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Sample records for german unification full-text

  1. Academic Journal Embargoes and Full Text Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Documents the reasons for embargoes of academic journals in full text databases (i.e., publisher-imposed delays on the availability of full text content) and provides insight regarding common misconceptions. Tables present data on selected journals covering a cross-section of subjects and publishers and comparing two full text business databases.…

  2. The Weaknesses of Full-Text Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical critique of the deficiencies of full-text searching in academic library databases. Because full-text searching relies on matching words in a search query with words in online resources, it is an inefficient method of finding information in a database. This matching fails to retrieve synonyms, and it also retrieves…

  3. Where Full-Text Is Viable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    Defines two types of online databases: source, referring to those intended to be complete in themselves, whether full-text or abstracts; and bibliographic, meaning those that are not complete. Predictions are made about the future growth rate of these two types of databases, as well as full-text versus abstract databases. (EM)

  4. The Medline/full-text research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinin, E J; Sievert, M; Johnson, E D; Mitchell, J A

    1991-05-01

    This project was designed to test the relative efficacy of index terms and full-text for the retrieval of documents in those MEDLINE journals for which full-text searching was also available. The full-text files used were MEDIS from Mead Data Central and CCML from BRS Information Technologies. One hundred clinical medical topics were searched in these two files as well as the MEDLINE file to accumulate the necessary data. It was found that full-text identified significantly more relevant articles than did the indexed file, MEDLINE. The full-text searches, however, lacked the precision of searches done in the indexed file. Most relevant items missed in the full-text files, but identified in MEDLINE, were missed because the searcher failed to account for some aspect of natural language, used a logical or positional operator that was too restrictive, or included a concept which was implied, but not expressed in the natural language. Very few of the unique relevant full-text citations would have been retrieved by title or abstract alone. Finally, as of July, 1990 the more current issue of a journal was just as likely to appear in MEDLINE as in one of the full-text files.

  5. Selecting Full-Text Undergraduate Periodicals Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Julie M.; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Examines how libraries and librarians can compare full-text general periodical indices, using ProQuest Direct, Periodical Abstracts (via Ovid), and EBSCOhost as examples. Explores breadth and depth of coverage; manipulation of results (email/download/print); ease of use (searching); and indexing quirks. (AEF)

  6. Multilingual access to full text databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluhr, C.; Radwan, K.

    1990-05-01

    Many full text databases are available in only one language, or more, they may contain documents in different languages. Even if the user is able to understand the language of the documents in the database, it could be easier for him to express his need in his own language. For the case of databases containing documents in different languages, it is more simple to formulate the query in one language only and to retrieve documents in different languages. This paper present the developments and the first experiments of multilingual search, applied to french-english pair, for text data in nuclear field, based on the system SPIRIT. After reminding the general problems of full text databases search by queries formulated in natural language, we present the methods used to reformulate the queries and show how they can be expanded for multilingual search. The first results on data in nuclear field are presented (AFCEN norms and INIS abstracts). 4 refs

  7. Database citation in full text biomedical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; McEntyre, Johanna R

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biology and literature databases represent essential infrastructure for life science research. Effective integration of these data resources requires that there are structured cross-references at the level of individual articles and biological records. Here, we describe the current patterns of how database entries are cited in research articles, based on analysis of the full text Open Access articles available from Europe PMC. Focusing on citation of entries in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), UniProt and Protein Data Bank, Europe (PDBe), we demonstrate that text mining doubles the number of structured annotations of database record citations supplied in journal articles by publishers. Many thousands of new literature-database relationships are found by text mining, since these relationships are also not present in the set of articles cited by database records. We recommend that structured annotation of database records in articles is extended to other databases, such as ArrayExpress and Pfam, entries from which are also cited widely in the literature. The very high precision and high-throughput of this text-mining pipeline makes this activity possible both accurately and at low cost, which will allow the development of new integrated data services.

  8. Unification predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilencea, D.; Ross, G.G.; Lanzagorta, M.

    1997-07-01

    The unification of gauge couplings suggests that there is an underlying (supersymmetric) unification of the strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. The prediction of the unification scale may be the first quantitative indication that this unification may extend to unification with gravity. We make a precise determination of these predictions for a class of models which extend the multiplet structure of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model to include the heavy states expected in many Grand Unified and/or superstring theories. We show that there is a strong cancellation between the 2-loop and threshold effects. As a result the net effect is smaller than previously thought, giving a small increase in both the unification scale and the value of the strong coupling at low energies. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs

  9. 48 CFR 2852.102-270 - Incorporation in full text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Incorporation in full text... 2852.102-270 Incorporation in full text. JAR provisions or clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and contracts in full text. ...

  10. 48 CFR 1952.102-2 - Incorporation in full text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Incorporation in full text... Clauses 1952.102-2 Incorporation in full text. All IAAR provisions and clauses shall be incorporated in solicitations and/or contracts in full text. ...

  11. Full Text Psychology Journals Available from Popular Library Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joswick, Kathleen E.

    2006-01-01

    The author identified 433 core journals in psychology and investigated their full text availability in popular databases. While 62 percent of the studied journals were available in at least one database, access from individual databases ranged from 1.4 percent to 38.1 percent of the titles. The full text of influential psychology journals is not…

  12. Is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jimmy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the growing availability of full-text articles online, scientists and other consumers of the life sciences literature now have the ability to go beyond searching bibliographic records (title, abstract, metadata to directly access full-text content. Motivated by this emerging trend, I posed the following question: is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts? This question is answered by comparing text retrieval algorithms on MEDLINE® abstracts, full-text articles, and spans (paragraphs within full-text articles using data from the TREC 2007 genomics track evaluation. Two retrieval models are examined: bm25 and the ranking algorithm implemented in the open-source Lucene search engine. Results Experiments show that treating an entire article as an indexing unit does not consistently yield higher effectiveness compared to abstract-only search. However, retrieval based on spans, or paragraphs-sized segments of full-text articles, consistently outperforms abstract-only search. Results suggest that highest overall effectiveness may be achieved by combining evidence from spans and full articles. Conclusion Users searching full text are more likely to find relevant articles than searching only abstracts. This finding affirms the value of full text collections for text retrieval and provides a starting point for future work in exploring algorithms that take advantage of rapidly-growing digital archives. Experimental results also highlight the need to develop distributed text retrieval algorithms, since full-text articles are significantly longer than abstracts and may require the computational resources of multiple machines in a cluster. The MapReduce programming model provides a convenient framework for organizing such computations.

  13. Is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jimmy

    2009-02-03

    With the growing availability of full-text articles online, scientists and other consumers of the life sciences literature now have the ability to go beyond searching bibliographic records (title, abstract, metadata) to directly access full-text content. Motivated by this emerging trend, I posed the following question: is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts? This question is answered by comparing text retrieval algorithms on MEDLINE abstracts, full-text articles, and spans (paragraphs) within full-text articles using data from the TREC 2007 genomics track evaluation. Two retrieval models are examined: bm25 and the ranking algorithm implemented in the open-source Lucene search engine. Experiments show that treating an entire article as an indexing unit does not consistently yield higher effectiveness compared to abstract-only search. However, retrieval based on spans, or paragraphs-sized segments of full-text articles, consistently outperforms abstract-only search. Results suggest that highest overall effectiveness may be achieved by combining evidence from spans and full articles. Users searching full text are more likely to find relevant articles than searching only abstracts. This finding affirms the value of full text collections for text retrieval and provides a starting point for future work in exploring algorithms that take advantage of rapidly-growing digital archives. Experimental results also highlight the need to develop distributed text retrieval algorithms, since full-text articles are significantly longer than abstracts and may require the computational resources of multiple machines in a cluster. The MapReduce programming model provides a convenient framework for organizing such computations.

  14. "Free full text articles": where to search for them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish; Singh, Manish; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Singh, Deepti; Singh, Pratibha; Sharma, Abhishek

    2011-07-01

    References form the backbone of any medical literature. Presently, because of high inflation, it is very difficult for any library/organization/college to purchase all journals. The condition is even worse for an individual person, such as private practitioners. The solution lies in the free availability of full-text articles. Here, the authors share their experiences about the accessibility of free full-text articles.

  15. Searching for Bill and Jane: Electronic Full-Text Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1998-01-01

    Examines electronic full-text literature available on the World Wide Web and on CD-ROM. Discusses authors and genres, electronic texts, and fees. Highlights Shakespeare, Jane Austen, and nature writing. Provides a bibliography of Web guides, specialized Shakespeare pages, and pages dealing with the Shakespeare authorship debate and secondary…

  16. Subject Retrieval from Full-Text Databases in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, John W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the problems involved in subject retrieval from full-text databases of secondary materials in the humanities. Ten such databases were studied and their search functionality evaluated, focusing on factors such as Boolean operators, document surrogates, limiting by subject area, proximity operators, phrase searching, wildcards,…

  17. Systematic characterizations of text similarity in full text biomedical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaohui; Errami, Mounir; Long, Tara; Renard, Chris; Choradia, Nishant; Garner, Harold

    2010-09-15

    Computational methods have been used to find duplicate biomedical publications in MEDLINE. Full text articles are becoming increasingly available, yet the similarities among them have not been systematically studied. Here, we quantitatively investigated the full text similarity of biomedical publications in PubMed Central. 72,011 full text articles from PubMed Central (PMC) were parsed to generate three different datasets: full texts, sections, and paragraphs. Text similarity comparisons were performed on these datasets using the text similarity algorithm eTBLAST. We measured the frequency of similar text pairs and compared it among different datasets. We found that high abstract similarity can be used to predict high full text similarity with a specificity of 20.1% (95% CI [17.3%, 23.1%]) and sensitivity of 99.999%. Abstract similarity and full text similarity have a moderate correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.423) when the similarity ratio is above 0.4. Among pairs of articles in PMC, method sections are found to be the most repetitive (frequency of similar pairs, methods: 0.029, introduction: 0.0076, results: 0.0043). In contrast, among a set of manually verified duplicate articles, results are the most repetitive sections (frequency of similar pairs, results: 0.94, methods: 0.89, introduction: 0.82). Repetition of introduction and methods sections is more likely to be committed by the same authors (odds of a highly similar pair having at least one shared author, introduction: 2.31, methods: 1.83, results: 1.03). There is also significantly more similarity in pairs of review articles than in pairs containing one review and one nonreview paper (frequency of similar pairs: 0.0167 and 0.0023, respectively). While quantifying abstract similarity is an effective approach for finding duplicate citations, a comprehensive full text analysis is necessary to uncover all potential duplicate citations in the scientific literature and is helpful when

  18. Mining biological networks from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Jan; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    The study of biological networks is playing an increasingly important role in the life sciences. Many different kinds of biological system can be modelled as networks; perhaps the most important examples are protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory networks, and signalling networks. Although much useful information is easily accessible in publicly databases, a lot of extra relevant data lies scattered in numerous published papers. Hence there is a pressing need for automated text-mining methods capable of extracting such information from full-text articles. Here we present practical guidelines for constructing a text-mining pipeline from existing code and software components capable of extracting PPI networks from full-text articles. This approach can be adapted to tackle other types of biological network.

  19. SSRF-PDM and its full-text retrieval improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Xingfan; Deng Huiyu; Li Zhiming

    2011-01-01

    Project and data management is essential for Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) which is a huge scientific platform for science research and technology development in China. With Product Data Management (PDM) system, SSRF improves its information service greatly. In this paper, we introduce the network structure, configuration modules and client terminals of the PDM system and the improvement in full-text retrieval subsystem, including its algorithms and details of implement in order to optimize the retrieval system.(authors)

  20. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Divoli

    Full Text Available When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface.

  1. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A; Hearst, Marti A

    2010-04-14

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface.

  2. UKPMC: a full text article resource for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntyre, Johanna R; Ananiadou, Sophia; Andrews, Stephen; Black, William J; Boulderstone, Richard; Buttery, Paula; Chaplin, David; Chevuru, Sandeepreddy; Cobley, Norman; Coleman, Lee-Ann; Davey, Paul; Gupta, Bharti; Haji-Gholam, Lesley; Hawkins, Craig; Horne, Alan; Hubbard, Simon J; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lewin, Ian; Lyte, Vic; MacIntyre, Ross; Mansoor, Sami; Mason, Linda; McNaught, John; Newbold, Elizabeth; Nobata, Chikashi; Ong, Ernest; Pillai, Sharmila; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Rosie, Heather; Rowbotham, Rob; Rupp, C J; Stoehr, Peter; Vaughan, Philip

    2011-01-01

    UK PubMed Central (UKPMC) is a full-text article database that extends the functionality of the original PubMed Central (PMC) repository. The UKPMC project was launched as the first 'mirror' site to PMC, which in analogy to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration, aims to provide international preservation of the open and free-access biomedical literature. UKPMC (http://ukpmc.ac.uk) has undergone considerable development since its inception in 2007 and now includes both a UKPMC and PubMed search, as well as access to other records such as Agricola, Patents and recent biomedical theses. UKPMC also differs from PubMed/PMC in that the full text and abstract information can be searched in an integrated manner from one input box. Furthermore, UKPMC contains 'Cited By' information as an alternative way to navigate the literature and has incorporated text-mining approaches to semantically enrich content and integrate it with related database resources. Finally, UKPMC also offers added-value services (UKPMC+) that enable grantees to deposit manuscripts, link papers to grants, publish online portfolios and view citation information on their papers. Here we describe UKPMC and clarify the relationship between PMC and UKPMC, providing historical context and future directions, 10 years on from when PMC was first launched.

  3. Simple unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, W.A.; Zepeda, A.

    1987-08-01

    We present the results obtained from our systematic search of a simple Lie group that unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions in a single truly unified theory. We work with fractionally charged quarks, and allow for particles and antiparticles to belong to the same irreducible representation. We found that models based on SU(6), SU(7), SU(8) and SU(10) are viable candidates for simple unification. (author). 23 refs

  4. Full text clustering and relationship network analysis of biomedical publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renchu Guan

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in the biomedical sciences have increased the demand for automatic clustering of biomedical publications. In contrast to current approaches to text clustering, which focus exclusively on the contents of abstracts, a novel method is proposed for clustering and analysis of complete biomedical article texts. To reduce dimensionality, Cosine Coefficient is used on a sub-space of only two vectors, instead of computing the Euclidean distance within the space of all vectors. Then a strategy and algorithm is introduced for Semi-supervised Affinity Propagation (SSAP to improve analysis efficiency, using biomedical journal names as an evaluation background. Experimental results show that by avoiding high-dimensional sparse matrix computations, SSAP outperforms conventional k-means methods and improves upon the standard Affinity Propagation algorithm. In constructing a directed relationship network and distribution matrix for the clustering results, it can be noted that overlaps in scope and interests among BioMed publications can be easily identified, providing a valuable analytical tool for editors, authors and readers.

  5. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IndexCopernicus Portal System

    release of intracellular myocyte components. Clinical sequelae to rhabdomyolysis include hypovolemia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure which is the most serious complication. Renal failure is caused by renal vasoconstriction, myoglobin and heme protein toxicity. Usual explanations of the cause of.

  6. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IndexCopernicus Portal System

    Case presentation. A seventy five year old Libyan man was seen in the urology department of Tripoli Medical Centre, Tripoli, Libya with six month history of left loin pain. The patient noted a mass in the left loin two days before he was assessed in the hospital. Also he started to vomit. There was no history of haematuria.

  7. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IndexCopernicus Portal System

    impact of using a robotic dispensing machine in community pharmacies was gathered using a structured questionnaire and analysed in ... dispensing time was also shorter and staff satisfaction increased. ... reference customers who were using a ROWA robotic .... Costs situation Purchase price Stock value Personnel costs.

  8. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    –60 years, in Al-Jala Women Hospital in. Tripoli, Libya. Haemoglobin concentration was measured using an automated haematology analyzer. ... i.e. by relatives and friends of the patient needing blood. A .... More attention should be given.

  9. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IndexCopernicus Portal System

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Table 1: Influenza pandemics of the 20th and 21st century. Name of ... could be responsible for the rapid human -to- human transmission [21]. Using evolutionary analysis to estimate the timescale of the origins, Smith and his research team from The. University of ... The biology of influenza A viruses is very.

  10. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IndexCopernicus Portal System

    2009-01-11

    Jan 11, 2009 ... battery, retail for approximately £30GBP although bulk buying ..... care to store them carefully. Electrode costs .... nerve stimulation does not relieve in labour pain: updated ... (Online : Update Software), 2003(3): p. CD003222.

  11. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Abstract; The detection of single base mismatches in DNA is important for diagnostics, treatment of ... nucleic acid detectors, and show how such exciplexes can register the presence of .... Titration experiments were carried out using a stock.

  12. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    from Turkey, Mexico, Brazil, USA, and Spain determined some criteria in favor ... female gender, and higher level of education. [9-14]. ... teachers and/or workers in that facility. Then a random ..... Psychosocial profile in favor of organ donation.

  13. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    1Department of Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo, 2Department of Community Health,. Obafemi ... the use of mesh, either open or laparoscopic [15,21], but this ... recurrence. METHODS AND PATIENTS .... TAH-BSO* = Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy. Recurrent I.H. # = Recurrent inguinal hernia.

  14. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    fishermen were enrolled at three Marine stations in Basra, Iraq. Demographic data, types .... that are used to sting and kill their prey or for defense. ... cardiotoxic, and dermatonecrotic toxins [1,6]. Figure 3: 4 ... May last a few weeks. The hands ...

  15. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2009-05-03

    May 3, 2009 ... The patient made an uneventful recovery. The final histopathology report was consistent with metastatic renal carcinoma. The patient was referred to the oncologist but unfortunately defaulted further treatment. . She is currently well and disease free 24 months after metastatectomy. Electronic PDF security ...

  16. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    healing process when wound tensile strength is very low or absent (days 0-30). It is during this time, when .... and two (4.5%) were supraumbilical. Table 1: Age distribution and the outcome of surgery in the 44 women with incisional hernia. Variable. Frequency. Percentage. Age. 60. 9. 15. 10. 6. 4.

  17. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Original Article. Effects of Gender and Seasonal Variation on the Prevalence of. Bacterial Septicaemia Among Young Children in Benin City,. Nigeria. Omoregie R1,2, Egbe CA2, Ogefere HO1,3, Igbarumah I2, Omijie RE2. 1School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Benin.

  18. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Figure 2 axial CT section with contrast media showing extension of lesion. Figure 3 Photomicrograph revealing many dilated cavernous lymphatic channels filled with eosinophilic coagulum. (Haematoxylin and Eosin section Orginal magnification 40 X). Discussion. Cystic hygroma, known as cystic lymphangioma is a.

  19. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Abstract; The expression of EGFR and p53 has not been adequately studied as a prognostic tool in urinary bladder tumors. We analyzed 74 bladder cancer samples from Egypt for EGFR and p53 expression using immunohistochemistry. The tumors .... have some potential value in differential diagnosis of problem cases, but ...

  20. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    receptor; TNF-α: Tumor Necrosis Factor–alpha; TGF-β1: transforming growth factor-β1. INTRODUCTION .... hormones that mediate inflammatory and immune responses in a ..... score, lactate, and base deficit), as well as treatment with agents ...

  1. Functional Pearls : Polytypic Unification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansson, P.; Jeuring, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Unification, or two-way pattern matching, is the process of solving an equation involving two first-order terms with variables. Unification is used in type inference in many programming languages and in the execution of logic programs. This means that unification algorithms have to be written over

  2. Unification types of housing during Sochi Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Babaev

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the statement of the unification problem of housing accommodation of participants, spectators, staff, committee during the Winter Olympics in Sochi. We give a mathematical formalization of the problem, where the unknown variables are theelements of the combination of types of accommodation sorted by the level of comfortand representation.

  3. Psychotherapy Integration via Theoretical Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W. Tryon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Meaningful psychotherapy integration requires theoretical unification because psychotherapists can only be expected to treat patients with the same diagnoses similarly if they understand these disorders similarly and if they agree on the mechanisms by which effective treatments work. Tryon (in press has proposed a transtheoretic transdiagnostic psychotherapy based on an Applied Psychological Science (APS clinical orientation, founded on a BioPsychology Network explanatory system that provides sufficient theoretical unification to support meaningful psychotherapy integration. That proposal focused mainly on making a neuroscience argument. This article makes a different argument for theoretical unification and consequently psychotherapy integration. The strength of theories of psychotherapy, like all theory, is to focus on certain topics, goals, and methods. But this strength is also a weakness because it can blind one to alternative perspectives and thereby promote unnecessary competition among therapies. This article provides a broader perspective based on learning and memory that is consistent with the behavioral, cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, pharmacologic, and Existential/Humanistic/Experiential clinical orientations. It thereby provides a basis for meaningful psychotherapy integration.

  4. China’s unification: Myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Mario Arturo Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the prospect of a possible unification between People’s Republic of China (Mainland China and Republic of China (Taiwan from a multi-dimensional perspective which encompasses the political, social, economic, and technological dimensions. The underlying idea is to evaluate the possibility of a partial or total reunification between the two countries in a more comprehensive way than just assessing the economic costs and benefits. Our evaluation is based on the application of the GDRI-Model, which looks at unification and regional integration simultaneously from the political, economic, social and technological perspectives.

  5. The Flip Sides of Full-Text: Superindex and the Harvard Business Review/Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, Eva M.

    1984-01-01

    This article illustrates similarities between two different types of full-text databases--Superindex, Harvard Business Review/Online--and uses them as arena to demonstrate search and display applications of full-text. The selection of logical operators, full-text search strategies, and keywords and Bibliographic Retrieval Service's Occurrence…

  6. Unification beyond GUT's: Gauge-Yukawa unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, J.; Mondragon, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1996-01-01

    Gauge-Yukawa Unification (GYU) is a renormalization group invariant functional relation among gauge and Yukawa couplings which holds beyond the unification point in Grand Unified Theories (GUTs). We present here various models where GYU is obtained by requiring the principles of finiteness and reduction of couplings. We examine the consequences of these requirements for the low energy parameters, especially for the top quark mass. The predictions are such that they clearly distinguish already GYU from ordinary GUTs. It is expected that it will be possible to discriminate among the various GYUs when more accurate measurements of the top quark mass are available. (author)

  7. [25 years after re-unification of Germany: An overview on Eastern German psychiatry. Part 2: Pluralistic approaches and the collapse in the 1980s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H

    2016-05-01

    This is the second part of a 2-part study of the history of psychiatry in East Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. This part primarily covers the 1970 s and 1980 s. Starting from the 1970 s, pluralistic views on and approaches to mental illness and its treatment gained ground, which was especially visible in psychotherapy. The exacerbating economic crisis of the 1970 s and 1980 s led to a steadily worsening collapse of the building infrastructure of clinics and any reformation that would have led to significant financial investment became impossible. Despite attempts from party and state, psychiatric institutions successfully resisted being systematically misused against their patients.In the discussion part, the study supports the notion that East German psychiatry was neither totally isolated nor communist in nature. Even though communism had an influence, it did not have a decisively modifying impact on psychiatry, so that one can characterize psychiatry in East Germany as a medical discipline with a certain specific typology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. SU(5) unification revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giveon, A.; Sarid, U.; Hall, L.J.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1991-01-01

    Model-independent criteria for unification in the SU(5) framework are studied. These are applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model and to the standard model with a split 45 Higgs representation. Although the former is consistent with SU(5) unification, the superpartner masses can vary over a wide range, and may even all lie well beyond the reach of planned colliders. Adding a split 45 to the standard model can also satisfy the unification criteria, so supersymmetric SU(5) is far from unique. Furthermore, we learn that separate Higgs doublets must couple to the top and bottom quarks in order to give a correct m b /m τ prediction. (orig.)

  9. Searching Harvard Business Review Online. . . Lessons in Searching a Full Text Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the Harvard Business Review Online (HBRO) database (bibliographic description fields, abstracts, extracted information, full text, subject descriptors) and reports on 31 sample HBRO searches conducted in Bibliographic Retrieval Services to test differences between searching full text and searching bibliographic record. Sample…

  10. Full-Text Linking: Affiliated versus Nonaffiliated Access in a Free Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jill E.; Andreadis, Debra K.; Kirk, Rachel A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a comparison of access to full-text articles from a free bibliographic database (PubSCIENCE) for affiliated and unaffiliated users. Found that affiliated users had access to more full-text articles than unaffiliated users had, and that both types of users could increase their level of access through additional searching and greater…

  11. Full-text publication of abstract-presented work in sport and exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Sarah; Warden, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Meetings promote information sharing, but do not enable full dissemination of details. A systematic search was conducted for abstracts presented at the 2010 and 2011 Association of Applied Sport Psychology Annual Conferences to determine the full-text dissemination rate of work presented in abstract form and investigate factors influencing this rate. Systematic searches were sequentially conducted to determine whether the abstract-presented work had been published in full-text format in the 5 years following presentation. If a potential full-text publication was identified, information from the conference abstract (eg, results, number of participants in the sample(s), measurement tools used and so on) was compared with the full text to ensure the two entities represented the same body of work. Abstract factors of interest were assessed using logistic regression. Ninety-four out of 423 presented abstracts (22.2%) were published in full text. Odds of full-text publication increased if the abstract was from an international institution, presented in certain conference sections or presented as a lecture. Those attending professional conferences should be cautious when translating data presented at conferences into their applied work because of the low rate of peer-reviewed and full-text publication of the information.

  12. Challenges for automatically extracting molecular interactions from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Tara; Curran, James R

    2009-09-24

    The increasing availability of full-text biomedical articles will allow more biomedical knowledge to be extracted automatically with greater reliability. However, most Information Retrieval (IR) and Extraction (IE) tools currently process only abstracts. The lack of corpora has limited the development of tools that are capable of exploiting the knowledge in full-text articles. As a result, there has been little investigation into the advantages of full-text document structure, and the challenges developers will face in processing full-text articles. We manually annotated passages from full-text articles that describe interactions summarised in a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our corpus tracks the process of identifying facts to form the MIM summaries and captures any factual dependencies that must be resolved to extract the fact completely. For example, a fact in the results section may require a synonym defined in the introduction. The passages are also annotated with negated and coreference expressions that must be resolved.We describe the guidelines for identifying relevant passages and possible dependencies. The corpus includes 2162 sentences from 78 full-text articles. Our corpus analysis demonstrates the necessity of full-text processing; identifies the article sections where interactions are most commonly stated; and quantifies the proportion of interaction statements requiring coherent dependencies. Further, it allows us to report on the relative importance of identifying synonyms and resolving negated expressions. We also experiment with an oracle sentence retrieval system using the corpus as a gold-standard evaluation set. We introduce the MIM corpus, a unique resource that maps interaction facts in a MIM to annotated passages within full-text articles. It is an invaluable case study providing guidance to developers of biomedical IR and IE systems, and can be used as a gold-standard evaluation set for full-text IR tasks.

  13. Investigating and Annotating the Role of Citation in Biomedical Full-Text Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Agarwal, Shashank; Frid, Nadya

    2009-11-01

    Citations are ubiquitous in scientific articles and play important roles for representing the semantic content of a full-text biomedical article. In this work, we manually examined full-text biomedical articles to analyze the semantic content of citations in full-text biomedical articles. After developing a citation relation schema and annotation guideline, our pilot annotation results show an overall agreement of 0.71, and here we report on the research challenges and the lessons we've learned while trying to overcome them. Our work is a first step toward automatic citation classification in full-text biomedical articles, which may contribute to many text mining tasks, including information retrieval, extraction, summarization, and question answering.

  14. Building a protein name dictionary from full text: a machine learning term extraction approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campagne Fabien

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of information in the biological literature resides in full text articles, instead of abstracts. Yet, abstracts remain the focus of many publicly available literature data mining tools. Most literature mining tools rely on pre-existing lexicons of biological names, often extracted from curated gene or protein databases. This is a limitation, because such databases have low coverage of the many name variants which are used to refer to biological entities in the literature. Results We present an approach to recognize named entities in full text. The approach collects high frequency terms in an article, and uses support vector machines (SVM to identify biological entity names. It is also computationally efficient and robust to noise commonly found in full text material. We use the method to create a protein name dictionary from a set of 80,528 full text articles. Only 8.3% of the names in this dictionary match SwissProt description lines. We assess the quality of the dictionary by studying its protein name recognition performance in full text. Conclusion This dictionary term lookup method compares favourably to other published methods, supporting the significance of our direct extraction approach. The method is strong in recognizing name variants not found in SwissProt.

  15. SERVICES OF FULL-TEXT SEARCHING IN A DISTRIBUTED INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT (PROJECT HUMANITARIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Lyapin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. We justify the possibility of full-text search services application in both universal and specialized (in terms of resource base digital libraries for the extraction and analysis of the context knowledge in the humanities. The architecture and services of virtual information and resource center for extracting knowledge from the humanitarian texts generated by «Humanitariana» project are described. The functional integration of the resources and services for a full-text search in a distributed decentralized environment, organized in the Internet / Intranet architecture under the control of the client (user browser accessing a variety of independent servers. An algorithm for a distributed full-text query implementation is described. Methods. Method of combining requency-ranked and paragraph-oriented full-text queries is used: the first are used for the preliminary analysis of the subject area or a combination product (explication of "vertical" context, or macro context, the second - for the explication of "horizontal" context, or micro context within copyright paragraph. The results of the frequency-ranked queries are used to compile paragraph-oriented queries. Results. The results of textual research are shown on the topics "The question of fact in Russian philosophy", "The question of loneliness in Russian philosophy and culture". About 50 pieces of context knowledge on the total resource base of about 2,500 full-text resources have been explicated and briefly described to their further expert investigating. Practical significance. The proposed technology (advanced full-text searching services in a distributed information environment can be used for the information support of humanitarian studies and education in the humanities, for functional integration of resources and services of various organizations, for carrying out interdisciplinary research.

  16. MeSH: a window into full text for document summarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanmitra; Ha-Thuc, Viet; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2011-07-01

    Previous research in the biomedical text-mining domain has historically been limited to titles, abstracts and metadata available in MEDLINE records. Recent research initiatives such as TREC Genomics and BioCreAtIvE strongly point to the merits of moving beyond abstracts and into the realm of full texts. Full texts are, however, more expensive to process not only in terms of resources needed but also in terms of accuracy. Since full texts contain embellishments that elaborate, contextualize, contrast, supplement, etc., there is greater risk for false positives. Motivated by this, we explore an approach that offers a compromise between the extremes of abstracts and full texts. Specifically, we create reduced versions of full text documents that contain only important portions. In the long-term, our goal is to explore the use of such summaries for functions such as document retrieval and information extraction. Here, we focus on designing summarization strategies. In particular, we explore the use of MeSH terms, manually assigned to documents by trained annotators, as clues to select important text segments from the full text documents. Our experiments confirm the ability of our approach to pick the important text portions. Using the ROUGE measures for evaluation, we were able to achieve maximum ROUGE-1, ROUGE-2 and ROUGE-SU4 F-scores of 0.4150, 0.1435 and 0.1782, respectively, for our MeSH term-based method versus the maximum baseline scores of 0.3815, 0.1353 and 0.1428, respectively. Using a MeSH profile-based strategy, we were able to achieve maximum ROUGE F-scores of 0.4320, 0.1497 and 0.1887, respectively. Human evaluation of the baselines and our proposed strategies further corroborates the ability of our method to select important sentences from the full texts. sanmitra-bhattacharya@uiowa.edu; padmini-srinivasan@uiowa.edu.

  17. The Unification of Private International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Kazazi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Civil and the common law approaching Europe is no longer a “future project”, but more and more rather a present attempt (Kötz, 2003 – 2004. In this prism, concentrating on the European International Private Law within the space of mixed jurisdictions, it may seem surprising in light of the attempts to create a new European ius commune. But is it possible that a unification of the material law may sign the start of the end of the European conflicts of laws? Last but not the least private international law is not just a choice of law. The unification of the private law, in its definition as a concept, does not influence two of the three pillars of the private international law: respectively, that of the jurisdiction and recognition as well as implementation of foreign decisions.

  18. Extracting Characteristics of the Study Subjects from Full-Text Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Mork, James G

    Characteristics of the subjects of biomedical research are important in determining if a publication describing the research is relevant to a search. To facilitate finding relevant publications, MEDLINE citations provide Medical Subject Headings that describe the subjects' characteristics, such as their species, gender, and age. We seek to improve the recommendation of these headings by the Medical Text Indexer (MTI) that supports manual indexing of MEDLINE. To that end, we explore the potential of the full text of the publications. Using simple recall-oriented rule-based methods we determined that adding sentences extracted from the methods sections and captions to the abstracts prior to MTI processing significantly improved recall and F1 score with only a slight drop in precision. Improvements were also achieved in directly assigning several headings extracted from the full text. These results indicate the need for further development of automated methods capable of leveraging the full text for indexing.

  19. Evaluating Open-Source Full-Text Search Engines for Matching ICD-10 Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcău, Daniel-Alexandru; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the results of evaluating multiple free, open-source engines on matching ICD-10 diagnostic codes via full-text searches. The study investigates what it takes to get an accurate match when searching for a specific diagnostic code. For each code the evaluation starts by extracting the words that make up its text and continues with building full-text search queries from the combinations of these words. The queries are then run against all the ICD-10 codes until a match indicates the code in question as a match with the highest relative score. This method identifies the minimum number of words that must be provided in order for the search engines choose the desired entry. The engines analyzed include a popular Java-based full-text search engine, a lightweight engine written in JavaScript which can even execute on the user's browser, and two popular open-source relational database management systems.

  20. Facilitating Full-text Access to Biomedical Literature Using Open Access Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongyu; Hou, Zhen; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Open access (OA) resources and local libraries often have their own literature databases, especially in the field of biomedicine. We have developed a method of linking a local library to a biomedical OA resource facilitating researchers' full-text article access. The method uses a model based on vector space to measure similarities between two articles in local library and OA resources. The method achieved an F-score of 99.61%. This method of article linkage and mapping between local library and OA resources is available for use. Through this work, we have improved the full-text access of the biomedical OA resources.

  1. Full text publication rates of studies presented at an international emergency medicine scientific meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jannet W M; Graham, Colin A

    2011-09-01

    The publication rate of full text papers following an abstract presentation at a medical conference is variable, and few studies have examined the situation with respect to international emergency medicine conferences. This retrospective study aimed to identify the publication rate of abstracts presented at the 2006 International Conference on Emergency Medicine (ICEM) held in Halifax, Canada. The full text publication rate was 33.2%, similar to previous emergency medicine meetings. English language barriers may play a role in the low publication rate seen.

  2. Improving e-book access via a library-developed full-text search tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Jill E; Bergen, Phillip; Maxeiner, Gretchen L; Pawlowski, Peter N

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a tool for searching the contents of licensed full-text electronic book (e-book) collections. The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) provides services to the University of Pittsburgh's medical programs and large academic health system. The HSLS has developed an innovative tool for federated searching of its e-book collections. Built using the XML-based Vivísimo development environment, the tool enables a user to perform a full-text search of over 2,500 titles from the library's seven most highly used e-book collections. From a single "Google-style" query, results are returned as an integrated set of links pointing directly to relevant sections of the full text. Results are also grouped into categories that enable more precise retrieval without reformulation of the search. A heuristic evaluation demonstrated the usability of the tool and a web server log analysis indicated an acceptable level of usage. Based on its success, there are plans to increase the number of online book collections searched. This library's first foray into federated searching has produced an effective tool for searching across large collections of full-text e-books and has provided a good foundation for the development of other library-based federated searching products.

  3. Improving e-book access via a library-developed full-text search tool*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Jill E.; Bergen, Phillip; Maxeiner, Gretchen L.; Pawlowski, Peter N.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool for searching the contents of licensed full-text electronic book (e-book) collections. Setting: The Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) provides services to the University of Pittsburgh's medical programs and large academic health system. Brief Description: The HSLS has developed an innovative tool for federated searching of its e-book collections. Built using the XML-based Vivísimo development environment, the tool enables a user to perform a full-text search of over 2,500 titles from the library's seven most highly used e-book collections. From a single “Google-style” query, results are returned as an integrated set of links pointing directly to relevant sections of the full text. Results are also grouped into categories that enable more precise retrieval without reformulation of the search. Results/Evaluation: A heuristic evaluation demonstrated the usability of the tool and a web server log analysis indicated an acceptable level of usage. Based on its success, there are plans to increase the number of online book collections searched. Conclusion: This library's first foray into federated searching has produced an effective tool for searching across large collections of full-text e-books and has provided a good foundation for the development of other library-based federated searching products. PMID:17252065

  4. 10. National Nuclear Science and Technologies Congress Proceedings Full Texts Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    X. National Nuclear Science and Technologies Congress was held on 6-9 October 2009 in Mugla, Turkey in the course of collaborative organization undertaken by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Mugla University and Sitki Kocman Foundation. This first volume of Proceedings Book contains 75 submitted presentations and 36 of them are full texts on applications of nuclear techniques.

  5. Full-text publication of abstracts presented at European Orthodontic Society congresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Ren, Yijin

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Empirical evidence has indicated that only a subsample of studies conducted reach full-text publication and this phenomenon has become known as publication bias. A form of publication bias is the selectively delayed full publication of conference abstracts. The objective of this

  6. Endnote Referencing Software: Importing references from an Ebsco database, attaching full text, organising your Endnote library

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This video demonstrates importing bibliographic references from EBSCO Discovery Service, the same method can be used for all EBSCO databases. \\ud The video also demonstrates how to attach full text files to the references and how to organise your references within the endnote library using groups.

  7. Design of an On-Line Query Language for Full Text Patent Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Richard S.

    The design of an English-like query language and an interactive computer environment for searching the full text of the U.S. patent collection are discussed. Special attention is paid to achieving a transparent user interface, to providing extremely broad search capabilities (including nested substitution classes, Kleene star events, and domain…

  8. Preparing College Students To Search Full-Text Databases: Is Instruction Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Cheryl; Wales, Barbara

    Full-text databases allow Central Missouri State University's clients to access some of the serials that libraries have had to cancel due to escalating subscription costs; EbscoHost, the subject of this study, is one such database. The database is available free to all Missouri residents. A survey was designed consisting of 21 questions intended…

  9. Full Text or Abstract? : Examining Topic Coherence Scores Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, S.; Spruit, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses topic coherence and human topic ranking of uncovered latent topics from scientific publications when utilizing the topic model latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) on abstract and full-text data. The coherence of a topic, used as a proxy for topic quality, is based on the

  10. Prospects for further unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1983-07-01

    We review the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions (QAD), the prevalent color gauge theory of the strong interactions (QCD) and attempts to embed both these theories in a further Unified Gauge Theory. We discuss the related advances in cosmology and touch upon other approaches to the understanding of particles and fields. 44 references

  11. Multilingual access to full text databases; Acces multilingue aux bases de donnees en texte integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluhr, C; Radwan, K [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN), Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1990-05-01

    Many full text databases are available in only one language, or more, they may contain documents in different languages. Even if the user is able to understand the language of the documents in the database, it could be easier for him to express his need in his own language. For the case of databases containing documents in different languages, it is more simple to formulate the query in one language only and to retrieve documents in different languages. This paper present the developments and the first experiments of multilingual search, applied to french-english pair, for text data in nuclear field, based on the system SPIRIT. After reminding the general problems of full text databases search by queries formulated in natural language, we present the methods used to reformulate the queries and show how they can be expanded for multilingual search. The first results on data in nuclear field are presented (AFCEN norms and INIS abstracts). 4 refs.

  12. The structural and content aspects of abstracts versus bodies of full text journal articles are different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Johnson, Helen L; Verspoor, Karin; Roeder, Christophe; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2010-09-29

    An increase in work on the full text of journal articles and the growth of PubMedCentral have the opportunity to create a major paradigm shift in how biomedical text mining is done. However, until now there has been no comprehensive characterization of how the bodies of full text journal articles differ from the abstracts that until now have been the subject of most biomedical text mining research. We examined the structural and linguistic aspects of abstracts and bodies of full text articles, the performance of text mining tools on both, and the distribution of a variety of semantic classes of named entities between them. We found marked structural differences, with longer sentences in the article bodies and much heavier use of parenthesized material in the bodies than in the abstracts. We found content differences with respect to linguistic features. Three out of four of the linguistic features that we examined were statistically significantly differently distributed between the two genres. We also found content differences with respect to the distribution of semantic features. There were significantly different densities per thousand words for three out of four semantic classes, and clear differences in the extent to which they appeared in the two genres. With respect to the performance of text mining tools, we found that a mutation finder performed equally well in both genres, but that a wide variety of gene mention systems performed much worse on article bodies than they did on abstracts. POS tagging was also more accurate in abstracts than in article bodies. Aspects of structure and content differ markedly between article abstracts and article bodies. A number of these differences may pose problems as the text mining field moves more into the area of processing full-text articles. However, these differences also present a number of opportunities for the extraction of data types, particularly that found in parenthesized text, that is present in article bodies

  13. A Full-Text-Based Search Engine for Finding Highly Matched Documents Across Multiple Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report demonstrates the full-text-based search engine that works on any Web-based mobile application. The engine has the capability to search databases across multiple categories based on a user's queries and identify the most relevant or similar. The search results presented here were found using an Android (Google Co.) mobile device; however, it is also compatible with other mobile phones.

  14. Understanding disciplinary vocabularies using a full-text enabled domain-independent term extraction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Erjia; Williams, Jake; Chen, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Publication metadata help deliver rich analyses of scholarly communication. However, research concepts and ideas are more effectively expressed through unstructured fields such as full texts. Thus, the goals of this paper are to employ a full-text enabled method to extract terms relevant to disciplinary vocabularies, and through them, to understand the relationships between disciplines. This paper uses an efficient, domain-independent term extraction method to extract disciplinary vocabularies from a large multidisciplinary corpus of PLoS ONE publications. It finds a power-law pattern in the frequency distributions of terms present in each discipline, indicating a semantic richness potentially sufficient for further study and advanced analysis. The salient relationships amongst these vocabularies become apparent in application of a principal component analysis. For example, Mathematics and Computer and Information Sciences were found to have similar vocabulary use patterns along with Engineering and Physics; while Chemistry and the Social Sciences were found to exhibit contrasting vocabulary use patterns along with the Earth Sciences and Chemistry. These results have implications to studies of scholarly communication as scholars attempt to identify the epistemological cultures of disciplines, and as a full text-based methodology could lead to machine learning applications in the automated classification of scholarly work according to disciplinary vocabularies.

  15. Classification of protein-protein interaction full-text documents using text and citation network features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolchinsky, Artemy; Abi-Haidar, Alaa; Kaur, Jasleen; Hamed, Ahmed Abdeen; Rocha, Luis M

    2010-01-01

    We participated (as Team 9) in the Article Classification Task of the Biocreative II.5 Challenge: binary classification of full-text documents relevant for protein-protein interaction. We used two distinct classifiers for the online and offline challenges: 1) the lightweight Variable Trigonometric Threshold (VTT) linear classifier we successfully introduced in BioCreative 2 for binary classification of abstracts and 2) a novel Naive Bayes classifier using features from the citation network of the relevant literature. We supplemented the supplied training data with full-text documents from the MIPS database. The lightweight VTT classifier was very competitive in this new full-text scenario: it was a top-performing submission in this task, taking into account the rank product of the Area Under the interpolated precision and recall Curve, Accuracy, Balanced F-Score, and Matthew's Correlation Coefficient performance measures. The novel citation network classifier for the biomedical text mining domain, while not a top performing classifier in the challenge, performed above the central tendency of all submissions, and therefore indicates a promising new avenue to investigate further in bibliome informatics.

  16. Automatically classifying sentences in full-text biomedical articles into Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2009-12-01

    Biomedical texts can be typically represented by four rhetorical categories: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (IMRAD). Classifying sentences into these categories can benefit many other text-mining tasks. Although many studies have applied different approaches for automatically classifying sentences in MEDLINE abstracts into the IMRAD categories, few have explored the classification of sentences that appear in full-text biomedical articles. We first evaluated whether sentences in full-text biomedical articles could be reliably annotated into the IMRAD format and then explored different approaches for automatically classifying these sentences into the IMRAD categories. Our results show an overall annotation agreement of 82.14% with a Kappa score of 0.756. The best classification system is a multinomial naïve Bayes classifier trained on manually annotated data that achieved 91.95% accuracy and an average F-score of 91.55%, which is significantly higher than baseline systems. A web version of this system is available online at-http://wood.ims.uwm.edu/full_text_classifier/.

  17. MUC (Memory, Unification, Control and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHagoort

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A neurobiological model of language is discussed that overcomes the shortcomings of the classical Wernicke-Lichtheim-Geschwind model. It is based on a subdivision of language processing into three components: Memory, Unification, and Control. The functional components as well as the neurobiological underpinnings of the model are discussed. In addition, the need for extension of the model beyond the classical core regions for language is shown. Attentional networks as well as networks for inferential processing are crucial to realize language comprehension beyond single word processing and beyond decoding propositional content. It is shown that this requires the dynamic interaction between multiple brain regions.

  18. Efficient extraction of protein-protein interactions from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakenberg, Jörg; Leaman, Robert; Vo, Nguyen Ha; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Sullivan, Ryan; Miller, Christopher; Tari, Luis; Baral, Chitta; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Proteins and their interactions govern virtually all cellular processes, such as regulation, signaling, metabolism, and structure. Most experimental findings pertaining to such interactions are discussed in research papers, which, in turn, get curated by protein interaction databases. Authors, editors, and publishers benefit from efforts to alleviate the tasks of searching for relevant papers, evidence for physical interactions, and proper identifiers for each protein involved. The BioCreative II.5 community challenge addressed these tasks in a competition-style assessment to evaluate and compare different methodologies, to make aware of the increasing accuracy of automated methods, and to guide future implementations. In this paper, we present our approaches for protein-named entity recognition, including normalization, and for extraction of protein-protein interactions from full text. Our overall goal is to identify efficient individual components, and we compare various compositions to handle a single full-text article in between 10 seconds and 2 minutes. We propose strategies to transfer document-level annotations to the sentence-level, which allows for the creation of a more fine-grained training corpus; we use this corpus to automatically derive around 5,000 patterns. We rank sentences by relevance to the task of finding novel interactions with physical evidence, using a sentence classifier built from this training corpus. Heuristics for paraphrasing sentences help to further remove unnecessary information that might interfere with patterns, such as additional adjectives, clauses, or bracketed expressions. In BioCreative II.5, we achieved an f-score of 22 percent for finding protein interactions, and 43 percent for mapping proteins to UniProt IDs; disregarding species, f-scores are 30 percent and 55 percent, respectively. On average, our best-performing setup required around 2 minutes per full text. All data and pattern sets as well as Java classes that

  19. Dark matter from unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM), which leads to unification of the SM coupling constants, breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically by a new strongly coupled sector and leads to novel dark matter candidates. In this model, the coupling constant unification requires...... eigenstates of this sector and determine the resulting relic density. The results are constrained by available data from colliders and direct and indirect dark matter experiments. We find the model viable and outline briefly future research directions....... the existence of electroweak triplet and doublet fermions singlet under QCD and new strong dynamics underlying the Higgs sector. Among these new matter fields and a new right handed neutrino, we consider the mass and mixing patterns of the neutral states. We argue for a symmetry stabilizing the lightest mass...

  20. Full-text publication of abstracts in emergency medicine in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anne Katrine; Petersen, Dan Brun; Folkestad, Lars

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Abstracts presented at medical conferences or scientific meetings should ideally be published as full-text articles in peer-reviewed journals after initial presentation and feedback regardless of the findings. The aim of this survey was to determine the publication rate of papers...... similar publication rates. However, other more established specialties have higher publication levels. Knowledge of reasons for non-publication could lead to efforts to promote publication like funding; the possibility of discussion between authors and editors at conferences; "publication mentors"; and...

  1. The Establishment of the Chinese Full-text Electronic Periodical Database and Service System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Chu Chang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A database covers important journals to critical mass, with powerful search interface, and easy for remote access is the most reasonable electronic resource for users. This article try to start from the project of digitizing bio-medical journals in Taiwan area to the CEPS, discuss the related issues about the selection of journals, the digitized of back issues, the copyright transfer from authors to database producers, the feedback to authors for payment from revenue. It also talks about the flow of journal publishing, marketing, function and the proposed cost-effectiveness in CEPS.[Article content in Chinese

  2. Using distant supervised learning to identify protein subcellular localizations from full-text scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wu; Blake, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Databases of curated biomedical knowledge, such as the protein-locations reflected in the UniProtKB database, provide an accurate and useful resource to researchers and decision makers. Our goal is to augment the manual efforts currently used to curate knowledge bases with automated approaches that leverage the increased availability of full-text scientific articles. This paper describes experiments that use distant supervised learning to identify protein subcellular localizations, which are important to understand protein function and to identify candidate drug targets. Experiments consider Swiss-Prot, the manually annotated subset of the UniProtKB protein knowledge base, and 43,000 full-text articles from the Journal of Biological Chemistry that contain just under 11.5 million sentences. The system achieves 0.81 precision and 0.49 recall at sentence level and an accuracy of 57% on held-out instances in a test set. Moreover, the approach identifies 8210 instances that are not in the UniProtKB knowledge base. Manual inspection of the 50 most likely relations showed that 41 (82%) were valid. These results have immediate benefit to researchers interested in protein function, and suggest that distant supervision should be explored to complement other manual data curation efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Managing nuclear knowledge: IAEA activities and international coordination. Including resource material full text CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The present CD-ROM summarizes some activities carried out by the Departments of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety and Security in the area of nuclear knowledge management in the period 2003-2005. It comprises, as open resource, most of the relevant documents in full text, including policy level documents, reports, presentation material by Member States and meeting summaries. The collection starts with a reprint of the report to the IAEA General Conference 2004 on Nuclear Knowledge [GOV/2004/56-GC(48)/12] summarizing the developments in nuclear knowledge management since the 47th session of the General Conference in 2003 and covers Managing Nuclear Knowledge including safety issues and Information and Strengthening Education and Training for Capacity Building. It contains an excerpt on Nuclear Knowledge from the General Conference Resolution [GC(48)/RES/13] on Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications. On the CD-ROM itself, all documents can easily be accessed by clicking on their titles on the subject pages (also printed at the end of this Working Material). Part 1 of the CD-ROM covers the activities in the period 2003-2005 and part 2 presents a resource material full text CD-ROM on Managing Nuclear Knowledge issued in October 2003

  4. Full-text automated detection of surgical site infections secondary to neurosurgery in Rennes, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Garcelon, Nicolas; Jarno, Pascal; Chapplain, Jean Marc; Cuggia, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The surveillance of Surgical Site Infections (SSI) contributes to the management of risk in French hospitals. Manual identification of infections is costly, time-consuming and limits the promotion of preventive procedures by the dedicated teams. The introduction of alternative methods using automated detection strategies is promising to improve this surveillance. The present study describes an automated detection strategy for SSI in neurosurgery, based on textual analysis of medical reports stored in a clinical data warehouse. The method consists firstly, of enrichment and concept extraction from full-text reports using NOMINDEX, and secondly, text similarity measurement using a vector space model. The text detection was compared to the conventional strategy based on self-declaration and to the automated detection using the diagnosis-related group database. The text-mining approach showed the best detection accuracy, with recall and precision equal to 92% and 40% respectively, and confirmed the interest of reusing full-text medical reports to perform automated detection of SSI.

  5. Beyond genes, proteins, and abstracts: Identifying scientific claims from full-text biomedical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Catherine

    2010-04-01

    Massive increases in electronically available text have spurred a variety of natural language processing methods to automatically identify relationships from text; however, existing annotated collections comprise only bioinformatics (gene-protein) or clinical informatics (treatment-disease) relationships. This paper introduces the Claim Framework that reflects how authors across biomedical spectrum communicate findings in empirical studies. The Framework captures different levels of evidence by differentiating between explicit and implicit claims, and by capturing under-specified claims such as correlations, comparisons, and observations. The results from 29 full-text articles show that authors report fewer than 7.84% of scientific claims in an abstract, thus revealing the urgent need for text mining systems to consider the full-text of an article rather than just the abstract. The results also show that authors typically report explicit claims (77.12%) rather than an observations (9.23%), correlations (5.39%), comparisons (5.11%) or implicit claims (2.7%). Informed by the initial manual annotations, we introduce an automated approach that uses syntax and semantics to identify explicit claims automatically and measure the degree to which each feature contributes to the overall precision and recall. Results show that a combination of semantics and syntax is required to achieve the best system performance. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Full-text publication of abstracts in emergency medicine in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Anne Katrine; Petersen, Dan Brun; Folkestad, Lars; Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-05-24

    Abstracts presented at medical conferences or scientific meetings should ideally be published as full-text articles in peer-reviewed journals after initial presentation and feedback regardless of the findings. The aim of this survey was to determine the publication rate of papers presented at the Danish Emergency Medicine Conferences in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Abstracts presented at the conferences were identified and authors contacted to obtain publication information. A further search was conducted using relevant databases. Publication rates for the 2009 and 2010 were approximately 30% (25-31.6%). The publication rate for the 2011 conference was 14.5% within 18 months with an additional 9% under review prior to publication. When comparing full-text publication rates from DEMC to previous international studies in EM Danish EM research community has similar publication rates. However, other more established specialties have higher publication levels. Knowledge of reasons for non-publication could lead to efforts to promote publication like funding; the possibility of discussion between authors and editors at conferences; "publication mentors"; and/or research courses provided by the Danish Society of Emergency Medicine.

  7. Early Career Researchers Demand Full-text and Rely on Google to Find Scholarly Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hayman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Nicholas, D., Boukacem-Zeghmouri, C., Rodríguez-Bravo, B., Xu, J., Watkinson, A., Abrizah, A., Herman, E., & Świgoń, M. (2017. Where and how early career researchers find scholarly information. Learned Publishing, 30(1, 19-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/leap.1087 Abstract Objective – To examine the attitudes and information behaviours of early career researchers (ECRs when locating scholarly information. Design – Qualitative longitudinal study. Setting – Research participants from the United Kingdom, United States of America, China, France, Malaysia, Poland, and Spain. Subjects – A total 116 participants from various disciplines, aged 35 and younger, who were holding or had previously held a research position, but not in a tenured position. All participants held a doctorate or were in the process of earning one. Methods – Using structured interviews of 60-90 minutes, researchers asked 60 questions of each participant via face-to-face, Skype, or telephone interviews. The interview format and questions were formed via focus groups. Main Results – As part of a longitudinal project, results reported are limited to the first year of the study, and focused on three primary questions identified by the authors: where do ECRs find scholarly information, whether they use their smartphones to locate and read scholarly information, and what social media do they use to find scholarly information. Researchers describe how ECRs themselves interpreted the phrase scholarly information to primarily mean journal articles, while the researchers themselves had a much expanded definition to include professional and “scholarly contacts, ideas, and data” (p. 22. This research shows that Google and Google Scholar are widely used by ECRs for locating scholarly information regardless of discipline, language, or geography. Their analysis by country points to currency and the combined breadth-and-depth search experience that Google provides as

  8. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Cartic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Portable Document Format (PDF is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the ‘Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction’ (LA-PDFText system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Results Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1 Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2 Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3 Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF

  9. Large-scale extraction of gene interactions from full-text literature using DeepDive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Emily K; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher; Altman, Russ B

    2016-01-01

    A complete repository of gene-gene interactions is key for understanding cellular processes, human disease and drug response. These gene-gene interactions include both protein-protein interactions and transcription factor interactions. The majority of known interactions are found in the biomedical literature. Interaction databases, such as BioGRID and ChEA, annotate these gene-gene interactions; however, curation becomes difficult as the literature grows exponentially. DeepDive is a trained system for extracting information from a variety of sources, including text. In this work, we used DeepDive to extract both protein-protein and transcription factor interactions from over 100,000 full-text PLOS articles. We built an extractor for gene-gene interactions that identified candidate gene-gene relations within an input sentence. For each candidate relation, DeepDive computed a probability that the relation was a correct interaction. We evaluated this system against the Database of Interacting Proteins and against randomly curated extractions. Our system achieved 76% precision and 49% recall in extracting direct and indirect interactions involving gene symbols co-occurring in a sentence. For randomly curated extractions, the system achieved between 62% and 83% precision based on direct or indirect interactions, as well as sentence-level and document-level precision. Overall, our system extracted 3356 unique gene pairs using 724 features from over 100,000 full-text articles. Application source code is publicly available at https://github.com/edoughty/deepdive_genegene_app russ.altman@stanford.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Pharmspresso: a text mining tool for extraction of pharmacogenomic concepts and relationships from full text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Yael; Altman, Russ B

    2009-02-05

    Pharmacogenomics studies the relationship between genetic variation and the variation in drug response phenotypes. The field is rapidly gaining importance: it promises drugs targeted to particular subpopulations based on genetic background. The pharmacogenomics literature has expanded rapidly, but is dispersed in many journals. It is challenging, therefore, to identify important associations between drugs and molecular entities--particularly genes and gene variants, and thus these critical connections are often lost. Text mining techniques can allow us to convert the free-style text to a computable, searchable format in which pharmacogenomic concepts (such as genes, drugs, polymorphisms, and diseases) are identified, and important links between these concepts are recorded. Availability of full text articles as input into text mining engines is key, as literature abstracts often do not contain sufficient information to identify these pharmacogenomic associations. Thus, building on a tool called Textpresso, we have created the Pharmspresso tool to assist in identifying important pharmacogenomic facts in full text articles. Pharmspresso parses text to find references to human genes, polymorphisms, drugs and diseases and their relationships. It presents these as a series of marked-up text fragments, in which key concepts are visually highlighted. To evaluate Pharmspresso, we used a gold standard of 45 human-curated articles. Pharmspresso identified 78%, 61%, and 74% of target gene, polymorphism, and drug concepts, respectively. Pharmspresso is a text analysis tool that extracts pharmacogenomic concepts from the literature automatically and thus captures our current understanding of gene-drug interactions in a computable form. We have made Pharmspresso available at http://pharmspresso.stanford.edu.

  11. Direct mediation, duality and unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Steven; Khoze, Valentin V.

    2008-01-01

    It is well-known that in scenarios with direct gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking the messenger fields significantly affect the running of Standard Model couplings and introduce Landau poles which are difficult to avoid. Among other things, this appears to remove any possibility of a meaningful unification prediction and is often viewed as a strong argument against direct mediation. We propose two ways that Seiberg duality can circumvent this problem. In the first, which we call 'deflected-unification', the SUSY-breaking hidden sector is a magnetic theory which undergoes a Seiberg duality to an electric phase. Importantly, the electric version has fewer fundamental degrees of freedom coupled to the MSSM compared to the magnetic formulation. This changes the β-functions of the MSSM gauge couplings so as to push their Landau poles above the unification scale. We show that this scenario is realised for recently suggested models of gauge mediation based on a metastable SCQD-type hidden sector directly coupled to MSSM. The second possibility for avoiding Landau poles, which we call 'dual-unification', begins with the observation that, if the mediating fields fall into complete SU(5) multiplets, then the MSSM+messengers exhibits a fake unification at unphysical values of the gauge couplings. We show that, in known examples of electric/magnetic duals, such a fake unification in the magnetic theory reflects a real unification in the electric theory. We therefore propose that the Standard Model could itself be a magnetic dual of some unknown electric theory in which the true unification takes place. This scenario maintains the unification prediction (and unification scale) even in the presence of Landau poles in the magnetic theory below the GUT scale. We further note that this dual realization of grand unification can explain why Nature appears to unify, but the proton does not decay.

  12. BC4GO: a full-text corpus for the BioCreative IV GO task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Auken, Kimberly; Schaeffer, Mary L; McQuilton, Peter; Laulederkind, Stanley J F; Li, Donghui; Wang, Shur-Jen; Hayman, G Thomas; Tweedie, Susan; Arighi, Cecilia N; Done, James; Müller, Hans-Michael; Sternberg, Paul W; Mao, Yuqing; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Gene function curation via Gene Ontology (GO) annotation is a common task among Model Organism Database groups. Owing to its manual nature, this task is considered one of the bottlenecks in literature curation. There have been many previous attempts at automatic identification of GO terms and supporting information from full text. However, few systems have delivered an accuracy that is comparable with humans. One recognized challenge in developing such systems is the lack of marked sentence-level evidence text that provides the basis for making GO annotations. We aim to create a corpus that includes the GO evidence text along with the three core elements of GO annotations: (i) a gene or gene product, (ii) a GO term and (iii) a GO evidence code. To ensure our results are consistent with real-life GO data, we recruited eight professional GO curators and asked them to follow their routine GO annotation protocols. Our annotators marked up more than 5000 text passages in 200 articles for 1356 distinct GO terms. For evidence sentence selection, the inter-annotator agreement (IAA) results are 9.3% (strict) and 42.7% (relaxed) in F1-measures. For GO term selection, the IAAs are 47% (strict) and 62.9% (hierarchical). Our corpus analysis further shows that abstracts contain ∼ 10% of relevant evidence sentences and 30% distinct GO terms, while the Results/Experiment section has nearly 60% relevant sentences and >70% GO terms. Further, of those evidence sentences found in abstracts, less than one-third contain enough experimental detail to fulfill the three core criteria of a GO annotation. This result demonstrates the need of using full-text articles for text mining GO annotations. Through its use at the BioCreative IV GO (BC4GO) task, we expect our corpus to become a valuable resource for the BioNLP research community. Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/corpora/bc-iv-go-task-corpus/. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US

  13. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Patnia, Abhishek; Hovy, Eduard; Burns, Gully Apc

    2012-05-28

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the 'Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction' (LA-PDFText) system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1) Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2) Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3) Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF. Finally, we discuss preliminary error analysis for

  14. Europe '92: Consequences of the European Unification for Cultural Federalism in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggreen, Ingeborg

    1990-01-01

    Discusses consequences of European unification in the Federal Republic of Germany. Focuses on the relationships between the European Community, the federal government of Germany, and the German states. Suggests that the German states are aware of their responsibility to give education and culture a European dimension. (NL)

  15. Unification, small and large

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-04-15

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for galaxy formation. A

  16. Unification, small and large

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for

  17. Full-text publication of abstracts presented at meetings of a Latin American scientific society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicembrino, Manuela; Anderson, Mariana; Vely, Ana Gabriela; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Ferrero, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    To estimate the proportion of abstracts presented at meetings of the Latin American Society for Pediatric Research that are fully-published, to describe the reasons for not publishing papers, and to assess the impact of funding on the publication rate. Abstracts presented at meetings held between 2005 and 2009 were included. Authors were contacted and invited to take a survey on the publication of their work or the reasons not to do it. Information was collected on 232 (71.4%) of the 325 abstracts presented. Of these, 58.6% were fully-published (136/232). Funded studies (40.0%) had more chances of publication (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2-3.9). "Lack of time" was the most common reason for failure to publish (35/96). 58.6% of abstracts presented at meetings of the Latin American Society for Pediatric Research, were published as full-text articles; lack of time was the most common reason for failure to publish. Funded research had more chances of being published.

  18. E2FM: an encrypted and compressed full-text index for collections of genomic sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecuollo, Ferdinando; Schmid, Giovannni; Tagliaferri, Roberto

    2017-09-15

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms and, more generally, high-throughput technologies are giving rise to an exponential growth in the size of nucleotide sequence databases. Moreover, many emerging applications of nucleotide datasets-as those related to personalized medicine-require the compliance with regulations about the storage and processing of sensitive data. We have designed and carefully engineered E 2 FM -index, a new full-text index in minute space which was optimized for compressing and encrypting nucleotide sequence collections in FASTA format and for performing fast pattern-search queries. E 2 FM -index allows to build self-indexes which occupy till to 1/20 of the storage required by the input FASTA file, thus permitting to save about 95% of storage when indexing collections of highly similar sequences; moreover, it can exactly search the built indexes for patterns in times ranging from few milliseconds to a few hundreds milliseconds, depending on pattern length. Source code is available at https://github.com/montecuollo/E2FM . ferdinando.montecuollo@unicampania.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Full text publication rates of papers presented at the British Foot and Ankle Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsland, D; Mumith, A; Taylor, H P

    2017-07-13

    Techniques in foot and ankle surgery have expanded rapidly in recent years, often presented at national society meetings. It is important that research is published to guide evidence based practice. Many abstracts however do not go on to full text publication. A database was created of all abstracts presented at BOFAS meetings from 2009 to 2013. Computerised searches were performed using PubMed and Google search engines. In total 341 papers were presented, with an overall publication rate of 31.7%. Of 251 clinical papers, 200 were case series (79.6%). Factors associated with publication success included basic science studies, papers related to arthroscopic surgery and research performed outside the UK. A relatively low conversion rate from presentation to publication could be as a result of papers failing to pass the scrutiny of peer review, or that the work is never formally submitted for publication. The information from this study could be used to prioritise future research and promote higher quality research. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Database citation in supplementary data linked to Europe PubMed Central full text biomedical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Pi, Xingjun; McEntyre, Johanna R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present an analysis of data citation practices in full text research articles and their corresponding supplementary data files, made available in the Open Access set of articles from Europe PubMed Central. Our aim is to investigate whether supplementary data files should be considered as a source of information for integrating the literature with biomolecular databases. Using text-mining methods to identify and extract a variety of core biological database accession numbers, we found that the supplemental data files contain many more database citations than the body of the article, and that those citations often take the form of a relatively small number of articles citing large collections of accession numbers in text-based files. Moreover, citation of value-added databases derived from submission databases (such as Pfam, UniProt or Ensembl) is common, demonstrating the reuse of these resources as datasets in themselves. All the database accession numbers extracted from the supplementary data are publicly accessible from http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11771. Our study suggests that supplementary data should be considered when linking articles with data, in curation pipelines, and in information retrieval tasks in order to make full use of the entire research article. These observations highlight the need to improve the management of supplemental data in general, in order to make this information more discoverable and useful.

  1. Unification and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    This book deals with some of the latest developments in our attempts to construct a unified theory of the fundamental interactions of nature. Among the topics covered are spontaneous symmetry breaking, grand unified theories, supersymmetry, and supergravity. The book starts with a quick review of elementary particle theory and continues with a discussion of composite quarks, leptons, Higgs bosons, and CP violation; it concludes with consideration of supersymmetric unification schemes, in which bosons and leptons are considered in some sense equivalent. The second edition is updated and corrected and contains new chapters on recent developments

  2. Scholarly Electronic Full-Text Publications via the Internet: Issues and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmin, Linda J.

    1999-01-01

    On-line access to complete texts of scholarly journal articles, conference papers, and books is facilitated by rapidly developing World-wide Web Internet access and capabilities. Meanwhile, print publications continue to be produced and read in spite of the proliferation of many networked electronic publications. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight fundamental issues impacting stakeholder groups, as the trend continues towards migration from paper to affordable ubiquitous networked full-text publications. Librarians, publishers, authors and end-users have various viewpoints, interests, and concerns. There are many issues challenging all stakeholder groups. For instance, all share concerns about administering copyright compliance and enforcing fair use. Uncontrollable electronic downstreaming could result in infringed copyright, while limiting a publisher's entitled revenue stream. Moreover, metered fee-based access may hamper scholarly information research. And, self-authoring on the Internet without peer filtering could lead to information clutter. Many related issues challenge librarians in particular. Among these are rising journal subscription prices, regardless if offered in print or electronic. Some electronic offerings are independent of print, others supplement or duplicate print; several publishers presently require subscribing to print in order to access electronic. Furthermore, numbers of publications are n'ow being marketed via the Internet directly to end-users, which can be viewed as encouraging users to bypass the traditional library. A key issue challenging publishers today is the rapidly expanding electronic user base that is demanding delivery of added-value full-text to desktop computers. Also of growing concern appears to be the decline in print sales to libraries, thereby reducing traditional revenue stream potential. Nowadays, publishers are more hesitant about investing in the production of publications geared toward small niche

  3. The Searchbench - Combining Sentence-semantic, Full-text and Bibliographic Search in Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schäfer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel approach to precise searching in the full content of digital libraries. The Searchbench (for search workbench is based on sentence-wise syntactic and semantic natural language processing (NLP of both born-digital and scanned publications in PDF format. The term born-digital means natively digital, i.e. prepared electronically using typesetting systems such as LaTeX, OpenOffice, and the like. In the Searchbench, queries can be formulated as (possibly underspecified statements, consisting of simple subject-predicate-object constructs such as ‘algorithm improves word alignment’. This reduces the number of false hits in large document collections when the search words happen to appear close to each other, but are not semantically related. The method also abstracts from passive voice and predicate synonyms. Moreover, negated statements can be excluded from the search results, and negated antonym predicates again count as synonyms (e.g. not include = exclude.In the Searchbench, a sentence-semantic search can be combined with search filters for classical full-text, bibliographic metadata and automatically computed domain terms. Auto-suggest fields facilitate text input. Queries can be bookmarked or emailed. Furthermore, a novel citation browser in the Searchbench allows graphical navigation in citation networks. These have been extracted automatically from metadata and paper texts. The citation browser displays short phrases from citation sentences at the edges in the citation graph and thus allows students and researchers to quickly browse publications and immerse into a new research field. By clicking on a citation edge, the original citation sentence is shown in context, and optionally also in the original PDF layout.To showcase the usefulness of our research, we have a applied it to a collection of currently approx. 25,000 open access research papers in the field of computational linguistics and language technology, the ACL

  4. Extractive text summarization system to aid data extraction from full text in systematic review development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hurdle, John F; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha

    2016-12-01

    Extracting data from publication reports is a standard process in systematic review (SR) development. However, the data extraction process still relies too much on manual effort which is slow, costly, and subject to human error. In this study, we developed a text summarization system aimed at enhancing productivity and reducing errors in the traditional data extraction process. We developed a computer system that used machine learning and natural language processing approaches to automatically generate summaries of full-text scientific publications. The summaries at the sentence and fragment levels were evaluated in finding common clinical SR data elements such as sample size, group size, and PICO values. We compared the computer-generated summaries with human written summaries (title and abstract) in terms of the presence of necessary information for the data extraction as presented in the Cochrane review's study characteristics tables. At the sentence level, the computer-generated summaries covered more information than humans do for systematic reviews (recall 91.2% vs. 83.8%, p<0.001). They also had a better density of relevant sentences (precision 59% vs. 39%, p<0.001). At the fragment level, the ensemble approach combining rule-based, concept mapping, and dictionary-based methods performed better than individual methods alone, achieving an 84.7% F-measure. Computer-generated summaries are potential alternative information sources for data extraction in systematic review development. Machine learning and natural language processing are promising approaches to the development of such an extractive summarization system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Full-text publication of abstracts presented at European Orthodontic Society congresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Ren, Yijin

    2014-10-01

    Empirical evidence has indicated that only a subsample of studies conducted reach full-text publication and this phenomenon has become known as publication bias. A form of publication bias is the selectively delayed full publication of conference abstracts. The objective of this article was to examine the publication status of oral abstracts and poster-presentation abstracts, included in the scientific program of the 82nd and 83rd European Orthodontic Society (EOS) congresses, held in 2006 and 2007, and to identify factors associated with full-length publication. A systematic search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases was performed in April 2013 using author names and keywords from the abstract title to locate abstract and full-article publications. Information regarding mode of presentation, type of affiliation, geographical origin, statistical results, and publication details were collected and analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Approximately 51 per cent of the EOS 2006 and 55 per cent of the EOS 2007 abstracts appeared in print more than 5 years post congress. A mean period of 1.32 years elapsed between conference and publication date. Mode of presentation (oral or poster), use of statistical analysis, and research subject area were significant predictors for publication success. Inherent discrepancies of abstract reporting, mainly related to presentation of preliminary results and incomplete description of methods, may be considered in analogous studies. On average 52.2 per cent of the abstracts presented at the two EOS conferences reached full publication. Abstracts presented orally, including statistical analysis, were more likely to get published. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Full Text Searching and Customization in the NASA ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Thompson, D. M.; Murray, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody worldwide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text. The ADS database contains over 3.6 million references, with 965,000 in the Astronomy/Planetary Sciences database, and 1.6 million in the Physics/Geophysics database. 2/3 of the records have full abstracts, the rest are table of contents entries (titles and author lists only). The coverage for the Astronomy literature is better than 95% from 1975. Before that we cover all major journals and many smaller ones. Most of the journal literature is covered back to volume 1. We now get abstracts on a regular basis from most journals. Over the last year we have entered basically all conference proceedings tables of contents that are available at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics library. This has greatly increased the coverage of conference proceedings in the ADS. The ADS also covers the ArXiv Preprints. We download these preprints every night and index all the preprints. They can be searched either together with the other abstracts or separately. There are currently about 260,000 preprints in that database. In January 2004 we have introduced two new services, full text searching and a personal notification service called "myADS". As all other ADS services, these are free to use for anybody.

  7. Grand unification theory and technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubakov, V.A.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The lecture course can be considered as introduction to the problems concerning grand unification models. The course is incomplete. Such problems as CP-violations in strong interactions and the problem of gravitational interaction inclusion in the scheme of grand unification theory are not touched upon. Models of early unification, in which strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are compared according to the ''strength'' at energies of about 10 5 -10 6 GeV, are not discussed. Models with horizontal symmetry, considering different generations of quarks and leptons from one viewpoint, are not analyzed. Cosmological applications of supersymmetric unified theories are not considered. Certain problems of standard elementary particle theory, philosophy of the great unification, general properties of the grand unification models and the main principles of the construction of models: the SU(5) model, models on the SO(10) groups, have been considered. The problem of supersymmetric unification hierarchies, supersymmetric generalization of the minimum SU(5) model, supersymmetry violation and the problem of hierarchies, phenomenology of the o.rand unification models, cosmological application and technicolour, are discussed

  8. Dark Matter after LHC Run I: Clues to Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olive Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After the results of Run I, can we still ‘guarantee’ the discovery of supersymmetry at the LHC? It is shown that viable dark matter models in CMSSM-like models tend to lie in strips (co-annihilation, funnel, focus point. The role of grand unification in constructing supersymmetric models is discussed and it is argued that non-supersymmetric GUTs such as SO(10 may provide solutions to many of the standard problems addressed by supersymmetry.

  9. Grand unification: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, H.

    1983-01-01

    Grand unification is reviewed with regard to the flavor puzzle and the hierarchy puzzle. Progress in CP and the PQWWKDFS axion is reviewed. The neutrino mass and B-L research, the understanding and assimilation of the language of effective theories (which divide the momentum scale up into regions), with focus on the models, are surveyed. Various unified models are organized according to whether they address the hierarchy puzzle or the flavor puzzle. SU(5), SO(10), E6, and Higgs are considered simple and explicit models. Global symmetry addresses hierarchy puzzle, but the rules are unclear. In SO (18), with regard to hierarchy, perturbation theory breaks down. SO (14) fails for hierarchy because of GIM, b and t problems. Supersymmetry and technicolor with regard to flavor puzzle are questioned. The CP solution of ETC and Composite C models (addressing both flavor and hierarchy) is a minus. Composite A model has no evident virtues, and the basic idea of ETC model needs checking

  10. Supersymmetry, supergravity, and unification

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Pran

    2017-01-01

    This unique book gives a modern account of particle physics and gravity based on supersymmetry and supergravity, two of the most significant developments in theoretical physics since general relativity. The book begins with a brief overview of the history of unification and then goes into a detailed exposition of both fundamental and phenomenological topics. The topics in fundamental physics include Einstein gravity, Yang-Mills theory, anomalies, the standard model, supersymmetry and supergravity, and the construction of supergravity couplings with matter and gauge fields, as well as computational techniques for SO(10) couplings. The topics of phenomenological interest include implications of supergravity models at colliders, CP violation, and proton stability, as well as topics in cosmology such as inflation, leptogenesis, baryogenesis, and dark matter. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers seeking to master the techniques for building grand unified models.

  11. Light higgsino for gauge coupling unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Sik Jeong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore gauge coupling unification and dark matter in high scale supersymmetry where the scale of supersymmetry breaking is much above the weak scale. The gauge couplings unify as precisely as in low energy supersymmetry if the higgsinos, whose mass does not break supersymmetry, are much lighter than those obtaining masses from supersymmetry breaking. The dark matter of the universe can then be explained by the neutral higgsino or the gravitino. High scale supersymmetry with light higgsinos requires a large Higgs mixing parameter for electroweak symmetry breaking to take place. It is thus naturally realized in models where superparticle masses are generated at loop level while the Higgs mixing parameter is induced at tree level, like in anomaly and gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking.

  12. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  13. Commercial Database Design vs. Library Terminology Comprehension: Why Do Students Print Abstracts Instead of Full-Text Articles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imler, Bonnie; Eichelberger, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    When asked to print the full text of an article, many undergraduate college students print the abstract instead of the full text. This study seeks to determine the underlying cause(s) of this confusion. In this quantitative study, participants (n = 40) performed five usability tasks to assess ease of use and usefulness of five commercial library…

  14. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, the main objective of the research was to carry out scientific studies on its ... The animals were sacrificed on day 30 after the NIB scoring and blood sample ... effect on locomotion and rearing activities when compared with the control.

  15. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overshadowing of education policies in foreign language education at primary .... Cummins states that a threshold level of linguistics competence must be ..... language education planning is designed to accommodate these interests.

  16. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Technology, French as a foreign language, Learners, Instruction ... This translates to an increase of 3.7 percent or 1.4 million new mobile subscriptions ... technology (ICT) in foreign language learning and the availability as well as capacities ..... In spite of the many benefits of creating an authentic French learning ...

  17. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dale E. Zand (1997) argues that People once stood in awe of electricity, until ... in today's information-driven organizations: knowledge, trust, and power. ..... people's culture and resistance to anti-corruption efforts constitute the firmly fixed load.

  18. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological study has shown that 2.5 million deaths occurred every year as a result of vaccine-preventable diseases, mainly in Africa and Asia among children less than 5 years old (GIVS, 2005). Immunization is the process of conferring increased resistance to an infectious disease by a means other than experiencing ...

  19. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIVERSITY OF BENIN

    By paying strict attention to the manipulation of action and dialogue, the short story ... through the workings of the human mind as he reacts to various predicaments. .... In “A Caring Man,” in A Forest of Flowers, Ken Saro-Wiwa illustrates the theme of .... until his small dirty pillow is thrown out of the window of the moving train.

  20. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... country and mass migration of the farming communities to IDP camps in major cities ..... "Global Warming Impact: Flood Events, Wet-Dry Conditions and Changing ... Global Environmental Change, Vol. 16, pp. 268-281.Web. Adger, W. N. (1999). "Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and Extremes in Coastal Vietnam.

  1. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pablo Rubio Gijon

    Hishongwa belongs to a generation of writers who created a new style of expression in .... authority, can turn this authority into something even more autocratic. ... leadership of that (liberation) struggle” (Haarhoff 224), Hishongwa's Marrying ...

  2. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In English, this class includes the particles how, too, so, and as (Ibid). (3) Mary is ...... Doctoral thesis (unpublished), University of Dar es Salaam. Goodness, D. .... manga. fat. corpulent. 36. mbindipindi. green. 37. mwalo. naughty. absurd. 38.

  3. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting a surveillance system for antibacterial use has therefore become a more realistic ..... Financial support was obtained from the African Poverty Related Infection ... classification and Defined Daily Dose system methodology in Canada.

  4. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oita Etyang

    The concept democracy has been part of man's political life for ages. ... Taking the queue form Bratton and Mattes, we add that prospects of a stable democracy are ..... of the resulting instability that emanate from entrenched ethnic cleavages.

  5. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TAOFEEK YUSUF

    The data used were obtained through questionnaires administered to ... Keywords: academic performance, engineering education, undergraduate students, and .... and commitment to studies irrespective of any form of learning task Yusuf et al.

  6. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Njeri

    He took his children to St Marys, I could not afford to do so. ... place in universities should have been an important learning space for students. ... just us we are fascinated by Manchester football clubs and western movies as well as music.

  7. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language and Meaning: A Syntactic Study of Wale Okediran's Strange Encounters ... own communication role, making assertions, asking questions, giving orders, ... I will go straight to the police with all the things you stole from the hospital.

  8. Full-text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    consideration the needs of the current generation without risking ability of future generations to attain their needs. Evaluation of .... If an element or a number such as x and a collection such as A ... defined as definitive and accurate. This also ...

  9. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paula fiona mwikali

    The Portrayal of Masculinity in Dholuo Ohangla Music ... The Luo culture is built on patriarchy and the socialization of the children ..... A leader must be strong because those he/ she leads look up to him/her for direction, assistance and development. ... Being a loyal lieutenant of Orange Democratic Movement, Anyanga ...

  10. Full-text publication of abstract-presented work in physical therapy: do therapists publish what they preach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather D; Bogenschutz, Elizabeth D; Bayliss, Amy J; Altenburger, Peter A; Warden, Stuart J

    2011-02-01

    Professional meetings, such as the American Physical Therapy Association's (APTA's) Combined Sections Meeting (CSM), provide forums for sharing information relevant to physical therapy. An indicator of whether therapists fully disseminate their work is the number of full-text peer-reviewed publications that result. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the full-text publication rate of work presented in abstract form at CSM and (2) to investigate factors influencing this rate. A systematic search was undertaken to locate full-text publications of work presented in abstract form within the Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy sections at CSM between 2000 and 2004. Eligible publications were published within 5 years following abstract presentation. The influences of APTA section, year of abstract presentation, institution of origin, study design, sample size, study significance, reporting of a funding source, and presentation type on full-text publication rate were assessed. Characteristics of full-text publications were explored. Work presented in 1 out of 4 abstracts (25.4%) progressed to full-text publication. Odds of full-text publication increased if the abstract originated from a doctorate-granting or "other" institution, reported findings of an experimental study, reported a statistically significant finding, included a larger sample size, disclosed a funding source, or was presented as a platform presentation. More than one third (37.8%) of full-text publications were published in the Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy or Physical Therapy, and 4 out of 10 full-text publications (39.2%) contained at least one major change from information presented in abstract form. The full-text publication rate for information presented in abstract form within the Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy sections at CSM is low relative to comparative disciplines. Caution should be exercised when translating information presented at CSM into

  11. Reported estimates of diagnostic accuracy in ophthalmology conference abstracts were not associated with full-text publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Daniël A; Cohen, Jérémie F; Spijker, René; Saldanha, Ian J; Dickersin, Kay; Virgili, Gianni; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2016-11-01

    To assess whether conference abstracts that report higher estimates of diagnostic accuracy are more likely to reach full-text publication in a peer-reviewed journal. We identified abstracts describing diagnostic accuracy studies, presented between 2007 and 2010 at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting. We extracted reported estimates of sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Between May and July 2015, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify corresponding full-text publications; if needed, we contacted abstract authors. Cox regression was performed to estimate associations with full-text publication, where sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were logit transformed, and DOR was log transformed. A full-text publication was found for 226/399 (57%) included abstracts. There was no association between reported estimates of sensitivity and full-text publication (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.98, 1.22]). The same applied to specificity (HR 1.00 [95% CI 0.88, 1.14]), AUC (HR 0.91 [95% CI 0.75, 1.09]), and DOR (HR 1.01 [95% CI 0.94, 1.09]). Almost half of the ARVO conference abstracts describing diagnostic accuracy studies did not reach full-text publication. Studies in abstracts that mentioned higher accuracy estimates were not more likely to be reported in a full-text publication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Retrieval of publications addressing shared decision making: an evaluation of full-text searches on medical journal websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Xavier; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Auer, Reto; Iriarte, Pablo; Krause, Jan; Légaré, France; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2015-04-07

    Full-text searches of articles increase the recall, defined by the proportion of relevant publications that are retrieved. However, this method is rarely used in medical research due to resource constraints. For the purpose of a systematic review of publications addressing shared decision making, a full-text search method was required to retrieve publications where shared decision making does not appear in the title or abstract. The objective of our study was to assess the efficiency and reliability of full-text searches in major medical journals for identifying shared decision making publications. A full-text search was performed on the websites of 15 high-impact journals in general internal medicine to look up publications of any type from 1996-2011 containing the phrase "shared decision making". The search method was compared with a PubMed search of titles and abstracts only. The full-text search was further validated by requesting all publications from the same time period from the individual journal publishers and searching through the collected dataset. The full-text search for "shared decision making" on journal websites identified 1286 publications in 15 journals compared to 119 through the PubMed search. The search within the publisher-provided publications of 6 journals identified 613 publications compared to 646 with the full-text search on the respective journal websites. The concordance rate was 94.3% between both full-text searches. Full-text searching on medical journal websites is an efficient and reliable way to identify relevant articles in the field of shared decision making for review or other purposes. It may be more widely used in biomedical research in other fields in the future, with the collaboration of publishers and journals toward open-access data.

  13. Network Dependency in Migration Flows – A Space-time Analysis for Germany since Re-unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo

    The contribution of this paper is to analyse the role of network interdependencies in a dynamic panel data model for German internal migration fl ows since re-unification. So far, a capacious account of spatial patterns in German migration data is still missing in the empirical literature. In the...

  14. Impact of Metadata on Full-text Information Retrieval Performance: An Experimental Research on a Small Scale Turkish Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağdaş Çapkın

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Information institutions use text-based information retrieval systems to store, index and retrieve metadata, full-text, or both metadata and full-text (hybrid contents. The aim of this research was to evaluate impact of these contents on information retrieval performance. For this purpose, metadata (MIR, full-text (FIR and hybrid (HIR content information retrieval systems were developed with default Lucene information retrieval model for a small scale Turkish corpus. In order to evaluate performance of this three systems, “precision - recall” and “normalized recall” tests were conducted. Experimental findings showed that there were no significant differences between MIR and FIR in mean average precision (MAP performance. On the other hand, MAP performance of HIR was significantly higher in comparison to MIR and FIR. When information retrieval performance was evaluated as user-centered, the “normalized recall” performances of MIR and HIR were significantly higher than FIR. Additionally, there were no significant differences between the systems in retrieved relevant document means. Processing different types of contents such as metadata and full-text had some advantages and disadvantages for information retrieval systems in terms of term management. The advantages brought together in hybrid content processing (HIR and information retrieval performance improved.

  15. Selected topics in grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seckel, D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of four pieces of research dealing with grand unification. The topics are neutron oscillation, CP violation, magnetic monopole abundance and distribution in neutron stars, and a proposal for an inflationary cosmology driven by stress-energy in domain walls

  16. Problems in unification and supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, G.; Henyey, F. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    Problems in unification of the various gauge groups, quantum gravity, supersymmetry and supergravity, compact dimensions of space-time, and conditions at the beginning of the universe are discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 15 papers presented. (WHK)

  17. Problems in unification and supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.; Henyey, F.

    1984-01-01

    Problems in unification of the various gauge groups, quantum gravity, supersymmetry and supergravity, compact dimensions of space-time, and conditions at the beginning of the universe are discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 15 papers presented

  18. Gauge unification of fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1980-02-01

    After having reviewed briefly the last twenty years' progress in the theory of unification, with the twin aspects of development of a gauge theory of basic interactions linked with internal symmetry and the spontaneous breaking of these symmetries, the Nobel prize winners have summarized the present situation and the immediate problems. At the end, an extrapolation of the future is also given

  19. Introduction to grand unification theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyungsik

    1980-01-01

    We introduce the Georgi-Glashow model based on the minimal gauge group SU(5) as a prototype grand unification theory of the electroweak and strong interactions. Simple estimation of sin 2 thetasub(W) in the symmetry limit and the renormalization corrections at the energy scale of Msub(W) are given along wich other successes of the SU(5) model

  20. [25 Years After Re-Unification of Germany: An Overview on Eastern German Psychiatry. Part 1: Post-War Era, Pavlovization, Psychopharmacological Era and Social Psychiatric Reform Movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H

    2016-04-01

    This is the first of a 2-part study on the history of psychiatry in Eastern Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. It mainly covers the years post World War II up until the beginning of the 1970s. The first post-war years were determined by the new power holders' attempts to overcome National Socialist (Nazi) heritage and to re-organize mental health and care in general. The doctrine of a strict denazifization in East Germany must, however, be regarded as a myth. Promoted by centralized organization, there was an increase in communist party-ideological influence and harassment as well as aligning scientific views and research with Soviet paradigms (Pavlovization) during the 1950s and early 1960s. This, however, led to an enormous rise in exodus of skilled labor to West Germany, which in turn further increased the notorious lack of staff. After the erection of the inner-German wall, this problem was mitigated, yet never fully solved over the 40 years of the existence of the GDR. Despite adverse conditions, East German psychiatrists made major original contributions to the development of psychiatry in general, at least up until the 1960s. Academic psychiatry was mainly based on biological concepts that were further promoted by new somatic and psychopharmacological therapeutic options. In the 1960s, social psychiatric reformist forces emerged, primarily in the large psychiatric hospitals. The improvements achieved by these forces, however, were not implemented on a nation-wide scale, but mainly restricted to one particular or several institutions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Environmental law. Important laws and ordinances for environmental protection. With the transitional provisions issued in the period leading to the German Unification. Full text edition with detailed index and an introduction by Prof. Dr. Peter-Christoph Storm. As of November 15, 1990. 6. rev. and enlarged ed. Umweltrecht. Wichtige Gesetze und Verordnungen zum Schutz der Umwelt. Mit den Ueberleitungsregelungen aus Anlass der Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands. Textausgabe mit ausfuehrlichem Sachverzeichnis und einer Einfuehrung von Prof. Dr. Peter-Christoph Storm. Stand: 15. November 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulation on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environments law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment. Common administative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy are radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. The transitional provisons required for estaslishing the unified Germany are given in an annex. (orig.).

  2. A full-text english database of testimonies of those exposed to radiation near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Masatsugu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Hirabayashi, Kyoko; Tooka, Yasuyuki; Apsalikov, Kazbek Negamatovich; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2004-01-01

    The present paper is a sequel to the initial report (Kawano et al 2003a) of the project for a full-text Japanese database of the testimonies of those exposed to radiation near the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan. 139 testimonies were gathered in four villages near Semipalatinsk in 2002. We translated them into English from Russian and Kazakh, and created a full-text database by using a Latin script text retrieval program, TERESA. The present paper attempts at essentially the sa...

  3. On the Creation of Hypertext Links in Full-Text Documents: Measurement of Inter-Linker Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study in which several different sets of hypertext links are inserted by different people in full-text documents. The degree of similarity between the sets is measured using coefficients and topological indices. As in comparable studies of inter-indexer consistency, the sets of links used by different people showed little similarity.…

  4. Comparing data accuracy between structured abstracts and full-text journal articles: implications in their use for informing clinical decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontelo, Paul; Gavino, Alex; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis

    2013-12-01

    The abstract is the most frequently read section of a research article. The use of 'Consensus Abstracts', a clinician-oriented web application formatted for mobile devices to search MEDLINE/PubMed, for informing clinical decisions was proposed recently; however, inaccuracies between abstracts and the full-text article have been shown. Efforts have been made to improve quality. We compared data in 60 recent-structured abstracts and full-text articles from six highly read medical journals. Data inaccuracies were identified and then classified as either clinically significant or not significant. Data inaccuracies were observed in 53.33% of articles ranging from 3.33% to 45% based on the IMRAD format sections. The Results section showed the highest discrepancies (45%) although these were deemed to be mostly not significant clinically except in one. The two most common discrepancies were mismatched numbers or percentages (11.67%) and numerical data or calculations found in structured abstracts but not mentioned in the full text (40%). There was no significant relationship between journals and the presence of discrepancies (Fisher's exact p value =0.3405). Although we found a high percentage of inaccuracy between structured abstracts and full-text articles, these were not significant clinically. The inaccuracies do not seem to affect the conclusion and interpretation overall. Structured abstracts appear to be informative and may be useful to practitioners as a resource for guiding clinical decisions.

  5. Empirical investigations into full-text protein interaction Article Categorization Task (ACT) in the BioCreative II.5 Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Man; Su, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The selection of protein interaction documents is one important application for biology research and has a direct impact on the quality of downstream BioNLP applications, i.e., information extraction and retrieval, summarization, QA, etc. The BioCreative II.5 Challenge Article Categorization task (ACT) involves doing a binary text classification to determine whether a given structured full-text article contains protein interaction information. This may be the first attempt at classification of full-text protein interaction documents in wide community. In this paper, we compare and evaluate the effectiveness of different section types in full-text articles for text classification. Moreover, in practice, the less number of true-positive samples results in unstable performance and unreliable classifier trained on it. Previous research on learning with skewed class distributions has altered the class distribution using oversampling and downsampling. We also investigate the skewed protein interaction classification and analyze the effect of various issues related to the choice of external sources, oversampling training sets, classifiers, etc. We report on the various factors above to show that 1) a full-text biomedical article contains a wealth of scientific information important to users that may not be completely represented by abstracts and/or keywords, which improves the accuracy performance of classification and 2) reinforcing true-positive samples significantly increases the accuracy and stability performance of classification.

  6. Desktop Access to Full-Text NACA and NASA Reports: Systems Developed by NASA Langley Technical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Manjula Y.; Adams, David L.; Trinidad, P. Paul

    1997-01-01

    NASA Langley Technical Library has been involved in developing systems for full-text information delivery of NACA/NASA technical reports since 1991. This paper will describe the two prototypes it has developed and the present production system configuration. The prototype systems are a NACA CD-ROM of thirty-three classic paper NACA reports and a network-based Full-text Electronic Reports Documents System (FEDS) constructed from both paper and electronic formats of NACA and NASA reports. The production system is the DigiDoc System (DIGItal Documents) presently being developed based on the experiences gained from the two prototypes. DigiDoc configuration integrates the on-line catalog database World Wide Web interface and PDF technology to provide a powerful and flexible search and retrieval system. It describes in detail significant achievements and lessons learned in terms of data conversion, storage technologies, full-text searching and retrieval, and image databases. The conclusions from the experiences of digitization and full- text access and future plans for DigiDoc system implementation are discussed.

  7. Reformulating XQuery queries using GLAV mapping and complex unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Benharzallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for reformulation of XQuery queries. The mediation is based on an essential component called mediator. Its main role is to reformulate a user query, written in terms of global schema, into queries written in terms of source schemas. Our algorithm is based on the principle of logical equivalence, simple and complex unification, to obtain a better reformulation. It takes XQuery query, global schema (written in XMLSchema, and mappings GLAV as input parameters and provides resultant query written in terms of source schemas. The results of implementation show the proper functioning of the algorithm.

  8. The consistency between scientific papers presented at the Orthopaedic Trauma Association and their subsequent full-text publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Charles F; Bhandari, Mohit; Fulkerson, Eric; Ginat, Danial; Egol, Kenneth A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2006-02-01

    To determine the consistency of conclusions/statements made in podium presentations at the annual meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) with those in subsequent full-text publications. Also, to evaluate the nature and consistency of study design, methods, sample sizes, results and assign a corresponding level of evidence. Abstracts of the scientific programs of the OTA from 1994 to 1997 (N = 254) were queried by using the PubMed database to identify those studies resulting in a peer-reviewed, full-text publication. Of the 169 articles retrieved, 137 studies were the basis of our study after the exclusion criteria were applied: non-English language, basic science studies, anatomic dissection studies, and articles published in non-peer-reviewed journals. Information was abstracted onto a data form: first from the abstract published in the final meeting program, and then from the published journal article. Information was recorded regarding study issues, including the study design, primary objective, sample size, and statistical methods. We provided descriptive statistics about the frequency of consistent results between abstracts and full-text publications. The results were recorded as percentages and a 95% confidence interval was applied to each value. Study results were recorded for the abstract and full-text publication comparing results and the overall conclusion. A level of scientific-based evidence was assigned to each full-text publication. The final conclusion of the study remained the same 93.4% of the time. The method of study was an observational case series 52% of the time and a statement regarding the rate of patient follow-up was reported 42% of the time. Of the studies published, 18.2% consisted of a sample size smaller than the previously presented abstract. When the published papers had their level of evidence graded, 11% were level I, 16% level II, 17% level III, and 56% level IV. Authors conclusions were consistent with those in full-text

  9. M theory: a possible unification of physics laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Alexandre da Silva; Silva, Diego Oliveira Nolasco da; Sousa, Claudio Manoel Gomes de

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Physics has two pillars which are mutually incompatible: quantum field theory and general relativity theory. Throughout its history, various unifications have been made, and in attempts to have a better understanding of the birth and formation of the Universe is also necessary to unify these pillars. This unification may require 11 dimensions, and 6 of them are compressed so that it cannot be seen with existing instruments. These dimensions are the spaces in which the strings vibrate, and each mode of vibration corresponds to a particle. The last dimension shows that the universe is a brane, it is in full motion in the multiverse and the collision of two branes can answer the biggest problem of cosmology: what was the Big Bang? Black holes can be explained using a theory that contains gravity and quantum mechanics. The theory is still being developed, some problems are being solved and the main one is the experimental problem, because it requires energy levels that are not yet achieved by current particle accelerators. This work presents M theory as a possibility of unification between the micro and macro, which maybe leading us to the theory of everything. (author)

  10. M theory: a possible unification of physics laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Alexandre da Silva; Silva, Diego Oliveira Nolasco da; Sousa, Claudio Manoel Gomes de [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia (UCB), DF (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Physics has two pillars which are mutually incompatible: quantum field theory and general relativity theory. Throughout its history, various unifications have been made, and in attempts to have a better understanding of the birth and formation of the Universe is also necessary to unify these pillars. This unification may require 11 dimensions, and 6 of them are compressed so that it cannot be seen with existing instruments. These dimensions are the spaces in which the strings vibrate, and each mode of vibration corresponds to a particle. The last dimension shows that the universe is a brane, it is in full motion in the multiverse and the collision of two branes can answer the biggest problem of cosmology: what was the Big Bang? Black holes can be explained using a theory that contains gravity and quantum mechanics. The theory is still being developed, some problems are being solved and the main one is the experimental problem, because it requires energy levels that are not yet achieved by current particle accelerators. This work presents M theory as a possibility of unification between the micro and macro, which maybe leading us to the theory of everything. (author)

  11. [Exploration and construction of the full-text database of acupuncture literature in the Republic of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Lin; Zhao, Jing; Leng, Jiahao; Zhang, Shujian

    2017-10-12

    The ALIPORC full-text database is targeted at a specific full-text database of acupuncture literature in the Republic of China. Starting in 2015, till now, the database has been getting completed, focusing on books relevant with acupuncture, articles and advertising documents, accomplished or published in the Republic of China. The construction of this database aims to achieve the source sharing of acupuncture medical literature in the Republic of China through the retrieval approaches to diversity and accurate content presentation, contributes to the exchange of scholars, reduces the paper damage caused by paging and simplify the retrieval of the rare literature. The writers have made the explanation of the database in light of sources, characteristics and current situation of construction; and have discussed on improving the efficiency and integrity of the database and deepening the development of acupuncture literature in the Republic of China.

  12. A comprehensive and quantitative comparison of text-mining in 15 million full-text articles versus their corresponding abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, David; Stærfeldt, Hans-Henrik; Tønsberg, Christian; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Brunak, Søren

    2018-02-01

    Across academia and industry, text mining has become a popular strategy for keeping up with the rapid growth of the scientific literature. Text mining of the scientific literature has mostly been carried out on collections of abstracts, due to their availability. Here we present an analysis of 15 million English scientific full-text articles published during the period 1823-2016. We describe the development in article length and publication sub-topics during these nearly 250 years. We showcase the potential of text mining by extracting published protein-protein, disease-gene, and protein subcellular associations using a named entity recognition system, and quantitatively report on their accuracy using gold standard benchmark data sets. We subsequently compare the findings to corresponding results obtained on 16.5 million abstracts included in MEDLINE and show that text mining of full-text articles consistently outperforms using abstracts only.

  13. A comprehensive and quantitative comparison of text-mining in 15 million full-text articles versus their corresponding abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, David; Stærfeldt, Hans-Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Across academia and industry, text mining has become a popular strategy for keeping up with the rapid growth of the scientific literature. Text mining of the scientific literature has mostly been carried out on collections of abstracts, due to their availability. Here we present an analysis of 15 million English scientific full-text articles published during the period 1823–2016. We describe the development in article length and publication sub-topics during these nearly 250 years. We showcase the potential of text mining by extracting published protein–protein, disease–gene, and protein subcellular associations using a named entity recognition system, and quantitatively report on their accuracy using gold standard benchmark data sets. We subsequently compare the findings to corresponding results obtained on 16.5 million abstracts included in MEDLINE and show that text mining of full-text articles consistently outperforms using abstracts only. PMID:29447159

  14. Publication trends of shared decision making in 15 high impact medical journals: a full-text review with bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Xavier; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Auer, Reto; Fischer, Roland; Locatelli, Isabella; Iriarte, Pablo; Krause, Jan; Légaré, France; Cornuz, Jacques

    2014-08-09

    Shared Decision Making (SDM) is increasingly advocated as a model for medical decision making. However, there is still low use of SDM in clinical practice. High impact factor journals might represent an efficient way for its dissemination. We aimed to identify and characterize publication trends of SDM in 15 high impact medical journals. We selected the 15 general and internal medicine journals with the highest impact factor publishing original articles, letters and editorials. We retrieved publications from 1996 to 2011 through the full-text search function on each journal website and abstracted bibliometric data. We included publications of any type containing the phrase "shared decision making" or five other variants in their abstract or full text. These were referred to as SDM publications. A polynomial Poisson regression model with logarithmic link function was used to assess the evolution across the period of the number of SDM publications according to publication characteristics. We identified 1285 SDM publications out of 229,179 publications in 15 journals from 1996 to 2011. The absolute number of SDM publications by journal ranged from 2 to 273 over 16 years. SDM publications increased both in absolute and relative numbers per year, from 46 (0.32% relative to all publications from the 15 journals) in 1996 to 165 (1.17%) in 2011. This growth was exponential (P Full-text search retrieved ten times more SDM publications than a similar PubMed search (1285 vs. 119 respectively). This review in full-text showed that SDM publications increased exponentially in major medical journals from 1996 to 2011. This growth might reflect an increased dissemination of the SDM concept to the medical community.

  15. An Ordering Linear Unification Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡运发

    1989-01-01

    In this paper,we present an ordering linear unification algorithm(OLU).A new idea on substituteion of the binding terms is introduced to the algorithm,which is able to overcome some drawbacks of other algorithms,e.g.,MM algorithm[1],RG1 and RG2 algorithms[2],Particularly,if we use the directed eyclie graphs,the algoritm needs not check the binding order,then the OLU algorithm can also be aplied to the infinite tree data struceture,and a higher efficiency can be expected.The paper focuses upon the discussion of OLU algorithm and a partial order structure with respect to the unification algorithm.This algorithm has been implemented in the GKD-PROLOG/VAX 780 interpreting system.Experimental results have shown that the algorithm is very simple and efficient.

  16. How accessibility influences citation counts: The case of citations to the full text articles available from ResearchGate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sababi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the number of citations to an article can positively be correlated to its free online availability. In the present study, we investigated the possible impact of academic social networks on the number of citations. We chose the social web service “ResearchGate” as a case. This website acts both as a social network to connect researchers, and at the same time, as an open access repository to publish post-print version of the accepted manuscripts and final versions of open access articles. We collected the data of 1823 articles published by the authors from four different universities. By analyzing these data, we showed that although different levels of full text availability are observed for the four universities, there is always a significant positive correlation between full text availability and the citation count. Moreover, we showed that both post-print version and publisher’s version (i.e., final published version of the archived manuscripts receive more citations than non-OA articles, and the difference in the citation counts of post-print manuscripts and publisher’s version articles is nonsignificant.

  17. Macroscopic constraints on string unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.R.

    1989-03-01

    The comparison of sting theory with experiment requires a huge extrapolation from the microscopic distances, of order of the Planck length, up to the macroscopic laboratory distances. The quantum effects give rise to large corrections to the macroscopic predictions of sting unification. I discus the model-independent constraints on the gravitational sector of string theory due to the inevitable existence of universal Fradkin-Tseytlin dilatons. 9 refs

  18. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  19. Identifying Scientific Project-generated Data Citation from Full-text Articles: An Investigation of TCGA Data Citation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the open science era, it is typical to share project-generated scientific data by depositing it in an open and accessible database. Moreover, scientific publications are preserved in a digital library archive. It is challenging to identify the data usage that is mentioned in literature and associate it with its source. Here, we investigated the data usage of a government-funded cancer genomics project, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, via a full-text literature analysis. Design/methodology/approach: We focused on identifying articles using the TCGA dataset and constructing linkages between the articles and the specific TCGA dataset. First, we collected 5,372 TCGA-related articles from PubMed Central (PMC. Second, we constructed a benchmark set with 25 full-text articles that truly used the TCGA data in their studies, and we summarized the key features of the benchmark set. Third, the key features were applied to the remaining PMC full-text articles that were collected from PMC. Findings: The amount of publications that use TCGA data has increased significantly since 2011, although the TCGA project was launched in 2005. Additionally, we found that the critical areas of focus in the studies that use the TCGA data were glioblastoma multiforme, lung cancer, and breast cancer; meanwhile, data from the RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq platform is the most preferable for use. Research limitations: The current workflow to identify articles that truly used TCGA data is labor-intensive. An automatic method is expected to improve the performance. Practical implications: This study will help cancer genomics researchers determine the latest advancements in cancer molecular therapy, and it will promote data sharing and data-intensive scientific discovery. Originality/value: Few studies have been conducted to investigate data usage by government-funded projects/programs since their launch. In this preliminary study, we extracted articles that use TCGA data

  20. FULIR Full-text Institutional Repository of the Ruđer Bošković Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, B.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Institutional repositories are online platforms for gathering, archiving, dissemination and long-term preservation of an institution’s scientific output. Archiving full-text papers into the institutional and other open access repositories (OAR is one way of achieving open access to scientific informa tion, the so-called “green” OA. In 2006 the idea of implementing an institutional repository at the Ruđer Bošković Institute Library was initiated and one year later, the project had started, parallel with the subproject of digitizing RBI’s documentary materials. 4 Various open source solutions were tested, among which EPrints software was chosen as the most suitable to RBI’s needs. The first documents were archived in March 2011, and on October 18, 2012, the official version of the repository was published under the name Full-text Institutional Repository of the Ruđer Bošković Institute – FULIR. The goal of FULIR is to gather, archive, disseminate and preserve, for the long term, the whole scientific production and documentary materials of the Institute in digital form, as well as provide open access to archived materials where possible. It is possible to archive all kinds of materials in FULIR, such as articles published in journals, conference proceedings, books, book chapters, dissertations, but also various kinds of unpublished materials such as posters and presentations from conferences or lectures, reports, audio and video records and datasets. FULIR is based on the principle that the scientists themselves archive their materials, but in this initial phase, the librarians are also assisting the scientists in archiving new items. The repository allows different access rights to archived materials and a depositor may define to whom (all users/only registered users (RBI staff/only repository administrators, and when (immediately or after a cer tain embargo period full-texts of archived materials will be available. Repository

  1. Family unification in five and six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K.S.; Barr, S.M.; Kyae, Bumseok

    2002-01-01

    In family unification models, all three families of quarks and leptons are grouped together into an irreducible representation of a simple gauge group, thus unifying the standard model gauge symmetries and a gauged family symmetry. Large orthogonal groups, and the exceptional groups E 7 and E 8 , have been much studied for family unification. The main theoretical difficulty of family unification is the existence of mirror families at the weak scale. It is shown here that family unification without mirror families can be realized in simple five-dimensional and six-dimensional orbifold models similar to those recently proposed for SU(5) and SO(10) grand unification. It is noted that a family unification group that survived to near the weak scale and whose coupling extrapolated to high scales unified with those of the standard model would be evidence, accessible in principle at low energy, of the existence of small (Planckian or GUT-scale) extra dimensions

  2. SAT Encoding of Unification in EL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baader, Franz; Morawska, Barbara

    Unification in Description Logics has been proposed as a novel inference service that can, for example, be used to detect redundancies in ontologies. In a recent paper, we have shown that unification in EL is NP-complete, and thus of a complexity that is considerably lower than in other Description Logics of comparably restricted expressive power. In this paper, we introduce a new NP-algorithm for solving unification problems in EL, which is based on a reduction to satisfiability in propositional logic (SAT). The advantage of this new algorithm is, on the one hand, that it allows us to employ highly optimized state-of-the-art SAT solvers when implementing an EL-unification algorithm. On the other hand, this reduction provides us with a proof of the fact that EL-unification is in NP that is much simpler than the one given in our previous paper on EL-unification.

  3. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conversion rates of abstracts presented at the Canadian Rheumatology Association Annual Meetings into full-text journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacyshyn, Elaine A; Soong, Laura C

    2017-06-01

    Dissemination of research studies is important for research ideas to be transformed from initial abstracts to full publications. Analyses of the scientific impact and publication record of the Canadian Rheumatology Association (CRA) Annual meeting have not been previously described. This study determines the publication rate of abstracts presented at the CRA Annual Meetings 2005-2013 to full-text journal articles and the factors associated with publication. Program records of previous CRA meetings from 2005 to 2013 were obtained. Abstracts were searched for corresponding full-text publication in Google Scholar and PubMed using a search algorithm. Abstracts and subsequent published articles were evaluated for type of abstract, time to publication, study type, publishing journal, and journal impact factor. A total of 1401 abstracts were included in the study, 567 of which were converted to full publications. The average time to publication was 19.7 months, with 89% of abstracts published within 3 years of being presented. Eighty-three percent of abstracts were clinical in nature, and 58% of published studies were observational in design. Articles were published in a wide range of journals, with the top publisher being the Journal of Rheumatology (31%). Average time to publication was 19.7 months. Eighty-six percent of articles had a Journal Impact Factor > 2. Overall, 40.5% of abstracts presented at the CRA Annual Meetings 2005-2013 were published. Further research is needed to determine barriers and reasons for abstracts not being published as full-text articles.

  5. [Full-text publication of abstracts presented at the 33th Argentinean pediatric meeting and non publication related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canosa, Daniela; Ferrero, Fernando; Melamud, Ariel; Otero, Paula D; Merech, Raúl S; Ceriani Cernadas, José M

    2011-02-01

    There is no information about non publication of research presented at scientific meetings in Argentina. We analyzed the full-text publication rate of abstracts presented at the 33° Argentinean Pediatric Congress (APC), time to achieve publication, and factors associated with publication or non-publication. Survey-based cross-sectional study, including authors of abstracts presented at the 33° APC. The survey included age, gender, specialty and sub-specialty, professional area and reason of publication or non-publication. We randomly selected 140/894 presented abstracts. Only 16 abstracts (11.4%) were subsequently published in full, requiring 27±15 months. There were no association between full-text publication and author's characteristics. "Oral presentations" were more likely to be subsequently published (p= 0.018). In non published abstracts, 95% were not submitted by the author, more frequently because of "lack of time" (35.9%). Only 11.4% of abstracts were subsequently published in full. Oral presentation was associated with a higher publication rate. Most frequent cause for non-publication was non submission due to lack of time.

  6. tagtog: interactive and text-mining-assisted annotation of gene mentions in PLOS full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejuela, Juan Miguel; McQuilton, Peter; Ponting, Laura; Marygold, Steven J; Stefancsik, Raymund; Millburn, Gillian H; Rost, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    The breadth and depth of biomedical literature are increasing year upon year. To keep abreast of these increases, FlyBase, a database for Drosophila genomic and genetic information, is constantly exploring new ways to mine the published literature to increase the efficiency and accuracy of manual curation and to automate some aspects, such as triaging and entity extraction. Toward this end, we present the 'tagtog' system, a web-based annotation framework that can be used to mark up biological entities (such as genes) and concepts (such as Gene Ontology terms) in full-text articles. tagtog leverages manual user annotation in combination with automatic machine-learned annotation to provide accurate identification of gene symbols and gene names. As part of the BioCreative IV Interactive Annotation Task, FlyBase has used tagtog to identify and extract mentions of Drosophila melanogaster gene symbols and names in full-text biomedical articles from the PLOS stable of journals. We show here the results of three experiments with different sized corpora and assess gene recognition performance and curation speed. We conclude that tagtog-named entity recognition improves with a larger corpus and that tagtog-assisted curation is quicker than manual curation. DATABASE URL: www.tagtog.net, www.flybase.org.

  7. Factors Affecting Subsequent Full-text Publication of Papers Presented at the Annual Conference of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Sumaira; Mishra, Devendra; Mishra, Ruchi; Gupta, Shalu

    2017-02-15

    To study the factors associated with the subsequent (over next 9 years) full-text publication of papers presented at the 44th National Conference of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (PEDICON), 2007. All papers presented at PEDICON 2007 were searched for subsequent full-text publication over the next 9 years in English-language journals by an internet-based search. The published papers were compared with the conference-abstracts. 74 (16%) of the 450 abstracts presented were subsequently published; 61 (82.4%) in Medline-indexed journals. Majority (50, 67.6%) of the papers was published within the first 36 mo in journals with mean (SD) impact factor of 2.62 (1.63). The factors significantly associated with subsequent publication were papers presented as award papers (Pfull-papers, 55% had a change in title; authors were changed in 65%, and participants' numbers were dissimilar in 8.6%. There is a need to identify the factors responsible for this low rate of subsequent publication, and interventions to improve it both at institutional and researchers' level.

  8. Exploring the Use of Enterprise Content Management Systems in Unification Types of Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Noreen Izza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to better understand how highly standardized and integrated businesses known as unification types of organizations use Enterprise Content Management Systems (ECMS to support their business processes. Multiple case study approach was used to study the ways two unification organizations use their ECMS in their daily work practices. Arising from these case studies are insights into the differing ways in which ECMS is used to support businesses. Based on the comparisons of the two cases, this study proposed that unification organizations may use ECMS in four ways, for: (1 collaboration, (2 information sharing that supports a standardized process structure, (3 building custom workflows that support integrated and standardized processes, and (4 providing links and access to information systems. These findings may guide organizations that are highly standardized and integrated in fashion, to achieve their intended ECMS-use, to understand reasons for ECMS failures and underutilization and to exploit technologies investments.

  9. A comprehensive and quantitative comparison of text-mining in 15 million full-text articles versus their corresponding abstracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, David; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Tønsberg, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Across academia and industry, text mining has become a popular strategy for keeping up with the rapid growth of the scientific literature. Text mining of the scientific literature has mostly been carried out on collections of abstracts, due to their availability. Here we present an analysis of 15...... subcellular associations using a named entity recognition system, and quantitatively report on their accuracy using gold standard benchmark data sets. We subsequently compare the findings to corresponding results obtained on 16.5 million abstracts included in MEDLINE and show that text mining of full...... million English scientific full-text articles published during the period 1823-2016. We describe the development in article length and publication sub-topics during these nearly 250 years. We showcase the potential of text mining by extracting published protein-protein, disease-gene, and protein...

  10. Grand unification: quo vadis domine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1985-01-01

    The present theoretical and experimental situation with grand unification is summarized. The issues of proton decay and the Weinberg angle are addressed, going through the predictions of both the standard SU(5) theory and its supersymmetric extension. The SO(10) theory, which provides a minimal one family model, is then studied. The gravitational characteristics of domain walls and strings are then discussed. It is argued that there is a need to go beyond SO(10) in order to incorporate a unified picture of families. This leads to the prediction of mirror fermions, whose physics is analyzed. 31 refs

  11. Family unification within SO(15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, K.; Maalampi, J.

    1981-01-01

    We present a model for the unification of fermion families based on the gauge symmetry SO(15). It is a minimal SO(n) model which can accommodate the known fermions within a single irreducible representation. The model predicts four ordinary fermion families and four families of mirror fermions. The latter have V + A weak interactions, and their mass scale is predicted to be 10 2 GeV/c 2 . We argue that radiative corrections to the fermion masses can cause non-negligible mixing between ordinary and mirror fermions. The implications of these mixings for the weak interaction phenomenology and solar neutrinos are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Proton hexality in local grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerste, Stefan; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics

    2010-07-15

    Proton hexality is a discrete symmetry that avoids the problem of too fast proton decay in the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Unfortunately it is inconsistent with conventional grand unification. We show that proton hexality can be incorporated in the scheme of ''Local Grand Unification'' discussed in the framework of model building in (heterotic) string theory. (orig.)

  13. The film’s the thing: film translation and its effect on a silent, edited and full text Hamlet The film’s the thing: film translation and its effect on a silent, edited and full text Hamlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete R. Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation is, at its best, a difficult path to tred, especially in a global, multicultural society. A word that defines an object may be in need of careful consideration and modification, not only to convey its individual meaning, but also to place it in the concept or intent when linked with others words forming a thought. The process is particularly complex when pairing a word with an image as is done in film. In the 1960’s, the American television classic, Star Trek, added new words as well as additional meaning to old words in the English lexicon. The definition of these words was clearly given in visual images that can still be recalled today. A typical exchange of dialogue may read: Captain, according to my tricorder, there is no intelligent life on this planet. Beam him up, Scotty. Energise. Translation is, at its best, a difficult path to tred, especially in a global, multicultural society. A word that defines an object may be in need of careful consideration and modification, not only to convey its individual meaning, but also to place it in the concept or intent when linked with others words forming a thought. The process is particularly complex when pairing a word with an image as is done in film. In the 1960’s, the American television classic, Star Trek, added new words as well as additional meaning to old words in the English lexicon. The definition of these words was clearly given in visual images that can still be recalled today. A typical exchange of dialogue may read: Captain, according to my tricorder, there is no intelligent life on this planet. Beam him up, Scotty. Energise.

  14. The BioC-BioGRID corpus: full text articles annotated for curation of protein–protein and genetic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Chatr-aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S.; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Wilbur, W. John; Comeau, Donald C.; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of information on the molecular genetics and biochemistry of model organisms has been reported in the scientific literature. However, this data is typically described in free text form and is not readily amenable to computational analyses. To this end, the BioGRID database systematically curates the biomedical literature for genetic and protein interaction data. This data is provided in a standardized computationally tractable format and includes structured annotation of experimental evidence. BioGRID curation necessarily involves substantial human effort by expert curators who must read each publication to extract the relevant information. Computational text-mining methods offer the potential to augment and accelerate manual curation. To facilitate the development of practical text-mining strategies, a new challenge was organized in BioCreative V for the BioC task, the collaborative Biocurator Assistant Task. This was a non-competitive, cooperative task in which the participants worked together to build BioC-compatible modules into an integrated pipeline to assist BioGRID curators. As an integral part of this task, a test collection of full text articles was developed that contained both biological entity annotations (gene/protein and organism/species) and molecular interaction annotations (protein–protein and genetic interactions (PPIs and GIs)). This collection, which we call the BioC-BioGRID corpus, was annotated by four BioGRID curators over three rounds of annotation and contains 120 full text articles curated in a dataset representing two major model organisms, namely budding yeast and human. The BioC-BioGRID corpus contains annotations for 6409 mentions of genes and their Entrez Gene IDs, 186 mentions of organism names and their NCBI Taxonomy IDs, 1867 mentions of PPIs and 701 annotations of PPI experimental evidence statements, 856 mentions of GIs and 399 annotations of GI evidence statements. The purpose, characteristics and possible future

  15. The BioC-BioGRID corpus: full text articles annotated for curation of protein-protein and genetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamaj Dogan, Rezarta; Kim, Sun; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of information on the molecular genetics and biochemistry of model organisms has been reported in the scientific literature. However, this data is typically described in free text form and is not readily amenable to computational analyses. To this end, the BioGRID database systematically curates the biomedical literature for genetic and protein interaction data. This data is provided in a standardized computationally tractable format and includes structured annotation of experimental evidence. BioGRID curation necessarily involves substantial human effort by expert curators who must read each publication to extract the relevant information. Computational text-mining methods offer the potential to augment and accelerate manual curation. To facilitate the development of practical text-mining strategies, a new challenge was organized in BioCreative V for the BioC task, the collaborative Biocurator Assistant Task. This was a non-competitive, cooperative task in which the participants worked together to build BioC-compatible modules into an integrated pipeline to assist BioGRID curators. As an integral part of this task, a test collection of full text articles was developed that contained both biological entity annotations (gene/protein and organism/species) and molecular interaction annotations (protein-protein and genetic interactions (PPIs and GIs)). This collection, which we call the BioC-BioGRID corpus, was annotated by four BioGRID curators over three rounds of annotation and contains 120 full text articles curated in a dataset representing two major model organisms, namely budding yeast and human. The BioC-BioGRID corpus contains annotations for 6409 mentions of genes and their Entrez Gene IDs, 186 mentions of organism names and their NCBI Taxonomy IDs, 1867 mentions of PPIs and 701 annotations of PPI experimental evidence statements, 856 mentions of GIs and 399 annotations of GI evidence statements. The purpose, characteristics and possible future

  16. The Effect of Different Modes of English Captioning on EFL learners’ General Listening Comprehension: Full text Vs. Keyword Captions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorayya Behroozizad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of different modes of English captioning on EFL learners’ general listening comprehension. To this end, forty five intermediate-level learners were selected based on their scores on a standardized English proficiency test (PET to carry out the study. Then, the selected participants were randomly assigned into two experimental groups (full-captions and keyword-captions and one control group (no-captions. Research instrumentation included a pre-test and a post-test following an experimental design. Participants took a pre-test and a post-test containing 50 multiple-choice questions (25question for pre-test and 25 question for post-test selected from a standard listening test PET, and also 15 treatment sessions. The findings showed significant differences among full-captions, keyword-captions, and no-captions in terms of their effect on learners’ general listening comprehension. This study provided some pedagogical implications for teaching listening through using different modes of captions. Keywords: Caption, full caption, keyword caption, listening comprehension

  17. An exploratory analysis of PubMed's free full-text limit on citation retrieval for clinical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Mary M; Richter, Randy R; Austin, Tricia M

    2008-10-01

    The research sought to determine (1) how use of the PubMed free full-text (FFT) limit affects citation retrieval and (2) how use of the FFT limit impacts the types of articles and levels of evidence retrieved. Four clinical questions based on a research agenda for physical therapy were searched in PubMed both with and without the use of the FFT limit. Retrieved citations were examined for relevancy to each question. Abstracts of relevant citations were reviewed to determine the types of articles and levels of evidence. Descriptive analysis was used to compare the total number of citations, number of relevant citations, types of articles, and levels of evidence both with and without the use of the FFT limit. Across all 4 questions, the FFT limit reduced the number of citations to 11.1% of the total number of citations retrieved without the FFT limit. Additionally, high-quality evidence such as systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were missed when the FFT limit was used. Health sciences librarians play a key role in educating users about the potential impact the FFT limit has on the number of citations, types of articles, and levels of evidence retrieved.

  18. Publication rates of full-text journal articles converted from abstracts presented during the 22(nd) Turkish National Urology Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Kayalı, Yunus; Tok, Adem; Tepeler, Abdulkadir

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the publication rates of full-text journal articles converted from the abstracts presented in the 22(nd) Turkish National Urology Congress in 2012. A total of 576 abstracts accepted for presentation at the 22(nd) Turkish National Urology Association Meeting were identified from the published abstract book. The abstracts were categorized into subsections such as endourology and pediatric urology. The subsequent publication rate for the studies was evaluated by scanning PubMed Medline. Abstracts published before the proceedings were excluded from the study. The abstracts were categorized as being presented orally (n=155), by poster (n=421), or by video (n=78). Of the 28 (18.3%) of 155 oral and 34 (8.15%) of 421 poster presentations, were subsequently published in several journals until March 2015. The publication rates of the abstracts based on urology subsections were as follows: neurology (25%), andrology (18.6%), endourology (17.2%), urolithiasis (15.3%), general urology (12.5%), infectious diseases (7.14%), pediatric urology (6.25%), uro-gynecology (6.06%), reconstructive urology (5.8%), and urooncology (3.8%). The average time to publication was 11.77 (0-33) months. This is the first study assessing the publication rates of abstracts presented at a Turkish National Urology Congress. It reveals that more qualified randomized studies need to be done to improve the rate of publication.

  19. Unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, J.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter describes the weak and electromagnetic interactions by a gauge theory based on the group U(1)xSU(2). Discusses SO(10), E 6 , beyond gauge theories, Grassmann algebras, graded superalgebras, Majorana and Weyl spinors; particle representations; all possible supersymmetries of the S-matrix; representations in terms of fields; a simple field theory model; supersymmetry and gauge invariance; the breaking of supersymmetry; the supersymmetric extension of the standard model; and supersymmetry and grand-unified theories. Finds that the rate of approach to the symmetric, which is logarithmic for dimensionless couplings, is too slow to account for the high accuracy with which symmetries are observed in nature. Shows that scalar Q.E.D. in perturbation theory is not an I.R. attractor when one attempts to approach it via a class of theories with negative metric

  20. Ten years after the unification : East Germany and the relevance of modern theories of trade, location and growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, S.; Schramm, M.; Garretsen, Harry

    2000-01-01

    In the paper we analyse, ten years after the German unification, the relevance of modern theoretical developments on trade, location and growth for East Germany using sectoral and regional data. Given our discussion of stylized facts about industry growth, economies of scale and differences in

  1. BioC-compatible full-text passage detection for protein-protein interactions using extended dependency graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2016-01-01

    There has been a large growth in the number of biomedical publications that report experimental results. Many of these results concern detection of protein-protein interactions (PPI). In BioCreative V, we participated in the BioC task and developed a PPI system to detect text passages with PPIs in the full-text articles. By adopting the BioC format, the output of the system can be seamlessly added to the biocuration pipeline with little effort required for the system integration. A distinctive feature of our PPI system is that it utilizes extended dependency graph, an intermediate level of representation that attempts to abstract away syntactic variations in text. As a result, we are able to use only a limited set of rules to extract PPI pairs in the sentences, and additional rules to detect additional passages for PPI pairs. For evaluation, we used the 95 articles that were provided for the BioC annotation task. We retrieved the unique PPIs from the BioGRID database for these articles and show that our system achieves a recall of 83.5%. In order to evaluate the detection of passages with PPIs, we further annotated Abstract and Results sections of 20 documents from the dataset and show that an f-value of 80.5% was obtained. To evaluate the generalizability of the system, we also conducted experiments on AIMed, a well-known PPI corpus. We achieved an f-value of 76.1% for sentence detection and an f-value of 64.7% for unique PPI detection.Database URL: http://proteininformationresource.org/iprolink/corpora. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bankruptcy and Voluntary Liquidation: Evidence for New Firms in East and West Germany after Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Prantl, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    Exploiting the unique economic situation after German unification, I investigate how exit decisions deviate between new firms in a transition and a comparatively stable market environment. Two competing exit mechanisms are considered: entrepreneurial self-selection via voluntary liquidation and external selection based on insolvency regulation. Distinguishing between the competing exit modes proves to be crucial in semi-parametric propor- tional hazard-rate estimations. Comparing East and Wes...

  4. Coreference annotation and resolution in the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus of biomedical journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Lanfranchi, Arrick; Choi, Miji Joo-Young; Bada, Michael; Baumgartner, William A; Panteleyeva, Natalya; Verspoor, Karin; Palmer, Martha; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2017-08-17

    Coreference resolution is the task of finding strings in text that have the same referent as other strings. Failures of coreference resolution are a common cause of false negatives in information extraction from the scientific literature. In order to better understand the nature of the phenomenon of coreference in biomedical publications and to increase performance on the task, we annotated the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus with coreference relations. The corpus was manually annotated with coreference relations, including identity and appositives for all coreferring base noun phrases. The OntoNotes annotation guidelines, with minor adaptations, were used. Interannotator agreement ranges from 0.480 (entity-based CEAF) to 0.858 (Class-B3), depending on the metric that is used to assess it. The resulting corpus adds nearly 30,000 annotations to the previous release of the CRAFT corpus. Differences from related projects include a much broader definition of markables, connection to extensive annotation of several domain-relevant semantic classes, and connection to complete syntactic annotation. Tool performance was benchmarked on the data. A publicly available out-of-the-box, general-domain coreference resolution system achieved an F-measure of 0.14 (B3), while a simple domain-adapted rule-based system achieved an F-measure of 0.42. An ensemble of the two reached F of 0.46. Following the IDENTITY chains in the data would add 106,263 additional named entities in the full 97-paper corpus, for an increase of 76% percent in the semantic classes of the eight ontologies that have been annotated in earlier versions of the CRAFT corpus. The project produced a large data set for further investigation of coreference and coreference resolution in the scientific literature. The work raised issues in the phenomenon of reference in this domain and genre, and the paper proposes that many mentions that would be considered generic in the general domain are not

  5. Effective Higgs theories in supersymmetric grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)

    2017-09-15

    The effective Higgs theories at the TeV scale in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unification models are systematically derived. Restricted to extensions on 5{sub H} containing the Higgs sector we show that only two types of real (vector-like) models and one type of chiral model are found to be consistent with perturbative grand unification. While the chiral model has been excluded by the LHC data, the fate of perturbative unification will be uniquely determined by the two classes of vector-like models. (orig.)

  6. Low-scale gaugino mass unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Yoshioka, K.

    2008-04-01

    We present a new class of scenarios with the gaugino mass unification at the weak scale. The unification conditions are generally classified and then, the mirage gauge mediation is explored where gaugino masses are naturally unified and scalar partners of quarks and leptons have no mass hierarchy. The low-energy mass spectrum is governed by the mirage of unified gauge coupling which is seen by low-energy observers. We also study several explicit models for dynamically realizing the TeV-scale unification. (orig.)

  7. Low-scale gaugino mass unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yoshioka, K [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2008-04-15

    We present a new class of scenarios with the gaugino mass unification at the weak scale. The unification conditions are generally classified and then, the mirage gauge mediation is explored where gaugino masses are naturally unified and scalar partners of quarks and leptons have no mass hierarchy. The low-energy mass spectrum is governed by the mirage of unified gauge coupling which is seen by low-energy observers. We also study several explicit models for dynamically realizing the TeV-scale unification. (orig.)

  8. German Perceptions of the United States at Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    No comment No comment Country +5 to -5 (percent) yes no (percent) France +2.8 A 9 87 4 Austria +3.3 3 20 76 4 Soviet Union +1.3 3 36 61 4 Italy +1.8 4 6 89 5 Poland +0.1 4 58 39 3 USA +1.6 5 1 95 4 Sweden +2.8 4 3 92 5 Cuba +0.3 4 1 94 5 England +2.0 4 2 93 5 Hungary +2.0 3 38 59 3 Question 2: I’d like you to evaluate several countries from different standpoints. There are five categories that you can use to rate each country accord- ing to a numbering system. ŕ" means a "very good" rating-, Ś"

  9. German Unification : the Valuable Lessons / Bernhard Seliger, Ralph M Wrobel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seliger, Bernhard

    2000-01-01

    Mida on EL-iga integreeruvatel Baltimaadel õppida Ida-Saksamaa ühinemisest Lääne-Saksamaaga. Rahanduse integreerumine, erastamine, subsideerimine ja palgatõus Saksamaal. Tabelid: Ida-Saksamaa ja Eesti majandusnäitajad 1991-1999

  10. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  11. Preon Model and Family Replicated E_6 Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa V. Laperashvili

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we suggested a new preon model of composite quark-leptons and bosons with the 'flipped' $E_6imes widetilde{E_6}$ gauge symmetry group. We assumed that preons are dyons having both hyper-electric $g$ and hyper-magnetic $ilde g$ charges, and these preons-dyons are confined by hyper-magnetic strings which are an ${f N}=1$ supersymmetric non-Abelian flux tubes created by the condensation of spreons near the Planck scale. In the present paper we show that the existence of the three types of strings with tensions $T_k=k T_0$ $(k = 1,2,3$ producing three (and only three generations of composite quark-leptons, also provides three generations of composite gauge bosons ('hyper-gluons' and, as a consequence, predicts the family replicated $[E_6]^3$ unification at the scale $sim 10^{17}$ GeV. This group of unification has the possibility of breaking to the group of symmetry: $ [SU(3_C]^3imes [SU(2_L]^3imes [U(1_Y]^3 imes [U(1_{(B-L}]^3$ which undergoes the breakdown to the Standard Model at lower energies. Some predictive advantages of the family replicated gauge groups of symmetry are briefly discussed.

  12. The Economic Implications of Korean Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmitz, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    .... To lessen this burden, South Korea will need to initiate policy reforms that can ease the financial stress and repercussions of unification and create an integrated economic community with North Korea...

  13. Higher-derivative Lee-Wick unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    We consider gauge coupling unification in Lee-Wick extensions of the Standard Model that include higher-derivative quadratic terms beyond the minimally required set. We determine how the beta functions are modified when some Standard Model particles have two Lee-Wick partners. We show that gauge coupling unification can be achieved in such models without requiring the introduction of additional fields in the higher-derivative theory and we comment on possible ultraviolet completions.

  14. Grand unification and gravity - selected topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1981-09-01

    The material given here was presented in lectures delivered at the 4th Kyoto Summer Institute on Grand Unification and Related Topics. It consists of six sections. The sections are: the family problem, fermion mass hierarchy, maximal local symmetry, operator analysis of new physics, dynamically generated gravity, and Kaluza theory and grand unification. The last section contains a (hopefully) pedagogical introduction to Kaluza theory. For pedagogical completeness, several appendices reviewing some elementary notions of differential geometry have been added

  15. The economic implications of Korean unification

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Jonathan L.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A major area of concern for Korean unification is the immense cost it will impose on South Korea. To lessen this burden, South Korea will need to initiate policy reforms that can ease the financial stress and repercussions of unification and create an integrated economic community with North Korea. At the same time, North Korea will need to create an environment that is conducive to economic integration by accepting and adopting reform me...

  16. Hidden SUSY from precision gauge unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krippendorf, Sven; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    We revisit the implications of naturalness and gauge unification in the MSSM. We find that precision unification of the couplings in connection with a small {mu} parameter requires a highly compressed gaugino pattern as it is realized in mirage mediation. Due to the small mass difference between gluino and LSP, collider limits on the gluino mass are drastically relaxed. Without further assumptions, the relic density of the LSP is very close to the observed dark matter density due to coannihilation effects.

  17. Hidden SUSY from precision gauge unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krippendorf, Sven; Nilles, Hans Peter

    2013-06-01

    We revisit the implications of naturalness and gauge unification in the MSSM. We find that precision unification of the couplings in connection with a small μ parameter requires a highly compressed gaugino pattern as it is realized in mirage mediation. Due to the small mass difference between gluino and LSP, collider limits on the gluino mass are drastically relaxed. Without further assumptions, the relic density of the LSP is very close to the observed dark matter density due to coannihilation effects.

  18. Reinventing Consumption Traditions through the Process of Unification of a Country: Understanding “Good Bye Lenin!”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Ceren Engür

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the change of consumption traditions in terms of re-unification of a country. The discussion bases on the movie, “Good Bye Lenin!”(2003 and chases the transformations on consumption trends in order to understand how the re-unification of East and West Germany influences the practices of everyday life after a four decade long segregation. The movie displays the 1990’s Germany during the times when the Berlin Wall falls and frames a family portrait which is dominated by an idealist and traditional mother character in the last days of her life.

  19. Electroweak unification and tree unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horejsi, J.

    1993-01-01

    The monograph is an unconventional introduction into the theory of unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions, which is conceptually different from the exposition presented in standard textbooks. A detailed explanation is given of the way to the standard model of electroweak interactions which is based on a straightforward application of the requirement of renormalizability of the perturbation series expansion. The procedure to derive the model is interesting as it demonstrates the necessity of introducing vector bosons and Yang-Mills type interactions and at least one elementary scalar boson to obtain a renormalizable theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions. The book is divided into 5 chapters: introduction, problems encountered in a Fermi type theory, the intermediate vector boson, electrodynamics of vector bosons, tree unitarity, and electroweak interactions. Each chapter is completed with exercise problems to be solved by the reader. The text is supplemented with a number of appendices. The monograph is aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as at physicists interested in the theory of elementary particles. (Z.J.)

  20. Minimal SUSY SO(10) and Yukawa unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2013-01-01

    The minimal supersymmetric (SUSY) SO(10) model, where only two Higgs multiplets {10⊕126-bar} are utilized for Yukawa couplings with matter fields, can nicely fit the neutrino oscillation parameters as well as charged fermion masses and mixing angles. In the fitting of the fermion mass matrix data, the largest element in the Yukawa coupling with the 126-bar -plet Higgs (Y 126 ) is found to be of order one, so that the right see-saw scale should be provided by Higgs vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of β(10 14 GeV). This fact causes a serious problem, namely, the gauge coupling unification is spoiled because of the presence of many exotic Higgs multiples emerging at the see-saw scale. In order to solve this problem, we consider a unification between bottom-quark and tau Yukawa couplings (b - τ Yukawa coupling unification) at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, due to threshold corrections of superpartners to the Yukawa couplings at the 1 TeV scale. When the b - τ Yukawa coupling unification is very accurate, the largest element in Y 126 can become β(0.01), so that the right see-saw scale is realized by the GUT scale VEV and the usual gauge coupling unification is maintained. Since the b - τ Yukawa unification alters the Yukawa coupling data at the GUT scale, we re-analyze the fitting of the fermion mass matrix data by taking all the relevant free parameters into account. Unfortunately, we find that no parameter region shows up to give a nice fit for the current neutrino oscillation data and therefore, the usual picture of the gauge coupling unification cannot accommodate the fermion mass matrix data fitting in our procedure.

  1. The Dayton Agenda: Full Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Research on Christian Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In November 1997, 140 researchers, administrators, and others interested in the support of nonpublic schools gathered at the University of Dayton to develop a research agenda for American private education. What developed over the several hours of intense sessions was an agenda that has given direction to researchers well into the 21st century.…

  2. FTP: Full-Text Publishing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jul, Erik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of file transfer protocol (FTP) on the INTERNET computer network and considers its use as an electronic publishing system. The differing electronic formats of text files are discussed; the preparation and access of documents are described; and problems are addressed, including a lack of consistency. (LRW)

  3. Low energy implications of minimal superstring unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.; Vissani, F.; Masiero, A.

    1995-11-01

    We study the phenomenological implications of effective supergravities based on string vacua with spontaneously broken N =1 supersymmetry by dilation and moduli F-terms. We further require Minimal String Unification, namely that large string threshold corrections ensure the correct unification of the gauge couplings at the grand unification scale. The whole supersymmetric mass spectrum turns out to be determined in terms of only two independent parameters, the dilaton-moduli mixing angle and the gravitino mass. In particular we discuss the region of the parameter space where at least one superpartner is ''visible'' at LEPII. We find that the most likely candidates are the scalar partner of the right-handed electron and the lightest chargino, with interesting correlations between their masses and with the mass of the lightest higgs. We show how discovering SUSY particles at LEPII might rather sharply discriminate between scenarios with pure dilaton SUSY breaking and mixed dilaton-moduli breaking. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  4. Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benakli, K.

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings. (orig.)

  5. Unification of Patrimonial Laws Governing International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Should the laws of the world dealing with cross-border transactions be unified? Such unification presupposes an agreement on what we understand by ‘law’ and what its sources are. The drafters of uniform laws and lawyers who are preoccupied with comparative law often ask themselves: Is there, among...... the nations, a common core of legal values? If there is, this will facilitate legal unification. It will also make the international law-making easier if, in exceptional cases, a court is permitted to disregard a legal rule....

  6. Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benakli, K. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06 (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS; Goodsell, M.D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings. (orig.)

  7. Dirac Gauginos, Gauge Mediation and Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Benakli, K

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings.

  8. Elementary particles and physics interaction unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite-Lopes, J.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum theory and relativity theory are fundamental of relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, which is the base of elementary particle physics, gauge field theory and basic force unification models. After a short introduction of relativistic equations of the main fields, the free scalar field, the free vector field, the free electromagnetic field and the free spinor field, and of elementary particles and basic interactions, gauge invariance and electromagnetic gauge field are detailed. Then the presentation of internal degrees of freedom, especially isospin, introduces gauge field theory of Yang-Mills. At last weak interactions and strong interactions are presented and lead to grand unification theory in conclusion [fr

  9. Gauge Coupling Unification with Partly Composite Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherghetta, Tony

    2005-01-01

    It is shown how gauge coupling unification can occur in models with partly composite matter. The particle states which are composite only contribute small logarithmns to the running of gauge couplings, while the elementary states contribute the usual large logarithmns. This introduces a new differential running contribution to the gauge couplings from partly composite SU(5) matter multiplets. In particular, for partly supersymmetric models, the incomplete SU(5) elementary matter multiplets restore gauge coupling unification even though the usual elementary gaugino and Higgsino contributions need not be present

  10. Fundamental Elements and Interactions of Nature: A Classical Unification Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxi Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A classical unification theory that completely unifies all the fundamental interactions of nature is developed. First, the nature is suggested to be composed of the following four fundamental elements: mass, radiation, electric charge, and color charge. All known types of matter or particles are a combination of one or more of the four fundamental elements. Photons are radiation; neutrons have only mass; protons have both mass and electric charge; and quarks contain mass, electric charge, and color charge. The nature fundamental interactions are interactions among these nature fundamental elements. Mass and radiation are two forms of real energy. Electric and color charges are considered as two forms of imaginary energy. All the fundamental interactions of nature are therefore unified as a single interaction between complex energies. The interaction between real energies is the gravitational force, which has three types: mass-mass, mass-radiation, and radiation-radiation interactions. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done on a photon by the radiation-radiation interaction derives a radiation redshift, which is much smaller than the gravitational redshift. The interaction between imaginary energies is the electromagnetic (between electric charges, weak (between electric and color charges, and strong (between color charges interactions. In addition, we have four imaginary forces between real and imaginary energies, which are mass-electric charge, radiation-electric charge, mass-color charge, and radiation-color charge interactions. Among the four fundamental elements, there are ten (six real and four imaginary fundamental interactions. This classical unification theory deepens our understanding of the nature fundamental elements and interactions, develops a new concept of imaginary energy for electric and color charges, and provides a

  11. Fundamental Elements and Interactions of Nature: A Classical Unification Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A classical unification theory that completely unifies all the fundamental interactions of nature is developed. First, the nature is suggested to be composed of the following four fundamental elements: mass, radiation, electric charge, and color charge. All known types of matter or particles are a combination of one or more of the four fundamental elements. Photons are radiation; neutrons have only mass; protons have both mass and electric charge; and quarks contain mass, electric charge, and color charge. The nature fundamental interactions are interactions among these nature fundamental elements. Mass and radiation are two forms of real energy. Electric and color charges are con- sidered as two forms of imaginary energy. All the fundamental interactions of nature are therefore unified as a single interaction between complex energies. The interac- tion between real energies is the gravitational force, which has three types: mass-mass, mass-radiation, and radiation-radiation interactions. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done on a photon by the radiation-radiation interaction derives a radiation redshift, which is much smaller than the gravitational redshift. The interaction between imaginary energies is the electromagnetic (between electric charges, weak (between electric and color charges, and strong (between color charges interactions. In addition, we have four imaginary forces between real and imaginary energies, which are mass-electric charge, radiation-electric charge, mass-color charge, and radiation- color charge interactions. Among the four fundamental elements, there are ten (six real and four imaginary fundamental interactions. This classical unification theory deep- ens our understanding of the nature fundamental elements and interactions, develops a new concept of imaginary energy for electric and color charges, and provides a

  12. Unification of Forces: The Road to Jointness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-15

    tend to resist large change--or innovation. Because organizations value "predictability, stability, and certainty," incremental change is the...preferred mode of behavior for organizations.29 Unification of the forces would be a large, rather than an incremental , change; thus, the services would...coordinating planning and bidgeting , providing unified direction, accounting and controlling weapons and equipment acquisition, eliminating duplication of

  13. Principles of the Unification of Our Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    Do we need principles of the unification of our agency, our mode of acting? Immanuel Kant and Christine Korsgaard argue that the reflective structure of our mind forces us to have some conception of ourselves, others and the world--including our agency--and that it is through will and reason, and in particular principles of our agency, that we…

  14. Explanatory Unification by Proofs in School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kotaro; Fujita, Taro; Jones, Keith; Naoki, Sue

    2018-01-01

    Kitcher's idea of 'explanatory unification', while originally proposed in the philosophy of science, may also be relevant to mathematics education, as a way of enhancing student thinking and achieving classroom activity that is closer to authentic mathematical practice. There is, however, no mathematics education research treating explanatory…

  15. Authenticity and Unification in Quechua Language Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.; King, Kendall

    1998-01-01

    Examines the potentially problematic tension between the goals of authenticity and unification in Quechua-language planning. One case study examines the orthographic debate that arose in Peru, and the second case study concerns two indigenous communities in Saraguro in the Southern Ecuadorian highlands where Spanish predominates but two Quichua…

  16. Families in the nonperturbative unification scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Theisen, S. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Zoupanos, G. (Ethnikon Metsovion Polytechneion, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Physics)

    1989-10-12

    Within the nonperturbative unification framework of Maiani, Parisi and Petronzio, we examine the influence of the number of fermion and Higgs families, when they are grouped in representations of horizontal family groups, on the low energy couplings of the standard model. In this way we find a number of new phenomenologically acceptable solutions for the standard model's low energy couplings. (orig.).

  17. Families in the nonperturbative unification scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Theisen, S.; Zoupanos, G.

    1989-01-01

    Within the nonperturbative unification framework of Maiani, Parisi and Petronzio, we examine the influence of the number of fermion and Higgs families, when they are grouped in representations of horizontal family groups, on the low energy couplings of the standard model. In this way we find a number of new phenomenologically acceptable solutions for the standard model's low energy couplings. (orig.)

  18. A comparison of the accuracy of clinical decisions based on full-text articles and on journal abstracts alone: a study among residents in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Alvin; Gavino, Alex; Isip-Tan, Iris Thiele; Apostol-Nicodemus, Leilanie; Mesa-Gaerlan, Faith Joan; Firaza, Paul Nimrod; Faustorilla, John Francis; Callaghan, Fiona M; Fontelo, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Many clinicians depend solely on journal abstracts to guide clinical decisions. This study aims to determine if there are differences in the accuracy of responses to simulated cases between resident physicians provided with an abstract only and those with full-text articles. It also attempts to describe their information-seeking behaviour. Seventy-seven resident physicians from four specialty departments of a tertiary care hospital completed a paper-based questionnaire with clinical simulation cases, then randomly assigned to two intervention groups-access to abstracts-only and access to both abstracts and full-text. While having access to medical literature, they completed an online version of the same questionnaire. The average improvement across departments was not significantly different between the abstracts-only group and the full-text group (p=0.44), but when accounting for an interaction between intervention and department, the effect was significant (p=0.049) with improvement greater with full-text in the surgery department. Overall, the accuracy of responses was greater after the provision of either abstracts-only or full-text (pfull-text articles were more accurate than those guided by abstracts alone, but the results seem to be driven by a significant difference in one department.

  19. Progress in the Full-Text Publication Rate of Orthopaedic and Sport Physical Therapy Abstracts Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association's Combined Sections Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Stuart J; Fletcher, Jacquelyn M; Barker, Rick G; Guildenbecher, Elizabeth A; Gorkis, Colleen E; Thompson, William R

    2017-10-07

    Study Design Descriptive study. Background Professional meetings, such as the American Physical Therapy Association's (APTA's) Combined Sections Meeting (CSM), provide forums for sharing information. However, it was reported that only one-quarter of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy abstracts presented at the CSM between 2000 and 2004 went on to full-text publication. This low conversion rate raises a number of concerns regarding the full dissemination of work within the profession. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the full-text publication rate of work presented in abstract form at subsequent CSMs and investigate factors influencing the rate. Methods A systematic search was undertaken to locate full-text publications of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy abstracts presented at CSMs between 2005 and 2011. Eligible publications were published within 5 years following abstract presentation. The influences of year of abstract presentation, APTA section, presentation type, institution of origin, study design, and study significance were assessed. Results Over one-third (38.6%) of presented abstracts progressed to full-text publication. Odds of full-text publication increased if the abstract was presented as a platform presentation, originated from a doctorate-granting institution, reported findings of an experimental study, or reported a statistically significant finding. Conclusion The full-text publication rate for orthopaedic and sports physical therapy abstracts presented at recent CSMs has increased by over 50% compared to that reported for the preceding period. The rate is now in the range of that reported in comparable clinical disciplines, demonstrating important progress in the full dissemination of work within the profession. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 7 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7581.

  20. Unification of Sinonasal Anatomical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voegels, Richard Louis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of endoscopy and computed tomography at the beginning of the 1980s brought to rhinology a revival of anatomy and physiology study. In 1994, the International Conference of Sinus Disease was conceived because the official “Terminologia Anatomica”[1] had little information on the detailed sinonasal anatomy. In addition, there was a lack of uniformity of terminology and definitions. After 20 years, a new conference has been held. The need to use the same terminology led to the publication by the European Society of Rhinology of the “European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses,” that can be accessed freely at www.rhinologyjournal.com. Professor Valerie Lund et al[2] wrote this document reviewing the anatomical terms, comparing to the “Terminology Anatomica” official order to define the structures without eponyms, while respecting the embryological development and especially universalizing and simplifying the terms. A must-read! The text's purpose lies beyond the review of anatomical terminology to universalize the language used to refer to structures of the nasal and paranasal cavities. Information about the anatomy, based on extensive review of the current literature, is arranged in just over 50 pages, which are direct and to the point. The publication may be pleasant reading for learners and teachers of rhinology. This text can be a starting point and enables searching the universal terminology used in Brazil, seeking to converge with this new European proposal for a nomenclature to help us communicate with our peers in Brazil and the rest of the world. The original text of the European Society of Rhinology provides English terms that avoided the use of Latin, and thus fall beyond several national personal translations. It would be admirable if we created our own cross-cultural adaptation of this new suggested anatomical terminology.

  1. THE COMPLETION OF THE CHURCH UNIFICATION FROM 1700-1701 UNDER THE BISHOP ATANASIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Alin OROS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The religious unification around year 1700, betweeen a part of the Orthodox believers from Transylvania and the Church of Rome, of Catholic religion, had represented an event that left a profound spiritual mark on the Romanian and Transylvanian population. The efforts for a Unification had started under the Orthodox bishop from Transylvania, Teofil (1692-1697, a part of the Orthodox priests being willing to accept it for a series of rights and benefits. These efforts could not be accomplished because of the sudden death of the bishop in 1697. As a result of the endeavours of the next bishop of the Romanians, Atanasie, a part of the Orthodox believers had joined the new Greek-Catholic communion around 1700-1701. There is no doubt that this historical and religious endeavour was not an easy one, Atanasie being compelled to „sail” in the muddy waters of the religious structure in Transylvania. This oscillation between the Orthodox and Catholic religions, under the strict supervision of the Imperial authorities from Wien, had triggered the completion of the religious Unification at the beginning of the 18th century and the development of the Greek-Catholic church in Transylvania.

  2. Low-energy parity restoration and unification mass scale within maximal symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaya K. Mohanty

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the hierarchy of gauge boson masses in the maximal grand unified theory by studying the renormalization group equations for the running coupling constants associated with the symmetry breaking of SU(16viaSU(12 q×SU(4 l×U(1 |B|−|L| chain. Particular attention is given to the contribution of Higgs scalars to these equations. It is found that the intermediate mass scale ML, associated with right-handed gauge bosons could be as low as 10 3 GeV only for sin 2θ w(M L as high as 0.265 with α s(M L=0.13. In this chain of symmetry breaking, we have also examined the lowest unification mass that is allowed by the low-energy data for sin 2θ w(M L and the assumed gauge hierarchy. This has been done in two cases; first for the case where SU(3 c is vectorial, second, for the case where SU(3 c is axial. In both cases the lowest unification mass scales were found to be 10 13, 10 11, 10 8 and 10 7 GeV for sin 2θ w(M L = 0.22, 0.24, 0.26,and0.265 respectively with α s(M L = 0.13. The implication of these low unification masses on baryon non-conserving processes is also discussed.

  3. A corpus of full-text journal articles is a robust evaluation tool for revealing differences in performance of biomedical natural language processing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspoor, Karin; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel; Lanfranchi, Arrick; Warner, Colin; Johnson, Helen L; Roeder, Christophe; Choi, Jinho D; Funk, Christopher; Malenkiy, Yuriy; Eckert, Miriam; Xue, Nianwen; Baumgartner, William A; Bada, Michael; Palmer, Martha; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2012-08-17

    We introduce the linguistic annotation of a corpus of 97 full-text biomedical publications, known as the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus. We further assess the performance of existing tools for performing sentence splitting, tokenization, syntactic parsing, and named entity recognition on this corpus. Many biomedical natural language processing systems demonstrated large differences between their previously published results and their performance on the CRAFT corpus when tested with the publicly available models or rule sets. Trainable systems differed widely with respect to their ability to build high-performing models based on this data. The finding that some systems were able to train high-performing models based on this corpus is additional evidence, beyond high inter-annotator agreement, that the quality of the CRAFT corpus is high. The overall poor performance of various systems indicates that considerable work needs to be done to enable natural language processing systems to work well when the input is full-text journal articles. The CRAFT corpus provides a valuable resource to the biomedical natural language processing community for evaluation and training of new models for biomedical full text publications.

  4. Unification and new particles at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; D’Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Low, Matthew [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Pinner, David [Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, Princeton University,Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Precision gauge coupling unification is one of the primary quantitative successes of low energy or split supersymmetry. Preserving this success puts severe restrictions on possible matter and gauge sectors that might appear at collider-accessible energies. In this work we enumerate new gauge sectors which are compatible with unification, consisting of horizontal gauge groups acting on vector-like matter charged under the Standard Model. Interestingly, almost all of these theories are in the supersymmetric conformal window at high energies and confine quickly after the superpartners are decoupled. For a range of scalar masses compatible with both moderately tuned and minimally split supersymmetry, the confining dynamics happen at the multi-TeV scale, leading to a spectrum of multiple spin-0 and spin-1 resonances accessible to the LHC, with unusual quantum numbers and striking decay patterns.

  5. Unification and new particles at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; D’Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Low, Matthew; Pinner, David

    2016-01-01

    Precision gauge coupling unification is one of the primary quantitative successes of low energy or split supersymmetry. Preserving this success puts severe restrictions on possible matter and gauge sectors that might appear at collider-accessible energies. In this work we enumerate new gauge sectors which are compatible with unification, consisting of horizontal gauge groups acting on vector-like matter charged under the Standard Model. Interestingly, almost all of these theories are in the supersymmetric conformal window at high energies and confine quickly after the superpartners are decoupled. For a range of scalar masses compatible with both moderately tuned and minimally split supersymmetry, the confining dynamics happen at the multi-TeV scale, leading to a spectrum of multiple spin-0 and spin-1 resonances accessible to the LHC, with unusual quantum numbers and striking decay patterns.

  6. Gauge coupling unification in six dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2006-11-15

    We compute the one-loop gauge couplings in six-dimensional non-Abelian gauge theories on the T{sup 2}/Z{sub 2} orbifold with general GUT breaking boundary conditions. For concreteness, we apply the obtained general formulae to the gauge coupling running in a 6D SO(10) orbifold GUT where the GUT group is broken down to the standard model gauge group up to an extra U(1). We find that the one-loop corrections depend on the parity matrices encoding the orbifold boundary conditions as well as the volume and shape moduli of extra dimensions. When the U(1) is broken by the VEV of bulk singlets, the accompanying extra color triplets also affect the unification of the gauge couplings. In this case, the B-L breaking scale is closely linked to the compactification scales for maintaining a success of the gauge coupling unification. (orig.)

  7. Fate of abstracts presented at a National Turkish Orthopedics and Traumatology Congress: publication rates and consistency of abstracts compared with their subsequent full-text publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, Merter; Bagatur, Erdem

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the publication rates of full-text articles after presentation of abstracts at a Turkish National Orthopaedics and Traumatology Congress, determine the time lag from the congress date to publication of full-text articles and assess the consistency between abstracts and the subsequent publications. All abstracts from the scientific program of the 20th Turkish National Orthopaedics and Traumatology Congress (2007) were identified and computerized PubMed searches were conducted to determine whether an abstract had been followed by publication of a full-text article and key features were compared to evaluate their consistency. The time lag to publication and the impact factors of the journals where the articles were published were noted. Of the 770 abstracts (264 oral, 506 poster presentations), 227 (29.5%) were followed by a full-text and 116 (44%) of the 264 oral and 111 (22%) of the 506 poster presentations were published. The mean time to publication was 14.9±16.075 (range: 33 to 55) months. Thirty-three (14.5%) were published prior to the presentation at the congress. The likelihood of publication decreased after the third year (26 of 227, 11.5%). A total of 182 (80.2%) articles showed inconsistencies with the abstract; 74 (32.6%) minor, 14 (6.2%) major, and 94 (41.4%) minor and major inconsistencies. The mean impact factor of the journals was 1.152±0.858. The vast majority of abstracts presented at this congress were not followed by publication of a full-text article. Additionally, frequent inconsistencies between the final published article and the original abstract indicated the inadequacy of quality of reporting in abstracts.

  8. Deductive Synthesis of the Unification Algorithm,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    DEDUCTIVE SYNTHESIS OF THE I - UNIFICATION ALGORITHM Zohar Manna Richard Waldinger I F? Computer Science Department Artificial Intelligence Center...theorem proving," Artificial Intelligence Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 1-35. Boyer, R. S. and J S. Moore [Jan. 19751, "Proving theorems about LISP...d’Intelligence Artificielle , U.E.R. de Luminy, Universit6 d’ Aix-Marseille II. Green, C. C. [May 1969], "Application of theorem proving to problem

  9. ARCHITECTURE E-MALL USING RUP (RATIONAL UNIFED PROCESS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atin Triwahyuni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sistem Informasi dan teknologi saat ini telah berkembang dengan cepat dan memberikan dampak kedalam semua aspek kehidupan. Kebutuhan akan sistem informasi yang didukung dengan teknologi mulai dirasakan oleh berbagai kalangan masyarakat, salah satunya adalah kalangan masyarakat yang bergerak di dunia bisnis dan usaha, dengan memanfaatkan teknologi, setiap orang yang bergerak di dunia usaha dapat memperkenalkan produk mereka dengan menggunakan media internet, sehingga dapat meningkatkan penjualan dan memperluas pemasarannya, sedangkan pada media penjualan dagangan yang dijajakan masih secara konvensional, yaitu langsung bertatap muka dengan pelanggan untuk melihat maupun melakukan pembelian produk, dimana pelanggan terlebih dahulu menuju toko yang diinginkan, tapi dengan adanya sebuah website E-Mall ini, pelanggan bisa menemukan apa yang dicari tanpa harus mengunjungi toko tersebut. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode RUP (Rational Unifed Process yang menggunakan konsep object oriented, dengan aktifitas yang berfokus pada pengembangan model dengan menggunakan Unified Model Language (UML. Penelitian yang telah dilakukan menghasilkan sebuah website yang dapat membantu dalam bisnis perdagangan pakaian online.

  10. UNIFICATION OF PROCESSES OF SORTING OUT OF DESTROYED CONSTRUCTION OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHATOV S. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. Technogenic catastrophes, failures or natural calamities, result in destruction of build objects. Under the obstructions of destructions can be victims. The most widespread technogenic failure is explosions of gas. The structure of obstructions changes and depends on parameters and direction of explosion, firstly its size and location of wreckages. Sorting out of obstructions is carried out with machines and mechanisms which do not meet the requirements of these works, that predetermines of carrying out of rescue or restoration works on imperfect scheme , especially on the initial stages, and it increases terms and labour intensiveness of their conduct. Development technological solution is needed for the effective sorting out of destructions of construction objects. Purpose. Development of unification solution on the improvement of technological processes of sorting out of destructions of buildings and constructions. Conclusion. The analysis of experience of works shows on sorting out of the destroyed construction objects, show that they are carried out on imperfect scheme, which do not take into account character of destruction of objects and are based on the use of construction machines which do not meet the requirements of these processes, and lead to considerable resource losses. Developed unified scheme of sorting out of the destroyed construction objects depending on character of their destruction and possibility of line of works, and also with the use of build machines with a multipurpose equipment, provide the increase of efficiency of carrying out of rescue and construction works.

  11. ScienceCentral: open access full-text archive of scientific journals based on Journal Article Tag Suite regardless of their languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sun

    2013-01-01

    ScienceCentral, a free or open access, full-text archive of scientific journal literature at the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies, was under test in September 2013. Since it is a Journal Article Tag Suite-based full text database, extensible markup language files of all languages can be presented, according to Unicode Transformation Format 8-bit encoding. It is comparable to PubMed Central: however, there are two distinct differences. First, its scope comprises all science fields; second, it accepts all language journals. Launching ScienceCentral is the first step for free access or open access academic scientific journals of all languages to leap to the world, including scientific journals from Croatia.

  12. Full text publication rates of research abstracts presented at the European Society of Endodontology (ESE) Congresses in the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanetakis, G N; Tzimpoulas, N; Floratos, S; Agrafioti, A; Kontakiotis, E G; Shemesh, H

    2017-06-26

    To evaluate the full-text publication rates of scientific research abstracts presented at the European Society of Endodontology (ESE) Congresses held between 1993 and 2013 (a total of 11 occasions) and to determine factors associated with the manuscripts. An electronic database search was conducted from January 2015 to December 2016 to identify full text English written publications of the research abstracts presented at the last 11 ESE Biennial Congresses from 1993 to 2013. For each occasion, research abstract information were retrieved from the International Endodontic Journal (IEJ) through the official website of the ESE and the following parameters for each abstract presentation were recorded: Year of presentation, first author's affiliation, geographic origin, and type of study. Following full-text article identification, additional information was recorded such as: Year and journal of publication, elapsed time until full publication and number of authors per presentation and publication. A total of 1165 research abstracts were presented, of which 401 (34.4%) were finally published as full-length articles. Overall 235 articles (58.6%) were published either in the International Endodontic Journal (IEJ, 35.7%) or Journal of Endodontics (JOE, 22.9%). The mean time between abstract presentation and full-text publication was 18.95 months. Munich (2001) had the highest publication rate (44%) whereas Lisbon (2013) had the highest number of published articles (77). Turkey was the country with the highest number of published abstracts (56). However, the Netherlands was the country with the highest number of publications related to the number of presentations (21/26) (80.7%). Differences in authorship between presentation and full publication were found in 179 (44.6%) articles. A substantial number of research abstracts presented at ESE congresses were not published in peer reviewed journals. Authors prefer to publish their research papers in international journals with

  13. Discrepancies between Abstracts Presented at International Association for Dental Research Annual Sessions from 2004 to 2005 and Full-Text Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Soni; Lee, Damian J; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Barao, Valentim A R; Shyamsunder, Nodesh; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discrepancies between abstracts presented at the IADR meeting (2004-2005) and their full-text publication. Material and Methods. Abstracts from the Prosthodontic Section of IADR meeting were obtained. The following information was collected: abstract title, number of authors, study design, statistical analysis, outcome, and funding source. PubMed was used to identify the full-text publication of the abstracts. The discrepancies between the abstract and the full-text publication were examined, categorized as major and minor discrepancies, and quantified. The data were collected and analyzed using descriptive analysis. Frequency and percentage of major and minor discrepancies were calculated. Results. A total of 109 (95.6%) articles showed changes from their abstracts. Seventy-four (65.0%) and 105 (92.0%) publications had at least one major and one minor discrepancies, respectively. Minor discrepancies were more prevalent (92.0%) than major discrepancies (65.0%). The most common minor discrepancy was observed in the title (80.7%), and most common major discrepancies were seen in results (48.2%). Conclusion. Minor discrepancies were more prevalent than major discrepancies. The data presented in this study may be useful to establish a more comprehensive structured abstract requirement for future meetings.

  14. Radio Loud AGN Unification: Connecting Jets and Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Eileen T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While only a fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei are observed to host a powerful relativistic jet, a cohesive picture is emerging that radio-loud AGN may represent an important phase in the evolution of galaxies and the growth of the central super-massive black hole. I will review my own recent observational work in radio-loud AGN unification in the context of understanding how and why jets form and their the connection to different kinds of accretion and growing the black hole, along with a brief discussion of possible connections to recent modeling work in jet formation. Starting from the significant observational advances in our understanding of jetted AGN as a population over the last decade thanks to new, more sensitive instruments such as Fermi and Swift as well as all-sky surveys at all frequencies, I will lay out the case for a dichotomy in the jetted AGN population connected to accretion mode onto the black hole. In recent work, we have identified two sub-populations of radio-loud AGN which appear to be distinguished by jet structure, where low-efficiency accreting systems produce ‘weak’ jets which decelerate more rapidly than the ’strong’ jets of black holes accreting near the Eddington limit. The two classes are comprised of: (1The weak jet sources, corresponding to the less collimated, edge-darkened FR Is, with a decelerating or spine-sheath jet with velocity gradients, and (2 The strong jet sources, having fast, collimated jets, and typically displaying strong emission lines. The dichotomy in the vp-Lp plane can be understood as a "broken power sequence" in which jets exist on one branch or the other based on the particular accretion mode (Georganopolous 2011.We suggest that the intrinsic kinetic power (as measured by low-frequency, isotropic radio emission, the orientation, and the accretion rate of the SMBH system are the the fundamental axes needed for unification of radio-loud AGN by studying a well-characterized sample

  15. Analysis of full-text publication and publishing predictors of abstracts presented at an Italian public health meeting (2005-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, S; Giacometti, M; Toigo, W; Bert, F; Siliquini, R

    2015-09-29

    In Public Health, a thorough review of abstract quality evaluations and the publication history of studies presented at scientific meetings has never been conducted. To analyse the long-term outcome of quality abstracts submitted to conferences of Italian Society of Hygiene and Public Health (SItI) from 2005 to 2007, we conducted a second analysis of previously published material aiming to estimate full-text publication rate of high quality abstract presented at Italian public health meetings, and to identify predictors of full-text publication. The search was undertaken through scientific databases and search engines and through the web sites of the major Italian journals of Public Health. For each publication confirmed as a full text paper, the journal name, impact factor, year of publication, gender of the first author, type of study design, characteristics of the results and sample size were collected. The overall publication rate of the abstracts presented is 23.5%; most of the papers were published in Public Health journals (average impact factor: 3.007). Non universitary affiliation had resulted in a lower probability of publication, while some of the Conference topics had predisposed the studies to an increased likelihood of publication as well as poster form presentation. The method presented in this study provides a good framework for the evaluation of the scientific evidence. The findings achieved should be taken into consideration by the Scientific Societies during the contributions selection phase, with the aim of achieving a continuous improvement of work quality. In the future, it would be interesting to survey the abstract authors to identify reasons for unpublished data.

  16. An Observational Study of Abstracts Presented at the American College of Veterinary Surgeon Annual Meetings (2001-2008) and Their Subsequent Full-Text Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Katherine E; Lindem, Margaret J; Giuffrida, Michelle A

    2016-07-01

    To determine the frequency of abstracts presented at American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) meetings from 2001 to 2008 that were published as complete articles, to identify abstract characteristics associated with final full-text publication, and to examine consistency of information between abstracts and final full-text publications. Observational bibliographic study. Abstracts were retrieved from published proceedings. Published articles were retrieved from bibliographic databases. Features of abstract and article authorship, design, and content were recorded. Regression analysis identified abstract features associated with article publication, and evaluated consistency between abstracts and final publications. Seven hundred eighty-two of 1078 (73%) abstracts were published as complete articles. Median time to publication was 1 year; 90% were published within 3 years. Abstracts originating from academic institutions were published more often than abstracts from practice or industry sites (odds ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.68-4.05). Compared to their conference abstracts, 49% of articles contained major inconsistences including changes in study design, interventions, outcomes, sample size, and results. For each year elapsed between presentation and publication, the odds of major inconsistency increased 2.4 times (odds ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.57-3.55) for retrospective studies and 1.4 times (odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.56) for other study designs. Changes in study title and authorship were frequent, particularly in publications that contained major inconsistencies. ACVS abstracts were promptly and reliably published, but final full-text publications often differed substantially from the original abstracts. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Quark-lepton unification and proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.C.; Salam, A.

    1980-05-01

    Complexions for proton decay arising within a maximal symmetry for quark-lepton unification, which leads to spontaneous rather than intrinsic violations of B, L and F are considered. Four major modes satisfying δB=-1 and δF=0, -2, -4 and -6 are noted. It is stressed that some of these modes can coexist in accord with allowed solutions for renormalization group equations for coupling constants for a class of unifying symmetries. None of these remarks is dependent on the nature of quark charges. It is noted that if quarks and leptons are made of constituent preons, the preon binding is likely to be magnetic. (author)

  18. Unification of fuel elements for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatulyn, A.V.; Stetskyi, Y.A.; Dobrikova, I.V.

    1997-01-01

    To the purpose of fuel elements unification the possibility of rod fuel assembly (FA) using in the cores of research reactors have been considered in this paper. The calculation results of geometric, hydraulic and thermotechnical parameters of rod assembly are submitted. Several designs of finned square fuel element and fuel assembly are proposed on base of analysis of rod FA characteristics in compare of tube ones. The fuel elements specimens and the model assembly are manufactured. The developed designs are the basis for further optimization after neutron-physical calculations of cores. (author)

  19. Unification of electromagnetic, strong and weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Van Phi; Duong Anh Duc

    1993-09-01

    The Unification of Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak Interactions is realized in the framework of the Quantum Field Theory, established in an 8-dimensional Unified Space. Two fundamental, spinor and vector field equations are considered. The first of the matter particles and the second is of the gauge particles. Interaction Lagrangians are formed from the external and internal currents and the external and internal vector field operators. Generators of the local gauge transformations are the combinations of the matrices of the first field equation. (author). 15 refs

  20. Genesis of Electroweak Unification and the Higgs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    I will give a historical account of the developments leading up to the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions, as I saw them from my standpoint in Imperial College London. I will describe the state of physics in the 1950s, the aim of finding a unified theory of various interactions, the obstacles encountered in trying to unify the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and their eventual resolution, with a brief discussion of the later history culminating in the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  1. Astrophysical Probes of Varying Constants and Unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C J A P

    2016-01-01

    The observational evidence for the acceleration of the universe demonstrates that canonical theories of gravitation and particle physics are incomplete, if not incorrect. A new generation of astronomical facilities will soon carry out precision consistency tests of the standard cosmological model and search for evidence of new physics beyond it. I describe recent work of CAUP's Dark Side team on some of these tests, focusing on the stability of nature's fundamental couplings and tests of unification scenarios. (paper)

  2. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnowitt, R.; Nath, P.

    1993-01-01

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) x U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field

  3. Structural convergence under reversible and irreversible monetary unification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Jensen, H.

    2003-01-01

    We explore endogenous monetary unification in the context of a model in which a country with serious structural distortions (and, hence, high inflation) is admitted into a monetary union once its economic structure has converged sufficiently towards that of the existing participants. If unification

  4. Structural convergence under reversible and irreversible monetary unification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Jensen, H.

    1999-01-01

    We explore endogenous monetary unification in the context of a model in which a country with serious structural distortions (and, hence, high inflation) is admitted into a monetary union once its economic structure has converged sufficiently towards that of the existing participants. If unification

  5. Unification and geometrization of physics in the cosmological context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Watykanskie Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Vatican

    1991-01-01

    Einstein belived that a good physical theory should posses an ''inner perfection''. Trace the inner perfection of the present gauge theories by contemplating their geometric structures (in terms of fibre bundles). The search for the ultimate symmetry of the unification of physics unavoidably leads to the unification of physics and cosmology. 4 figs., 23 refs. (author)

  6. EC law relating to legal and technical aspects of natural gas and water supply. EC legal provisions for internal market harmonization of the regime of product specification and standardization, and their unification with German law. EG-Recht der Gas- und Wasserversorgungstechnik. Regelungen der Europaeischen Gemeinschaft zur Harmonisierung der Produktanforderungen und ihre Umsetzung in deutsches Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienen, W. van; Wasser, U.

    1999-01-01

    This new publication presents an analysis of the relevant EC legislation and standards and its impacts for the German industrial branches resulting from implementation in German national law. It is an invaluable source of reference for the German natural gas industry and the water supply sector, as well as licensing and supervisory bodies. The book contains comprehensive information on all aspects of interest to public authorities, marketers and manufacturers, presenting the material in a systematic framework based on EC law and in a way designed to help finding the answers arising in practice. As for example: EU directives and regulatory guides relating to the products of interest (certification, standards); obligations and liabilities of those responsible for manufacture, marketing, installation and application of products; general principles of EC law to be observed in addition to regulatory guides; scope of discretion remaining for the German legislator in implementation of the law; resulting modification of duties and scope for action of the competent public authorities; availability of domestic and EC judicial remedies; how to prevent risks and exploit the rights offered by the law so as to be as successful as possible in the deregulated internal market; novel strategies opened up or called for by the novel legal instruments. (orig./CB)

  7. Gauge coupling unification in superstring derived standard-like models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1992-11-01

    I discuss gauge coupling unification in a class of superstring standard-like models, which are derived in the free fermionic formulation. Recent calculations indicate that the superstring unification scale is at O(10 18 GeV) while the minimal supersymmetric standard model is consistent with LEP data if the unification scale is at O(10 16 )GeV. A generic feature of the superstring standard-like models is the appearance of extra color triplets (D,D), and electroweak doublets (l,l), in vector-like representations, beyond the supersymmetric standard model. I show that the gauge coupling unification at O(10 18 GeV) in the superstring standard-like models can be consistent with LEP data. I present an explicit standard-like model that can realize superstring gauge coupling unification. (author)

  8. Gauge unification in highly anisotropic string compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebecker, A.; Trapletti, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that heterotic string compactifications have, in spite of their conceptual simplicity and aesthetic appeal, a serious problem with precision gauge coupling unification in the perturbative regime of string theory. Using both a duality-based and a field-theoretic definition of the boundary of the perturbative regime, we reevaluate the situation in a quantitative manner. We conclude that the simplest and most promising situations are those where some of the compactification radii are exceptionally large, corresponding to highly anisotropic orbifold models. Thus, one is led to consider constructions which are known to the effective field-theorist as higher-dimensional or orbifold grand unified theories (orbifold GUTs). In particular, if the discrete symmetry used to break the GUT group acts freely, a non-local breaking in the larger compact dimensions can be realized, leading to a precise gauge coupling unification as expected on the basis of the MSSM particle spectrum. Furthermore, a somewhat more model dependent but nevertheless very promising scenario arises if the GUT breaking is restricted to certain singular points within the manifold spanned by the larger compactification radii

  9. http://www.isarder.org/isardercom/2013vol5issue1/vol5_issue1_article06full_text.PDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat TEKER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has pointed out that a new version of Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT financing model generated out from classical BOT model can be used for highway financing. The classical BOT, one of the most popular PPP models has been oftenly employed by various countries for financing of large scale public projects. Over the last 20 year period a number of infrastructure projects in Turkey such as natural gas plants, airports and hydro electric power plants were constructed by using BOT model. In this study, the new version of BOT model is implemented on the projected Ankara-İzmir Highway Project. This highway project can be constructed at a lower project cost by using the suggested BOT model compared to the classical BOT model. Therefore, the lower project cost results in a lower toll rate.

  10. Denying Difference to the Post-Socialist Other: Bernhard Heisig and the Changing Reception of an East German Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April A. Eisman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the reception of East German artist Bernhard Heisig’s life and art—first in East Germany and then in the Federal Republic of Germany before and after the Wall. Drawing on post-colonial and post-socialist scholarship, it argues that Heisig’s reception exemplifies a western tendency to deny cultural and ideological difference in what the post-socialist scholar Piotr Piotrowski calls the “close Other.” This denial of difference to artists from the eastern bloc has shaped western understandings of Heisig’s life and art since reunification. Once perceived as an intellectually engaged, political artist, both in East and West Germany, after the fall of the Wall and German unification, Heisig was reinterpreted as a traumatized victim of two dictatorships, distorting not only our understanding of the artist and his work, but also of the nature of art and the role of the artist in East Germany.

  11. East German Journalists and the Wende: A history of the collapse and transformation of socialist journalism in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Morgan Morille Schupbach

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation utilizes archival sources and interviews to examine the transformation of the journalism profession in East Germany from the collapse of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) through the unification of the two German states. During this period of dramatic political and social upheaval, East German journalists navigated the divide between socialist journalism of the GDR and democratic journalism of the Federal Republic. By embedding the history of this professional transformat...

  12. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  13. Local grand unification and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilles, Hans Peter; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S.

    2009-09-01

    The low energy effective action of string theory depends strongly on the process of compactification and the localization of fields in extra dimensions. Explicit string constructions towards the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) reveal interesting results leading to the concept of local grand unification. Properties of the MSSM indicate that we might live at a special location close to an orbifold fixed point rather than a generic point in Calabi-Yau moduli space. We observe an enhancement of (discrete) symmetries that have various implications for the properties of the MSSM such as proton stability as well as solutions to the flavor problem, the m-problem and the strong CP-problem. (orig.)

  14. Light higgsino for gauge coupling unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik, E-mail: ksjeong@pusan.ac.kr

    2017-06-10

    We explore gauge coupling unification and dark matter in high scale supersymmetry where the scale of supersymmetry breaking is much above the weak scale. The gauge couplings unify as precisely as in low energy supersymmetry if the higgsinos, whose mass does not break supersymmetry, are much lighter than those obtaining masses from supersymmetry breaking. The dark matter of the universe can then be explained by the neutral higgsino or the gravitino. High scale supersymmetry with light higgsinos requires a large Higgs mixing parameter for electroweak symmetry breaking to take place. It is thus naturally realized in models where superparticle masses are generated at loop level while the Higgs mixing parameter is induced at tree level, like in anomaly and gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking.

  15. Unification of SUSY breaking and GUT breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Omura, Yuji [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-02-18

    We build explicit supersymmetric unification models where grand unified gauge symmetry breaking and supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking are caused by the same sector. Besides, the SM-charged particles are also predicted by the symmetry breaking sector, and they give the soft SUSY breaking terms through the so-called gauge mediation. We investigate the mass spectrums in an explicit model with SU(5) and additional gauge groups, and discuss its phenomenological aspects. Especially, nonzero A-term and B-term are generated at one-loop level according to the mediation via the vector superfields, so that the electro-weak symmetry breaking and 125 GeV Higgs mass may be achieved by the large B-term and A-term even if the stop mass is around 1 TeV.

  16. Technicolor and Beyond: Unification in Theory Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The salient features of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking are reviewed. The ideal walking idea is introduced according to which one should carefully take into account the effects of the extended technicolor dynamics on the technicolor dynamics itself. The effects amount at the enh......The salient features of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking are reviewed. The ideal walking idea is introduced according to which one should carefully take into account the effects of the extended technicolor dynamics on the technicolor dynamics itself. The effects amount...... supersymmetry and technicolor. The reason is to provide a unification of different extensions of the standard model. For example, this means that one can recover, according to the parameters and spectrum of the theory distinct extensions of the standard model, from supersymmetry to technicolor and unparticle...

  17. Natural supersymmetry and unification in five dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalgabar, Ammar [National Institute for Theoretical Physics and School of Physics and Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology,Khartoum, 407 (Sudan); Cornell, Alan S. [National Institute for Theoretical Physics and School of Physics and Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Deandrea, Aldo [Université de Lyon,92, rue Pasteur, Lyon, F-69361 (France); IPNL, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3,4 rue Fermi, Villeurbanne Cedex, F-69622 (France); Institut Universitaire de France,103 boulevard Saint-Michel, Paris, 75005 (France); McGarrie, Moritz [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Hoża 69, Warsaw, 00-681 (Poland)

    2016-01-14

    We explore unification and natural supersymmetry in a five dimensional extension of the standard model in which the extra dimension may be large, of the order of 1–10 TeV. Power law running generates a TeV scale A{sub t} term allowing for the observed 125 GeV Higgs and allowing for stop masses below 2 TeV, compatible with a natural SUSY spectrum. We supply the full one-loop RGEs for various models and use metastability to give a prediction that the gluino mass should be lighter than 3.5 TeV for A{sub t}≥−2.5 TeV, for such a compactification scale, with brane localised 3rd generation matter. We also discuss models in which only the 1st and 2nd generation of matter fields are located in the bulk. We also look at electroweak symmetry breaking in these models.

  18. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  19. The Protein-Protein Interaction tasks of BioCreative III: classification/ranking of articles and linking bio-ontology concepts to full text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krallinger, Martin; Vazquez, Miguel; Leitner, Florian; Salgado, David; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Winter, Andrew; Perfetto, Livia; Briganti, Leonardo; Licata, Luana; Iannuccelli, Marta; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni; Tyers, Mike; Schneider, Gerold; Rinaldi, Fabio; Leaman, Robert; Gonzalez, Graciela; Matos, Sergio; Kim, Sun; Wilbur, W John; Rocha, Luis; Shatkay, Hagit; Tendulkar, Ashish V; Agarwal, Shashank; Liu, Feifan; Wang, Xinglong; Rak, Rafal; Noto, Keith; Elkan, Charles; Lu, Zhiyong; Dogan, Rezarta Islamaj; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Valencia, Alfonso

    2011-10-03

    Determining usefulness of biomedical text mining systems requires realistic task definition and data selection criteria without artificial constraints, measuring performance aspects that go beyond traditional metrics. The BioCreative III Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) tasks were motivated by such considerations, trying to address aspects including how the end user would oversee the generated output, for instance by providing ranked results, textual evidence for human interpretation or measuring time savings by using automated systems. Detecting articles describing complex biological events like PPIs was addressed in the Article Classification Task (ACT), where participants were asked to implement tools for detecting PPI-describing abstracts. Therefore the BCIII-ACT corpus was provided, which includes a training, development and test set of over 12,000 PPI relevant and non-relevant PubMed abstracts labeled manually by domain experts and recording also the human classification times. The Interaction Method Task (IMT) went beyond abstracts and required mining for associations between more than 3,500 full text articles and interaction detection method ontology concepts that had been applied to detect the PPIs reported in them. A total of 11 teams participated in at least one of the two PPI tasks (10 in ACT and 8 in the IMT) and a total of 62 persons were involved either as participants or in preparing data sets/evaluating these tasks. Per task, each team was allowed to submit five runs offline and another five online via the BioCreative Meta-Server. From the 52 runs submitted for the ACT, the highest Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) score measured was 0.55 at an accuracy of 89% and the best AUC iP/R was 68%. Most ACT teams explored machine learning methods, some of them also used lexical resources like MeSH terms, PSI-MI concepts or particular lists of verbs and nouns, some integrated NER approaches. For the IMT, a total of 42 runs were evaluated by comparing

  20. The Protein-Protein Interaction tasks of BioCreative III: classification/ranking of articles and linking bio-ontology concepts to full text

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Determining usefulness of biomedical text mining systems requires realistic task definition and data selection criteria without artificial constraints, measuring performance aspects that go beyond traditional metrics. The BioCreative III Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) tasks were motivated by such considerations, trying to address aspects including how the end user would oversee the generated output, for instance by providing ranked results, textual evidence for human interpretation or measuring time savings by using automated systems. Detecting articles describing complex biological events like PPIs was addressed in the Article Classification Task (ACT), where participants were asked to implement tools for detecting PPI-describing abstracts. Therefore the BCIII-ACT corpus was provided, which includes a training, development and test set of over 12,000 PPI relevant and non-relevant PubMed abstracts labeled manually by domain experts and recording also the human classification times. The Interaction Method Task (IMT) went beyond abstracts and required mining for associations between more than 3,500 full text articles and interaction detection method ontology concepts that had been applied to detect the PPIs reported in them. Results A total of 11 teams participated in at least one of the two PPI tasks (10 in ACT and 8 in the IMT) and a total of 62 persons were involved either as participants or in preparing data sets/evaluating these tasks. Per task, each team was allowed to submit five runs offline and another five online via the BioCreative Meta-Server. From the 52 runs submitted for the ACT, the highest Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) score measured was 0.55 at an accuracy of 89% and the best AUC iP/R was 68%. Most ACT teams explored machine learning methods, some of them also used lexical resources like MeSH terms, PSI-MI concepts or particular lists of verbs and nouns, some integrated NER approaches. For the IMT, a total of 42 runs were

  1. Conversion rates of abstracts presented at the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand (USANZ) Annual Scientific Meeting into full-text journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter D; Chalasani, Venu; Woo, Henry H

    2012-08-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? It is well known that the transition of a presented abstract in a scientific meeting to a journal article improves the quality of the meeting and prevents an abstract being incorporated into meta-analyses or practice guidelines without proper appraisal. This is the first analysis of USANZ Annual Scientific Meeting abstracts' conversion to full publication. With relatively low publication rates compared to other international meetings, this review identifies the need for mechanisms to encourage USANZ researchers to convert their abstracts into published articles. The numbers and characteristics of the abstracts presented at the Annual Scientific Meetings (ASM) of the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand (USANZ) that are converted to peer-reviewed publications have not previously been analysed and published. We undertook a review of all abstracts presented at the USANZ ASM from 2005 to 2009. A PubMed search was performed between 15 June and 15 July 2012, using a search algorithm to identify the full-text publications of the presented abstracts. Correlation between abstract characteristics and publication rate was then examined to distinguish the predictors for publications. Of 614 abstracts that were presented at USANZ ASM between 2005 and 2009, 183 papers were published, giving a publication rate of 29.80%. The papers were predominantly published in urological journals and were more likely to be published if they were presented by an international author or were retrospective studies or if basic science research. The mean (SD) time to publication was 14.46 (13.89) months and the mean Impact Factor of journals where papers were published was 2.90. The overall publication rate was relatively low compared with other urological meetings held in America and Europe. USANZ has a challenge of encouraging higher-quality research from the authors to further enhance its publication rate and consequently the

  2. On the Issue of the Unification of Norms on Jurisdiction in the Field of Civil Proceedings Within the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Maystrovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article author examines some issues of norms on jurisdiction unification in the field of civil proceedings within the European Union. Author emphasizes that as a result of the adoption of the new Regulation No. 1215/2012 "Brussels Ibis", which came into force in 2012, rules on jurisdiction in the field of civil proceedings have undergone a number of changes. Article deals with the draft of the proposed amendments and their practical implementation. Amendments, their significance, efficiency and correlation with the projected initially are analyzed.

  3. SU(5) unification with TeV-scale leptoquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Peter [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), UTIAS,The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8583 (Japan); Kusenko, Alexander [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1547 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), UTIAS,The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8583 (Japan); Sumensari, Olcyr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,Orsay, 91405 (France); Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,C.P. 66.318, São Paulo, 05315-970 (Brazil); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), UTIAS,The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2017-03-07

    It was previously noted that SU(5) unification can be achieved via the simple addition of light scalar leptoquarks from two split 10 multiplets. We explore the parameter space of this model in detail and find that unification requires at least one leptoquark to have mass below ≈16 TeV. We point out that introducing splitting of the 24 allows the unification scale to be raised beyond 10{sup 16} GeV, while a U(1){sub PQ} symmetry can be imposed to forbid dangerous proton decay mediated by the light leptoquarks. The latest bounds from LHC searches are combined and we find that a leptoquark as light as 400 GeV is still permitted. Finally, we discuss the interesting possibility that the leptoquarks required for unification could also be responsible for the 2.6σ deviation observed in the ratio R{sub K} at LHCb.

  4. From chaos to unification: U theory vs. M theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Fred Y.

    2009-01-01

    A unified physical theory called U theory, that is different from M theory, is defined and characterized. U theory, which includes spinor and twistor theory, loop quantum gravity, causal dynamical triangulations, E-infinity unification theory, and Clifford-Finslerian unifications, is based on physical tradition and experimental foundations. In contrast, M theory pays more attention to mathematical forms. While M theory is characterized by supersymmetry string theory, U theory is characterized by non-supersymmetry unified field theory.

  5. Hierarchy problem, gauge coupling unification at the Planck scale, and vacuum stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Haba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of the gauge hierarchy problem, introducing an intermediate scale in addition to TeV scale and the Planck scale (MPl=2.4×1018 GeV is unfavorable. In that way, a gauge coupling unification (GCU is expected to be realized at MPl. We explore possibilities of GCU at MPl by adding a few extra particles with TeV scale mass into the standard model (SM. When extra particles are fermions and scalars (only fermions with the same mass, the GCU at MPl can (not be realized. On the other hand, when extra fermions have different masses, the GCU can be realized around 8πMPl without extra scalars. This simple SM extension has two advantages that a vacuum becomes stable up to MPl (8πMPl and a proton lifetime becomes much longer than an experimental bound.

  6. Grand unification and subcritical hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried; Ishiwata, Koji

    2014-12-01

    We consider hybrid inflation for small couplings of the inflaton to matter such that the critical value of the inflaton field exceeds the Planck mass. It has recently been shown that inflation then continues at subcritical inflaton field values where quantum fluctuations generate an effective inflaton mass. The effective inflaton potential interpolates between a quadratic potential at small field values and a plateau at large field values. An analysis of the allowed parameter space leads to predictions for the scalar spectral index n s and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r similar to those of natural inflation. Using the range for n s and r favoured by the Planck data, we find that the energy scale of the plateau is constrained to the interval (1.6-2.4) x 10 16 GeV which includes the energy scale of gauge coupling unification in the supersymmetric standard model. The tensor-to-scalar ratio is predicted to have the lower bound r>0.049 for 60 e-folds before the end of inflation.

  7. Technicolor and Beyond: Unification in Theory Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    I will briefly review the salient features of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking together with the traditional extensions needed to provide masses to the standard model fermions in absence of fundamental scalars. The idea walking idea is introduced according to which one should carefully take into account the effects of the extended technicolor dynamics on the technicolor dynamics itself. The interplay between the four fermion interactions stemming from the extended technicolor interactions and the technicolor model can strongly enhance the anomalous dimension of the mass of the techniquarks allowing to decouple the Flavor Changing Neutral Currents problem from the one of the generation of the large top mass. I will also review the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) models. In the second part of this review I consider the interesting possibility to marry supersymmetry and technicolor. The reason is to provide a unification of different extensions of the standard model. For example, this means that one can recover, according to the parameters and spectrum of the theory distinct extensions of the standard model, from supersymmetry to technicolor and unparticle physiscs. A surprising result is that a minimal (in terms of the smallest number of fields) supersymmetrization of the MWT model leads to the maximal supersymmetry in four dimensions, i.e. N = 4 SYM.

  8. Local grand unification in the heterotic landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Jonas

    2009-06-01

    We consider the possibility that the unification of the electroweak interactions and the strong force arises from string theory, at energies significantly lower than the string scale. As a tool, an effective grand unified field theory in six dimensions is derived from an anisotropic orbifold compactification of the heterotic string. It is explicitly shown that all anomalies cancel in the model, though anomalous Abelian gauge symmetries are present locally at the boundary singularities. In the supersymmetric vacuum additional interactions arise from higher-dimensional operators. We develop methods that relate the couplings of the effective theory to the location of the vacuum, and find that unbroken discrete symmetries play an important role for the phenomenology of orbifold models. An efficient algorithm for the calculation of the superpotential to arbitrary order is developed, based on symmetry arguments. We furthermore present a correspondence between bulk fields of the orbifold model in six dimensions, and the moduli fields that arise from compactifying four internal dimensions on a manifold with non-trivial gauge background. (orig.)

  9. Local grand unification in the heterotic landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jonas

    2009-07-15

    We consider the possibility that the unification of the electroweak interactions and the strong force arises from string theory, at energies significantly lower than the string scale. As a tool, an effective grand unified field theory in six dimensions is derived from an anisotropic orbifold compactification of the heterotic string. It is explicitly shown that all anomalies cancel in the model, though anomalous Abelian gauge symmetries are present locally at the boundary singularities. In the supersymmetric vacuum additional interactions arise from higher-dimensional operators. We develop methods that relate the couplings of the effective theory to the location of the vacuum, and find that unbroken discrete symmetries play an important role for the phenomenology of orbifold models. An efficient algorithm for the calculation of the superpotential to arbitrary order is developed, based on symmetry arguments. We furthermore present a correspondence between bulk fields of the orbifold model in six dimensions, and the moduli fields that arise from compactifying four internal dimensions on a manifold with non-trivial gauge background. (orig.)

  10. Finite Unification: Theory, Models and Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Heinemeyer, S; Zoupanos, G

    2011-01-01

    All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are very interesting N=1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) realising an old field theory dream, and moreover have a remarkable predictive power due to the required reduction of couplings. The reduction of the dimensionless couplings in N=1 GUTs is achieved by searching for renormalization group invariant (RGI) relations among them holding beyond the unification scale. Finiteness results from the fact that there exist RGI relations among dimensional couplings that guarantee the vanishing of all beta-functions in certain N=1 GUTs even to all orders. Furthermore developments in the soft supersymmetry breaking sector of N=1 GUTs and FUTs lead to exact RGI relations, i.e. reduction of couplings, in this dimensionful sector of the theory, too. Based on the above theoretical framework phenomenologically consistent FUTs have been constructed. Here we review FUT models based on the SU(5) and SU(3)^3 gauge groups and their predictions. Of particular interest is the Hig...

  11. Supersymmetry and the unification of fundamental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, P.

    Les physiciens élaborent progressivement une description unifée des lois de l'Univers, qui fait intervenir des principes de symétrie de plus en plus étendus. La supersymétrie, qui englobe la mécanique quantique et la relativité générale en opérant dans une extension de l'espace-temps ordinaire, appelée le superespace, est-elle l'un de ces principes fondamentaux? Dans cet article, l'auteur explique ce qu'est cette nouvelle symétrie, et comment, pour appliquer celle-ci au monde physique, il a été amené à envisager l'existence de toute une famille de nouvelles particules - comme les photinos, gluinos, squarks et sélectrons - que l'on recherche activement aujourd'hui. On espère parvenir à les détecter grâce aux nouvelles générations d'accélerateurs, et découvrir ainsi un nouveau principe auquel doivent satisfaire toutes les lois physiques, aussi fondamental que la relativité.

  12. Yukawa sector of minimal SO(10) unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, K.S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University,Stillwater, OK, 74078 (United States); Bajc, Borut [Jožef Stefan Institute,Ljubljana, 1000 (Slovenia); Saad, Shaikh [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University,Stillwater, OK, 74078 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    We show that in SO(10) models, a Yukawa sector consisting of a real 10{sub H}, a real 120{sub H} and a complex 126{sub H} of Higgs fields can provide a realistic fit to all fermion masses and mixings, including the neutrino sector. Although the group theory of SO(10) demands that the 10{sub H} and 120{sub H} be real, most constructions complexify these fields and impose symmetries exterior to SO(10) to achieve predictivity. The proposed new framework with real10{sub H} and real120{sub H} relies only on SO(10) gauge symmetry, and yet has a limited number of Yukawa parameters. Our analysis shows that while there are restrictions on the observables, a good fit to the entire fermion spectrum can be realized. Unification of gauge couplings is achieved with an intermediate scale Pati-Salam gauge symmetry. Proton decay branching ratios are calculable, with the leading decay modes being p→ν̄π{sup +} and p→e{sup +}π{sup 0}.

  13. Studying gaugino mass unification at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altunkaynak, Baris; Holmes, Michael; Nelson, Brent D.; Grajek, Phillip; Kane, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    We begin a systematic study of how gaugino mass unification can be probed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a quasi-model independent manner. As a first step in that direction we focus our attention on the theoretically well-motivated mirage pattern of gaugino masses, a one-parameter family of models of which universal (high scale) gaugino masses are a limiting case. We improve on previous methods to define an analytic expression for the metric on signature space and use it to study one-parameter deviations from universality in the gaugino sector, randomizing over other soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters. We put forward three ensembles of observables targeted at the physics of the gaugino sector, allowing for a determination of this non-universality parameter without reconstructing individual mass eigenvalues or the soft supersymmetry-breaking gaugino masses themselves. In this controlled environment we find that approximately 80% of the supersymmetric parameter space would give rise to a model for which our method will detect non-universality in the gaugino mass sector at the 10% level with O(10 fb -1 ) of integrated luminosity. We discuss strategies for improving the method and for adding more realism in dealing with the actual experimental circumstances of the LHC.

  14. German Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

  15. German Orientalism

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Olin

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...

  16. SO(10) - Grand unification and fermion masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezer, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we study SO(10) grand unification in its full extent by using different explicit matrix representations which exhibit the structure of SO(10) in a very transparent way. Our approach consists mainly of two stages: We derive the explicit expressions of the mass-eigenvalues and mass-eigenstates of the physical gauge bosons from a mass squared-matrix that contains all the information about the mixing parameters among the gauge fields and the phases which are sources for CP violation. In the light of this analysis, we derive the explicit expressions for the interaction Lagrangians of the charged currents, the neutral currents and the charged and colored currents in SO(10). We present explicit expressions of the vector and axial-vector couplings of the two neutral currents in SO(10). We show how the baryon, lepton and baryon minus lepton number violating processes and their explicit CP violating phases are accommodated in the SO(10) theory. The Higgs potential that we use to implement in the Higgs mechanism is constructed in a most general fashion through a careful study of the Higgs fields of SO(10), where we give special emphasis on illustrating the explicit matrix representation of these Higgs fields. The potential part of the Higgs Lagrangian will give us the properties of the minimum of the vacuum, and the kinetic part will give us the mass-squared matrix of the gauge bosons via spontaneous symmetry breakdown. The same Higgs multiplets will be coupled to fermions through a democratic Yukawa matrix. Thereby, we derive explicit expressions for the fermion masses of the third family including Majorana and Dirac masses for neutrinos. We introduce a flavor-eigenbasis for neutrinos and find the mass-eigenstates and mass-eigenvalues of the neutrinos. Explicit expressions for CP violation in the neutrino sector are obtained. In the second stage of our work, we evaluate all the above mentioned quantities. In addition, we present the values of the physical

  17. Unification of binary star ephemeris solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Van Hamme, W.

    2014-01-01

    Time-related binary system characteristics such as orbital period, its rate of change, apsidal motion, and variable light-time delay due to a third body, are measured in two ways that can be mutually complementary. The older way is via eclipse timings, while ephemerides by simultaneous whole light and velocity curve analysis have appeared recently. Each has its advantages, for example, eclipse timings typically cover relatively long time spans while whole curves often have densely packed data within specific intervals and allow access to systemic properties that carry additional timing information. Synthesis of the two information sources can be realized in a one step process that combines several data types, with automated weighting based on their standard deviations. Simultaneous light-velocity-timing solutions treat parameters of apsidal motion and the light-time effect coherently with those of period and period change, allow the phenomena to interact iteratively, and produce parameter standard errors based on the quantity and precision of the curves and timings. The logic and mathematics of the unification algorithm are given, including computation of theoretical conjunction times as needed for generation of eclipse timing residuals. Automated determination of eclipse type, recovery from inaccurate starting ephemerides, and automated data weighting are also covered. Computational examples are given for three timing-related cases—steady period change (XY Bootis), apsidal motion (V526 Sagittarii), and the light-time effect due to a binary's reflex motion in a triple system (AR Aurigae). Solutions for all combinations of radial velocity, light curve, and eclipse timing input show consistent results, with a few minor exceptions.

  18. German causative events with placement verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Knop Sabine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have described the semantic uses of German posture verbs, but only few have dealt with German placement verbs. The present study wants to make up for this gap. Starting from a collection of examples from the core corpora of the Digitales Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (DWDS and some former studies on posture verbs, it first describes the variety of the most common German placement verbs stellen (‘to put upright’, legen (‘to lay down’, setzen (‘to set’ and stecken (‘to stick’.

  19. Unification of gauge couplings in radiative neutrino mass models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Ohlsson, Tommy; Riad, Stella

    2016-01-01

    masses at one-loop level and (III) models with particles in the adjoint representation of SU(3). In class (I), gauge couplings unify in a few models and adding dark matter amplifies the chances for unification. In class (II), about a quarter of the models admits gauge coupling unification. In class (III......We investigate the possibility of gauge coupling unification in various radiative neutrino mass models, which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level. Renormalization group running of gauge couplings is performed analytically and numerically at one- and two-loop order, respectively....... We study three representative classes of radiative neutrino mass models: (I) minimal ultraviolet completions of the dimension-7 ΔL = 2 operators which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level without and with dark matter candidates, (II) models with dark matter which lead to neutrino...

  20. Einstein's dream : the space-time unification of fundamental forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, A [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1981-06-01

    The historical developments in physics which started with Galileo in the 11th century, Newton in the 17 century, culminated in the unification of space-time by Einstein in this century are traced. The theories put forward by Einstein himself and by subsequent workers in the field after him, regarding the unification of all basic forces of nature (i.e.) the electromagnetic and the gravitational ones and the weak and strong nuclear forces are discussed. The experiments being conducted in Kolar and other places to detect a heavier photon which would be a positive proof of the validity of the unification theory, are touched upon. The possible application of this concept even in industry has been pointed out.

  1. Dark Matter in SuperGUT Unification Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, Keith A

    2011-01-01

    After a brief update on the prospects for dark matter in the constrained version of the MSSM (CMSSM) and its differences with models based on minimal supergravity (mSUGRA), I will consider the effects of unifying the supersymmetry-breaking parameters at a scale above M GUT . One of the consequences of superGUT unification, is the ability to take vanishing scalar masses at the unification scale with a neutralino LSP dark matter candidate. This allows one to resurrect no-scale supergravity as a viable phenomenological model.

  2. GERMANISMS IN THE NORTH ČAKAVIAN DIALECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Turk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Germanisms in some local idioms of the North Čakavian dialect. Phonological, morphological and word-formation variants of Germanisms are identified. Special attention is paid to the semantic fields and to the spatial, temporal, functional and stylistic stratification of the Germanisms, and to the degree to which they are recognized and used by speakers who belong to different generations.

  3. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keilbach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it maintained at the same time ideological boundaries.

  4. Generalized Multicarrier CDMA: Unification and Linear Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhengdao

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Relying on block-symbol spreading and judicious design of user codes, this paper builds on the generalized multicarrier (GMC quasisynchronous CDMA system that is capable of multiuser interference (MUI elimination and intersymbol interference (ISI suppression with guaranteed symbol recovery, regardless of the wireless frequency-selective channels. GMC-CDMA affords an all-digital unifying framework, which encompasses single-carrier and several multicarrier (MC CDMA systems. Besides the unifying framework, it is shown that GMC-CDMA offers flexibility both in full load (maximum number of users allowed by the available bandwidth and in reduced load settings. A novel blind channel estimation algorithm is also derived. Analytical evaluation and simulations illustrate the superior error performance and flexibility of uncoded GMC-CDMA over competing MC-CDMA alternatives especially in the presence of uplink multipath channels.

  5. String unification and leptophobic Z` in flipped SU(5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.L. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Bonner Nuclear Labs.

    1997-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in the prediction for {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}), self-consistent string unification and the dynamical determination of mass scales, and leptophobic Z` gauge bosons in the context of stringy flipped SU(5). (orig.).

  6. Natural fermion mass hierarchy and mixings in family unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, James B.; Feger, Robert; Kephart, Thomas W.; Nandi, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present an SU(9) model of family unification with three light chiral families, and a natural hierarchy of charged fermion masses and mixings. The existence of singlet right handed neutrinos with masses about two orders of magnitude smaller than the GUT scale, as needed to understand the light neutrinos masses via the see-saw mechanism, is compelling in our model.

  7. Similarity-Based Unification: A Multi-Adjoint Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medina, J.; Ojeda-Aciego, M.; Vojtáš, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 1 (2004), s. 43-62 ISSN 0165-0114 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : similarity * fuzzy unification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2004

  8. Einstein's Last Dream: The Space–Time Unification of Fundamental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Einstein's Last Dream: The Space – Time Unification of Fundamental Forces. Abdus Salam. Reflections Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 81-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Neutrino masses and the unification of the SO(10) families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalampi, J.; Enqvist, K.

    1980-01-01

    We show that the unification of the SO(10) families in SO(10+m) group can offer a solution to the neutrino mass problem. For simplicity we have restricted our analysis to SO(11), which contains - aside from generation mixing -the main novel feature of the theories of this kind: fermions that couple by V+A charged weak currents. (author)

  10. Unification of three linear models for the transient visual system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinker, den A.C.

    1989-01-01

    Three different linear filters are considered as a model describing the experimentally determined triphasic impulse responses of discs. These impulse responses arc associated with the transient visual system. Each model reveals a different feature of the system. Unification of the models is

  11. A4 family symmetry and quark-lepton unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.; Malinsky, Michal

    2007-01-01

    We present a model of quark and lepton masses and mixings based on A 4 family symmetry, a discrete subgroup of an SO(3) flavour symmetry, together with Pati-Salam unification. It accommodates tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing via constrained sequential dominance with a particularly simple vacuum alignment mechanism emerging through the effective D-term contributions to the scalar potential

  12. Introduction to unification of electromagnetic and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing the present status of weak interaction phenomenology we discuss the basic principles of gauge theories. Then we show how Higgs mechanism can give massive quanta of interaction. The so-called 'Weinberg-Salam' model, which unifies electromagnetic and weak interactions, is described. We conclude with a few words on unification with strong interactions and gravity [fr

  13. Unification of Radio Galaxies and their Accretion Jet Properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the relation between black hole mass, Mbh, and jet power, Qjet, for a sample of BL Lacs and radio quasars. We find that BL Lacs are separated from radio quasars by the FR I/II dividing line in Mbh–Qjet plane, which strongly supports the unification scheme of FR. I/BL Lac and FR II/radio quasar.

  14. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  15. Law behind second law of thermodynamics - unification with cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Holger B.; Ninomiya, Masao

    2006-01-01

    In an abstract setting of a general classical mechanical system as a model for the universe we set up a general formalism for a law behind the second law of thermodynamics, i.e. really for 'initial conditions'. We propose a unification with the other laws by requiring similar symmetry and locality properties

  16. Interplay between grand unification and supersymmetry in SU(5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy MSSM. break the rank, Aulakh and his collaborators [10–12] have showed that R-parity is exact all the way down to low energies. In this case, grand unification tells us something about supersymmetry and even dark matter. In this article ...

  17. German atomic energy law in the international framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1992-01-01

    The regional conference was devoted to the legal problems that ensue from German reunification against the background of the integration of German atomic energy law within international law. The elements of national atomic energy legislation required by international law and recent developments in international nuclear liability law were discussed from different perspectives. The particular problems of the application of the German Atomic Energy Act in the 5 new Laender (the territories of the former GDR) were presented and discussed, namely: The continued validity of old licences issued by the GDR; practical legal problems connected with the construction of nuclear power plants in the 5 new Laender; the legal issues connected with the final repository for radioactive wastes at Morsleben; and the new developments in radiation protection law following from the Unification Treaty and the new ICRP recommendations. All 14 lectures have been abstracted and indexed individually. (orig.) [de

  18. German Librarianship and Munich Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.

  19. Unification of the methodology of competitiveness evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Marina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is the comparison of the modern methods of competitiveness evaluation and testing the results in practice at a production plant in order to unify the methodology. Analysis of the publications shows that the existing diversity in methods of the competitiveness evaluation complicates the choice of a method and interpretation of the results, which confirms the need to classify and unify the methods available today. The authors suggest that the standardized method of competitiveness evaluation should combine matrix and graphical methods. In our study, we have shown that SWOT-analysis should be carried out in two stages: firstly, it is necessary to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the company, taking into account the following factors: marketing, production, economic and financial situation, technology, the administration and personnel; secondly, it is essential to assess the opportunities and threats with the allowance for the political, legal, and economic situation, the impact of market as well as social, cultural and natural environmental factors. The proposed methodology of competitiveness evaluation has been tested at the industrial enterprise "Olvita ltd", which is dynamically developing and successfully operates on the food market of Ukraine; it specializes in processing, logistics and distribution of fresh and frozen vegetables, fruits and berries, as well as ready-to cook meat products. The results have shown that the competitiveness evaluation remains a pressing issue that requires simple and fairly demonstrative methods, one of which is a method that combines both graphical and matrix approaches. The advantage of the proposed method is its sufficiently high visualizations and record of personal approaches in evaluating the scores for strengths and weaknesses as well as opportunities and threats. In the future, the authors are planning to examine and systemize the indicators used in the competitiveness

  20. Double unification of particles with fields and electricity with gravity in non-empty space of continuous complex energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulyzhenkov Igor E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-empty space reading of Maxwell equations as local energy identities explains why a Coulomb field is carried rigidly by electrons in experiments. The analytical solution of the Poisson equation defines the sharp radial shape of charged elementary densities which are proportional to continuous densities of electric self-energy. Both Coulomb field and radial charge densities are free from energy divergences. Non-empty space of electrically charged mass-energy can be described by complex analytical densities resulting in real values for volume mass integrals and in imaginary values for volume charge integrals. Imaginary electric charges in the Newton gravitational law comply with real Coulomb forces. Unification of forces through complex charges rids them of radiation self-acceleration. Strong gravitational fields repeal probe bodies that might explainthe accelerated expansion of the dense Metagalaxy. Outward and inward spherical waves form the standing wave process within the radial carrier of complex energy.

  1. Gauge-Higgs Unification Models in Six Dimensions with S2/Z2 Extra Space and GUT Gauge Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review gauge-Higgs unification models based on gauge theories defined on six-dimensional spacetime with S2/Z2 topology in the extra spatial dimensions. Nontrivial boundary conditions are imposed on the extra S2/Z2 space. This review considers two scenarios for constructing a four-dimensional theory from the six-dimensional model. One scheme utilizes the SO(12 gauge symmetry with a special symmetry condition imposed on the gauge field, whereas the other employs the E6 gauge symmetry without requiring the additional symmetry condition. Both models lead to a standard model-like gauge theory with the SU(3×SU(2L×U(1Y(×U(12 symmetry and SM fermions in four dimensions. The Higgs sector of the model is also analyzed. The electroweak symmetry breaking can be realized, and the weak gauge boson and Higgs boson masses are obtained.

  2. The string unification of gauge couplings and gauge kinetic mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Chuichiro; Matsuda, Masahisa; Matsuoka, Takeo; Mochinaga, Daizo.

    1993-01-01

    In the superstring models we have not only the complete 27 multiplets of E 6 but also extra incomplete (27+27-bar) chiral supermultiplets being alive at low energies. Associated with these additional multiplets, when the gauge symmetry contains more than one U(1) gauge group, there may exist gauge kinetic mixings among these U(1) gauge groups. In such cases the effect of gauge kinetic mixings should be incorporated into the study of unification of gauge couplings. We study these interesting effects systematically in these models. The string threshold effect is also taken into account. It is found that in the four-generation models we do not have an advisable solution of string unification of gauge couplings consistent with experimental values at the electroweak scale. We also discuss the possible scenarios to solve this problem. (author)

  3. Towards a new paradigm for quark-lepton unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Christopher [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3,53 avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2017-05-03

    The quark and charged lepton mass patterns upset their naïve unification. In this paper, a new approach to solve this problem is proposed. Model-independently, we find that a successful unification can be achieved. A mechanism is identified by which the large top quark mass renders its third-generation leptonic partner very light. This state is thus identified with the electron. We then construct a toy model to implement dynamically this mechanism, using tree-level exchanges of vector leptons to relate the quark and charged lepton flavor structures. In a supersymmetric context, this same mechanism splits the squark masses, and third generation squarks end up much lighter than the others. Finally, the implementation of this mechanism in SU(5) GUT permits to avoid introducing any flavor structure beyond the two minimal Yukawa couplings, ensuring the absence of unknown mixing matrices and their potentially large impact on FCNC.

  4. Reconciling grand unification with strings by anisotropic compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundee, Ben; Raby, Stuart; Wingerter, Akin

    2008-01-01

    We analyze gauge coupling unification in the context of heterotic strings on anisotropic orbifolds. This construction is very much analogous to effective five-dimensional orbifold grand unified theory field theories. Our analysis assumes three fundamental scales: the string scale M S , a compactification scale M C , and a mass scale for some of the vectorlike exotics M EX ; the other exotics are assumed to get mass at M S . In the particular models analyzed, we show that gauge coupling unification is not possible with M EX =M C , and in fact we require M EX C ∼3x10 16 GeV. We find that about 10% of the parameter space has a proton lifetime (from dimension six gauge exchange) 10 33 yr 0 e + ) 36 yr. The other 80% of the parameter space gives proton lifetimes below Super-Kamiokande bounds. The next generation of proton decay experiments should be sensitive to the remaining parameter space.

  5. Reduced modular symmetries of threshold corrections and gauge coupling unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailin, David; Love, Alex [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Sussex,Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    We revisit the question of gauge coupling unification at the string scale in orbifold compactifications of the heterotic string for the supersymmetric Standard Model. In the presence of discrete Wilson lines threshold corrections with modular symmetry that is a subgroup of the full modular group arise. We find that reduced modular symmetries not previously reported are possible. We conjecture that the effects of such threshold corrections can be simulated using sums of terms built from Dedekind eta functions to obtain the appropriate modular symmetry. For the cases of the ℤ{sub 8}-I orbifold and the ℤ{sub 3}×ℤ{sub 6} orbifold it is easily possible to obtain gauge coupling unification at the “observed” scale with Kähler moduli T of approximately one.

  6. Grand unification in higher dimensions with split supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate gauge coupling unification in higher dimensional GUT models with split supersymmetry. We focus on 5d and 6d orbifold GUTs, which permit a simple solution to several problems of 4D GUTs as well as control over GUT scale threshold corrections. In orbifold GUTs, calculable threshold corrections can raise or lower the prediction for α s (M Z ) in a way that depends on the location of Higgs fields. On the other hand, split supersymmetry lowers the prediction for α s (M Z ). Consequently, split supersymmetry changes the preferred location of the Higgs fields in orbifold GUTs. In the simplest models, we find that gauge coupling unification favors higgs doublets that live on the orbifold fixed points instead of in the bulk. In addition, relatively high scales of supersymmetry breaking of 10 10±2 GeV are generically favored

  7. Quantum gravity unification via transfinite arithmetic and geometrical averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    In E-Infinity theory, we have not only infinitely many dimensions but also infinitely many fundamental forces. However, due to the hierarchical structure of ε (∞) spacetime we have a finite expectation number for its dimensionality and likewise a finite expectation number for the corresponding interactions. Starting from the preceding fundamental principles and using the experimental findings as well as the theoretical value of the coupling constants of the electroweak and the strong forces we present an extremely simple averaging procedure for determining the quantum gravity unification coupling constant with and without super symmetry. The work draws heavily on previous results, in particular a paper, by the Slovian Prof. Marek-Crnjac [Marek-Crnjac L. On the unification of all fundamental forces in a fundamentally fuzzy Cantorian ε (∞) manifold and high energy physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;4:657-68

  8. North Korea's Juche Ideology and the German Re-Unification Experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juetten, Stephan A

    2008-01-01

    .... The hypothesis investigated is as follows: upon eventual Korean reunification, significant problems of national social cohesion, at least as serious as those faced by the reunified Germany since 1990, should be expected...

  9. North Korea’s Juche Ideology and the German Re-Unification Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    repräsentativen Befragung in Ost- und Westdeutschland 2006,” Selbständige Abteilung für Medizimische Psychologie und Medizinische Soziologie der Universität...207 Ibid. “Auf anderen Ebenen – denen der Wirtschaft und der Psychologie – führte die rasche Übernahme des westdeutschen Systems zu Zerstörungen... Psychologie und Medizinische Soziologie der Universität Leipzig. (May/June 2006). http://medpsy.uniklinikum- leipzig.de/pdf/deutsche_befindlichkeiten_2006

  10. Problems of CP-violation in early unification theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liparteliani, A.G.; Monich, V.A.; Volkov, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The present work studies possible mechanisms of P and CP-violation in the frames of an approach based on early unification of fundamental local symmetries, i.e., Pati-Salam four-colour symmetry, extended weak isotopic symmetry and that of quark-lepton generations. The work also studies the influence of generations mixing on the rates of rare processes in each of 3 classes of interactions

  11. Gauge coupling unification in realistic free-fermionic string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, K.R.; Faraggi, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the unification of gauge couplings within the framework of a wide class of realistic free-fermionic string models which have appeared in the literature, including the flipped SU(5), SO(6)xSO(4), and various SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) models. If the matter spectrum below the string scale is that of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), then string unification is in disagreement with experiment. We therefore examine several effects that may modify the minimal string predictions. First, we develop a systematic procedure for evaluating the one-loop heavy string threshold corrections in free-fermionic string models, and we explicitly evaluate these corrections for each of the realistic models. We find that these string threshold corrections are small, and we provide general arguments explaining why such threshold corrections are suppressed in string theory. Thus heavy thresholds cannot resolve the disagreement with experiment. We also study the effect of non-standard hypercharge normalizations, light SUSY thresholds, and intermediate-scale gauge structure, and similarly conclude that these effects cannot resolve the disagreement with low-energy data. Finally, we examine the effects of additional color triplets and electroweak doublets beyond the MSSM. Although not required in ordinary grand unification scenarios, such states generically appear within the context of certain realistic free-fermionic string models. We show that if these states exist at the appropriate thresholds, then the gauge couplings will indeed unify at the string scale. Thus, within these string models, string unification can be in agreement with low-energy data. (orig.)

  12. Unification of Radio Galaxies and their Accretion Jet Properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We investigate the relation between black hole mass, bh, and jet power, jet, for a sample of BL Lacs and radio quasars. We find that BL Lacs are separated from radio quasars by the FR I/II dividing line in bh-jet plane, which strongly supports the unification scheme of FR I/BL Lac and FR II/radio ...

  13. Focus point gauge mediation in product group unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, Felix; Ibe, Masahiro; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2013-03-01

    In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the ne-tuning remains modest. In this paper, we show that such gauge mediation models with ''focus point'' behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5) x U(3) product group unification.

  14. Exchange-Rate Unification with Black Market Leakages; Russia 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Goldberg

    1993-01-01

    In 1992 Russia unified the multiple exchange rates that had applied to international transactions. This paper describes the multiple exchange rate system that existed in Russia prior to mid-1992 and undertakes a theoretical exploration of the effects of the exchange rate unification that took place in July 1992. The model developed here allows for leakages between official and black markets and permits flexibility of the exchange rates in both official and parallel currency markets. Within th...

  15. Gauge coupling unification and nonequilibrium thermal dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, Yann; Olive, Keith A; Quevillon, Jérémie; Zaldívar, Bryan

    2013-06-14

    We study a new mechanism for the production of dark matter in the Universe which does not rely on thermal equilibrium. Dark matter is populated from the thermal bath subsequent to inflationary reheating via a massive mediator whose mass is above the reheating scale T(RH). To this end, we consider models with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry broken at some intermediate scale (M(int) ≃ 10(10)-10(12) GeV). We show that not only does the model allow for gauge coupling unification (at a higher scale associated with grand unification) but it can provide a dark matter candidate which is a standard model singlet but charged under the extra U(1). The intermediate scale gauge boson(s) which are predicted in several E6/SO(10) constructions can be a natural mediator between dark matter and the thermal bath. We show that the dark matter abundance, while never having achieved thermal equilibrium, is fixed shortly after the reheating epoch by the relation T(RH)(3)/M(int)(4). As a consequence, we show that the unification of gauge couplings which determines M(int) also fixes the reheating temperature, which can be as high as T(RH) ≃ 10(11) GeV.

  16. Probes of Yukawa unification in supersymmetric SO(10) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westhoff, Susanne

    2009-10-23

    This work is composed as follows: In Chapter 1, the disposed reader is made familiar with the foundations of flavourphysics and Grand Unification, including group-theoretical aspects of SO(10). In Chapter 2, we introduce a specific supersymmetric GUT model based on SO(10) and designed to probe down-quark-lepton Yukawa unification. Within this framework we explore the effects of large atmospheric neutrino mixing in bottom-strange transitions on the mass difference and CP phase in B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} meson mixing. Chapter 3 is devoted to corrections to Yukawa unification. We derive constraints on Yukawa corrections for light fermions from K- anti K and B{sub d}- anti B {sub d} mixing. As an application we study implications of neutrino mixing effects in CP-violating K and B{sub d} observables on the unitrity triangle. Finally, in Chapter 4, we discuss effects of large tan {beta} in B{yields}(D){tau}{nu} decays with respect to their potential to discover charged Higgs bosons and to discriminate between different GUT models of flavour.

  17. Testing the AGN Unification Model in the Infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Almeida, C; Levenson, N A; Radomski, J T; Alonso-Herrero, A; Asensio Ramos, A; Rodríguez Espinosa, J M; Pérez García, A M; Packham, C; Mason, R; Díaz-Santos, T

    2012-01-01

    We present near-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 21 Seyfert galaxies, using subarcsecond resolution imaging data. Our aim is to compare the properties Seyfert 1 (Sy1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy2) tori using clumpy torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the infrared (IR) nuclear SEDs. These dusty tori have physical sizes smaller than 6 pc radius, as derived from our fits. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) unification schemes account for a variety of observational differences in terms of viewing geometry. However, we find evidence that strong unification may not hold, and that the immediate dusty surroundings of Sy1 and Sy2 nuclei are intrinsically different. The Type 2 tori studied here are broader, have more clumps, and these clumps have lower optical depths than those of Type 1 tori. The larger the covering factor of the torus, the smaller the probability of having direct view of the AGN, and vice-versa. In our sample, Sy2 tori have larger covering factors (C T = 0.95±0.02) and smaller escape probabilities than those of Sy1 (C T = 0.5±0.1). Thus, on the basis of the results presented here, the classification of a Seyfert galaxy may depend more on the intrinsic properties of the torus rather than on its mere inclination, in contradiction with the simplest unification model.

  18. Gauge coupling unification from unified theories in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2002-01-01

    Higher dimensional grand unified theories, with gauge symmetry breaking by orbifold compactification, possess SU(5) breaking at fixed points, and do not automatically lead to tree-level gauge coupling unification. A new framework is introduced that guarantees precise unification--even the leading loop threshold corrections are predicted, although they are model dependent. Precise agreement with the experimental result, α s exp =0.117±0.002, occurs only for a unique theory, and gives α s KK =0.118±0.004±0.003. Remarkably, this unique theory is also the simplest, with SU(5) gauge interactions and two Higgs hypermultiplets propagating in a single extra dimension. This result is more successful and precise than that obtained from conventional supersymmetric grand unification, α s SGUT =0.130±0.004±Δ SGUT . There is a simultaneous solution to the three outstanding problems of 4D supersymmetric grand unified theories: a large mass splitting between Higgs doublets and their color triplet partners is forced, proton decay via dimension five operators is automatically forbidden, and the absence of fermion mass relations amongst light quarks and leptons is guaranteed, while preserving the successful m b /m τ relation. The theory necessarily has a strongly coupled top quark located on a fixed point and part of the lightest generation propagating in the bulk. The string and compactification scales are determined to be around 10 17 GeV and 10 15 GeV, respectively

  19. Precision LEP data, supersymmetric GUTs and string unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Kelley, S.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Houston Area Research Center

    1990-01-01

    The precision of sin 2 θ w MS (m Z ) extracted from LEP data (0.233±0.001) confirms the prediction of minimal supersymmetric GUTs (0.235±0.004) within the errors of about 2%. Moreover, supersymmetric GUTs with three generations and a heavy top quark also predict m b =5.2±0.3 GeV in perfect agreement with potential model estimates (5.0±0.2 GeV). String unification would require that the effective grand unification scale m GUT be no larger than the effective string unification scale m SU , which is indeed consistent with the LEP data, which indicate m GUT ≅ 2x10 16 GeV in a minimal supersymmetric GUT, compared with the theoretical estimate m SU ≅ 10 17 GeV. Specific choices of the string model moduli could enforce m GUT =m SU even in minimal supersymmetric GUTs, whilst non-minimal supersymmetric GUTs can reconcile the successful predictions of sin 2 θ w with m GUT = m SU for generic values of the moduli, but tend to have m b too large. (orig.)

  20. Teaching German-Americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolzmann, Don Heinrich

    1976-01-01

    A university course entitled "The German-Americans" attempted to study and evaluate German culture in the U. S. Lecture topics and term paper theses are listed and a selected annotated bibliography of German-American culture is included. (CHK)

  1. L’Autriche face à la réunification allemande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Grelle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La chute du Mur de Berlin, en 1989, fut certes pour l’Autriche un événement politique majeur, mais pas plus important que la fin du rideau de fer. En effet, quasiment « enclavée » entre plusieurs pays socialistes, l’Autriche considéra la disparition du rideau de fer comme une ouverture sans limite aux pays d’Europe Centrale et de l’Est. Au cours des vingt années qui suivirent ces événements, l’Autriche a largement contribué au développement politique, économique et social des pays de l’Est en pratiquant une politique d’échanges économiques et financiers avec ces pays afin d’aider à leur reconstruction. Dans un tel contexte, la chute du Mur de Berlin et la réunification allemande ont été appréhendées comme un simple élément du puzzle de la reconstruction européenne. Une telle stratégie a alors permis à l’Autriche de sortir définitivement de son inquiétude face à la persistance d’un danger « annexionniste » de la part de l’Allemagne.

  2. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  3. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  4. OPPOSITIVE METAPHORICAL MODELS IN THE GERMAN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tameryan, T.Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s metaphoric image in the German press. As a result of analysis 8 binary metaphorical constructions, verbalized by two components, one of which is positively marked (PM, the other one have been negatively (NM identified. Statistical analysis of the linguistic material allowed to conclude that the assessment of Merkel is ambivalently with a slight predominance of positive estimation.

  5. SO(14) unification of 3+1 families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadayi, H.R.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the unification of 3+1 families is possible within the framework of 64 dimensional spinor representation of SO(14). Special care is given for a description without the heavy excess fermions such as conjugate and mirror or completely exotic fermions of some family unification schemes. With the aid of an intrinsic ''L-R Asymmetry'' mechanism which we proposed recently, the conventional strong and electromagnetic interactions are obtained for all four families by concentrating only on the symmetry breaking SO(14) → SU(3)sub(c) x U(1)sub(e.m.). However, the conventional weak interactions of the first three families are obtained just as in the standard SU(2)sub(L) x U(1)sub(Y) model, while those of the prescribed fourth family show certain differences. This is what we mean by 3+1 family unification. All vector particles mediating strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions which are the subjects of present phenomenological tests are specified among the vector fields of SO(14) and their mass mechanisms leading to a consistent description of this low-energy phenomenology are studied with the aid of the Higgs multiplets 14, 364, 1716 and 2002 of SO(14). Moreover, the fermion mass mechanisms are considered with the aid of these scalar multiplets and the contributions from these scalars to the vector and fermion masses are explicitly calculated. All these calculations are carried out in the new mathematical technique for the Lie algebra representations which we introduced recently. (author)

  6. Dark matter, mirror world, and E6 unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ch. R.; Laperashvili, L. V.

    2009-01-01

    The idea that the ordinary (O) and mirror (M) worlds exist simultaneously is developed. It is shown that, in the case of a violated mirror parity (MP), the renormalization-group evolution of the coupling constants, which is represented in the O world by the dependence α i -1 (μ) (μ is an energy variable), is not identical to the evolution of the coupling constants α' i -1 (μ) in the M world. Here, the index i labels the symmetry group under consideration, while a dash labels quantities defined in the M world. It is assumed that E 6 unification predicted by superstring theory restores MP at the unification scale M SGUT ∼ 10 18 GeV, this inevitably leading to the difference in the violation of E 6 unification in the O and M worlds at lower energies: E 6 → SO(10) x U(1) Z and E' 6 → SU(6)' x SU(2)' Z . Considering only asymptotically free theories, we present the evolution of all the inverse coupling constants α i -1 (μ) in the one-loop approximation. In dealing with the M world involving MP violation, we then arrive at the model of the accelerating expansion of our Universe, where the axion ('acceleron') belongs to the SU(2)' Z group of the M world. The coupling constant g' Z , which grows indefinitely at the scale Λ' Z ∼ 10 -3 eV, is associated with this group. Within this theory, our Universe is in the false vacuum of the M world, in agreement with the phenomenologically observed cosmological constant of about (3 x 10 -3 eV) 4 .

  7. Focus point gauge mediation in product group unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibe, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). ICRR; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS

    2013-03-15

    In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the ne-tuning remains modest. In this paper, we show that such gauge mediation models with ''focus point'' behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5) x U(3) product group unification.

  8. Nontrivial asymptotically nonfree gauge theories and dynamical unification of couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, J.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence for the nontriviality of asymptotically nonfree (ANF) Yang-Mills theories is found on the basis of optimized perturbation theory. It is argued that these theories with matter couplings can be made nontrivial by means of the reduction of couplings, leading to the idea of the dynamical unification of couplings (DUC). The second-order reduction of couplings in the ANF SU(3)-gauged Higgs-Yukawa theory, which is assumed to be nontrivial here, is carried out to motivate independent investigations on its nontriviality and DUC

  9. INTRODUCTION A L'UNIFICATION DES INTERACTIONS ELECTROMAGNETIQUES ET FAIBLES

    OpenAIRE

    Martin , F.

    1980-01-01

    Après avoir décrit l'état actuel de la phénoménologie des interactions faibles on discute les principes de base des théories de jauge. On montre ensuite comment le mécanisme de Higgs permet d'obtenir des quanta d'interaction massifs. Le modèle dit de "Weinberg-Salam" permettant d'unifier les interactions électromagnétiques et faibles est présenté. On termine par quelques mots sur l'unification avec les interactions fortes et la gravitation.

  10. ["Maintaining a Common Culture"--the German Research Foundation and the Austrian-German scientific aid in the interbellum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Silke; Luxbacher, Günther

    2011-12-01

    After the end of the Great War, private as well as public research funding in Austria was anaemic and slow to develop. Whereas the German state-funded Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) was established as early as 1920, first steps in that direction were only taken in Austria in the late 1920s. In 1929, the Osterreichisch-deutsche Wissenschaftshilfe (ODW) was founded under the auspices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the DFG. Although prima facie on an equal footing, the new research funding organisation was in fact highly dependent on its German cooperation partner. The article explores for the first time ODW's position within the German and Austrian science and foreign policies, which aimed to promote the idea of unification of both states within the German Reich. A quantitative analysis of the subsidies policy in the first five years of existence shows that the ODW gave financial aid primarily to conservative research fields, affecting the intellectual balance of power in the First Austrian Republic. Policy continuities and discontinuities of the organisation in the course of the national-socialist rise to power in Germany after 1933 are examined in the second part of the article. The article thus both increases our knowledge about the most important German research funding organisation DFG, and identifies some of the fundamental structural features of Austrian science policy in the interwar years.

  11. The vacuum of the minimal nonsupersymmetric SO(10) unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolini, Stefano; Di Luzio, Luca; Malinsky, Michal

    2010-01-01

    We study a class of nonsupersymmetric SO(10) grand-unified scenarios where the first stage of the symmetry breaking is driven by the vacuum expectation values of the 45-dimensional adjoint representation. Three-decade-old results claim that such a Higgs setting may lead exclusively to the flipped SU(5) x U(1) intermediate stage. We show that this conclusion is actually an artifact of the tree-level potential. The study of the accidental global symmetries emerging in various limits of the scalar potential offers a simple understanding of the tree-level result and a rationale for the drastic impact of quantum corrections. We scrutinize in detail the simplest and paradigmatic case of the 45 H +16 H Higgs sector triggering the breaking of SO(10) to the standard electroweak model. We show that the minimization of the one-loop effective potential allows for intermediate SU(4) C x SU(2) L x U(1) R and SU(3) c x SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-L symmetric stages as well. These are the options favored by gauge unification. Our results, that apply whenever the SO(10) breaking is triggered by H >, open the path for hunting the simplest realistic scenario of nonsupersymmetric SO(10) grand unification.

  12. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Jogesh C.

    2006-06-09

    In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x SU(4){sup c} or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (1) observed neutrino oscillations, (2) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (3) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.

  13. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Jogesh C.

    In the first part of this paper, we explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity — be it string/M-theory or a reincarnation — this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2)L × SU(2)R × SU(4)c or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (i) observed neutrino oscillations, (ii) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (iii) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in μ → eγ, τ → μγ, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M-theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.

  15. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2) L x SU(2) R x SU(4) c or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (1) observed neutrino oscillations, (2) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (3) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in μ → eγ, τ → μγ, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism

  16. Unification of reactor elastomeric sealing based on material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, N.K.; Raj, Baldev

    2012-01-01

    The unification of elastomeric sealing applications of Indian nuclear reactors based on a few qualified fluoroelastomer/perfluoroelastomer compounds and standardized approaches for finite element analysis (FEA) based design, manufacturing process and antifriction coatings is discussed. It is shown that the advance polymer architecture based Viton ® formulation developed for inflatable seals of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) and its four basic variations can encompass other sealing applications of PFBR with minimum additional efforts on development and validation. Changing the blend ratio of Viton ® GBL 200S and 600S in inflatable seal formulation could extend its use to Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). The higher operating temperature of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) seals expands the choice to perfluoroelastomers. FEA based on plane-strain/axisymmetric modeling (with Mooney–Rivlin as the basic constitutive model), seal manufacture by cold feed extrusion and injection molding as well as plasma Teflon-like coating belonging to two variations obtained from the development of inflatable seals provide the necessary standardization for unification. The gains in simplification of design, development and operation of seals along with the enhancements of safety and reliability are expected to be substantial.

  17. REFRAMING THE SKILLED WORKER: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ORIGINS OF THE GERMAN SKILLS MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meskill

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1926, shortly after the German economy had emerged from the fog of post-World War I hyperinflation, the principle employers’ groups, the National Association of German Industry and the Association of German Employers’ Organizations, founded a Working Committee on Vocational Training. The establishment of this body represented a decisive turning point in the emergence of the highly skilled modern German work force. By standardizing vocational definitions, training schemes, and national qualifying exams, the Committee and its successors helped German apprentices and employers overcome previous disincentives to investing in worker training.

  18. The Fulcum, the Late Roman and Byzantine Testudo: the Germanization of Roman Infantry Tactics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Rance

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The tactic of forming a shield-wall, although called by the Germanic name fulcum first in Maurice’s Strategicon in the sixth century, has a long history of use by the Roman legions, and is not an instance of Germanic influence on Roman tactics.

  19. Revitalization of ethnic identity among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krel Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990's, many members of the German national minority have awaken from the several decades long sleep in 'ethnic hibernation'. Several associations have been founded at that time, with an aim to gather and encourage ethnic feelings of the Germans living in Vojvodina. These associations work toward revitalization and reconstruction of the German ethnic and cultural identity. There are quite a few of such institutions today, and one of them is German association promoting good neighbor relations Karlowitz, Sremski Karlovci. This paper will discuss transformation of an ethnic identity strategy among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci; in addition, I will analyze modus operandi by which this local association aims at keeping and encouraging certain elements of the ethnic and cultural particulars. The results of the research point out how a relatively small group, without social power, can define and redefine its own identity, in regards to historical, social and economic conditions.

  20. IDIOMS CONTAINING THE COMPONENT BLACK / SCHWARZ IN THE ENGLISH AND GERMAN LANGUAGES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovleva, S.L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of English and German idiomatic expressions containing the component of colour in their structure. It has been revealed that black dominates in the English linguistic idiomatic view of the world. The core centre of the focal colours in the German culture is also schwarz / black. General and specific features of black / schwarz as a part of national linguistic views of the world of the English and German languages are considered in the article.

  1. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  2. CARINA data synthesis project: pH data scale unification and cruise adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Velo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Artic Mediterranean Seas (AMS, Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic Ocean.

    These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; AMS, Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 59 reported pH measured values. All reported pH data have been unified to the Sea-Water Scale (SWS at 25 °C.

    Here we present details of the secondary QC of pH in the CARINA database and the scale unification to SWS at 25 °C. The pH scale has been converted for 36 cruises. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis are described. Adjustments were applied to the pH values for 21 of the cruises in the CARINA dataset. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with the GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA pH data to be 0.005 pH units. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates, for ocean acidification assessment and for model validation.

  3. Brazilian Portuguese and German in contact in two virtual communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Cristina Iapechino Souto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of code-switching between Brazilian Portuguese and German language in two virtual communities on Facebook: Brasileiros em Berlim and Brasileiros e Brasileiras em Berlim. We have adopted the concepts of durability, permeability and liminality traced by Zinkhahn-Rhobodes (2015 to observe the permeability of the linguistic border between these two languages. 

  4. From Minimal to Realistic Supersymmetric SU(5) Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Masina, I; Altarelli, Guido; Feruglio, Ferruccio; Masina, Isabella

    2000-01-01

    We construct and discuss a "realistic" example of SUSY SU(5) GUT model, with an additional U(1) flavour symmetry, that is not plagued by the need of large fine tunings, like those associated with doublet-triplet splitting in the minimal model, and that leads to an acceptable phenomenology. This includes coupling unification with a value of alpha_s(m_Z) in much better agreement with the data than in the minimal version, an acceptable hierarchical pattern for fermion masses and mixing angles, also including neutrino masses and mixings, and a proton decay rate compatible with present limits (but the discovery of proton decay should be within reach of the next generation of experiments). In the neutrino sector the preferred solution is one with nearly maximal mixing both for atmospheric and solar neutrinos.

  5. A proposal for unification of fatigue crack growth law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelev, V.

    2017-05-01

    In the present paper, the new fractional-differential dependences of cycles to failure for a given initial crack length upon the stress amplitude in the linear fracture approach are proposed. The anticipated unified propagation function describes the infinitesimal crack length growths per increasing number of load cycles, supposing that the load ratio remains constant over the load history. Two unification fractional-differential functions with different number of fitting parameters are proposed. An alternative, threshold formulations for the fractional-differential propagation functions are suggested. The mean stress dependence is the immediate consequence from the considered laws. The corresponding formulas for crack length over the number of cycles are derived in closed form.

  6. Yukawa unification in moduli-dominant SUSY breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.; Tatsuo Kobayashi

    1997-07-01

    We study Yukawa in string models with moduli-dominant SUSY breaking. This type of SUSY breaking in general leads to non-universal soft masses, i.e. soft scalar masses and gaugino masses. Such non-universality is important for phenomenological aspects of Yukawa unification, i.e., successful electroweak breaking, SUSY corrections to the bottom mass and the branching ratio of b → sγ. We show three regions in the whole parameter space which lead to successful electroweak breaking and allow small SUSY corrections to the bottom mass. For these three regions we investigated the b → sγ decay and mass spectra. (author). 26 refs, 6 figs

  7. Gauge-Higgs unification with brane kinetic terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, Alfredo; Diaz-Cruz, J. Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    By identifying the Higgs field as an internal component of a higher-dimensional gauge field it is possible to solve the little hierarchy problem. The construction of a realistic model that incorporates such a gauge-Higgs unification is an important problem that demands attention. In fact, several attempts in this direction have already been put forward. In this Letter we single out one such attempt, a 6D SU(3) extended electroweak theory, where it is possible to obtain a Higgs mass prediction in accord with global fits. One shortcoming of the model is its prediction for the Weinberg angle, it is too large. We slightly modify the model by including brane kinetic terms in a way motivated by the orbifold action on the 6D fields. We show that in this way it is possible to obtain the correct Weinberg angle while keeping the desired results in the Higgs sector

  8. Grand unification and the fundamental problems of classical cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The accomplishments of classical cosmology are reviewed. In particular, the hot big bang model provides a reliable framework for understanding the evolution of the universe back to times at least as early as approx. 0.01 s after the big bang. At present there are (at least) six fundamental problems which have not yet been (completely) resolved. They are: (1) the origin of the baryon number-to-entropy ratio, (2) the origin of the isotropy, (3) the origin of the homogeneity and inhomogeneity, (4) the origin of the flatness, (5) the cosmological constant, and (6) the monopole problem. The role that grand unification has played, and may play in the resolution of these puzzles is discussed. Guth's inflationary universe, which addresses five of these six problems, is reviewed

  9. Vector-like quarks and leptons, SU(5) ⊗ SU(5) grand unification, and proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2017-01-01

    SU(5) ⊗ SU(5) provides a minimal grand unification scheme for fermions and gauge forces if there are vector-like quarks and leptons in nature. We explore the gauge coupling unification in a non-supersymmetric model of this type, and study its implications for proton decay. The properties of vector-like quarks and intermediate scales that emerge from coupling unification play a central role in suppressing proton decay. We find that in this model, the familiar decay mode p→e + π 0 may have a partial lifetime within the reach of currently planned experiments.

  10. Leptoquark mechanism of neutrino masses within the grand unification framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doršner, Ilja; Fajfer, Svjetlana; Košnik, Nejc

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the viability of the one-loop neutrino mass mechanism within the framework of grand unification when the loop particles comprise scalar leptoquarks (LQs) and quarks of the matching electric charge. This mechanism can be implemented in both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models and requires the presence of at least one LQ pair. The appropriate pairs for the neutrino mass generation via the up-type and down-type quark loops are S_3-R_2 and S_{1, 3}-\\tilde{R}_2, respectively. We consider two distinct regimes for the LQ masses in our analysis. The first regime calls for very heavy LQs in the loop. It can be naturally realized with the S_{1, 3}-\\tilde{R}_2 scenarios when the LQ masses are roughly between 10^{12} and 5 × 10^{13} GeV. These lower and upper bounds originate from experimental limits on partial proton decay lifetimes and perturbativity constraints, respectively. Second regime corresponds to the collider accessible LQs in the neutrino mass loop. That option is viable for the S_3-\\tilde{R}_2 scenario in the models of unification that we discuss. If one furthermore assumes the presence of the type II see-saw mechanism there is an additional contribution from the S_3-R_2 scenario that needs to be taken into account beside the type II see-saw contribution itself. We provide a complete list of renormalizable operators that yield necessary mixing of all aforementioned LQ pairs using the language of SU(5). We furthermore discuss several possible embeddings of this mechanism in SU(5) and SO(10) gauge groups.

  11. Prospects for mass unification at low energy scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    A simple Pati-Salam SU(4) model with a low symmetry breaking scale of about 1000 TeV is presented. The analysis concentrates on calculating radiative corrections to tree level mass relations for third generation fermions. The tree-level relation m b /m τ = 1 predicted by such models can receive large radiative corrections up to about 50% due to threshold effects at the mass unification scale. These corrections are thus of about the same importance as those that give rise to renormalisation group running. The high figure of 50% can be achieved because l-loop graphs involving the physical charged Higgs boson give corrections to m τ -m b that are proportional to the large top quark mass. These corrections can either increase or decrease m b /m τ depending on the value of an unknown parameter. They can also be made to vanish through a fine-tuning. A related model of tree-level t-b-τ unification which uses the identification of SU(2) R with custodial SU(2) is then discussed. A curious relation m b ∼ √2m τ is found to be satisfied at tree-level in this model. The overall conclusion of this work is that the tree-level relation m b =m τ at low scales such as 1000 TeV or somewhat higher can produce a successful value for m b /m τ after corrections, but one must be mindful that radiative corrections beyond those incorporated through the renormalisation group can be very important. 14 refs., 7 figs

  12. Prospects for mass unification at low energy scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkas, R.R.

    1995-12-31

    A simple Pati-Salam SU(4) model with a low symmetry breaking scale of about 1000 TeV is presented. The analysis concentrates on calculating radiative corrections to tree level mass relations for third generation fermions. The tree-level relation m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} = 1 predicted by such models can receive large radiative corrections up to about 50% due to threshold effects at the mass unification scale. These corrections are thus of about the same importance as those that give rise to renormalisation group running. The high figure of 50% can be achieved because l-loop graphs involving the physical charged Higgs boson give corrections to m{sub {tau}} -m{sub b} that are proportional to the large top quark mass. These corrections can either increase or decrease m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} depending on the value of an unknown parameter. They can also be made to vanish through a fine-tuning. A related model of tree-level t-b-{tau} unification which uses the identification of SU(2){sub R} with custodial SU(2) is then discussed. A curious relation m{sub b}{approx} {radical}2m{sub {tau}} is found to be satisfied at tree-level in this model. The overall conclusion of this work is that the tree-level relation m{sub b}=m{sub {tau}} at low scales such as 1000 TeV or somewhat higher can produce a successful value for m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} after corrections, but one must be mindful that radiative corrections beyond those incorporated through the renormalisation group can be very important. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Leptoquark mechanism of neutrino masses within the grand unification framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsner, Ilja [University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture in Split (FESB), Split (Croatia); Fajfer, Svjetlana; Kosnik, Nejc [University of Ljubljana, Department of Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-06-15

    We demonstrate the viability of the one-loop neutrino mass mechanism within the framework of grand unification when the loop particles comprise scalar leptoquarks (LQs) and quarks of the matching electric charge. This mechanism can be implemented in both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models and requires the presence of at least one LQ pair. The appropriate pairs for the neutrino mass generation via the up-type and down-type quark loops are S{sub 3}-R{sub 2} and S{sub 1,3}-R{sub 2}, respectively. We consider two distinct regimes for the LQ masses in our analysis. The first regime calls for very heavy LQs in the loop. It can be naturally realized with the S{sub 1,3}-R{sub 2} scenarios when the LQ masses are roughly between 10{sup 12} and 5 x 10{sup 13} GeV. These lower and upper bounds originate from experimental limits on partial proton decay lifetimes and perturbativity constraints, respectively. Second regime corresponds to the collider accessible LQs in the neutrino mass loop. That option is viable for the S{sub 3}-R{sub 2} scenario in the models of unification that we discuss. If one furthermore assumes the presence of the type II see-saw mechanism there is an additional contribution from the S{sub 3}-R{sub 2} scenario that needs to be taken into account beside the type II see-saw contribution itself. We provide a complete list of renormalizable operators that yield necessary mixing of all aforementioned LQ pairs using the language of SU(5). We furthermore discuss several possible embeddings of this mechanism in SU(5) and SO(10) gauge groups. (orig.)

  14. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  15. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  16. The electricity outlook in the former German Democrat Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringeis, Wilhelm

    1991-01-01

    A reliable and low-price electricity supply is an essential part of the economic reconstruction now underway in the five new federal states (lander) of unified Germany, which were created from the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Acting on the request of the last government of the GDR (which was freely elected), the West German utilities RWE Energie, PreussenElektra and Bayernwerk had already investigated suitable means to ensure the power supply of the five new states after unification. On 22 August 1990, after intensive negotiations with the government of the former GDR and the Treuhand privatisation agency, a set of agreements concerning the takeover and modernisation of the energy industry in eastern Germany was signed. The other German inter-connected utilities are also parties to the agreements. The essential task now for the West German utilities is to develop a reliable, low-priced, electricity supply capacity in the new federal states, which means taking long-term investment decisions. The extremely high environmental impact of the existing facilities must also be reduced considerably. (author)

  17. Learning from the Germans? History and Memory in German and European Discourses of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Beattie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available History and memory appear to be increasingly important to discussions of European values and identity, as exemplified by references to ‘bitter experiences’ and ‘divided pasts’ in the draft EU constitution. The article takes recent suggestions that Europe could learn from German experiences of confronting multiple difficult pasts as its starting point, and considers critically what lessons those German experiences might in fact hold for ‘Europe’. It explores similarities and differences in the two integration contexts and their dominant approaches to, and assumptions about history and public memory. Specifically, it considers debates about the east-west division of the Cold War and about the place of communism and nazism in public memory. Contrary to common assumptions, the article argues that German experiences are not necessarily worth of European emulation.

  18. Coursebook of German: Gender Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the fact that there is a problem of women discrimination in the textbooks, which provide classical gender stereotypes, where, in spite of modern social changes, women are still overrepresented in the private domain and underrepresented in the public sphere. Apart from that, gender stereotypes and gender asymmetry are embedded in the language, where the woman is often not referred to directly while the man is used in the generalizing meaning of "human". The gender asymmetry is reflected in the idioms as well. Nevertheless the analysis of modern coursebooks reveals both some changes in the presentation of women and men's occupations and in the language due to the usage of so-called "gender neutral" forms. The objective of our research lies in the linguistic analysis of the usage of the "gender neutral" forms as well as in the coursebooks on phraseology in order to find out gender asymmetries. In addition, the author focuses on gender stereotypes, men and women's behavioral patterns in different domains of life, and positive changes in the image of men and women represented in the Aspekte German coursebook.

  19. German Policy Towards Muslim Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila R. Sadykova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The past two-three decades can be characterized by the period of global migration and sharp jump of migratory streams is connected with globalization and with the economic factor, generating labor movement behind resources from Third World countries to the countries with deficiency of labor. The desire to receive comfort life becomes the major reason, and the migrant makes the decision being guided by private interest more often instead of external factors. Western Europe became one of the most important center of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war, laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Globalization of migratory streams, penetration of foreign culture groups into structure of accepting society and prevalence of multicultural, multiethnic societies are important characteristics of a modern era. Western Europe became one of the most important centers of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period, the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Special relevance the problem of reception of immigrants, in particular from the Muslim countries, got for the former colonial powers, in particular Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands. Germany also faced this problem; migrants workers from other countries were required for the post-war restoration. Now Germany still is one of the main centers of an attraction of migrants, and concentration of them in this country annually increases. Despite the steps taken by the German government on elimination of Muslim isolation in the German society, its efforts did not bear fruits so far. The majority of Muslims live their life and are still torn off from high life of the country. A possible threat of destruction of the German community appeared when the various ethnic groups

  20. Group theory approach to unification of gravity with internal symmetry gauge interactions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhvalov, S.E.; Vanyashin, V.S.

    1990-12-01

    The infinite group of deformed diffeomorphisms of space-time continuum is put into the basis of the Gauge Theory of Gravity. This gives rise to some new ways for unification of gravity with other gauge interactions. (author). 7 refs

  1. Revisiting top-bottom-tau Yukawa unification in supersymmetric grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobe, Kazuhiro; Wells, James D.

    2003-01-01

    Third family Yukawa unification, as suggested by minimal SO(10) unification, is revisited in light of recent experimental measurements and theoretical progress. We characterize unification in a semi-model-independent fashion, and conclude that finite b quark mass corrections from superpartners must be non-zero, but much smaller than naively would be expected. We show that a solution that does not require cancellations of dangerously large tanβ effects in observables implies that scalar superpartner masses should be substantially heavier than the Z scale, and perhaps inaccessible to all currently approved colliders. On the other hand, gauginos must be significantly lighter than the scalars. We demonstrate that a spectrum of anomaly-mediated gaugino masses and heavy scalars works well as a theory compatible with third family Yukawa unification and dark matter observations

  2. Logarithmic unification from symmetries enhanced in the sub-millimeter infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; March-Russell, John

    1999-01-01

    In theories with TeV string scale and sub-millimeter extra dimensions the attractive picture of logarithmic gauge coupling unification at 10 16 GeV is seemingly destroyed. In this paper we argue to the contrary that logarithmic unification can occur in such theories. The rationale for unification is no longer that a gauge symmetry is restored at short distances, but rather that a geometric symmetry is restored at large distances in the bulk away from our 3-brane. The apparent ''running'' of the gauge couplings to energies far above the string scale actually arises from the logarithmic variation of classical fields in (sets of) two large transverse dimensions. We present a number of N = 2 and N = 1 supersymmetric D-brane constructions illustrating this picture for unification

  3. Contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus between iso- and low-osmolar contrast media: A meta-analysis of full-text prospective, randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Xin-Xiu; Liu, Ke-Mei; Tan, Hua; Zhang, Qiu

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare iso-osmolar contrast medium, iodixanol, with low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) for assessing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) incidence, exclusively in the diabetic population. A systematic search was conducted for full-text, prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The primary outcome was incidence of CIN. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other sources were searched until May 31, 2017. Twelve RCTs finally met the search criteria. Iodixanol did not significantly reduce the risk of CIN (risk ratio [RR]: 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.49, 1.04], p = 0.08). However, there was significantly reduced risk of CIN when iodixanol was compared to a LOCM agent iohexol (RR: 0.32, 95% CI [0.12, 0.89]). There were no differences between iodixanol and the other non-iohexol LOCM (RR: 0.92, 95% CI [0.68, 1.25]). In diabetic populations, iodixanol is not associated with a significant reduction of CIN risk. Iodixanol is associated with a reduced risk of CIN compared with iohexol, whereas no significant difference between iodixanol and other LOCM could be found.

  4. Trains and the Italian Unification: the Time of the Railways Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Maggi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical construction of modern Italy began in 1861, with the foundation of the Kingdom of Italy. The historical period coincided with the early industrial development of north-western Italy, and so the new infrastructure system developed in response, on the one hand, to the need to join together all the fragmentary pieces that formed the country and, on the other, to the general tendency to strengthen those areas that were economically and industrially stronger even before unification. The system that was being created in the 1860s by the Italian State before unification suffered continuous interruptions and was substantially without transverse connections, those with more difficult construction caused by the need to cross the Apennines. Within five years, from 1861 to 1866, the size of the railway system doubled, going from little more than 2,000 km to more than 4,000. The management of railway was entrusted to limited companies. The government guaranteed the company a contribution for each kilometer of railway built. In 1863 the tracks extended down the Adriatic coast as far as Brindisi, in order to attract the transit of the India Mail London- Brindisi-Bombay, the most important trade of the world. In 1863 Rome was linked to Naples, in 1864 the line from Bologna to Florence via Pistoia was opened, in 1866 Rome was linked to Florence and Ancona and in 1867 with Pisa. In 1874 the Genoa-Pisa line were completed as far as the frontier with France; later, in 1879 the Naples-Foggia line went into operation. In the same period some of the longer tunnels were opened. Those of Fréjus was realised between 1857 and 1871. The Gottardo tunnel came into being in 1882 and the Sempione tunnel in 1906. The opening of the alpine passes effectively permitted the connection of Italy to central Europe, flinging open the doors to more and more easily reachable markets. In last twenty years of the 19th century, in Italy began the strong development of the

  5. Making sense of the German Wikipedia community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Frank Jørgensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings from a qualitative study of the German Wikipedia community, focusing on how people engaged with Wikipedia make sense of norms, collaborative practices and means of regulation within the community. The study highlights the strong focus on the quality of the end-product (the encyclopedia in the German community, stressing that article quality is seen as more important than the wiki-process as such. As the community has grown, an increasing number of rules and mechanisms have been deployed to resolve various issues and conflicts, however the interviewees do not perceive Wikipedia as being bureaucratic, but rather describe it as a “rule-governed anarchy”. The findings suggest that people contribute for a variety of reasons, yet point to reactions from and interactions with fellow Wikipedians as one of the strongest motivational drivers for participation.

  6. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

  7. NICOLAE TITULESCU ET LES PREMIERS PROJETS D’UNIFICATION EUROPEENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai GHIłŢULESCU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article Nicolae Titulescu and the First European Unificatio n Projectpresents briefly Nicolae Titulescu’s involvement in supporting the Briand Plan (1930. We argue that the great Romanian diplomat was simultaneously aware of the necessity and the imposibility of achieving the project objectives.

  8. Towards unification of product and enterprise system descriptions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available are utilised by enterprises and some product systems contain entire businesses, such as the operating and maintenance business of a power station. Thus, products are part of enterprises, but enterprises may also be part of product systems. To enable the design...

  9. On Quality Intensification Expression Means in German And Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesta Račienė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of German Adjectives’ derivational means, which intensify the meaning of quality, and which are compared with functional equivalents in Lithuanian. The intensification of quality is treated as the functional semantic category, implemented in various language levels. This semantics may be expressed morphologically, by lexical and syntactic means, as well as by stress and intonation. The German language has many first components of compound adjectives, representing the intensification of quality, such as: stock-, blitz-, hoch-, brand-, grund-, etc. The rendering function of this semantics is typical of German adjectives prefixes erz-, ur- as well as prefixes of foreign origin super-, ultra-, extra-, mega-, hyper-, top-. In the Lithuanian language, the intensifying meaning of quality is realized by syntactic com-pounds, while on the morphological level it can be conveyed by diminutive suffixes. The paper presents the comparison of German and Lithuanian quality intensification expression means in order to highlight typological similarities and differences.

  10. On the contrast between Germanic and Romance negated quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cirillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal quantifiers can be stranded in the manner described by Sportiche (1988, Giusti (1990 and Shlonsky (1991 in both the Romance and Germanic languages, but a negated universal quantifier can only be stranded in the Germanic languages. The goal of this paper is to show that this contrast between the Romance and the Germanic languages can be explained if one adapts the theory of sentential negation in Zeijlstra (2004 to constituent (quantifier negation. According to Zeijlstra’s theory, a negation marker in the Romance languages is the head of a NegP that dominates vP, whereas in the Germanic languages a negation marker is a maximal projection that occupies the specifier position of a verbal phrase. I will show that the non-occurrence of stranded negated quantifiers in the Romance languages follows from the fact that negation markers in the Romance languages are highly positioned syntactic heads.

  11. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  12. Symmetry Breaking, Unification, and Theories Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2009-07-31

    A model was constructed in which the supersymmetric fine-tuning problem is solved without extending the Higgs sector at the weak scale. We have demonstrated that the model can avoid all the phenomenological constraints, while avoiding excessive fine-tuning. We have also studied implications of the model on dark matter physics and collider physics. I have proposed in an extremely simple construction for models of gauge mediation. We found that the {mu} problem can be simply and elegantly solved in a class of models where the Higgs fields couple directly to the supersymmetry breaking sector. We proposed a new way of addressing the flavor problem of supersymmetric theories. We have proposed a new framework of constructing theories of grand unification. We constructed a simple and elegant model of dark matter which explains excess flux of electrons/positrons. We constructed a model of dark energy in which evolving quintessence-type dark energy is naturally obtained. We studied if we can find evidence of the multiverse.

  13. On the vacuum of the minimal nonsupersymmetric SO(10) unification

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolini, Stefano; Malinsky, Michal

    2010-01-01

    We study a class of nonsupersymmetric SO(10) grand unified scenarios where the first stage of the symmetry breaking is driven by the vacuum expectation values of the 45-dimensional adjoint representation. Three decade old results claim that such a Higgs setting may lead exclusively to the flipped SU(5) x U(1) intermediate stage. We show that this conclusion is actually an artifact of the tree level potential. The study of the accidental global symmetries emerging in various limits of the scalar potential offers a simple understanding of the tree level result and a rationale for the drastic impact of quantum corrections. We scrutinize in detail the simplest and paradigmatic case of the 45_{H} + 16_{H} Higgs sector triggering the breaking of SO(10) to the standard electroweak model. We show that the minimization of the one-loop effective potential allows for intermediate SU(4)_C x SU(2)_L x U(1)_R and SU(3)_c x SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_{B-L} symmetric stages as well. These are the options favoured by gauge unif...

  14. Higgs mass in the gauge-Higgs unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Takenaga, Kazunori; Yamashita, Toshifumi

    2005-01-01

    The gauge-Higgs unification theory identifies the zero mode of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field as the usual Higgs doublet. Since this degree of freedom is the Wilson line phase, the Higgs does not have the mass term nor quartic coupling at the tree level. Through quantum corrections, the Higgs can take a vacuum expectation value, and its mass is induced. The radiatively induced mass tends to be small, although it can be lifted to O(100) GeV by introducing the O(10) numbers of bulk fields. Perturbation theory becomes unreliable when a large number of bulk fields are introduced. We reanalyze the Higgs mass based on useful expansion formulae for the effective potential and find that even a small number of bulk field can have the suitable heavy Higgs mass. We show that a small (large) number of bulk fields are enough (needed) when the SUSY breaking mass is large (small). We also study the case of introducing the soft SUSY breaking scalar masses in addition to the Scherk-Schwarz SUSY breaking and obtain the heavy Higgs mass due to the effect of the scalar mass

  15. Testing AGN unification via inference from large catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikutta, Robert; Ivezic, Zeljko; Elitzur, Moshe; Nenkova, Maia

    2018-01-01

    Source orientation and clumpiness of the central dust are the main factors in AGN classification. Type-1 QSOs are easy to observe and large samples are available (e.g. in SDSS), but obscured type-2 AGN are dimmer and redder as our line of sight is more obscured, making it difficult to obtain a complete sample. WISE has found up to a million QSOs. With only 4 bands and a relatively small aperture the analysis of individual sources is challenging, but the large sample allows inference of bulk properties at a very significant level.CLUMPY (www.clumpy.org) is arguably the most popular database of AGN torus SEDs. We model the ensemble properties of the entire WISE AGN content using regularized linear regression, with orientation-dependent CLUMPY color-color-magnitude (CCM) tracks as basis functions. We can reproduce the observed number counts per CCM bin with percent-level accuracy, and simultaneously infer the probability distributions of all torus parameters, redshifts, additional SED components, and identify type-1/2 AGN populations through their IR properties alone. We increase the statistical power of our AGN unification tests even further, by adding other datasets as axes in the regression problem. To this end, we make use of the NOAO Data Lab (datalab.noao.edu), which hosts several high-level large datasets and provides very powerful tools for handling large data, e.g. cross-matched catalogs, fast remote queries, etc.

  16. Grand unification and the double beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1992-01-01

    Models of the unification of the electroweak and the strong interaction predict that the neutrino is a Majorana particle and therefore essentially identical with its own antiparticle. In such grand unified models the neutrino has also a finite mass and a slight right-handed weak interaction, since the model is left-right symmetric. These models have also left handed and right-handed vector bosons to mediate the weak interactions. If these models are correct the neutrinoless double beta-decay is feasable. Thus if one finds the neutrinoless double beta-decay one knows that the standard model can not be correct in which the neutrino is a Dirac particle and therefore different from its antiparticle. Although the neutrinoless double beta-decay has not been seen it is possible to extract from the lower limits of the lifetime against the double neutrinoless beta-decay upper limits for the effective electron-neutrino mass and for the effective mixing angle of the right-handed and the left-handed vector bosons mediating the weak interaction. One also can obtain an effective upper limit for the mass ratio of the light and the heavy vector bosons. The extraction of this physical quantities from the data is made difficult due to the fact that the weak interaction must not be diagonal in the representation of the mass matrix of the six neutrinos requested by such left-right symmetric models. (author)

  17. The minimal GUT with inflaton and dark matter unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Gogoladze, Ilia [University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bartol Research Institute, Newark, DE (United States); Hu, Shan [Hubei University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Sciences, Wuhan (China); Li, Tianjun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Wu, Lina [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China)

    2018-01-15

    Giving up the solutions to the fine-tuning problems, we propose the non-supersymmetric flipped SU(5) x U(1){sub X} model based on the minimal particle content principle, which can be constructed from the four-dimensional SO(10) models, five-dimensional orbifold SO(10) models, and local F-theory SO(10) models. To achieve gauge coupling unification, we introduce one pair of vector-like fermions, which form a complete SU(5) x U(1){sub X} representation. The proton lifetime is around 5 x 10{sup 35} years, neutrino masses and mixing can be explained via the seesaw mechanism, baryon asymmetry can be generated via leptogenesis, and the vacuum stability problem can be solved as well. In particular, we propose that inflaton and dark matter particles can be unified to a real scalar field with Z{sub 2} symmetry, which is not an axion and does not have the non-minimal coupling to gravity. Such a kind of scenarios can be applied to the generic scalar dark matter models. Also, we find that the vector-like particle corrections to the B{sub s}{sup 0} masses might be about 6.6%, while their corrections to the K{sup 0} and B{sub d}{sup 0} masses are negligible. (orig.)

  18. Electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric gauge-Higgs unification models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Haba, Naoyuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    We examine the Higgs mass parameters and electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric orbifold field theories in which the 4-dimensional Higgs fields originate from higher-dimensional gauge supermultiplets. It is noted that such gauge-Higgs unification leads to a specific boundary condition on the Higgs mass parameters at the compactification scale, which is independent of the details of supersymmetry breaking mechanism. With this boundary condition, phenomenologically viable parameter space of the model is severely constrained by the condition of electroweak symmetry breaking for supersymmetry breaking scenarios which can be realized naturally in orbifold field theories. For instance, if it is assumed that the 4-dimensional effective theory is the minimal supersymmetric standard model with supersymmetry breaking parameters induced by the Scherk-Schwarz mechanism, a correct electroweak symmetry breaking can not be achieved for reasonable range of parameters of the model, even when one includes additional contributions to the Higgs mass parameters from the auxiliary component of 4-dimensional conformal compensator. However if there exists a supersymmetry breaking mediated by brane superfields, sizable portion of the parameter space can give a correct electroweak symmetry breaking. (author)

  19. Dark matter as the signal of grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Raidal, Martti

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the existence of dark matter (DM) is a possible consequence of grand unification (GUT) symmetry breaking. In GUTs like SO(10), discrete Z 2 matter parity (-1) 3(B-L) survives despite broken B-L, and group theory uniquely determines that the only possible Z 2 -odd matter multiplets belong to representation 16. We construct the minimal nonsupersymmetric SO(10) model containing one scalar 16 for DM and study its predictions below M G . We find that electroweak symmetry breaking occurs radiatively due to DM couplings to the standard model Higgs boson. For thermal relic DM the mass range M DM ∼O(0.1-1) TeV is predicted by model perturbativity up to M G . For M DM ∼O(1) TeV to explain the observed cosmic ray anomalies with DM decays, there exists a lower bound on the spin-independent direct detection cross section within the reach of planned experiments.

  20. Gauge unification, non-local breaking, open strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapletti, M.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of non-local GUT symmetry breaking is addressed in the context of open string model building. We study Z N xZ M ' orbifolds with all the GUT-breaking orbifold elements acting freely, as rotations accompanied by translations in the internal space. We consider open strings quantized on these backgrounds, distinguishing whether the translational action is parallel or perpendicular to the D-branes. GUT breaking is impossible in the purely perpendicular case, non-local GUT breaking is instead allowed in the purely parallel case. In the latter, the scale of breaking is set by the compactification moduli, and there are no fixed points with reduced gauge symmetry, where dangerous explicit GUT-breaking terms could be located. We investigate the mixed parallel+perpendicular case in a Z 2 xZ 2 ' example, having also a simplified field theory realization. It is a new S 1 /Z 2 xZ 2 ' orbifold-GUT model, with bulk gauge symmetry SU(5)xSU(5) broken locally to the Standard Model gauge group. In spite of the locality of the GUT symmetry breaking, there is no localized contribution to the running of the coupling constants, and the unification scale is completely set by the length of S 1

  1. The minimal GUT with inflaton and dark matter unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Gogoladze, Ilia; Hu, Shan; Li, Tianjun; Wu, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Giving up the solutions to the fine-tuning problems, we propose the non-supersymmetric flipped SU(5)× U(1)_X model based on the minimal particle content principle, which can be constructed from the four-dimensional SO(10) models, five-dimensional orbifold SO(10) models, and local F-theory SO(10) models. To achieve gauge coupling unification, we introduce one pair of vector-like fermions, which form a complete SU(5)× U(1)_X representation. The proton lifetime is around 5× 10^{35} years, neutrino masses and mixing can be explained via the seesaw mechanism, baryon asymmetry can be generated via leptogenesis, and the vacuum stability problem can be solved as well. In particular, we propose that inflaton and dark matter particles can be unified to a real scalar field with Z_2 symmetry, which is not an axion and does not have the non-minimal coupling to gravity. Such a kind of scenarios can be applied to the generic scalar dark matter models. Also, we find that the vector-like particle corrections to the B_s^0 masses might be about 6.6%, while their corrections to the K^0 and B_d^0 masses are negligible.

  2. 3C 254: the alignment effect and unification schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, M. N.

    1997-01-01

    3C 254 is a radio-loud quasar at z=0.734. Optical line and continuum emission from the underlying galaxy is clearly extended and aligned with the radio axis; the object shows the so-called `alignment effect' which is often seen in powerful radio galaxies. This is the clearest case yet of the continuum alignment effect in a radio-loud quasar. The object is one of the most lobe-dominated 3C quasars; the significance of the aligned emission in this source is discussed in terms of orientation-based unification schemes for radio-loud quasars and radio galaxies. 3C 254 is a very asymmetric radio source and it is shown that the radio structure on the side with the shortest nucleus-hotspot distance is interacting with the emission-line gas surrounding the quasar. It is also shown that the quasar is surrounded by an overdensity of faint objects, consistent with a cluster or group of galaxies around the object.

  3. SU(8) family unification with boson-fermion balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Grand unification has been intensively investigated for over forty years, and many different approaches have been tried. In this talk I propose a model that involves three ingredients that do not appear in the usual constructions: (1) boson--fermion balance without full supersymmetry, (2) canceling the spin 1/2 fermion gauge anomalies against the anomaly from a gauged spin 3/2 gravitino, and (3) using a scalar field representation with non-zero U(1) generator to break the SU(8) gauge symmetry through a ground state which, before dynamical symmetry breaking, has a periodic U(1) generator structure. The model has a number of promising features: (1) natural incorporation of three families, (2) incorporation of the experimentally viable flipped SU(5) model, (3) a symmetry breaking pathway to the standard model using the scalar field required by boson-fermion balance, together with a stage of most attractive channel dynamical symmetry breaking, without postulating additional Higgs fields, (4) vanishing of bare Yuk...

  4. Evolution of Extragalactic Radio Sources and Quasar/Galaxy Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onah, C. I.; Ubachukwu, A. A.; Odo, F. C.; Onuchukwu, C. C.

    2018-04-01

    We use a large sample of radio sources to investigate the effects of evolution, luminosity selection and radio source orientation in explaining the apparent deviation of observed angular size - redshift (θ - z) relation of extragalactic radio sources (EGRSs) from the standard model. We have fitted the observed θ - z data with standard cosmological models based on a flat universe (Ω0 = 1). The size evolution of EGRSs has been described as luminosity, temporal and orientation-dependent in the form DP,z,Φ ≍ P±q(1 + z)-m sinΦ, with q=0.3, Φ=59°, m=-0.26 for radio galaxies and q=-0.5, Φ=33°, m=3.1 for radio quasars respectively. Critical points of luminosity, logPcrit=26.33 WHz-1 and logDc=2.51 kpc (316.23 kpc) of the present sample of radio sources were also observed. All the results were found to be consistent with the popular quasar/galaxy unification scheme.

  5. Probing the design of grand unification through conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this talk is to note a few special consequences of gauging ''maximal'' quark-lepton symmetries such as SO(16), which is the maximal symmetry for a single family of fermions. Within these symmetries, violations for B, L and F are spontaneous rather than explicit. Furthermore these symmetries as a rule permit intermediate mass scales approx.(10 3 -10 6 GeV) and (10 8 -10 11 GeV) filling the so-called grand plateau between 10 2 and 10 15 GeV. It has been shown in earlier papers that within these symmetries proton may decay via four alternative models: i.e. proton→one or three leptons or antileptons plus mesons; some of which can coexist. It is now observed that even n-n-bar oscillations can coexist with (B-L) conserving proton-decays of the type p→e + π 0 etc. without posing any conflict with the cosmological generation of baryon-excess; both these processes can possess measurable strengths so as to be amenable to forthcoming searches. Search for alternative decay modes of proton and n-n-bar oscillations, even as processes in second and third generation experiments, would provide valuable information on the question of intermediate mass-scales and thereby on the design of grand unification

  6. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished.

  7. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  8. [Sample German LAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  9. TOWARDS A GERMAN LANGUAGE FRAMEWORK FOR MALAYSIABASED MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES (MNCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Waltraud Brigitte Mayr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The aim of this study is to introduce an approach to managing business communication based on the German language needs of employees in multinational companies in Malaysia and the expectations of employers in the teaching of German in their companies. As additional variables, training for sustainable development (ESD and for maximizing the mutual understanding in personal interactions is included. Design / methodology / approach – This paper is reflecting on the spectrum of ideas about the teaching of German in German companies in Malaysia that was obtained through the author’s earlier target situation analysis in MNCs in Malaysia. In addition to a variety of methods that is incorporated to engage students in the learning process, a ‘meaning negotiation’ approach is applied in order to deal with the intercultural communication practices. Results - The paper outlines a set of topics and strategies that can assist employees in intercultural interaction contexts in a German Malaysia-based company. It draws them together into a conceptual framework of required skills in a German beginner class. Originality / Benefits - This study contributes to the current issues concerning the German mediation requirements in the management field.

  10. The Civil Identity Registry Unification and Personal Data Protection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Gaziero Cella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There has long been treated the idea of discipline society and control society, dealing, for example, the works of Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze. The contemporary brought numerous developments in relation to the concepts assigned by Foucault and Deleuze, and many of these results were predicted by the analysis of events by these thinkers, however we are still in search for understanding the evolution of societies in relation to power and its maintenance, Law, Ethics, and possible future social outcomes. It is necessary to understand the dialectics of this topic to understand the current situation and thinking about the future. The scope of this paper is to understand the social control and the ramifications of power called the Information Society, both in public and in the private sphere. The state of the art, with the advent of internet, it is significant in the history of communications in terms of speed and agility. In light of the theoretical framework chosen for the development of this paper, the control is established by the idea of discipline and the society of control is the successor to the disciplinary paradigm (the discipline is already incorporated. For Deleuze, surveillance and monitoring activities are forms of control, ie, the reinvention of Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon. The ramifications of this form of society make use of the internet and its easy access to propagate the largest number of people possible, whether through social networking programs, reality shows, including surveillance cameras, just like George Orwell referred in his book 1984. We intend to analyze the information quickly overcomes the lack of security, given that it is today, for example, cases such as the Steering Committee of the National Civil Identification Record System - Brazilian Sirc, just implement a project- emission pilot of the new ID card - RIC, where you may have a unification of personal data and the bureaucracy of citizen service services

  11. Coercive Diplomacy: Otto von Bismarck and the Unification of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    politician, he forged a German empire under Prussian leadership that was ultimately realized on January 18, 1871, when King William I was crowned Emperor...the same pressures. King Frederick William cowered in the face of conflict, ordered his military to cease fighting the revolutionaries, and agreed...parliamentary rule, and the dissolution of the Prussian state into Germany. “Bismarck made himself noteworthy by his 6 championship of Prussian superiority

  12. Didactic Games as an Aid in Learning German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Teodora BIRIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The didactic game in German classes reduces the student’s fear and uncertainty, facilitatesthe contact with his/her colleagues and develops communication skills in German language. In thisway four skills can be developed. Weaker students can prove their maximum potential doing suchgames and exercises or, the contrary, to embarrass themselves in front of their colleagues. This lastoption should be avoided by the teacher, who has to overlook that the game will become an aid inpracticing and developing skills. The game could be introduced in practicing vocabulary,pronunciation and intonation, in writing, reading, in grammar and text comprehension.

  13. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  14. Modernization and unification: Strategic goals for NASA STI program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blados, W.; Cotter, Gladys A.

    1993-01-01

    Information is increasingly becoming a strategic resource in all societies and economies. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program has initiated a modernization program to address the strategic importance and changing characteristics of information. This modernization effort applies new technology to current processes to provide near-term benefits to the user. At the same time, we are developing a long-term modernization strategy designed to transition the program to a multimedia, global 'library without walls.' Notwithstanding this modernization program, it is recognized that no one information center can hope to collect all the relevant data. We see information and information systems changing and becoming more international in scope. We are finding that many nations are expending resources on national systems which duplicate each other. At the same time that this duplication exists, many useful sources of aerospace information are not being collected because of resource limitations. If nations cooperate to develop an international aerospace information system, resources can be used efficiently to cover expanded sources of information. We must consider forming a coalition to collect and provide access to disparate, multidisciplinary sources of information, and to develop standardized tools for documenting and manipulating this data and information. In view of recent technological developments in information science and technology, as well as the reality of scarce resources in all nations, it is time to explore the mutually beneficial possibilities offered by cooperation and international resource sharing. International resources need to be mobilized in a coordinated manner to move us towards this goal. This paper reviews the NASA modernization program and raises for consideration new possibilities for unification of the various aerospace database efforts toward a cooperative international aerospace database initiative that can optimize the cost

  15. Les représentations de la réunification allemande dans l’ex-Yougoslavie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Hassid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La réunification allemande a été perçue de manière différente dans les États de l’ex-Yougoslavie. En Serbie, république la plus peuplée de la Fédération et où se trouve le pouvoir central, elle est crainte comme le symbole d’une possible désintégration. En Croatie et en Slovénie s’est ainsi répandue l’idée que « si l’Allemagne peut se réunifier, la Yougoslavie peut bien se désintégrer » (Entretien avec Vladimir Radomirovic, ancien rédacteur en chef du quotidien serbe Politika et fondateur en 2009 de Pistaljka, site Internet qui dénonce la corruption dans les Balkans - www.pistaljka.rs. Au risque de provoquer une crise au sein de la CEE, l’Allemagne a poussé les autres grandes puissances du continent, dont la France, à reconnaître rapidement les indépendances des deux républiques. Pour comprendre les différentes représentations de la réunification allemande dans les Balkans, il est nécessaire d’étudier également les perceptions de la chute du Mur de Berlin, un an plus tôt. Symbole d’un communisme qui n’est pas tombé partout dans l’ex-Yougoslavie à partir de 1991, il a néanmoins grandement participé à la désintégration de la Fédération. Vingt ans après, l’Allemagne reste un acteur majeur dans la région, mais a abandonné une partie de son influence économique et politique au profit de l’Union européenne, notamment à partir de l’introduction de l’euro qui prend la place du mark, ancienne devise de référence.

  16. Classical Music at a German Inner-City School: The German Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra Bremen at Comprehensive School Bremen East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Musiol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The German Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra Bremen, a world famous orchestra for classical music, and the Comprehensive School Bremen East, a school in a deprived area, in North American terms an inner-city school, are cooperating since 2007. A three-year follow-up evaluation study was conducted to find out, if projects facilitated by the presence of the orchestra have a positive impact on the self-reported well-being and the grades of students. Results showed that involvement in the projects distinctly benefited boys: They experience a better class climate and a higher satisfaction with school as well as improved German grades.

  17. CHAIRMEN'S PREFACE AND EDITORS' NOTE: Unification of Fundamental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Lars; Nilsson, Jan S.; Salomonson, Per; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1987-01-01

    Chairmen's PrefaceIn 1984 we obtained a grant from the Nobel Foundation to organize a Nobel Symposium on "Unification of the Fundamental Interactions". In our proposal which we submitted in the fall of 1983 we stated that we wanted to cover the various attempts to unification such as GUT'S, supergravity, Kaluza-Klein theories and superstrings. What has happened in particle physics since then is already history. With the realization that certain superstring theories could be anomaly free, it became clear that these models could encompass earlier attempts to unification as well as solving the fundamental problem of quantum gravity. The excitement that some of us had felt for some time now spread through most of the particle physics community and this excitement certainly was evident during the Symposium. With the international advisory committee we originally chose a list of around 30 invitees which could best represent the various subjects listed above. When it came to the final planning of the programme essentially all talks dealt with superstrings! We were very fortunate that almost all of the invitees managed to come to the Symposium. From the western world only three were unable to participate, André Neveu, Steven Weinberg and Bruno Zumino. We certainly missed them during the meeting. We were particularly happy that Stephen Hawking managed to take part actively. Our real problem was to get participants from the Soviet Union. Out of eight invitations only one came through. We were very happy to have Renata Kallosh, who really did her utmost to enlighten us about not only her own work but also about recent progress in the USSR, However, we were very sorry that in spite of all our letters, telegrammes and endless attempts to get telephone calls through and despite the good relations between the Swedish and Soviet Academies of Sciences we had to miss Ludwig Faddeev, Valodja Gribov, Andrej Linde, Victor Ogievetsky, Sasha Polyakov, Misha Shifman and Arkadij

  18. East German medical aid to Nicaragua: the politics of solidarity between biomedicine and primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Borowy

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1979 and 1989 the government of the German Democratic Republic provided health assistance to Sandinista Nicaragua. After initial relief aid, the Sandinista embrace of a primary health care-based health system made East German health support difficult. The non-convertible currency, the repressive quality of the East German leadership, and the lack of experience with primary health care processes all limited its potential to provide support. After 1985, when implementation of this system stalled, East German health assistance was revitalized with the donation of the Hospital Carlos Marx. Providing medical services to three hundred thousand people, it combined elements of a strictly East German institution, using German personnel and equipment, with some integration into local systems.

  19. Word order in the Germanic languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois, ...

  20. Model-based object classification using unification grammars and abstract representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liburdy, Kathleen A.; Schalkoff, Robert J.

    1993-04-01

    The design and implementation of a high level computer vision system which performs object classification is described. General object labelling and functional analysis require models of classes which display a wide range of geometric variations. A large representational gap exists between abstract criteria such as `graspable' and current geometric image descriptions. The vision system developed and described in this work addresses this problem and implements solutions based on a fusion of semantics, unification, and formal language theory. Object models are represented using unification grammars, which provide a framework for the integration of structure and semantics. A methodology for the derivation of symbolic image descriptions capable of interacting with the grammar-based models is described and implemented. A unification-based parser developed for this system achieves object classification by determining if the symbolic image description can be unified with the abstract criteria of an object model. Future research directions are indicated.

  1. Infrared fixed point solution for the top quark mass and unification of couplings in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.; Carena, M.; Pokorski, S.; Wagner, C.E.M.

    1993-08-01

    We analyze the implications of the infrared quasi fixed point solution for the top quark mass in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. This solution could explain in a natural way the relatively large value of the top quark mass and, if confirmed experimentally, may be suggestive of the onset of nonperturbative physics at very high energy scales. In the framework of grand unification, the expected bottom quark -- tau lepton Yukawa coupling unification is very sensitive to the fixed point structure of the top quark mass. For the presently allowed values of the electroweak parameters and the bottom quark mass, the Yukawa coupling unification implies that the top quark mass must be within ten percent of its fixed point values

  2. Gauge unification of basic forces particularly of gravitation with strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1977-01-01

    Corresponding to the two known types of gauge theories, Yang-Mills with spin-one mediating particles and Einstein Weyl with spin-two mediating particles, it is speculated that two distinct gauge unifications of the basic forces appear to be taking place. One is the familiar Yang-Mills unification of weak and electromagnetic forces with the strong. The second is the less familiar gauge unification of gravitation with spin-two tensor-dominated aspects of strong interactions. It is proposed that there are strongly interacting spin-two strong gravitons obeying Einstein's equations, and their existence gives a clue to an understanding of the (partial) confinement of quarks, as well as of the concept of hadronic temperature, through the use of Schwarzschild de-Sitter-like partially confining solitonic solutions of the strong gravity Einstein equation

  3. Study of theory and phenomenology of some classes of family symmetry and unification models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Gordon L.; King, Steve F.; Peddie, Iain N.R.; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    We review and compare theoretically and phenomenologically a number of possible family symmetries, which when combined with unification, could be important in explaining quark, lepton and neutrino masses and mixings, providing new results in several cases. Theoretical possibilities include abelian or non-abelian, symmetric or non symmetric Yukawa matrices, Grand Unification or not. Our main focus is on anomaly-free U(1) family symmetry combined with SU(5) unification, although we also discuss other possibilities. We provide a detailed phenomenological fit of the fermion masses and mixings for several examples, and discuss the supersymmetric flavour issues in such theories, including a detailed analysis of lepton flavour violation. We show that it is not possible to quantitatively and decisively discriminate between these different theoretical possibilities at the present time

  4. Towards unification of terrestrial gravity data sets in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmann, Artu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gravity data in Estonia have been collected by different institutions over many decades. This study assesses the suitability of available gravity data for ensuring a 1 cm geoid modelling accuracy over Estonia and in the Baltic Sea region in general. The main focus of this study is on the determination and elimination of discrepancies between three nationwide datasets. It was detected that one tested historic gravity dataset contained inadmissible systematic biases with respect to other tested datasets. Possible ways of gravity data improvement are discussed. More specifically, new field observation campaigns and aspects of using their outcomes in subsequent regional geoid modelling are suggested.

  5. Unification of Information Security Policies for Network Security Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Chernyavskiy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of command languages on network security solutions’ (NSS interfaces causes problems in a process of information security policy (ISP deployment. Unified model for security policy representation and implementation in NSS could aid to avoid such problems and consequently enhance efficiency of the process. The proposed solution is Unified language for network security policy (ULNSP. The language is based on formal languages theory, and being coupled with its translator, ULNSP makes it possible to formalize and implement ISP independently of particular NSS.

  6. Relict gravitational waves in the expanding Universe model and the grand unification scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryskin, A.V.; Rubakov, V.A.; Sazhin, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    The amplification of the vacuum fluctuations of the metric in the model of the expanding Universe was considered. The spectrum of the relict gravitational waves was chosen to be independent from the details of an evolution of the Universe after the phase transition. It is shown that the expanding Universe scenario is compatible with the experimental data on the anisotropy of the microwave background only if the vacuum energy density of the symmetric phase is much less than the Planck one. The theories of grand unification with not large values of the unification scale (one and a half order less than the Planck mass) are preferable from the point of view of cosmology

  7. Adherence of Pain Assessment to the German National Standard for Pain Management in 12 Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Osterbrink

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain is very common among nursing home residents. The assessment of pain is a prerequisite for effective multiprofessional pain management. Within the framework of the German health services research project, ‘Action Alliance Pain-Free City Muenster’, the authors investigated pain assessment adherence according to the German national Expert Standard for Pain Management in Nursing, which is a general standard applicable to all chronic/acute pain-affected persons and highly recommended for practice.

  8. The Educational Governance of German School Social Science: The Example of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Szukala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article challenges the outsiders' views on European school social science adopting genuine cosmopolitan views, when globalisation is treated in social science classrooms. Method: The article is based on the theoretical framework of educational governance analysis and on qualitative corpus analysis of representative German Laenders' social science curricula from 1994-2014 (n=13. Findings: The article highlights tendencies of renationalisation of the global learning agenda and the problematisation of democracy in contexts of globalisation studies at German schools.

  9. Process Performance Measurement for E-Government: A Case Scenario from the German Ministerial Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Thomas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the realization of the E-Government driven benefits was in the center of interest at various public administrations. The article at hand outlines a process driven approach for the evaluation of technology-based performance impacts. From the German perspective, existing concepts of performance evaluation are concretized for the case scenario of the German Plan Approval Procedures.

  10. Particle physics models of inflation in supergravity and grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostka, Philipp Manuel

    2010-01-01

    magnetic monopoles at the end of the stage of inflation can be avoided. Finally, we sketch how in tribrid inflation models the concepts discussed in the two parts can be combined to realize inflation via Heisenberg symmetry in local supersymmetric SO(10) grand unification. (orig.)

  11. Polarimetry and Unification of Low-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Marshall H.; Ogle, Patrick M.; Tran, Hien D.; Goodrich, Robert W.; Miller, Joseph S.

    1999-01-01

    We have made high-quality measurements of the polarization spectra of 13 FR II radio galaxies and taken polarization images for 11 of these with the Keck telescopes. Seven of the eight narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) are polarized, and six of the seven show prominent broad Balmer lines in polarized light. The broad lines are also weakly visible in total flux. Some of the NLRGs show bipolar regions with roughly circumferential polarization vectors, revealing a large reflection nebula illuminated by a central source. Our observations powerfully support the hidden quasar hypothesis for some NLRGs. According to this hypothesis, the continuum and broad lines are blocked by a dusty molecular torus, but can be seen by reflected, hence polarized, light. Classification as a NLRG, a broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG), or a quasar therefore depends on orientation. However, not all objects fit into this unification scheme. Our sample is biased toward objects known in advance to be polarized, but the combination of our results with the 1996 findings of Hill, Goodrich, and DePoy show that at least six out of a complete, volume and flux-limited sample of nine FR II NLRGs have broad lines, seen either in polarization or Pα.The BLRGs in our sample range from 3C 382, which has a quasar-like spectrum, to the highly reddened IRAS source FSC 2217+259. This reddening sequence suggests a continuous transition from unobscured quasar to reddened BLRG to NLRG. Apparently the obscuring torus does not have a distinct edge. The BLRGs have polarization images that are consistent with a point source broadened by seeing and diluted by starlight. We do not detect extended nebular or scattered emission, perhaps because it is swamped by the nuclear source. Our starlight-corrected BLRG spectra can be explained with a two-component model: a quasar viewed through dust and quasar light scattered by dust. The direct flux is more reddened than the scattered flux, causing the polarization to rise steeply

  12. Polarimetry and Unification of Low-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Marshall H.; Ogle, Patrick M.; Tran, Hien D.; Goodrich, Robert W.; Miller, Joseph S.

    1999-11-01

    We have made high-quality measurements of the polarization spectra of 13 FR II radio galaxies and taken polarization images for 11 of these with the Keck telescopes. Seven of the eight narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) are polarized, and six of the seven show prominent broad Balmer lines in polarized light. The broad lines are also weakly visible in total flux. Some of the NLRGs show bipolar regions with roughly circumferential polarization vectors, revealing a large reflection nebula illuminated by a central source. Our observations powerfully support the hidden quasar hypothesis for some NLRGs. According to this hypothesis, the continuum and broad lines are blocked by a dusty molecular torus, but can be seen by reflected, hence polarized, light. Classification as a NLRG, a broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG), or a quasar therefore depends on orientation. However, not all objects fit into this unification scheme. Our sample is biased toward objects known in advance to be polarized, but the combination of our results with the 1996 findings of Hill, Goodrich, and DePoy show that at least six out of a complete, volume and flux-limited sample of nine FR II NLRGs have broad lines, seen either in polarization or P{alpha}.The BLRGs in our sample range from 3C 382, which has a quasar-like spectrum, to the highly reddened IRAS source FSC 2217+259. This reddening sequence suggests a continuous transition from unobscured quasar to reddened BLRG to NLRG. Apparently the obscuring torus does not have a distinct edge. The BLRGs have polarization images that are consistent with a point source broadened by seeing and diluted by starlight. We do not detect extended nebular or scattered emission, perhaps because it is swamped by the nuclear source. Our starlight-corrected BLRG spectra can be explained with a two-component model: a quasar viewed through dust and quasar light scattered by dust. The direct flux is more reddened than the scattered flux, causing the polarization to rise

  13. An Adynamical, Graphical Approach to Quantum Gravity and Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, W. M.; Silberstein, Michael; McDevitt, Timothy

    We use graphical field gradients in an adynamical, background independent fashion to propose a new approach to quantum gravity (QG) and unification. Our proposed reconciliation of general relativity (GR) and quantum field theory (QFT) is based on a modification of their graphical instantiations, i.e. Regge calculus and lattice gauge theory (LGT), respectively, which we assume are fundamental to their continuum counterparts. Accordingly, the fundamental structure is a graphical amalgam of space, time, and sources (in parlance of QFT) called a "space-time source element". These are fundamental elements of space, time, and sources, not source elements in space and time. The transition amplitude for a space-time source element is computed using a path integral with discrete graphical action. The action for a space-time source element is constructed from a difference matrix K and source vector J on the graph, as in lattice gauge theory. K is constructed from graphical field gradients so that it contains a non-trivial null space and J is then restricted to the row space of K, so that it is divergence-free and represents a conserved exchange of energy-momentum. This construct of K and J represents an adynamical global constraint (AGC) between sources, the space-time metric, and the energy-momentum content of the element, rather than a dynamical law for time-evolved entities. In this view, one manifestation of quantum gravity becomes evident when, for example, a single space-time source element spans adjoining simplices of the Regge calculus graph. Thus, energy conservation for the space-time source element includes contributions to the deficit angles between simplices. This idea is used to correct proper distance in the Einstein-de Sitter (EdS) cosmology model yielding a fit of the Union2 Compilation supernova data that matches ΛCDM without having to invoke accelerating expansion or dark energy. A similar modification to LGT results in an adynamical account of quantum

  14. Particle physics models of inflation in supergravity and grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Philipp Manuel

    2010-12-03

    production of stable magnetic monopoles at the end of the stage of inflation can be avoided. Finally, we sketch how in tribrid inflation models the concepts discussed in the two parts can be combined to realize inflation via Heisenberg symmetry in local supersymmetric SO(10) grand unification. (orig.)

  15. HIGHER CHOREOGRAPHIC EDUCATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF GERMAN-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Tkachenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current state of higher choreographic education and features of professional training of choreographers in the German-speaking countries, in particular Austria, Germany and Switzerland were analyzed. It is found that most of the German-speaking countries are Germany, Austria and Switzerland, which became the object of study. The considered the structure of higher choreographic education in the German-speaking countries. Universities, higher dance schools and higher art schools are functioning in Germany. Universities and academies are functioning in Austria and Switzerland. The institutions of theatre sciences, faculty of pedagogy and psychology, departments of performing arts are the structural units of the universities. The institutions of higher education have both private and state ownership. It is found out that the main areas for which training is future choreographers in the German-speaking countries there is a "Dance", "Dance pedagogy", "Modern dance", "Science of dance", "Choreography". German-speaking countries recognized by the training of specialists in the specialty choreography of Modern dance that has no analogues in Ukraine. The term of study is four (bachelor and two (master years. Higher choreographic education in these countries has a different approach and aims at mastering a separate specialty that provides future dance instructors completely and thoroughly master the basic knowledge and skills in this specialty. Specific conditions and rules of admission to the higher educational institutions of German-speaking countries.

  16. USING EDUCATIONAL MARBLE GAMES IN GERMAN LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASAN COŞKUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show how German students can be motivated by learning games. Apart from the development and didacticisation of the learning game “Marbles”, the attitude of Turkish families and language teaching educational establishments and the support of the DaF lessons by German mediating institutions in Turkey will be considered. The attitude of Turkish families to learning foreign languages is mostly positive. Turkish educational authorities and those responsible for education take various measures to expand foreign language teaching availability in the schools. German institutions which provide teachers (Goethe-Institut, ZfA, DAAD promote the improvement of German teaching in Turkey. Nevertheless, the quality of German teaching is not satisfactory mostly because the available teachers are not adequately qualified, teacher training is remote from practice, the quality of text books and teaching materials, the traditions of learning, the excessively large classes, inadequate learning environment (language cabinets and equipment, the nature and method of central examinations (multiple choice and their significance in the Turkish educational system. In the long-term, this leads to frustration in both teachers and students. The Turkish educational authorities initially took measures to expand the availability of language teaching in the course of harmonisation of the Turkish educational system to that of the EU e.g. the introduction of a second foreign language. German mediating institutions ensure reasonable further training for teachers locally and in Germany and support the creation of teaching materials etc.

  17. The power supply in the new German Laender (formerly East Germany). Die Stromversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindwedel, E [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Radtke, H [Verbundnetz Elektroenergie AG, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1991-02-01

    Due to the division lasting over 40 years between the two German States, there was not only a political but also an electrical border. The 380 kV line from Helmstedt to Berlin planned in 1988 and the tee-off into what was then East Germany, made it possible, after completion of the section from Helmstedt to Wolmirstedt in 1989, to operate power station control; but the political and economic changes on re-unification opened up the possibility of a rapid joint German combined operation in the context of the UCPTE. However, for the electrical connection of the eastern supply areas, a knowledge of the structure of the electrical power supply in the new German Laender is important. (orig.).

  18. Asymmetric Mutual Social Perception of Austrians and Germans: A Social Identity Approach Assessing Implicit and Explicit Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Renner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whereas Austrians tend to perceive Germans as "competent but cold", Germans tend to see Austrians as "incompetent but nice" in the sense of Fiske's Stereotype Content Model. With respect to the unequal distribution of power between Austria and Germany, which outnumbers Austria by approximately the tenfold population, Social Identity Theory (SIT predicts that Austrians will tend to devalue Germans, attempting to preserve their self-esteem and cultural identity, whereas Germans will perceive Austrians more positively. We tested this expectation with N = 31 Austrian and N = 49 German students at an Austrian university. Our hypotheses of asymmetrical mutual attitudes and massive devaluation of Germans by Austrians were confirmed by the Implicit Association Test, whereas on adjective lists as an explicit measure, Austrians described Germans more favourably, obviously out of a desire not to appear prejudiced. The results support SIT and have important implications for the development of Austrian academic education.

  19. Annual report 2000 of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK). With explanations on the objectives, functions, and history of the SSK, complete lists of recommendations, statements, and publications. With a CD ROM containing full texts of recommendations and statements of the SSK on the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The report begins with an introduction explaining the objectives, functions and composition of the SSK. Then the main areas and aspects of work in 2000 are addressed and the reports, recommendations or statements prepared by the six committees of the SSK are presented. The areas of work of the six committees are: radiation protection and health physics, radiological protection in health care, radioecology, radiological engineering, emergency preparedness, and non-ionizing radiation. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Between Nationalism and Internationalism: The German Chemical Society In Comparative Perspective, 1867-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2017-09-04

    One-hundred fifty years ago, on the eve of German unification, about one-hundred people gathered in Berlin to found the German Chemical Society (DChG) under the charismatic leadership of August Wilhelm von Hofmann, who attracted a large international membership by promoting modern organic chemistry. By 1892, when Emil Fischer succeeded Hofmann, the DChG was the world's largest chemical society. Under Fischer the Society promoted international collaboration with foreign societies, and in 1900 it opened an impressive headquarters, the Hofmann House, where it centralized its greatly expanded literary activity including abstracts and reference publications. Yet a half-century later, after war and racial-national extremism, the house lay in ruins and the Society had ceased to exist. In remembering the Society, one may well ask why its auspicious beginning should have led to this ignominious end. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Green Infrastructure and German Landscape Planning: A Comparison of Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina VIEIRA MEJÍA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of similarities between green infrastructure and the German landscape planning can be found in comparing the approaches of the two planning instruments. Principles of green infrastructure such as multifunctionality, the multi-scale approach and connectivity show correspondences with landscape planning elements. However, some differences are apparent. The objective of this paper is to determine whether the main aims of these two frameworks overlap. It also seeks to deduce what benefits from ecosystem services could be provided by integrating the green infrastructure approach into the German landscape planning system. The results show that the green infrastructure concept is not well-known in German planning practice, although its principles are generally implemented through traditional landscape planning. Nevertheless, green infrastructure could act as a supplementary approach to current landscape planning practices by improving public acceptance and strengthening the social focus of the current landscape planning system.

  2. Influences of Discriminatory Incidents on Immigrants’ Attitudes Toward German Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Döring

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a quantitative survey (N = 301 to evaluate the impact discriminatory incidents have on the attitudes of immigrants towards the majority society in Germany.The findings show that there is a strong relationship between experiences of discrimination and a hostile or alienated attitude towards German society. As an attempt to explain this generalization from single incidents to the macro relation between immigrants and autochthonous Germans in general a theory of framing, taken from developments in the field of rational choice theory, is applied. The reasoning is that a generalizing and rather hostile framing in terms of the attitude towards Germans can minimize psychic, emotional and social costs resulting from acts of discrimination.

  3. German crowd-investing platforms: Literature review and survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grundy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the current German crowd-investing market drawing on a data-set of 31 crowd-investing platforms including the analysis of 265 completed projects. While crowd-investing market still only represents a niche in the German venture capital market, there is potential for an increase in both market volume and in average project investment. The market share is distributed among a few crowd-investing platforms with high entry barriers for new platforms although platforms that specialise in certain sectors have managed to successfully enter the market. German crowd-investing platforms are found to promote mainly internet-based enterprises (36% followed by projects in real estate (24% and green projects (19%, with the median money raised 100,000 euro.

  4. Renewables within the German Electricity System - Experiences and Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaltschmitt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades renewable sources of energy as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel energy have gained more and more importance within the German electricity system. Their share has increased from less than 4 % to roughly one third of the gross electricity production in the last 25 years. Against this background, the goal of this paper is to present briefly the current status of the use of renewables within the German electricity system, to assess selected developments taking place during this development process as well as to identify given challenges and needs as well as necessary actions to pave the road for a further use of renewable sources of energy within the German electricity provision system. The political driver for the latter is the overarching goal to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions which has been confirmed within the Paris agreement signed by the end of 2015.

  5. Industry 4.0: The Digital German Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Especially in Germany, a vivid public debate about “industry 4.0” has developed in recent years. It advances the argument that industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution that follows on from technological revolutions brought about by water and steam power (industrial revolution 1.0, electric power (industrial revolution 2.0, and computing/computerised automation (industrial revolution 3.0. In 1845/46, Marx and Engels wrote The German Ideology. 170 years later, we live in the time of digital capitalism that has its own peculiar forms of ideology. This paper argues that “industry 4.0” is the new German ideology, the digital German ideology. Image: By ChristophRoser, AllAboutLean.com, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

  6. The German model of capitalism and the persistence of outward foreign direct investment: evidence from German manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin T Bohl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of critique on the German model of capitalism in general, and German public policy in particular as to the ability to successfully adjust to rapid change and exogenous shocks in wake of economic globalisation, this paper investigates the degree of shock persistence in foreign direct investment (FDI of ten German manufacturing industries for the period 1976 to 2003. Theory on exports and non-FDI investment suggests that FDI should exhibit a considerable degree of shock persistence because they are subject to high sunk costs because of high entry and exit costs associated with the high level of asset specificity that is normally connected to FDI. Persistence in foreign direct investment time series data is established by applying various unit root tests. The results are robust to the potential presence of structural breaks in the data. The empirical analysis shows that German outward FDI in mature manufacturing industries, with one exception, exhibits a high degree of shock persistence. The results suggest, at least for mature German industries, that the sunk costs view on shock persistency is confirmed for outward FDI. The results furnish evidence for a tentative assessment of the relationship between German public policy and FDI strategies of multinational firms.

  7. Building a Larger Tent for Public Health: Implications of the SOPHE-AAHE Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Robert Mark

    2013-01-01

    The unification of the American Association for Health Education (AAHE) and the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) generates a long-desired synergy, a ramping up of our leadership influence in promoting health. It also serves as an ongoing opportunity to reflect on how we synergize the distinct philosophic, scientific, and practical…

  8. Do Unification Models Explain the X-ray Properties of Radio Sources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Kuraszkiewicz, J.; Haas, M.; Barthel, P.; Willner, S. P.; Leipski, C.; Worrall, D.; Birkinshaw, M.; Antonucci, R. R.; Ashby, M.; Chini, R.; Fazio, G. G.; Lawrence, C. R.; Ogle, P. M.; Schulz, B.

    Chandra observations of a complete, flux-limited sample of 38 high-redshift (1 Unification models and lead to estimates of the covering

  9. Unification of Frequency direction Pilot-symbol Aided Channel Estimation (PACE) for OFDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Christian; Manchón, Carles Navarro; Deneire, Luc

    2007-01-01

    their specificities, namely the presence of virtual subcarriers and non-sample-spaced channels. To ease this choice, we propose a unified presentation of estimators encompassing most of the algorithms that can be found in literature, which only differ by the assumptions made on the channel. This unification leads...

  10. The unification of powerful radio-loud AGN: the multi-wavelength balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podigachoski, Pece; Barthel, Peter; Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Wilkes, Belinda; Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte; Drouart, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Powerful radio-loud AGN, by virtue of their optically-thin low-frequency radio emission, represent unique targets in orientation-based unification studies, and in searches for orientation indicators and orientation invariants. Central in these efforts is the landmark Third Cambridge Catalog of Radio

  11. An approach to gauge hierarchy in the minimal SU(5) model of grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, P.

    1982-08-01

    It is shown that if all mass generation through spontaneous symmetry breaking is predominantly caused by scalar loops in the minimal SU(5) model of grand unification, it is possible to have an arbitrarily large gauge hierarchy msub(x) >> msub(w) with all Higgs bosons superheavy. No fine tuning is necessary in every order. (author)

  12. 76 FR 15209 - 150th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... fighting for the preservation of our own Union, Giuseppe Garibaldi's campaign for the unification of Italy... millions of American women and men of Italian descent who strengthen and enrich our Nation. Italy and the... thousand eleven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth...

  13. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  14. Gauge-Higgs unification with broken flavour symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olschewsky, M.

    2007-05-15

    We study a five-dimensional Gauge-Higgs unification model on the orbifold S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} based on the extended standard model (SM) gauge group SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F}. The group SO(3){sub F} is treated as a chiral gauged flavour symmetry. Electroweak-, flavour- and Higgs interactions are unified in one single gauge group SU(7). The unified gauge group SU(7) is broken down to SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} by orbifolding and imposing Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The compactification scale of the theory is O(1) TeV. Furthermore, the orbifold S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} is put on a lattice. This setting gives a well-defined staring point for renormalisation group (RG) transformations. As a result of the RG-flow, the bulk is integrated out and the extra dimension will consist of only two points: the orbifold fixed points. The model obtained this way is called an effective bilayered transverse lattice model. Parallel transporters (PT) in the extra dimension become nonunitary as a result of the blockspin transformations. In addition, a Higgs potential V({phi}) emerges naturally. The PTs can be written as a product e{sup A{sub y}}e{sup {eta}}e{sup A{sub y}} of unitary factors e{sup A{sub y}} and a selfadjoint factor e{sup {eta}}. The reduction 48 {yields} 35 + 6 + anti 6 + 1 of the adjoint representation of SU(7) with respect to SU(6) contains SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} leads to three SU(2){sub L} Higgs doublets: one for the first, one for the second and one for the third generation. Their zero modes serve as a substitute for the SM Higgs. When the extended SM gauge group SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} is spontaneously broken down to U(1){sub em}, an exponential gauge boson mass splitting occurs naturally. At a first step SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} is broken to SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} by VEVs for the selfadjoint factor e{sup {eta}}. This breaking leads to masses of flavour changing SO(3){sub F

  15. Gauge-Higgs unification with broken flavour symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olschewsky, M.

    2007-05-01

    We study a five-dimensional Gauge-Higgs unification model on the orbifold S 1 /Z 2 based on the extended standard model (SM) gauge group SU(2) L x U(1) Y x SO(3) F . The group SO(3) F is treated as a chiral gauged flavour symmetry. Electroweak-, flavour- and Higgs interactions are unified in one single gauge group SU(7). The unified gauge group SU(7) is broken down to SU(2) L x U(1) Y x SO(3) F by orbifolding and imposing Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The compactification scale of the theory is O(1) TeV. Furthermore, the orbifold S 1 /Z 2 is put on a lattice. This setting gives a well-defined staring point for renormalisation group (RG) transformations. As a result of the RG-flow, the bulk is integrated out and the extra dimension will consist of only two points: the orbifold fixed points. The model obtained this way is called an effective bilayered transverse lattice model. Parallel transporters (PT) in the extra dimension become nonunitary as a result of the blockspin transformations. In addition, a Higgs potential V(Φ) emerges naturally. The PTs can be written as a product e A y e η e A y of unitary factors e A y and a selfadjoint factor e η . The reduction 48 → 35 + 6 + anti 6 + 1 of the adjoint representation of SU(7) with respect to SU(6) contains SU(2) L x U(1) Y x SO(3) F leads to three SU(2) L Higgs doublets: one for the first, one for the second and one for the third generation. Their zero modes serve as a substitute for the SM Higgs. When the extended SM gauge group SU(2) L x U(1) Y x SO(3) F is spontaneously broken down to U(1) em , an exponential gauge boson mass splitting occurs naturally. At a first step SU(2) L x U(1) Y x SO(3) F is broken to SU(2) L x U(1) Y by VEVs for the selfadjoint factor e η . This breaking leads to masses of flavour changing SO(3) F gauge bosons much above the compactification scale. Such a behaviour has no counterpart within the customary approximation scheme of an ordinary orbifold theory. This way tree

  16. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  17. Abstracts to be Delivered at the 2014 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, April 3 to 5, Victoria, British Columbia, Alphabetized According to the Surname of the First Author. Full-text Abstracts Can be Accessed at www.pulsus.com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This document presents the titles of the abstracts to be presented at the 2014 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada (April 3 to 5, Victoria, British Columbia. The full-text abstracts are available online.

  18. Full text clustering and relationship network analysis of biomedical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Renchu; Yang, Chen; Marchese, Maurizio; Liang, Yanchun; Shi, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Rapid developments in the biomedical sciences have increased the demand for automatic clustering of biomedical publications. In contrast to current approaches to text clustering, which focus exclusively on the contents of abstracts, a novel method is proposed for clustering and analysis of complete biomedical article texts. To reduce dimensionality, Cosine Coefficient is used on a sub-space of only two vectors, instead of computing the Euclidean distance within the space of all vectors. Then a strategy and algorithm is introduced for Semi-supervised Affinity Propagation (SSAP) to improve analysis efficiency, using biomedical journal names as an evaluation background. Experimental results show that by avoiding high-dimensional sparse matrix computations, SSAP outperforms conventional k-means methods and improves upon the standard Affinity Propagation algorithm. In constructing a directed relationship network and distribution matrix for the clustering results, it can be noted that overlaps in scope and interests among BioMed publications can be easily identified, providing a valuable analytical tool for editors, authors and readers.

  19. Context and Structure in Automated Full-Text Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-29

    Meisei, Makayo, Nitsuko and Tamura, all of Japan; Goldstar, Samsung and OPC of South Korea, and Sun Moon Star of Taiwan; AT&T says the practices have...IN MALAYSIA [ ... ] Another example topic description is shown below: Topic 034 <dom> Domain: Science and Technology <title>Topic: Entities Involved In

  20. HighWire Free Online Full-text Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Lipid Research all articles after 12 months Journal of Medical Ethics all articles 1 Jan 1975 Anticancer Research all articles after 2 years every Jan. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy all articles BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care free site BMJ Open Gastroenterology free site BMJ Open

  1. German energy market 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Weltenergierat, Berlin

    2017-01-01

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [de

  2. German Idealism Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of essays provides an exemplary overwiew of the diversity and relevance of current scholarship on German Idealism. The importance of German Idealism for contemporary philosophy has recieved growing attention and acknowledgment throughout competing fields of contemporary philosophy...... scholarly debates beyond merely antiquarian perspectives. This renaissance has been a major factor of current efforts to bridge the gap between so-called "nalytic" and so-called "continental" philosophy. The volume provides a selection of readings that contributes to systematic treatments of philosophical...

  3. Writings from the Margins: German-Jewish Women Poets from the Bukovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Colin

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging at the crossroads of heterogeneous languages and cultures, German-Jewish women's poetry from the Bukovina displays the characteristics of its fascinating multilingual contextuality, yet it also bears the stigma of a double marginalization, for its representatives became time and again targets of both anti-Semitic attacks as well as gender discrimination. The present essay explores the untiring struggles of German-Jewish women authors from the Bokovina for acceptance within the Jewish and non-Jewish community. It analyzes their attempts to cope with social barriers, prejudices, and their difficult situation as both women and Jews. The essay also sets their poetry against the background of their multilingual contextuality. It is the Bukovinian biotope, where Ruthenians, Romanians, Germans, Jews, Armenians, Magyars, Poles, Lipovanes, and Hutsuls peacefully coexisted for many centuries, producing a variegated Romanian, Ruthenian, Austro-German, German-Jewish, and Yiddish literature as well as poets who were fluent in several languages.

  4. German-Iowan Strategies in Celebrating the Centennial of Alexander von Humboldt’s Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Roba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The two largest cities of Eastern Iowa on the shore of the Mississippi River are Dubuque and Davenport. In each city, an elite group of German-Iowan leaders emerged by the late 1850s. Bill Roba describes and examines their strategies in celebrating the Centennial of Alexander von Humboldt’s Birth.

  5. Dialect contact and the speed of Jespersen’s cycle in Middle Low German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Breitbarth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper adds empirical evidence to the observation that dialect contact can lead to language change, and in particular, structural simplification. Empirically, the paper maps out the differences in the speed of the transition from stage II to stage III in different Middle Low German scribal dialects (Schreibsprachen and proposes an account for these differences.

  6. Basic lexical and grammatical transformations in translation of German print advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents basic lexical and grammatical transformations, which contribute to preserving the semantic and syntactic structure of a German advertising text and reproducing the image of the advertised product. This shows that the translation has the same communicative effect as that achieved by the source text.

  7. Art, music and film in the German National Socialism years: between the pure and the degenerate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Osorio Villegas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyze the messages transmitted by the publicity posters used to advertise some of the most important cultural events during the Third Reich, in order to identify the cultural policies taken by the national socialists with the purpose of recovering the essence of German culture.

  8. SPOKEN BAHASA INDONESIA BY GERMAN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Sudipa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the spoken ability for German students using Bahasa Indonesia (BI. They have studied it for six weeks in IBSN Program at Udayana University, Bali-Indonesia. The data was collected at the time the students sat for the mid-term oral test and was further analyzed with reference to the standard usage of BI. The result suggests that most students managed to express several concepts related to (1 LOCATION; (2 TIME; (3 TRANSPORT; (4 PURPOSE; (5 TRANSACTION; (6 IMPRESSION; (7 REASON; (8 FOOD AND BEVERAGE, and (9 NUMBER AND PERSON. The only problem few students might encounter is due to the influence from their own language system called interference, especially in word order.

  9. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  10. On German Unity 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of .... living and the shortage of foreign exchange forced the government of the .... manded a great deal of empathy and care above and beyond the normal call of duty. ... The periods of service completed by conscripts in the NPA were set off against the.

  11. Storytelling and German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  12. Music to Teach German By.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Leo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how music can be intergrated with regular lesson plans to teach German vocabulary, grammar, and history and to give insights into German culture. Also included are sources for basic background information, a list of recordings of the German music, and notes on selecting and presenting it in the language class. (SED)

  13. Implications of results from the CERN e+e- collider LEP for SO(10) grand unification with two intermediate stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.; Keith, E.; Pal, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the breaking of the grand unification group SO(10) to the standard model gauge group through several chains containing two intermediate stages. Using the values of the gauge coupling constants at a scale M Z derived from recent data from the CERN e + e- collider LEP, we determine the range of their intermediate and unification scales. In particular, we identify those chains that permit new gauge structure at relatively low energy (∼1 TeV)

  14. Apitherapy: Usage and Experience in German Beekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hellner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the practice of apitherapy - using bee products such as honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom to prevent or treat illness and promote healing - among German beekeepers and to evaluate their experiences with these therapies. A questionnaire incorporating two instruments on beekeepers’ physical and mental health and working practice was included in three German beekeeping journals and readers were asked to complete it. The instrument included questions on the use of apitherapy. Simple descriptive methods, bivariate correlation, cross-tabulation and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Altogether 1059 completed questionnaires were received. The beekeepers reported the most effective and favorable therapeutic effects with honey, followed by propolis, pollen and royal jelly. The factors associated with successful experiences were: age, number of hives tended, health consciousness, positive experiences with one product and self-administration of treatment. Beekeepers were asked for which condition they would employ propolis and pollen. They reported that they used propolis most frequently to treat colds, wounds and burns, sore throats, gum disorders and also as a general prophylactic, while pollen was most commonly used as a general prophylactic and, less frequently, in treating prostate diseases. No adverse experiences were reported. The potential benefit of bee products is supported by the positive experiences of a large group of beekeepers who use some of these products to treat a wide range of conditions. The indications and treatments given here may be important in selecting bee products and designing future trials.

  15. THE UNIFICATION OF POWERFUL QUASARS AND RADIO GALAXIES AND THEIR RELATION TO OTHER MASSIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podigachoski, Pece; Barthel, Peter [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Haas, Martin [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wilkes, Belinda, E-mail: podigachoski@astro.rug.nl [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    The unification model for powerful radio galaxies (RGs) and radio-loud quasars postulates that these objects are intrinsically the same but viewed along different angles. Herschel Space Observatory data permit the assessment of that model in the far-infrared spectral window. We analyze photometry from Spitzer and Herschel for the distant 3CR hosts, and find that RGs and quasars have different mid-infrared, but indistinguishable far-infrared colors. Both these properties, the former being orientation dependent and the latter orientation invariant, are in line with expectations from the unification model. Adding powerful radio-quiet active galaxies and typical massive star-forming (SF) galaxies to the analysis, we demonstrate that infrared colors not only provide an orientation indicator, but can also distinguish active from SF galaxies.

  16. Neutrino masses and b - τ unification in the supersymmetric standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1994-05-01

    There are several indications that the Majorana masses of the right-handed neutrino components, M R , are at the intermediate scale: M R ∼ (10 10 - 10 12 ) GeV or even lighter. The renormalization effects due to large Yukawa couplings of neutrinos from region of momenta M R G are studied in the supersymmetric standard model. It is shown that neutrino renormalization effect can increase the m b /m τ ratio up to (10/15)%. This strongly disfavors m b - m τ unification for low values of tan β s . Lower bound on M R and tan β from the b - τ unification condition were found. The implications of the results to the see-saw mechanism of the neutrino mass generation are discussed. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs

  17. Gauge coupling unification in heterotic string models with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Raby, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the weak scale minimal supersymmetric standard model spectrum starting from a heterotic string theory compactified on an anisotropic orbifold. Supersymmetry breaking is mediated by vectorlike exotics that arise naturally in heterotic string theories. The messengers that mediate supersymmetry breaking come in incomplete grand unified theory (GUT) multiplets and give rise to nonuniversal gaugino masses at the GUT scale. Models with nonuniversal gaugino masses at the GUT scale have the attractive feature of allowing for precision gauge coupling unification at the GUT scale with negligible contributions from threshold corrections near the unification scale. The unique features of this minimally supersymmetric standard model spectrum are light gluinos and also large mass differences between the lightest and the next-to-lightest neutralinos and charginos which could lead to interesting signatures at the colliders.

  18. Gauge coupling running in minimal SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) superstring unification

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E; Ross, Graham G

    1991-01-01

    We study the evolution of the gauge coupling constants in string unification schemes in which the light spectrum below the compactification scale is exactly that of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. In the absence of string threshold corrections the predicted values $\\sin^2\\theta _W=0.218$ and $\\alpha _s=0.20$ are in gross conflict with experiment, but these corrections are generically important. One can express the string threshold corrections to $\\sin^2\\theta _W$ and $\\alpha_s$ in terms of certain $modular$ $weights$ of quark, lepton and Higgs superfields as well as the $moduli$ of the string model. We find that in order to get agreement with the experimental measurements within the context of this $minimal$ scheme, certain constraints on the $modular$ $weights$ of the quark, lepton and Higgs superfields should be obeyed. Our analysis indicates that this $minimal$ $string$ $unification$

  19. THE UNIFICATION OF POWERFUL QUASARS AND RADIO GALAXIES AND THEIR RELATION TO OTHER MASSIVE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podigachoski, Pece; Barthel, Peter; Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Wilkes, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    The unification model for powerful radio galaxies (RGs) and radio-loud quasars postulates that these objects are intrinsically the same but viewed along different angles. Herschel Space Observatory data permit the assessment of that model in the far-infrared spectral window. We analyze photometry from Spitzer and Herschel for the distant 3CR hosts, and find that RGs and quasars have different mid-infrared, but indistinguishable far-infrared colors. Both these properties, the former being orientation dependent and the latter orientation invariant, are in line with expectations from the unification model. Adding powerful radio-quiet active galaxies and typical massive star-forming (SF) galaxies to the analysis, we demonstrate that infrared colors not only provide an orientation indicator, but can also distinguish active from SF galaxies

  20. The Contemporary System of German Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman O. Raynkhardt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the description and analysis of functioning of the German national system of economic diplomacy. The author provides a brief summary of historical and economic background, stages and conditions of its development from the 1950-s to present time. He casts light upon the procedures and mechanisms of interaction between the key national economic-diplomatic agents i.e. ministries, agencies, other authorized bodies, public and private institutes outlining their usage of concrete economic, administrative and legal instruments in the course of respective policy measures. The author looks into the distinctive features which encompass the essence of the model: a two-level system with three pillars: foreign representations of the MFA, Germany Trade and Investment Agency, chambers of commerce. The above elements do not overlap each other's functions, but complement them; their functioning is based upon interministeriality and the single window concept. A special focus is made on the practice of economic-diplomatic agents, especially chambers of commerce, using private public partnership instruments. In general, notwithstanding recurring negative trends of the domestic and global business climate (oil crisis in the 1970-s, recession of the late 2000s - early 2010s the German economy demonstrated of high resistibility to exogenous shocks compared to other economies and according to the absolute values of its macroeconomic indicators. Alongside other economic and noneconomic factors this stability can to a certain extent be explained by an efficient system of economic diplomacy. Established in the 1970s it keeps on evolving in order to stand up to new challenges. At any stage of the business cycle it constitutes a pillar of the German economy and, ultimately, of the economy of the European Union.

  1. Squark and slepton masses as probes of supersymmetric SO(10) unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian Ananthanarayan; P. N. Pandita

    2003-09-01

    We carry out a detailed analysis of the non-universal supersymmetry breaking scalar masses arising in SO(10) supersymmetric unification. By considering patterns of squark and slepton masses, we show that a set of sum rules for the sfermion masses is independent of the manner in which SO(10) breaks. We discuss the reasons for this remarkable result. The phenomenology arising from such non-universality is shown to be practically unaffected by the symmetry breaking pattern.

  2. How European unification has shaped the debate on measuring international financial integration

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse-Bloem, Mary; Eijffinger, Sylvester

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyse a chronicle of economic theory on international financial integration post-WWII to the present date. Our focus is on theories that have somehow quantify the state and speed of international financial integration. We are able to contrast and compare three distinct strands that have brought forward conditions for its measurement. It is shown that European unification provides much of the empirical testing ground for these measures of international financial ...

  3. Korean Unification and the Future of the U.S.-ROK Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    including the Korean People’s Army, which, by ROK estimates, numbers 1.2 million in the active force and some 7.7 million in the reserve , or...management. A broader alli- ance agenda would also place a premium on establishing an interagency or whole-of-government dialogue, fusing together...annualized gross domestic product (GDP). See Christine Kim, “Korean Unification May Cost South 7 Percent of GDP: Ministry,” Reuters, January 1, 2013

  4. Physics beyond the standard model in the non-perturbative unification scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1990-01-01

    The non-perturbative unification scenario predicts reasonably well the low energy gauge couplings of the standard model. Agreement with the measured low energy couplings is obtained by assuming certain kind of physics beyond the standard model. A number of possibilities for physics beyond the standard model is examined. The best candidates so far are the standard model with eight fermionic families and a similar number of Higgs doublets, and the supersymmetric standard model with five families. (author)

  5. To the problem of control methods unification of natural and artificial radionuclide admission into environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedeonov, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactive substances (RAS) released into the environment during NPP operation form the fields of increased radiation level as compared with the natural background. Preservation of the environment from intolerable contamination requires deter-- mination of the effluent norm by concentration and quantity of RAS released to the environment for every source. The necessity of unification of the methods for radioactive nuclide control of the environment as well as means and conditions of this control are discussed [ru

  6. Towards unification of the Vorticity Confinement and Shock Capturing (TVD and ENO/WENO) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidilkover, David

    2018-04-01

    New multidimensional extensions of the TVD and finite difference ENO/WENO methods for the compressible flow equations are proposed. The novelty of the approach is in the discretization schemes that acquire by means of a single mechanism both shock-capturing and vorticity confinement capabilities. Thus, the new method can be interpreted as a unification of the two methodologies, intended initially for different purposes.

  7. Towards Unification of Methods for Speech, Audio, Picture and Multimedia Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, S.; Rumsey, F.; Bech, Søren

    2015-01-01

    attempting to “bridge the gap” between the quality assessment methods used in various disciplines are indicated. Prospective challenges faced by researchers in the unification process are outlined. They include development of unified scales, defining unified anchors, integration of objective models......The paper addresses the need to develop unified methods for subjective and objective quality assessment across speech, audio, picture, and multimedia applications. Commonalities and differences between the currently used standards are overviewed. Examples of the already undertaken research...

  8. Bounds on the number of possible Higgs particles using grand unification and exceptional Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The total sum of dimensions of a magnum exceptional Lie symmetry groups hierarchy is 4α-bar o =(4)(137+k o )≅548. Dividing this value among the various quantum fields leads to the possibility of an eight degrees of freedom Higgs field. However analyzing the same situation using sub groups of the largest exceptional Lie group leads to the conclusion that we are likely to find three Higgs particles only at the energy scale of the standard model. Consequently five of the eight degrees of freedom are unlikely to materialize as particles at this particular energy scale. This conclusion is reinforced by an entirely different approach based on grand unification analysis which excludes any grand unification using 4HD, i.e. four Higgs doublets. This leaves us with one, two and three Higgs doublets. Noting that a super symmetric standard model with two Higgs doublets gives almost perfect grand unification and that the result agrees with our exceptional Lie symmetry groups analysis, we exclude everything else. The final result is that we expect to find at least three more Higgs particles leading to a total of 66 elementary particles while at a somewhat higher energy, the expected number of 69 particles found using E-infinity theory is obtained

  9. Unification venoplasty to cope with recipient portal vein anomaly during living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S-H; Hwang, S; Jung, D-H; Ahn, C-S; Moon, D-B; Ha, T-Y; Song, G-W; Kim, K-H; Park, G-C; Namgoong, J-M; Park, Y-H; Park, H-W; Jung, B-H; Lee, S-G

    2013-10-01

    To cope with recipient portal vein (PV) anomalies, such as early branching of the right posterior section (RPS), during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) surgery, we performed a simulation study to standardize the surgical technique for unification portal venoplasty. This study included an observational analysis of conventional methods utilizing RPS PV, simulation-based design of a new surgical technique, and clinical application of this new technique. In a case encountering RPS PV, a mild anastomotic PV stenosis was persistent over 6 months postsurgery, indicating the need for technical refinement. After computational simulation analysis, we found that simple suturing of the PV branch patch automatically resulted in a funnel-shaped elongation. A prospective recipient study (n = 30) indicated that usual PV reconstruction via the PV bifurcation method is feasible in the absence of unusual donor or recipient PV anomaly. Retrospective living donor PV anatomy analysis (n = 20) revealed that 20-mm-long limbs of the first-order PV branches are necessary to make a 10- to l5-mm-long funneled PV stump. This technique of unification venoplasty for an anomalous recipient PV was applied to an adult patient undergoing LDLT with a right liver graft, for which it was shown to be technically feasible and effective. A simplified unification venoplasty technique was developed to cope with a recipient PV anomaly in adult LDLT. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. THE CONCEPT OF MODERNIZATION OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF BACHELORS OF ROMANCE-GERMANIC PHILOLOGY BASED ON COMPETENCE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталя Колиснеченко

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the problems of improving the professional training of bachelors of RomanceGermanic Philology. Particular attention is paid to the design of a conceptual model of modernization professional training of bachelors of Romance-Germanic Philology with competence-based approach being its ground. Main phases, general didactic and specific principles necessary for the organization of this process are highlighted.

  11. Statistische Analysen von Semantic Entities aus Metadaten- und Volltextbeständen von German Medical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grün, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the information content of metadata and full texts in German Medical Science (GMS articles in English language. The object of the study is to compare semantic entities that are used to enrich GMS metadata (titles and abstracts and GMS full texts. The aim of the study is to test whether using full texts increases the value added information. The comparison and evaluation of semantic entities was done statistically. Measures of descriptive statistics were gathered for this purpose. In addition to the ratio of central tendencies and scatterings, we computed the overlaps and complements of the values.The results show a distinct increase of information when full texts are added. On average, metadata contain 25 different entities and full texts 215. 89% of the concepts in the metadata are also represented in the full texts. Hence, 11% of the metadata concepts are found in the metadata only. In summary, the results show that the addition of full texts increases the informational value, e.g. for information retrieval processes.

  12. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  13. THE INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF GERMAN-BRAZILIAN COMMUNITIES (PICADAS: THE COMMONS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Relly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of German immigration to Brazil knows just a little about the structures that animated social life in Germany before the process of immigration. Therefore, the americanização of the German-Brazilian settlers is considered solely from the perspective of the host society, creating a gap that needs to be filled in order to understand another dimension of German immigration, the European side and influence over it. In this sense, it is possible to perceive that generally the social origins of German-Brazilian settlers is linked to a village context experience, especially those who came from Western and Southwestern Germany. Historically these villages were social organizations able to control natural and economic resources under their jurisdictions with a great political and economic autonomy. The so called commons were a feature of the German agrarian history, and its institutions of participatory, mutual, protectionist, communal management had the effect to generate social capital, one social attribute that supported the formation of the German-Brazilian communities in Southern Brazil. Thus, the German-Brazilian communities were forged under a solid institutional tradition and under a substrate of social capital, facilitating the emergence of autonomous and cooperative behaviors that resulted on the communitarian structures and on the associativism phenomenon. The method was the analytical descriptive based on research in primary sources in Brazilian and German Archives.

  14. Faut-il avoir peur de l’Allemagne? Représentations belges de la réunification allemande à travers 'Le Soir' et 'De Standaard'

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    Geneviève Duchenne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article revisite deux grands titres de la presse quotidienne belge, à savoir De Standaard et Le Soir, pour découvrir les perceptions qui entourèrent les événements qui se sont succédés entre l’été 1989 et l’automne 1990. Comment les différentes composantes de la société belge ont-elles réagi aux perspectives ouvertes par la chute du mur de Berlin ? Existait-il un décalage entre des élites convaincues depuis longtemps de la nécessité vitale de faire l’Europe et une population mue par un sentiment européen fort peu passionné ? Existait-il des différences de perception entre le Nord et le Sud du pays ? La réunification allemande fut-elle l’enjeu d’un débat passionné ? Le cas échéant, comment ce débat fut-il instrumentalisé ? C’est à ces quelques questions que l’article entend répondre tout en oubliant pas qu’il faudra approfondir la recherche et l’élargir notamment à d’autres sources.

  15. Confronting the conventional ideas of grand unification with fermion masses, neutrino oscillations and proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, J C [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park (United States) and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park (United States)

    2002-09-15

    It is noted that one is now in possession of a set of facts, which may be viewed as the matching pieces of a puzzle; in that all of them can be resolved by just one idea - that is grand unification. These include: (i) the observed family-structure, (ii) quantization of electric charge, (iii) meeting of the three gauge couplings, (iv) neutrino oscillations; in particular the mass squared-difference {delta}m{sup 2}({nu}{sub {mu}} - {nu}{sub {tau}}) (suggested by SuperK), (v) the intricate pattern of the masses and mixings of the fermions, including the smallness of V{sub cb} and the largeness of {theta}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}{nu}}{sub {tau}}}{sup osc}, and (vi) the need for B-L as a generator to implement baryogenesis (via leptogenesis). All these pieces fit beautifully together within a single puzzle board framed by supersymmetric unification, based on SO(10) or a string-unified G(224)-symmetry. The two notable pieces of the puzzle still missing, however, are proton decay and supersymmetry. A concrete proposal is presented, within a predictive SO(10)/G(224)- framework, that successfully describes the masses and mixings of all fermions, including the neutrinos - with eight predictions, all in agreement with observation. Within this framework, a systematic study of proton decay is carried out, which (a) pays special attention to its dependence on the fermion masses, including the superheavy Majorana masses of the right-handed neutrinos, and (b) limits the threshold corrections so as to preserve natural coupling unification. The study updates prior work by Babu, Pati and Wilczek, in the context of both MSSM and its (interesting) variant, the so-called ESSM, by allowing for improved values of the matrix elements and of the short and long-distance renormalization effects. It shows that a conservative upper limit on the proton lifetime is about (1/3 - 2) x 10{sup 34} years, with {nu}-barK{sup +} being the dominant decay mode, and quite possibly {mu}{sup p}+K{sup 0} and e

  16. Confronting the conventional ideas of grand unification with fermion masses, neutrino oscillations and proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    It is noted that one is now in possession of a set of facts, which may be viewed as the matching pieces of a puzzle; in that all of them can be resolved by just one idea - that is grand unification. These include: (i) the observed family-structure, (ii) quantization of electric charge, (iii) meeting of the three gauge couplings, (iv) neutrino oscillations; in particular the mass squared-difference Δm 2 (ν μ - ν τ ) (suggested by SuperK), (v) the intricate pattern of the masses and mixings of the fermions, including the smallness of V cb and the largeness of θ ν μ ν τ osc , and (vi) the need for B-L as a generator to implement baryogenesis (via leptogenesis). All these pieces fit beautifully together within a single puzzle board framed by supersymmetric unification, based on SO(10) or a string-unified G(224)-symmetry. The two notable pieces of the puzzle still missing, however, are proton decay and supersymmetry. A concrete proposal is presented, within a predictive SO(10)/G(224)- framework, that successfully describes the masses and mixings of all fermions, including the neutrinos - with eight predictions, all in agreement with observation. Within this framework, a systematic study of proton decay is carried out, which (a) pays special attention to its dependence on the fermion masses, including the superheavy Majorana masses of the right-handed neutrinos, and (b) limits the threshold corrections so as to preserve natural coupling unification. The study updates prior work by Babu, Pati and Wilczek, in the context of both MSSM and its (interesting) variant, the so-called ESSM, by allowing for improved values of the matrix elements and of the short and long-distance renormalization effects. It shows that a conservative upper limit on the proton lifetime is about (1/3 - 2) x 10 34 years, with ν-barK + being the dominant decay mode, and quite possibly μ p +K 0 and e + π 0 being prominent. This in turn strongly suggests that an improvement in the current

  17. Die Kodifikation des deutschen Nichtehelichenrechts im Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch The Codification of German Non-Marriage Law in the German Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Neiseke

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Steffen Baumgarten legt erstmals eine umfassende Darstellung zur Kodifikation des Nichtehelichenrechts im Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch unter Berücksichtigung der Stellungnahmen der deutschen Frauenbewegung vor. Zugleich werden die sozialen und gesellschaftlichen Hintergründe im 19. Jahrhundert in die Untersuchung mit einbezogen.Steffen Baumgarten presents the first comprehensive presentation of the codification of “non-marriage laws” in the German Civil Code in light of the position of the German women’s movement. His study also includes the social and societal background of the 19th century.

  18. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  19. Polish-German bilingualism at school. A Polish perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulaczewska, Hanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the institutional frames for the acquisition of Polish literacy skills in Germany and the maintenance of Polish-German bilingualism after the repatriation of bilingual children to Poland. These processes are examined in the context of recent developments in the European domestic job market. While the European Union has placed proficiency in several languages among its educational objectives, and foreign languages have been made obligatory school subjects in all member countries, the potential advantages of internal European migrations for producing high-proficiency bilinguals are being ignored. Bilingualism resulting from migration and biculturalism enjoys little social prestige in the host countries. In Germany, there is significant regional variation in how school authorities react to challenges posed by the presence of minority languages. In many cases, the linguistic potential of many second-generation migrants and re-emigrants gets largely wasted because of lacking interest and incentives from German and Polish institutions alike.

  20. Economic Dynamics of the German Hog-Price Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Berg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the economic dynamics of the German hog-price cycle with an innovative ‘diagnostic’ modeling approach. Hog-price cycles are conventionally modeled stochastically—most recently as randomly-shifting sinusoidal oscillations. Alternatively, we applied Nonlinear Time Series analysis to empirically reconstruct a deterministic, low-dimensional, and nonlinear attractor from observed hog prices. We next formulated a structural (explanatory model of the pork industry to synthesize the empirical hog-price attractor. Model simulations demonstrate that low price-elasticity of demand contributes to aperiodic price cycling – a well know result – and further reveal two other important driving factors: investment irreversibility (caused by high specificity of technology, and liquidity-driven investment behavior of German farmers.

  1. Typological Structure of German Phraseology Outside Germany. Quantitative Parameters

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    О. Ya. Ostapovych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the modern theoretical concept in study of the variation of German phraseology abroad Germany. It is based on the synthesis of the theory of equal-righted pluricentrism with the new achievements of the cognitive linguistics. As a result the national state linguistic variant is considered as different from the regional, normatively non-codified and dialectal variation, a kind of cluster variant idiomatic thesaurus. The hypothesis of the structural isomorphy of the variant phraseology compared to the common German one has been empirically verified and vice versa - the hypothesis of the quantitative predominance in the Austrian phraseology of the structural model Adj+Sub under the Slavic linguistic influence has also been falsified.

  2. Application of LOD Technology in German Libraries and Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] Linked Open Data (LOD has been widely used in large industries, as well as non-profit organizations and government organizations. Libraries and archives are ones of the early adopters of LOD technology. Libraries and archives promote the development of LOD. Germany is one of the developed countries in the libraries and archives industry, and there are many successful cases about the application of LOD in the libraries and archives. [Method/process] This paper analyzed the successful application of LOD technology in German libraries and archives by using the methods of document investigation, network survey and content analysis. [Result/conclusion] These cases reveal in the traditional field of computer science the relationship among research topics related to libraries and archives such as artificial intelligence, database and knowledge discovery. Summing up the characteristics and experience of German practice can provide more reference value for the development of relevant practice in China.

  3. Von Willebrand's disease in the German shepherd dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Two litters of Germanshepherd dogs were evaluated for a haemorrhagic tendency that was characterised by excessive bleeding from the umbilicus at birth, haemorrhage and haematoma formation at vaccination, excessive bruising, and lameness due to haemarthrosis. Platelet counts, clotting times and Von Willebrand's factor (VWF assays were assessed in all dogs. Factor VIII determination was performed in 1 puppy and its parents. Based on the clotting times and VWF assay, 6 puppies (4 male and 2 female showed type I Von Willebrand's disease (VWD, 5 (4 male and 1 female possible type II VWD, and 4 were unaffected. One puppy with possible type II VWD had very low factor VIII activity; its sire had a normal factor activity, whereas the dam was in the low-normal range. This article reports type I and possible type II VWD in 2 related litters of German shepherd dogs, the latter being rare in German shepherd dogs.

  4. Endangering of Businesses by the German Inheritance Tax? – An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Houben

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses the substantial tax privilege for businesses introduced by the German Inheritance Tax Act 2009. Advocates of the vast or even entire tax exemption for businesses stress the potential damage of the inheritance tax on businesses, as those often lack liquidity to meet tax liability. This submission tackles this issue empirically based on data of the German Inheritance Tax Statistics and the SOEP. The results indicate that former German inheritance tax law has not endangered transferred businesses. Hence, there is no need for the tremendous tax privilege for businesses in current German inheritance tax law. An alternative flat inheritance tax without tax privileges, which meets revenue neutrality per tax class according to current tax law, provokes in some cases relative high tax loads which might trouble businesses.

  5. Harold Pinter’s The Dumb Waiter in German: What’s Missing in Translation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée von Paschen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several of Harold Pinter’s works have been adapted as screenplays and filmed. This paper investigates director Robert Altman’s TV movie The Dumb Waiter in comparison with the German dubbed version, Der stumme Diener, as well as the reception of Pinter’s play in German. The translation of Pinter’s dialogue into German involves stylistic aspects, such as Pinter’s dry, concise style, as well as the subliminal wit, sarcasm and irony. Humour is particularly difficult to translate, often involving compensation or transfer from one (cultural context to another. As one of the “comedies of menace”, The Dumb Waiter employs black humour and ironic wit to create threat and dramatic tension. The unknown threat is counterbalanced by “black comic relief”. The lack of a classical German tradition of black comedy problematizes the translation of Pinter’s dialogue, while the limits of audiovisual translation add additional hurdles.

  6. The Symbolism of Colour in the Modern German Youth Slang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shavlovska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most interesting for the research group of words – colour definitions – in the modern German youth slang. Different peoples created definite symbols of colours, still existing nowadays. Even at present time the problem of colour symbolism is one of the most significant while studying the interrelation between the colour and the psychic of a person. Youth is the most progressive, emotional and creative group of the society, that is why the study of such phenomenon as colour symbolism as the example of youth slang – is especially important for the modern linguocultural study and social linguistics.

  7. Capital Market Implications of Corporate Disclosure: German Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Grüning

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between annual report disclosure, market liquidity, and capital cost for firms registered on the Deutsche Börse. Disclosure is comprehensively measured using the innovative Artificial Intelligence Measurement of Disclosure (AIMD. Results show that annual report disclosure enhances market liquidity by changing investors’ expectations and inducing portfolio adjustments. Trading frictions are negatively associated with disclosure. The study provides evidence for a capital-costreduction effect of disclosure based on the analysis of investors’ return requirements and market values. Altogether, no evidence is found that the information processing at the German capital market is structurally different from other markets.

  8. Status and distribution of the lynx in the German Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kaczensky

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lynx (Lynx lynx had been eradicated in the German Alps by the middle of the 19th century. Since the early 1970s there have been several attempts to initiate the re-introduction of lynx into the German Alps, but none of the projects could be carried out because of the still very controversial attitudes towards the species, and because of competition between institutions. Natural re-colonization of the German Alps by lynx can be expected sooner or later from Switzerland or Austria. Although lynx are already present in some parts of Germany outside the Alps, neither an organized monitoring system nor compensation regulations for losses of livestock exist. For a successful comeback of lynx into Germany, including the German Alps, more efforts than a year-round protection by the federal hunting law is needed. Initiative management actions and intensive public education are necessary to obtain and secure public acceptance of the lynx.

  9. Customer-friendly Approach or Pidginization of German Tourist Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Bosnar-Valkovic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available If the sentences or phrases like Fast Food-Konzept in Chile, Leonardo goes Gastronomie, Der Claim „Inspiration for modern living“, WM-Countdown läuft; Deutschland ist die fünftgrößte Incoming-Destination weltweit und … are considered, the first impression is that this is a typical mixture of both English and German. To all intents and purposes, they support the main part of a definition of pidgin language. Communication plays a central role in tourism. As emphasized by numerous authors, it is a personification of tourism; conversely tourism could be said to totally encompass a system of communication. As it is a crucial component of the industry, tourist discourse not only serves as a medium for buying/selling tourist products, it also assumes the role of the product itself within the complexity of various economic, technological and political processes in tourism. If analyzed within linguistic norms, discussion of Anglo-American influence on the German tourist discourse should focus on the problem of erosion of the national language, due to the impact of these Ango-Americanisms. The German tourist discourse aims at a customer-friendly approach in order to attract potential buyers or guests, all of which results in a slightly pidginized version of the German tourist discourse.

  10. THE COMPOSITE LEADING INDICATOR FOR GERMAN BUSINESS CYCLE

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    Tkacova Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and predicting economic cycles have returned to the awareness of economists with the impact of the economic crisis in 2007/2008. To determine the current and future state of the country’s economic cycle, Composite Leading Indicators (CLI can be used. Their structure is being dealt with by institutions at the national and international level (OECD, Eurostat. Correct predictions of public finance development and the entrepreneurship sphere are very important for competitiveness of the country. The aim of the paper is to propose a new Composite Leading Indicator (CLI to monitor and predict the German economy. The analysis of 140 quantitative and qualitative indicators of industry, services, retail, construction, foreign trade, labor market, money aggregates, stock indices, confidence indicators, consumer expectations was performed for the needs of the indicator. As the reference series represents the German economic cycle, the GDP indicator is selected at constant prices for 2010. All selected quarterly time series are applied with seasonal index methods, the Hodrick-Prescott filter (HP filter in the R program, cross-correlation with time shifts, methods selection and scoring, data standardization, identification of the same and different data and the subsequent construction of the CLI of the German economic cycle. The generated CLI can predict the German economy cycle two quarters ahead with a cross-correlation value of 0.867. The forecasting capabilities of the assembled indicator were better than the prediction capabilities of OECD, Eurostat and IFO indicator.

  11. Unification of Cas protein families and a simple scenario for the origin and evolution of CRISPR-Cas systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity systems that are present in most Archaea and many Bacteria function by incorporating fragments of alien genomes into specific genomic loci, transcribing the inserts and using the transcripts as guide RNAs to destroy the genome of the cognate virus or plasmid. This RNA interference-like immune response is mediated by numerous, diverse and rapidly evolving Cas (CRISPR-associated proteins, several of which form the Cascade complex involved in the processing of CRISPR transcripts and cleavage of the target DNA. Comparative analysis of the Cas protein sequences and structures led to the classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems into three Types (I, II and III. Results A detailed comparison of the available sequences and structures of Cas proteins revealed several unnoticed homologous relationships. The Repeat-Associated Mysterious Proteins (RAMPs containing a distinct form of the RNA Recognition Motif (RRM domain, which are major components of the CRISPR-Cas systems, were classified into three large groups, Cas5, Cas6 and Cas7. Each of these groups includes many previously uncharacterized proteins now shown to adopt the RAMP structure. Evidence is presented that large subunits contained in most of the CRISPR-Cas systems could be homologous to Cas10 proteins which contain a polymerase-like Palm domain and are predicted to be enzymatically active in Type III CRISPR-Cas systems but inactivated in Type I systems. These findings, the fact that the CRISPR polymerases, RAMPs and Cas2 all contain core RRM domains, and distinct gene arrangements in the three types of CRISPR-Cas systems together provide for a simple scenario for origin and evolution of the CRISPR-Cas machinery. Under this scenario, the CRISPR-Cas system originated in thermophilic Archaea and subsequently spread horizontally among prokaryotes. Conclusions Because of the extreme diversity of CRISPR-Cas systems, in-depth sequence and structure

  12. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  13. The German medical dissertation--time to change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, C; Arkenau, C; Meyer-Wentrup, F

    2000-08-01

    German medical students must conduct a research project and write a dissertation in order to receive the title "Doctor." However, the dissertation is not required to graduate, enter a residency, or practice medicine. About 90% of practicing physicians hold the title "Doctor"; a career in academic medicine almost always requires it. Although no convincing evidence supports the usefulness of the dissertation, many regard its completion as important to maintaining a high level of scientific competence and patient care. In recent years, the number of successfully completed dissertations has declined. Lack of time during medical school, the perceived irrelevance of the dissertation to medical practice, and the poor design of many projects may be at least part of the problem. There is also increasing evidence that conducting research frequently delays graduation and may affect clinical skills because students working on projects attend fewer classes, ward rounds, and clinical tutorials and do not spent sufficient time preparing for examinations. The scientific value of students' research has also been criticized; critics point out that students do not have enough time or experience to critically analyze methods and data, and they often are not properly supervised. European unification will probably lead to standardized requirements for medical education and research. The authors hope this will eliminate the dissertation requirement in Germany.

  14. German atomic low meeting 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    2005-01-01

    The conference report on the German atomic law meeting 2004 contains 14 contributions on the German atomic legislation within four parts: Damage precaution in the operational phase; Legal general requirements for the final disposal - considerations ''de lege lata'' and ''de lege ferenda''. Financing of the site searching by a statutory company (''Verbandsmodell''). Atomic supervision authority - federal executive administration or federal self administration?

  15. The interpretation of the Battle of Leipzig (October 16–19, 1813 in the German patriotic sermon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterkhov Dmitry Vladimirovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the impact of the religion on the national consciousness of European nations in the 19th century. As an example of this impact can serve the sermons of the German protestant clergy dedicated to the victory of the German and Allied troops over Napoleon armies in the Battle of Leipzig on 16–19 October, 1813. On the battlefield of Leipzig there emerged a very powerful national myth, partly created by means of the patriotic preaching of German pastors. This myth of Leipzig, propagandized by the protestant clergy, consisted of several components; one of them was the popular idea of “God’s Judgment” which was imposed by God on Napoleon and the French nation. The salvation of Germany was thus explained by God’s direct intervention in the Liberation Wars against France. The pastors create a dark and unattractive image of Napoleon who is exposed as tyrant, theomachist and even Antichrist. Not less negative is the image of the French who are described in the sermons as unreligious and immoral. Their direct opposites are the Germans whom the protestant preachers endow with such qualities as piety and morality. In the eyes of the pastors the Germans constitute a single nation united by common features, such as the German language, the German traditions and the German religiousness. As considerable national symbols in the sermons appear the German national heroes such as Martin Luther, the Swedish King Gustav Adolph and the most notable hero Hermann, the leader of one of the ancient German tribes. Consequently the French are compared with ancient Romans who overindulged in sins and immorality and were defeated by the brave Germans with the help of God. As a result the German protestant clergy contribute to the creating of the myth of Leipzig which became a considerable symbol of the German national history.

  16. THE PLIGHT OF GERMAN MISSIONS IN MANDATE CAMEROON: AN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS

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    Lang Michael Kpughe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The First World War and its resultant Mandate and Trusteeship systems greatly affected the German mission enterprise in Cameroon. Apart from causing the forceful ousting of German missionaries from Cameroon, the British and the French whom the League of Nations and United Nations successively chose as administering powers within the Mandate and Trusteeship frameworks adopted hostile policies towards German missions. From the beginning of the war to the post-Second World War era, the foundation of German missions was seriously threatened. This paper critically examines the treatment of German missions in both British and French Cameroons during the Mandate and Trusteeship periods, focusing especially on the opposing attitudes of both administering powers towards the missions in their spheres of influence. The paper establishes that the administering powers’ treatment of German missions, which was underpinned by imperial and nationalist exigencies, roiled the attainment of the triple missionization agenda of planting self-supporting, self-governing and self-evangelizing churches. It thus argues that the First World War triggered the mistreatment of German missions, with some missions forced to terminate their activities while others were allowed to continue their mission work under difficult conditions.

  17. Retrieval and the development of German federalism in the postwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Mayor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The path to understanding the nature of the German federal state is the analysis of its historical development. The process of establishing the federal structure of the German territory is long and quite complex , due to complex factors of social , legal and political nature. Federal relations on German soil in a given historical period is a reflection of political realities and lessons of the previous state . This paper considers the problem of revival of federal structures in the context of the new German state. Author determined arguments in favor of the federal structure of the state at the time. Established a task that had set the parents creators of the Weimar constitution. It is noted that much attention has been given implementation mechanisms controlling the balance of power and authority , not the vertical distribution of competencies. The features of the functioning of West German federalism. This paper analyzes the main structural problems and dysfunctions in the system of German federalism, which found its expression in the post­war period ; considered federal principles in Eastern Germany, who were in the tension field of centralist ideological trends in the postwar period. The author points out that the revival of German federalism influenced by factors such as domestic and foreign policy issues and concludes on the need for transformation of the federal system.

  18. Unification of gauge and gravity Chern-Simons theories in 3-D space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghir, Chireen A.; Shamseddine, Laurence W. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2017-11-15

    Chamseddine and Mukhanov showed that gravity and gauge theories could be unified in one geometric construction provided that a metricity condition is imposed on the vielbein. In this paper we are going to show that by enlarging the gauge group we are able to unify Chern-Simons gauge theory and Chern-Simons gravity in 3-D space-time. Such a unification leads to the quantization of the coefficients for both Chern-Simons terms for compact groups but not for non-compact groups. Moreover, it leads to a topological invariant quantity of the 3-dimensional space-time manifold on which they are defined. (orig.)

  19. Gravity-assisted exact unification in minimal supersymmetric SU(5) and its gaugino mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobe, Kazuhiro; Wells, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Minimal supersymmetric SU(5) with exact unification is naively inconsistent with proton decay constraints. However, it can be made viable by a gravity-induced non-renormalizable operator connecting the adjoint Higgs boson and adjoint vector boson representations. We compute the allowed coupling space for this theory and find natural compatibility with proton decay constraints even for relatively light superpartner masses. The modifications away from the naive SU(5) theory have an impact on the gaugino mass spectrum, which we calculate. A combination of precision linear collider and large hadron collider measurements of superpartner masses would enable interesting tests of the high-scale form of minimal supersymmetric SU(5)

  20. The behaviour of effective coupling constants in 'finite' grand unification theories in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchbinder, I.L.; Odintsov, S.D.; Lichtzier, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    The question of the behaviour of effective coupling constants in one-loop 'finite' grand unification theories in curved spacetime is investigated. It is shown that in strong gravitational fields the effective coupling constant, corresponding to the parameter of non-minimal interaction of scalar and gravitational fields, tends to the conformal value or increases in an exponential fashion. The one-loop effective potential is obtained with accuracy to linear curvature terms. It is shown that, in external supergravity, supersymmetric finite theories admit asymptotic conformal invariance. (Author)