectra from germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.

    1986-01-01

    The LEP program, written in FORTRAN IV, performs the addition of two spectra, collected with different detectors, from the same sample. This application, adds the two gamma spectra obtained from two opposite LEPS Germanium Detectors (Low Energy Photon Spectrometer), correcting the differences (channel/energy) between both two spectra, and fitting them before adding. The total-spectrum is recorded at the computer memory as a single spectrum. The necessary equipment, to run this program is: - Two opposite germanium detectors, with their associate electronics. - Multichannel analyzer (2048 memory channel minimum) - Computer on-line interfacing to multichannel analyzer. (Author) 4 refs

  3. Detached Bridgman Growth of Germanium and Germanium-Silicon Alloy Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Croell, A.; Dold, P.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Earth based experiments on the science of detached crystal growth are being conducted on germanium and germanium-silicon alloys (2 at% Si average composition) in preparation for a series of experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of the microgravity experiments includes differentiating among proposed mechanisms contributing to detachment, and confirming or refining our understanding of the detachment mechanism. Because large contact angle are critical to detachment, sessile drop measurements were used to determine the contact angles as a function of temperature and composition for a large number of substrates made of potential ampoule materials. Growth experiments have used pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) and fused silica ampoules with the majority of the detached results occurring predictably in the pBN. The contact angles were 173 deg (Ge) and 165 deg (GeSi) for pBN. For fused silica, the contact angle decreases from 150 deg to an equilibrium value of 117 deg (Ge) or from 129 deg to an equilibrium value of 100 deg (GeSi) over the duration of the experiment. The nature and extent of detachment is determined by using profilometry in conjunction with optical and electron microscopy. The stability of detachment has been analyzed, and an empirical model for the conditions necessary to achieve sufficient stability to maintain detached growth for extended periods has been developed. Results in this presentation will show that we have established the effects on detachment of ampoule material, pressure difference above and below the melt, and silicon concentration; samples that are nearly completely detached can be grown repeatedly in pBN.

  4. Effect of barrier height on friction behavior of the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Friction experiments were conducted for the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals. Polycrystalline titanium, tantalum, nickel, palladium, and platinum were made to contact a single crystal silicon (111) surface. Indium, nickel, copper, and silver were made to contact a single crystal gallium arsenide (100) surface. Sliding was conducted both in room air and in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 9th power torr. The friction of semiconductors in contact with metals depended on a Schottky barrier height formed at the metal semiconductor interface. Metals with a higher barrier height on semiconductors gave lower friction. The effect of the barrier height on friction behavior for argon sputtered cleaned surfaces in vacuum was more specific than that for the surfaces containing films in room air. With a silicon surface sliding on titanium, many silicon particles back transferred. In contrast, a large quantity of indium transferred to the gallium arsenide surface.

  5. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  6. Direct observations of the vacancy and its annealing in germanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotte, J.; Kilpeläinen, S.; Tuomisto, F.

    2011-01-01

    Weakly n-type doped germanium has been irradiated with protons up to a fluence of 3×1014 cm-2 at 35 K and 100 K in a unique experimental setup. Positron annihilation measurements show a defect lifetime component of 272±4 ps at 35 K in in situ positron lifetime measurements after irradiation at 100...

  7. Radiation-enhanced self- and boron diffusion in germanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, S.; Bracht, H.; Klug, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    We report experiments on proton radiation-enhanced self- and boron (B) diffusion in germanium (Ge) for temperatures between 515 ∘ C and 720 ∘ C. Modeling of the experimental diffusion profiles measured by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry is achieved on the basis of the Frenkel pair reaction...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of germanium monosulphide (GeS)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the growth of germanium monosulphide (GeS) single crystals by vapour phase technique using different transporting agents. The single crystallinity and composition of the grown crystals have been verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) ...

  9. Dislocation multiplication rate in the early stage of germanium plasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fikar, J.; Dupas, Corinne; Kruml, Tomáš; Jacques, A.; Martin, J. L.

    400-401, - (2005), s. 431-434 ISSN 0921-5093. [Dislocations 2004. La Colle-sur-Loup, 13.09.2004-17.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : dislocation multiplication * germanium * constitutive modelling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.347, year: 2005

  10. Effect of normal processes on thermal conductivity of germanium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of normal scattering processes is considered to redistribute the phonon momentum in (a) the same phonon branch – KK-S model and (b) between differ- ent phonon branches – KK-H model. Simplified thermal conductivity relations are used to estimate the thermal conductivity of germanium, silicon and ...

  11. Composite germanium monochromators - results for the TriCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, J.; Fischer, S.; Boehm, M.; Keller, L.; Horisberger, M.; Medarde, M.; Fischer, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Composite germanium monochromators are in the beginning of their application in neutron diffraction. We show here the importance of the permanent quality control with neutrons on the example of the 311 wafers which will be used on the single crystal diffractometer TriCS at SINQ. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.

  12. Development of revitalisation technique for impaired lithium doped germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.S.B.; Rafi Ahmed, A.G.; Balasubramanian, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors play very significant role in photon detection and are important tools in the field of gamma spectroscopy. Lithium doped germanium detectors belong to this category. The development of revitalisation technique for these impaired detectors are discussed in this report

  13. Gallium arsenide single crystal solar cell structure and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A production method and structure for a thin-film GaAs crystal for a solar cell on a single-crystal silicon substrate (10) comprising the steps of growing a single-crystal interlayer (12) of material having a closer match in lattice and thermal expansion with single-crystal GaAs than the single-crystal silicon of the substrate, and epitaxially growing a single-crystal film (14) on the interlayer. The material of the interlayer may be germanium or graded germanium-silicon alloy, with low germanium content at the silicon substrate interface, and high germanium content at the upper surface. The surface of the interface layer (12) is annealed for recrystallization by a pulsed beam of energy (laser or electron) prior to growing the interlayer. The solar cell structure may be grown as a single-crystal n.sup.+ /p shallow homojunction film or as a p/n or n/p junction film. A Ga(Al)AS heteroface film may be grown over the GaAs film.

  14. Significantly enhanced thermal conductivity of indium arsenide nanowires via sulfur passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yucheng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Yang; Fu, Qiang; Yang, Juekuan; Xu, Dongyan

    2017-10-16

    In this work, we experimentally investigated the effect of sulfur passivation on thermal transport in indium arsenide (InAs) nanowires. Our measurement results show that thermal conductivity can be enhanced by a ratio up to 159% by sulfur passivation. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were performed on both unpassivated and S-passivated InAs nanowires to understand the mechanism of thermal conductivity enhancement. We observed a remarkable improvement in electrical conductivity upon sulfur passivation and a significant contribution of electrons to thermal conductivity, which account for the enhanced thermal conductivity of the S-passivated InAs nanowires.

  15. Detection of spin-states in Mn-doped gallium arsenide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Werner A; Palotas, Krisztian; Teobaldi, Gilberto; Sadowski, Janusz; Mikkelsen, Anders; Lundgren, Edvin

    2007-01-01

    We show that isolated magnetic dipoles centred at the position of manganese impurities in a gallium arsenide lattice lead to spin polarized states in the bandgap of the III-V semiconductor. Spectroscopy simulations with a tungsten tip agree well with experimental data; in this case, no difference can be observed for the two magnetic groundstates. But if the signal is read with a magnetic iron tip, it changes by a factor of up to 20, depending on the magnetic orientation of the Mn atom

  16. Growth of Gold-assisted Gallium Arsenide Nanowires on Silicon Substrates via Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon M. delos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide nanowires were grown on silicon (100 substrates by what is called the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS growth mechanism using a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE system. Good quality nanowires with surface density of approximately 108 nanowires per square centimeter were produced by utilizing gold nanoparticles, with density of 1011 nanoparticles per square centimeter, as catalysts for nanowire growth. X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the nanowires are epitaxially grown on the silicon substrates, are oriented along the [111] direction and have cubic zincblende structure.

  17. Pulsed electron-beam annealing of selenium-implanted gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, T.; Tokunaga, K.; Taka, S.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical properties of selenium-implanted gallium arsenide annealed by a single shot of high-power pulsed electron beams have been investigated by differential Hall-effect and sheet-resistivity measurements. It has been shown that higher electrical activation of implanted selenium can be obtained after electron-beam annealing at an incident energy density of 1.2 J/cm 2 , independent of heating of GaAs substrate during implantation. Measured carrier concentrations exhibit uniformly distributed profiles having carrier concentrations of 2--3 x 10 19 /cm 3 , which is difficult to realize by conventional thermal annealing

  18. Pulse shapes and surface effects in segmented germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that at least two neutrinos are massive. The absolute neutrino mass scale and the neutrino hierarchy are still unknown. In addition, it is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76 Ge. The discovery of this decay could help to answer the open questions. In the GERDA experiment, germanium detectors enriched in the isotope 76 Ge are used as source and detector at the same time. The experiment is planned in two phases. In the first, phase existing detectors are deployed. In the second phase, additional detectors will be added. These detectors can be segmented. A low background index around the Q value of the decay is important to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment. This can be achieved through anti-coincidences between segments and through pulse shape analysis. The background index due to radioactive decays in the detector strings and the detectors themselves was estimated, using Monte Carlo simulations for a nominal GERDA Phase II array with 18-fold segmented germanium detectors. A pulse shape simulation package was developed for segmented high-purity germanium detectors. The pulse shape simulation was validated with data taken with an 19-fold segmented high-purity germanium detector. The main part of the detector is 18-fold segmented, 6-fold in the azimuthal angle and 3-fold in the height. A 19th segment of 5mm thickness was created on the top surface of the detector. The detector was characterized and events with energy deposited in the top segment were studied in detail. It was found that the metalization close to the end of the detector is very important with respect to the length of the of the pulses observed. In addition indications for n-type and p-type surface channels were found. (orig.)

  19. Pulse shapes and surface effects in segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Daniel

    2010-03-24

    It is well established that at least two neutrinos are massive. The absolute neutrino mass scale and the neutrino hierarchy are still unknown. In addition, it is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The discovery of this decay could help to answer the open questions. In the GERDA experiment, germanium detectors enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge are used as source and detector at the same time. The experiment is planned in two phases. In the first, phase existing detectors are deployed. In the second phase, additional detectors will be added. These detectors can be segmented. A low background index around the Q value of the decay is important to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment. This can be achieved through anti-coincidences between segments and through pulse shape analysis. The background index due to radioactive decays in the detector strings and the detectors themselves was estimated, using Monte Carlo simulations for a nominal GERDA Phase II array with 18-fold segmented germanium detectors. A pulse shape simulation package was developed for segmented high-purity germanium detectors. The pulse shape simulation was validated with data taken with an 19-fold segmented high-purity germanium detector. The main part of the detector is 18-fold segmented, 6-fold in the azimuthal angle and 3-fold in the height. A 19th segment of 5mm thickness was created on the top surface of the detector. The detector was characterized and events with energy deposited in the top segment were studied in detail. It was found that the metalization close to the end of the detector is very important with respect to the length of the of the pulses observed. In addition indications for n-type and p-type surface channels were found. (orig.)

  20. Germanium detector studies in the framework of the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan

    2009-05-06

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) is an ultra-low background experiment under construction at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. GERDA will search for {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay with an aim for 100-fold reduction in background compared to predecessor experiments. This ambition necessitates innovative design approaches, strict selection of low-radioactivity materials, and novel techniques for active background suppression. The core feature of GERDA is its array of germanium detectors for ionizing radiation, which are enriched in {sup 76}Ge. Germanium detectors are the central theme of this dissertation. The first part describes the implementation, testing, and optimisation of Monte Carlo simulations of germanium spectrometers, intensively involved in the selection of low-radioactivity materials. The simulations are essential for evaluations of the gamma ray measurements. The second part concerns the development and validation of an active background suppression technique based on germanium detector signal shape analysis. This was performed for the first time using a BEGe-type detector, which features a small read-out electrode. As a result of this work, BEGe is now one of the two detector technologies included in research and development for the second phase of the GERDA experiment. A suppression of major GERDA backgrounds is demonstrated, with (0.93{+-}0.08)% survival probability for events from {sup 60}Co, (21{+-}3)% for {sup 226}Ra, and (40{+-}2)% for {sup 228}Th. The acceptance of {sup 228}Th double escape events, which are analogous to double beta decay, was kept at (89{+-}1)%. (orig.)

  1. THE QUANTUM-WELL STRUCTURES OF SELF ELECTROOPTIC-EFFECT DEVICES AND GALLIUM-ARSENIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa TEMİZ

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple quantum-well (MQW electroabsorptive self electro optic-effect devices (SEEDs are being extensively studied for use in optical switching and computing. The self electro-optic-effect devices which has quantum-well structures is a new optoelectronic technology with capability to obtain both optical inputs and outputs for Gallium-Arsenide/Aluminum Gallium-Arsenide (GaAs/AlGaAs electronic circuits. The optical inputs and outputs are based on quantum-well absorptive properties. These quantum-well structures consist of many thin layers of semiconductors materials of GaAs/AlGaAs which have emerged some important directions recently. The most important advance in the physics of these materials since the early days has been invention of the heterojunction structures which is based at present on GaAs technology. GaAs/AlGaAs structures present some important advantages to relevant band gap and index of refraction which allow to form the quantum-well structures and also to make semiconductor lasers, dedectors and waveguide optical switches.

  2. Structural and electrooptical characteristics of quantum dots emitting at 1.3 μm on gallium arsenide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiore, A.; Oesterle, U.; Stanley, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the structural and emission properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 mum. The dots are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on gallium arsenide substrates. Room-temperature emission at 1.3 mum is obtained by embedding the dots in an InGaAs layer...

  3. Event timing in high purity germanium coaxial detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ibiary, M.Y.

    1979-08-01

    The timing of gamma ray radiation in systems using high purity coaxial germanium detectors is analyzed and compared to that of systems using Ge(Li) detectors. The analysis takes into account the effect of the residual impurities on the electric field distribution, and hence on the rate of rise of the electrical pulses delivered to the timing module. Conditions under which the electric field distribution could lead to an improvement in timing performance, are identified. The results of the analysis confirm the experimental results published elsewhere and when compared with those for Ge(Li) detectors, which usually operate under conditions of charge carrier velocity saturation, confirm that high purity germanium detectors need not have inferior timing characteristics. A chart is given to provide a quantitative basis on which the trade off between the radius of the detector and its time resolution may be made

  4. Development of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaio, N.P.

    1983-08-01

    The behavior of lattice defects generated as a result of the neutron-transmutation-doping of germanium was studied as a function of annealing conditions using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and mobility measurements. DLTS and variable temperature Hall effect were also used to measure the activation of dopant impurities formed during the transmutation process. In additioon, a semi-automated method of attaching wires on to small chips of germanium ( 3 ) for the fabrication of infrared detecting bolometers was developed. Finally, several different types of junction field effect transistors were tested for noise at room and low temperature (approx. 80 K) in order to find the optimum device available for first stage electronics in the bolometer signal amplification circuit

  5. Synthesis and Gas Phase Thermochemistry of Germanium-Containing Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, Nathan Robert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The driving force behind much of the work in this dissertation was to gain further understanding of the unique olefin to carbene isomerization observed in the thermolysis of 1,1-dimethyl-2-methylenesilacyclobutane by finding new examples of it in other silicon and germanium compounds. This lead to the examination of a novel phenylmethylenesilacyclobut-2-ene, which did not undergo olefin to carbene rearrangement. A synthetic route to methylenegermacyclobutanes was developed, but the methylenegermacyclobutane system exhibited kinetic instability, making the study of the system difficult. In any case the germanium system decomposed through a complex mechanism which may not include olefin to carbene isomerization. However, this work lead to the study of the gas phase thermochemistry of a series of dialkylgermylene precursors in order to better understand the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of dialkylgermylenes. The resulting dialkylgermylenes were found to undergo a reversible intramolecular β C-H insertion mechanism.

  6. Vanadocene reactions with mixed acylates of silicon, germanium and tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Gordetsov, A.S.; Dergunov, Yu.I.

    1981-01-01

    Vanadocene interaction with di-and tri-alkyl (aryl)-derivatives of silicon, tin and germanium is studied. Dibutyltin dibenzoate under mild conditions (20 deg C, toluene) oxidates vanadocene to [CpV(OCOC 6 H 5 ) 2 ] 2 , at that, the splitting off of one Cp group in the form of cyclopentadiene and formation of the products of tin-organic fragment disproportionation (tributyltin benzoate, dibutyltin, metallic tin) take place. Tributyltin benzoate oxidates vanadocene at the mole ratio 2:1 and during prolong heating (120 deg C) in the absence of the solvent, [CpV(OCOC 6 H 5 ) 2 ] 2 and hexabutyldistannate are the products of the reaction. Acetates R 3 SnOCOCH 3 react in the similar way. The reactivity of mono- and diacylates of germanium and silicon decreases in the series of derivatives Sn>Ge>Si [ru

  7. Mechanically-cooled germanium detector using two stirling refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yoshii; Takahashi, Koji

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present a developed mechanically-cooled germanium gamma-ray detector using Stirling refrigerators. Two Stirling refrigerators having cooling faculty of 1.5W at 80K were used to cool down a germanium detector element to 77K instead of a dewar containing liquid nitrogen. An 145cm 3 (56.0mmf x 59.1 mml) closed-end Ge(I) detector having relative detection efficiency of 29.4% was attached at the refrigerators. The size of the detector was 60cml x 15cmh x 15cmw. The lowest cooling temperature, 70K was obtained after 8 hours operation. The energy resolutions for 1.33MeV gamma-rays and for pulser signals were 2.43keV and 1.84keV at an amplifier shaping time of 2μsec, respectively

  8. The Future of Low Temperature Germanium as Dark Matter Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs) represent one of the most attractive candidates for the dark matter in the universe. With the combination of experiments attempting to detect WIMP scattering in the laboratory, of searches for their annihilation in the cosmos and of their potential production at the LHC, the next five years promise to be transformative. I will review the role played so far by low temperature germanium detectors in the direct detection of WIMPs. Because of its high signal to noise ratio, the simultaneous measurement of athermal phonons and ionization is so far the only demonstrated approach with zero-background. I will argue that this technology can be extrapolated to a target mass of the order of a tonne at reasonable cost and can keep playing a leading role, complementary to noble liquid technologies. I will describe in particular GEODM, the proposed Germanium Observatory for Dark Matter at the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  9. Ultraviolet-light-induced processes in germanium-doped silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin

    2001-01-01

    A model is presented for the interaction of ultraviolet (UV) light with germanium-doped silica glass. It is assumed that germanium sites work as gates for transferring the excitation energy into the silica. In the material the excitation induces forbidden transitions to two different defect states...... which are responsible for the observed refractive index changes. Activation energies [1.85 +/-0.15 eV and 1.91 +/-0.15 eV] and rates [(2.7 +/-1.9) x 10(13) Hz and(7.2 +/-4.5) x 10(13) Hz] are determined for thermal elimination of these states. Good agreement is found with experimental results and new UV...

  10. Long-term radiation damage to a spaceborne germanium spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kurczynski, P; Hull, E L; Palmer, D; Harris, M J; Seifert, H; Teegarden, B J; Gehrels, N; Cline, T L; Ramaty, R; Sheppard, D; Madden, N W; Luke, P N; Cork, C P; Landis, D A; Malone, D F; Hurley, K

    1999-01-01

    The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer aboard the Wind spacecraft in deep space has observed gamma-ray bursts and solar events for four years. The germanium detector in the instrument has gradually deteriorated from exposure to the approx 10 sup 8 p/cm sup 2 /yr(>100 MeV) cosmic-ray flux. Low-energy tailing and loss of efficiency, attributed to hole trapping and conversion of the germanium from n- to p-type as a result of crystal damage, were observed. Raising the detector bias voltage ameliorated both difficulties and restored the spectrometer to working operation. Together, these observations extend our understanding of the effects of radiation damage to include the previously unsuccessfully studied regime of long-term operation in space. (author)

  11. Germanium-doped gallium phosphide obtained by neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldys, E. M.; Barczynska, J.; Godlewski, M.; Sienkiewicz, A.; Heijmink Liesert, B. J.

    1993-08-01

    Results of electrical, optical, electron spin resonance and optically detected magnetic resonance studies of thermal neutron irradiated and annealed at 800 °C n-type GaP are presented. Evidence is found to support the view that the main dopant introduced via transmutation of GaP, germanium, occupies cation sites and forms neutral donors. This confirms the possibility of neutron transmutation doping of GaP. Simultaneously, it is shown that germanium is absent at cation sites. Presence of other forms of Ge-related defects is deduced from luminescence and absorption data. Some of them are tentatively identified as VGa-GeGa acceptors leading to the self-compensation process. This observation means that the neutron transmutation as a doping method in application to GaP is not as efficient as for Si.

  12. The germanium wall of the GEM detector system GEM Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betigeri, M.; Biakowski, E.; Bojowald, H.; Budzanowski, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Drochner, M.; Ernst, J.; Foertsch, S.; Freindl, L.; Frekers, D.; Garske, W.; Grewer, K.; Hamacher, A.; Igel, S.; Ilieva, J.; Jarczyk, L.; Jochmann, M.; Kemmerling, G.; Kilian, K.; Kliczewski, S.; Klimala, W.; Kolev, D.; Kutsarova, T.; Lieb, J.; Lippert, G.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Nann, H.; Pentchev, L.; Plendl, H.S.; Protic, D.; Razen, B.; Rossen, P. von; Roy, B.J.; Siudak, R.; Smyrski, J.; Srikantiah, R.V.; Strzakowski, A.; Tsenov, R.; Zolnierczuk, P.A.; Zwoll, K.

    1999-01-01

    A stack of annular detectors made of high-purity germanium was developed. The detectors are position sensitive with radial structures. The first one ('Quirl') is double-sided position sensitive defining 40,000 pixels, the following three (E1, E2 and E3) have 32 wedges each. The Quirl acts as tracker while the other three act as calorimeter. The stack was successfully operated in meson production reactions close to threshold

  13. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bioindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities

  14. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bionindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bioindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  17. Melting point of high-purity germanium stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavva, V. A.; Bulanov, A. D.; Kut'in, A. M.; Plekhovich, A. D.; Churbanov, M. F.

    2018-05-01

    The melting point (Tm) of germanium stable isotopes 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, 76Ge was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. With the increase in atomic mass of isotope the decrease in Tm is observed. The decrease was equal to 0.15 °C per the unit of atomic mass which qualitatively agrees with the value calculated by Lindemann formula accounting for the effect of "isotopic compression" of elementary cell.

  18. Determination of carbon and nitrogen in silicon and germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauhr, W.; Martin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The essential aim of this study is to examine the various technical and economic problems encountered in the determination of carbon and nitrogen in silicon and germanium, for this is in a way an extension of the discussion concerning the presence of oxygen in these two elements. The greater part of the study is aimed at drawing up a catalogue of the methods of analysis used and of the results obtained so far

  19. Photoluminescent polysaccharide-coated germanium(IV) oxide nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lobaz, Volodymyr; Rabyk, Mariia; Pánek, Jiří; Doris, E.; Nallet, F.; Štěpánek, Petr; Hrubý, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 294, č. 7 (2016), s. 1225-1235 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR027; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08336S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25781A Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : germanium oxide nanoparticles * polysaccharide coating * photoluminescent label Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  20. Photoconductivity of Germanium Nanowire Arrays Incorporated in Anodic Aluminum Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, B; Prikulis, J; Grigorjeva, L; Millers, D; Daly, B; Holmes, J D; Erts, D

    2007-01-01

    Photoconductivity of germanium nanowire arrays of 50 and 100 nm diameter incorporated into Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membranes illuminated with visible light is investigated. Photocurrent response to excitation radiation with time constants faster than 10 -4 s were governed by absorption of incident light by nanowires, while photokinetics with time constants of the order of 10 -3 s originates from the photoluminescence of the AAO matrix. Possible applications of nanowire arrays inside AAO as photoresistors are discussed

  1. Strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2012-04-17

    Density functional theory calculations (DFT) are used to investigate the strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of biaxially strained (parallel to the (001), (110) and (111) planes) and uniaxially strained (along the [001], [110] and [111] directions) germanium (Ge). It is calculated that a moderate uniaxial strain parallel to the [111] direction can efficiently transform Ge to a direct bandgap material with a bandgap energy useful for technological applications. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2011-10-18

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  3. Energy levels of germanium, Ge I through Ge XXXII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar, J.; Musgrove, A.

    1993-01-01

    Atomic energy levels of germanium have been compiled for all stages of ionization for which experimental data are available. No data have yet been published for Ge VIII through Ge XIII and Ge XXXII. Very accurate calculated values are compiled for Ge XXXI and XXXII. Experimental g-factors and leading percentages from calculated eigenvectors of levels are given. A value for the ionization energy, either experimental when available or theoretical, is included for the neutral atom and each ion. section

  4. Strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander I.; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Dimoulas, Athanasios Dimoulas

    2012-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations (DFT) are used to investigate the strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of biaxially strained (parallel to the (001), (110) and (111) planes) and uniaxially strained (along the [001], [110] and [111] directions) germanium (Ge). It is calculated that a moderate uniaxial strain parallel to the [111] direction can efficiently transform Ge to a direct bandgap material with a bandgap energy useful for technological applications. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. γ-ray tracking in germanium: the backtracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marel, J. van der; Cederwall, B.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of a European TMR network project the concept for a γ-ray tracking array is being developed for nuclear physics spectroscopy in the energy range of ∼10 keV up to several MeV. The tracking array will consist of a large number of position-sensitive germanium detectors in a spherical geometry around a target. Due to the high segmentation, a Compton scattered γ-ray will deposit energy in several different segments. A method has been developed to reconstruct the tracks of multiple coincident γ-rays and to find their initial energies. By starting from the final point the track can be reconstructed backwards to the origin with the help of the photoelectric and Compton cross-sections and the Compton scatter formula. Every reconstructed track is given a figure of merit, thus allowing suppression of wrongly reconstructed tracks and γ-rays that have scattered out of the detector system. This so-called backtracking method has been tested on simulated events in a shell-like geometry for germanium and in planar geometries for silicon, germanium and CdTe

  6. An environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process to recover germanium from coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • An environmental friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process is proposed. • Rare and valuable metal germanium from coal fly ash is recycled. • Residues are not a hazardous material and can be further recycled. • A germanium recovery ratio of 94.64% is obtained in pilot scale experiments. - Abstract: The demand for germanium in the field of semiconductor, electronics, and optical devices is growing rapidly; however, the resources of germanium are scarce worldwide. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium. Up to now, the conventional processes to recover germanium have two problems as follows: on the one hand, it is difficult to be satisfactory for its economic and environmental effect; on the other hand, the recovery ratio of germanium is not all that could be desired. In this paper, an environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process (VRMP) was proposed to recover germanium from coal fly ash. The results of the laboratory scale experiments indicated that the appropriate parameters were 1173 K and 10 Pa with 10 wt% coke addition for 40 min, and recovery ratio germanium was 93.96%. On the basis of above condition, the pilot scale experiments were utilized to assess the actual effect of VRMP for recovery of germanium with parameter of 1473 K, 1–10 Pa and heating time 40 min, the recovery ratio of germanium reached 94.64%. This process considerably enhances germanium recovery, meanwhile, eliminates much of the water usage and residue secondary pollution compared with other conventional processes.

  7. Organotrichlorogermane synthesis by the reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chloride via dichlorogermylene intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masaki; Asano, Takuya; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2004-08-07

    Organotrichlorogermanes were synthesized by the reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chlorides, methyl, propyl, isopropyl and allyl chlorides. Dichlorogermylene formed by the reaction of elemental germanium with tetrachlorogermane was the reaction intermediate, which was inserted into the carbon-chlorine bond of the organic chloride to give organotrichlorogermane. When isopropyl or allyl chloride was used as an organic chloride, organotrichlorogermane was formed also in the absence of tetrachlorogermane. These chlorides were converted to hydrogen chloride, which subsequently reacted with elemental germanium to give the dichlorogermylene intermediate. The reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chlorides provides a simple and easy method for synthesizing organotrichlorogermanes, and all the raw materials are easily available.

  8. Electrical Manipulation of Donor Spin Qubits in Silicon and Germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigillito, Anthony James

    Many proposals for quantum information devices rely on electronic or nuclear spins in semiconductors because of their long coherence times and compatibility with industrial fabrication processes. One of the most notable qubits is the electron spin bound to phosphorus donors in silicon, which offers coherence times exceeding seconds at low temperatures. These donors are naturally isolated from their environments to the extent that silicon has been coined a "semiconductor vacuum". While this makes for ultra-coherent qubits, it is difficult to couple two remote donors so quantum information proposals rely on high density arrays of qubits. Here, single qubit addressability becomes an issue. Ideally one would address individual qubits using electric fields which can be easily confined. Typically these schemes rely on tuning a donor spin qubit onto and off of resonance with a magnetic driving field. In this thesis, we measure the electrical tunability of phosphorus donors in silicon and use the extracted parameters to estimate the effects of electric-field noise on qubit coherence times. Our measurements show that donor ionization may set in before electron spins can be sufficiently tuned. We therefore explore two alternative options for qubit addressability. First, we demonstrate that nuclear spin qubits can be directly driven using electric fields instead of magnetic fields and show that this approach offers several advantages over magnetically driven spin resonance. In particular, spin transitions can occur at half the spin resonance frequency and double quantum transitions (magnetic-dipole forbidden) can occur. In a second approach to realizing tunable qubits in semiconductors, we explore the option of replacing silicon with germanium. We first measure the coherence and relaxation times for shallow donor spin qubits in natural and isotopically enriched germanium. We find that in isotopically enriched material, coherence times can exceed 1 ms and are limited by a

  9. Damage structure of gallium arsenide irradiated in a high-voltage electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loretto, D.; Loretto, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    Semi-insulating undoped gallium arsenide has been irradiated in a high-voltage electron microscope between room temperature and about 500 0 C for doses of up to 5 x 10 22 electrons cm -2 at 1 MeV. Room-temperature irradiation produces small (less than 5 nm) damage clusters. As the temperature of the irradiation is increased, the size of these clusters increases, until at about 300 0 C a high density of dislocation loops can be resolved. The dislocation loops, 20 nm or less in diameter, which are produced at about 500 0 C have been analysed in a bright field using a two-beam inside-outside method which minimises the tilt necessary between micrographs. It is concluded that the loops are an interstitial perfect-edge type with a Burgers vector of (a/2) . (author)

  10. Quantum oscillations in the parent magnetic phase of an iron arsenide high temperature superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, Suchitra E; Gillett, J; Lau, P H C; Lonzarich, G G; Harrison, N; Mielke, C H; Singh, D J

    2008-01-01

    We report measurements of quantum oscillations in SrFe 2 As 2 -which is an antiferromagnetic parent of the iron arsenide family of superconductors-known to become superconducting under doping and the application of pressure. The magnetic field and temperature dependences of the oscillations between 20 and 55 T in the liquid helium temperature range suggest that the electronic excitations are those of a Fermi liquid. We show that the observed Fermi surface comprising small pockets is consistent with the formation of a spin-density wave. Our measurements thus demonstrate that high T c superconductivity can occur on doping or pressurizing a conventional metallic spin-density wave state. (fast track communication)

  11. Advances in gallium arsenide monolithic microwave integrated-circuit technology for space communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. In this paper, current developments in GaAs MMIC technology are described, and the status and prospects of the technology are assessed.

  12. Ultrafast photocurrents and terahertz radiation in gallium arsenide and carbon based nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtel, Hans Leonhard

    2011-08-15

    In this thesis we developed a measurement technique based on a common pump-probe scheme and coplanar stripline circuits that enables time-resolved photocurrent measurements of contacted nanosystems with a micrometer spatial and a picosecond time resolution. The measurement technique was applied to lowtemperature grown gallium arsenide (LT-GaAs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and p-doped gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires. The various mechanisms responsible for the generation of current pulses by pulsed laser excitation were reviewed. Furthermore the propagation of the resulting electromagnetic radiation along a coplanar stripline circuit was theoretically and numerically treated. The ultrafast photocurrent response of low-temperature grown GaAs was investigated. We found two photocurrent pulses in the time-resolved response. We showed that the first pulse is consistent with a displacement current pulse. We interpreted the second pulse to result from a transport current process. We further determined the velocity of the photo-generated charge carriers to exceed the drift, thermal and quantum velocities of single charge carriers. Hereby, we interpreted the transport current pulse to stem from an electron-hole plasma excitation. We demonstrated that the photocurrent response of CNTs comprises an ultrafast displacement current and a transport current. The data suggested that the photocurrent is finally terminated by the recombination lifetime of the charge carriers. To the best of our knowledge, we presented in this thesis the first recombination lifetime measurements of contacted, suspended, CVD grown CNT networks. In addition, we studied the ultrafast photocurrent dynamics of freely suspended graphene contacted by metal electrodes. At the graphene-metal interface, we demonstrated that built-in electric fields give rise to a photocurrent with a full-width-half-maximum of a few picoseconds and that a photo-thermoelectric effect generates a current with a decay time

  13. Direct observation of the orbital spin Kondo effect in gallium arsenide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ru-Nan; Zhang, Ting; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2018-02-01

    Besides the spin Kondo effect, other degrees of freedom can give rise to the pseudospin Kondo effect. We report a direct observation of the orbital spin Kondo effect in a series-coupled gallium arsenide (GaAs) double quantum dot device where orbital degrees act as pseudospin. Electron occupation in both dots induces a pseudospin Kondo effect. In a region of one net spin impurity, complete spectra with three resonance peaks are observed. Furthermore, we observe a pseudo-Zeeman effect and demonstrate its electrical controllability for the artificial pseudospin in this orbital spin Kondo process via gate voltage control. The fourfold degeneracy point is realized at a specific value supplemented by spin degeneracy, indicating a transition from the SU(2) to the SU(4) Kondo effect.

  14. Self-cleaning and surface chemical reactions during hafnium dioxide atomic layer deposition on indium arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Rainer; Head, Ashley R; Yngman, Sofie; Knutsson, Johan V; Hjort, Martin; McKibbin, Sarah R; Troian, Andrea; Persson, Olof; Urpelainen, Samuli; Knudsen, Jan; Schnadt, Joachim; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2018-04-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables the ultrathin high-quality oxide layers that are central to all modern metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Crucial to achieving superior device performance are the chemical reactions during the first deposition cycle, which could ultimately result in atomic-scale perfection of the semiconductor-oxide interface. Here, we directly observe the chemical reactions at the surface during the first cycle of hafnium dioxide deposition on indium arsenide under realistic synthesis conditions using photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that the widely used ligand exchange model of the ALD process for the removal of native oxide on the semiconductor and the simultaneous formation of the first hafnium dioxide layer must be significantly revised. Our study provides substantial evidence that the efficiency of the self-cleaning process and the quality of the resulting semiconductor-oxide interface can be controlled by the molecular adsorption process of the ALD precursors, rather than the subsequent oxide formation.

  15. Precision calibration of the silicon doping level in gallium arsenide epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhov, D. V.; Berezovskaya, T. N.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Maleev, N. A.; Timoshnev, S. N.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2017-10-01

    An approach to precision calibration of the silicon doping level in gallium arsenide epitaxial layers is discussed that is based on studying the dependence of the carrier density in the test GaAs layer on the silicon- source temperature using the Hall-effect and CV profiling techniques. The parameters are measured by standard or certified measuring techniques and approved measuring instruments. It is demonstrated that the use of CV profiling for controlling the carrier density in the test GaAs layer at the thorough optimization of the measuring procedure ensures the highest accuracy and reliability of doping level calibration in the epitaxial layers with a relative error of no larger than 2.5%.

  16. Site preference of rare earth doping in palladium-iron-arsenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuerzer, Christine; Schulz, Anne; Johrendt, Dirk [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The solid solutions (Ca{sub 1-y}RE{sub y}Fe{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}As){sub 10}Pd{sub z}As{sub 8} with RE = La, Ce, and Pr were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction with subsequent Rietveld refinements [(CaFeAs){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8}-type structure (''1038 type''), P anti 1, Z = 1]. Substitution levels (Ca/RE, Fe/Pd, and Pd/□) obtained from Rietveld refinements coincide well with the nominal values according to EDS and the linear courses of the lattice parameters as expected from the ionic radii. The RE atoms favor the one out of five calcium sites, which is eightfold coordinated by arsenic. This leads to significant stabilization of the structure, and especially prevents palladium over-doping in the iron-arsenide layers as observed in the pristine compound (CaFe{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x}As){sub 10}Pd{sub z}As{sub 8}. While the stabilization energy is estimated to about 40 kJ.mol{sup -1} by electronic structure calculations, the reason for the diminished Fe/Pd substitution through RE doping is still not yet understood. We suggest that the electrons transferred from RE{sup 3+} to the (Fe{sub 1-x}Pd{sub x})As layer makes higher palladium concentrations unfavorable. Anyway the reduced palladium doping enables superconductivity with critical temperatures up to 20 K (onset) in the RE doped Pd1038 samples, which could not be obtained earlier due to palladium over-doping in the active iron-arsenide layers. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Ion-beam induced structure modifications in amorphous germanium; Ionenstrahlinduzierte Strukturmodifikationen in amorphem Germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Tobias

    2012-05-03

    Object of the present thesis was the systematic study of ion-beam induced structure modifications in amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers due to low- (LEI) and high-energetic (SHI) ion irradiation. The LEI irradiation of crystalline Ge (c-Ge) effects because the dominating nuclear scattering of the ions on the solid-state atoms the formation of a homogeneous a-Ge Layer. Directly on the surface for fluences of two orders of magnitude above the amorphization fluence the formation of stable cavities independently on the irradiation conditions was observed. For the first time for the ion-beam induced cavity formation respectively for the steady expansion of the porous layer forming with growing fluence a linear dependence on the energy {epsilon}{sub n} deposed in nuclear processes was detected. Furthermore the formation of buried cavities was observed, which shows a dependence on the type of ions. While in the c-Ge samples in the range of the high electronic energy deposition no radiation defects, cavities, or plastic deformations were observed, the high electronic energy transfer in the 3.1 {mu}m thick pre-amorphized a-Ge surface layers leads to the formation of randomly distributed cavities. Basing on the linear connection between cavity-induced vertical volume expansion and the fluence determined for different energy transfers for the first time a material-specific threshold value of {epsilon}{sub e}{sup HRF}=(10.5{+-}1.0) kev nm{sup -1} was determined, above which the ion-beam induced cavity formation in a-Ge sets on. The anisotropic plastic deformation of th a-Ge layer superposed at inclined SHI irradiation on the cavity formation was very well described by an equation derived from the viscoelastic Maxwell model, but modified under regardment of the experimental results. The positive deformation yields determined thereby exhibit above a threshold value for the ion-beam induced plastic deformation {epsilon}{sub e}{sup S{sub a}}=(12{+-}2) keV nm{sup -1} for the first

  18. Strain distribution in single, suspended germanium nanowires studied using nanofocused x-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keplinger, Mario; Grifone, Raphael; Greil, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Within the quest for direct band-gap group IV materials, strain engineering in germanium is one promising route. We present a study of the strain distribution in single, suspended germanium nanowires using nanofocused synchrotron radiation. Evaluating the probed Bragg reflection for different ill...

  19. Performance of a 6x6 segmented germanium detector for {gamma}-ray tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valiente-Dobon, J.J. E-mail: j.valiente-dobon@surrey.ac.uk; Pearson, C.J.; Regan, P.H.; Sellin, P.J.; Gelletly, W.; Morton, E.; Boston, A.; Descovich, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Simpson, J.; Lazarus, I.; Warner, D

    2003-06-01

    A 36 fold segmented germanium coaxial detector has been supplied by EURISYS MESURES. The outer contact is segmented both radially and longitudinally. The signals from the fast preamplifiers have been digitised by 12 bit, 40 MHz ADCs. In this article we report preliminary results obtained using this detector and their relevance for future germanium {gamma}-ray tracking arrays.

  20. Oriented bottom-up growth of armchair graphene nanoribbons on germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael Scott; Jacobberger, Robert Michael

    2016-03-15

    Graphene nanoribbon arrays, methods of growing graphene nanoribbon arrays and electronic and photonic devices incorporating the graphene nanoribbon arrays are provided. The graphene nanoribbons in the arrays are formed using a scalable, bottom-up, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in which the (001) facet of the germanium is used to orient the graphene nanoribbon crystals along the [110] directions of the germanium.

  1. Study of the possibility of growing germanium single crystals under low temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovskih, V. A.; Kasimkin, P. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Gridchin, V. A.; Podkopaev, O. I.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2014-03-01

    The possibility of growing germanium single crystals under low temperature gradients in order to produce a dislocation-free material has been studied. Germanium crystals with a dislocation density of about 100-200 cm-2 have been grown in a system with a weight control of crystal growth at maximum axial gradients of about 1.5 K/cm.

  2. In-plane electronic anisotropy of underdoped '122' Fe-arsenide superconductors revealed by measurements of detwinned single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, I R; Shen, Z X; Degiorgi, L

    2011-01-01

    The parent phases of the Fe-arsenide superconductors harbor an antiferromagnetic ground state. Significantly, the Neel transition is either preceded or accompanied by a structural transition that breaks the four-fold symmetry of the high-temperature lattice. Borrowing language from the field of soft condensed matter physics, this broken discrete rotational symmetry is widely referred to as an Ising nematic phase transition. Understanding the origin of this effect is a key component of a complete theoretical description of the occurrence of superconductivity in this family of compounds, motivating both theoretical and experimental investigation of the nematic transition and the associated in-plane anisotropy. Here we review recent experimental progress in determining the intrinsic in-plane electronic anisotropy as revealed by resistivity, reflectivity and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of detwinned single crystals of underdoped Fe-arsenide superconductors in the '122' family of compounds.

  3. In-Plane Electronic Anisotropy of Underdoped ___122___ Fe-Arsenide Superconductors Revealed by Measurements of Detwinned Single Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Ian Randal

    2012-05-08

    The parent phases of the Fe-arsenide superconductors harbor an antiferromagnetic ground state. Significantly, the Neel transition is either preceded or accompanied by a structural transition that breaks the four fold symmetry of the high-temperature lattice. Borrowing language from the field of soft condensed matter physics, this broken discrete rotational symmetry is widely referred to as an Ising nematic phase transition. Understanding the origin of this effect is a key component of a complete theoretical description of the occurrence of superconductivity in this family of compounds, motivating both theoretical and experimental investigation of the nematic transition and the associated in-plane anisotropy. Here we review recent experimental progress in determining the intrinsic in-plane electronic anisotropy as revealed by resistivity, reflectivity and ARPES measurements of detwinned single crystals of underdoped Fe arsenide superconductors in the '122' family of compounds.

  4. Point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander I.; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Bracht, Hartmut A.

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion of phosphorous in germanium is very fast, requiring point defect engineering strategies to retard it in support of technological application. Density functional theory corroborated with hybrid density functional calculations are used to investigate the influence of the isovalent codopants tin and hafnium in the migration of phosphorous via the vacancy-mediated diffusion process. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous are increased significantly in the presence of oversized isovalent codopants. Therefore, it is proposed that tin and in particular hafnium codoping are efficient point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous migration. © the Owner Societies 2013.

  5. Multiple pulse traveling wave excitation of neon-like germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, J. C.; Nilsen, J.; Silva, L. B. da

    1995-01-01

    Traveling wave excitation has been shown to significantly increase the output intensity of the neon-like germanium x-ray laser. The driving laser pulse consisted of three 100 ps Gaussian laser pulses separated by 400 ps. Traveling wave excitation was employed by tilting the wave front of the driving laser by 45 degrees to match the propagation speed of the x-ray laser photons along the length of the target. We show results of experiments with the traveling wave, with no traveling wave, and against the traveling wave and comparisons to a numerical model. Gain was inferred from line intensity measurements at two lengths

  6. Formation probabilities and relaxation rates of muon states in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clawson, C.W.; Haller, E.E.; Crowe, K.M.; Rosenblum, S.S.; Brewer, J.H.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver

    1981-01-01

    We report the first results of a study of the muonium states in ultra-pure germanium crystals grown under a variety of conditions at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Among the variations studied are: 1) Hydrogen, deuterium, or nitrogen atmosphere during growth; 2) Dislocation-free vs. dislocated crystals; 3) Grown from quartz, graphite, and pyrolytic graphite coated quartz crucibles; 4) n-type vs. p-type. We report a significant difference in the muonium relaxation rate between the dislocated and non-dislocated crystals. (orig.)

  7. Liquid-helium scintillation detection with germanium photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, P.N.; Haller, E.E.; Steiner, H.M.

    1982-05-01

    Special high-purity germanium photodiodes have been developed for the direct detection of vacuum ultraviolet scintillations in liquid helium. The photodiodes are immersed in the liquid helium, and scintillations are detected through one of the bare sides of the photodiodes. Test results with scintillation photons produced by 5.3-MeV α particles are presented. The use of these photodiodes as liquid-helium scintillation detectors may offer substantial improvements over the alternate detection method requiring the use of wavelength shifters and photomultiplier tubes

  8. Self-absorption corrections for well-type germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, P.G.; Richardson, N.; Nolan, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Corrections for self-absorption are of vital importance to accurate determination by gamma spectrometry of radionuclides such as 210 Pb, 241 Am and 234 Th which emit low energy gamma radiation. A simple theoretical model for determining the necessary corrections for well-type germanium detectors is presented. In this model, self-absorption factors are expressed in terms of the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample and a parameter characterising the well geometry. Experimental measurements of self-absorption are used to evaluate the model and to determine a semi-empirical algorithm for improved estimates of the geometrical parameter. (orig.)

  9. Radiation defects produced by neutron irradiation in germanium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Noboru; Honda, Makoto; Atobe, Kozo; Yamaji, Hiromichi; Ide, Mutsutoshi; Okada, Moritami.

    1992-01-01

    The nature of defects produced in germanium single crystals by neutron irradiation at 25 K was studied by measuring the electrical resistivity. It was found that two levels located at E c -0.06 eV and E c -0.13 eV were introduced in an arsenic-doped sample. Electron traps at E c -0.10eV were observed in an indium-doped sample. The change in electrical resistivity during irradiation was also studied. (author)

  10. Effect of pressure on arsenic diffusion in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitha, S.; Theiss, S.D.; Aziz, M.J.; Schiferl, D.; Poker, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    We report preliminary results of a study of the activation volume for diffusion of arsenic in germanium. High-temperature high-pressure anneals were performed in a liquid argon pressure medium in a diamond anvil cell capable of reaching 5 GPa and 750 C,l which is externally heated for uniform and repeatable temperature profiles. Broadening of an ion-implanted arsenic profile was measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Hydrostatic pressure retards the diffusivity at 575 C, characterized by an activation volume that is +15% of the atomic volume of Ge. Implications for diffusion mechanisms are discussed

  11. Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhdeo, David S; Nam, Donguk; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L; Saraswat, Krishna C

    2015-06-29

    Strain engineering has proven to be vital for germanium-based photonics, in particular light emission. However, applying a large permanent biaxial tensile strain to germanium has been a challenge. We present a simple, CMOS-compatible technique to conveniently induce a large, spatially homogenous strain in circular structures patterned within germanium nanomembranes. Our technique works by concentrating and amplifying a pre-existing small strain into a circular region. Biaxial tensile strains as large as 1.11% are observed by Raman spectroscopy and are further confirmed by photoluminescence measurements, which show enhanced and redshifted light emission from the strained germanium. Our technique allows the amount of biaxial strain to be customized lithographically, allowing the bandgaps of different germanium structures to be independently customized in a single mask process.

  12. Structure of compensating centers in neutron irradiated n-type germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erchak, D.P.; Kosobutskij, V.S.; Stel'makh, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Structural model of one of the main compensating defects of Ge-M1, Ge-M5, Ge-M6 in neutron irradiated (10 18 -10 20 cm -2 ) germanium, strongly alloyed (2x10 18 -3x10 19 cm -3 ) with antimony, phosphorus and arsenic respectively, is suggested. The above mentioned compensating centers are paramagnetic in a positive charge state and represent a vacancy, two nearby germanium atoms of which are replaced with two atoms of corresponding fine donor impurity. It is mainly contributed (63%- for Ge-M5 centers, 56% - for Ge-M6 centers) by orbitals of two germanium atoms neighbouring the vacancy. The angle of the bonds of each of two mentioned germanium atoms with its three neighbours and orientation of maximum electron density of hybride orbital, binding both germanium atoms, is approximately by 5 deg greater the tetrahedral one

  13. NTD germanium: a novel material for low-temperature bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.; Palaio, N.P.; Rodder, M.; Hansen, W.L.; Kreysa, E.

    1982-06-01

    Six samples of ultra-pure (absolute value N/sub A/ - N/sub D/ absolute value less than or equal to 10 11 cm -3 ), single-crystal germanium have been neutron transmutation doped with neutron doses between 7.5 x 10 16 and 1.88 x 10 18 cm -2 . After thermal annealing at 400 0 C for six hours in a pure argon atmosphere, the samples have been characterized with Hall effect and resistivity measurements between 300 and 0.3 K. Our results show that the resistivity in the low temperature, hopping conduction regime can be approximated with rho = rho 0 exp(Δ/T). The three more heavily doped samples show values for rho 0 and Δ ranging from 430 to 3.3 Ω cm and from 4.9 to 2.8 K, respectively. The excellent reproducibility of neutron transmutation doping and the values of rho 0 and Δ make NTD Ge a prime candidate for the fabrication of low temperature, low noise bolometers. The large variation in the tabulated values of the thermal neutron cross sections for the different germanium isotopes makes it clear that accurate measurements of these cross-sections for well defined neutron energy spectra would be highly desirable

  14. Performance of a Small Anode Germanium Well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adekola, A.S.; Colaresi, J.; Douwen, J.; Mueller, W.F.; Yocum, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of Small Anode Germanium (SAGe) Well detector [1] has been evaluated for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well, on the end cap or in Marinelli beakers. The SAGe Well is a new type of low capacitance germanium well detector manufactured using small anode technology. The detector has similar energy resolution performance to semi-planar detectors, and offers significant improvement over the Coaxial and existing Well detectors. Resolution performance of 0.75 keV Full Width at Half Maxiumum (FWHM) at 122 keV γ-ray energy and resolution of 2.0–2.3 keV FWHM at 1332 keV γ-ray energy are guaranteed. Such outstanding resolution performance will benefit environmental applications in revealing the detailed radionuclide content of samples, particularly at low energy, and will enhance the detection sensitivity resulting in reduced counting time. This paper reports the counting performance of SAGe Well detector for range of sample sizes and geometries and how it compares to other detector types

  15. Performance of a Small Anode Germanium Well detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adekola, A.S., E-mail: aderemi.adekola@canberra.com; Colaresi, J.; Douwen, J.; Mueller, W.F.; Yocum, K.M.

    2015-06-01

    The performance of Small Anode Germanium (SAGe) Well detector [1] has been evaluated for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well, on the end cap or in Marinelli beakers. The SAGe Well is a new type of low capacitance germanium well detector manufactured using small anode technology. The detector has similar energy resolution performance to semi-planar detectors, and offers significant improvement over the Coaxial and existing Well detectors. Resolution performance of 0.75 keV Full Width at Half Maxiumum (FWHM) at 122 keV γ-ray energy and resolution of 2.0–2.3 keV FWHM at 1332 keV γ-ray energy are guaranteed. Such outstanding resolution performance will benefit environmental applications in revealing the detailed radionuclide content of samples, particularly at low energy, and will enhance the detection sensitivity resulting in reduced counting time. This paper reports the counting performance of SAGe Well detector for range of sample sizes and geometries and how it compares to other detector types.

  16. Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mastura Shafinaz Zainal; Matsumura, Ryo; Anisuzzaman, Mohammad; Park, Jong-Hyeok; Muta, Shunpei; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Sadoh, Taizoh; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2013-11-06

    We report the crystallization of electrodeposited germanium (Ge) thin films on n-silicon (Si) (100) by rapid melting process. The electrodeposition was carried out in germanium (IV) chloride: propylene glycol (GeCl₄:C₃H₈O₂) electrolyte with constant current of 50 mA for 30 min. The measured Raman spectra and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) images show that the as-deposited Ge thin film was amorphous. The crystallization of deposited Ge was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 980 °C for 1 s. The EBSD images confirm that the orientations of the annealed Ge are similar to that of the Si substrate. The highly intense peak of Raman spectra at 300 cm -1 corresponding to Ge-Ge vibration mode was observed, indicating good crystal quality of Ge. An additional sub peak near to 390 cm -1 corresponding to the Si-Ge vibration mode was also observed, indicating the Ge-Si mixing at Ge/Si interface. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveals that the intermixing depth was around 60 nm. The calculated Si fraction from Raman spectra was found to be in good agreement with the value estimated from Ge-Si equilibrium phase diagram. The proposed technique is expected to be an effective way to crystallize Ge films for various device applications as well as to create strain at the Ge-Si interface for enhancement of mobility.

  17. Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manaf Hashim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the crystallization of electrodeposited germanium (Ge thin films on n-silicon (Si (100 by rapid melting process. The electrodeposition was carried out in germanium (IV chloride: propylene glycol (GeCl4:C3H8O2 electrolyte with constant current of 50 mA for 30 min. The measured Raman spectra and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD images show that the as-deposited Ge thin film was amorphous. The crystallization of deposited Ge was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA at 980 °C for 1 s. The EBSD images confirm that the orientations of the annealed Ge are similar to that of the Si substrate. The highly intense peak of Raman spectra at 300 cm−1 corresponding to Ge-Ge vibration mode was observed, indicating good crystal quality of Ge. An additional sub peak near to 390 cm−1 corresponding to the Si-Ge vibration mode was also observed, indicating the Ge-Si mixing at Ge/Si interface. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES reveals that the intermixing depth was around 60 nm. The calculated Si fraction from Raman spectra was found to be in good agreement with the value estimated from Ge-Si equilibrium phase diagram. The proposed technique is expected to be an effective way to crystallize Ge films for various device applications as well as to create strain at the Ge-Si interface for enhancement of mobility.

  18. Characterisation of the SmartPET planar Germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: H.C.Boston@liverpool.ac.uk; Boston, A.J.; Cooper, R.J.; Cresswell, J.; Grint, A.N.; Mather, A.R.; Nolan, P.J.; Scraggs, D.P.; Turk, G. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Hall, C.J.; Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Berry, A.; Beveridge, T.; Gillam, J.; Lewis, R. [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2007-08-21

    Small Animal Reconstruction PET (SmartPET) is a project funded by the UK medical research council (MRC) to demonstrate proof of principle that Germanium can be utilised in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The SmartPET demonstrator consists of two orthogonal strip High Purity Germanium (HPGe) planar detectors manufactured by ORTEC. The aim of the project is to produce images of an internal source with sub mm{sup 3} spatial resolution. Before this image can be achieved the detectors have to be fully characterised to understand the response at any given location to a {gamma}-ray interaction. This has been achieved by probing the two detectors at a number of specified points with collimated sources of various energies and strengths. A 1 mm diameter collimated beam of photons was raster scanned in 1 mm steps across the detector. Digital pulse shape data were recorded from all the detector channels and the performance of the detector for energy and position determination has been assessed. Data will be presented for the first SmartPET detector.

  19. An ultralow background germanium gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, R.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Ryge, P.

    1984-01-01

    The monitoring of minimum detectable activity is becoming increasingly important as environmental concerns and regulations require more sensitive measurement of the radioactivity levels in the workplace and the home. In measuring this activity, however, the background becomes one of the limiting factors. Anticoincidence systems utilizing both NaI(T1) and plastic scintillators have proven effective in reducing some components of the background, but radiocontaminants in the various regions of these systems have limited their effectiveness, and their cost is often prohibitive. In order to obtain a genuinely low background detector system, all components must be free of detectable radioactivity, and the cosmic ray produced contribution must be significantly reduced. Current efforts by the authors to measure the double beta decay of Germanium 76 as predicted by Grand Unified Theories have resulted in the development of a high resolution germanium diode gamma spectrometer with an exceptionally low background. This paper describes the development of this system, outlines the configuration and operation of its preamplifier, linear amplifier, analog-to-digital converter, 4096-channel analyzer, shielding consisting of lead-sandwiched plastic scintillators wrapped in cadmium foil, photomultiplier, and its pulse generator and discriminator, and then discusses how the system can be utilized to significantly reduce the background in high resolution photon spectrometers at only moderate cost

  20. Study and characterization of porous germanium for radiometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkari, E.; Benachour, Z.; Touayar, O.; Benbrahim, J. [Activites de Recherche, Metrologie des Rayonnements, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie, INSAT, Tunis (Tunisia); Aouida, S.; Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Nanomateriaux et des Systemes de l' Energie, LaNSE, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, CRTEn, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this article is to study and realize a new detector based on a porous germanium (pGe) photodiode to be used as a standard for radiometric measurement in the wavelength region between 800 nm and 1700 nm. We present the development and characterization of a porous structure realized on a single-crystal substrate of p-type germanium (Ga doped) and of crystallographic orientation (100). The obtained structure allows, on the one hand, to trap the incident radiation, and on the other hand, to minimize the fluctuations of the front-face reflection coefficient of the photodiode. The first studies thus made show that it is possible to optimize, respectively, the electrical current density and the electrochemical operation time necessary for obtaining exploitable porous structures. The obtained results show that for 50 mA/cm{sup 2} and 5 min as operational parameters, we obtain a textured aspect of the porous samples that present a pyramidal form. The reflectivity study of the front surface shows a constant value of around 38% in a spectral range between 800 nm and 1700 nm approximately. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Germanium-76 Isotope Separation by Cryogenic Distillation. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The current separation method for Germanium isotopes is electromagnetic separation using Calutrons. The Calutrons have the disadvantage of having a low separation capacity and a high energy cost to achieve the separation. Our proposed new distillation method has the advantage that larger quantities of Germanium isotopes can be separated at a significantly lower cost and in a much shorter time. After nine months of operating the column that is 1.5 meter in length, no significant separation of the isotopes has been measured. We conclude that the length of the column we have been using is too short. In addition, other packing material than the 0.16 inch Propak, 316 ss Protruded metal packing that we used in the column, should be evaluated which may have a better separation factor than the 0.16 inch Propak, 316 ss Protruded metal packing that has been used. We conclude that a much longer column - a minimum of 50 feet length - should be built and additional column packing should be tested to verify that isotopic separation can be achieved by cryogenic distillation. Even a longer column than 50 feet would be desirable.

  2. Zeeman spectroscopy of Zn-H complex in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabakar, J.P.C.; Vickers, R.E.M.; Fisher, P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A divalent substitutional zinc atom in germanium complexed with an interstitial hydrogen atom gives rise to a monovalent acceptor of trigonal symmetry. The axial nature of this complex splits the four-fold degenerate states associated with substitutional point defects into two two-fold degenerate states. Zeeman spectra of the Zn-H complex have been observed for B along and crystallographic directions in the Voigt configuration using linearly polarised radiation. Spectra of the C and D lines for B ≤ 2 Tesla are essentially identical to those of these lines of group III impurities; here B is the field strength. At all fields, splitting of the excited state of the D lines is identical to that for group III acceptors in germanium. The magnetic field dependence of the D components for both E parallel B and E perpendicular B and the selection rules demand that only one of the two two-fold 1s-like energy levels is occupied at the temperatures used instead of both. The results confirm piezospectroscopic studies which demonstrated that the axes of the complexes are along the four covalent bond directions of the host

  3. Thermo-chemical properties and electrical resistivity of Zr-based arsenide chalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schlechte, R. Niewa, M. Schmidt, G. Auffermann, Yu. Prots, W. Schnelle, D. Gnida, T. Cichorek, F. Steglich and R. Kniep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary phases in the systems Zr–As–Se and Zr–As–Te were studied using single crystals of ZrAs1.40(1Se0.50(1 and ZrAs1.60(2Te0.40(1 (PbFCl-type of structure, space group P4/nmm as well as ZrAs0.70(1Se1.30(1 and ZrAs0.75(1Te1.25(1 (NbPS-type of structure, space group Immm. The characterization covers chemical compositions, crystal structures, homogeneity ranges and electrical resistivities. At 1223 K, the Te-containing phases can be described with the general formula ZrAsxTe2−x, with 1.53(1≤x≤1.65(1 (As-rich and 0.58(1≤x≤0.75(1 (Te-rich. Both phases are located directly on the tie-line between ZrAs2 and ZrTe2, with no indication for any deviation. Similar is true for the Se-rich phase ZrAsxSe2−x with 0.70(1≤x≤0.75(1. However, the compositional range of the respective As-rich phase ZrAsx−ySe2−x (0.03(1≤y≤0.10(1; 1.42(1≤x≤1.70(1 is not located on the tie-line ZrAs2–ZrSe2, and exhibits a triangular region of existence with intrinsic deviation of the composition towards lower non-metal contents. Except for ZrAs0.75Se1.25, from the homogeneity range of the Se-rich phase, all compounds under investigation show metallic characteristics of electrical resistivity at temperatures >20 K. Related uranium and thorium arsenide selenides display a typical magnetic field-independent rise of the resistivity towards lower temperatures, which has been explained by a non-magnetic Kondo effect. However, a similar observation has been made for ZrAs1.40Se0.50, which, among the Zr-based arsenide chalcogenides, is the only system with a large concentration of intrinsic defects in the anionic substructure.

  4. Germanium CMOS potential from material and process perspectives: Be more positive about germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Akira; Nishimura, Tomonori

    2018-01-01

    CMOS miniaturization is now approaching the sub-10 nm level, and further downscaling is expected. This size scaling will end sooner or later, however, because the typical size is approaching the atomic distance level in crystalline Si. In addition, it is said that electron transport in FETs is ballistic or nearly ballistic, which means that the injection velocity at the virtual source is a physical parameter relevant for estimating the driving current. Channel-materials with higher carrier mobility than Si are nonetheless needed, and the carrier mobility in the channels is a parameter important with regard to increasing the injection velocity. Although the density of states in the channel has not been discussed often, it too is relevant for estimating the channel current. Both the mobility and the density of states are in principle related to the effective mass of the carrier. From this device physics viewpoint, we expect germanium (Ge) CMOS to be promising for scaling beyond the Si CMOS limit because the bulk mobility values of electrons and holes in Ge are much higher than those of electrons and holes in Si, and the electron effective mass in Ge is not much less than that in III-V compounds. There is a debate that Ge should be used for p-MOSFETs and III-V compounds for n-MOSFETs, but considering that the variability or nonuniformity of the FET performance in today’s CMOS LSIs is a big challenge, it seems that much more attention should be paid to the simplicity of the material design and of the processing steps. Nevertheless, Ge faces a number of challenges even in case that only the FET level is concerned. One of the big problems with Ge CMOS technology has been its poor performance in n-MOSFETs. While the hole mobility in p-FETs has been improved, the electron mobility in the inversion layer of Ge FETs remains a serious concern. If this is due to the inherent properties of Ge, only p-MOSFETs might be used for device applications. To make Ge CMOS devices

  5. Thermal and thermoelectric transport measurements of an individual boron arsenide microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaehyun; Sellan, Daniel P.; Ou, Eric; Shi, Li, E-mail: lishi@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Evans, Daniel A.; Williams, Owen M.; Cowley, Alan H. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Recent first principles calculations have predicted that boron arsenide (BAs) can possess an unexpectedly high thermal conductivity that depends sensitively on the crystal size and defect concentration. However, few experimental results have been obtained to verify these predictions. In the present work, we report four-probe thermal and thermoelectric transport measurements of an individual BAs microstructure that was synthesized via a vapor transport method. The measured thermal conductivity was found to decrease slightly with temperature in the range between 250 K and 350 K. The temperature dependence suggests that the extrinsic phonon scattering processes play an important role in addition to intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering. The room temperature value of (186 ± 46) W m{sup −1 }K{sup −1} is higher than that of bulk silicon but still a factor of four lower than the calculated result for a defect-free, non-degenerate BAs rod with a similar diameter of 1.15 μm. The measured p-type Seebeck coefficient and thermoelectric power factor are comparable to those of bismuth telluride, which is a commonly used thermoelectric material. The foregoing results also suggest that it is necessary to not only reduce defect and boundary scatterings but also to better understand and control the electron scattering of phonons in order to achieve the predicted ultrahigh intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity of BAs.

  6. Model for transport and reaction of defects and carriers within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at evolving displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with the details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers, and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster of defects. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were determined through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to displacement damage from energetic particle irradiation

  7. Arsenic moiety in gallium arsenide is responsible for neuronal apoptosis and behavioral alterations in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, Swaran J.S.; Bhatt, Kapil; Mehta, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), an intermetallic semiconductor finds widespread applications in high frequency microwave and millimeter wave, and ultra fast supercomputers. Extensive use of GaAs has led to increased exposure to humans working in semiconductor industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties at physiological pH and might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, the principle moiety (Ga or As) in GaAs to cause neurological dysfunction based on its ability to cause apoptosis, in vivo and in vitro and if this neuronal dysfunction translated to neurobehavioral changes in chronically exposed rats. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, both in vitro and in vivo. Increased ROS further caused apoptosis via mitochondrial driven pathway. Effects of oxidative stress were also confirmed based on alterations in antioxidant enzymes, GPx, GST and SOD in rat brain. We noted that ROS induced oxidative stress caused changes in the brain neurotransmitter levels, Acetylcholinesterase and nitric oxide synthase, leading to loss of memory and learning in rats. The study demonstrates for the first time that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress induced apoptosis in neuronal cells causing behavioral changes.

  8. Modelling of the small pixel effect in gallium arsenide X-ray imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J

    1999-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation has been carried out to investigate the small pixel effect in highly pixellated X-ray imaging detectors fabricated from semi-insulating gallium arsenide. The presence of highly non-uniform weighting fields in detectors with a small pixel geometry causes the majority of the induced signal to be generated when the moving charges are close to the pixellated contacts. The response of GaAs X-ray imaging detectors is further complicated by the presence of charge trapping, particularly of electrons. In this work detectors are modelled with a pixel pitch of 40 and 150 mu m, and with thicknesses of 300 and 500 mu m. Pulses induced in devices with 40 mu m pixels are due almost totally to the movement of the lightly-trapped holes and can exhibit significantly higher charge collection efficiencies than detectors with large electrodes, in which electron trapping is significant. Details of the charge collection efficiencies as a function of interaction depth in the detector and of the incident phot...

  9. Radiation effects in silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells using isotropic and normally incident radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Several types of silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells were irradiated with protons with energies between 50 keV and 10 MeV at both normal and isotropic incidence. Damage coefficients for maximum power relative to 10 MeV were derived for these cells for both cases of omni-directional and normal incidence. The damage coefficients for the silicon cells were found to be somewhat lower than those quoted in the Solar Cell Radiation Handbook. These values were used to compute omni-directional damage coefficients suitable for solar cells protected by coverglasses of practical thickness, which in turn were used to compute solar cell degradation in two proton-dominated orbits. In spite of the difference in the low energy proton damage coefficients, the difference between the handbook prediction and the prediction using the newly derived values was negligible. Damage coefficients for GaAs solar cells for short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and maximum power were also computed relative to 10 MeV protons. They were used to predict cell degradation in the same two orbits and in a 5600 nmi orbit. Results show the performance of the GaAs solar cells in these orbits to be superior to that of the Si cells.

  10. Irradiation effects of swift heavy ions on gallium arsenide, silicon and silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoraskar, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    The irradiation effects of high energy lithium, boron, oxygen and silicon ions on crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide, porous silicon and silicon diodes were investigated. The ion energy and fluence were varied over the ranges 30 to 100 MeV and 10 11 to 10 14 ions/cm 2 respectively. Semiconductor samples were characterized with the x-ray fluorescence, photoluminescence, thermally stimulated exo-electron emission and optical reflectivity techniques. The life-time of minority carriers in crystalline silicon was measured with a pulsed electron beam and the lithium depth distribution in GaAs was measured with the neutron depth profiling technique. The diodes were characterized through electrical measurements. The results of optical reflectivity, life-time of minority carriers and photoluminescence show that swift heavy ions induce defects in the surface region of crystalline silicon. In the ion-irradiated GaAs, migration of silicon, oxygen and lithium atoms from the buried region towards the surface was observed, with orders of magnitude enhancement in the diffusion coefficients. Enhancement in the photoluminescence intensity was observed in the GaAs and porous silicon samples that, were irradiated with silicon ions. The trade-off between the turn-off time and the voltage, drop in diodes irradiated with different swift heavy ions was also studied. (author)

  11. Seeded growth of boron arsenide single crystals with high thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Song, Bai; Lv, Bing; Sun, Jingying; Huyan, Shuyuan; Wu, Qi; Mao, Jun; Ni, Yizhou; Ding, Zhiwei; Huberman, Samuel; Liu, Te-Huan; Chen, Gang; Chen, Shuo; Chu, Ching-Wu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2018-01-01

    Materials with high thermal conductivities are crucial to effectively cooling high-power-density electronic and optoelectronic devices. Recently, zinc-blende boron arsenide (BAs) has been predicted to have a very high thermal conductivity of over 2000 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature by first-principles calculations, rendering it a close competitor for diamond which holds the highest thermal conductivity among bulk materials. Experimental demonstration, however, has proved extremely challenging, especially in the preparation of large high quality single crystals. Although BAs crystals have been previously grown by chemical vapor transport (CVT), the growth process relies on spontaneous nucleation and results in small crystals with multiple grains and various defects. Here, we report a controllable CVT synthesis of large single BAs crystals (400-600 μm) by using carefully selected tiny BAs single crystals as seeds. We have obtained BAs single crystals with a thermal conductivity of 351 ± 21 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature, which is almost twice as conductive as previously reported BAs crystals. Further improvement along this direction is very likely.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of germanium organometallic compounds as precursors for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and for obtaining nanoparticles of elemental germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestero Martinez, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the development of materials having applications such as electronics areas or biomarkers has affected the synthesis of new compounds based on germanium. This element has had two common oxidation states, +4 and +2, of them, +2 oxidation state has been the least studied and more reactive. Additionally, compounds of germanium (II) have had similarities with carbenes regarding the chemical acid-base Lewis. The preparation of compounds of germanium (II) with ligands β-decimations has enabled stabilization of new chemical functionalities and, simultaneously, provided interesting thermal properties to develop new preparation methodologies of materials with novel properties. The preparation of amides germanium(II) L'Ge(NHPh) [1, L' = {HC (CMeN-2,4,6-Me 3 C 6 H 2 ) 2 }], L'Ge(4-NHPy) [2] L'Ge(2-NHPy) [3] and LGe(2-NHPy) [4, L = {HC(CMeN-2,6- i Pr 2 C 6 H 3 ) 2 }]; the structural chemical composition were determined using techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H, 13 C), other techniques are treated: elemental analysis, melting point, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction of single crystal and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The TGA has showed that 4-1 have experimented a thermal decomposition; therefore, these compounds could be considered as potential starting materials for obtaining germanium nitride (GeN x ). Certainly, the availability of nitrogen coordinating atoms in the chemical composition in 2-4 have been interesting because it could act as ligands in reactions with transition metal complexes. That way, information could be obtained at the molecular level for some reactions and interactions that in surface chemistry have used similar link sites, for example, chemical functionalization of silicon and germanium substrates. The synthesis and structural characterization of germanium chloride compound(II) L''GeCl [5, L'' = HC{(CMe) (N-2,6-Me 2 C 6 H 3 )} 2 ], which could be used later for the

  13. Gamma ray polarimetry using a position sensitive germanium detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kroeger, R A; Kurfess, J D; Phlips, B F

    1999-01-01

    Imaging gamma-ray detectors make sensitive polarimeters in the Compton energy regime by measuring the scatter direction of gamma rays. The principle is to capitalize on the angular dependence of the Compton scattering cross section to polarized gamma rays and measure the distribution of scatter directions within the detector. This technique is effective in a double-sided germanium detector between roughly 50 keV and 1 MeV. This paper reviews device characteristics important to the optimization of a Compton polarimeter, and summarizes measurements we have made using a device with a 5x5 cm active area, 1 cm thickness, and strip-electrodes on a 2 mm pitch.

  14. Long-wavelength germanium photodetectors by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, I.C.; Beeman, J.W.; Luke, P.N.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1990-11-01

    Extrinsic far-infrared photoconductivity in thin high-purity germanium wafers implanted with multiple-energy boron ions has been investigated. Initial results from Fourier transform spectrometer(FTS) measurements have demonstrated that photodetectors fabricated from this material have an extended long-wavelength threshold near 192μm. Due to the high-purity substrate, the ability to block the hopping conduction in the implanted IR-active layer yields dark currents of less than 100 electrons/sec at temperatures below 1.3 K under an operating bias of up to 70 mV. Optimum peak responsivity and noise equivalent power (NEP) for these sensitive detectors are 0.9 A/W and 5 x 10 -16 W/Hz 1/2 at 99 μm, respectively. The dependence of the performance of devices on the residual donor concentration in the implanted layer will be discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs

  15. Hydrogen concentration and distribution in high-purity germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Luke, P.N.

    1981-10-01

    High-purity germanium crystals used for making nuclear radiation detectors are usually grown in a hydrogen ambient from a melt contained in a high-purity silica crucible. The benefits and problems encountered in using a hydrogen ambient are reviewed. A hydrogen concentration of about 2 x 10 15 cm -3 has been determined by growing crystals in hydrogen spiked with tritium and counting the tritium β-decays in detectors made from these crystals. Annealing studies show that the hydrogen is strongly bound, either to defects or as H 2 with a dissociation energy > 3 eV. This is lowered to 1.8 eV when copper is present. Etching defects in dislocation-free crystals grown in hydrogen have been found by etch stripping to have a density of about 1 x 10 7 cm -3 and are estimated to contain 10 8 H atoms each

  16. TIGRESS highly-segmented high-purity germanium clover detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scraggs, H. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Hackman, G.; Smith, M. B.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Boston, A. J.; Bricault, P.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Cowan, N.; Cronkhite, G.; Cunningham, E. S.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Leslie, J. R.; Martin, J.-P.; Morris, D.; Morton, A. C.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.; Zimmerman, L.

    2005-05-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) will consist of twelve units of four high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystals in a common cryostat. The outer contacts of each crystal will be divided into four quadrants and two lateral segments for a total of eight outer contacts. The performance of a prototype HPGe four-crystal unit has been investigated. Integrated noise spectra for all contacts were measured. Energy resolutions, relative efficiencies for both individual crystals and for the entire unit, and peak-to-total ratios were measured with point-like sources. Position-dependent performance was measured by moving a collimated source across the face of the detector.

  17. Structure and electron-ion correlation of liquid germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Y. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)]. E-mail: kawakita@rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Fujita, S. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, S. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto Mikazuki-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ohshima, K. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Fujii, H. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Yokota, Y. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Takeda, S. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)

    2005-08-15

    Structure factor of liquid germanium (Ge) has a shoulder at {theta} = 3.2 A{sup -1} in the high-momentum-transfer region of the first peak. To investigate the origin of such a non-simplicity in the structure, high energy X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed using 113.26 keV incident X-ray, at BL04B2 beamline of SPring-8. By a combination of the obtained structure factor with the reported neutron diffraction data, charge density function and electron-ion partial structure factor have been deduced. The peak position of the charge distribution is located at about 1 A, rather smaller r value than the half value of nearest neighbor distance ({approx}2.7 A), which suggests that valence electrons of liquid Ge play a role of screening electrons around a metallic ion rather than covalently bonding electrons.

  18. Specific features of phase transformations in germanium monotelluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigvava, A.D.; Gabedava, A.A.; Kunchuliya, Eh.D.; Shvangiradze, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Phase transformations in germanium monotelluride are studied . using DRON-0.5 and DRON-1 plants with high-temperature chamber GPVT-1500 at Cu, Ksub(α) radiation. It is shown that in the whole homogeneity range α GeTe is a metastable phase which is formed under the conditions of fast cooling of alloy from temperatures >=Tsub(cub) (temperature of transition in cubic crystal system). An equilibrium γ-phase is obtained by annealing of dispersed powders and metal-ceramic specimens of alloys with 50.3; 50.6; 50.9 at % Te. Lattice parameters of rhombic γ-phase do not depend on tellurium content in initial α- phase. α→γ transformation is observed at any temperature less than Tsub(cub) with the change of alloy composition, namely tellurium precipitation. γ-phase transforms into β at higher temperatures than α-phase [ru

  19. Young’s modulus of [111] germanium nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksud, M.; Palapati, N. K. R.; Subramanian, A., E-mail: asubramanian@vcu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Yoo, J. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Harris, C. T. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports a diameter-independent Young’s modulus of 91.9 ± 8.2 GPa for [111] Germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). When the surface oxide layer is accounted for using a core-shell NW approximation, the YM of the Ge core approaches a near theoretical value of 147.6 ± 23.4 GPa. The ultimate strength of a NW device was measured at 10.9 GPa, which represents a very high experimental-to-theoretical strength ratio of ∼75%. With increasing interest in this material system as a high-capacity lithium-ion battery anode, the presented data provide inputs that are essential in predicting its lithiation-induced stress fields and fracture behavior.

  20. Buried Porous Silicon-Germanium Layers in Monocrystalline Silicon Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Monocrystalline semiconductor lattices with a buried porous semiconductor layer having different chemical composition is discussed and monocrystalline semiconductor superlattices with a buried porous semiconductor layers having different chemical composition than that of its monocrystalline semiconductor superlattice are discussed. Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si-Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are strain etched resulting in porosification of the Si-Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si-Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  1. Radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium single crystals when excess carriers were generated by bombardment with α particles, protons, or x rays in magnetic fields up to 8 kOe. The source of α particles and protons was a cyclotron and x rays were provided by a tube with a copper anode. The radiation-electromagnetic emf increased linearly on increase in the magnetic field and was directly proportional to the flux of charged particles at low values of the flux, reaching saturation at high values of the flux (approx.5 x 10 11 particles .cm -2 .sec -1 ). In the energy range 4--40 MeV the emf was practically independent of the α-particle energy. The sign of the emf was reversed when samples with a ground front surface were irradiated. Measurements of the photoelectromagnetic and Hall effects in the α-particle-irradiated samples showed that a p-n junction was produced by these particles and its presence should be allowed for in investigations of the radiation-electromagnetic effect. The measured even radiation-electromagnetic emf increased quadratically on increase in the magnetic field. An investigation was made of the barrier radiation-voltaic effect (when the emf was measured between the irradiated and unirradiated surfaces). Special masks were used to produce a set of consecutive p-n junctions in germanium crystals irradiated with α particles. A study of the photovoltaic and photoelectromagnetic effects in such samples showed that the method could be used to increase the efficiency of devices utilizing the photoelectromagnetic effect

  2. Secondary ion formation during electronic and nuclear sputtering of germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, L.; Ernst, P.; Herder, M.; Meinerzhagen, F.; Bender, M.; Severin, D.; Wucher, A.

    2018-06-01

    Using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer attached to the UNILAC beamline located at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, we investigate the formation of secondary ions sputtered from a germanium surface under irradiation by swift heavy ions (SHI) such as 5 MeV/u Au by simultaneously recording the mass spectra of the ejected secondary ions and their neutral counterparts. In these experiments, the sputtered neutral material is post-ionized via single photon absorption from a pulsed, intensive VUV laser. After post-ionization, the instrument cannot distinguish between secondary ions and post-ionized neutrals, so that both signals can be directly compared in order to investigate the ionization probability of different sputtered species. In order to facilitate an in-situ comparison with typical nuclear sputtering conditions, the system is also equipped with a conventional rare gas ion source delivering a 5 keV argon ion beam. For a dynamically sputter cleaned surface, it is found that the ionization probability of Ge atoms and Gen clusters ejected under electronic sputtering conditions is by more than an order of magnitude higher than that measured for keV sputtered particles. In addition, the mass spectra obtained under SHI irradiation show prominent signals of GenOm clusters, which are predominantly detected as positive or negative secondary ions. From the m-distribution for a given Ge nuclearity n, one can deduce that the sputtered material must originate from a germanium oxide matrix with approximate GeO stoichiometry, probably due to residual native oxide patches even at the dynamically cleaned surface. The results clearly demonstrate a fundamental difference between the ejection and ionization mechanisms in both cases, which is interpreted in terms of corresponding model calculations.

  3. An Implant-Passivated Blocked Impurity Band Germanium Detector for the Far Infrared, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to investigate the feasibility of fabricating a germanium blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detector using a novel process which will enable us to: 1- fabricate...

  4. An Implant-Passivated Blocked Impurity Band Germanium Detector for the Far Infrared, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to fabricate a germanium blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detector using a novel process which will enable us to: 1- fabricate a suitably-doped active layer...

  5. Nonthermal plasma synthesis of size-controlled, monodisperse, freestanding germanium nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gresback, Ryan; Holman, Zachary; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Germanium nanocrystals may be of interest for a variety of electronic and optoelectronic applications including photovoltaics, primarily due to the tunability of their band gap from the infrared into the visible range of the spectrum. This letter discusses the synthesis of monodisperse germanium nanocrystals via a nonthermal plasma approach which allows for precise control of the nanocrystal size. Germanium crystals are synthesized from germanium tetrachloride and hydrogen entrained in an argon background gas. The crystal size can be varied between 4 and 50 nm by changing the residence times of crystals in the plasma between ∼30 and 440 ms. Adjusting the plasma power enables one to synthesize fully amorphous or fully crystalline particles with otherwise similar properties

  6. Charge Spreading and Position Sensitivity in a Segmented Planar Germanium Detector (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kroeger, R. A; Gehrels, N; Johnson, W. N; Kurfess, J. D; Phlips, B. P; Tueller, J

    1998-01-01

    The size of the charge cloud collected in a segmented germanium detector is limited by the size of the initial cloud, uniformity of the electric field, and the diffusion of electrons and holes through the detector...

  7. Quantum interference magnetoconductance of polycrystalline germanium films in the variable-range hopping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoguo; Peng, Liping; Zhang, Jicheng; Li, Jia; Zeng, Yong; Zhan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Weidong

    2018-06-01

    Direct evidence of quantum interference magnetotransport in polycrystalline germanium films in the variable-range hopping (VRH) regime is reported. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of germanium films fulfilled the Mott VRH mechanism with the form of ? in the low-temperature regime (?). For the magnetotransport behaviour of our germanium films in the VRH regime, a crossover, from negative magnetoconductance at the low-field to positive magnetoconductance at the high-field, is observed while the zero-field conductivity is higher than the critical value (?). In the regime of ?, the magnetoconductance is positive and quadratic in the field for some germanium films. These features are in agreement with the VRH magnetotransport theory based on the quantum interference effect among random paths in the hopping process.

  8. Germanium microstrip detectors with 50 and 100 μm pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Raso, G.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.; Luke, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    Multi-electrode germanium detectors are being used as an active target for decay path measurements of charmed mesons. The procedure used to fabricate such detectors is described and a brief analysis of their performance is given. (orig.)

  9. Induced Radioactivity Measured in a Germanium Detector After a Long Duration Balloon Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, R.; Evans, L. G.; Floyed, S. R.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Rester, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    A 13-day long duration balloon flight carrying a germanium detector was flown from Williams Field, Antartica in December 1992. After recovery of the payload the activity induced in the detector was measured.

  10. Silicon-Germanium Front-End Electronics for Space-Based Radar Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past two decades, Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology has emerged as a strong platform for high-frequency...

  11. Fundamental aspects of nucleation and growth in the solution-phase synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Codoluto, Stephen C.; Baumgardner, William J.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal Ge nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized via the solution phase reduction of germanium(ii) iodide. We report a systematic investigation of the nanocrystal nucleation and growth as a function of synthesis conditions including the nature

  12. Thermal recrystallization of physical vapor deposition based germanium thin films on bulk silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-08-16

    We demonstrate a simple, low-cost, and scalable process for obtaining uniform, smooth surfaced, high quality mono-crystalline germanium (100) thin films on silicon (100). The germanium thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate using plasma-assisted sputtering based physical vapor deposition. They were crystallized by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 1100 °C. We report that the best quality germanium thin films are obtained above the melting point of germanium (937 °C), thus offering a method for in-situ Czochralski process. We show well-behaved high-κ /metal gate metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using this film. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Direct band gap electroluminescence from bulk germanium at room temperature using an asymmetric fin type metal/germanium/metal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong, E-mail: wang.dong.539@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Maekura, Takayuki; Kamezawa, Sho [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Yamamoto, Keisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-16

    We demonstrated direct band gap (DBG) electroluminescence (EL) at room temperature from n-type bulk germanium (Ge) using a fin type asymmetric lateral metal/Ge/metal structure with TiN/Ge and HfGe/Ge contacts, which was fabricated using a low temperature (<400 °C) process. Small electron and hole barrier heights were obtained for TiN/Ge and HfGe/Ge contacts, respectively. DBG EL spectrum peaked at 1.55 μm was clearly observed even at a small current density of 2.2 μA/μm. Superlinear increase in EL intensity was also observed with increasing current density, due to superlinear increase in population of elections in direct conduction band. The efficiency of hole injection was also clarified.

  14. Influence of reductant and germanium concentration on the growth and stress development of germanium nanocrystals in silicon oxide matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, H G; Zheng, F; Choi, W K; Chim, W K; Foo, Y L; Fitzgerald, E A

    2007-01-01

    Germanium (Ge) nanocrystals have been synthesized by annealing co-sputtered SiO 2 -Ge samples in N 2 or forming gas (90% N 2 +10% H 2 ) at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 deg. C. We concluded that the annealing ambient, temperature and Ge concentration have a significant influence on the formation and evolution of the nanocrystals. We showed that a careful selective etching of the annealed samples in hydrofluoric acid solution enabled the embedded Ge nanocrystals to be liberated from the SiO 2 matrix. From the Raman results of the as-grown and the liberated nanocrystals, we established that the nanocrystals generally experienced compressive stress in the oxide matrix and the evolution of these stress states was intimately linked to the distribution, density, size and quality of the Ge nanocrystals

  15. HEROICA: A fast screening facility for the characterization of germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, Erica [Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    In the course of 2012, a facility for the fast screening of germanium detectors called HEROICA (Hades Experimental Research Of Intrinsic Crystal Appliances) has been installed at the HADES underground laboratory in the premises of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK•CEN, in Mol (Belgium). The facility allows performing a complete characterization of the critical germanium detectors' operational parameters with a rate of about two detectors per week.

  16. Selectivity control of photosensitive structures based on gallium arsenide phosphide solid solutions by changing the rate of surface recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, S A; Andreev, M Y; Lamkin, I A; Solomonov, A V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of surface recombination on spectral sensitivity of structures based on gallium arsenide phosphide solid solutions. Simulation of the effect for structures based on a p-n junction and a Schottky barrier was carried out. Photodetectors with different rates of surface recombination were fabricated by using different methods of preliminary treatment of the semiconductor surface. We experimentally demonstrated the possibility to control photodetector selectivity by altering the rate of surface recombination. The full width at half maximum was reduced by almost 4 times, while a relatively small decrease in sensitivity at the maximum was observed. (paper)

  17. A study of ion implanted gallium arsenide using deep level transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerson, N.G.

    1981-03-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of deep energy levels in ion implanted gallium arsenide (GaAs) using deep level transient spectroscopy (D.L.T.S.). The D.L.T.S. technique is used to characterise deep levels in terms of their activation energies and capture cross-sections and to determine their concentration profiles. The main objective is to characterise the effects on deep levels, of ion implantation and the related annealing processes. In the majority of cases assessment is carried out using Schottky barrier diodes. Low doses of selenium ions 1 to 3 x 10 12 cm -2 are implanted into vapour phase epitaxial (V.P.E.) GaAs and the effects of post-implantation thermal and pulsed laser annealing are compared. The process of oxygen implantation with doses in the range 1 x 10 12 to 5 x 10 13 cm -2 followed by thermal annealing at about 750 deg C, introduces a deep level at 0.79 eV from the conduction band. Oxygen implantation, at doses of 5 x 10 13 cm -2 , into V.P.E. GaAs produces a significant increase in the concentration of the A-centre (0.83 eV). High doses of zinc (10 15 cm -2 ) are implanted into n-type V.P.E. GaAs to form shallow p-type layers. The D.L.T.S. system described in the text is used to measure levels in the range 0.16 to 1.1 eV (for GaAs) with a sensitivity of the order 1:10 3 . (U.K.)

  18. Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin

    2014-01-01

    Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2 kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1 μJ arrival, the structure with thickness of 650 μm reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (∼4 kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ∼4 kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed

  19. Optical properties of Germanium nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikiran eVadavalli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Germanium (Ge nanoparticles (NPs are synthesized by means of pulsed laser ablation of bulk germanium target immersed in acetone with ns laser pulses at different pulse energies. The fabricated NPs are characterized by employing different techniques such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence, micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. The mean size of the Ge NPs is found to vary from few nm to 40 nm with the increase in laser pulse energy. Shift in the position of the absorption spectra is observed and also the photoluminescence peak shift is observed due to quantum confinement effects. High resolution TEM combined with micro-Raman spectroscopy confirms the crystalline nature of the generated germanium nanoparticles. The formation of various sizes of germanium NPs at different laser pulse energies is evident from the asymmetry in the Raman spectra and the shift in its peak position towards the lower wavenumber side. The FESEM micrographs confirm the formation of germanium micro/nanostructures at the laser ablated position of the bulk germanium. In particular, the measured NP sizes from the micro-Raman phonon quantum confinement model are found in good agreement with TEM measurements of Ge NPs.

  20. Automation of the Characterization of High Purity Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Charles ``Chip''

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a rare hypothesized process that may yield valuable insight into the fundamental properties of the neutrino. Currently there are several experiments trying to observe this process, including the Majorana DEMONSTRAOR experiment, which uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to generate and search for these events. Because the event happens internally, it is essential to have the lowest background possible. This is done through passive detector shielding, as well as event discrimination techniques that distinguish between multi-site events characteristic of gamma-radiation, and single-site events characteristic of neutrinoless double beta decay. Before fielding such an experiment, the radiation response of the detectors must be characterized. A robotic arm is being tested for future calibration of HPGe detectors. The arm will hold a source at locations relative to the crystal while data is acquired. Several radioactive sources of varying energy levels will be used to determine the characteristics of the crystal. In this poster, I will present our work with the robot, as well as the characterization of data we took with an underground HPGe detector at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, NM (2013). Neutrinoless double beta decay is a rare hypothesized process that may yield valuable insight into the fundamental properties of the neutrino. Currently there are several experiments trying to observe this process, including the Majorana DEMONSTRAOR experiment, which uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to generate and search for these events. Because the event happens internally, it is essential to have the lowest background possible. This is done through passive detector shielding, as well as event discrimination techniques that distinguish between multi-site events characteristic of gamma-radiation, and single-site events characteristic of neutrinoless double beta decay. Before fielding such an experiment, the radiation response of

  1. Maximizing Tensile Strain in Germanium Nanomembranes for Enhanced Optoelectronic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Perez, Jose Roberto

    Silicon, germanium, and their alloys, which provide the leading materials platform of microelectronics, are extremely inefficient light emitters because of their indirect fundamental energy band gap. This basic materials property has so far hindered the development of group-IV photonic-active devices, including light emitters and diode lasers, thereby significantly limiting our ability to integrate electronic and photonic functionalities at the chip level. Theoretical studies have predicted that tensile strain in Ge lowers the direct energy band gap relative to the indirect one, and that, with sufficient strain, Ge becomes direct-band gap, thus enabling facile interband light emission and the fabrication of Group IV lasers. It has, however, not been possible to impart sufficient strain to Ge to reach the direct-band gap goal, because bulk Ge fractures at much lower strains. Here it is shown that very thin sheets of Ge(001), called nanomembranes (NMs), can be used to overcome this materials limitation. Germanium nanomembranes (NMs) in the range of thicknesses from 20nm to 100nm were fabricated and then transferred and mounted to a flexible substrate [a polyimide (PI) sheet]. An apparatus was developed to stress the PI/NM combination and provide for in-situ Raman measurements of the strain as a function of applied stress. This arrangement allowed for the introduction of sufficient biaxial tensile strain (>1.7%) to transform Ge to a direct-band gap material, as determined by photoluminescence (PL) measurements and theory. Appropriate shifts in the emission spectrum and increases in PL intensities were observed. The advance in this work was nanomembrane fabrication technology; i.e., making thin enough Ge sheets to accept sufficiently high levels of strain without fracture. It was of interest to determine if the strain at which fracture ultimately does occur can be raised, by evaluating factors that initiate fracture. Attempts to assess the effect of free edges (enchant

  2. Phase diagram of (Li(1-x)Fe(x))OHFeSe: a bridge between iron selenide and arsenide superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Zhou, Huaxue; Yang, Huaixin; Yuan, Jie; Jin, Kui; Zhou, Fang; Yuan, Dongna; Wei, Linlin; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Xinqiang; Zhang, Guangming; Zhao, Zhongxian

    2015-01-14

    Previous experimental results have shown important differences between iron selenide and arsenide superconductors which seem to suggest that the high-temperature superconductivity in these two subgroups of iron-based families may arise from different electronic ground states. Here we report the complete phase diagram of a newly synthesized superconducting (SC) system, (Li1-xFex)OHFeSe, with a structure similar to that of FeAs-based superconductors. In the non-SC samples, an antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin-density-wave (SDW) transition occurs at ∼127 K. This is the first example to demonstrate such an SDW phase in an FeSe-based superconductor system. Transmission electron microscopy shows that a well-known √5×√5 iron vacancy ordered state, resulting in an AFM order at ∼500 K in AyFe2-xSe2 (A = metal ions) superconductor systems, is absent in both non-SC and SC samples, but a unique superstructure with a modulation wave vector q = (1)/2(1,1,0), identical to that seen in the SC phase of KyFe2-xSe2, is dominant in the optimal SC sample (with an SC transition temperature Tc = 40 K). Hence, we conclude that the high-Tc superconductivity in (Li1-xFex)OHFeSe stems from the similarly weak AFM fluctuations as FeAs-based superconductors, suggesting a universal physical picture for both iron selenide and arsenide superconductors.

  3. Revealing the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of the Zintl quaternary arsenides ACdGeAs{sub 2} (A = K, Rb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz [New Technologies—Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Goumri-Said, Souraya, E-mail: Souraya.Goumri-Said@chemistry.gatech.edu [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Zintl tetragonal phase ACdGeAs{sub 2} (A = K, Rb) are chalcopyrite and semiconductors. • Their direct band gap is suitable for PV, optolectronic and thermoelectric applications. • Combination of DFT and Boltzmann transport theory is employed. • The present arsenides are found to be covalent materials. - Abstract: Chalcopyrite semiconductors have attracted much attention due to their potential implications in photovoltaic and thermoelectric applications. First principle calculations were performed to investigate the electronic, optical and thermoelectric properties of the Zintl tetragonal phase ACdGeAs{sub 2} (A = K, Rb) using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method and the Engle–Vosko GGA (EV–GGA) approximation. The present compounds are found semiconductors with direct band gap and covalent bonding character. The optical transitions are investigated via the dielectric function (real and imaginary parts) along with other related optical constants including refractive index, reflectivity and energy-loss spectrum. Combining results from DFT and Boltzmann transport theory, we reported the thermoelectric properties such as the Seebeck’s coefficient, electrical and thermal conductivity, figure of merit and power factor as function of temperatures. The present chalcopyrite Zintl quaternary arsenides deserve to be explored for their potential applications as thermoelectric materials and for photovoltaic devices.

  4. Strip interpolation in silicon and germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, E. A.; Phlips, B. F.; Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Lister, C. J.; Kondev, F.; Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2004-01-01

    The position resolution of double-sided strip detectors is limited by the strip pitch and a reduction in strip pitch necessitates more electronics. Improved position resolution would improve the imaging capabilities of Compton telescopes and PET detectors. Digitizing the preamplifier waveform yields more information than can be extracted with regular shaping electronics. In addition to the energy, depth of interaction, and which strip was hit, the digitized preamplifier signals can locate the interaction position to less than the strip pitch of the detector by looking at induced signals in neighboring strips. This allows the position of the interaction to be interpolated in three dimensions and improve the imaging capabilities of the system. In a 2 mm thick silicon strip detector with a strip pitch of 0.891 mm, strip interpolation located the interaction of 356 keV gamma rays to 0.3 mm FWHM. In a 2 cm thick germanium detector with a strip pitch of 5 mm, strip interpolation of 356 keV gamma rays yielded a position resolution of 1.5 mm FWHM

  5. Thermal stability of simple tetragonal and hexagonal diamond germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, L. Q.; Johnson, B. C.; Haberl, B.; Wong, S.; Williams, J. S.; Bradby, J. E.

    2017-11-01

    Exotic phases of germanium, that form under high pressure but persist under ambient conditions, are of technological interest due to their unique optical and electrical properties. The thermal evolution and stability of two of these exotic Ge phases, the simple tetragonal (st12) and hexagonal diamond (hd) phases, are investigated in detail. These metastable phases, formed by high pressure decompression in either a diamond anvil cell or by nanoindentation, are annealed at temperatures ranging from 280 to 320 °C for st12-Ge and 200 to 550 °C for hd-Ge. In both cases, the exotic phases originated from entirely pure Ge precursor materials. Raman microspectroscopy is used to monitor the phase changes ex situ following annealing. Our results show that hd-Ge synthesized via a pure form of a-Ge first undergoes a subtle change in structure and then an irreversible phase transformation to dc-Ge with an activation energy of (4.3 ± 0.2) eV at higher temperatures. St12-Ge was found to transform to dc-Ge with an activation energy of (1.44 ± 0.08) eV. Taken together with results from previous studies, this study allows for intriguing comparisons with silicon and suggests promising technological applications.

  6. Point defect states in Sb-doped germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Neil S., E-mail: neilp@mit.edu; Monmeyran, Corentin, E-mail: comonmey@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Agarwal, Anuradha [Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kimerling, Lionel C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Defect states in n-type Sb-doped germanium were investigated by deep-level transient spectroscopy. Cobalt-60 gamma rays were used to generate isolated vacancies and interstitials which diffuse and react with impurities in the material to form four defect states (E{sub 37}, E{sub 30}, E{sub 22}, and E{sub 21}) in the upper half of the bandgap. Irradiations at 77 K and 300 K as well as isothermal anneals were performed to characterize the relationships between the four observable defects. E{sub 37} is assigned to the Sb donor-vacancy associate (E-center) and is the only vacancy containing defect giving an estimate of 2 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −3} Mrad{sup −1} for the uncorrelated vacancy-interstitial pair introduction rate. The remaining three defect states are interstitial associates and transform among one another. Conversion ratios between E{sub 22}, E{sub 21}, and E{sub 30} indicate that E{sub 22} likely contains two interstitials.

  7. gamma-ray tracking in germanium the backtracking method

    CERN Document Server

    Marel, J V D

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of a European TMR network project the concept for a gamma-ray tracking array is being developed for nuclear physics spectroscopy in the energy range of approx 10 keV up to several MeV. The tracking array will consist of a large number of position-sensitive germanium detectors in a spherical geometry around a target. Due to the high segmentation, a Compton scattered gamma-ray will deposit energy in several different segments. A method has been developed to reconstruct the tracks of multiple coincident gamma-rays and to find their initial energies. By starting from the final point the track can be reconstructed backwards to the origin with the help of the photoelectric and Compton cross-sections and the Compton scatter formula. Every reconstructed track is given a figure of merit, thus allowing suppression of wrongly reconstructed tracks and gamma-rays that have scattered out of the detector system. This so-called backtracking method has been tested on simulated events in a shell-like geometry ...

  8. Etching of germanium-tin using ammonia peroxide mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuan; Ong, Bin Leong; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Material Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, #08-03, Innovis, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Tok, Eng-Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2015-12-28

    The wet etching of germanium-tin (Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}) alloys (4.2% < x < 16.0%) in ammonia peroxide mixture (APM) is investigated. Empirical fitting of the data points indicates that the etch depth of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} is proportional to the square root of the etch time t and decreases exponentially with increasing x for a given t. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that increasing t increases the intensity of the Sn oxide peak, whereas no obvious change is observed for the Ge oxide peak. This indicates that an accumulation of Sn oxide on the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface decreases the amount of Ge atoms exposed to the etchant, which accounts for the decrease in etch rate with increasing etch time. Atomic force microscopy was used to examine the surface morphologies of the Ge{sub 0.918}Sn{sub 0.082} samples. Both root-mean-square roughness and undulation periods of the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface were observed to increase with increasing t. This work provides further understanding of the wet etching of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} using APM and may be used for the fabrication of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}-based electronic and photonic devices.

  9. The ACCUSCAN-II vertical scanning germanium whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ACCUSCAN-II is manufactured by Canberra Industries, and represents a new generation of WBC systems. One or two Germanium detectors are used for precise nuclide identification. The detectors scan the total body and can accurately quantify radioactive material anywhere in the body. The shield is a full 4'' thick steel or 2'' lead and weighs about 9000 lbs. The subject can be counted standing for full body scans, or seated for longer counting times of limited portions of the body. Optional electronics also generate a count rate vs. body position profile, as an aid to interpretation of the dose implications of the count. Typical LLD's are 5 - 10 nCi for a 5 minute total body count and 0.5 - 0.7 nCi for a 5 minute long screening count. The system is available in several flavors. The manual version is an inexpensive system intended for universities, hospitals and small industrial facilities. The automatic system includes a MicroVAX-II computer and runs ABACOS0-II Body Burden Software, and is ideal for facilities with large numbers of people to count and where automated analysis of the data is desirable

  10. Ductile-regime turning of germanium and silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter N.; Scattergood, Ronald O.

    1989-01-01

    Single-point diamond turning of silicon and germanium was investigated in order to clarify the role of cutting depth in coaxing a ductile chip formation in normally brittle substances. Experiments based on the rapid withdrawal of the tool from the workpiece have shown that microfracture damage is a function of the effective depth of cut (as opposed to the nominal cutting depth). In essence, damage created by the leading edge of the tool is removed several revolutions later by lower sections of the tool edge, where the effective cutting depth is less. It appears that a truly ductile cutting response can be achieved only when the effective cutting depth, or critical chip thickness, is less than about 20 nm. Factors such as tool rake angle are significant in that they will affect the actual value of the critical chip thickness for transition from brittle to ductile response. It is concluded that the critical chip thickness is an excellent parameter for measuring the effects of machining conditions on the ductility of the cut and for designing tool-workpiece geometry in both turning and grinding.

  11. Isotopic germanium targets for high beam current applications at GAMMASPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.; Lauritsen, T.

    2000-01-01

    The creation of a specific heavy ion residue via heavy ion fusion can usually be achieved through a number of beam and target combinations. Sometimes it is necessary to choose combinations with rare beams and/or difficult targets in order to achieve the physics goals of an experiment. A case in point was a recent experiment to produce 152 Dy at very high spins and low excitation energy with detection of the residue in a recoil mass analyzer. Both to create the nucleus cold and with a small recoil-cone so that the efficiency of the mass analyzer would be high, it was necessary to use the 80 Se on 76 Ge reaction rather than the standard 48 Ca on 108 Pd reaction. Because the recoil velocity of the 152 Dy residues was very high using this symmetric reaction (5% v/c), it was furthermore necessary to use a stack of two thin targets to reduce the Doppler broadening. Germanium targets are fragile and do not withstand high beam currents, therefore the 76 Ge target stacks were mounted on a rotating target wheel. A description of the 76 Ge target stack preparation will be presented and the target performance described

  12. Ion beam induced stress formation and relaxation in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, T., E-mail: Tobias.Steinbach@uni-jena.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Reupert, A.; Schmidt, E.; Wesch, W. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Ion irradiation of crystalline solids leads not only to defect formation and amorphization but also to mechanical stress. In the past, many investigations in various materials were performed focusing on the ion beam induced damage formation but only several experiments were done to investigate the ion beam induced stress evolution. Especially in microelectronic devices, mechanical stress leads to several unwanted effects like cracking and peeling of surface layers as well as changing physical properties and anomalous diffusion of dopants. To study the stress formation and relaxation process in semiconductors, crystalline and amorphous germanium samples were irradiated with 3 MeV iodine ions at different ion fluence rates. The irradiation induced stress evolution was measured in situ with a laser reflection technique as a function of ion fluence, whereas the damage formation was investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The investigations show that mechanical stress builds up at low ion fluences as a direct consequence of ion beam induced point defect formation. However, further ion irradiation causes a stress relaxation which is attributed to the accumulation of point defects and therefore the creation of amorphous regions. A constant stress state is reached at high ion fluences if a homogeneous amorphous surface layer was formed and no further ion beam induced phase transition took place. Based on the results, we can conclude that the ion beam induced stress evolution seems to be mainly dominated by the creation and accumulation of irradiation induced structural modification.

  13. Understanding charge carrier relaxation processes in terbium arsenide nanoparticles using transient absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoef, Laura R.

    Erbium arsenide nanoparticles epitaxially grown within III-V semiconductors have been shown to improve the performance of devices for applications ranging from thermoelectrics to THz pulse generation. The small size of rare-earth nanoparticles suggests that interesting electronic properties might emerge as a result of both spatial confinement and surface states. However, ErAs nanoparticles do not exhibit any signs of quantum confinement or an emergent bandgap, and these experimental observations are understood from theory. The incorporation of other rare-earth monopnictide nanoparticles into III-V hosts is a likely path to engineering carrier excitation, relaxation and transport dynamics for optoelectronic device applications. However, the electronic structure of these other rare-earth monopnictide nanoparticles remains poorly understood. The objective of this research is to explore the electronic structure and optical properties of III-V materials containing novel rare-earth monopnictides. We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to investigate the electronic structure of TbAs nanoparticles in III-V hosts. We start with TbAs:GaAs, which was expected to be similar to ErAs:GaAs. We study the dynamics of carrier relaxation into the TbAs states using optical pump terahertz probe transient absorption spectroscopy. By analyzing how the carrier relaxation rates depend on pump fluence and sample temperature, we conclude that the TbAs states are saturable. Saturable traps suggest the existence of a bandgap for TbAs nanoparticles, in sharp contrast with previous results for ErAs. We then apply the same experimental technique to two samples of TbAs nanoparticles in InGaAs with different concentrations of TbAs. We observe similar relaxation dynamics associated with trap saturation, though the ability to resolve these processes is contingent upon a high enough TbAs concentration in the sample. We have also constructed an optical pump optical probe transient absorption

  14. Controllable growth of stable germanium dioxide ultra-thin layer by means of capacitively driven radio frequency discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarnas, P., E-mail: svarnas@ece.upatras.gr [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26 504, Patras (Greece); Botzakaki, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece); Skoulatakis, G.; Kennou, S.; Ladas, S. [Surface Science Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece); Tsamis, C. [NCSR “Demokritos”, Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology & Microsystems, Aghia Paraskevi 15 310, Athens (Greece); Georga, S.N.; Krontiras, C.A. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece)

    2016-01-29

    It is well recognized that native oxide of germanium is hygroscopic and water soluble, while germanium dioxide is thermally unstable and it is converted to volatile germanium oxide at approximately 400 °C. Different techniques, implementing quite complicated plasma setups, gas mixtures and substrate heating, have been used in order to grow a stable germanium oxide. In the present work a traditional “RF diode” is used for germanium oxidation by cold plasma. Following growth, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that traditional capacitively driven radio frequency discharges, using molecular oxygen as sole feedstock gas, provide the possibility of germanium dioxide layer growth in a fully reproducible and controllable manner. Post treatment ex-situ analyses on day-scale periods disclose the stability of germanium oxide at room ambient conditions, offering thus the ability to grow (ex-situ) ultra-thin high-k dielectrics on top of germanium oxide layers. Atomic force microscopy excludes any morphological modification in respect to the bare germanium surface. These results suggest a simple method for a controllable and stable germanium oxide growth, and contribute to the challenge to switch to high-k dielectrics as gate insulators for high-performance metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and to exploit in large scale the superior properties of germanium as an alternative channel material in future technology nodes. - Highlights: • Simple one-frequency reactive ion etcher develops GeO{sub 2} thin layers controllably. • The layers remain chemically stable at ambient conditions over day-scale periods. • The layers are unaffected by the ex-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics onto them. • GeO{sub 2} oxidation and high-k deposition don't affect the Ge morphology significantly. • These conditions contribute to improved Ge-based MOS structure fabrication.

  15. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-01-01

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in 60 Co, 152 Eu and 228 Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  16. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-06-05

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 228}Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  17. Biallelic and Genome Wide Association Mapping of Germanium Tolerant Loci in Rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Talukdar

    Full Text Available Rice plants accumulate high concentrations of silicon. Silicon has been shown to be involved in plant growth, high yield, and mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it has been demonstrated that inorganic arsenic is taken up by rice through silicon transporters under anaerobic conditions, thus the ability to efficiently take up silicon may be considered either a positive or a negative trait in rice. Germanium is an analogue of silicon that produces brown lesions in shoots and leaves, and germanium toxicity has been used to identify mutants in silicon and arsenic transport. In this study, two different genetic mapping methods were performed to determine the loci involved in germanium sensitivity in rice. Genetic mapping in the biparental cross of Bala × Azucena (an F6 population and a genome wide association (GWA study with 350 accessions from the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were conducted using 15 μM of germanic acid. This identified a number of germanium sensitive loci: some co-localised with previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for tissue silicon or arsenic concentration, none co-localised with Lsi1 or Lsi6, while one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was detected within 200 kb of Lsi2 (these are genes known to transport silicon, whose identity was discovered using germanium toxicity. However, examining candidate genes that are within the genomic region of the loci detected above reveals genes homologous to both Lsi1 and Lsi2, as well as a number of other candidate genes, which are discussed.

  18. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  19. Using of germanium detectors in nuclear experiments with photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitonov, I.M.; Tutin, I.A.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The study of atomic nuclei with real photons is very important source of the information about nuclear structure. In such experiments the basic electromagnetic interaction between the photon and the target nuclei is well known. Experiments with photon beams become especially valuable when outcoming particles are also photons. In these cases completely model-independent information on nuclear structure can be extracted. The use of semiconductor Ge-spectrometers with excellent resolution and large sensitive volumes for recording outcoming photons gives us such an additional important advantage as possibility to observe individual closely spaced levels of the final nuclei. In the report an experience of using Ge-detectors in two types of nuclear experiments is described. Both of them - nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) and nuclear photodisintegration - are carried out in beams of bremsstrahlung gamma radiation. The central element of the setup recording gamma quanta in these experiments is germanium detector. NRF is unique method for studying low-lying excited nuclear states. The spins of the states can be determined easily from the measured angular distributions of scattered photons. Model independent parity assignments in NRF can be achieved by measuring polarization observables. There are two experimental possibilities: the use of linearly polarized photons (off-axis bremsstrahlung) in the entrance channel and the measurement of the linear polarization of the scattered photons using Compton polarimeters. For both methods several germanium detectors (3-5) must be used simultaneously. Nowadays Compton polarimeter can also be done from single large Ge-crystal by segmenting the outer electrode. Advantages and drawbacks of the methods and background conditions are discussed and requirements to Ge-crystals are formulated. The importance of using a new generation of electron accelerators with continuous wave (cw) beams for NRF-measurements is stressed. The

  20. Experimental investigation on oxidation kinetics of germanium by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaolei, E-mail: wangxiaolei@ime.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao, Zhiqian; Xiang, Jinjuan [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Wenwu, E-mail: wangwenwu@ime.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Jing, E-mail: zhangj@ncut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Microelectronics Department, North China University of Technology, Beijing 100041 (China); Zhao, Chao; Ye, Tianchun [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Kinetics mechanism of Ge surface oxidation by ozone at low temperature is experimentally investigated. • The growth process contains initially linear growth region and following parabolic growth region. • The GeO{sub x} thickness vs. oxidation time plot obeys the well-known Deal-Grove or linear parabolic model. • The linear growth region includes the oxidation of two topmost Ge layers, and the oxidation of third layer and following layers of Ge is diffusion limited. • The activation energies for linear and parabolic regions are 0.04 and 0.55 eV, respectively. - Abstract: Oxidation kinetics of germanium surface by ozone at low temperature (≤400 °C) is experimentally investigated. The growth process contains two regions: initial linear growth region and following parabolic growth region. The GeO{sub x} thickness vs. oxidation time plot obeys the well-known Deal-Grove or linear parabolic model. The linear growth region contains reaction of oxygen atoms with surface bond and back bonds of outmost Ge layer. And the activation energy is experimentally estimated to be 0.06 eV. Such small activation energy indicates that the linear growth region is nearly barrier-less. The parabolic growth region starts when the oxygen atoms diffuse into back bonds of second outmost Ge layers. And the activation energy for this process is found to be 0.54 eV. Furthermore, in the ozone oxidation it is not O{sub 3} molecules but O radicals that go through the GeO{sub x} film.

  1. Timing of gamma rays in coaxial germanium detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ibiary, M.Y.

    1979-01-01

    A study is reported on the timing uncertainty in gamma ray coaxial germanium detector systems. The work deals with the zero cross over method which is widely used to reduce the dependence of the instant of timing on the radiation energy absorbed and on the position within the detector at which absorption takes place. It is found that the amplitude risetime compensated (ARC) method gives, under normal conditions, the best resolution at a specific energy. For higher energies, the resolution improves and there is no shift of the mean instant of timing. The method is therefore well suited for wide energy coverage. The parameters involved in implementing an ARC system for optimum performance at a specific energy are identified in terms of the preamplifier noise level and risetime. A trade off can be made between the resolutions at high and at low energies. The time resolution attained is given by means of a series of charts which use normalized dimensionless variables for ready application to any given case. Lithium compensated Ge detectors which normally operate under conditions of velocity saturation of the charge carriers by applying sufficient bias voltage create an electric field in excess of 1 kV/cm throughout the depleted region. High purity Ge detectors where velocity saturation may not be reached within certain parts of the depleted region are studied. Special attention is given to the probability of pulses being incorrectly timed because of their slow rise or small magnitude. Such incorrect timing is energy-dependent and results in a noticeable distortion of the timing spectrum that relates to a wide energy range. Limitations on system parameters to keep the probability of incorrect timing below a specified fraction are given

  2. Trace radioactive measurement in foodstuffs using high purity germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morco, Ryan P.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Castaneda, Soledad S.; Almoneda, Rosalina V.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Trace radioactivity in food has been seriously considered sources of potential harm after the accidental radioactive releases in the last decades which led to contamination of the food chain. Countermeasures are being used to reduce the radiological health risk to the population and to ensure that public safety and international commitments are met. Investigation of radioactive traces in foods was carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radionuclides being measured were fission products 1 37Cs and 1 34Cs and naturally occurring 4 0Κ. Gamma-ray measurements were performed using a hybrid gamma-ray counting system with coaxial p-type Tennelec High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector with relative efficiency of 18.4%. Channels were calibrated to energies using a standard check source with 1 37Cs and 6 0Co present. Self-shielding within samples was taken into account by comparing directly with reference standards of similar matrix and geometry. Efficiencies of radionuclides of interests were accounted in calculating the activity concentrations in the samples. Efficiency calibration curve was generated using an in-house validated program called FINDPEAK, a least-square method that fits a polynomial up to sixth-order of equation. Lower Limits of Detection (LLD) obtained for both 1 37Cs and 1 34Cs ranges from 1-6 Bq/Kg depending on the sample matrix. In the last five years, there have been no foodstuffs analyzed exceeded the local and international regulatory limit of 1000Bq/Kg for the summed activities of 1 37Cs and 1 34Cs. (author)

  3. Mapping the electromagnetic field confinement in the gap of germanium nanoantennas with plasma wavelength of 4.5 micrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calandrini, Eugenio; Venanzi, Tommaso; Appugliese, Felice; Badioli, Michela; Giliberti, Valeria; Baldassarre, Leonetta; Biagioni, Paolo; De Angelis, Francesco; Klesse, Wolfgang M.; Scappucci, G.; Ortolani, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We study plasmonic nanoantennas for molecular sensing in the mid-infrared made of heavily doped germanium, epitaxially grown with a bottom-up doping process and featuring free carrier density in excess of 1020 cm-3. The dielectric function of the 250 nm thick germanium film

  4. Study of the effect of doping on the temperature stability of the optical properties of germanium single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkopaev, O. I. [Joint-Stock Company “Germanium” (Russian Federation); Shimanskiy, A. F., E-mail: shimanaf@mail.ru [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation); Kopytkova, S. A.; Filatov, R. A. [Joint-Stock Company “Germanium” (Russian Federation); Golubovskaya, N. O. [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The effect of doping on the optical transmittance of germanium single crystals is studied by infrared Fourier spectroscopy. It is established that the introduction of silicon and tellurium additives into germanium doped with antimony provides a means for improving the temperature stability of the optical properties of the crystals.

  5. Lithium-Ion (de)insertion reaction of Germanium thin-film electrodes : an electrochemical and in situ XRD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggetto, L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Germanium is a promising negative electrode candidate for lithium-ion thin-film batteries because of its very high theoretical storage capacity. When assuming full conversion of the material into the room-temperature equilibrium lithium saturated germanium phase, a theoretical capacity of or of

  6. The low thermal gradient CZ technique as a way of growing of dislocation-free germanium crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovskih, V. A.; Kasimkin, P. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Gridchin, V. A.; Podkopaev, O. I.

    2014-09-01

    This paper considers the possibility of growth of dislocation-free germanium single crystals. This is achieved by reducing the temperature gradients at the level of 1 K/cm and lower. Single germanium crystals 45-48 mm in diameter with a dislocation density of 102 cm-2 were grown by a Low Thermal Gradient Czochralski technique (LTG CZ).

  7. Study of the effect of doping on the temperature stability of the optical properties of germanium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkopaev, O. I.; Shimanskiy, A. F.; Kopytkova, S. A.; Filatov, R. A.; Golubovskaya, N. O.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of doping on the optical transmittance of germanium single crystals is studied by infrared Fourier spectroscopy. It is established that the introduction of silicon and tellurium additives into germanium doped with antimony provides a means for improving the temperature stability of the optical properties of the crystals.

  8. Silicon-germanium (Sige) nanostructures production, properties and applications in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Usami, N

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) provides the prospect of novel and enhanced electronic device performance. This book reviews the materials science and technology of SiGe nanostructures, including crystal growth, fabrication of nanostructures, material properties and applications in electronics.$bNanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) opens up the prospects of novel and enhanced electronic device performance, especially for semiconductor devices. Silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures reviews the materials science of nanostructures and their properties and applications in different electronic devices. The introductory part one covers the structural properties of SiGe nanostructures, with a further chapter discussing electronic band structures of SiGe alloys. Part two concentrates on the formation of SiGe nanostructures, with chapters on different methods of crystal growth such as molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapour deposition. This part also includes chapters covering strain engineering and mo...

  9. Use of Germanium as comparator and integral monitor of neutron flux in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnari, Juan C.; Cohen, Isaac M.; Arribere, Maria A.; Kestelman, Abraham J.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of using germanium as monitor of the thermal and epithermal components of the neutron flux, and comparator in parametric activation analysis, is discussed. The advantages and drawbacks associated to the use of this element are commented on, and the comparison with zirconium, in terms of the determination relative error, is performed. The utilisation of germanium as integral flux monitor, including the fast component of the neutron spectrum, is also discussed. Data corresponding to measurements of k 0 factor for the most relevant gamma transitions from Ge-75 and Be-77 are presented, as well as the results of the reference material analysis, employing germanium as flux monitor and comparator in a simultaneous way. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. X-ray radiometric analysis of lead and zinc concentrates using germanium radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajgachev, A.A.; Mamysh, V.A.; Mil'chakov, V.I.; Shchekin, K.I.; Berezkin, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    The results of determination of lead, zinc and iron in lead and zinc concentrates by the X-ray-radiometric method with the use of germanium semiconductor detector are presented. In the experiments the 57 Co source and tritium-zirconium target were used. The activity of 57 Co was 2 mc. The area of the germanium detector employed was 5g mm 2 , its thickness - 2.3 mm. In lead concentrates zinc and iron were determined from the direct intensity of K-series radiation. In the analysis of zinc concentrates the same conditions of recording and excitation were used as in the case of lead concentrates, but the measurements were conducted in saturated layers. It is demonstrated that the use of germanium semiconductor detectors in combination with the suggested methods of measurements makes it possible to perform determination of iron, zinc and lead in zinc and lead concentrates with permissible error

  11. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: A Search for Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay of Germanium-76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Alexis G.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Zhang, C.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, Mark; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2012-09-28

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would determine whether the neutrino is a Majorana particle and provide information on the absolute scale of neutrino mass. The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the DEMONSTRATOR, an array of germanium detectors, to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment. Operation of the DEMONSTRATOR aims to determine whether a future tonne-scale germanium experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay Q-value of 2039 keV.

  12. Gold catalytic Growth of Germanium Nanowires by chemical vapour deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahedifar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germanium nanowires (GeNWs were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD based on vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism with Au nanoparticles as catalyst and germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4 as a precursor of germanium. Au catalysts were deposited on silicon wafer as a thin film, firstly by sputtering technique and secondly by submerging the silicon substrates in Au colloidal solution, which resulted in Au nanoparticles with different sizes. GeNWs were synthesized at 400 °C, which is a low temperature for electrical device fabrication. Effect of different parameters such as Au nanoparticles size, carrier gas (Ar flow and mixture of H2 with the carrier gas on GeNWs diameter and shape was studied by SEM images. The chemical composition of the nanostructure was also examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS.

  13. Germanium field-effect transistor made from a high-purity substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Goulding, F.S.; Haller, E.E.

    1978-11-01

    Field effect transistors have been fabricated on high-purity germanium substrates using low-temperature technology. The aim of this work is to preserve the low density of trapping centers in high-quality starting material by low-temperature ( 0 C) processing. The use of germanium promises to eliminate some of the traps which cause generation-recombination noise in silicon field-effect transistors (FET's) at low temperatures. Typically, the transconductance (g/sub m/) in the germanium FET's is 10 mA/V and the gate leakage can be less than 10 -12 A. Present devices exhibit a large 1/f noise component and most of this noise must be eliminated if they are to be competitive with silicon FET's commonly used in high-resolution nuclear spectrometers

  14. Cosmogenic activation of germanium used for tonne-scale rare event search experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W.-Z.; Mei, D.-M.; Zhang, C.

    2017-11-01

    We report a comprehensive study of cosmogenic activation of germanium used for tonne-scale rare event search experiments. The germanium exposure to cosmic rays on the Earth's surface are simulated with and without a shielding container using Geant4 for a given cosmic muon, neutron, and proton energy spectrum. The production rates of various radioactive isotopes are obtained for different sources separately. We find that fast neutron induced interactions dominate the production rate of cosmogenic activation. Geant4-based simulation results are compared with the calculation of ACTIVIA and the available experimental data. A reasonable agreement between Geant4 simulations and several experimental data sets is presented. We predict that cosmogenic activation of germanium can set limits to the sensitivity of the next generation of tonne-scale experiments.

  15. Normal processes of phonon-phonon scattering and thermal conductivity of germanium crystals with isotopic disorder

    CERN Document Server

    Kuleev, I G

    2001-01-01

    The effect of normal processes of the phonon-phonon scattering on the thermal conductivity of the germanium crystals with various isotopic disorder degrees is considered. The phonon pulse redistribution in the normal scattering processes both inside each oscillatory branch (the Simons mechanism) and between various phonon oscillatory branches (the Herring mechanism) is accounted for. The contributions of the longitudinal and cross-sectional phonons drift motion into the thermal conductivity are analyzed. It is shown that the pulse redistribution in the Herring relaxation mechanism leads to essential suppression of the longitudinal phonons drift motion in the isotopically pure germanium crystals. The calculations results of thermal conductivity for the Herring relaxation mechanism agree well with experimental data on the germanium crystals with various isotopic disorder degrees

  16. Impurity engineering for germanium-doped Czochralski silicon wafer used for ultra large scale integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiahe; Yang, Deren [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2009-07-01

    Internal gettering (IG) technology has been challenged by both the reduction of thermal budget during device fabrication and the enlargement of wafer diameter. Improving the properties of Czochralski (Cz) silicon wafers by intentional impurity doping, the so-called 'impurity engineering (IE)', is defined. Germanium has been found to be one of the important impurities for improving the internal gettering effect in Cz silicon wafer. In this paper, the investigations on IE involved with the conventional furnace anneal based denudation processing for germanium-doped Cz silicon wafer are reviewed. Meanwhile, the potential mechanisms of germanium effects for the IE of Cz silicon wafer are also interpreted based on the experimental facts. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Impurity diffusion, point defect engineering, and surface/interface passivation in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2012-01-26

    In recent years germanium has been emerging as a mainstream material that could have important applications in the microelectronics industry. The principle aim of this study is to review investigations of the diffusion of technologically important p- and n-type dopants as well as surface and interface passivation issues in germanium. The diffusion of impurities in germanium is interrelated to the formation of clusters whenever possible, and possibilities for point defect engineering are discussed in view of recent results. The importance of electrically active defects on the Ge surface and interfaces is addressed considering strategies to suppress them and to passivate the surfaces/interfaces, bearing in mind their importance for advanced devices. © 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electrodeposition at room temperature of amorphous silicon and germanium nanowires in ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, F; Namur, K; Mallet, J; Delavoie, F; Troyon, M; Molinari, M [Laboratoire de Microscopies et d' Etude de Nanostructures (LMEN EA3799), Universite de Reims Champagne Ardennes (URCA), Reims Cedex 2 (France); Endres, F, E-mail: michael.molinari@univ-reims.fr [Institute of Particle Technology, Chair of Interface Processes, Clausthal University of Technology, D-36678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The electrodeposition at room temperature of silicon and germanium nanowires from the air- and water-stable ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P{sub 1,4}) containing SiCl{sub 4} as Si source or GeCl{sub 4} as Ge source is investigated by cyclic voltammetry. By using nanoporous polycarbonate membranes as templates, it is possible to reproducibly grow pure silicon and germanium nanowires of different diameters. The nanowires are composed of pure amorphous silicon or germanium. The nanowires have homogeneous cylindrical shape with a roughness of a few nanometres on the wire surfaces. The nanowires' diameters and lengths well match with the initial membrane characteristics. Preliminary photoluminescence experiments exhibit strong emission in the near infrared for the amorphous silicon nanowires.

  19. Two-Dimensional Spatial Imaging of Charge Transport in Germanium Crystals at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffatt, Robert [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In this dissertation, I describe a novel apparatus for studying the transport of charge in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures. The motivation to conduct this experiment originated from an asymmetry observed between the behavior of electrons and holes in the germanium detector crystals used by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS). This asymmetry is a consequence of the anisotropic propagation of electrons in germanium at cryogenic temperatures. To better model our detectors, we incorporated this effect into our Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. The purpose of the experiment described in this dissertation is to test those models in detail. Our measurements have allowed us to discover a shortcoming in our most recent Monte Carlo simulations of electrons in germanium. This discovery would not have been possible without the measurement of the full, two-dimensional charge distribution, which our experimental apparatus has allowed for the first time at cryogenic temperatures.

  20. Diffusion of interstitial oxygen in silicon and germanium: a hybrid functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colleoni, Davide; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The minimum-energy paths for the diffusion of an interstitial O atom in silicon and germanium are studied through the nudged-elastic-band method and hybrid functional calculations. The reconsideration of the diffusion of O in silicon primarily serves the purpose of validating the procedure for studying the O diffusion in germanium. Our calculations show that the minimum energy path goes through an asymmetric transition state in both silicon and germanium. The stability of these transition states is found to be enhanced by the generation of unpaired electrons in the highest occupied single-particle states. Calculated energy barriers are 2.54 and 2.14 eV for Si and Ge, in very good agreement with corresponding experimental values of 2.53 and 2.08 eV, respectively. (paper)

  1. Multiphysical simulation analysis of the dislocation structure in germanium single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkopaev, O. I.; Artemyev, V. V.; Smirnov, A. D.; Mamedov, V. M.; Sid'ko, A. P.; Kalaev, V. V.; Kravtsova, E. D.; Shimanskii, A. F.

    2016-09-01

    To grow high-quality germanium crystals is one of the most important problems of growth industry. The dislocation density is an important parameter of the quality of single crystals. The dislocation densities in germanium crystals 100 mm in diameter, which have various shapes of the side surface and are grown by the Czochralski technique, are experimentally measured. The crystal growth is numerically simulated using heat-transfer and hydrodynamics models and the Alexander-Haasen dislocation model in terms of the CGSim software package. A comparison of the experimental and calculated dislocation densities shows that the dislocation model can be applied to study lattice defects in germanium crystals and to improve their quality.

  2. Controlled localised melting in silicon by high dose germanium implantation and flash lamp annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelskow, Matthias; Skorupa, Wolfgang; Pezoldt, Joerg; Kups, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    High intensity light pulse irradiation of monocrystalline silicon wafers is usually accompanied by inhomogeneous surface melting. The aim of the present work is to induce homogeneous buried melting in silicon by germanium implantation and subsequent flash lamp annealing. For this purpose high dose, high energy germanium implantation has been employed to lower the melting temperature of silicon in a predetermined depth region. Subsequent flash lamp irradiation at high energy densities leads to local melting of the germanium rich buried layer, whereby the thickness of the molten layer depends on the irradiation energy density. During the cooling down epitaxial crystallization takes place resulting in a largely defect-free layer. The combination of buried melting and dopant segregation has the potential to produce unusually buried doping profiles or to create strained silicon structures.

  3. Coexistence in even-even nuclei with emphasis on the germanium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchidi, M.A.V.

    1985-01-01

    No simple model to date can explain in a self-consistent way the results of direct transfer data and BE2 electromagnetic rates in the germanium isotopes. The simplest models use a two-state interaction for describing the ground state and first excited O + state. In all cases, these models can account for some of the data, but they are in drastic conflict with other experimental measurements. In this thesis, it is shown that a two-state model can consistently account for two-neutron and alpha transfer O + 2 /g.s. cross-section ratio data in the germanium region (ie. zinc, germanium, and selenium), proton occupation number data in the ground states of the even stable zinc, germanium, and selenium isotopes, and BE2 transition rates in isotopes of germanium and zinc. In addition the author can account for most of the one-neutron and two-neutron transfer O + 2 /g.s. and (9/2 + 2 )/(9/2 + 1 ) cross-section ratio data in the odd-mass germanium isotopes. In this generalized two-state model (called Rerg1), the author makes as few assumptions as possible about the nature of the basis states; rather the author allows the experimental data to dictate the properties of the basis-state overlaps. In this sense, the author has learned much about the basis states and has a useful tool for constructing them. The author also shows that the Rerg1 model can quantitatively account for all two-neutron O + 2 /g.s. cross-section ratio data in all even-even nuclei from calcium to uranium

  4. Photodetectors based on carbon nanotubes deposited by using a spray technique on semi-insulating gallium arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Melisi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spray technique is used to perform low temperature deposition of multi-wall carbon nanotubes on semi-insulating gallium arsenide in order to obtain photodectors. A dispersion of nanotube powder in non-polar 1,2-dichloroethane is used as starting material. The morphological properties of the deposited films has been analysed by means of electron microscopy, in scanning and transmission mode. Detectors with different layouts have been prepared and current–voltage characteristics have been recorded in the dark and under irradiation with light in the range from ultraviolet to near infrared. The device spectral efficiency obtained from the electrical characterization is finally reported and an improvement of the photodetector behavior due to the nanotubes is presented and discussed.

  5. Study of Gallium Arsenide Etching in a DC Discharge in Low-Pressure HCl-Containing Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaev, A. V.; Murin, D. B.

    2018-04-01

    Halogen-containing plasmas are often used to form topological structures on semiconductor surfaces; therefore, spectral monitoring of the etching process is an important diagnostic tool in modern electronics. In this work, the emission spectra of gas discharges in mixtures of hydrogen chloride with argon, chlorine, and hydrogen in the presence of a semiconducting gallium arsenide plate were studied. Spectral lines and bands of the GaAs etching products appropriate for monitoring the etching rate were determined. It is shown that the emission intensity of the etching products is proportional to the GaAs etching rate in plasmas of HCl mixtures with Ar and Cl2, which makes it possible to monitor the etching process in real time by means of spectral methods.

  6. GIOVE: a new detector setup for high sensitivity germanium spectroscopy at shallow depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Hakenmüller, J.; Laubenstein, M.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Simgen, H.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the development and construction of the high-purity germanium spectrometer setup GIOVE (Germanium Inner Outer VEto), recently built and now operated at the shallow underground laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg. Particular attention was paid to the design of a novel passive and active shield, aiming at efficient rejection of environmental and muon induced radiation backgrounds. The achieved sensitivity level of ≤100 μBq kg -1 for primordial radionuclides from U and Th in typical γ ray sample screening measurements is unique among instruments located at comparably shallow depths and can compete with instruments at far deeper underground sites

  7. Atomic ionization of germanium by neutrinos from an ab initio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Chi, Hsin-Chang; Huang, Keh-Ning; Liu, C.-P.; Shiao, Hao-Tse; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T.; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2014-01-01

    An ab initio calculation of atomic ionization of germanium by neutrinos was carried out in the framework of multiconfiguration relativistic random phase approximation and benchmarked by related atomic structure and photoabsorption data. This improves over the conventional approach based on scattering off free electrons whose validity at sub-keV energy transfer is questionable. Limits on neutrino magnetic moments are derived using reactor neutrino data taken with low threshold germanium detectors. Future applications of these atomic techniques will greatly reduce the atomic uncertainties in low-energy neutrino and dark matter detections.

  8. Segmentation of the Outer Contact on P-Type Coaxial Germanium Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.

    2006-09-21

    Germanium detector arrays are needed for low-level counting facilities. The practical applications of such user facilities include characterization of low-level radioactive samples. In addition, the same detector arrays can also perform important fundamental physics measurements including the search for rare events like neutrino-less double-beta decay. Coaxial germanium detectors having segmented outer contacts will provide the next level of sensitivity improvement in low background measurements. The segmented outer detector contact allows performance of advanced pulse shape analysis measurements that provide additional background reduction. Currently, n-type (reverse electrode) germanium coaxial detectors are used whenever a segmented coaxial detector is needed because the outer boron (electron barrier) contact is thin and can be segmented. Coaxial detectors fabricated from p-type germanium cost less, have better resolution, and are larger than n-type coaxial detectors. However, it is difficult to reliably segment p-type coaxial detectors because thick (~1 mm) lithium-diffused (hole barrier) contacts are the standard outside contact for p-type coaxial detectors. During this Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) we have researched the possibility of using amorphous germanium contacts as a thin outer contact of p-type coaxial detectors that can be segmented. We have developed amorphous germanium contacts that provide a very high hole barrier on small planar detectors. These easily segmented amorphous germanium contacts have been demonstrated to withstand several thousand volts/cm electric fields with no measurable leakage current (<1 pA) from charge injection over the hole barrier. We have also demonstrated that the contact can be sputter deposited around and over the curved outside surface of a small p-type coaxial detector. The amorphous contact has shown good rectification properties on the outside of a small p-type coaxial detector. These encouraging

  9. Time-resolved spectroscopy of plasma resonances in highly excited silicon and germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.; Kurz, H.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of the electron-hole plasma in silicon and germanium samples irradiated by 20 ps. 532 nm laser pulses has been investigated in the near infrared by the time-resolved picosecond optical spectroscopy. The experimental reflectivities and transmission are compared with the predictions of the thermal model for degenerate carrier distributions through the Drude formalism. Above a certain fluence, a significant deviation between measured and calculated values indicates a strong increase of the recombination rate as soon as the plasma resonances become comparable with the band gaps. These new plasmon-aided recombination channels are particularly pronounced in germanium. 15 refs., 8 figs

  10. Nature of oxygen donors and radiation defects in oxygen-doped germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Noboru; Atobe, Kozo; Honda, Makoto; Matsuda, Koji.

    1991-01-01

    The nature of oxygen donors and radiation defects in oxygen-doped germanium were studied through measurements of the infrared absorption spectrum, deep level transient spectroscopy spectrum and carrier concentration. It is revealed that a new donor is not formed in oxygen-doped germanium. An A-center (interstitial oxygen-vacancy pair) forms a complex with a thermal donor in its annealing stage at 60degC-140degC. The introduction rate of defects by 1.5 MeV electron irradiation was enhanced in thermal-donor-doped samples. (author)

  11. GIOVE: a new detector setup for high sensitivity germanium spectroscopy at shallow depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Hakenmueller, J.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Simgen, H.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    We report on the development and construction of the high-purity germanium spectrometer setup GIOVE (Germanium Inner Outer VEto), recently built and now operated at the shallow underground laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg. Particular attention was paid to the design of a novel passive and active shield, aiming at efficient rejection of environmental and muon induced radiation backgrounds. The achieved sensitivity level of ≤ 100μBq kg{sup -1} for primordial radionuclides from U and Th in typical γ ray sample screening measurements is unique among instruments located at comparably shallow depths and can compete with instruments at far deeper underground sites. (orig.)

  12. First-principles study of the diffusion mechanisms of the self-interstitial in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A; Jones, R; Janke, C; Goss, J P; Briddon, P R; Oeberg, S

    2008-01-01

    The self-interstitial in germanium can assume multiple configurations depending on the temperature and charge state. Here, we employ a first-principles density functional method to investigate the diffusion mechanisms of this defect. The energy barriers associated with the transformation between different structures are determined by the climbing nudged elastic band method, as a function of the charge state. The relation between the thermodynamic properties of the self-interstitial and the temperature evolution of electron radiation damage in germanium are discussed

  13. Buried melting in germanium implanted silicon by millisecond flash lamp annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelskow, Matthias; Yankov, Rossen; Skorupa, Wolfgang; Pezoldt, Joerg; Kups, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Flash lamp annealing in the millisecond range has been used to induce buried melting in silicon. For this purpose high dose high-energy germanium implantation has been employed to lower the melting temperature of silicon in a predetermined depth region. Subsequent flash lamp treatment at high energy densities leads to local melting of the germanium rich layer. The thickness of the molten layer has been found to depend on the irradiation energy density. During the cool-down period, epitaxial crystallization takes place resulting in a largely defect-free layer

  14. Characteristics of trap-filled gallium arsenide photoconductive switches used in high gain pulsed power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISLAM, N.E.; SCHAMILOGLU, E.; MAR, ALAN; LOUBRIEL, GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN, FRED J.; JOSHI, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical properties of semi-insulating (SI) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) have been investigated for some time, particularly for its application as a substrate in microelectronics. Of late this material has found a variety of applications other than as an isolation region between devices, or the substrate of an active device. High resistivity SI GaAs is increasingly being used in charged particle detectors and photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS). PCSS made from these materials operating in both the linear and non-linear modes have applications such as firing sets, as drivers for lasers, and in high impedance, low current Q-switches or Pockels cells. In the non-linear mode, it has also been used in a system to generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) High Power Microwaves (HPM). The choice of GaAs over silicon offers the advantage that its material properties allow for fast, repetitive switching action. Furthermore photoconductive switches have advantages over conventional switches such as improved jitter, better impedance matching, compact size, and in some cases, lower laser energy requirement for switching action. The rise time of the PCSS is an important parameter that affects the maximum energy transferred to the load and it depends, in addition to other parameters, on the bias or the average field across the switch. High field operation has been an important goal in PCSS research. Due to surface flashover or premature material breakdown at higher voltages, most PCSS, especially those used in high power operation, need to operate well below the inherent breakdown voltage of the material. The lifetime or the total number of switching operations before breakdown, is another important switch parameter that needs to be considered for operation at high bias conditions. A lifetime of ∼ 10 4 shots has been reported for PCSS's used in UWB-HPM generation [5], while it has exceeded 10 8 shots for electro-optic drivers. Much effort is currently being channeled in the

  15. A study on the forms of existence of germanium in uranium-bearing coals of Bangmai basin of Yunnan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuling; Wang Shuying; Yin Jinshuang

    1988-07-01

    The Bangmai basin is an asymmetrical intermontane synclinal basin with a Hercynian-Yenshan granitic body (γ 3 3 -γ 5 2 ) as its basement. Its overlying strata are made up of the N 1 of coal-bearing clastic rocks of Neogene period. Germanium ore mostly occur within the N 1 2 coal-seam. Uranium, germanium-bearing coals are mainly lignites of low grade in coalation and belong to semidurain, semiclarain, duroclarain and clarodurain. In order to probe into the forms of existence of germanium in coal, six kinds of analytical methods (electronic probe analysis, separation of heavy liquid, grain-size analysis, electric osmosis, chemical extraction and grade-extraction) have been adopted. A simulated test of humic complex germanium in the laboratory was carried out. According to infrared spectral analysis, it is found that 1700 cm -1 wavecrest almost disappears, 1250 cm -1 peak weakens and 1600 cm -1 peak strengthens, 1400 cm -1 peak slightly strengthens. No doubt, these illustrate the formatiion of humic germanium complex. Afterward, through differential thermal analysis and measurement of pH variation of media, it futher proves the presence of humic germanium complex. It is considered that the forms of existence of germanium in uranium-bearing coals mainly are: (1) In close chemical combination with organic matter, usually in the form of humic germanium complex and germanium organic compound; (2) In the state of adsorption, germanium is adsorbed by some organic matter, clay minerals and limonite etc.; (3) A very rare part occurring as isomorphous form

  16. Self-assembly of tin wires via phase transformation of heteroepitaxial germanium-tin on germanium substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzi; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2015-06-14

    This work demonstrates and describes for the first time an unusual strain-relaxation mechanism by the formation and self-assembly of well-ordered tin wires during the thermal annealing of epitaxial Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}-on-Ge(001) substrate. Fully strained germanium-tin alloys (Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}) were epitaxially grown on Ge(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The morphological and compositional evolution of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} during thermal annealing is studied by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy. Under certain annealing conditions, the Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} layer decomposes into two stable phases, and well-defined Sn wires that are preferentially oriented along two orthogonal 〈100〉 azimuths are formed. The formation of the Sn wires is related to the annealing temperature and the Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} thickness, and can be explained by the nucleation of a grain with Sn islands on the outer front, followed by grain boundary migration. The Sn wire formation process is found to be thermally activated, and an activation enthalpy (E{sub c}) of 0.41 eV is extracted. This thermally activated phase transformation, i.e., 2D epitaxial layer to 3D wires, occurs via a mechanism akin to “cellular precipitation.” This synthesis route of Sn wires opens new possibilities for creation of nanoscale patterns at high-throughput without the need for lithography.

  17. High bit rate germanium single photon detectors for 1310nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.

    2008-04-01

    There is increasing interest in development of high speed, low noise and readily fieldable near infrared (NIR) single photon detectors. InGaAs/InP Avalanche photodiodes (APD) operated in Geiger mode (GM) are a leading choice for NIR due to their preeminence in optical networking. After-pulsing is, however, a primary challenge to operating InGaAs/InP single photon detectors at high frequencies1. After-pulsing is the effect of charge being released from traps that trigger false ("dark") counts. To overcome this problem, hold-off times between detection windows are used to allow the traps to discharge to suppress after-pulsing. The hold-off time represents, however, an upper limit on detection frequency that shows degradation beginning at frequencies of ~100 kHz in InGaAs/InP. Alternatively, germanium (Ge) single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) have been reported to have more than an order of magnitude smaller charge trap densities than InGaAs/InP SPADs2, which allowed them to be successfully operated with passive quenching2 (i.e., no gated hold off times necessary), which is not possible with InGaAs/InP SPADs, indicating a much weaker dark count dependence on hold-off time consistent with fewer charge traps. Despite these encouraging results suggesting a possible higher operating frequency limit for Ge SPADs, little has been reported on Ge SPAD performance at high frequencies presumably because previous work with Ge SPADs has been discouraged by a strong demand to work at 1550 nm. NIR SPADs require cooling, which in the case of Ge SPADs dramatically reduces the quantum efficiency of the Ge at 1550 nm. Recently, however, advantages to working at 1310 nm have been suggested which combined with a need to increase quantum bit rates for quantum key distribution (QKD) motivates examination of Ge detectors performance at very high detection rates where InGaAs/InP does not perform as well. Presented in this paper are measurements of a commercially available Ge APD

  18. Ion-beam induced structure modifications in amorphous germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Object of the present thesis was the systematic study of ion-beam induced structure modifications in amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers due to low- (LEI) and high-energetic (SHI) ion irradiation. The LEI irradiation of crystalline Ge (c-Ge) effects because the dominating nuclear scattering of the ions on the solid-state atoms the formation of a homogeneous a-Ge Layer. Directly on the surface for fluences of two orders of magnitude above the amorphization fluence the formation of stable cavities independently on the irradiation conditions was observed. For the first time for the ion-beam induced cavity formation respectively for the steady expansion of the porous layer forming with growing fluence a linear dependence on the energy ε n deposed in nuclear processes was detected. Furthermore the formation of buried cavities was observed, which shows a dependence on the type of ions. While in the c-Ge samples in the range of the high electronic energy deposition no radiation defects, cavities, or plastic deformations were observed, the high electronic energy transfer in the 3.1 μm thick pre-amorphized a-Ge surface layers leads to the formation of randomly distributed cavities. Basing on the linear connection between cavity-induced vertical volume expansion and the fluence determined for different energy transfers for the first time a material-specific threshold value of ε e HRF =(10.5±1.0) kev nm -1 was determined, above which the ion-beam induced cavity formation in a-Ge sets on. The anisotropic plastic deformation of th a-Ge layer superposed at inclined SHI irradiation on the cavity formation was very well described by an equation derived from the viscoelastic Maxwell model, but modified under regardment of the experimental results. The positive deformation yields determined thereby exhibit above a threshold value for the ion-beam induced plastic deformation ε e S a =(12±2) keV nm -1 for the first time extracted for a Ge the characteristic linear behaviour of the

  19. Si-Based Germanium Tin Semiconductor Lasers for Optoelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kabi, Sattar H. Sweilim

    Silicon-based materials and optoelectronic devices are of great interest as they could be monolithically integrated in the current Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. The integration of optoelectronic components on the CMOS platform has long been limited due to the unavailability of Si-based laser sources. A Si-based monolithic laser is highly desirable for full integration of Si photonics chip. In this work, Si-based germanium-tin (GeSn) lasers have been demonstrated as direct bandgap group-IV laser sources. This opens a completely new avenue from the traditional III-V integration approach. In this work, the material and optical properties of GeSn alloys were comprehensively studied. The GeSn films were grown on Ge-buffered Si substrates in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition system with low-cost SnCl4 and GeH4 precursors. A systematic study was done for thin GeSn films (thickness 400 nm) with Sn composition 5 to 17.5%. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured that showed a gradual shift of emission peaks towards longer wavelength as Sn composition increases. Strong PL intensity and low defect density indicated high material quality. Moreover, the PL study of n-doped samples showed bandgap narrowing compared to the unintentionally p-doped (boron) thin films with similar Sn compositions. Finally, optically pumped GeSn lasers on Si with broad wavelength coverage from 2 to 3 mum were demonstrated using high-quality GeSn films with Sn compositions up to 17.5%. The achieved maximum Sn composition of 17.5% broke the acknowledged Sn incorporation limit using similar deposition chemistry. The highest lasing temperature was measured at 180 K with an active layer thickness as thin as 270 nm. The unprecedented lasing performance is due to the achievement of high material quality and a robust fabrication process. The results reported in this work show a major advancement towards Si-based electrically pumped mid

  20. Fabrication of diamond-coated germanium ATR prisms for IR-spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babchenko, Oleg; Kozak, Halyna; Ižák, Tibor; Stuchlík, Jiří; Remeš, Zdeněk; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 87, May (2016), 67-73 ISSN 0924-2031 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond * low temperature growth * linear antenna microwave plasma * germanium * SEM * FTIR Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.740, year: 2016

  1. Reduced graphene oxide-germanium quantum dot nanocomposite: electronic, optical and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amollo, Tabitha A.; Mola, Genene T.; Nyamori, Vincent O.

    2017-12-01

    Graphene provides numerous possibilities for structural modification and functionalization of its carbon backbone. Localized magnetic moments can, as well, be induced in graphene by the formation of structural defects which include vacancies, edges, and adatoms. In this work, graphene was functionalized using germanium atoms, we report the effect of the Ge ad atoms on the structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of graphene. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-germanium quantum dot nanocomposites of high crystalline quality were synthesized by the microwave-assisted solvothermal reaction. Highly crystalline spherical shaped germanium quantum dots, of diameter ranging between 1.6-9.0 nm, are anchored on the basal planes of rGO. The nanocomposites exhibit high electrical conductivity with a sheet resistance of up to 16 Ω sq-1. The electrical conductivity is observed to increase with the increase in Ge content in the nanocomposites. High defect-induced magnetization is attained in the composites via germanium adatoms. The evolution of the magnetic moments in the nanocomposites and the coercivity showed marked dependence on the Ge quantum dots size and concentration. Quantum confinement effects is evidenced in the UV-vis absorbance spectra and photoluminescence emission spectra of the nanocomposites which show marked size-dependence. The composites manifest strong absorption in the UV region, strong luminescence in the near UV region, and a moderate luminescence in the visible region.

  2. Germanium nitride and oxynitride films for surface passivation of Ge radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggioni, G., E-mail: maggioni@lnl.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Carturan, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Fiorese, L. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali, Università di Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Pinto, N.; Caproli, F. [Scuola di Scienze e Tecnologie, Sezione di Fisica, Università di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Napoli, D.R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Giarola, M.; Mariotto, G. [Dipartimento di Informatica—Università di Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • A surface passivation method for HPGe radiation detectors is proposed. • Highly insulating GeNx- and GeOxNy-based layers are deposited at room temperature. • Deposition parameters affect composition and electrical properties of the layers. • The improved performance of a GeNx-coated HPGe diode is assessed. - Abstract: This work reports a detailed investigation of the properties of germanium nitride and oxynitride films to be applied as passivation layers to Ge radiation detectors. All the samples were deposited at room temperature by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. A strong correlation was found between the deposition parameters, such as deposition rate, substrate bias and atmosphere composition, and the oxygen and nitrogen content in the film matrix. We found that all the films were very poorly crystallized, consisting of very small Ge nitride and oxynitride nanocrystallites, and electrically insulating, with the resistivity changing from three to six orders of magnitude as a function of temperature. A preliminary test of these films as passivation layers was successfully performed by depositing a germanium nitride film on the intrinsic surface of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) diode and measuring the improved performance, in terms of leakage current, with respect to a reference passivated diode. All these interesting results allow us to envisage the application of this coating technology to the surface passivation of germanium-based radiation detectors.

  3. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N.; Helsby, W. I.

    2016-01-01

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  4. Tunable band gap emission and surface passivation of germanium nanocrystals synthesized in the gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, LM; Levij, L.M.; Kortshagen, U.R.

    2013-01-01

    The narrow bulk band gap and large exciton Bohr radius of germanium (Ge) make it an attractive material for optoelectronics utilizing band-gap-tunable photoluminescence (PL). However, realization of PL due to quantum confinement remains scarcely reported. Instead, PL is often observed from surface

  5. Dark Matter Search with sub-keV Germanium Detectors at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qian; Wong, Henry T

    2012-01-01

    Germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities open a window to search for low-mass WIMP dark matter. The CDEX-TEXONO Collaboration is conducting the first research program at the new China Jinping Underground Laboratory with this approach. The status and plans of the laboratory and the experiment are discussed.

  6. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Helsby, W. I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  7. Quadrupole boson densities in the germanium region by inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, D.

    1984-08-01

    The collective properties of four germanium isotopes have been explored through the measurement of the transition charge densities of the first two 2 + states. Their spatial features and their apparent anomalous behavior is readily explained in the frame of the Interacting Boson Model

  8. Germanium detectors for nuclear spectroscopy: Current research and development activity at LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoli, D. R., E-mail: daniel.r.napoli@lnl.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Maggioni, G., E-mail: maggioni@lnl.infn.it; Carturan, S.; Gelain, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy “G. Galilei”, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35121 Padova (Italy); Eberth, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Grimaldi, M. G.; Tatí, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania (Italy); Riccetto, S. [University of Camerino and INFN of Perugia (Italy); Mea, G. Della [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); University of Trento (Italy)

    2016-07-07

    High-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors have reached an unprecedented level of sophistication and are still the best solution for high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. In the present work, we will show the results of the characterization of new surface treatments for the production of these detectors, studied in the framework of our multidisciplinary research program in HPGe detector technologies.

  9. Recrystallization behaviour and electrical properties of germanium ion implanted polycrystalline silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeon-Koo; Matsui, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    The recrystallization behaviour of undoped and phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon films amorphized by germanium ion implantation at doses ranging from 1 x 10 15 to 1 x 10 16 cm -2 are investigated, and the electrical properties of phosphorus-doped films after recrystallization are studied. The phosphorus doping concentration ranges from 3 x 10 18 to 1 x 10 20 cm -3 . It is found that the nucleation rate decreases for undoped films and increases for phosphorus-doped films with increasing germanium dose; the growth rates decrease for both doped and undoped films. The decrease in nucleation rate is caused by the increase in implantation damage. The decrease in growth rate is considered to be due to the increase in lattice strain. The grain size increases with germanium dose for undoped films, but decreases for phosphorus-doped films. The dependence of the electrical properties of the recrystallized films as a function of phosphorus doping concentration with different germanium doses can be explained in terms of the grain size, crystallinity and grain boundary barrier height. (Author)

  10. Electrochemical characterization of irreversibly adsorbed germanium on platinum stepped surfaces vicinal to Pt(1 0 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Herrero, E.; Solla-Gullon, J.; Vidal-Iglesias, F.J.; Aldaz, A.; Feliu, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of germanium irreversibly adsorbed at stepped surfaces vicinal to the Pt(1 0 0) pole is reported. The process taking part on the (1 0 0) terraces is evaluated from charge density measurements and calibration lines versus the terrace dimension are plotted. On the series Pt(2n - 1,1,1) having (1 1 1) monoatomic steps, the charge involved in the redox process undergone by the irreversibly adsorbed germanium is able to account for (n - 0.5) terrace atoms, thus suggesting some steric difficulties in the growth of the adlayer on the (1 0 0) terraces. Conversely, no steric problems are apparent in the series Pt(n,1,0) in which more open (1 0 0) steps are present on the (1 0 0) terraces. In this latter case the charge density under the germanium redox peaks is proportional to the number of terrace atoms. Some comparison is made with other stepped surfaces to understand the behavior and stability of germanium irreversibly adsorbed on the different platinum surface sites

  11. Neutrino and dark matter physics with sub-keV germanium detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... Germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities open a window to study neutrino physics to search for light weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. We summarize the recent results on spin-independent couplings of light WIMPs from the TEXONO experiment at the Kuo-Sheng Reactor ...

  12. Strong quantum-confined stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Y.; Lee, Y. K.; Gei, Y.; Ren, S; Roth, J. E.; Miller, D. A.; Harris, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon is the dominant semiconductor for electronics, but there is now a growing need to integrate such component with optoelectronics for telecommunications and computer interconnections. Silicon-based optical modulators have recently been successfully demonstrated but because the light modulation mechanisms in silicon are relatively weak, long (for example, several millimeters) devices or sophisticated high-quality-factor resonators have been necessary. Thin quantum-well structures made from III-V semiconductors such as GaAs, InP and their alloys exhibit the much stronger Quantum-Confined Stark Effect (QCSE) mechanism, which allows modulator structures with only micrometers of optical path length. Such III-V materials are unfortunately difficult to integrate with silicon electronic devices. Germanium is routinely integrated with silicon in electronics, but previous silicon-germanium structures have also not shown strong modulation effects. Here we report the discovery of the QCSE, at room temperature, in thin germanium quantum-well structures grown on silicon. The QCSE here has strengths comparable to that in III-V materials. Its clarity and strength are particularly surprising because germanium is an indirect gap semiconductor, such semiconductors often display much weak optical effects than direct gap materials (such as the III-V materials typically used for optoelectronics). This discovery is very promising for small, high-speed, low-power optical output devices fully compatible with silicon electronics manufacture. (author)

  13. High-resolution imaging gamma-ray spectroscopy with externally segmented germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, J. L.; Mahoney, W. A.; Varnell, L. S.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    Externally segmented germanium detectors promise a breakthrough in gamma-ray imaging capabilities while retaining the superb energy resolution of germanium spectrometers. An angular resolution of 0.2 deg becomes practical by combining position-sensitive germanium detectors having a segment thickness of a few millimeters with a one-dimensional coded aperture located about a meter from the detectors. Correspondingly higher angular resolutions are possible with larger separations between the detectors and the coded aperture. Two-dimensional images can be obtained by rotating the instrument. Although the basic concept is similar to optical or X-ray coded-aperture imaging techniques, several complicating effects arise because of the penetrating nature of gamma rays. The complications include partial transmission through the coded aperture elements, Compton scattering in the germanium detectors, and high background count rates. Extensive electron-photon Monte Carlo modeling of a realistic detector/coded-aperture/collimator system has been performed. Results show that these complicating effects can be characterized and accounted for with no significant loss in instrument sensitivity.

  14. Fabrication and research of high purity germanium detectors with abrupt and thin diffusion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cabal, A. E.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    1997-01-01

    A different high purity germanium detector's fabrication method is described. A very thin diffusion film with an abrupt change of the type of conductivity is obtained. The fine diffusion layer thickness makes possibly their utilization in experimental systems in which all the data are elaborated directly on the computer. (author) [es

  15. Germanium recovery from gasification fly ash: evaluation of end-products obtained by precipitation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Fátima; Font, Oriol; Fernández-Pereira, Constantino; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Ruiz, Carmen; Coca, Pilar

    2009-08-15

    In this study the purity of the germanium end-products obtained by two different precipitation methods carried out on germanium-bearing solutions was evaluated as a last step of a hydrometallurgy process for the recovery of this valuable element from the Puertollano Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fly ash. Since H(2)S is produced as a by-product in the gas cleaning system of the Puertollano IGCC plant, precipitation of germanium as GeS(2) was tested by sulfiding the Ge-bearing solutions. The technological and hazardous issues that surround H(2)S handling conducted to investigate a novel precipitation procedure: precipitation as an organic complex by adding 1,2-dihydroxy benzene pyrocatechol (CAT) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to the Ge-bearing solutions. Relatively high purity Ge end-products (90 and 93% hexagonal-GeO(2) purity, respectively) were obtained by precipitating Ge from enriched solutions, as GeS(2) sulfiding the solutions with H(2)S, or as organic complex with CAT/CTAB mixtures and subsequent roasting of the precipitates. Both methods showed high efficiency (>99%) to precipitate selectively Ge using a single precipitation stage from germanium-bearing solutions.

  16. Effect of the microstructure on electrical properties of high-purity germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkopaev, O. I.; Shimanskii, A. F.; Molotkovskaya, N. O.; Kulakovskaya, T. V.

    2013-05-01

    The interrelation between the electrical properties and the microstructure of high-purity germanium crystals has been revealed. The electrical conductivity of polycrystalline samples increases and the life-time of nonequilibrium charge carriers in them decreases with a decrease in the crystallite sizes.

  17. Thermophysical Properties of Molten Germanium Measured by the High Temperature Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, W. K.; Ishikawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of molten germanium such as the density, the thermal expansion coefficient, the hemisphereical total emissivity, the constant pressure specific heat capacity, the surface tension, and the electrical resistivity have been measured using the High Temperature Electrostatic Levitator at JPL.

  18. Advanced characterization of carrier profiles in germanium using micro-machined contact probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarysse, T.; Konttinen, M.; Parmentier, B.

    2012-01-01

    of new concepts based on micro machined, closely spaced contact probes (10 μm pitch). When using four probes to perform sheet resistance measurements, a quantitative carrier profile extraction based on the evolution of the sheet resistance versus depth along a beveled surface is obtained. Considering...... the properties of both approaches on Al+ implants in germanium with different anneal treatments....

  19. Hall mobility of free charge carriers in highly compensated p-Germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilyuk, V.Yi.; Kirnas, Yi.G.; Balakyin, V.D.

    2000-01-01

    Hall mobility of free charge carriers in initial detectors Ge (Ga) is studied. It is established that an increase in the compensation factor results in the enlargement of Hall mobility in germanium highly compensated by introduction of Li ions during their drift in an electrical field

  20. Crystal Orientation Effect on the Subsurface Deformation of Monocrystalline Germanium in Nanometric Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Min; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fang, Fengzhou

    2017-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanometric cutting on monocrystalline germanium are conducted to investigate the subsurface deformation during and after nanometric cutting. The continuous random network model of amorphous germanium is established by molecular dynamics simulation, and its characteristic parameters are extracted to compare with those of the machined deformed layer. The coordination number distribution and radial distribution function (RDF) show that the machined surface presents the similar amorphous state. The anisotropic subsurface deformation is studied by nanometric cutting on the (010), (101), and (111) crystal planes of germanium, respectively. The deformed structures are prone to extend along the 110 slip system, which leads to the difference in the shape and thickness of the deformed layer on various directions and crystal planes. On machined surface, the greater thickness of subsurface deformed layer induces the greater surface recovery height. In order to get the critical thickness limit of deformed layer on machined surface of germanium, the optimized cutting direction on each crystal plane is suggested according to the relevance of the nanometric cutting to the nanoindentation.

  1. Reaction studies of hot silicon and germanium radicals. Progress report, February 1, 1982-July 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, P.P.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental approach toward attaining the goals of this research program is briefly outlined, and the progress made in the 1982 to 1984 period is reviewed in sections entitled: (1) Recoil atom experiments, (2) Studies of thermally and photochemically generated silicon and germanium radicals, and (3) Ion-molecule reaction studies

  2. High field electron-spin transport and observation of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation of drifting electrons in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2008-01-01

    High field electron-spin transport in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide is studied. We generate electron spins in the samples by optical pumping. During transport, we observe the Dyakonov-Perel (DP) [M.I. Dyakonov, V.I. Perel, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60 (1971) 1954] spin relaxation of the drifting electrons. The results are discussed and are compared with those obtained in calculations of the DP spin relaxation frequency of the hot electrons. A good agreement is obtained

  3. High field electron-spin transport and observation of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation of drifting electrons in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2008-11-17

    High field electron-spin transport in low temperature-grown gallium arsenide is studied. We generate electron spins in the samples by optical pumping. During transport, we observe the Dyakonov-Perel (DP) [M.I. Dyakonov, V.I. Perel, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60 (1971) 1954] spin relaxation of the drifting electrons. The results are discussed and are compared with those obtained in calculations of the DP spin relaxation frequency of the hot electrons. A good agreement is obtained.

  4. Electron tunneling transport across heterojunctions between europium sulfide and indium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallaher, Raymond L.

    This dissertation presents research done on utilizing the ferromagnetic semiconductor europium sulfide (EuS) to inject spin polarized electrons into the non-magnetic semiconductor indium arsenide (InAs). There is great interest in expanding the functionality of modern day electronic circuits by creating devices that depend not only on the flow of charge in the device, but also on the transport of spin through the device. Within this mindset, there is a concerted effort to establish an efficient means of injecting and detecting spin polarized electrons in a two dimensional electron system (2DES) as the first step in developing a spin based field effect transistor. Thus, the research presented in this thesis has focused on the feasibility of using EuS, in direct electrical contact with InAs, as a spin injecting electrode into an InAs 2DES. Doped EuS is a concentrated ferromagnetic semiconductor, whose conduction band undergoes a giant Zeeman splitting when the material becomes ferromagnetic. The concomitant difference in energy between the spin-up and spin-down energy bands makes the itinerant electrons in EuS highly spin polarized. Thus, in principle, EuS is a good candidate to be used as an injector of spin polarized electrons into non-magnetic materials. In addition, the ability to adjust the conductivity of EuS by varying the doping level in the material makes EuS particularly suited for injecting spins into non-magnetic semiconductors and 2DES. For this research, thin films of EuS have been grown via e-beam evaporation of EuS powder. This growth technique produces EuS films that are sulfur deficient; these sulfur vacancies act as intrinsic electron donors and the resulting EuS films behave like heavily doped ferromagnetic semiconductors. The growth parameters and deposition procedures were varied and optimized in order to fabricate films that have minimal crystalline defects. Various properties and characteristics of these EuS films were measured and compared to

  5. Point defects and electric compensation in gallium arsenide single crystals; Punktdefekte und elektrische Kompensation in Galliumarsenid-Einkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzer, Ulrich

    2007-12-10

    In the present thesis the point-defect budget of gallium arsenide single crystals with different dopings is studied. It is shown, in which way the concentration of the single point defects depende on the concentration of the dopants, the stoichiometry deviation, and the position of the Fermi level. For this serve the results of the measurement-technical characterization of a large number of samples, in the fabrication of which these parameters were directedly varied. The main topic of this thesis lies in the development of models, which allow a quantitative description of the experimentally studied electrical and optical properties of gallium arsenide single crystals starting from the point-defect concentrations. Because from point defects charge carriers can be set free, their concentration determines essentially the charge-carrier concentration in the bands. In the ionized state point defects act as scattering centers for free charge carriers and influence by this the drift mobility of the charge carriers. A thermodynamic modeling of the point-defect formation yields statements on the equilibrium concentrations of the point defects in dependence on dopant concentration and stoichiometry deviation. It is show that the electrical properties of the crystals observed at room temperature result from the kinetic suppression of processes, via which the adjustment of a thermodynamic equilibrium between the point defects is mediated. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Punktdefekthaushalt von Galliumarsenid-Einkristallen mit unterschiedlichen Dotierungen untersucht. Es wird gezeigt, in welcher Weise die Konzentration der einzelnen Punktdefekte von der Konzentration der Dotierstoffe, der Stoechiometrieabweichung und der Lage des Ferminiveaus abhaengen. Dazu dienen die Ergebnisse der messtechnischen Charakterisierung einer grossen Anzahl von Proben, bei deren Herstellung diese Parameter gezielt variiert wurden. Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Entwicklung

  6. Nonlinear optics in germanium mid-infrared fiber material: Detuning oscillations in femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ordu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Germanium optical fibers hold great promise in extending semiconductor photonics into the fundamentally important mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The demonstration of nonlinear response in fabricated Ge fiber samples is a key step in the development of mid-infrared fiber materials. Here we report the observation of detuning oscillations in a germanium fiber in the mid-infrared region using femtosecond dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy. Detuning oscillations are observed in the frequency-resolved response when mid-infrared pump and probe pulses are overlapped in a fiber segment. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear frequency resolved nonlinear (χ(3 response in the germanium semiconductor. Our work represents the first observation of coherent oscillations in the emerging field of germanium mid-infrared fiber optics.

  7. Study of the effect of neutron and electron irradiations on the low temperature thermal conductivity of germanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevyver, M.

    1967-06-01

    The main results obtained from this work are the following: 1 Neutron irradiation (at 300 deg. K) produces lattice defects in germanium and silicon, and a corresponding very large lowering of the thermal conductivity is observed in the low temperature region (4-300 ). The results obtained have been explained with the help of the following hypotheses: for silicon a scattering of phonons by the stress fields produced by the defects; for germanium, a supplementary scattering of the electron phonon type. 2 Annealing treatments carried out on these materials above 373 deg. K restored the thermal conductivity over the whole temperature range of the measurements (4-300 deg. K); in the case of both germanium and silicon there were two steps in the annealing process. 3 A study of the thermal conductivity of germanium (initially P or N) after an electronic irradiation showed that the scattering of phonons could depend on the state of charge of the defects thus produced. (author) [fr

  8. Enhanced light trapping by focused ion beam (FIB) induced self-organized nanoripples on germanium (100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaliya, Bhaveshkumar; Mote, Rakesh G.; Aslam, Mohammed; Fu, Jing

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate enhanced light trapping by self-organized nanoripples on the germanium surface. The enhanced light trapping leading to high absorption of light is confirmed by the experimental studies as well as the numerical simulations using the finite-difference time-domain method. We used gallium ion (Ga+) focused ion beam to enable the formation of the self-organized nanoripples on the germanium (100) surface. During the fabrication, the overlap of the scanning beam is varied from zero to negative value and found to influence the orientation of the nanoripples. Evolution of nanostructures with the variation of beam overlap is investigated. Parallel, perpendicular, and randomly aligned nanoripples with respect to the scanning direction are obtained via manipulation of the scanning beam overlap. 95% broadband absorptance is measured in the visible electromagnetic region for the nanorippled germanium surface. The reported light absorption enhancement can significantly improve the efficiency of germanium-silicon based photovoltaic systems.

  9. Development of segmented germanium detectors for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jing

    2009-01-01

    The results from neutrino oscillation experiments indicate that at least two neutrinos have mass. However, the value of the masses and whether neutrinos and anti-neutrinos are identical, i.e., Majorana particles, remain unknown. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments can help to improve our understanding in both cases and are the only method currently possible to tackle the second question. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, which will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76 Ge, is currently under construction in Hall A of the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. In order to achieve an extremely low background level, segmented germanium detectors are considered to be operated directly in liquid argon which serves simultaneously as cooling and shielding medium. Several test cryostats were built at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik in Muenchen to operate segmented germanium detectors both in vacuum and submerged in cryogenic liquid. The performance and the background discrimination power of segmented germanium detectors were studied in detail. It was proven for the first time that segmented germanium detectors can be operated stably over long periods submerged in a cryogenic liquid. It was confirmed that the segmentation scheme employed does well in the identification of photon induced background and demonstrated for the first time that also neutron interactions can be identified. The C++ Monte Carlo framework, MaGe (Majorana-GERDA), is a joint development of the Majorana and GERDA collaborations. It is based on GEANT4, but tailored especially to simulate the response of ultra-low background detectors to ionizing radiation. The predictions of the simulation were veri ed to be accurate for a wide range of conditions. Some shortcomings were found and corrected. Pulse shape analysis is complementary to segmentation in identifying background events. Its efficiency can only be correctly determined using reliable pulse shape

  10. Development of segmented germanium detectors for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing

    2009-06-09

    The results from neutrino oscillation experiments indicate that at least two neutrinos have mass. However, the value of the masses and whether neutrinos and anti-neutrinos are identical, i.e., Majorana particles, remain unknown. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments can help to improve our understanding in both cases and are the only method currently possible to tackle the second question. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, which will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge, is currently under construction in Hall A of the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. In order to achieve an extremely low background level, segmented germanium detectors are considered to be operated directly in liquid argon which serves simultaneously as cooling and shielding medium. Several test cryostats were built at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik in Muenchen to operate segmented germanium detectors both in vacuum and submerged in cryogenic liquid. The performance and the background discrimination power of segmented germanium detectors were studied in detail. It was proven for the first time that segmented germanium detectors can be operated stably over long periods submerged in a cryogenic liquid. It was confirmed that the segmentation scheme employed does well in the identification of photon induced background and demonstrated for the first time that also neutron interactions can be identified. The C++ Monte Carlo framework, MaGe (Majorana-GERDA), is a joint development of the Majorana and GERDA collaborations. It is based on GEANT4, but tailored especially to simulate the response of ultra-low background detectors to ionizing radiation. The predictions of the simulation were veri ed to be accurate for a wide range of conditions. Some shortcomings were found and corrected. Pulse shape analysis is complementary to segmentation in identifying background events. Its efficiency can only be correctly determined using reliable pulse

  11. Non-local exchange correlation functionals impact on the structural, electronic and optical properties of III-V arsenides

    KAUST Repository

    Anua, N. Najwa

    2013-08-20

    Exchange correlation (XC) energy functionals play a vital role in the efficiency of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, more soundly in the calculation of fundamental electronic energy bandgap. In the present DFT study of III-arsenides, we investigate the implications of XC-energy functional and corresponding potential on the structural, electronic and optical properties of XAs (X = B, Al, Ga, In). Firstly we report and discuss the optimized structural lattice parameters and the band gap calculations performed within different non-local XC functionals as implemented in the DFT-packages: WIEN2k, CASTEP and SIESTA. These packages are representative of the available code in ab initio studies. We employed the LDA, GGA-PBE, GGA-WC and mBJ-LDA using WIEN2k. In CASTEP, we employed the hybrid functional, sX-LDA. Furthermore LDA, GGA-PBE and meta-GGA were employed using SIESTA code. Our results point to GGA-WC as a more appropriate approximation for the calculations of structural parameters. However our electronic bandstructure calculations at the level of mBJ-LDA potential show considerable improvements over the other XC functionals, even the sX-LDA hybrid functional. We report also the optical properties within mBJ potential, which show a nice agreement with the experimental measurements in addition to other theoretical results. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Nematic fluctuations in iron arsenides NaFeAs and LiFeAs probed by 75As NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiaki; Itoh, Masayuki

    2018-03-01

    75As NMR measurements have been made on single crystals to study the nematic state in the iron arsenides NaFeAs, which undergoes a structural transition from a high-temperature (high-T ) tetragonal phase to a low-T orthorhombic phase at Ts=57 K and an antiferromagnetic transition at TN=42 K, and LiFeAs having a superconducting transition at Tc=18 K. We observe the in-plane anisotropy of the electric field gradient η even in the tetragonal phase of NaFeAs and LiFeAs, showing the local breaking of tetragonal C4 symmetry. Then, η is found to obey the Curie-Weiss (CW) law as well as in Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 . The good agreement between η and the nematic susceptibility obtained by electronic Raman spectroscopy indicates that η is governed by the nematic susceptibility. From comparing η in NaFeAs and LiFeAs with η in Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 , we discuss the carrier-doping dependence of the nematic susceptibility. The spin contribution to nematic susceptibility is also discussed from comparing the CW terms in η with the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by temperature 1 /T1T . Finally, we discuss the nematic transition in the paramagnetic orthorhombic phase of NaFeAs from the in-plane anisotropy of 1 /T1T .

  13. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the physical properties of magnesium arsenide in cubic and hexagonal phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Ali, E-mail: mokhtari@sci.sku.ac.i [Simulation Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P. B. 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sedighi, Matin [Simulation Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P. B. 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-01

    Full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT) was applied to study the structural and electronic properties of the magnesium arsenide in both cubic and hexagonal phases. The exchange-correlation functional was approximated as a generalized gradient functional introduced by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA96) and Engel-Vosko (EV-GGA). The lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, cohesive energy, band structures and effective mass of electrons and holes (EME and EMH) were obtained and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. A phase transition was predicted at pressure of about 1.63 GPa from the cubic to the hexagonal phase. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of the electronic properties such as band gap, valence bandwidths, anti-symmetry gap (the energy gap between two parts of the valence bands), EME and EMH were investigated using both GGA96 and EV-GGA methods. High applied pressure can decrease (increase) the holes mobility of cubic (hexagonal) phase of this compound.

  14. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the physical properties of magnesium arsenide in cubic and hexagonal phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Ali; Sedighi, Matin

    2010-01-01

    Full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT) was applied to study the structural and electronic properties of the magnesium arsenide in both cubic and hexagonal phases. The exchange-correlation functional was approximated as a generalized gradient functional introduced by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA96) and Engel-Vosko (EV-GGA). The lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, cohesive energy, band structures and effective mass of electrons and holes (EME and EMH) were obtained and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. A phase transition was predicted at pressure of about 1.63 GPa from the cubic to the hexagonal phase. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of the electronic properties such as band gap, valence bandwidths, anti-symmetry gap (the energy gap between two parts of the valence bands), EME and EMH were investigated using both GGA96 and EV-GGA methods. High applied pressure can decrease (increase) the holes mobility of cubic (hexagonal) phase of this compound.

  15. A final report for Gallium arsenide P-I-N detectors for high-sensitivity imaging of thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Vernon, S M

    1999-01-01

    This SBIR Phase I developed neutron detectors made FR-om gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-type/ intrinsic/n-type (P-I-N) diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto semi-insulating (S1) bulk GaAs wafers. A layer of isotonically enriched boron-10 evaporated onto the FR-ont surface serves to convert incoming neutrons into lithium ions and a 1.47 MeV alpha particle which creates electron-hole pairs that are detected by the GaAs diode. Various thicknesses of ''intrinsic'' (I) undoped GaAs were tested, as was use of a back-surface field (BSF) formed FR-om a layer of Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As. Schottky-barrier diodes formed FR-om the same structures without the p+ GaAs top layer were tested as a comparison. After mesa etching and application of contacts, devices were tested in visible light before application of the boron coating. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the best diode near the GaAs bandedge is over 90%. The lowest dark current measured is 1 x 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 amps at -1 V o...

  16. Dazai super-large uranium-bearing germanium deposit in western Yunnan region metallogenic geological conditions and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yanrong; Yuan Qingbang; Li Yonghua; Zhang Ling; Dai Jiemin

    1995-05-01

    The Dazai super-large uranium-bearing germanium deposit is located in Bangmai Fault Basin, Western Yunnan, China. The basin basement is migmatitic granite and the cover is miocene coal-bearing clastics, Bangmai Formation. The basin development had undergone faulted rhombus basin forming, synsedimentary structure-developing and up-lifted-denuded stages. Synsedimentary faults had controlled distribution of sedimentary formation and lithofacies, and uranium and germanium mineralization. Germanium ore-bodies occur mainly in master lignite-bed of lower rhythmite. Hosted germanium-lignite is taken as main ore-type. Germanium occurs in vitrinite of lignite in the form of metal-organic complex. The metallogenetic geological conditions of the deposit are that ground preparation is uplift zone-migmatitic granite-fault basin-geothermal anomaly area, rich and thick ore-body is controlled by synsedimentary fault, peat-bog phase is favorable to accumulation for ore-forming elements, and unconformity between overlying cover and underlying basement is a channel-way of mineralizing fluid. A multiperiodic composite, being regarded sedimentation and diagenesis as a major process, uranium and germanium ore deposit has been formed through two mineralization. Four prospecting areas have been forecasted and two deposits have been accordingly discovered again. Technical-economic provableness shows that the deposit is characterized by shallow-buried, rich grade, large scale, easy mining and smelting. (9 figs.)

  17. Effects of Germanium Tetrabromide Addition to Zinc Tetraphenyl Porphyrin / Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Suzuki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of germanium tetrabromide addition to tetraphenyl porphyrin zinc (Zn-TPP/fullerene (C60 bulk heterojunction solar cells were characterized. The light-induced charge separation and charge transfer were investigated by current density and optical absorption. Addition of germanium tetrabromide inserted into active layer of Zn-TPP/C60 as bulk heterojunction had a positive effect on the photovoltaic and optical properties. The photovoltaic mechanism of the solar cells was discussed by experimental results. The photovoltaic performance was due to light-induced exciton promoted by insert of GeBr4 and charge transfer from HOMO of Zn-TPP to LUMO of C60 in the active layer.

  18. Optical properties of highly n-doped germanium obtained by in situ doping and laser annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, J; Ballabio, A; Isella, G; Gallacher, K; Millar, R; Paul, D; Gilberti, V; Baldassarre, L; Ortolani, M; Milazzo, R; Napolitani, E; Maiolo, L; Minotti, A; Pecora, A; Bottegoni, F; Biagioni, P

    2017-01-01

    High n-type doping in germanium is essential for many electronic and optoelectronic applications especially for high performance Ohmic contacts, lasing and mid-infrared plasmonics. We report on the combination of in situ doping and excimer laser annealing to improve the activation of phosphorous in germanium. An activated n-doping concentration of 8.8  ×  10 19 cm −3 has been achieved starting from an incorporated phosphorous concentration of 1.1  ×  10 20 cm −3 . Infrared reflectivity data fitted with a multi-layer Drude model indicate good uniformity over a 350 nm thick layer. Photoluminescence demonstrates clear bandgap narrowing and an increased ratio of direct to indirect bandgap emission confirming the high doping densities achieved. (paper)

  19. Optical properties of highly n-doped germanium obtained by in situ doping and laser annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, J.; Ballabio, A.; Gallacher, K.; Giliberti, V.; Baldassarre, L.; Millar, R.; Milazzo, R.; Maiolo, L.; Minotti, A.; Bottegoni, F.; Biagioni, P.; Paul, D.; Ortolani, M.; Pecora, A.; Napolitani, E.; Isella, G.

    2017-11-01

    High n-type doping in germanium is essential for many electronic and optoelectronic applications especially for high performance Ohmic contacts, lasing and mid-infrared plasmonics. We report on the combination of in situ doping and excimer laser annealing to improve the activation of phosphorous in germanium. An activated n-doping concentration of 8.8  ×  1019 cm-3 has been achieved starting from an incorporated phosphorous concentration of 1.1  ×  1020 cm-3. Infrared reflectivity data fitted with a multi-layer Drude model indicate good uniformity over a 350 nm thick layer. Photoluminescence demonstrates clear bandgap narrowing and an increased ratio of direct to indirect bandgap emission confirming the high doping densities achieved.

  20. Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films with Embedded Nanocrystals for Thermal Detectors with Very High Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Calleja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have optimized the deposition conditions of amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nanocrystals in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD reactor, working at a standard frequency of 13.56 MHz. The objective was to produce films with very large Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR, which is a signature of the sensitivity in thermal detectors (microbolometers. Morphological, electrical, and optical characterization were performed in the films, and we found optimal conditions for obtaining films with very high values of thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR = 7.9% K−1. Our results show that amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nanocrystals can be used as thermosensitive films in high performance infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs used in commercial thermal cameras.

  1. Characterization of a high-purity germanium detector for small-animal SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lindsay C; Campbell, Desmond L; Hull, Ethan L; Peterson, Todd E

    2011-09-21

    We present an initial evaluation of a mechanically cooled, high-purity germanium double-sided strip detector as a potential gamma camera for small-animal SPECT. It is 90 mm in diameter and 10 mm thick with two sets of 16 orthogonal strips that have a 4.5 mm width with a 5 mm pitch. We found an energy resolution of 0.96% at 140 keV, an intrinsic efficiency of 43.3% at 122 keV and a FWHM spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 mm. We demonstrated depth-of-interaction estimation capability through comparison of pinhole acquisitions with a point source on and off axes. Finally, a flood-corrected flood image exhibited a strip-level uniformity of less than 1%. This high-purity germanium offers many desirable properties for small-animal SPECT.

  2. Current experiments in germanium 0 ν β β search -- GERDA and MAJORANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sturm, K.

    2015-01-01

    There are unanswered questions regarding neutrino physics that are of great interest for the scientific community. For example the absolute masses, the mass hierarchy and the nature of neutrinos are unknown up to now. The discovery of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) would prove the existence of a Majorana mass, which would be linked to the half-life of the decay, and would in addition provide an elegant solution for the small mass of the neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. Because of an existing discovery claim of 0νββ of 76Ge and the excellent energy resolution achievable, germanium is of special interest in the search for 0νββ . In this article the state of the art of germanium 0νββ search, namely the GERDA experiment and MAJORANA demonstrator, is presented. In particular, recent results of the GERDA collaboration, which strongly disfavour the above mentioned claim, are discussed.

  3. Research and Development Supporting a Next Generation Germanium Double Beta Decay Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steve; Chu, Pinghan; Goett, Johnny; Massarczyk, Ralph; Xu, Wenqin

    2015-10-01

    To improve the search for neutrinoless double beta decay, the next-generation experiments will increase in source mass and continue to reduce backgrounds in the region of interest. A promising technology for the next generation experiment is large arrays of Germanium p-type point contact detectors enriched in 76-Ge. The experience, expertise and lessons learned from the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and GERDA experiments naturally lead to a number of research and development activities that will be useful in guiding a future experiment utilizing Germanium. We will discuss some R&D activities including a hybrid cryostat design, background reduction in cabling, connectors and electronics, and modifications to reduce assembly time. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  4. Deformation potentials for band-to-band tunneling in silicon and germanium from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2015-01-01

    The deformation potentials for phonon-assisted band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in silicon and germanium are calculated using a plane-wave density functional theory code. Using hybrid functionals, we obtain: DTA = 4.1 × 108 eV/cm, DTO = 1.2 × 109 eV/cm, and DLO = 2.2 × 109 eV/cm for BTBT in silicon and DTA = 7.8 × 108 eV/cm and DLO = 1.3 × 109 eV/cm for BTBT in germanium. These values agree with experimentally measured values and we explain why in diodes, the TA/TO phonon-assisted BTBT dominates over LO phonon-assisted BTBT despite the larger deformation potential for the latter. We also explain why LO phonon-assisted BTBT can nevertheless dominate in many practical applications.

  5. Split Bull's eye shaped aluminum antenna for plasmon-enhanced nanometer scale germanium photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang-Fang; Ang, Kah-Wee; Ye, Jiandong; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2011-03-09

    Bull's eye antennas are capable of efficiently collecting and concentrating optical signals into an ultrasmall area, offering an excellent solution to break the bottleneck between speed and photoresponse in subwavelength photodetectors. Here, we exploit the idea of split bull's eye antenna for a nanometer germanium photodetector operating at a standard communication wavelength of 1310 nm. The nontraditional plasmonic metal aluminum has been implemented in the resonant antenna structure fabricated by standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing. A significant enhancement in photoresponse could be achieved over the conventional bull's eye scheme due to an increased optical near-field in the active region. Moreover, with this novel antenna design the effective grating area could be significantly reduced without sacrificing device performance. This work paves the way for the future development of low-cost, high-density, and high-speed CMOS-compatible germanium-based optoelectronic devices.

  6. Empirical correction of crosstalk in a low-background germanium γ-γ analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keillor, M.E.; Erikson, L.E.; Aalseth, C.E.; Day, A.R.; Fuller, E.S.; Glasgow, B.D.; Hoppe, E.W.; Hossbach, T.W.; Mizouni, L.K.; Myers, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is currently developing a custom software suite capable of automating many of the tasks required to accurately analyze coincident signals within gamma spectrometer arrays. During the course of this work, significant crosstalk was identified in the energy determination for spectra collected with a new low-background intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array at PNNL. The HPGe array is designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive γ-γ coincidence detection. The first half of the array, a single cryostat containing seven HPGe crystals, was recently installed into a new shallow underground laboratory facility. This update will present a brief review of the germanium array, describe the observed crosstalk, and present a straight-forward empirical correction that significantly reduces the impact of this crosstalk on the spectroscopic performance of the system. (author)

  7. Dissolution chemistry and biocompatibility of silicon- and germanium-based semiconductors for transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Kyun; Park, Gayoung; Kim, Kyungmin; Hwang, Suk-Won; Cheng, Huanyu; Shin, Jiho; Chung, Sangjin; Kim, Minjin; Yin, Lan; Lee, Jeong Chul; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Rogers, John A

    2015-05-06

    Semiconducting materials are central to the development of high-performance electronics that are capable of dissolving completely when immersed in aqueous solutions, groundwater, or biofluids, for applications in temporary biomedical implants, environmentally degradable sensors, and other systems. The results reported here include comprehensive studies of the dissolution by hydrolysis of polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, silicon-germanium, and germanium in aqueous solutions of various pH values and temperatures. In vitro cellular toxicity evaluations demonstrate the biocompatibility of the materials and end products of dissolution, thereby supporting their potential for use in biodegradable electronics. A fully dissolvable thin-film solar cell illustrates the ability to integrate these semiconductors into functional systems.

  8. Interaction between radiation-induced defects and lithium impurity atoms in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.D.; Daluda, Yu.N.; Emtsev, V.V.; Kervalishvili, P.D.; Mashovets, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on germanium doped with lithium in the course of extraction from a melt was studied. 60 Co γ-ray irradiation with the 6.2x10 12 cm -2 x1 -1 intensity was performed at 300 K. The temperature dependences of conductivity and Hall effect was studied in the 4.2-300 K range. It was shown that using this alloying technique lithium atoms in germanium were in a ''free'' state. It was found that on irradiation the lithium atom concentration decreases as a result of production of electrically inactive complexes with participation of lithium atoms. Besides this principal process secondary ones are observed: production of radiation donor-defects with the ionization energy Esub(c) of 80 MeV and compensating acceptors

  9. Modelling the structure factors and pair distribution functions of amorphous germanium, silicon and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgic, Seyfettin; Gonzalez, Luis Enrique; Baer, Shalom; Silbert, Moises

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of calculations of the static structure factor S(k) and the pair distribution function g(r) of the tetrahedral amorphous semiconductors germanium, silicon and carbon using the structural diffusion model (SDM). The results obtained with the SDM for S(k) and g(r) are of comparable quality with those obtained by the unconstrained Reverse Monte Carlo simulations and existing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for these systems. We have found that g(r) exhibits a small peak, or shoulder, a weak remnant of the prominent third neighbour peak present in the crystalline phase of these systems. This feature has been experimentally found to be present in recently reported high energy X-ray experiments of amorphous silicon (Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 13520), as well as in the previous X-ray diffraction of as-evaporated amorphous germanium (Phys. Rev. B 50 (1994) 539)

  10. Modelling the structure factors and pair distribution functions of amorphous germanium, silicon and carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgic, Seyfettin; Gonzalez, Luis Enrique; Baer, Shalom; Silbert, Moises

    2002-12-01

    We present the results of calculations of the static structure factor S(k) and the pair distribution function g(r) of the tetrahedral amorphous semiconductors germanium, silicon and carbon using the structural diffusion model (SDM). The results obtained with the SDM for S(k) and g(r) are of comparable quality with those obtained by the unconstrained Reverse Monte Carlo simulations and existing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for these systems. We have found that g(r) exhibits a small peak, or shoulder, a weak remnant of the prominent third neighbour peak present in the crystalline phase of these systems. This feature has been experimentally found to be present in recently reported high energy X-ray experiments of amorphous silicon (Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 13520), as well as in the previous X-ray diffraction of as-evaporated amorphous germanium (Phys. Rev. B 50 (1994) 539)

  11. Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films with Embedded Nano crystals for Thermal Detectors with Very High Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, C.; Torres, A.; Rosales-Quintero, P.; Moreno, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have optimized the deposition conditions of amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nano crystals in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) reactor, working at a standard frequency of 13.56 MHz. The objective was to produce films with very large Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR), which is a signature of the sensitivity in thermal detectors (micro bolometers). Morphological, electrical, and optical characterization were performed in the films, and we found optimal conditions for obtaining films with very high values of thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR = 7.9%K -1 ). Our results show that amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nano crystals can be used as thermo sensitive films in high performance infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) used in commercial thermal cameras.

  12. Study of the creep of germanium bi-crystals by X ray topography and electronic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Marie-Odile

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the microscopic as well as macroscopic aspect of the role of grain boundary during deformation, by studying the creep of Germanium bi-crystals. The objective was to observe interactions of network dislocations with the boundary as well as the evolution of dislocations in each grain. During the first stages of deformation, samples have been examined by X ray topography, a technique which suits well the observation of low deformed samples, provided their initial dislocation density is very low. At higher deformation, more conventional techniques of observation of sliding systems and electronic microscopy have been used. After some general recalls, the definition of twin boundaries and of their structure in terms of dislocation, a look at germanium deformation, and an overview of works performed on bi-crystals deformation, the author presents the experimental methods and apparatuses. He reports and discusses the obtained results at the beginning of deformation as well as during next phases

  13. Volume reflection and channeling of ultrarelativistic protons in germanium bent single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bellucci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the investigation of volume reflection and channeling processes of ultrarelativistic positive charged particles moving in germanium single crystals. We demonstrate that the choice of atomic potential on the basis of the Hartree-Fock method and the correct choice of the Debye temperature allow us to describe the above mentioned processes in a good agreement with the recent experiments. Moreover, the universal form of equations for volume reflection presented in the paper gives a true description of the process at a wide range of particle energies. Standing on this study we make predictions for the mean angle reflection (as a function of the bending radius of positive and negative particles for germanium (110 and (111 crystallographic planes.

  14. Determination of Shear Deformation Potentials from the Free-Carrier Piezobirefringence in Germanium and Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riskaer, Sven

    1966-01-01

    The present investigations of the free-carrier piezobirefringence phenomenon verify that in n-type germanium and silicon as well as in p-type silicon this effect can be ascribed to intraband transitions of the carriers. It is demonstrated how a combined investigation of the low-stress and high......-stress piezobirefringence in these materials provides a direct and independent method for determining deformation-potential constants. For n-type germanium we obtain Ξu=18.0±0.5 eV, for n-type silicon Ξu=8.5±0.4 eV; for p-type silicon a rather crude analytical approximation yields b=-3.1 eV and d=-8.3 eV. Finally...

  15. Position resolution simulations for the inverted-coaxial germanium detector, SIGMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. P.; Harkness-Brennan, L. J.; Boston, A. J.; Judson, D. S.; Labiche, M.; Nolan, P. J.; Page, R. D.; Pearce, F.; Radford, D. C.; Simpson, J.; Unsworth, C.

    2018-06-01

    The SIGMA Germanium detector has the potential to revolutionise γ-ray spectroscopy, providing superior energy and position resolving capabilities compared with current large volume state-of-the-art Germanium detectors. The theoretical position resolution of the detector as a function of γ-ray interaction position has been studied using simulated detector signals. A study of the effects of RMS noise at various energies has been presented with the position resolution ranging from 0.33 mm FWHM at Eγ = 1 MeV, to 0.41 mm at Eγ = 150 keV. An additional investigation into the effects pulse alignment have on pulse shape analysis and in turn, position resolution has been performed. The theoretical performance of SIGMA operating in an experimental setting is presented for use as a standalone detector and as part of an ancillary system.

  16. Calibration of Single High Purity Germanium Detector for Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, T.M.; Morsi, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new Accuscan II single germanium detector for whole body counter was installed in NRC (Egypt). The current paper concerned on calibration of single high purity germanium detector for whole body counter. Physical parameters affecting on performance of whole body counter such as linearity, minimum detectable activity and source detector distance, SDD were investigated. Counting efficiencies for the detector have been investigated in rear wall, fixed diagnostic position in air. Counting efficiencies for organ compartments such as thyroid, lung, upper and lower gastrointestinal tract have been investigated using transfer phantom in fixed diagnostic and screening positions respectively. The organ compartment efficiencies in screening geometry were higher than that value of diagnostic geometry by a factor of three. The committed dose equivalents of I-131 in thyroid were ranged from 0.073 ± 0.004 to 1.73±0.09 mSv and in lung was 0.02±0.001 mSv

  17. Current experiments in germanium 0νββ search — GERDA and MAJORANA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Sturm, K.

    2015-01-01

    There are unanswered questions regarding neutrino physics that are of great interest for the scientific community. For example the absolute masses, the mass hierarchy and the nature of neutrinos are unknown up to now. The discovery of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) would prove the existence of a Majorana mass, which would be linked to the half-life of the decay, and would in addition provide an elegant solution for the small mass of the neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. Because of an existing discovery claim of 0νββ of 76 Ge and the excellent energy resolution achievable, germanium is of special interest in the search for 0νββ. In this article the state of the art of germanium 0νββ search, namely the Gerda experiment and Majorana demonstrator, is presented. In particular, recent results of the Gerda collaboration, which strongly disfavour the above mentioned claim, are discussed.

  18. Numerical evaluation of Auger recombination coefficients in relaxed and strained germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominici, Stefano [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Wen, Hanqing; Bellotti, Enrico [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Bertazzi, Francesco; Goano, Michele [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); IEIIT-CNR, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2016-05-23

    The potential applications of germanium and its alloys in infrared silicon-based photonics have led to a renewed interest in their optical properties. In this letter, we report on the numerical determination of Auger coefficients at T = 300 K for relaxed and biaxially strained germanium. We use a Green's function based model that takes into account all relevant direct and phonon-assisted processes and perform calculations up to a strain level corresponding to the transition from indirect to direct energy gap. We have considered excess carrier concentrations ranging from 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} to 5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. For use in device level simulations, we also provide fitting formulas for the calculated electron and hole Auger coefficients as functions of carrier density.

  19. GIOVE: a new detector setup for high sensitivity germanium spectroscopy at shallow depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusser, G., E-mail: gerd.heusser@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Weber, M., E-mail: marc.weber@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Hakenmüller, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Via G. Acitelli 22, 67100, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Simgen, H.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-11-09

    We report on the development and construction of the high-purity germanium spectrometer setup GIOVE (Germanium Inner Outer VEto), recently built and now operated at the shallow underground laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg. Particular attention was paid to the design of a novel passive and active shield, aiming at efficient rejection of environmental and muon induced radiation backgrounds. The achieved sensitivity level of ≤100 μBq kg{sup -1} for primordial radionuclides from U and Th in typical γ ray sample screening measurements is unique among instruments located at comparably shallow depths and can compete with instruments at far deeper underground sites.

  20. Bibliographical study on the high-purity germanium radiation detectors used in gamma and X spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornand, Bernard; Friant, Alain

    1979-03-01

    The germanium or silicon lithium-drifted detectors, Ge(Li) or Si(Li), and high-purity germanium detectors, HP Ge (impurity concentration approximately 10 10 cm -3 ), are the most commonly used at the present time as gamma and X-ray spectrometers. The HP Ge detectors for which room temperature storage is the main characteristic can be obtained with a large volume and a thin window, and are used as the Ge(Li) in γ ray spectrometry or the Si(Li) in X-ray spectrometry. This publication reviews issues from 1974 to 1978 on the state of the art and applications of the HP Ge semiconductor detectors. 101 bibliographical notices with French summaries are presented. An index for authors, documents and periodicals, and subjects is included [fr

  1. Electronic and Mechanical Properties of GrapheneGermanium Interfaces Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-27

    that graphene acts as a diffusion barrier to ambient contaminants, as similarly prepared bare Ge exposed to ambient conditions possesses a much...in-plane order underneath the graphene (Figure 1b,f). The stabilization of Ge terraces with half-step heights indicates that the graphene modifies the...Electronic and Mechanical Properties of Graphene −Germanium Interfaces Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition Brian Kiraly,†,‡ Robert M. Jacobberger

  2. Perfomance of a high purity germanium multi-detector telescope for long range particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riepe, G.; Protic, D.; Suekoesd, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Frascaria, N.; Gerlic, E.; Hourani, E.; Morlet, M.

    1980-01-01

    A telescope of stacked high purity germanium detectors designed for long range charged particles was tested using medium energy protons. Particle identification and the rejection of the low energy tail could be accomplished on-line allowing the measurement of complex spectra. The efficiency of the detector stack for protons was measured up to 156 MeV incoming energy. The various factors affecting the energy resolution are discussed and their estimated contributions are compared with the experimental results

  3. Reaction studies of hot silicon and germanium radicals. Progress report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, P.P.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental approach to attaining the goals of this research program is briefly outlined and the progress made in the last year is reviewed in sections entitled: (a) Primary steps in the reaction of recoiling silicon and germanium atoms and the identification of reactive intermediates; (b) Thermally induced silylene and germylene reactions; (c) Silicon free radical chemistry; (d) The role of ionic reactions in the chemistry of recoiling silicon atoms

  4. Reaction studies of hot silicon and germanium radicals. Period covered: September 1, 1977--August 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, P.P.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental approach to attaining the goals of this research program is briefly outlined and the progress made in the last year is reviewed in sections entitled: primary steps in the reaction of recoiling silicon and germanium atoms and the identification of reactive intermediates; thermally induced silylene and germylene reactions; the role of ionic reactions in the chemistry of recoiling silicon atoms and other ion-molecule reactions studies; and silicon free radical chemistry

  5. Self-interstitials and Frenkel pairs in electron-irradiated germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.; Jones, R.; Goss, J.; Janke, C.; Coutinho, J.; Oberg, S.; Briddon, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    First principles calculations were used to study the structures and electrical levels of the self-interstitial in Ge. We considered the possibility of structural changes consequent with change in charge state and show these have important implications in the mobility and electrical activity of the defect. The theoretical model is compared to the results of low temperature electron irradiation in germanium reported in the literature

  6. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium thermistors for sub-mm bolometer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from natural and controlled isotopic composition germanium are reported. The near ideal doping uniformity that can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor preamplifiers led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in ground-based, airborne and spaceborne radio telescopes. These features made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays.

  7. Charge collection performance of a segmented planar high-purity germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J. [Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: R.Cooper@liverpool.ac.uk; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C.; Scraggs, D.P. [Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Dobson, J. [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston PR2 9HT (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-01

    High-precision scans of a segmented planar high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector have been performed with a range of finely collimated gamma ray beams allowing the response as a function of gamma ray interaction position to be quantified. This has allowed the development of parametric pulse shape analysis (PSA) techniques and algorithms for the correction of imperfections in performance. In this paper we report on the performance of this detector, designed for use in a positron emission tomography (PET) development system.

  8. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, Jason A. (Upton, NY); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Ahn, Channing (Pasadena, CA); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA)

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0germanium exhibit a combination of improved capacities, cycle lives, and/or cycling rates compared with similar electrodes made from graphite. These electrodes are useful as anodes for secondary electrochemical cells, for example, batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors.

  9. Nanorods of Silicon and Germanium with Well-Defined Shapes and Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavi C. Sevov

    2012-05-03

    We have made number of important discoveries along the major goals of the project, namely i) electrodeposition of germanium thin films from clusters, ii) synthesis of cluster-based surfactants with long hydrocarbon chains and micelles made of them, iii) grafting of Ge{sub 9}-clusters onto self assembled films of siloxanes attached to glass substrates, iv) doping of Ge{sub 9}-clusters, and v) expanding the clusters to ten-atom cages of Ge{sub 10}{sup 2-}.

  10. Ultralow background germanium gamma-ray spectrometer using superclean materials and cosmic-ray anticoincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, J.H.; Hensley, W.K.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Ryge, P.

    1983-10-01

    Efforts to measure the double beta decay of 76 Ge as predicted by Grand Unified Theories have resulted in the development of a high resolution germanium diode gamma-ray spectrometer with an exceptionally low background. This paper describes the development of this system and how these techniques can be utilized to significantly reduce the background in high resolution photon spectrometers at only a moderate cost

  11. Millimeter-Wave Receiver Concepts for 77 GHz Automotive Radar in Silicon-Germanium Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kissinger, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the analysis and design of integrated automotive radar receivers in Silicon-Germanium technology, for use in complex multi-channel radar transceiver front-ends in the 77GHz frequency band. The main emphasis of the work is the realization of high-linearity and low-power modular receiver channels as well as the investigation of millimeter-wave integrated test concepts for the receiver front-end.

  12. 1-Dodecanethiol based highly stable self-assembled monolayers for germanium passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Qi; Xu, Baojian; Ye, Lin; Di, Zengfeng; Huang, Shanluo; Du, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jishen; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple and effective approach for higly stable germanium passivation. • 1-Dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayers for germanium oxidation resistance. • The influence factors of germanium passivation were systematically studied. • The stability of the passivated Ge was more than 10 days even in water conditions. - Abstract: As a typical semiconductor material, germanium has the potential to replace silicon for future-generation microelectronics, due to its better electrical properties. However, the lack of stable surface state has limited its extensive use for several decades. In this work, we demonstrated highly stable self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Ge surface to prevent oxidization for further applications. After the pretreatment in hydrochloric acid, the oxide-free and Cl-terminated Ge could be further coated with 1-dodecanethiol (NDM) SAMs. The influence factors including reaction time, solvent component and reaction temperature were optimized to obtain stable passivated monolayer for oxidation resistance. Contact angle analysis, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to characterize the functionalized Ge surface respectively. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism and stability of thiols SAMs on Ge (1 1 1) surface were investigated. Finally, highly stable passivated NDM SAMs on Ge surface could be formed through immersing oxide-free Ge in mixture solvent (water/ethanol, v/v = 1:1) at appropriately elevated temperature (∼80 °C) for 24 h. And the corresponding optimized passivated Ge surface was stable for more than 10 days even in water condition, which was much longer than the data reported and paved the way for the future practical applications of Ge.

  13. Characteristic features of the behaviour of deep centers in especially pure germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloriozova, R.I.; Kolesnik, L.I.

    1993-01-01

    Method of capacitive relaxation spectroscopy was used to study spectrum of deep centers in germanium crystals of p-type conductivity with 10 11 -10 13 cm -3 charge carrier concentration, depending on dislocation density and thermal treatment. Existence of two types of centers with 0.24 and 0.32 eV ionization energies, dictating the maximum near 140 K, was established. Change of deep center concentration with time was revealed

  14. 1-Dodecanethiol based highly stable self-assembled monolayers for germanium passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Baojian, E-mail: xbj@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Internet of Things Co., LTD, No. 1455, Pingcheng Road, Shanghai 201899 (China); Ye, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Di, Zengfeng [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Huang, Shanluo; Du, Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Jishen; Jin, Qinghui [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhao, Jianlong, E-mail: jlzhao@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • A simple and effective approach for higly stable germanium passivation. • 1-Dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayers for germanium oxidation resistance. • The influence factors of germanium passivation were systematically studied. • The stability of the passivated Ge was more than 10 days even in water conditions. - Abstract: As a typical semiconductor material, germanium has the potential to replace silicon for future-generation microelectronics, due to its better electrical properties. However, the lack of stable surface state has limited its extensive use for several decades. In this work, we demonstrated highly stable self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Ge surface to prevent oxidization for further applications. After the pretreatment in hydrochloric acid, the oxide-free and Cl-terminated Ge could be further coated with 1-dodecanethiol (NDM) SAMs. The influence factors including reaction time, solvent component and reaction temperature were optimized to obtain stable passivated monolayer for oxidation resistance. Contact angle analysis, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to characterize the functionalized Ge surface respectively. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism and stability of thiols SAMs on Ge (1 1 1) surface were investigated. Finally, highly stable passivated NDM SAMs on Ge surface could be formed through immersing oxide-free Ge in mixture solvent (water/ethanol, v/v = 1:1) at appropriately elevated temperature (∼80 °C) for 24 h. And the corresponding optimized passivated Ge surface was stable for more than 10 days even in water condition, which was much longer than the data reported and paved the way for the future practical applications of Ge.

  15. Calibration curve for germanium spectrometers from solutions calibrated by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Navarro, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Alvarez, A.; Salvador, S.; Diaz, C.

    1996-01-01

    The beta-gamma emitters ''60Co, ''137 Cs, ''131 I, ''210 Pb y ''129 Iare radionuclides for which the calibration by the CIEMAT/NIST method ispossible with uncertainties less than 1%. We prepared, from standardized solutions of these radionuclides, samples in vials of 20 ml. We obtained the calibration curves, efficiency as a function of energy, for two germanium detectors. (Author) 5 refs

  16. On the timing properties of germanium detectors: The centroid diagrams of prompt photopeaks and Compton events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penev, I.; Andrejtscheff, W.; Protochristov, Ch.; Zhelev, Zh.

    1987-01-01

    In the applications of the generalized centroid shift method with germanium detectors, the energy dependence of the time centroids of prompt photopeaks (zero-time line) and of Compton background events reveal a peculiar behavior crossing each other at about 100 keV. The effect is plausibly explained as associated with the ratio of γ-quanta causing the photoeffect and Compton scattering, respectively, at the boundaries of the detector. (orig.)

  17. High temperature dielectric function of silicon, germanium and GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyer, Martin; Pristovsek, Markus; Kneissl, Michael [Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany). Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik

    2010-07-01

    In the last few years accurate values for the optical properties of silicon, germanium and GaN at high temperatures have become important as a reference for in-situ analysis, e.g. reflectometry. Precise temperature dependent dielectric measurements are necessary for the growth of GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells and the hetero epitaxy of GaN on silicon and sapphire. We performed spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements of the dielectric function of silicon, germanium and GaN between 1.5 eV and 6.5 eV in the temperature range from 300 K to 1300 K. The Samples were deoxidized chemically or by heating. High resolution SE spectra were taken every 50 K while cooling down to room temperature. The temperature dependence of the critical energies is compared to literature. Measurements for germanium showed a shift of the E{sub 2} critical point of {proportional_to}0.1 eV toward lower energies. The reason for this behavior is a non-negligible oxide layer on the samples in the literature.

  18. Boron doping compensation of hydrogenated amorphous and polymorphous germanium thin films for infrared detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.; Delgadillo, N.; Torres, A.; Ambrosio, R.; Rosales, P.; Kosarev, A.; Reyes-Betanzo, C.; Hidalga-Wade, J. de la; Zuniga, C.; Calleja, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have studied boron doping of hydrogenated amorphous germanium a-Ge:H and polymorphous germanium (pm-Ge:H) in low regimes, in order to compensate the material from n-type (due to oxygen contamination that commonly occurs during plasma deposition) to intrinsic, and in this manner improve the properties that are important for infrared (IR) detection, as activation energy (E a ) and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Electrical, structural and optical characterization was performed on the films produced. Measurements of the temperature dependence of conductivity, room temperature conductivity (σ RT ), E a and current–voltage characteristics under IR radiation were performed in the compensated a-Ge:H and pm-Ge:H films. Our results demonstrate that, effectively, the values of E a , TCR and IR detection are improved on the a-Ge:H/pm-Ge:H films, using boron doping in low regimes, which results of interest for infrared detectors. - Highlights: • We reported boron doping compensation of amorphous and polymorphous germanium. • The films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • The aim is to use the films as thermo-sensing elements in un-cooled microbolometers. • Those films have advantages over boron doped a-Si:H used in commercial detectors

  19. The electronic and optical properties of germanium tellurite glasses containing various transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Various transition metal oxides, such as TiO 2 , V 2 O 5 , NiO, CuO, and ZnO are added to germanium-tellurite glass and measurements are reported of the electrical conductivity, density, optical absorption, infra-red absorption spectra, and electron spin resonance. It is found that the d.c. conductivity of glasses containing the same amount of V 2 O 5 is higher than that of germanium tellurite glasses containing a similar amount of other transition metal oxides, and is due to hopping between localized states. The optical absorption measurements show that the fundamental absorption edge is a function of glass composition and the optical absorption is due to forbidden indirect transitions. From the infra-red absorption spectra, it is found that the addition of transition metal oxides does not introduce any new absorption band in the infra-red spectrum of germanium tellurite glasses. A small shift of existing absorptions toward higher wave number is observed. The ESR measurements revealed that some transition metal ions are diamagnetic while others are paramagnetic in the glass network. (author)

  20. CDEX-1 1 kg point-contact germanium detector for low mass dark matter searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Kejun; Yue Qian; Wu Yucheng

    2013-01-01

    The CDEX collaboration has been established for direct detection of light dark matter particles, using ultra-low energy threshold point-contact p-type germanium detectors, in China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL). The first 1 kg point-contact germanium detector with a sub-keV energy threshold has been tested in a passive shielding system located in CJPL. The outputs from both the point-contact P + electrode and the outside N + electrode make it possible to scan the lower energy range of less than 1 keV and at the same time to detect the higher energy range up to 3 MeV. The outputs from both P + and N + electrode may also provide a more powerful method for signal discrimination for dark matter experiment. Some key parameters, including energy resolution, dead time, decay times of internal X-rays, and system stability, have been tested and measured. The results show that the 1 kg point-contact germanium detector, together with its shielding system and electronics, can run smoothly with good performances. This detector system will be deployed for dark matter search experiments. (authors)

  1. Boron doping compensation of hydrogenated amorphous and polymorphous germanium thin films for infrared detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M., E-mail: mmoreno@inaoep.mx [National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, INAOE, P.O. Box 51 and 216, Puebla, Z. P. 72840 Puebla (Mexico); Delgadillo, N. [Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Av. Universidad No. 1, Z. P. 90006 Tlaxcala (Mexico); Torres, A. [National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, INAOE, P.O. Box 51 and 216, Puebla, Z. P. 72840 Puebla (Mexico); Ambrosio, R. [Technology and Engineering Institute, Ciudad Juarez University UACJ, Av. Del Charro 450N, Z. P. 32310 Chihuahua (Mexico); Rosales, P.; Kosarev, A.; Reyes-Betanzo, C.; Hidalga-Wade, J. de la; Zuniga, C.; Calleja, W. [National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, INAOE, P.O. Box 51 and 216, Puebla, Z. P. 72840 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-12-02

    In this work we have studied boron doping of hydrogenated amorphous germanium a-Ge:H and polymorphous germanium (pm-Ge:H) in low regimes, in order to compensate the material from n-type (due to oxygen contamination that commonly occurs during plasma deposition) to intrinsic, and in this manner improve the properties that are important for infrared (IR) detection, as activation energy (E{sub a}) and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Electrical, structural and optical characterization was performed on the films produced. Measurements of the temperature dependence of conductivity, room temperature conductivity (σ{sub RT}), E{sub a} and current–voltage characteristics under IR radiation were performed in the compensated a-Ge:H and pm-Ge:H films. Our results demonstrate that, effectively, the values of E{sub a}, TCR and IR detection are improved on the a-Ge:H/pm-Ge:H films, using boron doping in low regimes, which results of interest for infrared detectors. - Highlights: • We reported boron doping compensation of amorphous and polymorphous germanium. • The films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • The aim is to use the films as thermo-sensing elements in un-cooled microbolometers. • Those films have advantages over boron doped a-Si:H used in commercial detectors.

  2. Irradiation induced defects containing oxygen atoms in germanium crystal as studied by deep level transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Noboru; Kambe, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Haruo; Matsuda, Koji.

    1984-05-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy was applied to the electron trapping levels which are associated with the irradiation induced lattice defects in germanium crystals. The germanium crystals used in the study were doped with oxygen, antimony or arsenic and the defects were formed by electron irradiation of 1.5MeV or 10MeV. The nature of so called ''thermal defect'' formed by heat treatment at about 670K was also studied. The trapping levels at Esub(c)-0.13eV, Esub(c)-0.25eV and Esub(c)-0.29eV were found to be associated with defects containing oxygen atoms. From the experimental results the Esub(c)-0.25eV level was attributed to the germanium A-center (interstitial oxygen atom-vacancy pair). Another defect associated with the 715cm -1 infrared absorption band was found to have a trapping level at the same position at Esub(c)-0.25eV. The Esub(c)-0.23eV and Esub(c)-0.1eV levels were revealed to be associated with thermal donors formed by heat treatment at about 670K. Additional two peaks (levels) were observed in the DLTS spectrum. The annealing behavior of the levels suggests that the thermal donors originate from not a single type but several types of defects. (author)

  3. Low temperature synthesis and electrical characterization of germanium doped Ti-based nanocrystals for nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Li-Wei; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tu, Chun-Hao; Wang, Pai-Syuan; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Min-Chen; Huang, Hui-Chun; Gan, Der-Shin; Ho, New-Jin; Chen, Shih-Ching; Chen, Shih-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and electrical characteristics of Ti-based nanocrystals containing germanium, fabricated by annealing the co-sputtered thin film with titanium silicide and germanium targets, were demonstrated for low temperature applications of nonvolatile memory. Formation and composition characteristics of nanocrystals (NCs) at various annealing temperatures were examined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photon-emission spectroscopy, respectively. It was observed that the addition of germanium (Ge) significantly reduces the proposed thermal budget necessary for Ti-based NC formation due to the rise of morphological instability and agglomeration properties during annealing. NC structures formed after annealing at 500 °C, and separated well at 600 °C annealing. However, it was also observed that significant thermal desorption of Ge atoms occurs at 600 °C due to the sublimation of formatted GeO phase and results in a serious decrease of memory window. Therefore, an approach to effectively restrain Ge thermal desorption is proposed by encapsulating the Ti-based trapping layer with a thick silicon oxide layer before 600 °C annealing. The electrical characteristics of data retention in the sample with the 600 °C annealing exhibited better performance than the 500 °C-annealed sample, a result associated with the better separation and better crystallization of the NC structures.

  4. MOVPE growth and characterization of heteroepitaxial germanium on silicon using iBuGe as precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attolini, G. [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze, 37 A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Ponraj, J.S. [University of Information Science and Technology, St Paul the Apostle, Ohrid 6000 (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Frigeri, C.; Buffagni, E.; Ferrari, C. [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze, 37 A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Musayeva, N.; Jabbarov, R. [Research and Development Center for Hi-Technologies, MCIT, Inshaatchilar ave., 2, AZ1073, Baku (Azerbaijan); Institute of Physics, ANAS, H. Javid ave., 33, AZ1143, Baku (Azerbaijan); Bosi, M., E-mail: bosi@imem.cnr.it [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze, 37 A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Germanium layer were deposited on silicon substrates. • A novel metal organic precursor (isobutyl germane) was used. • MOVPE growth process was optimized. • Layers were characterized by TEM, XRD; SEM and AFM. - Abstract: Being an attractive and demanding candidate in the field of energy conversion, germanium has attained widespread applications. The present work is aimed at the study of metal organic vapour phase epitaxy of germanium thin films on (0 0 1) silicon at different growth temperatures using isobutyl germane as a precursor. The epilayers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in order to understand the structural and morphological properties. The films were found to be epitaxially grown and single crystalline with slight misorientation (below 0.1 degrees). The interface between the film and substrate was analyzed in depth and different temperature dependent growth behaviours were evidenced. The major relevant lattice imperfections observed were attributed to planar defects and threading dislocations.

  5. Ion-beam mixing in silicon and germanium at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.J.; Marwick, A.D.; Poker, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Ion-beam mixing of thin marker layers in amorphous silicon and germanium was studied using irradiations with Xe ions at temperatures of 34k and 77k. The marker species, ion energies and doses were: in silicon, markers of Ge and Pt irradiated with 200-keV Xe up to 2.7x10 16 ions cm -2 ; and in germanium, markers of Al and Si bombarded with 295-keV Xe up to 1.63x10 16 ions cm -2 . In silicon, Pt markers were found to broaden at about the same rate at 34k and 77k; and the rate of broadening was similar to that found by other workers when expressed as an efficiency of mixing, i.e., when dependence on ion dose and deposited energy was factored out. However, a Ge marker irradiated at 34k did not broaden from its original thickness. In germanium, markers of both Al and Si were mixed by irradiation at 34k, but at 77k only the Al marker broadened; the Si marker did not. The broadening of the markers is ascribed to ballistic mixing, while the cases where no broadening occurred are explicable if diffusion by a defect mechanism transported displaced marker atoms back to traps near their original sites

  6. Non-local electrical spin injection and detection in germanium at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rortais, F.; Vergnaud, C.; Marty, A.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.; Widiez, J.; Zucchetti, C.; Bottegoni, F.; Jaffrès, H.; George, J.-M.; Jamet, M.

    2017-10-01

    Non-local carrier injection/detection schemes lie at the very foundation of information manipulation in integrated systems. This paradigm consists in controlling with an external signal the channel where charge carriers flow between a "source" and a well separated "drain." The next generation electronics may operate on the spin of carriers in addition to their charge and germanium appears as the best hosting material to develop such a platform for its compatibility with mainstream silicon technology and the predicted long electron spin lifetime at room temperature. In this letter, we demonstrate injection of pure spin currents (i.e., with no associated transport of electric charges) in germanium, combined with non-local spin detection at 10 K and room temperature. For this purpose, we used a lateral spin valve with epitaxially grown magnetic tunnel junctions as spin injector and spin detector. The non-local magnetoresistance signal is clearly visible and reaches ≈15 mΩ at room temperature. The electron spin lifetime and diffusion length are 500 ps and 1 μm, respectively, the spin injection efficiency being as high as 27%. This result paves the way for the realization of full germanium spintronic devices at room temperature.

  7. Bond particle model for semiconductor melts and its application to liquid structure germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, A.; Tosi, M.P.

    1988-08-01

    A simple type of liquid state model is proposed to describe on a primitive level the melt of an elemental group IV semiconductor as a mixture of atoms and bond particles. The latter, on increase of a coupling strength parameter becomes increasingly localized between pairs of atoms up to local tetrahedral coordination of atoms by bond particles. Angular interatomic correlations are built into the model as bond particle localization grows, even though the bare interactions between the components of the liquid are formally described solely in terms of central pair potentials. The model is solved for liquid structure by standard integral equation techniques of liquid state theory and by Monte Carlo simulation, for values of the parameters which are appropriate to liquid germanium down to strongly supercooled states. The calculated liquid structure is compared with the results of diffraction experiments on liquid germanium near freezing and discussed in relation to diffraction data on amorphous germanium. The model suggests simple melting criteria for elemental and polar semiconductors, which are empirically verified. (author). 25 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Segmented Monolithic Germanium Detector Arrays for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, Ethan L.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental results from the Phase I effort were extremely encouraging. During Phase I PHDs Co. made the first strides toward a new detector technology that could have great impact on synchrotron x-ray absorption (XAS) measurements, and x-ray detector technology in general. Detector hardware that allowed critical demonstration measurements of our technology was designed and fabricated. This new technology allows good charge collection from many pixels on a single side of a multi-element monolithic germanium planar detector. The detector technology provides 'dot-like' collection electrodes having very low capacitance. The detector technology appears to perform as anticipated in the Phase I proposal. In particular, the 7-pixel detector studied showed remarkable properties; making it an interesting example of detector physics. The technology is enabled by the use of amorphous germanium contact technology on germanium planar detectors. Because of the scalability associated with the fabrication of these technologies at PHDs Co., we anticipate being able to supply larger detector systems at significantly lower cost than systems made in the conventional manner.

  9. Far-Infrared Magneto-Optical Studies in Germanium and Indium-Antimonide at High Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael

    Observations of nonlinear magneto-optical phenomena occurring in p-type Germanium and n-type Indium Antimonide are reported. These include multi-photon ionization of impurity states, and a new observation, the magneto-photon ionization of impurity states, and a new observation, the magneto-photon drag effect. A novel source of far-infrared radiation has been used. This source uses a pulsed CO(,2) LASER to optically pump a super-radiant cell, generating light with intensities up to 100 KW/cm('2) and wavelengths from 66 (mu)m to 496 (mu)m in a pulse of 150 nanoseconds duration. The Germanium samples were doped with Gallium, which is a shallow acceptor with an ionization potential of 11 meV. At liquid Helium temperature virtually all charge carriers are bound to acceptor sites. However, the high intensity radiation unexpectedly ionizes the acceptors. This is demonstrated through measurements of photoconductivity, transmission and the photo-Hall Effect. This observation is unexpected because the photon energy is one-fourth the ionization potential. Rate equations describing sequential multiphoton excitations are in agreement with the experimental results. The intermediate states are postulated to be acceptor exciton band states. Studies of the photoexcited mobility at 496 (mu)m suggest that at non-saturating levels of photoexcitation, the primary scattering mechanism of hot holes in Germanium is by neutral impurities. A new magneto-optical effect, the magneto-photon drag effect, has been studied in both Germanium and Indium Antimonide. This is simply the absorption of momentum by free carriers, from an incident photon field. It has been found that the mechanism for this effect is different in the two materials. In Germanium, the effect occurs when carriers make optical transitions from the heavy hole band to the light hole band. Thus, the magneto-optical behavior depends heavily upon the band structure. On the other hand, a modified Drude model (independent electron

  10. The GALATEA test facility and a first study of α-induced surface events in a germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irlbeck, Sabine

    2014-01-30

    Germanium detectors are a choice technology in fundamental research. They are suitable for the search for rare events due to their high sensitivity and excellent energy resolution. As an example, the GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is described. The observation of this decay would resolve the fundamental question whether the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Especially adapted detector technologies and low background rates needed to detect very rare events such as neutrinoless double beta decays are discussed. The identification of backgrounds originating from the interaction of radiation, especially α-particles, is a focus of this thesis. Low background experiments face problems from α-particles due to unavoidable surface contaminations of the germanium detectors. The segmentation of detectors is used to obtain information about the special characteristics of selected events. The high precision test stand GALATEA was especially designed for surface scans of germanium detectors. As part of this work, GALATEA was completed and commissioned. The final commissioning required major upgrades of the original design which are described in detail. Collimator studies with two commercial germanium detectors are presented. Different collimation levels for a β-source were investigated and crystal axis effects were examined. The first scan with an α-source of the passivated end-plate of a special 19-fold segmented prototype detector mounted in GALATEA is described. The α-induced surface events were studied and characterized. Crosstalk and mirror pulses seen in the segments of the germanium detector were analyzed. The detector studies presented in this thesis will help to further improve the design of germanium detectors for low background experiments.

  11. The GALATEA test facility and a first study of α-induced surface events in a germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irlbeck, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Germanium detectors are a choice technology in fundamental research. They are suitable for the search for rare events due to their high sensitivity and excellent energy resolution. As an example, the GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is described. The observation of this decay would resolve the fundamental question whether the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Especially adapted detector technologies and low background rates needed to detect very rare events such as neutrinoless double beta decays are discussed. The identification of backgrounds originating from the interaction of radiation, especially α-particles, is a focus of this thesis. Low background experiments face problems from α-particles due to unavoidable surface contaminations of the germanium detectors. The segmentation of detectors is used to obtain information about the special characteristics of selected events. The high precision test stand GALATEA was especially designed for surface scans of germanium detectors. As part of this work, GALATEA was completed and commissioned. The final commissioning required major upgrades of the original design which are described in detail. Collimator studies with two commercial germanium detectors are presented. Different collimation levels for a β-source were investigated and crystal axis effects were examined. The first scan with an α-source of the passivated end-plate of a special 19-fold segmented prototype detector mounted in GALATEA is described. The α-induced surface events were studied and characterized. Crosstalk and mirror pulses seen in the segments of the germanium detector were analyzed. The detector studies presented in this thesis will help to further improve the design of germanium detectors for low background experiments.

  12. Study by optical spectroscopy of the interaction between a hydrogen multi-polar plasma and a gallium arsenide surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand, Robin

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis has been to understand which are the involved species during the deoxidation-passivation stage of the processing of gallium arsenide platelets used in semiconductor industry. The author describes problems related to the presence of oxides, and highlights the benefit of using a hydrogen multi-polar plasma to softly remove surface oxides. The experimental set-up is notably characterised by the role of magnetic confinement and its influence on plasma. A theoretical model is then developed for a better understanding of chemical and physical-chemical reactions occurring in the hydrogen plasma. Based on the use of the Boltzmann equation, the model calculates the electron energy distribution function, and allows the follow-up of species present in the plasma with respect to available and accessible parameters (pressure, discharge current, discharge voltage). A spectroscopic study of the hydrogen plasma is then reported, and the numerical model is validated by interpreting line shapes of the hydrogen Balmer series. A second experimental approach, based on electrostatic probes, is implemented, and the Laframboise theory is applied to this technique and allows electronic and ionic densities, and electron temperature to be determined. Experimental and numerical results are compared. All this leads to the study of the interaction of plasma with a sample, with a first step of study of a mixture plasma containing 85 per cent of hydrogen and 15 per cent of arsine, in order to get a general knowledge of emissions related to the presence of AsH 3 . Finally, interaction studies are performed by using laser-induced fluorescence and conventional space-resolved optical spectroscopy

  13. Electron, hole and exciton self-trapping in germanium doped silica glass from DFT calculations with self-interaction correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jincheng; Rene Corrales, L.; Tsemekhman, Kiril; Bylaska, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to understand the refractive index change in germanium doped silica glasses for the trapped states of electronic excitations induced by UV irradiation. Local structure relaxation and excess electron density distribution were calculated upon self-trapping of an excess electron, hole, and exciton in germanium doped silica glass. The results show that both the trapped exciton and excess electron are highly localized on germanium ion and, to some extent, on its oxygen neighbors. Exciton self-trapping is found to lead to the formation of a Ge E' center and a non-bridging hole center. Electron trapping changes the GeO 4 tetrahedron structure into trigonal bi-pyramid with the majority of the excess electron density located along the equatorial line. The self-trapped hole is localized on bridging oxygen ions that are not coordinated to germanium atoms that lead to elongation of the Si-O bonds and change of the Si-O-Si bond angles. We carried out a comparative study of standard DFT versus DFT with a hybrid PBE0 exchange and correlation functional. The results show that the two methods give qualitatively similar relaxed structure and charge distribution for electron and exciton trapping in germanium doped silica glass; however, only the PBE0 functional produces the self-trapped hole

  14. Methods to improve and understand the sensitivity of high purity germanium detectors for searches of rare events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volynets, Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta-decay could answer fundamental questions on the nature of neutrinos. High purity germanium detectors are well suited to search for this rare process in germanium. Successful operation of such experiments requires a good understanding of the detectors and the sources of background. Possible background sources not considered before in the presently running GERDA high purity germanium detector experiment were studied. Pulse shape analysis using artificial neural networks was used to distinguish between signal-like and background-like events. Pulse shape simulation was used to investigate systematic effects influencing the efficiency of the method. Possibilities to localize the origin of unwanted radiation using Compton back-tracking in a granular detector system were examined. Systematic effects in high purity germanium detectors influencing their performance have been further investigated using segmented detectors. The behavior of the detector response at different operational temperatures was studied. The anisotropy effects due to the crystallographic structure of germanium were facilitated in a novel way to determine the orientation of the crystallographic axes.

  15. Methods to improve and understand the sensitivity of high purity germanium detectors for searches of rare events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volynets, Oleksandr

    2012-07-27

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta-decay could answer fundamental questions on the nature of neutrinos. High purity germanium detectors are well suited to search for this rare process in germanium. Successful operation of such experiments requires a good understanding of the detectors and the sources of background. Possible background sources not considered before in the presently running GERDA high purity germanium detector experiment were studied. Pulse shape analysis using artificial neural networks was used to distinguish between signal-like and background-like events. Pulse shape simulation was used to investigate systematic effects influencing the efficiency of the method. Possibilities to localize the origin of unwanted radiation using Compton back-tracking in a granular detector system were examined. Systematic effects in high purity germanium detectors influencing their performance have been further investigated using segmented detectors. The behavior of the detector response at different operational temperatures was studied. The anisotropy effects due to the crystallographic structure of germanium were facilitated in a novel way to determine the orientation of the crystallographic axes.

  16. Analysis of the dead layer of a detector of germanium with code ultrapure Monte Carlo SWORD-GEANT; Analisis del dead layer de un detector de germanio ultrapuro con el codigo de Monte Carlo SWORDS-GEANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Ortiz, J.; Rodenas, J.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper the use of Monte Carlo code SWORD-GEANT is proposed to simulate an ultra pure germanium detector High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) detector ORTEC specifically GMX40P4, coaxial geometry. (Author)

  17. Determination of frequencies of atomic oscillations along the fourth order symmetry axis in indium arsenide according to thermal diffusion scattering of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, N.S.

    1978-01-01

    Intensity of diffusion scattering of X-rays from the plane of a monocrystal of indium arsenide has been measured on the monochromatized CuKsub(α)-radiation. The samples are made of Cl indium arsenide monocrystal of the n-type with the 1x10 18 cm -3 concentration of carriers in the form of a plate with the polished parallel cut-off with the +-5' accuracy. The investigations have been carried out on the URS-5 IM X-ray diffractometer at room temperature in vacuum. Intensities of thermal diffusion scattering of the second order have been calculated by the two-atomic chain model with different mass and four interaction paramaters. Based upon the analysis of intensity of single-phonon diffusion scattering the curves of frequencies of atomic oscillations along the direction [100] have been determined. The values of frequencies obtained experimentally on the thermal diffusion scattering of X-rays are in a satisfactory agreement with the calculated data. The frequencies obtained are compared with the results of calculation and the analysis of multiphonon spectra of IR-absorption made elsewhere

  18. The establishment of bed type germanium-based whole body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.C.; Sun, C.L.; Yeh, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial germanium detector was installed in a shadow-shield counter for the in-vivo measurement of γ emitters in the body. It is divided into two subparts, automatic liquid nitrogen transfer system and the Ge-based counting system. The automatic liquid nitrogen transfer system and a complete gamma spectroscopy software package were manufactured by EG and G ORTEC company. Some experiments were finished to get the optimum three setting parameters for how to operate the auto liquid nitrogen transfer system in good conditions. The filling interval should be setting at eight hours, the filling time should be setting at ten minutes, and the pressure of dewar should operate in a range from 14 to 26 PSI. The RMC-II phantom that is designed by Canberra company is used as standard man for all kinds of calibrations. The detector has resolutions that are less than 2.5 keV with an average of 1.87 keV for the 60 Co 1.33-MeV γ-ray peak. The efficiency value of thyroid geometry for four different organs is highest in the phantom. The resolution of the Germanium detector for measuring radioactivity in the body that is better than the sodium iodide detector is used to measure the internal depositions of radionuclide mixtures. So, the advantage of the germanium counter can just compensate the disadvantage of the NaI(TI) detector. The qualitative and quantitative analysis for whole body counting can keep in the best conditions if both whole body counters are operated at the same time for routine measurement purpose in the laboratory

  19. A small diameter, flexible, all attitude, self-contained germanium spectrometer. Operator's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordzindki, R.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Reeves, J.H.; Kohli, R.

    1997-05-01

    The end of the Cold War has brought about tremendous changes in the nuclear complex of the Department of Energy. One of the many changes has been the shutdown or decommissioning of many facilities that performed nuclear work. One of the steps in the process of decommissioning a facility involves the decontamination or removal of drain lines or pipes that may have carried radioactive materials at one time. The removal of all these pipes and drain lines to a nuclear disposal facility could be quite costly. It was suggested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that a germanium spectrometer could be built that could fit through straight pipes with a diameter as small as 5.08 cm (2 inches) and pass through curved pipes with a diameter as small as 7.6 cm (3 inches) such as that of a 3-inch p-trap in a drain line. The germanium spectrometer could then be used to simultaneously determine all gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in or surrounding the pipe. By showing the absence of any gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the pipes could then be reused in place or disposed of as non-radioactive material, thus saving significantly in disposal costs. A germanium spectrometer system has been designed by PNNL and fabricated by Princeton Gamma Tech (PGT) that consists of three segments, each 4.84 cm in diameter and about 10 cm in length. Flexible stainless steel bellows were used to connect the segments. Segment 1 is a small liquid nitrogen reservoir. The reservoir is filled with a sponge-like material which enables the detector to be used in any orientation. A Stirling cycle refrigerator is under development which can replace the liquid nitrogen reservoir to provide continuous cooling and operation

  20. Dosimetric properties of germanium doped calcium borate glass subjected to 6 MV and 10 MV X-ray irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Kamarul Bahri, T. N. H.; Wagiran, H.; Hussin, R.; Saeed, M. A.; Hossain, I.; Ali, H.

    2014-10-01

    Germanium doped calcium borate glasses are investigated in term of thermoluminescence properties to seek their possibility to use as glass radiation dosimeter. The samples were exposed to 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams in a dose range of 0.5-4.0 Gy. There is a single and broad thermoluminescence glow curve that exhibits its maximum intensity at about 300 °C. Linear dose response behavior has been found in this dose range for the both photon energies. Effective atomic number, TL sensitivity, and reproducibility have also been studied. It is found that the sensitivity of germanium doped sample at 6 MV is only 1.28% and it is superior to the sensitivity at 10 MV. The reproducibility of germanium doped sample is good with a percentage of relative error less than 10%. The results indicate that this glass has a potential to be used as a radiation dosimetry, especially for application in radiotherapy.

  1. Ultra Shallow Arsenic Junctions in Germanium Formed by Millisecond Laser Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellings, G.; Rosseel, E.; Simoen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Millisecond laser annealing is used to fabricate ultra shallow arsenic junctions in preamorphized and crystalline germanium, with peak temperatures up to 900 degrees C. At this temperature, As indiffusion is observed while yielding an electrically active concentration up to 5.0 x 10(19) cm(-3......) for a junction depth of 31 nm. Ge preamorphization and the consecutive solid phase epitaxial regrowth are shown to result in less diffusion and increased electrical activation. The recrystallization of the amorphized Ge layer during laser annealing is studied using transmission electron microscopy...

  2. Diffusion of E centers in germanium predicted using GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Bracht, H.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations (based on GGA+U approach) are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of donor-vacancy pairs (E centers) in germanium. We conclude that depending upon the Fermi energy,E centers that incorporate for phosphorous and arsenic can form in their neutral, singly negatively or doubly negatively charged states whereas with antimony only the neutral or doubly negatively charged states are predicted. The activation energies of diffusion are compared with recent experimental work and support the idea that smaller donor atoms exhibit higher diffusionactivation energies.

  3. Optical Activation of Germanium Plasmonic Antennas in the Mid-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marco P.; Schmidt, Christian; Sakat, Emilie; Stock, Johannes; Samarelli, Antonio; Frigerio, Jacopo; Ortolani, Michele; Paul, Douglas J.; Isella, Giovanni; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Brida, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Impulsive interband excitation with femtosecond near-infrared pulses establishes a plasma response in intrinsic germanium structures fabricated on a silicon substrate. This direct approach activates the plasmonic resonance of the Ge structures and enables their use as optical antennas up to the mid-infrared spectral range. The optical switching lasts for hundreds of picoseconds until charge recombination redshifts the plasma frequency. The full behavior of the structures is modeled by the electrodynamic response established by an electron-hole plasma in a regular array of antennas.

  4. Satellite structure in Auger and (e,2e) spectra of germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Went, M.R.; Vos, M.; Kheifets, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The interpretation of electron spectroscopy data is often complicated by the presence of satellites. These satellites are either due to different final states reached after the excitation (intrinsic satellites) or due to energy loss experienced by the escaping electron on its way out the target (extrinsic satellites). Unravelling these two contributions in an unambiguous way is difficult. In this paper we compare the intrinsic satellite structures obtained for germanium by two different high-energy spectroscopies: Auger spectroscopy of deep core levels and valence band electron momentum spectroscopy. Despite the different nature of the two probes we find a similar shape of the intrinsic satellites and comparable intensity

  5. A variable temperature cryostat that produces in situ clean-up germanium detector surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.; Cork, C.P.; Landis, D.A.; Xing, J.S.; Friesel, D.L.

    1988-11-01

    Variable temperature cryostats that can maintain germanium detectors at temperatures from 82 K to about 400 K while the thermal shield surrounding the detectors remains much colder when the detectors are warmed have been developed. Cryostats such as these offer the possibility of cryopumping material from the surface of detectors to the colder thermal shield. The diode characteristics of several detectors have shown very significant improvement following thermal cycles up to about 150 K in these cryostats. Important applications for cryostats having this attribute are many. 4 figs

  6. Germanium thermometers in the temperature range .1000K to 4.20K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Sanchez, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity characteristics of two germanium thermometers that proved to be convenient sensors in the temperature range from .100 0 K to 4.2 0 K, are described. Their resistances change from about 8 x 10 5 ohms at .100 0 K to about 100 ohms at 4.2 0 K. The calibration curves were fitted to natural spline functions of order 3 in the whole range of temperatures. These functions give less than half millidegree standard dispersion against 15 millidegree standard dispersion when usual polynomial interpolations are used. It is discussed what spline functions are, and compare the goodness of spline interpolation with polynomial methods [pt

  7. Diffusion of E centers in germanium predicted using GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2011-08-17

    Density functional theory calculations (based on GGA+U approach) are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of donor-vacancy pairs (E centers) in germanium. We conclude that depending upon the Fermi energy,E centers that incorporate for phosphorous and arsenic can form in their neutral, singly negatively or doubly negatively charged states whereas with antimony only the neutral or doubly negatively charged states are predicted. The activation energies of diffusion are compared with recent experimental work and support the idea that smaller donor atoms exhibit higher diffusionactivation energies.

  8. Direct measurement of homogeneously distributed radioactive air contamination with germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, W.

    1990-01-01

    Air contamination by γ emitting radionuclides was measured with a vertically arranged germanium detector, laterally shielded by a lead ring, and calibration factors and detection limits of a number of fission products determined. The possibility of measuring simultaneously existing air and soil contamination by measurements with and without lead shield is described. The change of detection limit of air contamination is presented for different soil contamination levels by the same radionuclide. Calibration factors are given to determine the dose rate on the ground due to air contamination by different radionuclides. (author)

  9. Transmission of germanium poly- and monocrystals for thermal neutrons at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Eid, Y.; Maayouf, R.M.; Abbas, Y.; Habib, N.; Kilany, M.; Ashry, A.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron cross-sections of germanium poly- and monocrystals were measured with two time-of-flight and two double-axis crystal spectrometers. The results were analyzed using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula. The coherent scattering amplitude was determined from the Bragg reflections observed in the cross-section of a polycrystal and the analysis of the neutron diffraction pattern. The incoherent and the thermal diffuse scattering cross-section were estimated from the analysis of the total cross-section data obtained for a monocrystal at different temperatures in the energy range 2 meV to 1 eV. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Transmission of germanium poly- and monocrystals for thermal neutrons at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Eid, Y.; Maayouf, R.M.; Abbas, Y.; Habib, N.; Kilany, M.; Ashry, A.

    Neutron cross-sections of germanium poly- and monocrystals were measured with two time-of-flight and two double-axis crystal spectrometers. The results were analyzed using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula. The coherent scattering amplitude was determined from the Bragg reflections observed in the cross-section of a polycrystal and the analysis of the neutron diffraction pattern. The incoherent and the thermal diffuse scattering cross-section were estimated from the analysis of the total cross-section data obtained for a monocrystal at different temperatures in the energy range 2 meV to 1 eV.

  11. Ge14 Br8 (PEt3 )4 : A Subhalide Cluster of Germanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Tanja; Schrenk, Claudio; Schnepf, Andreas

    2018-04-03

    Heating a metastable solution of Ge I Br to room temperature led to the first structurally characterized metalloid subhalide cluster Ge 14 Br 8 (PEt 3 ) 4 (1). Furthermore 1 can be seen as the first isolated binary halide cluster on the way from Ge I Br to elemental germanium, giving insight into the complex reaction mechanism of its disproportionation reaction. Quantum chemical calculations further indicate that a classical bonding situation is realized within 1 and that the last step of the formation of 1 might include the trapping of GeBr 2 units. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Bulk and surface event identification in p-type germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. T.; Li, H. B.; Wong, H. T.; Agartioglu, M.; Chen, J. H.; Jia, L. P.; Jiang, H.; Li, J.; Lin, F. K.; Lin, S. T.; Liu, S. K.; Ma, J. L.; Sevda, B.; Sharma, V.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Sonay, A.; Yang, S. W.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Yue, Q.; Zhao, W.

    2018-04-01

    The p-type point-contact germanium detectors have been adopted for light dark matter WIMP searches and the studies of low energy neutrino physics. These detectors exhibit anomalous behavior to events located at the surface layer. The previous spectral shape method to identify these surface events from the bulk signals relies on spectral shape assumptions and the use of external calibration sources. We report an improved method in separating them by taking the ratios among different categories of in situ event samples as calibration sources. Data from CDEX-1 and TEXONO experiments are re-examined using the ratio method. Results are shown to be consistent with the spectral shape method.

  13. Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, Christopher T; Trotter, Douglas C; Zortman, William A; Starbuck, Andrew L; Fisher, Moz; Watts, Michael R; Davids, Paul S

    2011-12-05

    We present a compact 1.3 × 4 μm2 Germanium waveguide photodiode, integrated in a CMOS compatible silicon photonics process flow. This photodiode has a best-in-class 3 dB cutoff frequency of 45 GHz, responsivity of 0.8 A/W and dark current of 3 nA. The low intrinsic capacitance of this device may enable the elimination of transimpedance amplifiers in future optical data communication receivers, creating ultra low power consumption optical communications.

  14. Determination of surface recombination velocity and bulk lifetime in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derhacobian, N.; Fine, P.; Walton, J.T.; Wong, Y.K.; Rossington, C.S.; Luke, P.N.

    1993-10-01

    Utility of a noncontact photoconductive decay (PCD) technique is demonstrated in measuring bulk lifetime, τ B , and surface recombination velocity, S, in detector grade silicon and germanium crystals. We show that the simple analytical equations which relate the observed effective lifetimes in PCD transients to τ B and S have a limited range of applicability. The noncontact PCD technique is used to determine the effect of several surface treatments on the observed effective lifetimes in Si and Ge. A degradation of the effective lifetime in Si is reported as result of the growth of a thin layer of native oxide at room temperature under atmospheric conditions

  15. Co-doping with antimony to control phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-02-15

    In germanium, phosphorous and antimony diffuse quickly and as such their transport must be controlled in order to design efficient n-typed doped regions. Here, density functional theory based calculations are used to predict the influence of double donor co-doping on the migration activation energies of vacancy-mediated diffusion processes. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous and antimony were found to be increased significantly when larger clusters involving two donor atoms and a vacancy were formed. These clusters are energetically stable and can lead to the formation of even larger clusters involving a number of donor atoms around a vacancy, thereby affecting the properties of devices.

  16. Experimental Search for Solar Axions via Coherent Primakoff Conversion in a Germanium Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Avignone, F T; Brodzinski, R; Collar, J I; Creswick, R J; Di Gregorio, D E; Farach, H A; Gattone, A O; Guérard, C K; Hasenbalg, F; Huck, H; Miley, H S; Morales, A; Morales, J; Nussinov, S; De Solorzano, A O; Reeves, J H; Villar, J; Zioutas, Konstantin

    1998-01-01

    Results are reported of an experimental search for the unique, rapidly varying temporal pattern of solar axions coherently converting into photons via the Primakoff effect in a single crystal germanium detector. This conversion is predicted when axions are incident at a Bragg angle with a crystalline plane. The analysis of approximately 1.94 kg.yr of data from the 1 kg DEMOS detector in Sierra Grande, Argentina, yields a new laboratory bound on axion-photon coupling of $g_{a\\gamma \\gamma} < 2.7\\cdot 10^{-9}$ GeV$^{-1}$, independent of axion mass up to ~ 1 keV.

  17. Simulation of core-level binding energy shifts in germanium-doped lead telluride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyubin, A.S.; Dedyulin, S.N.; Yashina, L.V.; Shtanov, V.I.

    2007-01-01

    To simulate the changes in core-level binding energies in germanium-doped lead telluride, cluster calculations of the changes in the electrostatic potential at the corresponding centers have been performed. Different locations of the Ge atom in the crystal bulk have been considered: near vacancies, near another dopant site, and near the surface. For calculating the potential in the clusters that model the bulk and the surface of the lead telluride crystal (c-PbTe), the electron density obtained in the framework of the Hartree-Fock and hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods has been used [ru

  18. High-precision efficiency calibration of a high-purity co-axial germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B., E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Souin, J.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guérin, H.; Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Matea, I. [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Bouzomita, H.; Delahaye, P.; Grinyer, G.F.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 CAEN Cedex 5 (France)

    2015-03-11

    A high-purity co-axial germanium detector has been calibrated in efficiency to a precision of about 0.15% over a wide energy range. High-precision scans of the detector crystal and γ-ray source measurements have been compared to Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust the dimensions of a detector model. For this purpose, standard calibration sources and short-lived online sources have been used. The resulting efficiency calibration reaches the precision needed e.g. for branching ratio measurements of super-allowed β decays for tests of the weak-interaction standard model.

  19. Comparison of Response Characteristics of High-Purity Germanium Detectors using Analog Versus Digital Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, S J; Raschke, K

    2004-01-01

    In this article we will discuss some of the results of the response characteristics of High Purity germanium detectors using analog versus digital processing of the signals that are outputted from the detector. The discussion will focus on whether or not there is a significant difference in the response of the detector with digital electronics that it limits the ability of the detection system to get reasonable gamma ray spectrometric results. Particularly, whether or not the performance of the analysis code Pu600 is compromised

  20. Evaluations of the commercial spectrometer systems for safeguards applications using the germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    Safeguards applications require the best spectrometer systems with excellent resolution, stability, and throughput. Instruments must perform well in all the situations and environments. Data communication to the computer should be convenient, fast, and reliable. The software should have all the necessary tools and be ease to use. Portable systems should be small in size, lightweight, and have a long battery life. Nine commercially available spectrometer systems are tested with both the planar and coaxial germanium detectors. Considering the performance of the Digital Signal Processors (DSP), digital-based spectroscopy may be the future of gamma-ray spectroscopy

  1. Dual germanium detector system for the routine assay of low level transuranics in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowell, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    As an outgrowth of previous on soil radioassay, we have developed an automated assay system for determining the transuranic radionuclide content of soils, with particular interest in Pu. The system utilizes two commercial planar intrinsic germanium detectors in opposition. The large area of the detectors (2100 mm 2 ) and the thinness of the detector crystals (7 mm) permit sensitive analysis of the L x ray emission region of the transuranics (13 to 21 keV). With counting times of 5 hours, we obtain detection limits of 241 Am

  2. In-beam measurement of the position resolution of a highly segmented coaxial germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descovich, M.; Lee, I.Y.; Fallon, P.; Cromaz, M.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Radford, D.C.; Vetter, K.; Clark, R.M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Stephens, F.S.; Ward, D.

    2005-01-01

    The position resolution of a highly segmented coaxial germanium detector was determined by analyzing the 2055keV γ-ray transition of Zr90 excited in a fusion-evaporation reaction. The high velocity of the Zr90 nuclei imparted large Doppler shifts. Digital analysis of the detector signals recovered the energy and position of individual γ-ray interactions. The location of the first interaction in the crystal was used to correct the Doppler energy shift. Comparison of the measured energy resolution with simulations implied a position resolution (root mean square) of 2mm in three-dimensions

  3. Measuring Pu in a glove box using portable NaI and germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    A NaI crystal or germanium detector inside a portable lead shield can determine the amount of plutonium in a glove box. The number of counts required are defined and the locations outside the box where the detector needs to be positioned are given. The calculated accuracy for measuring the Pu when these locations are used is within +/-30% for most glove boxes. Other factors that may affect this accuracy, such as γ-ray absorption by glove-box materials, self-absorption by Pu, absorption by equipment in the glove box, and the limits of the counting equipment are also discussed

  4. Mapping the electromagnetic field confinement in the gap of germanium nanoantennas with plasma wavelength of 4.5 micrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandrini, Eugenio; Venanzi, Tommaso; Appugliese, Felice; Badioli, Michela; Giliberti, Valeria; Baldassarre, Leonetta; Biagioni, Paolo; De Angelis, Francesco; Klesse, Wolfgang M.; Scappucci, Giordano; Ortolani, Michele

    2016-09-01

    We study plasmonic nanoantennas for molecular sensing in the mid-infrared made of heavily doped germanium, epitaxially grown with a bottom-up doping process and featuring free carrier density in excess of 1020 cm-3. The dielectric function of the 250 nm thick germanium film is determined, and bow-tie antennas are designed, fabricated, and embedded in a polymer. By using a near-field photoexpansion mapping technique at λ = 5.8 μm, we demonstrate the existence in the antenna gap of an electromagnetic energy density hotspot of diameter below 100 nm and confinement volume 105 times smaller than λ3.

  5. Molybdenum blue reaction and determination of phosphorus in waters containing arsenic, silicon, and germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H.; Rowe, J.J.; Grimaldi, F.S.

    1955-01-01

    Microgram amounts of phosphate are usually determined by the molybdenum blue reaction, but this reaction is not specific for phosphorus. The research established the range of conditions under which phosphate, arsenate, silicate, and germanate give the molybdenum blue reaction for differentiating these elements, and developed a method for the determination of phosphate in waters containing up to 10 p.p.m. of the oxides of germanium, arsenic(V), and silicon. With stannous chloride or 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid as the reducing agent no conditions were found for distinguishing silicate from germanate and phosphate from arsenate. In the recommended procedure the phosphate is concentrated by coprecipitation on aluminum hydroxide, and coprecipitated arsenic, germanium, and silicon are volatilized by a mixture of hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, and hydrobromic acids prior to the determination of phosphate. The authors are able to report that the total phosphorus content of several samples of sea water from the Gulf of Mexico ranged from 0.018 to 0.059 mg. of phosphorus pentoxide per liter of water.

  6. Femtosecond tracking of carrier relaxation in germanium with extreme ultraviolet transient reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Christopher J.; Kraus, Peter M.; Ross, Andrew D.; Zürch, Michael; Cushing, Scott K.; Jager, Marieke F.; Chang, Hung-Tzu; Gullikson, Eric M.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2018-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient reflectivity around the germanium M4 ,5 edge (3 d core-level to valence transition) at 30 eV is advanced to obtain the transient dielectric function of crystalline germanium [100] on femtosecond to picosecond time scales following photoexcitation by broadband visible-to-infrared (VIS/NIR) pulses. By fitting the transient dielectric function, carrier-phonon induced relaxations are extracted for the excited carrier distribution. The measurements reveal a hot electron relaxation rate of 3.2 ±0.2 ps attributed to the X -L intervalley scattering and a hot hole relaxation rate of 600 ±300 fs ascribed to intravalley scattering within the heavy hole (HH) band, both in good agreement with previous work. An overall energy shift of the XUV dielectric function is assigned to a thermally induced band gap shrinkage by formation of acoustic phonons, which is observed to be on a timescale of 4-5 ps, in agreement with previously measured optical phonon lifetimes. The results reveal that the transient reflectivity signal at an angle of 66∘ with respect to the surface normal is dominated by changes to the real part of the dielectric function, due to the near critical angle of incidence of the experiment (66∘-70∘) for the range of XUV energies used. This work provides a methodology for interpreting XUV transient reflectivity near core-level transitions, and it demonstrates the power of the XUV spectral region for measuring ultrafast excitation dynamics in solids.

  7. Consistency check of pulse shape discrimination for broad energy germanium detectors using double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Heng-Ye [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment was built to study fundamental neutrino properties via neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ). 0νββ events are single-site events (SSE) confined to a scale about millimeter. However, most of backgrounds are multi-site events (MSE). Broad Energy Germanium detectors (BEGes) offer the potential merits of improved pulse shape recognition efficiencies of SSE/MSE. They allow us to reach the goal of Phase II with a background index of 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) in the ROI. BEGe detectors with a total target mass of 3.63 kg have been installed to the Gerda setup in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in July 2012 and are collecting data since. A consistency check of the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) efficiencies by comparison of calibration data and 2νββ data will be presented. The PSD power of these detectors is demonstrated.

  8. GeMini: The Next Generation Mechanically-Cooled Germanium Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, M.

    2008-01-01

    The next-generation mechanically-cooled germanium spectrometer has been developed. GeMini (GErmanium MINIature spectrometer) has been designed to bring high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy to a range of demanding field environments. Intended applications include short-notice and surprise inspections where positive nuclide identification of radioactive materials is required. GeMini weighs 2.75 kg (6 lbs) total including the detector, cryostat, cryocooler, batteries, electronics and readout. It is very low power allowing it to operate for 10 hours on a single set of rechargeable batteries. This instrument employs technology adapted from the gamma-ray spectrometer currently flying on NASA's Mercury MESSENGER spacecraft. Specifically, infrared shielding techniques allow for a vast reduction of thermal load. This in turn allows for a smaller, lighter-weight design, well-suited for a hand-held instrument. Two working prototypes have been built and tested in the lab. The target energy resolution is 3 keV fwhm or better for 1332 keV gamma-rays. The detectors currently achieve around 4.5 keV resolution, which is slightly higher than our goal due to microphonic noise. Our present work focuses on improving the resolution through mechanical and electronic means of reducing the microphonic noise. This paper will focus on the performance of the instrument and its applicability for inspectors in the field

  9. GeMini: The Next-Generation Mechanically-Cooled Germanium Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, M

    2008-11-12

    The next-generation mechanically-cooled germanium spectrometer has been developed. GeMini (MINIature GErmanium spectrometer) has been designed to bring high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy to a range of demanding field environments. Intended applications include short-notice inspections, border patrol, port monitoring and emergency response, where positive nuclide identification of radioactive materials is required but power and liquid cryogen are not easily available. GeMini weighs 2.75 kg for the basic instrument and 4.5 kg for the full instrument including user interface and ruggedized hermetic packaging. It is very low power allowing it to operate for 10 hours on a single set of rechargeable batteries. This instrument employs technology adapted from the gamma-ray spectrometer currently flying on NASA's Mercury MESSENGER spacecraft. Specifically, infrared shielding techniques allow for a vast reduction of thermal load. This in turn allows for a smaller, lighter-weight design, well-suited for a hand-held instrument. Three working prototypes have been built and tested in the lab. The measured energy resolution is 3 keV fwhm at 662 keV gamma-rays. This paper will focus on the design and performance of the instrument.

  10. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, S.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is building the Majorana Demonstrator, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c² mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the Majorana Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

  11. Experimental test of the background rejection, through imaging capability, of a highly segmented AGATA germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doncel, M.; Recchia, F.; Quintana, B.; Gadea, A.; Farnea, E.

    2010-01-01

    The development of highly segmented germanium detectors as well as the algorithms to identify the position of the interaction within the crystal opens the possibility to locate the γ-ray source using Compton imaging algorithms. While the Compton-suppression shield, coupled to the germanium detector in conventional arrays, works also as an active filter against the γ rays originated outside the target, the new generation of position sensitive γ-ray detector arrays has to fully rely on tracking capabilities for this purpose. In specific experimental conditions, as the ones foreseen at radioactive beam facilities, the ability to discriminate background radiation improves the sensitivity of the gamma spectrometer. In this work we present the results of a measurement performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) aiming the evaluation of the AGATA detector capabilities to discriminate the origin of the γ rays on an event-by-event basis. It will be shown that, exploiting the Compton scattering formula, it is possible to track back γ rays coming from different positions, assigning them to specific emitting locations. These imaging capabilities are quantified for a single crystal AGATA detector.

  12. Comparative Study of Phase Transformation in Single-Crystal Germanium during Single and Cyclic Nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kosai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal germanium is a semiconductor material which shows complicated phase transformation under high pressure. In this study, new insight into the phase transformation of diamond-cubic germanium (dc-Ge was attempted by controlled cyclic nanoindentation combined with Raman spectroscopic analysis. Phase transformation from dc-Ge to rhombohedral phase (r8-Ge was experimentally confirmed for both single and cyclic nanoindentation under high loading/unloading rates. However, compared to single indentation, double cyclic indentation with a low holding load between the cycles caused more frequent phase transformation events. Double cyclic indentation caused more stress in Ge than single indentation and increased the possibility of phase transformation. With increase in the holding load, the number of phase transformation events decreased and finally became less than that under single indentation. This phenomenon was possibly caused by defect nucleation and shear accumulation during the holding process, which were promoted by a high holding load. The defect nucleation suppressed the phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge, and shear accumulation led to another phase transformation pathway, respectively. A high holding load promoted these two phenomena, and thus decreased the possibility of phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge.

  13. Fabrication of Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium Thin Layer Film and ItsCharacterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus-Santoso; Lely-Susita RM; Tjipto-Sujitno

    2000-01-01

    Fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous Germanium thin film by vacuumevaporation method and then deposition with hydrogen atom by glow dischargeplasma radio frequency has been done. This germanium amorphous (a-Ge) thinfilm involves a lot of dangling bonds in the network due to the irregularityof the atomic structures and it will decrease is conductivity. To improve theband properties of (a-Ge) thin film layer a hydrogenated plasma isintroduced. Process of introducing of the hydrogen into the a-Ge film is meanto reduce the dangling bonds so that the best electric conductivity of a Ge:Hthin film will obtained. To identify the hydrogen atom in the sample acharacterization using infrared spectrometer has been done, as well as themeasurement of conductivity of the samples. From the characterization usinginfrared spectroscopy the existence of hydrogen atom was found at absorptionpeak with wave number 1637.5 cm -1 , while the optimum conductivity of thesample 1634.86 Ω -1 cm -1 was achieved at 343 o K. (author)

  14. Optical spectroscopic characterization of amorphous germanium carbide materials obtained by X-Ray Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Antoniotti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous germanium carbides have been prepared by X-ray activated Chemical Vapor Deposition from germane/allene systems. The allene percentage and irradiation time (total dose were correlated to the composition, the structural features, and the optical coefficients of the films, as studied by IR and UV-VIS spectroscopic techniques. The materials composition is found to change depending on both the allene percentage in the mixture and the irradiation time. IR spectroscopy results indicate that the solids consist of randomly bound networks of carbon and germanium atoms with hydrogen atoms terminating all the dangling bonds. Moreover, the elemental analysis results, the absence of both unsaturated bonds and CH3 groups into the solids and the absence of allene autocondensation reactions products, indicate that polymerization reactions leading to mixed species, containing Ge-C bonds, are favored. Eopt values around 3.5 eV have been found in most of the cases, and are correlated with C sp3-bonding configuration. The B1/2 value, related to the order degree, has been found to be dependent on solid composition, atoms distribution in the material and hydrogenation degree of carbon atoms.

  15. Lithium effects on the mechanical and electronic properties of germanium nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Macías, A.; Salazar, F.; Miranda, A.; Trejo-Baños, A.; Pérez, L. A.; Carvajal, E.; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2018-04-01

    Semiconductor nanowire arrays promise rapid development of a new generation of lithium (Li) batteries because they can store more Li atoms than conventional crystals due to their large surface areas. During the charge-discharge process, the electrodes experience internal stresses that fatigue the material and limit the useful life of the battery. The theoretical study of electronic and mechanical properties of lithiated nanowire arrays allows the designing of electrode materials that could improve battery performance. In this work, we present a density functional theory study of the electronic band structure, formation energy, binding energy, and Young’s modulus (Y) of hydrogen passivated germanium nanowires (H-GeNWs) grown along the [111] and [001] crystallographic directions with surface and interstitial Li atoms. The results show that the germanium nanowires (GeNWs) with surface Li atoms maintain their semiconducting behavior but their energy gap size decreases when the Li concentration grows. In contrast, the GeNWs can have semiconductor or metallic behavior depending on the concentration of the interstitial Li atoms. On the other hand, Y is an indicator of the structural changes that GeNWs suffer due to the concentration of Li atoms. For surface Li atoms, Y stays almost constant, whereas for interstitial Li atoms, the Y values indicate important structural changes in the GeNWs.

  16. Reactivity of silicon and germanium doped CNTs toward aromatic sulfur compounds: A theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galano, Annia; Francisco-Marquez, Misaela

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption processes of thiophene and benzothiophene on pristine carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and on CNTs doped with Si or Ge, have been modeled with Density Functional. This is the first study on the chemical reactivity of such doped tubes. The calculated data suggest that the presence of silicon or germanium atoms in CNTs increases their reactivity toward thiophene, and benzothiophene. The adsorption of these species on pristine CNTs seems very unlikely to occur, while the addition products involving doped CNTs were found to be very stable, with respect to the isolated reactants, in terms of Gibbs free energy. Several of these adsorption processes were found to be significantly exergonic (ΔG < 0) in non-polar liquid phase. The results reported in this work suggest that Si and Ge defects on CNTs increase their reactivity toward unsaturated species, and could make them useful in the removal processes of aromatic sulfur compounds from oil-hydrocarbons. However, according to our results, CNTs doped with Si atoms are expected to be more efficient as aromatic sulfur compounds scavengers than those doped with Ge. These results also suggest that the presence of silicon and germanium atoms in the CNTs structures enhances their reactivity toward nucleophilic molecules, compared to pristine carbon nanotubes

  17. Surface passivation of high-purity germanium gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Edmondson, M.; Lawson, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental work consists of two parts. The first involves fabrication of hyper-pure germanium gamma ray detectors using standard surface treatment, chemical etchings and containment in a suitable cryostat. Then, after cooling the detectors to 77 K, γ-ray emissions from radioisotopes are resolved, resolution, depletion depth, V R versus I R characteristics and /N A -N D / of the germanium are measured. The second part of the work involves investigation of surface states in an effort to achieve long-term stability of operating characteristics. Several methods are used: plasma hydrogenation, a-Si and a-Ge pinch-off effect and simple oxidation. A-Ge and a-Si thicknesses were measured using Rutherford backscattering techniques; surface states were measured with deep level transient spectroscopy and diode reverse current versus reverse voltage plots. Some scanning electron microscope measurements were used in determining major film contaminants during backscattering of a-Si and a-Ge films. Surface passivation studies revealed unexpected hole trapping defects generated when a-Ge:H film is applied. The a-Si:H films were found to be mechanically strong, no defect traps were found and preliminary results suggest that such films will be good passivants. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs., 13 ills

  18. Thermoluminescence study of aluminium oxide doped germanium prepared by combustion synthesis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharin Nurul Syazlin Binti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the optimum concentration of germanium (Ge dopant in aluminium oxide (AhO3 samples prepared by combustion synthesis (CS method for thermoluminescence (TL studies. The samples were prepared at various Ge concentration i.e. 1 to 5% mol. The phase formation of un-doped and Ge-doped Al2O3 samples was determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD. The sharp peaks present in the XRD pattern confirms the crystallinity of the samples. The samples were then exposed to 50 Gy Cobalt-60 sources (Gamma cell 220. TL glow curves were measured and recorded using a Harshaw Model 3500 TLD reader. Comparison of TL peaks were observed to obtain the best composition of Ge dopants. A simple glow curves TL peak at around 175̊C for all composition samples was observed. It was also found that the composition of aluminium oxide doped with 3.0% of germanium exhibits the highest thermoluminescence (TL intensity which is 349747.04 (a.u.

  19. Theoretical study of the localization-delocalization transition in amorphous molybdenum-germanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, K.; Andersen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations were performed for amorphous germanium and amorphous alloys of molybdenum and germanium. The calculations used Harrison's universal linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals parameters to generate one-electron Hamiltonians for structural configurations obtained from molecular-dynamics simulations. The density of states calculated for a model of a-Ge showed a distinct pseudogap, although with an appreciable density of states at the minimum. The states in the pseudogap are localized. As the concentration of Mo atoms increases, the pseudogap of the density of states is gradually filled up. The density of states at the Fermi energy calculated for our model of the alloys agrees quite well with that experimentally determined by Yoshizumi, Geballe, and co-workers. The localization index for the states at the Fermi energy is a decreasing function of Mo concentration in the range of 2--14 at. % Mo and the localization length is an increasing function of molybdenum concentration. These results are consistent with the experimental observation of an insulator-metal transition at about 10 at. % Mo

  20. Thermodynamic calculations of self- and hetero-diffusion parameters in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltas, V.; Vallianatos, F.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the diffusion coefficients of n- and p-type dopants (P, As, Sb, Al) and self-diffusion in crystalline germanium are calculated from the bulk elastic properties of the host material based on the cBΩ thermodynamic model. The calculated diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature and the activation enthalpies prove to be in full agreement with the reported experimental results. Additional point defect parameters such as activation entropy, activation volume and activation Gibbs free energy are also calculated for each diffusing element. The pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in germanium is also verified at high temperatures (876 K–1086 K), in agreement with reported results ranging from ambient pressure up to 600 MPa and is further calculated at pressures up to 3 GPa, where the phase transition to Ge II occurs. - Highlights: • Calculation of diffusivities of n- and p-type dopants in Ge from elastic properties. • Calculation of point defect parameters according to the cBΩ thermodynamic model. • Prediction of the pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in Ge

  1. Annealing effect on spin density of broken bonds and on the structure of amorphous germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhan'ko, F.N.; Okunev, V.D.; Samojlenko, Z.A.

    1989-01-01

    Dependence of volumetric spin density of broken bonds in a-Ge films, produced by cathode sputtering in argon, on the annealing temperature is investigated by ESR method. The film structure is controlled by the X-ray method. Two ESR lines with g=2.019 and g=2.003, their intensities changing non-monotonously with annealing temperature are observed. The line with g=2.019 is typical of only amorphous germanium state, and the line with g=2.003 is preserved after film crystallization. Under comparison of results with structural data a conclusion is made that the observed lines in ESR spectra are linked with broken bonds in peripheral regions of two types of clusters. The line with g=2.003 is conditioned by broken bonds in the peripheral cluster regions with standard cubic atom packing and the line with g=2.019 is linked with clusters of hexagonal type which is not typical of crystalline germanium standard structure

  2. A high resolution germanium detector array for hypernuclear studies at PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleser, Sebastian; Sanchez Lorente, Alicia; Steinen, Marcell [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Gerl, Juergen; Kojouharov, Ivan [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Iazzi, Felice [Politecnico, Torino, Turin (Italy); INFN, Torino, Turin (Italy); Pochodzalla, Josef; Rittgen, Kai; Sahin, Cihan [Institute for Nuclear Physics, JGU Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The PANDA experiment, planned at the FAIR facility in Darmstadt, aims at the high resolution γ-spectroscopy of double Λ hypernuclei. For this purpose a devoted detector setup is required, consisting of a primary nuclear target, an active secondary target and a germanium detector array for the γ-spectroscopy. Due to the limited space within the PANDA detector a compact design is required. In particular the conventional LN{sub 2} cooling system must be replaced by an electro-mechanical device and a new arrangement of the crystals is needed. This poster shows the ongoing development of the germanium detectors. Test measurements of a single crystal prototype with an improved cooling concept are shown. Thermal simulations for a triple crystal detector are presented. Aditionally studies of the optimization of the detector arrangement inside the PANDA barrel spectrometer are shown. Finally the status on digital pulse shape analysis is presented which will be necessary to deal with high counting rates and to recover the high original energy resolution in case of neutron damage.

  3. A high resolution germanium detector array for hypernuclear studies at PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleser, Sebastian; Sanchez Lorente, Alicia; Steinen, Marcell [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Gerl, Juergen; Kojouharova, Jasmina; Kojouharov, Ivan [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Iazzi, Felice [Politecnico, Torino (Italy); INFN, Torino (Italy); Pochodzalla, Josef; Rittgen, Kai; Sahin, Cihan [Institute for Nuclear Physics, JGU Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment, planned at the FAIR facility in Darmstadt, aims at the high resolution γ-spectroscopy of double Λ hypernuclei. For this purpose a devoted detector setup is required, consisting of a primary nuclear target, an active secondary target and a germanium detector array for the γ-spectroscopy. Due to the limited space within the PANDA detector a compact design is required. In particular the conventional LN{sub 2} cooling system must be replaced by an electro mechanical device and a new arrangement of the crystals is needed. This presentation shows the progress in the development of the germanium detectors. First results of in-beam measurements at COSY with a new electro mechanically cooled single crystal prototype are presented. Digital pulse shape analysis is used to disentangle pile up events due to the high event rate. This analysis technique also allows to recover the high original energy resolution in case of neutron damage. Finally the status of the new triple crystal detector prototype is given.

  4. The roles of the temperature on the structural and electronic properties of deep-level V{sub As}V{sub Ga} defects in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Deming, E-mail: xautmdm@163.com; Chen, Xi; Qiao, Hongbo; Shi, Wei; Li, Enling

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The energy gap of the Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} is 0.82 eV. • Proves that the Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} belongs to EL2 deep-level defect in GaAs. • Proves that EL2 and EL6 deep-level defects can transform into each other. • Temperature has an important effect on the microstructure of deep-level defects. - Abstract: The roles of temperature on the structural and electronic properties of V{sub As}V{sub Ga} defects in gallium arsenide have been studied by using ab-initio molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. Our calculated results show that the relatively stable quaternary complex defect of Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} can be converted from the V{sub As}V{sub Ga} complex clusters defect between 300 K and 1173 K; however, from 1173 K to 1373 K, the decomposition of the complex defect Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} occurs, turning into a deep-level V{sub As}V{sub Ga} cluster defect and an isolated As{sub Ga} antisite defect, and relevant defect of Ga{sub As} is recovered. The properties of Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} defect has been studied by first-principles calculations based on hybrid density functional theory. Our calculated results show that the Ga{sub As}As{sub Ga}V{sub As}V{sub Ga} belongs to EL2 deep-level defect in GaAs. Thus, we reveal that the temperature has an important effect on the microstructure of deep-level defects and defect energy level in gallium arsenide that EL2 and EL6 deep-level defects have a certain correlation, which means they could transform into each other. Controlling temperature in the growth process of GaAs could change the microstructure of deep-level defects and defect energy levels in gallium arsenide materials, whereby affects the electron transport properties of materials.

  5. First 10 kg of naked Germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen installed in the GENIUS-Test-Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Chkvorets, O.; Krivosheina, I.V.; Strecker, H.; Tomei, C.

    2003-01-01

    The first four naked high-purity Germanium detectors were installed successfully in liquid nitrogen in the GENIUS-Test-Facility in the GRAN SASSO Underground Laboratory on May 5, 2003. This is the first time ever that this novel technique aiming at extreme background reduction in search for rare decays is going to be tested underground. First operational parameters are presented

  6. Geometrical and band-structure effects on phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional germanium nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Mori, S.; Morioka, N.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2014-01-01

    We calculated the phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional [001], [110], [111], and [112]-oriented germanium nanowires, and the hole transport characteristics were investigated. A tight-binding approximation was used for holes, and phonons were described by a valence force field model. Then, scattering probability of holes by phonons was calculated taking account of hole-phonon interaction atomistically, and the linearized Boltzmann's transport equation was solved to calculate the hole mobility at low longitudinal field. The dependence of the hole mobility on nanowire geometry was analyzed in terms of the valence band structure of germanium nanowires, and it was found that the dependence was qualitatively reproduced by considering an average effective mass and the density of states of holes. The calculation revealed that [110] germanium nanowires with large height along the [001] direction show high hole mobility. Germanium nanowires with this geometry are also expected to exhibit high electron mobility in our previous work, and thus they are promising for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) applications

  7. Study of current instabilities in high resistivity gallium arsenide; Etude des instabilites de courant dans l'arseniure de gallium de haute resistivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraud, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    We have shown the existence and made a study of the current oscillations produced in high-resistivity gallium arsenide by a strong electric field. The oscillations are associated with the slow travelling of a region of high electrical field across the whole sample. An experimental study of the properties of these instabilities has made it possible for us to distinguish this phenomenon from the Gunn effect, from acoustic-electric effects and from contact effects. In order to account for this type of instability, a differential trapping mechanism involving repulsive impurities is proposed; this mechanism can reduce the concentration of charge carriers in the conduction band at strong electrical fields and can lead to the production of a high-field domain. By developing this model qualitatively we have been able to account for all the properties of high-resistance gallium arsenide crystals subjected to a strong electrical field: increase of the Hall constant, existence of a voltage threshold for these oscillations, production of domains of high field, low rate of propagation of these domains, and finally the possibility of inverting the direction of the propagation of the domain without destroying the latter. A quantitative development of the model makes it possible to calculate the various characteristic parameters of these instabilities. Comparison with experiment shows that there is a good agreement, the small deviations coming especially from the lack of knowledge concerning transport properties in gallium arsenide subjected to high fields. From a study of this model, it appears that the instability phenomenon can occur over a wide range of repulsive centre concentrations, and also for a large range of resistivities. This is the reason why it appears systematically in gallium arsenide of medium and high resistivity. (authors) [French] Nous avons mis en evidence et etudie des oscillations de courant qui se produisent a champ electrique eleve dans l'arseniure de

  8. Evaluation of Segmented Amorphous-Contact Planar Germanium Detectors for Heavy-Element Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emily G.

    The challenge of improving our understanding of the very heaviest nuclei is at the forefront of contemporary low-energy nuclear physics. In the last two decades, "in-beam" spectroscopy experiments have advanced from Z=98 to Z=104, Rutherfordium, allowing insights into the dynamics of the fission barrier, high-order deformations, and pairing correlations. However, new detector technologies are needed to advance to even heavier nuclei. This dissertation is aimed at evaluating one promising new technology; large segmented planar germanium wafers for this area of research. The current frontier in gamma-ray spectroscopy involves large-volume (>9 cm thick) coaxial detectors that are position sensitive and employ gamma-ray "tracking". In contrast, the detectors assessed in this dissertation are relatively thin (~1 cm) segmented planar wafers with amorphous-germanium strip contacts that can tolerate extremely high gamma-ray count rates, and can accommodate hostile neutron fluxes. They may be the only path to heavier "in-beam" spectroscopy with production rates below 1 nanobarn. The resiliency of these detectors against neutron-induced damage is examined. Two detectors were deliberately subjected to a non-uniform neutron fluence leading to considerable degradation of performance. The neutrons were produced using the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction at the UMass Lowell Van-de-Graaff accelerator with a 3.7-MeV proton beam incident on a natural Li target. The energy of the neutrons emitted at zero degrees was 2.0 MeV, close to the mean energy of the fission neutron spectrum, and each detector was exposed to a fluence >3.6 x109 n/cm2. A 3-D software "trap-corrector" gain-matching algorithm considerably restored the overall performance. Other neutron damage mitigation tactics were explored including over biasing the detector and flooding the detector with a high gamma-ray count rate. Various annealing processes to remove neutron damage were investigated. An array of very large diameter

  9. Gallium arsenide injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.B.

    1975-01-01

    The semiconductor injection laser includes a thin inner GaAs p-n junction layer between two outer GaAlAs layers which are backed by further thin outer GaAlAs layers with a heavier doping of AlAs. This reduces optical losses. Optical energy is further confined within the inner layers and the lasing threshold reduced by added outer GaAs layers of low electrical and thermal resistivity

  10. Indium Arsenide Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal

    -ray diffraction. InAs NWs can be used in a broad range of applications, including detectors, high speed electronics and low temperature transport measurements, but in this thesis focus will be put on biological experiments on living cells. Good control of Au-assisted InAs NW growth has been achieved......This thesis is about growth of Au-assisted and self-assisted InAs nanowires (NWs). The wires are synthesized using a solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system and characterized with several techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x...... by a systematic study to optimize the growth conditions; first the Au deposition, then the growth temperature and finally the beam fluxes. For further control of the growth, Au droplets have been positioned with electron beam lithography and large scale arrays with a > 99 % yield have been made on 2 inch...

  11. Phonon Anharmonicity of Germanium in the Temperature Range 80-880 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelin, G; Nilsson, G

    1974-06-15

    Phonon frequency shifts and line widths in germanium have been studied in the temperature range 80 - 880 K by means of thermal neutron spectrometry. The results cannot be described in terms of the quasiharmonic approximation in which phonon frequencies are solely volume dependent. Theoretical calculations are found to be more satisfactory for the Raman frequency than for most other modes. A good account of the observed shifts is given by a proposal due to Barron according to which the relative frequency renormalization of a crystal is proportional to the total harmonic vibrational energy. An analysis of the gradients of measured dispersion relations in the principal symmetry directions at 80 K is presented. It is shown that accidental degeneracies may influence the dispersion

  12. Formation of various types of nanostructures on germanium surface by nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolutskiy, S. I.; Khasaya, R. R.; Khomich, Yu V.; Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes the formation of micro- and nanostructures in different parts of irradiation zone on germanium surface by multiple action of nanosecond pulses of ArF-laser. It proposes a simple method using only one laser beam without any optional devices and masks for surface treatment. Hexa- and pentagonal cells with submicron dimensions along the surface were observed in peripheral zone of irradiation spot by atomic-force microscopy. Nanostructures in the form of bulbs with rounded peaks with lateral sizes of 40-120 nm were obtained in peripheral low-intensity region of the laser spot. Considering experimental data on material processing by nanosecond laser pulses, a classification of five main types of surface reliefs formed by nanosecond laser pulses with energy density near or slightly above ablation threshold was proposed.

  13. First results of neutrinoless double beta decay search with the GERmanium Detector Array "GERDA"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicskó Csáthy, József

    2014-06-01

    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is the most powerful approach to the fundamental question if the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own anti-particle. The observation of the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta decay would establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Until now neutrinoless double beta decay was not observed. The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA is a double beta decay experiment located at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy. GERDA operates bare Ge diodes enriched in 76Ge in liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. The exposure accumulated adds up to 21.6 kg· yr with a background level of 1.8 · 10-2 cts/(keV·kg·yr). The results of the Phase I of the experiment are presented and the preparation of the Phase II is briefly discussed.

  14. An Experimental Study of the Accuracy of Compensation in Lithium Drifted Germanium Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, A; Malmsten, B

    1969-10-15

    The nature and magnitude of the space charge existing in the compensated layer of lithium drifted germanium detectors has been studied as a function of drifted depth and of the electric field applied during drift. Experimental values were obtained from the dependence of detector capacitance on applied bias. In most cases there was a linear space charge gradient in the compensated layer. When small electric fields were applied to deep compensated layers, the space charge became constant throughout a large part of the compensated layer. There is some evidence for a strong decrease of mobile carrier recombination lifetime with increasing drifted depth, possibly down to a few microseconds for drifted depths of the order of 7 mm. The experimental results of the investigation are to a large extent in good agreement with theory.

  15. Influence of silicon dangling bonds on germanium thermal diffusion within SiO{sub 2} glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba, D.; Martin, F.; Ross, G. G. [INRS Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications, 1650 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Cai, R. S.; Wang, Y. Q. [The Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Demarche, J.; Terwagne, G. [LARN, Centre de Recherche en Physique de la Matière et du Rayonnement (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Rosei, F. [INRS Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications, 1650 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Center for Self-Assembled Chemical Structures, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6 (Canada)

    2014-03-17

    We study the influence of silicon dangling bonds on germanium thermal diffusion within silicon oxide and fused silica substrates heated to high temperatures. By using scanning electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, we determine that the lower mobility of Ge found within SiO{sub 2}/Si films can be associated with the presence of unsaturated SiO{sub x} chemical bonds. Comparative measurements obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that 10% of silicon dangling bonds can reduce Ge desorption by 80%. Thus, the decrease of the silicon oxidation state yields a greater thermal stability of Ge inside SiO{sub 2} glass, which could enable to considerably extend the performance of Ge-based devices above 1300 K.

  16. Radiation defects in Te-implanted germanium. Electron microscopy and computer simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalitzova, M.G.; Karpuzov, D.S.; Pashov, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observation of radiation damage induced by heavy ion implantation in crystalline germanium by means of high-resolution electron microscopy is reported. The dark-field lattice imaging mode is used, under conditions suitable for object-like imaging. Conventional TEM is used for estimating the efficiency of creating visibly damaged regions. Heavy ion damage clusters with three types of inner structure are observed: with near-perfect crystalline cores, and with metastable and stable amorphous cores. The MARLOWE computer code is used to simulate the atomic collision cascades and to obtain the lateral spread distributions of point defects created. A comparison of high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) with computer simulation results shows encouraging agreement for the average cluster dimensions and for the lateral spread of vacancies and interstitials. (author)

  17. Formation of microcrystalline germanium (μc-Ge:H) films from inductively coupled plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Y.; Makihara, K.; Higashi, S.; Miyazaki, S.

    2005-01-01

    Inductively coupled RF plasma of H 2 -diluted GeH 4 gas was applied to the growth of hydrogenated microcrystalline germanium (μc-Ge:H) films on quartz in a reactor with an external single-turn antenna placed on quartz plate window parallel to the substrate. The deposition rate, the crystallinity and the thickness of an amorphous incubation layer formed in the early stages of the film growth were evaluated as functions of GeH 4 concentration, gas flow rate, substrate temperature and the distance between the antenna and the grounded substrate susceptor. We demonstrated the growth of highly crystalized Ge films at a rate as high as 0.9 nm/s at 250 deg. C using a 8.3% GeH 4 diluted with H 2

  18. A segmented, enriched N-type germanium detector for neutrinoless double beta-decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviner, L. E.; Aalseth, C. E.; Ahmed, M. W.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, H. O.; Barabash, A. S.; Boswell, M.; De Braeckeleer, L.; Brudanin, V. B.; Chan, Y.-D.; Egorov, V. G.; Elliott, S. R.; Gehman, V. M.; Hossbach, T. W.; Kephart, J. D.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Lesko, K. T.; Li, Jingyi; Mei, D.-M.; Mikhailov, S.; Miley, H.; Radford, D. C.; Reeves, J.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Umatov, V. I.; Underwood, T. A.; Tornow, W.; Wu, Y. K.; Young, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present data characterizing the performance of the first segmented, N-type Ge detector, isotopically enriched to 85% 76Ge. This detector, based on the Ortec PT6×2 design and referred to as SEGA (Segmented, Enriched Germanium Assembly), was developed as a possible prototype for neutrinoless double beta-decay measurements by the MAJORANA collaboration. We present some of the general characteristics (including bias potential, efficiency, leakage current, and integral cross-talk) for this detector in its temporary cryostat. We also present an analysis of the resolution of the detector, and demonstrate that for all but two segments there is at least one channel that reaches the MAJORANA resolution goal below 4 keV FWHM at 2039 keV, and all channels are below 4.5 keV FWHM.

  19. Formation and characterization of varied size germanium nanocrystals by electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Liu, Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Germanium nanocrystals are being extensively examined. Their unique optical properties (brought about by the quantum confinement effect) could potentially be applied in wide areas of nonlinear optics, light emission and solid state memory etc. In this paper, Ge nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2...... matrix were formed by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible technology, e.g. plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition and annealing. Different sizes of the Ge nanocrystals were prepared and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy with respect to their size, distribution...... and crystallization. The samples of different size Ge nanocrystals embedded in the SiO2 matrix were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Interplayed size and strain effect of Ge nanocystals was demonstrated by Raman spectroscopy after excluding the thermal effect with proper excitation laser...

  20. Topography evolution of germanium thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schumacher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Germanium thin films were deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD onto single crystal Ge (100 and Si (100 substrates with a native oxide film on the surface. The topography of the surface was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM to evaluate the scaling behavior of the surface roughness of amorphous and polycrystalline Ge films grown on substrates with different roughnesses. Roughness evolution was interpreted within the framework of stochastic rate equations for thin film growth. Here the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation was used to describe the smoothening process. Additionally, a roughening regime was observed in which 3-dimensional growth occurred. Diffusion of the deposited Ge adatoms controlled the growth of the amorphous Ge thin films. The growth of polycrystalline thin Ge films was dominated by diffusion processes only in the initial stage of the growth.

  1. The position response of a large-volume segmented germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descovich, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Boston, A.J.; Dobson, J.; Gros, S.; Cresswell, J.R.; Simpson, J.; Lazarus, I.; Regan, P.H.; Valiente-Dobon, J.J.; Sellin, P.; Pearson, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    The position response of a large-volume segmented coaxial germanium detector is reported. The detector has 24-fold segmentation on its outer contact. The output from each contact was sampled with fast digital signal processing electronics in order to determine the position of the γ-ray interaction from the signal pulse shape. The interaction position was reconstructed in a polar coordinate system by combining the radial information, contained in the rise-time of the pulse leading edge, with the azimuthal information, obtained from the magnitude of the transient charge signals induced on the neighbouring segments. With this method, a position resolution of 3-7mm is achieved in both the radial and the azimuthal directions

  2. The position response of a large-volume segmented germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descovich, M. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mdescovich@lbl.gov; Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Dobson, J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Gros, S. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Sellin, P. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Pearson, C.J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-21

    The position response of a large-volume segmented coaxial germanium detector is reported. The detector has 24-fold segmentation on its outer contact. The output from each contact was sampled with fast digital signal processing electronics in order to determine the position of the {gamma}-ray interaction from the signal pulse shape. The interaction position was reconstructed in a polar coordinate system by combining the radial information, contained in the rise-time of the pulse leading edge, with the azimuthal information, obtained from the magnitude of the transient charge signals induced on the neighbouring segments. With this method, a position resolution of 3-7mm is achieved in both the radial and the azimuthal directions.

  3. Determination of the Peltier Coefficient of Germanium in a Vertical Bridgeman-Stockbarger Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Michaela E. K.; Matthiesen, David H.

    1997-01-01

    The Peltier effect is the fundamental mechanism that makes interface demarcation through current pulsing possible. If a method for calculating the necessary current density for effective demarcation is to be developed, it will be necessary to know the value of the Peltier coefficient. This study determined experimentally the value of the Peltier coefficient for gallium-doped germanium by comparing the change in average growth rates between current-on and current-off periods. Current-on and current-off layer thickness measurements were made using differential interference contrast microscopy and atomic force microscopy. It was found that the Joule and Thomson effects could not be neglected. Peltier coefficients calculated from the experimental data with an analysis that accounts for Joule, Thomson, and Peltier effects yielded an average value for the Peltier coefficient of 0.076 +/- 0.015 V.

  4. The isotope composition of inorganic germanium in seawater and deep sea sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermic, Maxence; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Hendry, Katharine R.; Rouxel, Olivier J.

    2017-09-01

    Although dissolved concentrations of germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si) in modern seawater are tightly correlated, uncertainties still exist in the modern marine Ge cycle. Germanium stable isotope systematics in marine systems should provide additional constraints on marine Ge sources and sinks, however the low concentration of Ge in seawater presents an analytical challenge for isotopic measurement. Here, we present a new method of pre-concentration of inorganic Ge from seawater which was applied to measure three Ge isotope profiles in the Southern Ocean and deep seawater from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Germanium isotopic measurements were performed on Ge amounts as low as 2.6 ng using a double-spike approach and a hydride generation system coupled to a MC-ICP-MS. Germanium was co-precipitated with iron hydroxide and then purified through anion-exchange chromatography. Results for the deep (i.e. >1000 m depth) Pacific Ocean off Hawaii (nearby Loihi Seamount) and the deep Atlantic off Bermuda (BATS station) showed nearly identical δ74/70Ge values at 3.19 ± 0.31‰ (2SD, n = 9) and 2.93 ± 0.10‰ (2SD, n = 2), respectively. Vertical distributions of Ge concentration and isotope composition in the deep Southern Ocean for water depth > 1300 m yielded an average δ74/70Ge = 3.13 ± 0.25‰ (2SD, n = 14) and Ge/Si = 0.80 ± 0.09 μmol/mol (2SD, n = 12). Significant variations in δ74/70Ge, from 2.62 to 3.71‰, were measured in the first 1000 m in one station of the Southern Ocean near Sars Seamount in the Drake Passage, with the heaviest values measured in surface waters. Isotope fractionation by diatoms during opal biomineralization may explain the enrichment in heavy isotopes for both Ge and Si in surface seawater. However, examination of both oceanographic parameters and δ74/70Ge values suggest also that water mass mixing and potential contribution of shelf-derived Ge also could contribute to the variations. Combining these results with new Ge isotope data

  5. Monte Carlo modelling of germanium crystals that are tilted and have rounded front edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparro, Joel; Hult, Mikael; Johnston, Peter N.; Tagziria, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray detection efficiencies and cascade summing effects in germanium detectors are often calculated using Monte Carlo codes based on a computer model of the detection system. Such a model can never fully replicate reality and it is important to understand how various parameters affect the results. This work concentrates on quantifying two issues, namely (i) the effect of having a Ge-crystal that is tilted inside the cryostat and (ii) the effect of having a model of a Ge-crystal with rounded edges (bulletization). The effect of the tilting is very small (in the order of per mille) when the tilting angles are within a realistic range. The effect of the rounded edges is, however, relatively large (5-10% or higher) particularly for gamma-ray energies below 100 keV

  6. Monte Carlo modelling of germanium crystals that are tilted and have rounded front edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparro, Joel [EC-JRC-IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Hult, Mikael [EC-JRC-IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: mikael.hult@ec.europa.eu; Johnston, Peter N. [Applied Physics, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Tagziria, Hamid [EC-JRC-IPSC, Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen, Via E. Fermi 1, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)

    2008-09-01

    Gamma-ray detection efficiencies and cascade summing effects in germanium detectors are often calculated using Monte Carlo codes based on a computer model of the detection system. Such a model can never fully replicate reality and it is important to understand how various parameters affect the results. This work concentrates on quantifying two issues, namely (i) the effect of having a Ge-crystal that is tilted inside the cryostat and (ii) the effect of having a model of a Ge-crystal with rounded edges (bulletization). The effect of the tilting is very small (in the order of per mille) when the tilting angles are within a realistic range. The effect of the rounded edges is, however, relatively large (5-10% or higher) particularly for gamma-ray energies below 100 keV.

  7. High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Imaging Measurements Using Externally Segmented Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, J.; Mahoney, W.; Skelton, R.; Varnell, L.; Wheaton, W.

    1994-01-01

    Fully two-dimensional gamma-ray imaging with simultaneous high-resolution spectroscopy has been demonstrated using an externally segmented germanium sensor. The system employs a single high-purity coaxial detector with its outer electrode segmented into 5 distinct charge collection regions and a lead coded aperture with a uniformly redundant array (URA) pattern. A series of one-dimensional responses was collected around 511 keV while the system was rotated in steps through 180 degrees. A non-negative, linear least-squares algorithm was then employed to reconstruct a 2-dimensional image. Corrections for multiple scattering in the detector, and the finite distance of source and detector are made in the reconstruction process.

  8. The defects produced by electron irradiation in tellurium-doped germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Noboru; Saito, Haruo

    1989-01-01

    The nature of the irradiation induced defects in a germanium single crystal doped with tellurium was studied by DLTS and electrical measurements. The E c -0.21 eV level produced by irradiation with 1.5 MeV electrons was studied using the DLTS technique. It was found that the defect associated with this level is a divacancy. The E-center like defect (group V impurity-vacancy pair) introduces the E c -0.20 eV level in samples doped with a group V impurity. The level introduced by a tellurium (group VI impurity)-vacancy pair is deeper. The E c -0.16 eV level was generated by annealing at 430 K. A tellurium-vacancies complex is proposed as the defect associated with this level. (author)

  9. Ultra low energy-ultra low background high purity germanium detectors for studies on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, A.K.; Singh, V.; Singh, L.; Singh, M.K.; Wong, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) are the leading DM candidates. Super symmetric particles (SUSY) are one of the leading WIMP candidates. To probe this least explored region Taiwan EXperiments On NeutrinO collaboration is pursuing research and development program by using High Purity Germanium detectors (HPGe). These detectors offer a matured technology to scale up the detectors and achieve sub-keV level threshold i.e. few hundreds of eV, economically. The various detectors developed by the collaboration is shown in the below figure. The current goal of the collaboration is to develop detectors of kg-scale target mass, ∼100 eV threshold and low-background specification for the studies on WIMPs, μ v and neutrino - nucleus coherent scattering

  10. Rate of germanium-isotope production by background processes in the SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Ibragimova, T.V.; Cleveland, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    Data on a direct determination of systematic uncertainties caused by the background production of germanium isotopes in the radiochemical SAGE experiment measuring the solar-neutrino flux are analyzed. The result obtained for the rate of 68 Ge production is 6.5(1±1.0) times greater than the expected one; the rate of 69 Ge production does not exceed preliminary estimates. The above result for 68 Ge corresponds to the systematic uncertainty that is caused by the interaction of cosmic-ray muons and which is equal to 5.8% (4.5 SNU) at a solar-neutrino-capture rate of 77.0 SNU. An experiment is proposed that would test the effect of cosmic-ray muon influence on the SAGE systematic uncertainty and which would be performed at the location of the underground scintillation telescope facilities of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences)

  11. The germanium isotopes production rate in background process in SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Ibragimova, T.V.; Cleveland, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the direct determination of systematics connected with the germanium isotopes generation of in background processes in radiochemical SAGE experiments on measuring solar neutrinos is described. The found 68 Ge generation rate is 6.5 (1 ± 1.0) times higher than expected; the generation rate of 69 Ge does not exceed preliminary evaluations. The result on 68 Ge corresponds to the systematic of cosmic ray muons of 5.8% (4.5 SNU) for the measured capture rate of solar neutrino of 77.0 SNU. To check the cosmic-ray muon influence of the SAGE systematic one suggests the experiment in place of underground scintillation telescope of the Baksan neutrino observatory on the Institute for Nuclear Research of the RAS [ru

  12. Feasibility study for use of a germanium detector in the LOFT gamma-ray densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swierkowski, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to predict the performance of a gamma-ray densitometer system using computer modeling techniques. The system consists of a collimated 137 Cs source, a pipe containing a variable amount of water absorber, and a shielded and collimated germanium detector system. The gamma-ray energy spectrum (number of photon counts as a function of energy) has been computed for several sources at the detector. The response for combined sourceconfigurations has been obtained by linear superposition. The signal essentially consists of the counts in an energy window centered on the 137 Cs source at 662 keV that originate from this source. The noise is the background counts in the signal energy window that originate from 16 N scatter radiation and direct and shield tank activation gammas. The detector signal has been computed for 0, 50, and 100 percent water in the pipe

  13. Preparation of germanium doped plasma polymerized coatings as ICF target ablators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.M.; Saculla, M.D.; Cook, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilize an organic (CH) ablator coating prepared by plasma polymerization. Some of these experiments require a mid-Z dopant in the ablator coating to modify the opacity of the shell. Bromine had been used in the past, but the surface finish of brominated CH degrades rapidly with time upon exposure to air. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of plasma polymer layers containing germanium as a dopant at concentrations of between 1.25 and 2.25 atom percent. The coatings are stable in air and have an rms surface roughness of 7--9 nm (modes 10--1,000) which is similar to that obtained with undoped coatings. High levels of dopant result in cracking of the inner mandrel during target assembly. Possible explanations for the observed cracking behavior will be discussed

  14. Ligand isotopic exchange of tris(acetylacetonato)germanium(IV) perchlorate in organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Akira; Saito, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    The ligand isotopic exchange between tris(acetylacetonato)germanium(IV) perchlorate and acetylacetone[ 14 C] has been studied in 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE), nitromethane (NM), and acetonitrile (AN), at 100 - 120 0 C. In these solvents, the rate formula was R = k[H 2 O][complex]; the concentrations of the complex, free ligand, and water in solution were in the ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 mol dm -3 . The activation enthalpies and entropies for the k's are 105, 98, and 90 kJ mol -1 ; and -25, -53, and -69 JK -1 mol -1 , in TCE, NM, and AN, respectively. Influence of acid and base concentrations, and deuterium isotope effect on the rate in AN suggest that the rate controlling step of the exchange is governed by the ease of the proton transfer between the leaving and the incoming acac - in an intermediate. (auth.)

  15. Gamma-ray escape peak characteristics of radiation-damaged reverse-electrode germanium coaxial detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.; Hull, E.L.; Madden, N.W.; Xing Jingshu; Friesel, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the characteristics of full-energy gamma-ray peaks and their corresponding escape peaks when high energy photons interact in radiation damaged reverse-electrode (n-type) germanium coaxial detectors is presented. Coaxial detector geometry is the dominant factor, causing charge collection to be dramatically better for interactions occurring near the outer periphery of the detector as well as increasing of the probability of escape events occurring in this region. It follows that the resolution of escape peaks is better than that of ordinary gamma-ray peaks. This is experimentally verified. A nearly identical but undamaged detector exhibited significant Doppler broadening of single escape peaks. Because double escape events preferentially occur at outer radii, energy shifts of double escape reflect extremely small amounts of charge trapping in undamaged detectors. (orig.)

  16. Imaging of gamma rays with the WINKLER high-resolution germanium spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, T.R.; Hamilton, T.W.; Hawley, J.D.; Kilner, J.R.; Murphy, M.J.; Nakano, G.H. (Luckheed Palo Alto Research Lab., Palo Alto, CA (US))

    1990-06-01

    The WINKLER spectrometer is a matrix of nine high-purity {ital n}-type germanium detectors developed for astrophysical observations and terrestrial radiation monitoring. The spectrometer has been fitted with a set of modulation collimator grids designed for imaging hard x-ray and gamma-ray sources by the Mertz, Nakano, and Kilner method. This technique employs a pair of gridded collimators in front of each detector with the number of grid bars varying from one to {ital N}, where {ital N} is the number of detectors. When the collimator pairs are rotated through a full 360-degree angular range, the detector signals provide the information for a two-dimensional band-limited Fourier reconstruction of order {ital N}. Tests of the spectrometer with single and multiple point sources as well as continuous source distributions are reported.

  17. Ion-beam doping of amorphous silicon with germanium isovalent impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, A.F.; Mashin, A.I.; Ershov, A.V.; Mashin, N.I.; Ignat'eva, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data on ion-beam doping of amorphous silicon containing minor germanium additions by donor and acceptor impurity are presented. Doping of a-Si:Ge films as well as of a-Si layers was performed by implantation of 40 keV energy B + ions or 120 keV energy phosphorus by doses from 3.2x10 13 up to 1.3x10 17 cm -2 . Ion current density did not exceed 1 μA/cm 2 . Radiation defect annealing was performed at 400 deg C temperature during 30 min. Temperature dependences of conductivity in the region of 160-500 K were studied. It is shown that a-Si:Ge is like hydrogenized amorphous silicon in relation to doping

  18. Investigation of electron exchange between neutral and ionized centers of germanium in PbSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terukov, I.E.; Khuzhakulov, Eh.S.

    2005-01-01

    The 73 As( 73 Ge) emission Moessbauer spectroscopy is applied to study the electron exchange between neutral ionized states of the germanium donor center in PbSe. It is shown that the charge state of the antistructural 73 Ge defect, generating in the anion PbSe sublattice after 73 As radioactive decay, does not depend on the Fermi level location. In contrast to this, the 73 Ge center in the cation PbSe sublattice is the isoelectronic substitution impurity. The analysis of emission Moessbauer spectra of p-type PbSe: 73 As testifies about the presence of the fast electron exchange between neutral and ionized donor Ge centers in PbSe [ru

  19. A Moessbauer study of the germanium two-electron donor centers in PbSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terukov, E.I.; Khuzhakulov, Eh.S.

    2005-01-01

    The 73 As( 73 Ge) Moessbauer emission spectroscopy is used for identification of neutral and ionized two-electron germanium centers in PbSe. It is shown that the charge state of antistructural defect 73 Ge, generating in the anion sublattice after 73 As radioactive decay, does not depend on the Fermi level position. In contrast to this, the 73 Ge center in the cation PbSe sublattice represents the electrically active substitution impurity. The emission spectra correspond to the neutral state of the ( 73 Ge 2+ ) donor center in n-type conductors and to the double ionized state of this ( 73 Ge 4+ ) center in p-type conductors [ru

  20. High-purity germanium detection system for the in vivo measurement of americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyree, W.H.; Falk, R.B.; Wood, C.B.; Liskey, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A high-purity germanium (HPGe) array, photon-counting system has been developed for the Rocky Flats Plant Body-Counter Medical Facility. The newly improved system provides exceptional resolutions of low-energy X-ray and gamma-ray spectra associated with the in vivo deposition of plutonium and americium. Described are the operational parameters of the system and some qualitative results illustrating detector performance for the photon emissions produced from the decay of plutonium and americium between energy ranges from 10 to 100 kiloelectron volts. Since large amounts of data are easily generated with the system, data storage, analysis, and computer software developments continue to be an essential ingredient for processing spectral data obtained from the detectors. Absence of quantitative data is intentional. The primary concern of the study was to evaluate the effects of the various physical and electronic operational parameters before adding those related entirely to a human subject

  1. Measurement of energy transitions for the decay radiations of 75Ge and 69Ge in a high purity germanium detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Güral; Usta, Metin; Oktay, Adem

    2018-06-01

    Photoactivation experiments have a wide range of application areas in nuclear, particle physics, and medical physics such as measuring energy levels and half-lifes of nuclei, experiments for understanding imaging methods in medicine, isotope production for patient treatment, radiation security and transportation, radiation therapy, and astrophysics processes. In this study, some energy transition values of the decay radiations of 75Ge and 69Ge, which are the products of photonuclear reactions (γ, n) with germanium isotopes (75Ge and 69Ge), were measured. The gamma spectrum as a result of atomic transitions were analysed by using a high purity semiconductor germanium detector and the energy transition values which are presented here were compared with the ones which are the best in literature. It was observed that the results presented are in agreement with literature in error range and some results have better precisions.

  2. Quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of germanium in lignite; Determinacion Espectrografica Cuantitativa de trazas de Germanio en Lignitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M; Roca, M

    1972-07-01

    A burning technique in a d.c. arc at 10 amp has been employed. The standards have been prepared from a natural lignite with a low germanium content. In order to enhance sensitivity, AgCl, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, CuF{sub 2}, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} have been tested as sweeping materials. Using 2% CuF{sub 2} a detection limit of 1 ppm germanium is attainable. Bi, Cu, Sb and Sn have been studied as internal standards: the former leads to the, highest precision (1 6%). Results show good agreement with those obtained by the addition method. (Author) 6 refs.

  3. Defects reduction of Ge epitaxial film in a germanium-on-insulator wafer by annealing in oxygen ambient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Hong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to remove the misfit dislocations and reduce the threading dislocations density (TDD in the germanium (Ge epilayer growth on a silicon (Si substrate is presented. The Ge epitaxial film is grown directly on the Si (001 donor wafer using a “three-step growth” approach in a reduced pressure chemical vapour deposition. The Ge epilayer is then bonded and transferred to another Si (001 handle wafer to form a germanium-on-insulator (GOI substrate. The misfit dislocations, which are initially hidden along the Ge/Si interface, are now accessible from the top surface. These misfit dislocations are then removed by annealing the GOI substrate. After the annealing, the TDD of the Ge epilayer can be reduced by at least two orders of magnitude to <5 × 106 cm−2.

  4. Water soluble nano-scale transient material germanium oxide for zero toxic waste based environmentally benign nano-manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Almuslem, A. S.

    2017-02-14

    In the recent past, with the advent of transient electronics for mostly implantable and secured electronic applications, the whole field effect transistor structure has been dissolved in a variety of chemicals. Here, we show simple water soluble nano-scale (sub-10 nm) germanium oxide (GeO) as the dissolvable component to remove the functional structures of metal oxide semiconductor devices and then reuse the expensive germanium substrate again for functional device fabrication. This way, in addition to transiency, we also show an environmentally friendly manufacturing process for a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Every year, trillions of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are manufactured and billions are disposed, which extend the harmful impact to our environment. Therefore, this is a key study to show a pragmatic approach for water soluble high performance electronics for environmentally friendly manufacturing and bioresorbable electronic applications.

  5. Phase transformations in chalkogenides of germanium subgroup elements and in alloys on their base at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skums, V.F.; Skoropanov, A.S.; Vecher, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt was made to systematize and analyze the available data on behaviour of chalkogenides of germanium subgroup elements and their alloys at high pressures, as applied to the problem of their use as reference materials for pressure determination. It is shown that phase transformations, accompanied by sharp change of electric resistance, are observed in chalkogenides of cubic and rhombohedral structures (lead, tin (SnTe) and germanium (GeTe)) under the effect of high pressures. It was established that electric resistance in the region of phase transformation (electric signal) depended on the type and concentration of current carriers: electric sigual grew with decrease of current carrier concentration; substances with p-type of conductivity were characterized by lower electric signal, as compared to substances with n-conductivety

  6. Effect of germanium concentrations on tunnelling current calculation of Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanah, L.; Suhendi, E.; Khairrurijal

    2018-05-01

    Tunelling current calculation on Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor was carried out by including the coupling between transversal and longitudinal components of electron motion. The calculation results indicated that the coupling between kinetic energy in parallel and perpendicular to S1-xGex barrier surface affected tunneling current significantly when electron velocity was faster than 1x105 m/s. This analytical tunneling current model was then used to study how the germanium concentration in base to Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor influenced the tunneling current. It is obtained that tunneling current increased as the germanium concentration given in base decreased.

  7. Sensitivity of LDEF foil analyses using ultra-low background germanium vs. large NaI(Tl) multidimensional spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, J.H.; Arthur, R.J.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1992-06-01

    Cobalt foils and stainless steel samples were analyzed for induced 6O Co activity with both an ultra-low background germanium gamma-ray spectrometer and with a large NaI(Tl) multidimensional spectrometer, both of which use electronic anticoincidence shielding to reduce background counts resulting from cosmic rays. Aluminum samples were analyzed for 22 Na. The results, in addition to the relative sensitivities and precisions afforded by the two methods, are presented

  8. Angular distributions of 250 GeV/c positive particles axially channeled in germanium crystal. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.R.; Gibson, W.M.; Kim, I.J.; Williams, G.O.; Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Chrisman, B.L.; Toohig, T.E.; Guzik, Z.; Nigmanov, T.S.; Tsyganov, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Channeling phenomena are observed for charged particles of momentum up to 250 GeV/c in a germanium crystal. The angular distributions of the channeled particles are compared with theoretical predictions based on a diffusion model. The results indicate additional mechanisms leading to dechanneling of the particles although channeling effects are observed for particles incident at up to several times the critical angle, in contrast with the results from low energy channeling. (orig.)

  9. UV Laser Co-Photolytic Approach to Gas-Phase Formation and Deposition of Nano-Sized Germanium Sulfides.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomovska, R.; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Boháček, Jaroslav; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 182, 1 (2006) , s. 107-111 ISSN 0022-3573 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 486 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : laser deposition * germanium sulfides * nanomaterials Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2006

  10. Search for an anomalous near-surface yield deficit in Rutherford backscattering spectra from implanted germanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, E.M.; Appleton, B.R.

    1983-09-01

    Rutherford backscattering and channelling analysis of high-dose, room-temperature, ion-implanted germanium has revealed an anomalous near-surface yield deficit. Implant dose and species dependencies and the effect of annealing have been examined. A marked loss of implanted impurity was also noted. The yield deficit is attributed to the absorption of oxygen and other light mass contaminants into a highly porous implanted layer upon exposure to air. Loss of implant species is attributed to enhanced sputtering effects

  11. Thickness, Doping Accuracy, and Roughness Control in Graded Germanium Doped Ch{sub x} Micro-shells for Lmj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legay, G.; Theobald, M.; Barnouin, J.; Peche, E.; Bednarczyk, S.; Hermerel, C. [CEA Valduc, Dept Rech Mat Nucl, Serv Microcibles, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-05-15

    In the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C: H or CH{sub x}) is the nominal ablator used to achieve inertial confinement fusion experiments. These targets are filled with of fusible mixture of deuterium-tritium in order to perform ignition. The a-C: H shell is deposited on a poly-alpha-methylstyrene (PAMS) mandrel by glow discharge polymerization with trans-2-butene, hydrogen, and helium. Graded germanium doped CH{sub x} micro-shells are supposed to be more stable regarding hydrodynamic instabilities. The shells are composed of four layers for a total thickness of 180 {mu}m. The germanium gradient is obtained by doping the different a-C: H layers with the addition of tetra-methylgermanium in the gas mixture. As the achievement of ignition greatly depends on the physical properties of the shell, the thicknesses, doping concentration, and roughness must be precisely controlled. Quartz microbalances were used to perform an in situ and real-time measurement of the thickness in order to reduce the variations and so our fabrication tolerances on each layer thickness. Ex situ control of the thickness of each layer was carried out, with both optical coherent tomography and interferometry, (wall-mapper). High-quality, PAMS and a rolling system have been used to lower the low-mode roughness [root-mean-square (rms) (mode 2) {<=} 70 nm]. High modes were clearly, reduced by, coating the pan containing the shells with polyvinyl alcohol + CH{sub x} instead of polystyrene + CH{sub x} resulting in an rms ({>=}mode 10) {<=} 20 nm, which can be {<=}15 nm for the best micro-shells. The germanium concentration (0. 4 and 0. 75 at. %) in the a-CH layer is obtained by regulating the tetramethyl-germanium flow. Low range mass flow controllers have been used to improve the doping accuracy. (authors)

  12. Grafting of Oligo(ethylene glycol) Functionalized Calix[4]arene-tetra-diazonium Salts for Antifouling Germanium and Gold Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blond, Pascale; Mattiuzzi, Alice; Valkenier, Hennie; Troian-Gautier, Ludovic; Bergamini, Jean-François; Doneux, Thomas; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Raussens, Vincent; Jabin, Ivan

    2018-05-03

    Biosensors that can determine protein concentration and structure are highly desired for biomedical applications. For the development of such biosensors, the use of Fourier transformed infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy with the attenuated internal total reflection (ATR) configuration is particularly attractive but it requires appropriate surface functionalization of the ATR optical element. Indeed, the surface has to specifically interact with a target protein in close contact with the optical element and must display antifouling properties to prevent nonspecific adsorption of other proteins. We here report robust monolayers of calix[4]arenes bearing oEGs chains, which were grafted on germanium and gold surfaces via their tetra-diazonium salts. The formation of monolayers of oEGylated calix[4]arenes was confirmed by AFM, IR and contact angle measurements. The antifouling properties of these modified surfaces were studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy and the non-specific absorption of BSA was found to be reduced by 85% compared to non-modified germanium. In other words, the organic coating by oEGylated calix[4]arenes provides remarkable antifouling properties, opening the way to the design of germanium- and gold-based biosensors.

  13. Dosimetric properties of germanium doped calcium borate glass subjected to 6 MV and 10 MV X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengku Kamarul Bahri, T.N.H., E-mail: tnhidayah2@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Wagiran, H.; Hussin, R.; Saeed, M.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Hossain, I. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, King Abdul Aziz University, 21911 Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Ali, H. [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Hospital Sultan Ismail, 81100 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: •The TL properties of 29.9CaO–70B{sub 2}O{sub 3}: 0.1GeO{sub 2} glass has been investigated. •We exposed glass samples to 6 MV and 10 MV in a dose range of 0.5–4.0 Gy. •This glass has a potential material to be used for application in radiotherapy. -- Abstract: Germanium doped calcium borate glasses are investigated in term of thermoluminescence properties to seek their possibility to use as glass radiation dosimeter. The samples were exposed to 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams in a dose range of 0.5–4.0 Gy. There is a single and broad thermoluminescence glow curve that exhibits its maximum intensity at about 300 °C. Linear dose response behavior has been found in this dose range for the both photon energies. Effective atomic number, TL sensitivity, and reproducibility have also been studied. It is found that the sensitivity of germanium doped sample at 6 MV is only 1.28% and it is superior to the sensitivity at 10 MV. The reproducibility of germanium doped sample is good with a percentage of relative error less than 10%. The results indicate that this glass has a potential to be used as a radiation dosimetry, especially for application in radiotherapy.

  14. Dosimetric properties of germanium doped calcium borate glass subjected to 6 MV and 10 MV X-ray irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengku Kamarul Bahri, T.N.H.; Wagiran, H.; Hussin, R.; Saeed, M.A.; Hossain, I.; Ali, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The TL properties of 29.9CaO–70B 2 O 3 : 0.1GeO 2 glass has been investigated. •We exposed glass samples to 6 MV and 10 MV in a dose range of 0.5–4.0 Gy. •This glass has a potential material to be used for application in radiotherapy. -- Abstract: Germanium doped calcium borate glasses are investigated in term of thermoluminescence properties to seek their possibility to use as glass radiation dosimeter. The samples were exposed to 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams in a dose range of 0.5–4.0 Gy. There is a single and broad thermoluminescence glow curve that exhibits its maximum intensity at about 300 °C. Linear dose response behavior has been found in this dose range for the both photon energies. Effective atomic number, TL sensitivity, and reproducibility have also been studied. It is found that the sensitivity of germanium doped sample at 6 MV is only 1.28% and it is superior to the sensitivity at 10 MV. The reproducibility of germanium doped sample is good with a percentage of relative error less than 10%. The results indicate that this glass has a potential to be used as a radiation dosimetry, especially for application in radiotherapy

  15. Continuously tunable photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahoei, Hiva; Dumais, Patrick; Yao, Jianping

    2014-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a continuously tunable fractional Hilbert transformer (FHT) based on a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon (SOS) microring resonator (MRR). The propagation loss of a high-contrast germanium-doped SOS waveguide can be very small (0.02 dB/cm) while the lossless bend radius can be less than 1 mm. These characteristics lead to the fabrication of an MRR with a high Q-factor and a large free-spectral range (FSR), which is needed to implement a Hilbert transformer (HT). The SOS MRR is strongly polarization dependent. By changing the polarization direction of the input signal, the phase shift introduced at the center of the resonance spectrum is changed. The tunable phase shift at the resonance wavelength can be used to implement a tunable FHT. A germanium-doped SOS MRR with a high-index contrast of 3.8% is fabricated. The use of the fabricated MRR for the implementation of a tunable FHT with tunable orders at 1, 0.85, 0.95, 1.05, and 1.13 for a Gaussian pulse with the temporal full width at half-maximum of 80 ps is experimentally demonstrated.

  16. Focusing of a new germanium counter type : the composite detector. Uses of the TREFLE detector in the EUROGAM multidetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, L.

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this thesis is the development of new types of germanium detectors: the composite detectors. Two types of prototypes are then conceived: the stacked planar detector (EDP) and the assembly of coaxial diodes (TREFLE). They are designed for the multidetector EUROGAM destined to the research of nuclear structure at high angular momentum. The four planar diodes of EDP detector were of 7 cm diameter and of 15 to 20 mm thick. The difference between the calculated and measured photopic efficiency is observed. The importance of surface channel induces a weak resistance of neutron damages. The sputtering method for the surface treatment reducing the germanium dead layer as well as a rule of selection concerning the impurity concentration and the thickness of crystal is helpful for the later production of germanium detector. The CLOVER detector consist of for mean size crystals in the same cryostat. The photopic efficiency is much larger than that of the greatest monocrystal detector. And the granulation of composite detector allowed the Doppler broadening correction of gamma ray observed in the nuclear reaction where the recoil velocity is very high. This new type of detector enable the linear polarization measurement of gamma ray. Twenty-four CLOVER detector are actually mounted in the EUROGAM array. The characteristics measured in source as well as in beam, reported in this thesis, meet exactly the charge account. (author). 47 refs., 61 figs., 18 tabs

  17. In-situ gallium-doping for forming p{sup +} germanium-tin and application in germanium-tin p-i-n photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Dong, Yuan; D' Costa, Vijay Richard; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Vajandar, Saumitra; Lim, Sin Leng; Osipowicz, Thomas; Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics and Yale-NUS College, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2016-04-21

    The in-situ Ga doping technique was used to form heavily p-type doped germanium-tin (Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}) layers by molecular beam epitaxy, avoiding issues such as Sn precipitation and surface segregation at high annealing temperatures that are associated with the alternative implant and anneal approach. In this way, an electrically active Ga concentration of up to ∼3.2 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} can be realized for Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}. The impacts of varying the Ga concentration on the crystalline quality and the mobility of p-type Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} were investigated. High crystalline quality Ge{sub 0.915}Sn{sub 0.085} can be realized with an active Ga concentration of up to ∼1.2 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}. More than 98% of the Sn atoms are located on substitutional lattice sites, although the substitutionality of Sn in p-type Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} decreases with an increasing Ga concentration. When the Ga concentration introduced is higher than 3.2 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}, excess Ga atoms cannot be substitutionally incorporated, and segregation of Ga and Sn towards the surface during growth is observed. The in-situ Ga-doped Ge{sub 0.915}Sn{sub 0.085} epitaxy was integrated in a Ge{sub 0.915}Sn{sub 0.085}-on-Si p-i-n (PIN) photodiode fabrication process, and well-behaved Ge{sub 0.915}Sn{sub 0.085}/Si PIN junction characteristics were obtained. A large forward-bias current to reverse bias current ratio of 6 × 10{sup 4} and a low reverse current (dark current) of 0.24 μA were achieved at V{sub bias} = −1 V.

  18. Influence of oxygen on the annealing of radioactive defects in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasimov, G.M.; Mustafayev, Yn.M.; Gasimova, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    The isochronal annealing were carried out in the wide temperature range, for the establishment of oxygen influence on the annealing of radioactive defects (Rd) in any radiated germanium samples, concentrated with oxygen up to concentration of 9.7·10 16 cm -3 . It is shown that the curves of isochronal annealing of one of the such samples 1, with primary current charge concentration of 9.0·10 cm 14 , radiated by integral electron flow of φ= 8.0·10 16 cm -3 , at 293 K and also the non-oxygen samples 2, with primary concentration of 1.7·10 cm -3 , radiated at above mentioned conditions. The sample 1 is converted by radiation to p-type, but the conversion not occur in samples 2. It is illustrated, that that there is two annealing stage at 340-430 K, for the samples 2, which in results takes place the complete annealing of the RD. At 300 K the annealing takes place in samples of 1, but at 340 K - the reverse annealing of RD. The sample was at compensated state in the temperature range of 360-400 K. An annealing of RD takes place again at 440 K and the sample re-converted its conductivity type. The reverse annealing at 480 K, and at about 510 K, the substantial annealing of the defects has been observed, which in results a sample restores it's primary parameters. The carried out experiments show that as in converted, and also in n-type be samples, Is observed the reverse annealing of RD, but the reverse annealing of current charge carriers in n-type samples is observed only at such conditions, of the integral flow of accelerated elections exceeds the primary concentration of current charge carriers about 4 time of magnitude (φ≥4n 0 ). Besides, the complete annealing of RD in germanium samples concentrated with oxygen, takes place at more high temperatures in comparison with the non-oxygen samples

  19. High-Performance Silicon-Germanium-Based Thermoelectric Modules for Gas Exhaust Energy Scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanjek, K.; Vesin, S.; Aixala, L.; Baffie, T.; Bernard-Granger, G.; Dufourcq, J.

    2015-06-01

    Some of the energy used in transportation and industry is lost as heat, often at high-temperatures, during conversion processes. Thermoelectricity enables direct conversion of heat into electricity, and is an alternative to the waste-heat-recovery technology currently used, for example turbines and other types of thermodynamic cycling. The performance of thermoelectric (TE) materials and modules has improved continuously in recent decades. In the high-temperature range ( T hot side > 500°C), silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys are among the best TE materials reported in the literature. These materials are based on non-toxic elements. The Thermoelectrics Laboratory at CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives) has synthesized n and p-type SiGe pellets, manufactured TE modules, and integrated these into thermoelectric generators (TEG) which were tested on a dedicated bench with hot air as the source of heat. SiGe TE samples of diameter 60 mm were created by spark-plasma sintering. For n-type SiGe doped with phosphorus the peak thermoelectric figure of merit reached ZT = 1.0 at 700°C whereas for p-type SiGe doped with boron the peak was ZT = 0.75 at 700°C. Thus, state-of-the-art conversion efficiency was obtained while also achieving higher production throughput capacity than for competing processes. A standard deviation high reproducibility. A silver-paste-based brazing technique was used to assemble the TE elements into modules. This assembly technique afforded low and repeatable electrical contact resistance (high temperatures (up to 600°C), and thirty 20 mm × 20 mm TE modules were produced and tested. The results revealed the performance was reproducible, with power output reaching 1.9 ± 0.2 W for a 370 degree temperature difference. When the temperature difference was increased to 500°C, electrical power output increased to >3.6 W. An air-water heat exchanger was developed and 30 TE modules were clamped and connected electrically

  20. Pulsed laser ablation of Germanium under vacuum and hydrogen environments at various fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore (Pakistan); Bashir, Shazia, E-mail: shaziabashir@gcu.edu.pk [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore (Pakistan); Rafique, Muhammad Shahid [Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Dawood, Asadullah; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Hayat, Asma; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore (Pakistan); Mahmood, Arshad [National Institute of Laser and Optronics (NILOP), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • Germanium targets were exposed under vacuum and H{sub 2} environment by nanosecond laser pulses. • The effect of laser fluence and ambient environment has been investigated. • The surface morphology is investigated by SEM analysis. • Raman and FTIR Spectroscopy are performed to reveal structural modification. • Electrical conductivity is probed by four probe method. - Abstract: Laser fluence and ambient environment play a significant role for the formation and development of the micro/nano-structures on the laser irradiated targets. Single crystal (1 0 0) Germanium (Ge) has been ablated under two environments of vacuum (10{sup −3} Torr) and hydrogen (100 Torr) at various fluences ranging from 4.5 J cm{sup −2} to 6 J cm{sup −2}. For this purpose KrF Excimer laser with wavelength of 248 nm, pulse duration of 18 ns and repetition rate of 20 Hz has been employed. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets was explored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity of the irradiated Ge is measured by four probe method. SEM analysis exhibits the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), cones and micro-bumps in both ambient environments (vacuum and hydrogen). The formation as well as development of these structures is strongly dependent upon the laser fluence and environmental conditions. The periodicity of LIPSS or ripples varies from 38 μm to 60 μm in case of vacuum whereas in case of hydrogen environment, the periodicity varies from 20 μm to 45 μm. The difference in number of ripples and periodicity as well as in shape and size of cones and bumps in vacuum and hydrogen is explained on the basis of confinement and shielding effect of plasma. FTIR spectroscopy reveals that no new bands are formed for laser ablated Ge under vacuum, whereas C−H stretching vibration band is