WorldWideScience

Sample records for german supermarket company

  1. TOWARDS A GERMAN LANGUAGE FRAMEWORK FOR MALAYSIABASED MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES (MNCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Waltraud Brigitte Mayr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The aim of this study is to introduce an approach to managing business communication based on the German language needs of employees in multinational companies in Malaysia and the expectations of employers in the teaching of German in their companies. As additional variables, training for sustainable development (ESD and for maximizing the mutual understanding in personal interactions is included. Design / methodology / approach – This paper is reflecting on the spectrum of ideas about the teaching of German in German companies in Malaysia that was obtained through the author’s earlier target situation analysis in MNCs in Malaysia. In addition to a variety of methods that is incorporated to engage students in the learning process, a ‘meaning negotiation’ approach is applied in order to deal with the intercultural communication practices. Results - The paper outlines a set of topics and strategies that can assist employees in intercultural interaction contexts in a German Malaysia-based company. It draws them together into a conceptual framework of required skills in a German beginner class. Originality / Benefits - This study contributes to the current issues concerning the German mediation requirements in the management field.

  2. Integrated Marketing Strategies of German Companies : Start-Ups vs. Global Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Kostin, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor's thesis is to find out and analyze different marketing strategies of German fashion companies. The main part is comparing relatively young start-up companies to established companies and analyzing to what extent the strategies differ. The methodology used in this paper were semi-structured expert interviews with German start-up companies. The results were analyzed and compared to the secondary research on the big global German companies. The findings showed that ...

  3. Brand perception: an analysis of supermarket retail of Aracaju after acquisitions of international companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pinto Correia dos Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The study under review proposes to investigate how three of the most important brand´s supermarket - representatives of multinational retailed - are perceived. In this article they will be named by P, W and C. Specifically, demanded up: identify the socioeconomics and psychograph customers in PDV and it´s influential´s areas at store; and investigate the perception of brands values of supermarkets under review. Through the method descriptive and quantitative, were applied some questionnaires in 288 costumers of the principals stores about the brands studied and their surroundings, using a probabilistic systematic sampling, looking for answer the constitutive hypotheses made in study. The data were analyzed with software SPSS help (Statistical Package for Social Sciences and were applied in statistical tests: ANOVA, T-Student and Tukey, and Cluster Analysis. The result allows concluding that despite of consumers of the studied brands has in general similar characteristics, there some differences that may have directed strategies. About the aspect of brand equity (loyalty, memory/association and perceived quality, it is possible affirm that C brand stands out with better perception of its proximity aspects within the studied public.

  4. Epidemiological profile of workers with musculoskeletal disorders of a supermarket company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Benites da Silva

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction The epidemiological profile is considered a sensitive indicator of living conditions and the disease process. The musculoskeletal disorders are the most common causes of pain and can lead to disability or restriction of daily activities. These disorders take the name of RCT/OWRD when they are associated with work activities and may be associated with risk conditions at work.Objectives To describe the epidemiological profile of supermarket workers with musculoskeletal disorders under treatment at a physiotherapy clinic in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil.Methods This was a cross-sectional, observational study which used retrospective data collected from 360 records of patients treated from January 2010 to December 2011 in a physiotherapy clinic that provides health services for a supermarket chain.Results There was a predominance of females (73.9%, aged 30–39 years (35.1%; 63.0% reported being single and 73.4% lived in Porto Alegre. The most commonly reported occupation was cashier (31.2%. The main reasons for referral to physiotherapy treatment were low back pain (21.4%, neck pain (19.7%, pain (16.1%, subacromial bursitis (13.9% and back pain (12.2%. Among the signs and symptoms 95.8% of the sample reported pain in chronic phase.Conclusion The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was high in this group. The presence of pain can disable the worker for daily activities and physiotherapy becomes the therapeutic procedure of choice for their rehabilitation.

  5. Internal environment analysis and its improvement in company Ltd "German Products Baltics"

    OpenAIRE

    Štekels, Jānis

    2012-01-01

    The topic of the Bachelors work is „Internal environment analysis and its improvment in company Ltd „German Products Baltics””. The objective of Bachelors work is to explore and analyze the internal environment and to develop proposals for its improvement. Subject of the work is actual, because each company before starting its business or to change something in companies work, should understood the companies strength and weaknesses by analyzing internal environment. Bachelor work consists of ...

  6. Workers' Participation and the Distribution of Control as Perceived by Members of Ten German Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolke, Klaus; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A survey of 601 managers and workers in 10 German manufacturing companies studied the implications of workers' participation for the exercise of control. Statistical analysis of data on control over work environments, production organization, personnel, and finance indicated that, in more participative companies, distribution of control is more…

  7. Supermarket Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, William G.; Bullerwell, Lornie D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity on enzymes. Uses common items found in the supermarket that contain protease enzymes, such as contact lens cleaner and meat tenderizer. Demonstrates the digestion of gelatin proteins as part of enzymatic reactions. (Author/SOE)

  8. Supermarket Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2010-01-01

    As soon as they graduate from arm-length viewing in shopping-cart seats, children take off to adventure in aisles, touching just about everything. Kids will pocket fallen signs and lug unusual, empty shelves and packaging materials in hopes of taking them home. Kids recognize and compliment supermarket artists--stock clerks who create container…

  9. Supermarket Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoff E.; Harper, John D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Supermarket Botany is a frequently-used teaching resource or strategy. It draws on a student's existing familiarity with plant-based foods to explore plant structure and life cycles. One of its strongest points is that it is adaptable to many age levels--from lower primary school to university and general interest groups. We have designed a unique…

  10. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German energy service companies sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koewener, D.; Schleich, J.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research conducted in the German energy service sector to assess to what extent energy service companies (ESCOs) can help overcome the barriers to energy in the higher education, brewing and mechanical engineering sectors. This report complements the sector for Germany within the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000; Schleich/Boede 2000a; Schleich/Boede 2000b; Schleich et al., 2000). The report characterises the German energy service sector, contains a description and analysis of four case studies in the energy service sector, identifies the main barriers and chances for ESCOs in the higher education, brewery and mechanical engineering sectors, and concludes with brief recommendations on how these barriers may be overcome. The results of the study are summarised here under the following headings: Characterising the energy service sector in Germany; - Case studies of energy service companies in Germany; - The role of ESCOs in the case-study sectors; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  11. A Comparison of the Market Orientation Model in Czech and German High‑Tech Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Jangl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Market orientation belongs to the permanent factors of success and even in the periods of economic instability it helps to keep a company in a good condition. This article aims to compare the Czech and German model of market‑orientation of high‑tech companies in the manufacturing industry. the overall index of market orientation in the Czech Republic and Germany is almost identical. Subsequently, invariance was tested using the method of Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis. a comparison of absolute terms of the models shows that significant difference among the coefficients exists in the item regarding obtaining information about competitors – i.e. competitor intelligence generation. the research did not demonstrate statistically significant differences between the models. All criteria consistently confirm configural, metric and partial scalar invariance. the only rejected equivalence is scalar invariance. In this study, therefore, no significant differences were demonstrated between the models of market‑orientation of Czech and German high‑tech companies. There are other studies that deal with the measurement invariance models of market‑oriented high‑tech companies. Using Czech and German data, this work has helped to clarify that the two versions of the measuring instruments (English and Czech are indeed equivalent to each other. Based on the research findings, academics and managers are recommend the use both measuring scales indiscriminately as valid tools for determining the index of market orientation in high‑tech firms in the manufacturing industry. For now, there is no similar or comparable research in the Czech Republic or Germany. For this reason, it seems appropriate to replicate this research in the future, including discussions with authors who deal with the issue of market orientation.

  12. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  13. The Lack of Collaboration between Companies and Schools in the German Dual Apprenticeship System: Historical Background and Recent Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    On the macro level (federal level) and exo level (state or regional level), the German Dual Apprenticeship System shows a high degree of institutionalised collaboration. However, the companies and vocational schools on the meso level (institutional level and level of the actors), in contrast, are just loosely coupled with a dominant partner (i.e.,…

  14. Pakistan's rise to nuclear power and the contribution of German companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricke, Klaus-Peter

    2013-09-01

    , post-shipment controls, in other words checking whether goods have reached the country to which they were being exported or whether those goods are still there.The Federal Customs Administration makes use of customs liaison officers/customs attaches in numerous countries and these could take over this task. Included among these countries are the United Arab Emirates, a commonly used conduit for exporting goods to the final destination of Iran or Pakistan. The number of foreign trade and payments audits would have to be drastically increased. For effective export controls in the future measures at the level of the EU are of critical importance. Here the German government should exert its influence in order to see to it that cooperation among customs administrations in the area of export controls is decisively improved. The intensive cooperation that is common practice in for example narcotrafficking, contraband cigarette smuggling or brand piracy must be possible in the case of export controls too. In my opinion, the breakthrough to effective European export controls would be achieved through the creation of a European Anti-Proliferation Office - similar to the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF), which has already existed for years - which would collate the data on proliferation activities (companies and individuals) already available in the various European countries, process them and use them in investigations.

  15. Pakistan's rise to nuclear power and the contribution of German companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, Klaus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    , in other words checking whether goods have reached the country to which they were being exported or whether those goods are still there.The Federal Customs Administration makes use of customs liaison officers/customs attaches in numerous countries and these could take over this task. Included among these countries are the United Arab Emirates, a commonly used conduit for exporting goods to the final destination of Iran or Pakistan. The number of foreign trade and payments audits would have to be drastically increased. For effective export controls in the future measures at the level of the EU are of critical importance. Here the German government should exert its influence in order to see to it that cooperation among customs administrations in the area of export controls is decisively improved. The intensive cooperation that is common practice in for example narcotrafficking, contraband cigarette smuggling or brand piracy must be possible in the case of export controls too. In my opinion, the breakthrough to effective European export controls would be achieved through the creation of a European Anti-Proliferation Office - similar to the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF), which has already existed for years - which would collate the data on proliferation activities (companies and individuals) already available in the various European countries, process them and use them in investigations.

  16. Intereffects in supermarkets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, P.

    1985-10-01

    Supermarkets have air-conditioning requirements not experienced in any other commercial building. The supermarket is a wideopen structure with concentrated negative loads located variously throughout the building. This article describes the design criteria for HVAC equipment, air distribution, and controls that optimize supermarket energy usage. The psychometrics of supermarket air conditioning are more complex than for conventional buildings. Application requires specialized knowledge, which from observation of the real work resides by default with the HVAC salesman and the supplier. There are areas that could be improved in supermarket energy use involving display refrigeration and HVAC. To achieve these benefits, ASHRAE, the Commercial Refrigeration Manufacturers Association, and the supermarket industry must cooperatively establish a plan to direct the research.

  17. [Determinants of workplace health promotion in the insurance sector: results of a complete survey of German insurance companies in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T; Janssen, C; Plath, S-C; Steinhausen, S; Pfaff, H

    2009-11-01

    The present study is aimed to assess the current level of workplace health promotion (WHP) within the German insurance sector and to examine whether and to what extent internal and external factors play a role in implementing non-statutory health promotion measures. Firstly, a telephone survey was conducted of German insurance companies fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the survey (n=258). It was enquired whether these companies wish to participate in a written survey on workplace health promotion. A written questionnaire was then sent to those companies meeting the criteria (n=140). The questionnaire contained questions on the company, number and type of workplace health promotion measures as well as the internal and external framework for workplace health promotion measures. In total, 68 questionnaires were filled in and returned. Linear regression analysis was applied to investigate how external and internal variables influence workplace health promotion. The response rate was 48.57%. Workplace health promotion measures undertaken by those insurance companies taking part in the written survey were largely dominated by behavioural and relational prevention measures. Also on offer were measures from areas such as further education and prevention that seek to improve communication and team work. By contrast, diagnostic activities were only of minor importance. Incorporation into workplace health management (beta=0.469; pmanagement measures with regard to personnel development, organisational development and quality control (beta=0.243; pcompanies should increasingly incorporate such measures into specific health management programmes as well as general management measures with regard to personnel development, organisational development and quality control. Moreover, workplace health promotion measures should always be evaluated in terms of health and economic indicators. It should also be noted that small and medium-sized companies have the largest potential

  18. Raw material monitoring assists companies. German Mineral Resources Agency at BGR provides information on global developments in resource markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Germany is dependent on imports for its metalliferous natural resources. Although prices have been declining significantly in recent months, numerous raw materials such as platinum, cobalt and rare earth elements continue to be exposed to price and supply risks. To ensure that German industry can respond better to this situation in their procurement activities, the German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at BGR has developed a raw material monitoring system on behalf of the German government. DERA experts have con figured a screening method for the early identification of possible procurement risks. This is the platform which enables German companies to gain the specific advice they require. All of the most important information on this issue is bundled within DERA 's internet portal (www.deutsche-rohstoffagentur.de). BGR also provides its expertise in other important fields with great societal relevance. BGR has been advising the national commission on ''Storage of High-level Radioactive Waste'' since 2014. Due to their comprehensive research activities in the field of radioactive waste disposal, BGR scientists are important technical experts to which the commission can turn to for geological information and advice.

  19. Cooperative relationships and competitiveness in supermarket sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Centenaro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article aims to investigate the influence of cooperative relations in the performance of companies in the supermarket sector, comparing the companies associated networks with companies not associated. Design/methodology/approach – The research method employed was a survey research with 31 companies. Findings – The results indicate that the cooperative relationships with suppliers have a positive impact on companies of performance, while the cooperative relationships with competitors and local institutions do not influence the performance. Moreover, it appears that there is no relationship between participation in a network of cooperation and achieving superior performance. However, companies linked to the network present better cooperative relationships with suppliers, which positively impacts the performance and therefore have competitive advantages over companies not associated to networks. Originality/value – The cooperative relationships with suppliers can provide benefits such as reducing logistics costs, improved product portfolio, better negotiating prices and terms, partnership for conducting marketing strategies among others, thus increasing the competitiveness of companies in the supermarket sector.

  20. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  1. The Intellectual Supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demb, Ada

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how separating undergraduate education into its two primary components--general education and the major--and then applying the perspective of a supermarket analogy leads to startling conclusions about possible transformations of the production and distribution system for higher education at the undergraduate level and for implementing…

  2. Supermarket model on graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budhiraja, A.S.; Mukherjee, D.; Wu, R.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a variation of the supermarket model in which the servers can communicate with their neighbors and where the neighborhood relationships are described in terms of a suitable graph. Tasks with unit-exponential service time distributions arrive at each vertex as independent Poisson

  3. Preferred supplier programs for consulting services: An exploratory study of German client companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieweke, J.; Birkner, Stephanie; Mohe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Research has recently provided evidence that at least some companies have involved purchasing departments in buying professional services such as management consulting services. Some departments have established preferred supplier programs (PSPs) for consulting services, i.e., programs for

  4. Tips for HR managers of German companies entering the Vietnamese market

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Quynh

    2014-01-01

    Recently there have been more and more foreign companies conquering Southeast Asia markets, especially Vietnam. As a result, there has been a huge demand for qualified workforce in this country. The workforce in Vietnam is large and young. However, there is a lack of skilled employees. As a result, the companies try to take on qualified people from each other by giving higher compensation, a better workplace, and so on. Therefore, the problem is to retain employees. Human resource manage...

  5. Exploring the association between social capital and depressive symptoms: results of a survey in German information and communication technology companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julia; Ernstmann, Nicole; Nitzsche, Anika; Driller, Elke; Kowalski, Christoph; Lehner, Birgit; Stieler-Lorenz, Brigitte; Friepörtner, Katharina; Schmidt, Anna; Pfaff, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between social capital at work and depressive symptoms in employees. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected through an online survey with the full population of employees from six companies in the German information and communication technology sector (response rate: 58.4%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results of data from a total of 328 employees suggest that, after controlling for sociodemographic factors, health awareness, and job strain, lower levels of perceived social capital at work are associated with the experience of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.64-0.90). Our findings suggest that characteristics of high social capital at work, such as an established environment of trust and a sense of common values and convictions, could be an essential resource for preventing depressive disorders.

  6. What are community energy companies trying to accomplish? An empirical investigation of investment motives in the German case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstenkamp, Lars; Kahla, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Community energy has become an increasingly important issue in academia and in energy policy circles worldwide. Citizens jointly investing in and operating renewable energy installations have played an essential role in countries such as Germany or Denmark. Building on and extending previous studies, we collect survey data on investment motives for a stratified random sample of German community energy companies. Structural variables are selected using a socio-ecological-technical systems framework. This study aims to identify differences within the community energy sector to better understand investment behaviour and the effects of policy changes. Despite the small sample coverage at the individual member level, the preliminary results of this study suggest that, first, community energy forms a specific type of social investment and that, second, there are significant differences between community energy companies, especially regarding the assessment of the return motive. This motive plays a more prominent role in limited partnerships than in cooperatives and for community wind than for companies focusing on solar or biomass. While these and other factors are highly interrelated, our data indicate that the social setting and geographical and climatic conditions are the critical ones here. These findings may guide further research. - Highlights: • Community energy companies form a specific part of the impact investment sector. • Differences in the valuation of investments exist mainly regarding the return motive. • There are significant differences between North vs South and cooperatives vs LPs. • The return motive plays a higher role for community energy founded 2009–2011. • These differences have to be taken into account when assessing policy changes.

  7. Loyalty in the Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Damacena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Loyalty has been a hot topic in marketing management, not only for academics, but also for managers. In that sense, the main goal of this paper is to identify the variables that discriminate loyalty groups. Therefore, seven hypotheses have been proposed which might have an impact on loyalty groups. Based on discriminant analysis, the paper analyzes and discusses the data, and presents a conclusion that the more important variables on loyalty in the supermarket are affective commitment, satisfaction with its environment and value provided by supermarket experiences. Moreover, the results also indicated that the theoretical model achieved a variance in the loyalty construct of canonical R-squared = 0.78. It could be considered a good value to the final model. Final considerations and study limitations conclude the paper.

  8. [WMSDs in supermarket cashiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pede, Cinzia; Manuli, Gianluca; Dini, Fulvia; Pinelli, Marco; Turini, Lucia; Mariani, Maurizio; Taddeo, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    High prevalence of Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) of shoulder and wristle among supermarket cashiers have been reported by several studies. To evaluate CTD prevalence in a group of supermarket cashiers in Pisa area is the aim of this study. Standardized Questionnaire and clinical examination have been performed in 128 female supermarket cashiers. In subjects having Symptoms and Signs, Elettroneurography and Echography have been performed. 54 subjects had Paresthesias and performed elettroneurography: 44 (34,4%) had Median nerve impairment at the wrist and among them 37 cases were bilateral; 15 had Ulnar nerve impairment (11,7%), among them 8 were bilateral. Moreover we have performed the echographies in all the 25 subjects with a positive medical examination of the shoulder and they all (19,5% del totale) showed a rotator cuff tendinosis. 25 subjects with CTD (44,6%) showed a comorbidity. An index called BiCo considering both bilaterality and comorbility has been calculated. The percentage of CTD is much more elevated than in general population and many workers present comorbility and bilaterality: a strategy for primary prevention improving ergonomy and information is needed.

  9. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Dilger; Sabine Graschitz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. ...

  10. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...

  11. Shift work and hypertension: Prevalence and analysis of disease pathways in a German car manufacturing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlander, Johan; Keskin, Mekail-Cem; Stork, Joachim; Radon, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) may share a similar pathophysiology. Despite shift workers' CVD excess risk, studies on shift work and hypertension are inconclusive. Blood pressure and shift status for 25,343 autoworkers were obtained from medical check-ups and company registers. Cross-sectional associations modeling the total effect from shift work (day shifts, shift work without nights, rotating shift work with nights, and night shifts) on hypertension were assessed. By sequential adjustments, the influence of behavioral, psychosocial, and physiological factors on the total effect was examined, with subsequent mediation and moderation analyses. Adjusted for confounders, shift work without nights (vs. day shifts) was significantly associated with hypertension (OR 1.15, 95%CI 1.02-1.30). The total effect was mediated by BMI, physical inactivity, and sleep disorders. No moderation of the total effect by behaviors was found. The association between shift work and hypertension seems mainly attributable to behavioral mechanisms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Rotativity in supermarkets from the employees' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara de Fátima Teston

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The supermarket sector shows the importance for the economy and the development of several Brazilian regions. In this context, the objective of this study is to analyze the main causes of turnover in a supermarket chain located in the western area of Santa Catarina from the employees’ perspective. The instruments for data collection were primarily a documentary research with shutdown interviews, followed by a focus group and a semi-structured interview. The documentary research guided the focus group script elaboration, carried out with company employees, as well as the semi-structured interview guide conducted with the Human Resources network manager. Data analysis applied consists of triangulation from pre-established categories based on the researched literature and extracted from the field. Statistical software was used to aid analysis. The conclusion points out the main reasons that contribute to the Supermarket's network rotation; those are aspects related to well-being at work, fairness and equity, leadership, and relationship with co-workers. Based on this, suggestions for improvement are frame during this article.

  13. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dilger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. Although several measurements for earnings management like abnormal accruals or income smoothing exist, this paper is predominantly using the distribution of net income scaled by total assets (RoA respectively total sales (RoS as earnings management measure. These earnings management measures have been selected as they can measure the frequency of earnings management in reality and no estimates are necessary. Findings – In general, analyses show that the distribution in earnings management intervals differ from the total population. Most noteworthy is that by adoption of principle-based accounting standards (IFRS/US-GAAP, in case of this study no differences of earnings quality was observable. The other two variables yield in mixed results due to the robustness checks, which indeed questions the scaling variables for data-sets including the financial industries. Research limitations/implications – First, according to the chosen measurement parameter no distinct assertion concerning the reasons for execution or non-execution of earnings management can be deduced. Second, the method of earnings management's identification is not dividable and therefore real-, accounting-, legal- and illegal- earnings management cannot be identified. Third, the research results are just partially generalizable concerning representativity (e.g. other countries, non-market listed companies and taken for granted just for similar data-sets. Originality/value – Although prior

  14. The proportion of unhealthy foodstuffs children are exposed to at the checkout of convenience supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Jason A; Absalom, Katie Ar; Akiens, Evie M; Dunk, Robert J; Ferguson, Alice M

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the proportion of foods that are unhealthy to which children are exposed at the checkout of convenience supermarkets. We performed a cross-sectional survey of foodstuffs displayed at the checkout. Products displayed at or below children's eye-level were designated as healthy, unhealthy or unclassifiable using the Food Standards Agency's scoring criteria. Thirteen convenience supermarkets from the three leading UK supermarket chains were selected on the basis of proximity to the town hall in Sheffield, England. Convenience supermarkets were defined as branches of supermarket chains that were identified as being other than superstores on their company's store locator website. In almost all of the convenience supermarkets surveyed, the main healthy product on display was sugar-free chewing gum. On average, when chewing gum was not included as a foodstuff, 89% of the products on display at the checkouts of convenience supermarkets were unhealthy using the Food Standards Agency's criteria. One store was a notable outlier, providing only fruit and nuts at its checkout. The overwhelming majority of products to which children are exposed at the convenience supermarket checkout are unhealthy. This is despite all the supermarket chains surveyed having signed up to the UK Government's 'responsibility deal'.

  15. Global products or customization to different countries: Conceptual framework and application at Wahler, A german company Of the automotive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Conde Jussani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition in global markets demands product strategies that can help firms deal with the dilemma of global products versus customization, in serving the markets of different countries. Global products lead to large scales, automation, lower costs, plus the easy transfer of people and technology among many subsidiaries, as well as between corporate headquarters and the subsidiaries. However, the lack of customization makes it difficult to gain share in countless market segments, in many countries, and it may even stop a firm from entering in certain countries. This study outlines a model designed to facilitate this type of decision-making. First, based on the literature, a conceptual model was drawn up and the decision-related elements were grouped into seven factors that aid product customization decisions: 1. Market Positioning; 2. Customers’ strategic importance; 3. Product life-cycle development; 4. Legal requirements; 5. Physical environment; 6. Infrastructure and compatibility; and 7. Suppliers’ strategic importance. The case method was used, given the complex nature of the problem, which calls for an in-depth analysis. The model was tested on one of the products made a German company with a Brazilian subsidiary. The components of the valve and the technological trends were analyzed. The case study showed that the influencing factors are interrelated. It became clear that the technological component is directly related with the seven decision factors, and this aspect is analyzed in depth. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to validate the model, since the case method does not allow one to generalize the findings.

  16. Allegheny County Supermarkets & Convenience Stores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Location information for all Supermarkets and Convenience Stores in Allegheny County was produced using the Allegheny County Fee and Permit Data for 2016.

  17. The incumbent German power companies in a changing environment. A comparison of E.ON, RWE, EnBW and Vattenfall from 1998 to 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kungl, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the actions and strategies of Germany's leading energy companies - E.ON, RWE, EnBW and Vattenfall - in the light of a changing regulatory framework and other circumstances. The liberalization of the German electricity market, measures to promote renewable energies, market developments as well as exogenous shocks such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster and the fiscal crisis all had far-reaching consequences for these companies. A comparative analysis of these companies from 1998 to 2013 shows their development from thriving growth at the start of liberalization up to the current state of crisis. Conducted with a focus on the context of the Energiewende - Germany's commitment to shift towards sustainable energy production - this article contributes to the current debate on the sustainable transformation of energy supply. The theory of strategic action fields by Fligstein and McAdam serves as a theoretical framework.

  18. The incumbent German power companies in a changing environment. A comparison of E.ON, RWE, EnBW and Vattenfall from 1998 to 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kungl, Gregor

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the actions and strategies of Germany's leading energy companies - E.ON, RWE, EnBW and Vattenfall - in the light of a changing regulatory framework and other circumstances. The liberalization of the German electricity market, measures to promote renewable energies, market developments as well as exogenous shocks such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster and the fiscal crisis all had far-reaching consequences for these companies. A comparative analysis of these companies from 1998 to 2013 shows their development from thriving growth at the start of liberalization up to the current state of crisis. Conducted with a focus on the context of the Energiewende - Germany's commitment to shift towards sustainable energy production - this article contributes to the current debate on the sustainable transformation of energy supply. The theory of strategic action fields by Fligstein and McAdam serves as a theoretical framework.

  19. Performance of brazilian supermarket companies: a data envelopment analysis approach Desempeño organizacional en el sector de los supermercados brasileños: un analisis apoyado en el dea Desempenho organizacional no setor supermercadista brasileiro: uma análise apoiada em dea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Ferreira de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article applies Data Envelopment Analysis, DEA, to compare the relative performance of the 100 smallest supermarket companies from the list of the 300 largest in the sector. This is in consideration of relevance that has been given to DEA by academics. Results disclose that all single store companies have performance problems related to economies of scale while chain stores have problems more frequently related to poor technical efficiency. The ten largest supermarket companies have better performance, especially with regard to efficiency of scale, than the ten smallest supermarkets studied.El presente artículo pretende analizar el desempeño de las 100 empresas más pequeñas entre las 300 más grandes del sector de supermercados. En este contexto, se presenta como contribución una discusión del desempeño relativo por medio de la aplicación del Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA. Los resultados muestran, entre otras informaciones interesantes, que todos los supermercados con una sola tienda tienen sus problemas de rendimiento relacionados con la escala, mientras que aquellos con más de una tienda presentan más problemas relacionados con la eficiencia técnica. Se advierte que, en general, especialmente en lo que se refiere a la eficiencia de escala, los 10 supermercados más grandes tienen un rendimiento superior en comparación con los 10 más pequeños.Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o desempenho das 100 menores empresas supermercadistas dentre as 300 maiores do setor. Nesse contexto, apresenta-se como contribuição uma discussão do desempenho relativo por meio da aplicação da Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA. Os resultados mostram, entre outras informações interessantes, que todos os supermercados com uma loja única têm seus problemas de desempenho relacionados à escala, enquanto os que têm mais de uma loja apresentam problemas relacionados mais

  20. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    the Danfoss refrigeration test centre. The complexities of modelling demand response are demonstrated through simulation. Simulations are conducted by placing the identified model in a direct-control demand response architecture, with power reference tracking using model predictive control. The energylimited......This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from...... nature of demand response from refrigeration is identified as the key consideration when considering participation in the regulating power market. It is demonstrated that by restricting the operating regions of the supermarket refrigeration system, a simple relationship can be found between the available...

  1. CO2 burden and climatic risk. Strategies of action of the German electricity supply companies. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    According to indications of the working group for questions on the climate of the association of German electric utilities (VDEW), energy application of power generation contributes to the German CO 2 -emission with about 30%. A reduction of CO 2 -emissions in electro-economics can be achieved especially with a decrease of the application of fossil energy sources parallel to a better energy utilization (increase of the efficiency, enlargement of cogeneration) and through the expansion of power generation free from CO 2 (nuclear energy, renewable energy sources). (orig.) [de

  2. Current practice and perspectives in CRO oversight based on a survey performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Michael; Hundt, Ferdinand; Busta, Susanne; Mikus, Stefan; Sanden, Per-Holger; Sörgel, Andrea; Ruppert, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the number and scope of outsourced activities in the pharmaceutical industry have increased heavily. In addition, also the type of outsourcing has changed significantly in that time. This raises the question of whether and how sponsors retain the capability to select and to control the contract research organizations (CROs) involved and what expertise still has to be present in the development department as well as other relevant departments to ensure adequate oversight, also in line with the expectations of regulators and health authorities. In order to answer these questions, a survey was conducted among the German vfa member companies. The survey describes the latest developments and experiences in outsourcing by 18 German vfa member companies. It concentrates on measures how to implement Quality Assurance (QA) when performing outsourced clinical studies. This study shows that the majority of companies apply a full-outsourcing, preferred-provider model of clinical trial services, with the clinical research department playing the major role in this process. A large amount of guiding documents, processes and tools are used to ensure an adequate oversight of the services performed by the CRO(s). Finally the guiding principles for all oversight processes should be transparent communication, a clearly established expectation for quality, a precise definition of accountability and responsibility while avoiding silo mentality, and a comprehensive documentation of the oversight's evidence. For globally acting and outsourcing sponsors, oversight processes need to be aligned with regards to local and global perspectives. This survey shows that the current implementation of oversight processes in the participating companies covers all relevant areas to ensure highest quality and integrity of the data produced by the outsourced clinical trial.

  3. Current practice and perspectives in CRO oversight based on a survey performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number and scope of outsourced activities in the pharmaceutical industry have increased heavily. In addition, also the type of outsourcing has changed significantly in that time. This raises the question of whether and how sponsors retain the capability to select and to control the contract research organizations (CROs involved and what expertise still has to be present in the development department as well as other relevant departments to ensure adequate oversight, also in line with the expectations of regulators and health authorities. In order to answer these questions, a survey was conducted among the German vfa member companies. The survey describes the latest developments and experiences in outsourcing by 18 German vfa member companies. It concentrates on measures how to implement Quality Assurance (QA when performing outsourced clinical studies.This study shows that the majority of companies apply a full-outsourcing, preferred-provider model of clinical trial services, with the clinical research department playing the major role in this process. A large amount of guiding documents, processes and tools are used to ensure an adequate oversight of the services performed by the CRO(s.Finally the guiding principles for all oversight processes should be transparent communication, a clearly established expectation for quality, a precise definition of accountability and responsibility while avoiding silo mentality, and a comprehensive documentation of the oversight’s evidence. For globally acting and outsourcing sponsors, oversight processes need to be aligned with regards to local and global perspectives. This survey shows that the current implementation of oversight processes in the participating companies covers all relevant areas to ensure highest quality and integrity of the data produced by the outsourced clinical trial.

  4. Competitive Position of Dependent Passenger Car Maintenance Companies – Influences, Developments and Challenges in the German Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werdich Karl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper concerns itself with passenger car maintenance companies and their competitiveness. Internal and external influences, change drivers and general changes in the companies and their organisation were identified and analysed. The influence of the development of technology and the diffusion of innovations are highlighted in particular. Under consideration of the competitiveness factors, current and future challenges for the passenger car maintenance companies were worked out. Based on these analyses, future tasks, problem statements and challenges were compiled for passenger car maintenance companies from which other subjects of scientific investigation in area of strategic and economic importance arose.

  5. Successful diversification strategies of electricity companies: An explorative empirical study on the success of different diversification strategies of German electricity companies in the wake of the European market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Ralf; Steinert, Martin; Teufel, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Based on the EC directive 96/92, the liberalization of electricity markets is forcing electricity companies, to rethink their product and market strategy. However, neither the level of the initiated diversification efforts of former monopolies, nor their direction or their success are known or have been analyzed before. Therefore, Mueller [2006. Diversifikationsstrategien von Stromversorgungsunternehmen: Handlungsempfehlungen fuer schweizerische Stromversorgungsunternehmen auf der Basis einer empirischen Analyse des liberalisierten deutschen Strommarktes. IIMT University Press, Fribourg] has quantitatively determined the extent and direction of the diversification efforts in the electricity sector. Additionally, based on an exploratory case study research, successful diversification strategies have been identified and incorporated into 73 observations which form the basis of a set of normative recommendations for diversifying electricity companies. Since the analyses are based on the German electricity market, which fully liberalized earlier than most of its continental European counterparts, the results may especially guide other European electricity companies in their strategic diversification decisions. This paper publishes both the quantitative analysis on the degree and extents of diversification (sample time frame 1995-2000) as well as the qualitative analysis on the success of diversification strategies (sample time frame 1995-2003). Additionally, based on the obtained explorative observations, the diversification strategy of an idealized-electricity company is firstly presented for practitioners as normative recommendation, and secondly for academics, as starting point for future quantitative analysis framework. (author)

  6. Pengaruh Citra Supermarket Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Di Metro Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna, Soneta

    2010-01-01

    Consumer Loyalty as a measure of consumers' attachment to particular supermarket, has become an important notion in consumer behavior. The producers understand that better retain existing customers than new customers. Therefore, in order to build consumer affinity with the product, then developed the concept of brand community. A community based on shared commitment to a particular product, brand and consumer activities. Store image expected to be able to contribute in building consumer attit...

  7. Results of the scientific and humanitarian projects supported by the German electricity companies (VDEW e.V.) after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfob, H.; Heinemann, G.

    2000-01-01

    The German Electricity Companies, organized by VDEW e.V., tried to support in manifold ways the areas and people affected by the Chernobyl accident in their management of the situation. Apart from their prompting numerous help projects of the German public; we must mention three efforts especially: 1. the program for partnership in security matters initiated by the German nuclear power plants has been serving a quick and efficient support of the Eastern European plants since 1990- parallel to the efforts on a European level (strategic exchange of views of the experts concerned, consultation and training on the management level, optimization of training programs). 2: the project [Scientists Help Chernobyl Children] of the Joint Committee for Radiation Research (GAST), an union of the scientific societies working on radiation research in Germany under the chairmanship of Prof. Reiners (Essen/Wuerzburg) in cooperation with Prof. Streffer (Essen), Dr. Parezke (Munich), Dr. Heinemann (Hannover) and Dr. Pfob (Karlsruhe), aims to give humanitarian and scientific help for children ill with thyroid cancer in Belarus. Therapy and training, molecular biological examinations, dosimetry, and risk evaluation, as well as consultation and coordination in Minsk are parts of the project. 3: the project of the Radiation Cytogenetics Association (RCA) under the chairmanship of Prof. Bauchinger (GSF Muenchen) has been giving coordinated help with biological dosimetry to institutions and scientist in the states of the former USSR. Through retrospective biological dosimetry, especially the employment of the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization)-technology for the assessment of so-called stable translocations, both individual and population doses were analyzed. All three of these projects, even if to a different extent, have been leading to new and unique results up to the present day. Especially the GAST-project has been marked to a high extent by its humanitarian help for the

  8. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Category management (CM is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context, the aim of this research was to analyze the results of a CM initiative in small neighborhood supermarkets from a manufacturer perspective. Data for the study comes from a food manufacturer in Brazil that implemented a CM process with 180 small retailers. A quantitative analysis was conducted in order to analyze the effect of the program on the food manufacturer’s sales and market share. Our analysis suggests an overall positive effect of the program on both, sales and market share

  9. Biochemistry: from supermarket to laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    F. R. Freitas-Rego; M. G. Pereira; S. O. Loureiro; M. T. de Santana; R.G. Garrido; F. de S.R.G Garrido

    2007-01-01

    After new campi as Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde (IMS/UFBA) startedworking, it was necessary to develop practical classes using domestic reagents atBiochemistry to Pharmacy (IMS078). Firstly, students visited a supermarket to readnutritional information at label and select possible products to be used in class. Moreover,chemical processes and fermentation were discussed as different foods and drinks wereanalysed. Some food were token to laboratories so that biomole cules qualitative ana...

  10. Pricing strategies of the supermarket sector

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Joana Lobato da Fonseca Sáragga

    2014-01-01

    The food retail industry is a very competitive market. Supermarkets use a combination of price, quality of products and service to lure consumers and increase their profit. This work project draws upon both empirical and theoretical literatures to understand the different pricing strategies that the supermarket sector uses. Everyday Low Price, Promotional, Zone Pricing and Loyalty Programs are the most common pricing strategies in this industry. By using data from the Portuguese supermarket l...

  11. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  12. EVIDENCE FROM THE GERMAN CAPITAL MARKET REGARDING THE VALUE RELEVANCE OF CONSOLIDATED VERSUS PARENT COMPANY FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Victor - Octavian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial statements main objective is to give information on the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of the reporting entity, which is useful to investors and other users in making economic decisions. In order to be useful, financial information needs to be relevant to the decision-making process of users in general, and investors in particular. Hence, the following question arises logically which of the two sets best serves the information needs of investors (and other categories of users, respectively which of the two sets is more relevant for investors? Of course, the possibility of both sets at the same time best serving the information needs should not be ruled out. In our scientific endeavor we conducted an empirical association study on the problem of market value relevance of consolidated financial statements and of individual financial statements of the parent company, searching for an answer to the above question. In this sense, we analyze the absolute and relative market value relevance of consolidated accounting information of listed companies on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange (one of the largest three stock markets in the European Union between 2003 and 2008. Through this empirical study we intend to contribute to the relatively limited literature on this topic with a comparative time analysis of the absolute and incremental relevance of financial information supplied by the two categories of financial statements (group and individual. The results obtained indicate a statistically significant superiority of the relevance of consolidated statements (in detriment of individual ones. However, we could not statistically prove a superior value relevance of information provided together by consolidated and parent company financial statements as opposed to consolidated information. On the one hand, these results prove the importance (usefulness of consolidated financial statements especially for investors on

  13. Purchasing decision behaviour by Chinese supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study on the relative importance of supplier selection criteria as rated by seafood purchasers for Chinese supermarkets. A sample of 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu participated in the study. The purchasers rated product quality as the most...

  14. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...

  15. The innovation impact of the EU Emission Trading System. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the relative influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors and public acceptance) and firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size and vision). Empirically, our qualitative analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers and project developers in the German power sector which were conducted in 2008/09. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack of stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies significantly across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and organizational changes. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS on its own may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate innovation activities at a level which ensures political long-term targets can be achieved. (author)

  16. The innovation impact of EU emission trading. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development, and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the rela-tive influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors, public acceptance) as well as firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size, vision). Empirically, our analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers, and project developers in the German power sector which we conducted from June 2008 until June 2009. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack in stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies tremendously across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions, and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and corporate procedural change. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS by itself may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate climate innovation activities at a level adequate for reaching political long-term targets. Based on the study's findings, we derive a set of policy and research recommendations. (orig.)

  17. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-07-31

    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.

  18. ESO2 Optimization of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Madsen, Henrik; Heerup, Christian

    Supermarket refrigeration systems consists of a number of display cases, cooling cabinets and cold rooms connected to a central compressor pack. This configuration saves energy compared to placing a compressor at each cooling site. The classical control setup of a supermarket refrigeration system...... in the supermarket. The first approach to solve this problem is to design an overall control system which coordinates the compressor capacity and the current refrigeration load. The drawback of this approach is the complexity of the single controller. The solution is investigated in the first part of the report...

  19. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  20. Sustainability in the supermarket; Nachhaltigkeit im Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Robert

    2010-11-15

    The food retailing discovered the sustainable construction. The prototypes of energy-saving supermarkets already are established and partly certified or decorated with prices. However, it will take time until the concepts are recognized.

  1. Meltsiveski Konsumist saab korteritega supermarket / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Meltsiveski Konsumi kõrvale ehitatakse uus hoone, kus saab olema 30 korterit ja supermarket ning viimase katusel mängu- ja puhkeala. Juurdeehituse projekteeris arhitektuuribüroo Pluss arhitekt Indrek Allmann

  2. The relation between customer types in a real supermarket compared to a virtual supermarket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, J.V.; Brouwer, R.

    Virtual environments are becoming more popular for a variety of applications. One application we expect to see in the near future is virtual supermarkets. Although there is a lot of research in real supermarkets that gives us a better understanding of how people behave and what to expect of them as

  3. The use of sports references in marketing of food and beverage products in supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Liu, Peggy J; Roberto, Christina A; Sarda, Vishnu; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-04-01

    Food marketing has been identified as a significant driver of the childhood obesity epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to (i) conduct a content analysis of the types of sports references that appear on supermarket food and beverage products and (ii) assess each product's nutritional and marketing profile. This was a descriptive study. Every product featuring sports references on the packaging was purchased in two major supermarkets during 2010. A content analysis was conducted and nutritional evaluations were made based on the Nutrient Profile Model, a validated nutrition model. Marketing data were obtained from The Nielsen Company. Two major supermarkets in Connecticut, USA. Food and beverage products (n 102) were selected from two supermarkets. The 102 products (fifty-three foods and forty-nine beverages) had sports references as part of their packaging: 72·5 % featured a character exercising, 42·2 % were endorsed by a professional sports entity and 34·0 % were child-targeted. The median nutrition score for food products was 36 (1 = unhealthiest and 100 = healthiest; scores of ≥63 are considered healthy according to this model). More than two-thirds of beverages (69·4 %) were 100 % sugar-sweetened. Children saw significantly more commercials for these products than adults. Companies place sports figures on food and beverage products that are child-targeted and unhealthy.

  4. Supermarkets and unhealthy food marketing: An international comparison of the content of supermarket catalogues/circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Emma L; Kähkönen, Laila A; Sacks, Gary; Cameron, Adrian J

    2015-12-01

    Supermarket marketing activities have a major influence on consumer food purchases. This study aimed to assess and compare the contents of supermarket marketing circulars from a range of countries worldwide from an obesity prevention perspective. The contents of supermarket circulars from major supermarket chains in 12 non-random countries were collected and analysed over an eight week period from July to September 2014 (n=89 circulars with 12,563 food products). Circulars were largely English language and from countries representing most continents. Food products in 25 sub-categories were categorised as discretionary or non-discretionary (core) food or drinks based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The total number of products in each subcategory in the whole circular, and on front covers only, was calculated. Circulars from most countries advertised a high proportion of discretionary foods. The only exceptions were circulars from the Philippines (no discretionary foods) and India (11% discretionary food). Circulars from six countries advertised more discretionary foods than core foods. Front covers tended to include a much greater proportion of healthy products than the circulars overall. Supermarket circulars in most of the countries examined include a high percentage of discretionary foods, and therefore promote unhealthy eating behaviours that contribute to the global obesity epidemic. A clear opportunity exists for supermarket circulars to promote rather than undermine healthy eating behaviours of populations. Governments need to ensure that supermarket marketing is included as part of broader efforts to restrict unhealthy food marketing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Raw material monitoring assists companies. German Mineral Resources Agency at BGR provides information on global developments in resource markets; Rohstoffmonitoring hilft Unternehmen. Die Deutsche Rohstoffagentur in der BGR informiert ueber weltweite Entwicklungen auf den Rohstoffmaerkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-05-15

    Germany is dependent on imports for its metalliferous natural resources. Although prices have been declining significantly in recent months, numerous raw materials such as platinum, cobalt and rare earth elements continue to be exposed to price and supply risks. To ensure that German industry can respond better to this situation in their procurement activities, the German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at BGR has developed a raw material monitoring system on behalf of the German government. DERA experts have con figured a screening method for the early identification of possible procurement risks. This is the platform which enables German companies to gain the specific advice they require. All of the most important information on this issue is bundled within DERA 's internet portal (www.deutsche-rohstoffagentur.de). BGR also provides its expertise in other important fields with great societal relevance. BGR has been advising the national commission on ''Storage of High-level Radioactive Waste'' since 2014. Due to their comprehensive research activities in the field of radioactive waste disposal, BGR scientists are important technical experts to which the commission can turn to for geological information and advice.

  6. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  7. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Stafford, Julia; Pierce, Hannah; Daube, Mike

    2017-07-01

    In Australia, most alcohol is sold as packaged liquor from off-premises retailers, a market increasingly dominated by supermarket chains. Competition between retailers may encourage marketing approaches, for example, discounting, that evidence indicates contribute to alcohol-related harms. This research documented the nature and variety of promotional methods used by two major supermarket retailers to promote alcohol products in their supermarket catalogues. Weekly catalogues from the two largest Australian supermarket chains were reviewed for alcohol-related content over 12 months. Alcohol promotions were assessed for promotion type, product type, number of standard drinks, purchase price and price/standard drink. Each store catalogue included, on average, 13 alcohol promotions/week, with price-based promotions most common. Forty-five percent of promotions required the purchase of multiple alcohol items. Wine was the most frequently promoted product (44%), followed by beer (24%) and spirits (18%). Most (99%) wine cask (2-5 L container) promotions required multiple (two to three) casks to be purchased. The average number of standard drinks required to be purchased to participate in catalogue promotions was 31.7 (SD = 24.9; median = 23.1). The median price per standard drink was $1.49 (range $0.19-$9.81). Cask wines had the lowest cost per standard drink across all product types. Supermarket catalogues' emphasis on low prices/high volumes of alcohol reflects that retailers are taking advantage of limited restrictions on off-premise sales and promotion, which allow them to approach market competition in ways that may increase alcohol-related harms in consumers. Regulation of alcohol marketing should address retailer catalogue promotions. [Johnston R, Stafford J, Pierce H, Daube M. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:456-463]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  9. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the additional...

  10. Access to supermarkets and fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Cook, Andrea J; Jiao, Junfeng; Seguin, Rebecca A; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Hurvitz, Philip M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-05-01

    We examined whether supermarket choice, conceptualized as a proxy for underlying personal factors, would better predict access to supermarkets and fruit and vegetable consumption than mere physical proximity. The Seattle Obesity Study geocoded respondents' home addresses and locations of their primary supermarkets. Primary supermarkets were stratified into low, medium, and high cost according to the market basket cost of 100 foods. Data on fruit and vegetable consumption were obtained during telephone surveys. Linear regressions examined associations between physical proximity to primary supermarkets, supermarket choice, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Descriptive analyses examined whether supermarket choice outweighed physical proximity among lower-income and vulnerable groups. Only one third of the respondents shopped at their nearest supermarket for their primary food supply. Those who shopped at low-cost supermarkets were more likely to travel beyond their nearest supermarket. Fruit and vegetable consumption was not associated with physical distance but, with supermarket choice, after adjusting for covariates. Mere physical distance may not be the most salient variable to reflect access to supermarkets, particularly among those who shop by car. Studies on food environments need to focus beyond neighborhood geographic boundaries to capture actual food shopping behaviors.

  11. Access to Supermarkets and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrea J.; Jiao, Junfeng; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether supermarket choice, conceptualized as a proxy for underlying personal factors, would better predict access to supermarkets and fruit and vegetable consumption than mere physical proximity. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study geocoded respondents’ home addresses and locations of their primary supermarkets. Primary supermarkets were stratified into low, medium, and high cost according to the market basket cost of 100 foods. Data on fruit and vegetable consumption were obtained during telephone surveys. Linear regressions examined associations between physical proximity to primary supermarkets, supermarket choice, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Descriptive analyses examined whether supermarket choice outweighed physical proximity among lower-income and vulnerable groups. Results. Only one third of the respondents shopped at their nearest supermarket for their primary food supply. Those who shopped at low-cost supermarkets were more likely to travel beyond their nearest supermarket. Fruit and vegetable consumption was not associated with physical distance but, with supermarket choice, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions. Mere physical distance may not be the most salient variable to reflect access to supermarkets, particularly among those who shop by car. Studies on food environments need to focus beyond neighborhood geographic boundaries to capture actual food shopping behaviors. PMID:24625173

  12. Consumer perceptions of supermarket service quality: Scale development and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PF Venter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The retail industry remains one of the largest sectors in the global economy. In South Africa, retailing is one of the toughest and most competitive industries. The South African retail business environment is becoming increasingly hostile and unforgiving, with intense competition from both domestic and foreign companies (Terblanche, 1998: 1. The findings of this preliminary study do provide basic support for a three-factor structure for supermarket service quality in terms of reliability and validity. The reliability analysis, which followed the factor analysis, reflected coefficient α values ranging from 0.85 to 0.90, indicating high internal consistency among variables within each dimension. In today's saturated retail markets, retailersface increasing hurdles to attract and maintain customers.

  13. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Chaix

    Full Text Available Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics.Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008 were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC.Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education, and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC.A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  14. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Bean, Kathy; Daniel, Mark; Zenk, Shannon N; Kestens, Yan; Charreire, Hélène; Leal, Cinira; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Weber, Christiane; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Simon, Chantal; Merlo, Juan; Pannier, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008) were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location) where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education), and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  15. A comparison of the structure and organisation of the West German and the U. S. gas industries. Consequences for the status of gas utility companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirrheimer, M J; Teece, D J

    1989-03-01

    When comparing the West German gas industry to the United States one finds some striking differences in their structure and organisation. The German industry is small but growing, vertically integrated, efficient and scarcely regulated. The US-industry is big, hardly integrated and just recovering from years of frictions caused by successive waves of misguided regulations which were interrupted only by short periods of deregulation. Violation of contracts, price rises, price dumps, 'evasions', law suits are characteristic of today's American gas industry. The history of regulations in the U.S. gas industry is a nightmare other countries have fortunately been able to avoid. (orig.).

  16. German atomic low meeting 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    2005-01-01

    The conference report on the German atomic law meeting 2004 contains 14 contributions on the German atomic legislation within four parts: Damage precaution in the operational phase; Legal general requirements for the final disposal - considerations ''de lege lata'' and ''de lege ferenda''. Financing of the site searching by a statutory company (''Verbandsmodell''). Atomic supervision authority - federal executive administration or federal self administration?

  17. Energy saving by optimized controls for supermarket stores; Energie sparen mit optimierter Regeltechnik im Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelborn, Horst [Danfoss GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Danfoss has been delivering for 20 years the optimizing ADAP-KOOL(R) control system. It enables the store to save 30% of the yearly energy bill, compared to a store with electronic standard controls. Over years the stores took the cheap standard solution, but now several German supermarket chains decide to take the best for the investment and lifecycle cost. This article describes the main control circuits and shows the measurements of the energy consumption of two stores with standard and optimized controls. This control system is available for chemical and for the natural refrigerant R744. (orig.)

  18. Epiphanies at the Supermarket: An Interview with Brigitte Kronauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ittner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brigitte Kronauer has been called "the greatest German [female] fiction writer of our time" (Marcel Reich-Ranicki. Her stories, novels, and criticism have established her as a uniquely sophisticated literary voice and won her many literary prizes. Kronauer's trademarks are her laser-sharp vision, her luminous prose, and the intricate structures of her uncannily realistic literary universes. Finding the mystical in the mundane and exposing human foibles with subtle irony, Kronauer creates, in the words of one critic, epiphanies at the supermarket. Beneath its everyday surface her fiction deals with the eternal human questions of life, death, and love. At a still deeper level it circles around philosophical issues such as our futile attempts to find truth in our own constructs of reality. In her interview with Jutta Ittner the author reflects on her individual path to writing. She describes the role of literature in creating a semblance of order in a multifaceted reality, and she discusses the structure of her literary universes, her characters and their aspirations, and the importance of animals for man's quest for a meaningful life. Finally, Kronauer explains how she sees herself in terms of women's literature and indicates where her writing is headed.

  19. Supermarket Choice, Shopping Behavior, Socioeconomic Status, and Food Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Academics in the aisles: Establishing a university-supermarket partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy-Joe Milliron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the US is a serious public health problem. Supermarkets in the US are responding to the obesity epidemic by providing the unique asset of food, pharmacy and registered dietitians in one location to help grocery shoppers manage diseases and improve nutrition. Recent studies report that supermarket point-of-purchase interventions focusing on improving healthy food purchasing behaviours are feasible and potentially efficacious. We describe our experiences and lessons learned while developing a university-supermarket partnership and pilot testing a supermarket POP intervention (Healthstyles-Eat Smart© prior to its dissemination throughout the region. Barriers to and facilitators of developing university-supermarket partnerships and strategies to increase the feasibility of supermarket POP research are discussed. We conclude that strong university-supermarket partnerships are essential to conducting supermarket intervention research and are worth the time and effort it takes to build them. Keywords: Fruit and vegetable purchases, point-of-purchase intervention, supermarket partnership, shopping behaviour

  1. Quantitative analysis on the fluctuation of vegetable price in supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Suci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the variables affecting the determination of vegetable sale price in supermarket and investigate each amount considered into the formulation. We use the supermarket pricing strategies literatures, cost management theory, and any information obtained from suppliers and supermarket to investigate the variables influenced the sale price gap between supplier sale price and supermarket sale price. In order to obtain the supermarket sale price, it is required to understand the concept of costs. Supermarket as a merchandising firm has two components of costs called purchase costs and operating expenses which are computed to be Cost of Goods Sold (COGS. We found that supplier sale price is the purchase costs and plays has the main role in determining the supermarket sale price. The operating expenses considered is the holding cost. The vegetable characteristics and consumer behaviour have driven the contribution of amount of variables into the sale price at supermarket. Finally, we present the variables satisfying the vegetable sale price formulation and how they are calculated becoming the supermarket sale price.

  2. What foods are US supermarkets promoting? A content analysis of supermarket sales circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Yorkin, Meredith; Aljallad, Carena; Ciecierski, Caroline; Akhabue, Ivbaria; McKinley, Jessica; Hernandez, Katherine; Yablonsky, Courtney; Jackson, Rachel; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the types of foods advertised in supermarket newspaper circulars across geographic region (US Census regions: northeast [n=9], midwest [n=15], south [n=14], and west [n=13]), obesity-rate region (i.e., states with CDC adult obesity rates of advertisements on the first page of each circular were measured (±0.12-in.) to determine the proportion of space occupied and categorized according to food group. Overall, ≥ 50% of the front page of supermarket sales circulars was devoted to protein foods and grains; fruits, vegetables, and dairy, combined, were allocated only about 25% of the front page. The southern geographic region and the highest obesity-rate region both devoted significantly more advertising space to sweets, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages. The lowest obesity-rate region and western geographic region allocated the most space to fruits. Vegetables were allocated the least space in the western geographic region. Grains were the only food group represented in ads in proportions approximately equal to amounts depicted in the MyPlate icon. Protein foods exceeded and fruits, dairy, and vegetables fell below comparable MyPlate proportional areas. Findings suggest supermarket ads do not consistently emphasize foods that support healthy weight and MyPlate recommendations. More research is needed to determine how supermarket newspaper circulars can be used to promote healthy dietary patterns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SWOT ANALYSIS OF SAINSBURY’S SUPERMARKET

    OpenAIRE

    SHARAH FATRICIA, RAJA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sainsbury’s is the second largest supermarket chain in the UK after Tesco. However, Sainsbury’s has been losing market share to its competitors, the biggest grocery retailer, Tesco and ASDA, the US retailer, which has a market share of 17% now.  Hence, in order to increase its market share, Sainsbury’s made a new strategic step by joining Nectar Loyalty Program. The Nectar loyalty program is a crucial part of the strategy of Sainsbury’s. The retailer was convinced that a strong a...

  4. Developing GAP Training for Growers: Perspectives from Pennsylvania Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; LaBorde, Luke; Bagdonis, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Major supermarket chains increasingly are requiring their produce suppliers to provide evidence of compliance with on-farm food safety standards, known as Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). To develop a relevant GAP training curriculum that meets the needs of Pennsylvania growers, supermarkets that operate in the state were surveyed to determine…

  5. Effects of Information Technology on Reducing Perishable Waste in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipkulei, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Leaders within retail supermarkets struggle to manage perishable waste that has been at least partly attributed to shoppers' desire to buy fresh food; however, supermarket managers do not always exhaust the stock of fresh food as scheduled. Based on disruptive innovation theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore employee use of an…

  6. The use of corporate entrepreneurship by Gefeba Elektro GmbH : The case study of a German medium-sized company in the highly competitive process automation sector

    OpenAIRE

    Alami, Tarik; Montier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Corporate entrepreneurship has gained renewed interested in research since global markets are evolving and industries become more and more competitive. Information is transferred across the globe rapidly so that products and processes can be copied quickly. In order to be competitive, companies need to enhance creativity, their technological knowledge and market know-how. This high competitiveness leads to a dilemma where innovation is a key to survive whilst the size and administration may s...

  7. China as A Growing Strategic Market for German Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun

    2011-01-01

    @@ German Companies view China as a more strategically important market, despite their concerns over China's regulatory environment, according to a re-port from the German Chamber of Commerce in China.

  8. Do supermarkets contribute to the obesity pandemic in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimenju, Simon C; Rischke, Ramona; Klasen, Stephan; Qaim, Matin

    2015-12-01

    Many developing countries are undergoing a nutrition transition with rising rates of overweight and obesity. This nutrition transition coincides with a rapid expansion of supermarkets. The objective of the present research is to study whether supermarkets directly contribute to overweight and other changes in nutritional status. This research builds on cross-sectional observational data. Household- and individual-level data were collected in Kenya using a quasi-experimental survey design. Instrumental variable regressions were employed to analyse the impact of supermarket purchase on nutritional status. Causal chain models were estimated to examine pathways through which supermarkets affect nutrition. Small towns in Central Province of Kenya with and without supermarkets. A total of 615 adults and 216 children and adolescents. Controlling for other factors, buying in a supermarket is associated with a significantly higher BMI (P=0·018) and a higher probability of overweight (P=0·057) among adults. This effect is not observed for children and adolescents. Instead, buying in a supermarket seems to reduce child undernutrition measured by height-for-age Z-score (P=0·017). Impacts of supermarkets depend on many factors including people's initial nutritional status. For both adults and children, the nutrition effects occur through higher food energy consumption and changes in dietary composition. Supermarkets and their food sales strategies contribute to changing food consumption habits and nutritional outcomes. Yet the types of outcomes differ by age cohort and initial nutritional status. Simple conclusions on whether supermarkets are good or bad for nutrition and public health are not justified.

  9. Perancangan Dan Pembuatan Modul Data Mining Market Basket Analysis Pada Odoo Dengan Studi Kasus Supermarket X

    OpenAIRE

    Hendratha, Stefani Natalia; Yulia, Yulia; Budhi, Gregorius Satia

    2016-01-01

    Odoo Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system storing company's transaction data. However, Odoo doesn't have a module for managing data. It takes a module for managing data into useful information.Based on the above problems, a module for data mining Market Basket Analysis is being designed. This module uses FP-Growth algorithm by utilizing the sales transaction data.For the testing, this module using data from X Supermarket. The final result of this module is an association rule from data m...

  10. Pricing of Staple Foods at Supermarkets versus Small Food Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa J; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-08-15

    Prices affect food purchase decisions, particularly in lower-income communities, where access to a range of food retailers (including supermarkets) is limited. The aim of this study was to examine differences in staple food pricing between small urban food stores and the closest supermarkets, as well as whether pricing differentials varied based on proximity between small stores and larger retailers. In 2014, prices were measured for 15 staple foods during store visits in 140 smaller stores (corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN and their closest supermarket. Mixed models controlling for store type were used to estimate the average price differential between: (a) smaller stores and supermarkets; (b) isolated smaller stores (>1 mile to closest supermarket) and non-isolated smaller stores; and (c) isolated smaller stores inside versus outside USDA-identified food deserts. On average, all items except white bread were 10-54% more expensive in smaller stores than in supermarkets ( p Prices were generally not significantly different in isolated stores compared with non-isolated stores for most items. Among isolated stores, there were no price differences inside versus outside food deserts. We conclude that smaller food stores have higher prices for most staple foods compared to their closest supermarket, regardless of proximity. More research is needed to examine staple food prices in different retail spaces.

  11. Education moderates the association between supermarket environment and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Christina; Ntani, Georgia; Inskip, Hazel; Barker, Mary; Cummins, Steven; Cooper, Cyrus; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Supermarkets are a major source of food for many families. Knowledge of how educational attainment affects the relationship between the in-store environments of supermarkets and diet is needed. This study examined the relationship between maternal dietary quality and overall in-store supermarket environment, and assessed the effect modification of educational attainment. Methods Dietary quality z-scores were calculated for 829 mothers with young children using cross-sectional data collected in 2010-2011 from a 20-item food frequency questionnaire. Information about nine in-store factors (variety, price, quality, promotion, shelf placement, store placement, nutrition information, healthier alternatives and single fruit sale) on 12 foods known to discriminate between better and poorer dietary quality were collected from supermarkets and used to create a standardised ‘healthfulness’ z-score for each supermarket where mothers shopped. Results Multi-level unadjusted linear regression analysis completed in 2014-2015 showed that shopping at more healthful supermarkets was associated with better dietary quality (β=0.39 SD/SD; p=0.01; 95%CI: 0.10, 0.68). However, the relationship differed according to level of educational attainment (interaction p=0.006). Among mothers who left school at 16 years of age, those who shopped at less healthful supermarkets had poorer dietary quality (β=0.31 SD/SD; 95%CI: 0.07, 0.55). Among mothers with degrees, those who shopped at less healthful supermarkets had better dietary quality (β=-0.59 SD/SD; 95%CI: −1.19, 0.00). Conclusions Mothers with low educational attainment showed greater susceptibility to less healthful in-store environments than mothers with higher educational attainment who may be protected by greater psychological and financial resources. Policy initiatives to improve supermarket environments may be necessary to address dietary inequalities. PMID:27067035

  12. Antipsychotic prescription in children and adolescents: an analysis of data from a German statutory health insurance company from 2005 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Christian J; Lempp, Thomas; Glaeske, Gerd; Hoffmann, Falk

    2014-01-17

    Despite sparse documentation of their long-term therapeutic effects and side effects, antipsychotic drugs have come to be prescribed more frequently for children and adolescents in recent years, both in the USA and in Europe. No current data are available about antipsychotic prescriptions for this age group in Germany. Data from the largest statutory health insurance fund in Germany (BARMER GEK) were studied to identify antipsychotic prescriptions for children and adolescents (age 0-19 years) from 2005 to 2012 and analyze them with respect to age, sex, drug prescribed, prescribing medical specialty, and any observable secular trends. The percentage of children and adolescents receiving a prescription for an antipsychotic drug rose from 0.23% in 2005 to 0.32% in 2012. In particular, atypical antipsychotic drugs were prescribed more frequently over time (from 0.10% in 2005 to 0.24% in 2012). The rise in antipsychotic prescriptions was particularly marked among 10- to 14-year-olds (from 0.24% to 0.43%) and among 15- to 19-year-olds (from 0.34% to 0.54%). The prescribing physicians were mostly either child and adolescent psychiatrists or pediatricians; the most commonly prescribed drugs were risperidone and pipamperone. Risperidone was most commonly prescribed for patients with hyperkinetic disorders and conduct disorders. In Germany as in other industrialized countries, antipsychotic drugs have come to be prescribed more frequently for children and adolescents in ecent years. The German figures, while still lower than those from North America, are in the middle range of figures from European countries. The causes of the increase should be critically examined; if appropriate, the introduction of prescribing guidelines of a more restrictive nature could be considered.

  13. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany – results and a comparison of two surveys performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The objective of this project was to evaluate the quality and quantity of initial applications for a clinical trial according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP ordinance (German: GCP-Verordnung, GCP-V, the quality of evaluations of those applications by Ethics Committees (ECs/Investigational Review Boards (IRBs in Germany as well as the pattern of EC objections in their reasoned opinions (vote. In order to identify a change over time, the results of the present survey were also compared with a survey performed in 2008.Methods: Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective EC in charge of the coordinating principle investigator (coordinating EC in 2011, a written survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa was conducted in 2012. The answers to the questionnaire were analyzed descriptively. Since the data set collected in 2011 was structurally identical with the data set gained in 2007 both surveys were compared.Results: Of the 24 companies represented on the vfa Clinical Research/Quality Assurance Subcommittee, 75% (18 took part in the survey. Survey evaluation was based on a total of 251 applications of these 18 companies submitted to 43 ECs. These account for about 21% of 1,214 applications for authorization of commercial and non-commercial phase I–IV clinical trials submitted to the regulatory authorities (BfArM and PEI in 2011.In comparison to 2007, a lower amount of applications (n=251 in 2011 vs. n=288 in 2007 was submitted to a slightly higher number of ECs (43 in 2011 vs. 40 in 2007. The amount of objections increased by 21% from 1,299 (2007 to 1,574 (2011 resulting in an average of 4.5 (2007 vs. 6.3 (2011 objections per application. Overall, the analysis of both formal and content related objections revealed almost the same pattern as in the previous survey. In total, the most frequent objections applied to the patient information and consent

  14. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany--results and a comparison of two surveys performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Hagen; Busta, Susanne; Jost, Bertfried; Bethke, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the quality and quantity of initial applications for a clinical trial according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP) ordinance (German: GCP-Verordnung, GCP-V), the quality of evaluations of those applications by Ethics Committees (ECs)/Investigational Review Boards (IRBs) in Germany as well as the pattern of EC objections in their reasoned opinions (vote). In order to identify a change over time, the results of the present survey were also compared with a survey performed in 2008. Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective EC in charge of the coordinating principle investigator (coordinating EC) in 2011, a written survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa) was conducted in 2012. The answers to the questionnaire were analyzed descriptively. Since the data set collected in 2011 was structurally identical with the data set gained in 2007 both surveys were compared. Of the 24 companies represented on the vfa Clinical Research/Quality Assurance Subcommittee, 75% (18) took part in the survey. Survey evaluation was based on a total of 251 applications of these 18 companies submitted to 43 ECs. These account for about 21% of 1,214 applications for authorization of commercial and non-commercial phase I-IV clinical trials submitted to the regulatory authorities (BfArM and PEI) in 2011. In comparison to 2007, a lower amount of applications (n=251 in 2011 vs. n=288 in 2007) was submitted to a slightly higher number of ECs (43 in 2011 vs. 40 in 2007). The amount of objections increased by 21% from 1,299 (2007) to 1,574 (2011) resulting in an average of 4.5 (2007) vs. 6.3 (2011) objections per application. Overall, the analysis of both formal and content related objections revealed almost the same pattern as in the previous survey. In total, the most frequent objections applied to the patient information and consent form followed in descending order by trial

  15. Introduction of an "energy goodness" number for supermarket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Munter, Preben; Holm, Henning V.

    1999-01-01

    A test method for determining the efficiency of supermarket refrigeration systems has been developed. The test method is based on a combination of measurements of air temperatures and energy consumption on an actual system and calculations of the energy consumption for a reference refrigeration...... between the calculated energy consumption of the reference system and the measured energy consumption for the actual system. Four different Danish supermarkets have been tested using this method. The results show that supermarkets in Denmark can be expected to have “Goodness numbers” ranging from 0...

  16. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...... constrained behavior can be modeled and used by a defrost planner to optimally schedule defrost start times for several defrost cycles, according to electricity price. Because the defrost planning problem is a boolean programming problem a method of relaxing it is proposed. While the relaxed problem requires...... less computational effort, convexity is dependent on properties of the price signal. Simulation study show that the optimal planning strategy can reduce cost of defrost cycles with 31.7%, compared to a current strategy of executing all defrost cycles at the same time each day. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE...

  17. 'Passive fire protection in nuclear power plants' - German technologies of the company svt Brandschutz in future as well in Korean NPPs? -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, Joerg; Kim, Duill; Wendt, Ruediger

    2002-01-01

    Fires in NPPs are unfortunately not avoidable and to consider during the planning and operation period of the plants. The multitude of combustible materials which are used especially cables, oils and other building materials describe a potential source of danger. In Germany recently a new planning guideline for the fire protection field in NPPs has been adopted: the nuclear guideline KTA 1401. This document certainly is one of the most progressive guidelines for the fire protection field and has united · structural engineering elements of fire protection · electrotechnical and machine components · as well as questions of fire alarm and organisation measures. Passive and active fire protection measures are explained and layed down in their complexity within this document. Our group of companies has realised quit a lot of fire protection projects in Europe during the last years, especially within retrofitting measures for NPPs in Germany, Switzerland, Russia, the Ukraine and Lithuania, the Czech and Slovak Republic as well as within decommissioning projects of NPPs. We have carried out international fire protection projects of the EBRD, London, and within the framework of TACIS projects of the European Commission, i. a. linked with the working out of fire protection analyses for NPPs realised in close co-operation with the Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg. We especially have wide experiences in improving the fire protection of cable installations where a 100% separation of the different safety systems is not any longer possible

  18. Pester power: snackfoods displayed at supermarket checkouts in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Parkinson, Kristiina

    2006-08-01

    To establish the amount and accessibility of snack food displayed at supermarket checkouts located in Melbourne, Australia. Observational survey of 24 randomly selected supermarkets situated within a 20-kilometre radius of Melbourne's General Post Office. Individual checkouts within each store (n=257) were observed to determine the types of items that were displayed, how they were promoted, and whether they were within the reach of children. All supermarkets surveyed displayed food products at their checkouts, with most checkouts displaying chocolate (87%), gum (81%) and sweets (80%). Only 7% of checkouts had their display of foods or drinks out of the reach of children. Foods displayed at supermarket checkouts in Melbourne are predominantly energy-dense confectionery items. They are often promoted in a way that targets children and encourages parents to impulse buy for their children.

  19. Analysis of synchronization in a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Leth, John-Josef; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2014-01-01

    increases both the energy consumption and the wear of components. Besides this practical importance, from the theoretical point of view, synchronization, likewise stability, Zeno phenomenon, and chaos, is an interesting dynamical phenomenon. The study of synchronization in the supermarket refrigeration...

  20. Improving demand response potential of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    In a smart grid the load shifting capabilities of demand-side devices such as supermarkets are of high interest. In supermarkets this potential is represented by the ability to store energy in the thermal mass of refrigerated foodstuff. To harness the full load shifting potential we propose...... a method for estimating food temperature based on measurements of evaporator expansion valve opening degree. This method requires no additional hardware or system modeling. We demonstrate the estimation method on a real supermarket display case and the applicability of knowing food temperature is shown...... through tests on a full scale supermarket refrigeration system made available by Danfoss A/S. The conducted application test shows that feedback based on food temperature can increase the demand flexibility during a step by approx. 60 % the first 70 minutes and up to 100%over the first 150 minutes...

  1. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems. Country Report, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, K. G.

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because the great...... number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable...... conclusions as far energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusion justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system analyses...

  2. German Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

  3. German Orientalism

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Olin

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...

  4. Evaluasi Customer Relationship Management pada Supermarket Hero di Jakarta Timur

    OpenAIRE

    Liawatimena, S; Amanda, M. F; Handoko, Handoko; Hendry, Hendry

    2002-01-01

    The growing of many big retailer make Hero Supermarket must obtaining it’s existance in retail business. Therefore, Hero Supermarket must form CRM (Customer Relationship Management) in order to increase a new customer, increase profit and maintaining customer, and pay attention to valuable customer. Data analysis done by searching procentage from many questions and cartesius diagram. The conclusion, the highest suitable level there are 98,27%  of quality product and the lowest is the price of...

  5. Brand-Supermarket Demand for Breakfast Cereals and Retail Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Benaissa Chidmi; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2007-01-01

    The Berry, Levinsohn, and Pakes (1995) market equilibrium model is extended to the supermarket chain level to examine consumer choices and retail competition for thirty-seven brands of breakfast cereals in Boston. Estimated taste parameters for product characteristics vary significantly across consumers. Although consumers are price-sensitive with respect to their chosen cereals, they exhibit strong brand and supermarket loyalty. Retail markups increase and marginal costs decrease with grocer...

  6. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to ev...

  7. Education and the Relationship Between Supermarket Environment and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Christina; Ntani, Georgia; Inskip, Hazel; Barker, Mary; Cummins, Steven; Cooper, Cyrus; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Supermarkets are a major source of food for many families. Knowledge of how educational attainment affects the relationship between in-store environments of supermarkets and diet is needed. This study examined the relationship between maternal dietary quality and overall in-store supermarket environment, and assessed the effect modification of educational attainment. Dietary quality z-scores were calculated for 829 mothers with young children using cross-sectional data collected in 2010-2011 from a 20-item food frequency questionnaire. Information about nine in-store factors (variety, price, quality, promotion, shelf placement, store placement, nutrition information, healthier alternatives, and single fruit sale) on 12 foods known to discriminate between better and poorer dietary quality were collected to create a standardized "healthfulness" z-score for each supermarket where mothers shopped. Multilevel unadjusted linear regression analysis completed in 2014-2015 showed that shopping at more-healthful supermarkets was associated with better dietary quality (β=0.39 SD/SD, p=0.01, 95% CI=0.10, 0.68). However, the relationship differed according to educational attainment (interaction, p=0.006). Among mothers who left school at age 16 years, those who shopped at less healthful supermarkets had poorer dietary quality (β=0.31 SD/SD, 95% CI=0.07, 0.55). Among mothers with degrees, those who shopped at less healthful supermarkets had better dietary quality (β=-0.59 SD/SD, 95% CI=-1.19, 0.00). Mothers with low educational attainment show greater susceptibility to less healthful in-store environments than mothers with higher educational attainment who may be protected by greater psychological and financial resources. Policy initiatives to improve supermarket environments may be necessary to address dietary inequalities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie; Crawford, David A

    2013-05-14

    Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively.

  9. Cultural distance and entry mode choices of german companies from the automotive industry in Brazil Distância cultural e escolha do modo de entrada de empresas alemãs do setor automobilístico no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study has as objective to analyze the relation between the national culture distance between Brazil and Germany and the market entry mode chosen by this companies when penetrating the Brazilian automotive market. In order to develop the study, literature and academic articles have been consulted as a way to understand the multinationals and internationalization process, but mainly the relation between national culture distance and the choice of the market entry mode of companies willing to penetrate foreign markets, based on the research of Kogut and Singh (1988 and Brouthers and Brouthers (2001. The field study was developed in two main steps: the first one was an online survey designated to the 30 companies of the analyzed universe and two semi-structured interviews administrated to one German automaker and one auto parts company, aiming to go deeper into the information extracted from the questionnaire sent. The obtained results enabled the acknowledgment of a fundamental relation between the automakers presence in Brazil and the attraction of the auto parts companies to the Brazilian market, as well as the relation between the entrance of these companies and the economic cycle, in which Brazil was inserted at that moment. And finally confirm the relation between national culture distance, investment risk perception, and wholly-owned market entry mode choices.  Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de analisar a relação estabelecida pela distância da cultura nacional entre Brasil e Alemanha e o modo de entrada escolhido por empresas alemãs ao penetrarem o mercado brasileiro, tendo como objeto de análise as empresas pertencentes ao setor automobilístico. Para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho, foram utilizadas pesquisas bibliográficas visando a entender as multinacionais e o processo de internacionalização, e, principalmente, a relação entre cultura nacional e a escolha do modo de entrada de empresas em mercados externos a partir de

  10. Diet And Perceptions Change With Supermarket Introduction In A Food Desert, But Not Because Of Supermarket Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Hunter, Gerald P; Flórez, Karen R; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A; Sloan, Jennifer C; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L

    2015-11-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts--areas with limited access to healthy food--has been promoted as a way to reduce inequalities in access to healthy food, improve diet, and reduce the risk of obesity. However, previous studies provide scant evidence of such impacts. We surveyed households in two Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, neighborhoods in 2011 and 2014, one of which received a new supermarket in 2013. Comparing trends in the two neighborhoods, we obtained evidence of multiple positive impacts from new supermarket placement. In the new supermarket neighborhood we found net positive changes in overall dietary quality; average daily intakes of kilocalories and added sugars; and percentage of kilocalories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol. However, the only positive outcome in the recipient neighborhood specifically associated with regular use of the new supermarket was improved perceived access to healthy food. We did not observe differential improvement between the neighborhoods in fruit and vegetable intake, whole grain consumption, or body mass index. Incentivizing supermarkets to locate in food deserts is appropriate. However, efforts should proceed with caution, until the mechanisms by which the stores affect diet and their ability to influence weight status are better understood. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Correia Da Silva, L.

    2004-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows than UK and US firms.However, on a published profits basis, the pattern is reversed.Company law provisions and accounting policies account for these conflicting results.A partial adjustment model is used to estimate the implicit target

  12. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany: Experience of applicants with the review of requests for opinion of the Ethics Committees - results of a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ, Hagen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The review of requests for a positive opinion of the ethics committees (application procedure as a requirement to start a clinical trial in Germany has been completely redesigned with the transposition of EU Directive 2001/20/EC in the 12th Amendment of the German Medicines Act in August 2004. The experience of applicants (sponsors, legal representatives of sponsors in the EU and persons or organizations authorized by the sponsors to make the application, respectively in terms of interactions with the ethics committees in Germany has been positive overall, especially with respect to ethics committee adherence to the statutory timelines applicable for review of requests. However, inconsistencies between ethics committees exist in terms of the form and content of the requirements for application documents and their evaluation.With the objective of further improving both the quality of applications and the evaluation of those applications by ethics committees, a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA was conducted from January to April 2008. Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective ethics committee in charge of the coordinating principal investigator (coordinating ethics committee, the type and frequency of formal and content-related objections to applications according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP Regulation were systematically documented, and qualitative and quantitative analyses performed. 21 out of 44 members of the VFA participated in the survey. 288 applications for Phase I–IV studies submitted between January and December 2007 to 40 ethics committees were evaluated.This survey shows that about one in six applications is incomplete and has formal and/or content objections, respectively, especially those that pertain to documents demonstrating the qualification of the investigator and/or suitability of the facilities. These objections are attributable to

  13. Prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M; Welch, J; Turvey, J; Cannon, J; Clark, P; Szram, J; Cullinan, P

    2016-07-01

    Supermarket bakers are exposed not only to flour and alpha-amylase but also to other 'improver' enzymes, the nature of which is usually shrouded by commercial sensitivity. We aimed to determine the prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers. We examined the prevalence of sensitization to enzymes in 300 bakers, employed by one of two large supermarket bakeries, who had declared work-related respiratory symptoms during routine health surveillance. Sensitization was determined using radioallergosorbent assay to eight individual enzymes contained in the specific 'improver' mix used by each supermarket. The prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes ranged from 5% to 15%. Sensitization was far more likely if the baker was sensitized also to either flour or alpha-amylase. The prevalence of sensitization to an 'improver' enzyme did not appear to be related to the concentration of that enzyme in the mix. We report substantial rates of sensitization to enzymes other than alpha-amylase in UK supermarket bakers; in only a small proportion of bakers was there evidence of sensitization to 'improver mix' enzymes without sensitization to either alpha-amylase or flour. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigation, but our findings indicate that specific sensitization in symptomatic bakers may not be identified without consideration of a wide range of workplace antigens. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluasi Customer Relationship Management pada Supermarket Hero di Jakarta Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liawatimena

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing of many big retailer make Hero Supermarket must obtaining it’s existance in retail business. Therefore, Hero Supermarket must form CRM (Customer Relationship Management in order to increase a new customer, increase profit and maintaining customer, and pay attention to valuable customer. Data analysis done by searching procentage from many questions and cartesius diagram. The conclusion, the highest suitable level there are 98,27%  of quality product and the lowest is the price of merchandise, which is 45,35%. Some atribute are over the customers hope, that is good shopping place image, completeness, the comfortable and easyness in shopping, and safetyness. There are five most important atribut, that is the price, quality, completeness, the comfortable and easyness in shopping, and parking space. Those atribute will determine wether the customer of Hero Supermarket will be loyal or not.

  15. Salt content labelling of foods in supermarkets in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NÄRHINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which lightly salted food products are included in the assortments of Finnish supermarkets and prominently placed on shelves. The study was carried out in eastern Finland in four supermarkets of different food chains. Six food groups of importance for people's salt intake were considered. The food labels of 689 packaged food products were checked for salt and sodium information on the basis of Finnish regulations on salt. Products with reduced salt contents were found in most food groups but not among whole-meat or ready-to-eat foods. Half of the products with reduced amounts of salt were labelled "lightly salted". All four supermarkets had a similar assortment of lightly salted products. From the public health point of view, the food industry should increase the supply of lightly salted products, and make a special effort to develop lightly salted ready-to-eat foods.

  16. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  17. The German private company limited partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Article published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  18. MEPR versus EEPR valves in open supermarket refrigerated display cabinets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, A.; Bansal, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the comparative experimental field performance of mechanical evaporator pressure regulating valves (MEPR) and electronic evaporator pressure regulating valves (EEPR) under the identical operating conditions of supermarket open multi-deck refrigerated display cabinets. The main goal of the supermarket refrigeration system design is to keep the displayed product at the required constant temperature, while minimising the cooling load to increase the overall energy efficiency of the system. Field tests have shown that the electronic evaporator pressure valve has a significant effect on improving the cabinet temperature and reducing the rate of frost formation on the evaporator coils with subsequent improvements in the air curtain strength

  19. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality.

  20. Influence of information systems on stock management in little and middle sized supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Luis Pick

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a multiple case study in which was analyzed the influence of information systems usage on the stock management processes in medium and little-sized retailers. We assessed four supermarkets from the inner land of Rio Grande do Sul, with different status in information systems development. The performance in stock management was appraised with the aid of five numerical indicators, defined in focus group sections with experts, led by researcher. The main observed influences were: average inventory, stock cycle, percentage of shortages and GM-ROI. WE observed high negative correlations between these variables and the level of usage of information systems: the more the company uses it, the less the variables grew, what is a desirable behavior. We do not found influence of the information system on sales volumes.

  1. Finding Hidden Location Patterns of Two Competitive Supermarkets in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsri, Jinattaporn; Fujihara, Akihiro

    There are two famous supermarkets in Thailand: Big C and Lotus. They are the highest competitive supermarkets whose hold the most market share by lots of promotions and also gather all convenience services including banking, restaurant, and others. In recent years, they gradually expand their stores and they take a similar strategy to determine where to locate a store. It is important for them to consider store allocation to obtain new customers efficiently. To consider this, we gather geographical locations of these supermarkets from Twitter using Twitter API. We gathered tweets having these supermarket names and geotags for seven months. To extract hidden location patterns from gathered data, we introduce location motif which is a directed subgraph whose edges are linked to every pair of the shortest-distance opponent node. We investigate every possible configuration of location motif when they have a small number of nodes and find that the configuration increases exponentially. We also visualize location motifs generated from gathered data on the map of Thailand and count the frequency of observed location motifs. As a result, we find that even if the possible location motifs exponentially increase as the number of nodes grows, limited location motifs can be observed. Using location motif, we successfully find an evidence of biased store allocation in reality.

  2. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v...

  3. NANO supermarket : using speculative design to catalyze a technology debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensvoort, van K.M.; Vos, C.; Wouters, S.; Konrad, K.; Coenen, C.; Dijkstra, A.; Milburn, C.; Lente, van H.

    2013-01-01

    The NANO Supermarket is a mobile exhibition, which presents specula-tive, debate-provoking nanotechnology products that might arrive on the market within the next decades. The products function as scenarios for potential techno-logical futures that invite a broad audience to discuss the impact of

  4. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Lopata, A.L.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Bateman, E.D.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Robins, T.G.; Jeebhay, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of

  5. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Lopata, A.L.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Batemane, E.D.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Robins, T.G.; Jeebhay, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of

  6. Social modeling of food purchases at supermarkets in teenage girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Ample experimental research has demonstrated the impact of peer influence on food intake in adolescents and adults. However, none of these studies focused social modeling effects on food purchases in supermarkets. This study investigated whether the food purchase behavior of a confederate peer would

  7. Investment, awareness, supermarkets, and profits: heterogeneous chili farmers in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, H.H.; van Marrewijk, C.; Stringer, R.; Umberger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the distribution channels for food production in developing countries raises the demand for high quality products sold through supermarkets at higher prices. We model the willingness of farmers to invest in high quality production, taking the role of traders into consideration. We test

  8. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Supervisory Control in Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A modular modeling approach of supermarket refrigeration systems (SRS) which is appropriate for smart grid control purposes is presented in this paper. Modeling and identification are performed by just knowing the system configuration and measured data disregarding the physical details. So...

  9. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while...

  10. Vegetables procurement by Asian supermarkets: A transaction cost approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Boselie, D.M.; Hualiang, L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The paper seeks to understand the conditions that motivate Asian supermarkets' choices for vegetable sourcing through wholesale procurement or preferred supplier systems. Design/methodology/approach - Insights from transaction cost theory are used to analyze the evolution of fresh produce

  11. Vegetables procurement by Asian supermarkets: a transaction cost approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Boselie, D.M.; Lu Hualiang,

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The paper seeks to understand the conditions that motivate Asian supermarkets' choices for vegetable sourcing through wholesale procurement or preferred supplier systems. Design/methodology/approach - Insights from transaction cost theory are used to analyze the evolution of fresh produce

  12. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  13. Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh

    2012-01-01

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...

  14. The correlation between supermarket size and national obesity prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Waterlander, Wilma E; Svastisalee, Chalida M

    2014-01-01

    Supermarkets provide healthy and affordable food options while simultaneously heavily promoting energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and drinks. Store size may impact body weight via multiple mechanisms. Large stores encourage purchasing of more food in a single visit, and in larger packages. In addition they provide greater product choice (usually at lower prices) and allow greater exposure to foods of all types. These characteristics may promote purchasing and consumption. Our objective was to assess the relationship between supermarket size and obesity, which has rarely been assessed. Data on supermarket size (measured as total aisle length in metres) was from 170 stores in eight developed countries with Western-style diets. Data for national obesity prevalence was obtained from the UK National Obesity Observatory. We found a strong correlation between average store size and national obesity prevalence (r = 0.96). Explanations for the association between store size and national obesity prevalence may include larger and less frequent shopping trips and greater choice and exposure to foods in countries with larger stores. Large supermarkets may represent a food system that focuses on quantity ahead of quality and therefore may be an important and novel environmental indicator of a pattern of behaviour that encourages obesity.

  15. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, L.E.; Cameron, A.J.; McNaughton, S.A.; Waterlander, W.E.; Sodergren, M.; Svastisalee, C.; Blanchard, L.; Liese, A.D.; Battersby, S.; Carter, M.A.; Sheeshka, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.I.; Sherman, S.; Cowburn, G.; Foster, C.; Crawford, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets

  16. Fresh market to supermarket: nutrition transition insights from Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Bronwyn Alison; Dixon, Jane; Banwell, Cathy

    2010-06-01

    A preliminary investigation into different eating patterns among Thai consumers who shop at fresh markets as opposed to supermarkets in Chiang Mai. A short questionnaire adopted from a previous study was administered to the forty-four participants, who comprised supermarket users, fresh market users and people who consistently shopped at both supermarkets and fresh markets. Participants were recruited within four fresh markets and two food courts attached to supermarkets in Chiang Mai. Chiang Mai residents who agreed to participate in the study. Equal numbers were regular fresh market and supermarket users. Initial results suggest an association between shopping at supermarkets and attributing bread with culinary value. Supermarkets may be potentially significant players in the 'nutrition transition', providing Thais more convenient shopping at some cost to their healthy food choices.

  17. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2010-10-08

    Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single measure of supermarket accessibility

  18. Marketing foods to children and adolescents: licensed characters and other promotions on packaged foods in the supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-03-01

    To analyse cross-promotions targeted to children and adolescents on packaging in the supermarket. On three occasions from 2006 to 2008, researchers purchased all foods in a large supermarket that included a cross-promotion on the package. A total of 397 products were categorized by promotional partner, food category, targeted age group, promotion type, product nutrition, and company policies on marketing to children. The number of products with youth-oriented cross-promotions increased by 78 % during the period examined. Overall, 71 % of cross-promotions involved third-party licensed characters and 57 % appealed primarily to children under 12 years of age; however, the use of other forms of promotions increased from 5 % of the total in 2006 to 53 % in 2008, and promotions targeting pre-school and general audiences increased from 23 % to 54 % of the total. Only 18 % of products met accepted nutrition standards for foods sold to youth, and nutritional quality declined during the period examined. Food manufacturers with policies limiting marketing to children represented 65 % of all youth-oriented cross-promotions, their use of cross-promotions increased significantly, and the nutritional quality of their products did not improve. Some media companies did reduce the use of their properties on food promotions. Overall, the supermarket environment worsened due to an increase in cross-promotions targeted to children and adolescents and a decline in the nutritional quality of these products. This analysis failed to find improvements in food marketing to youth and highlights the need to expand current industry self-regulatory pledges.

  19. Teaching German-Americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolzmann, Don Heinrich

    1976-01-01

    A university course entitled "The German-Americans" attempted to study and evaluate German culture in the U. S. Lecture topics and term paper theses are listed and a selected annotated bibliography of German-American culture is included. (CHK)

  20. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  1. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  2. Conflict management in the supermarket sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar Salviano Freire da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case is to present a successful entrepreneurial and entrepreneurial history in which persistence, work and unity were key elements for success. The case study reports the boldness of a farmer and merchant who left the interior of a Brazilian state with the idea and willpower to win in the capital. In a general way, it addresses the stages that had to overcome, becoming a reference in the Brazilian market. Even though it has to go through successions, internal conflicts, crises in the country's economy, competition from national and multinational markets, changes in governments, the company continues to be a successful brand and a leader in retail direct sales. The methodology used for this case for teaching was Internet research, experiences with representatives, suppliers, former employees and local media. The management aspects presented in the case are: organizational culture, conflict management and leadership. Thus, this case study is recommended the disciplines: Organizational Culture, Strategic Planning and Leadership.

  3. When Supermarket Consumers Get Stocked in the Middle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2011-01-01

    , suggesting that consumers with a high-quality/low-price preference structure should be disconfirmed and thus dissatisfied. However, this study finds that – when patronising discount stores and upscale stores – consumers who attach high weight to quality and price are likely to become more satisfied than......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether consumer supermarket satisfaction is influenced by the mere composition of consumers' preference structure, as opposed to more widespread approaches where consumer satisfaction is regarded as the degree to which consumer expectations and....../or preferences are met. Design/methodology/approach – Survey data were collected from 130 consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to test the authors' proposed hypotheses. Findings – According to consumers, not many supermarkets offer high quality at low prices...

  4. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stoustrup

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while estimating the cold reservoir temperatures as well. The models developed for each module as well as for the overall integrated system are validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The results show that the model is able to estimate the actual electrical power consumption with a high fidelity. Moreover a simulation benchmark is introduced based on the produced model for demand-side management in smart grid. Finally, a potential application of the proposed benchmark in direct control of the power/energy consumption is presented by a simple simulation example.

  5. Organization of the German nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Corporate ownership within the German nuclear industry has evolved constantly during the last decade, and recent acquisitions and mergers, reunification of the country, as well as preparation for a unified European power market, have led to many significant changes during the past two years. The country's nuclear industry continues to struggle under an increasingly anti-nuclear political environment, yet nuclear power provided more than one-third of Germany's total electricity generation in 1991. As in many countries, particularly in western Europe, many German companies involved in different facets of the nuclear industry are interrelated. Usually as a means of horizontal or vertical integration, the country's nuclear utilities own, directly or indirectly, shares in uranium mining projects; conversion, enrichment, and fabrication companies; or other utilities' nuclear power plants. The utilities own partial interests in companies in supporting industries as well, including transportation firms, waste management companies, uranium broker/traders, and nuclear equipment manufacturers. While the majority of the companies owned are German, numerous investments are made in non-German firms also

  6. THE MODEL OF UNIVERSAL BANKING SUPERMARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Manolievna GORDITSA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the author's conceptual approach to the multiple scientific concepts of both traditional and universal banking service moreover it shows the level of transformation of the latter to the model of the finance supermarket – the top of the modern retail banking, a structure that was formed due to globalization of the finance-credit industry. The article analyses the category of “finance supermarket” and brings out a common idea considering the main features of the mentioned organization model of banking service. The main features include: 1. Complex banking service satisfying the customers` needs; 2. The Bundling of banking and financial products (services; 3. Product line extension, standardization and large scale character of sale; 4. Remote banking. Bundling of the products (services introduced in this model allows the maximal integration of the finance services, operations and products including banking, consulting, insurance, investment services at the same office. Analysis of the scientific literature shows that the organization structure of the servicing in a Ukrainian universal bank mostly associates the model of a finance supermarket. However, current restrictions of the Ukrainian legal system and the existence of the certain transition level, caused by gradual application of the innovations of both financial and technological origin (evolutionary-innovative development are not taken into account. Looking from this angle, the author describes a transition model – from a universal bank to a financial supermarket, a universal banking supermarket. The model`s distinctive feature is the application of the improved technological service, that induced the transformation of modern banking operations, services and products in Ukraine from simplest to complex.

  7. Consumption of salmon. A survey of supermarkets in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lingling

    2003-01-01

    To keep up with the recent trends in consumer demand for salmon product in supermarkets, an understanding of the relationship between consumption and variation of lifestyle is needed. The present paper seeks to address this question by hypothesizing that consumption is strongly influenced by consumers’ sociodemograhic status, experience of salmon, beliefs with salmon’s attributes and preference for the preferred type of salmon. Understanding the main lifestyle factors influe...

  8. One-stop shopping in Africa's minerals supermarket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spira, J.

    1980-01-01

    Johannesburg in South Africa is one of the minerals capitals of the world, providing a one-stop shopping supermarket for the most sought-after strategic minerals. Total annual mineral sales grew from R1563 million in 1970 to R6876 million in 1978. For 1979 the figure exceeded R9700 million. Production, trade and marketing of gold, coal, platinum, uranium, diamonds, iron ore, copper, antimony, mineral sands, asbestos and vanadium are shortly discussed

  9. Anti-synchronizing control for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers...... schemes of low complexity for desynchronizing the valve operations while improving performance. Simulation results indicate the potential increase in efficiency and reduction in wear comparing with traditional control schemes....

  10. Synchronization and Desynchronizing Control Schemes for Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus Thybo; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2007-01-01

    A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers to operate...... complexity for desynchronizing the valve operations while improving performance. Simulation results indicate the potential increase in efficiency and reduction in wear comparing with traditional control schemes....

  11. Healthy Checkout Lines: A Study in Urban Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Willingham, Craig; Brathwaite, Chantelle; Franklin, Sharraine

    2017-09-01

    To understand the impact of healthy checkouts in Bronx, New York City supermarkets. Consumer purchasing behavior was observed for 2 weeks in 2015. Three supermarkets in the South Bronx. A total of 2,131 adult shoppers (aged ≥18 years) who paid for their groceries at 1 of the selected study checkout lines. Two checkout lines were selected per store; 1 was converted to a healthy checkout and the other remained as it was (standard checkout). Data collectors observed consumer behavior at each line and recorded items purchased from checkout areas. Percentage of customers who purchase items from the checkout area; quantity and price of healthy and unhealthy items purchased from the healthy and standard checkout lines. Measures were analyzed by study condition using chi-square and t tests; significance was determined at α = .05. Only 4.0% of customers bought anything from the checkout area. A higher proportion of customers using the healthy vs standard checkout line bought healthy items (56.5% vs 20.5%; P < .001). When healthier products were available, the proportion of healthy purchases increased. Findings contribute to limited research on effectiveness of healthy checkouts in supermarkets. Similar interventions should expect an increase in healthy purchases from the checkout area, but limited overall impact. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Selective Cooperation in the Supermarket : Field Experimental Evidence for Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Eggert, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Numerous laboratory experiments suggest that mechanisms of indirect reciprocity might account for human cooperation. However, conclusive field data supporting the predictions of indirect reciprocity in everyday life situations is still scarce. Here, we attempt to compensate for this lack by examining the determinants of cooperative behavior in a German supermarket. Our methods were as follows: Confederates of the experimenter lined up at the checkout, apparently to buy a single item. As an act of cooperation, the waiting person in front (the potential helper) could allow the confederate to go ahead. By this means, the potential helper could take a cost (additional waiting time) by providing the confederate with a benefit (saved waiting time). We recorded the potential helpers' behavior and the number of items they purchased as a quantitative measure proportional to the confederate's benefit. Moreover, in a field experimental design, we varied the confederates' image by manipulating the item they purchased (beer vs. water). As predicted, the more waiting time they could save, the more likely the confederates were to receive cooperation. This relationship was moderated by the confederates' image. Cost-to-benefit ratios were required to be more favorable for beer-purchasing individuals to receive cooperation. Our results demonstrate that everyday human cooperation can be studied unobtrusively in the field and that cooperation among strangers is selective in a way that is consistent with current models of indirect reciprocity.

  13. Proposed Marketing Strategy for Y Supermarket to Increase Sales of Organic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Ezron Martin Vivaldi; Purwanegara, Mustika Sufiati

    2013-01-01

    Gap between people's attitudes and actions towards environmental sustainability was the problem faced by the Y Supermarket, where the organic products that sold are still less desirable by people in Bandung city. Based on internal and external analysis, there are some deficiencies owned by Y Supermarket in selling organic products. Y Supermarket in selling organic products do not know clearly who their target market. Based on a survey conducted, level of public awareness relatively low. Lack ...

  14. An exploratory study of older customers’ holistic supermarket shopping experience in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Song; Ranchhod, Ashokkumar

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated difficulties and challenges that older customersface in a supermarket environment in China, so as to understand the way inwhich the supermarket environment and service can improve oldercustomers’ shopping experience. An ethnographic user study, whichcombines video-based direct observations, in-depth interviews and acultural probe information gathering pack, has been employed to exploreChinese older customers’ supermarket shopping experience. 30 Chinesesenior citizen...

  15. German Grocery Discounters: Dynamics and Regional Impact. the Case of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grocery discount stores have long dominated developments in the German food retail sector, and they continue to grow. This paper discusses the reasons for this long-term success based on internal decision-making parameters such as price, adjustment of product range, choice of location, and size of new stores. The result is significant customer acceptance, but also adverse developments viewed critically in various governance constellations. The paper is based on expert interviews and a comprehensive collection of data on grocery discount stores and supermarkets in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein

  16. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Kathrin M; Klasen, Stephan; Nzuma, Jonathan M; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-01

    While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now. This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome. This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality. Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2) (Pobese (Pobesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people's food choices.

  17. Spatial Supermarket Redlining and Neighborhood Vulnerability: A Case Study of Hartford, Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengyao; Debarchana, Ghosh

    2016-02-01

    The disinclination of chain supermarkets to locate or pull out existing stores from impoverished neighborhoods is termed as "supermarket redlining". This paper attempts to map and understand the spatial effects of potential supermarket redlining on food vulnerability in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods of Hartford, Connecticut. Using a combination of statistical and spatial analysis functions, we first, built a Supermarket Redlining Index (SuRI) from five indicators such as sales volume, employee count, accepts food coupons from federally assisted programs, and size and population density of the service area to rank supermarkets in the order of their importance. Second, to understand the effect of redlining, a Supermarket Redlining Impact Model (SuRIM) was built with eleven indicators describing both the socioeconomic and food access vulnerabilities. The interaction of these vulnerabilities would identify the final outcome: neighborhoods where the impact of supermarket redlining would be critical. Results mapped critical areas in the inner-city of Hartford where if a nearby supermarket closes or relocates to a suburb with limited mitigation efforts to gill the grocery gap, a large number of minority, poor, and disadvantaged residents will experience difficulties to access healthy food leading to food insecurity or perhaps a food desert. We also suggest mitigation efforts to reduce the impact of large supermarket closures.

  18. The real thing: a profile of the coca cola company

    OpenAIRE

    Hartogh, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Competition In its core competency, the Coca-Company has only one serious competitor, the PepsiCo Company, maker of Pepsi-Cola. Current market share of the two companies in the United States stands at 43.7% for Coca-Cola against 31.6% for PepsiCo. British firm Cadbury Schweppes comes in third in the American market with its 7UP and Dr. Pepper brands but does not have a head to head cola competitor for Coca-Cola. Supermarket “private label” cola brands are a substitute beverage for the bi...

  19. Why do German retailers think and act as they do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    German consumers say one thing and do the other. They say they are willing to pay extra for fresh pork in order to get quality meat. But they act quite differently when they shop in the supermarket and the price becomes a decisive factor. At least that is what most German retail buyers of pork...... that the consumers want to buy pork at low prices only. A small group believes that selected segments are willing to pay more for better pork. The study indicates that retail chains to a large degree create their surroundings. The chains believe they offer the consumers good quality pork at competitive prices......, they use low prices in their marketing and are in many ways hereby encouraging the consumers to be price-minded. It can be discussed whether retail chains actually know enough about consumer behaviour to draw conclusions about what the consumers want and how much they are willing to pay for fresh pork...

  20. Maize synfuel for E. German market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-31

    Bijenkorf Starch Company (ZBB) in the Netherlands plans to produce 30 million litre/year of alcohol gasoline additive for the East German market. Start up is scheduled for 1983 with costs around $33 million. Production costs are estimated at 95 Dutch cents/litre.

  1. Association of supermarket characteristics with the body mass index of their shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Scott A; Gasevic, Danijela; Schuurman, Nadine

    2013-08-13

    Research on the built food environment and weight status has mostly focused on the presence/absence of food outlets while ignoring their internal features or where residents actually shop. We explored associations of distance travelled to supermarkets and supermarket characteristics with shoppers' body mass index (BMI). Shoppers (n=555) of five supermarkets situated in different income areas in the city were surveyed for food shopping habits, demographics, home postal code, height and weight. Associations of minimum distance to a supermarket (along road network, objectively measured using ArcGIS), its size, food variety and food basket price with shoppers' BMI were investigated. The 'food basket' was defined as the mixture of several food items commonly consumed by residents and available in all supermarkets. Supermarkets ranged in total floor space (7500-135,000 square feet) and had similar varieties of fruits, vegetables and cereals. The majority of participants shopped at the surveyed supermarket more than once per week (mean range 1.2 ± 0.8 to 2.3 ± 2.1 times per week across the five supermarkets, p supermarkets ranged from 23.7 ± 4.3 kg/m² to 27.1 ± 4.3 kg/m² (p supermarket they shopped at ranged from 0.96 (0.57, 2.31) km to 4.30 (2.83, 5.75) km (p supermarket, or other supermarket characteristics. After adjusting for age, sex, dissemination area median individual income and car ownership, BMI of individuals who shopped at Store 1 and Store 2, the supermarkets with lowest price of the 'food basket', was 3.66 kg/m² and 3.73 kg/m² higher compared to their counterparts who shopped at the supermarket where the 'food basket' price was highest (p supermarkets was inversely associated with BMI of their shoppers. Our results suggest that careful manipulation of food prices may be used as an intervention for decreasing BMI.

  2. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin M Demmler

    Full Text Available While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD, typically associated with high body mass index (BMI, is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now.This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG, blood pressure (BP, and the metabolic syndrome.This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality.Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2 (P<0.01 and an increased probability (+ 20 percentage points of being overweight or obese (P<0.01. Purchasing food in supermarkets also contributes to higher levels of FBG (+ 0.3 mmol/L (P<0.01 and a higher likelihood (+ 16 percentage points of suffering from pre-diabetes (P<0.01 and the metabolic syndrome (+ 7 percentage points (P<0.01. Effects on BP could not be observed.Supermarkets and their food sales strategies seem to have direct effects on people's health. In addition to increasing overweight and obesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people's food choices.

  3. Food and nutrient availability in New Zealand: an analysis of supermarket sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Sally; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Priest, Patricia

    2007-12-01

    To examine food and nutrient availability in New Zealand using supermarket sales data in conjunction with a brand-specific supermarket food composition database (SFD). The SFD was developed by selecting the top-selling supermarket food products and linking them to food composition data from a variety of sources, before merging with individualised sales data. Supermarket food and nutrient data were then compared with data from national nutrition and household budget/economic surveys. A supermarket in Wellington, New Zealand. Eight hundred and eighty-two customers (73% female; mean age 38 years) who shopped regularly at the participating supermarket store and for whom electronic sales data were available for the period February 2004-January 2005. Top-selling supermarket food products included full-fat milk, white bread, sugary soft drinks and butter. Key food sources of macronutrients were similar between the supermarket sales database and national nutrition surveys. For example, bread was the major source of energy and contributed 12-13% of energy in all three data sources. Proportional expenditure on fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, farm products and oils, and cereal products recorded in the Household Economic Survey and supermarket sales data were within 2% of each other. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to evaluate a number of important aspects of food and nutrient availability. Many of our findings were broadly comparable with national nutrition and food expenditure survey data, and supermarket sales have the advantage of being an objective, convenient, up-to-date and cost-effective measure of household food purchases.

  4. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of vegetable pricing in supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Suci

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the variables affecting the determination of the sale price of vegetable which is constant over time in a supermarket qualitatively and quantitavely. It focuses on the non-organic vegetable with a fixed selling price over time such as spinach, beet, and parsley. In qualitative analysis, the sale price determination is influenced by the vegetable characteristics: (1) vegetable segmentation (low to high daily consumed); (2) vegetable age (how long it can last related to freshness); which both characteristic relates to the inventory management and ultimately to the sale price in supermarket. While quantitatively, the vegetables are divided into two categories: the leaf vegetable group that the leaves are eaten as a vegetable with the aging product (a) = 0 and the shelf life (t) = 0, and the non-leafy vegetable group with the aging group (a) = a+1 and the shelf life (t) = t+1. The vegetable age (a) = 0 means they only last for one day when they are ordered then they have to terminate. Whereas a+1 is that they have a longer life for more than a day such as beet, white radish, and string beans. The shelf life refers to how long it will be placed in a shelf in supermarket in line with the vegetable age. According to the cost plus pricing method using full price costing approach, production costs, non-production costs, and markup are adjusted differently for each category. There is a holding cost added to the sale price of the non-leafy vegetable, yet it is assumed a 0 holding cost for the leafy vegetable category. The amount of expected margin of each category is correlated to the vegetable characteristics.

  5. Työmotivaatiotutkimus : Case K-supermarket Petonen

    OpenAIRE

    Föhr, Virpi

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää K-supermarket Petosen henkilökunnan työmotivaatio ja siihen vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Työmotivaatiotutkimus koostui seuraavista aihe-alueista: työmotivaatio, työn ominaisuudet, työilmapiiri/ työyhteisö, palkitseminen ja esimiestyö. Näitä aihe-alueita koskevien kysymysten pohjalta luotiin kokonaiskuva siitä, millainen henkilökunnan työmotivaatio oli tutkimus hetkellä ja miten nämä motivaatioon vaikuttavat asiat koetaan. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli myös se...

  6. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  7. Model Identification for Control of Display Units in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    in a supermarket refrigeration system. The grey-box modelling approach is adopted, using stochastic differential equations to define the dynamics of the model, combining prior knowledge of the physical system with data-driven modelling. Model identification is performed using the forward selection method...... model can contribute to the extension of the control capabilities of the entire supermarket refrigeration system....

  8. Supermarket Special Departments. [Student Manual] and Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Melissa Lynn; Summerall, Mary

    This document on food marketing for supermarket special departments contains both a student's manual and an answer book/teacher's guide. The student's manual contains the following 11 assignments: (1) supermarkets of today; (2) merchandising; (3) pharmacy and cosmetics department; (4) housewares and home hardware; (5) video/camera/electronics…

  9. Vegetable Supply Chains of Supermarkets in Sichuan, China and the Implications for Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Fu, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of supermarkets in the inland province of Sichuan in China over the past decade, with special attention to vegetable products. Both foreign and domestic supermarkets are expanding in the region with different store formats. Five types of vegetable

  10. Determinants of Food Label Use among Supermarket Shoppers: A Singaporean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lwin, May O.; Chao, Jiang; Au, Cyndy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examining factors influencing food label use among Singapore's supermarket shoppers using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A point-of-purchase survey among general shoppers in 2 supermarkets. Setting: Singapore, a country whose population is exposed to a wide range of food labeling formats because of the import-dependent nature…

  11. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Haskelberg, Hila; Wu, Jason H Y

    2015-08-21

    Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011-2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1) all products in 2013; (2) products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3) products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%-32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%-23%) lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001). For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%-3%) mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73). New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02). Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  12. Does shelf space management intervention have an effect on calorie turnover at supermarkets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-01-01

    . An experimental controlled trial has been conducted using 10 supermarkets in Denmark. The study looked specifically into the possible effect of shelf space management intervention at supermarkets. The study found a significant intervention effect for individual products targeted by the project. But overall, care...

  13. Smart Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Capturing and leveraging knowledge is an important new management trend that is as yet undefined. Some companies are accounting for their intellectual capital and applying it to the company balance sheets. (JOW)

  14. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...... fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratifying by levels of family social class. Results Examining supermarket exposure alone, children from low social class backgrounds had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.......43;CI: 1.06-1.93) intake, attending schools with low concentration of supermarkets. Children from low social class families attending schools with high fast food outlet and low supermarket concentration had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.79;CI: 0.99-3.21) and fruit (OR = 1.59; CI: 1...

  15. "But Pasta Is Pasta, It Is All the Same": The Language, Literacy and Numeracy Challenges of Supermarket Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastwell, Kim; Strauss, Pat; Kell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographically based study of entry level supermarket work. The study, carried out in a large suburban supermarket in Auckland, New Zealand, focused on the literacy and numeracy practices of supermarket assistants, all who had English as an additional language. It found that skills such as oral communication, personal…

  16. Globalisation and Its Impact on Competitiveness: the Case of the British and German Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Christel Lane; Jocelyn Probert

    2003-01-01

    This paper assesses the degree of financial and economic globalisation of British and German pharmaceutical companies during 1990 and 2001 and explores the changing balance between globalisation and national embeddedness. It tries to explain both the much lower degree of globalisation of German as compared to British companies in 1990, as well as their catching up at the beginning of the 21st century. The paper suggests that the lesser degree of globalisation of German firms during most of th...

  17. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The case of Montréal's missing food deserts: Evaluation of accessibility to food supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloutier Marie-Soleil

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to varied, healthy and inexpensive foods is an important public health concern that has been widely documented. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in identifying food deserts, that is, socially deprived areas within cities that have poor access to food retailers. In this paper we propose a methodology based on three measures of accessibility to supermarkets calculated using geographic information systems (GIS, and on exploratory multivariate statistical analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis, which we use to identify food deserts in Montréal. Results First, the use of three measures of accessibility to supermarkets is very helpful in identifying food deserts according to several dimensions: proximity (distance to the nearest supermarket, diversity (number of supermarkets within a distance of less than 1000 metres and variety in terms of food and prices (average distance to the three closest different chain-name supermarkets. Next, the cluster analysis applied to the three measures of accessibility to supermarkets and to a social deprivation index demonstrates that there are very few problematic food deserts in Montréal. In fact, census tracts classified as socially deprived and with low accessibility to supermarkets are, on average, 816 metres away from the nearest supermarket and within 1.34 kilometres of three different chain-name supermarkets. Conclusion We conclude that food deserts do not represent a major problem in Montréal. Since geographic accessibility to healthy food is not a major issue in Montréal, prevention efforts should be directed toward the understanding of other mechanisms leading to an unhealthy diet, rather than attempting to promote an even spatial distribution of supermarkets.

  19. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing.

  20. The Supermarket Model with Bounded Queue Lengths in Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Graham; Fairthorne, Marianne; Luczak, Malwina J.

    2018-04-01

    In the supermarket model, there are n queues, each with a single server. Customers arrive in a Poisson process with arrival rate λ n , where λ = λ (n) \\in (0,1) . Upon arrival, a customer selects d=d(n) servers uniformly at random, and joins the queue of a least-loaded server amongst those chosen. Service times are independent exponentially distributed random variables with mean 1. In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of the supermarket model in the regime where λ (n) = 1 - n^{-α } and d(n) = \\lfloor n^β \\rfloor , where α and β are fixed numbers in (0, 1]. For suitable pairs (α , β ) , our results imply that, in equilibrium, with probability tending to 1 as n → ∞, the proportion of queues with length equal to k = \\lceil α /β \\rceil is at least 1-2n^{-α + (k-1)β } , and there are no longer queues. We further show that the process is rapidly mixing when started in a good state, and give bounds on the speed of mixing for more general initial conditions.

  1. Investigation of Energy-Efficient Supermarket Display Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.

    2005-01-21

    Supermarkets represent one of the largest energy-intensive building groups in the commercial sector, consuming 2 to 3 million kWh/yr per store (ES-1). Over half of this energy use is for the refrigeration of food display cases and storage coolers. Display cases are used throughout a supermarket for the merchandising of perishable food products. The cases are maintained at air temperatures ranging from -10 to 35 F, depending upon the type of product stored. The operating characteristics and energy requirements of the refrigeration system are directly related to the refrigeration load. The sources of the display case refrigeration load consist of: (1) Moist and warm air infiltration through the open front of the case--air curtains are employed to inhibit this infiltration, but some ambient air is entrained, which adds a substantial portion to the refrigeration load. (2) Heat conduction through case panels and walls. (3) Thermal radiation from the ambient to the product and display case interior. (4) Internal thermal loads--the use of lights, evaporator fans, periodic defrosts, and antisweat heaters adds to the refrigeration load of the display case as well as directly consuming electric energy. The impact of each of these elements on the refrigeration load is very dependent upon case type (Figure ES-1). For example, air infiltration is the most significant portion of the refrigeration load for open, multi-deck cases, while radiation is the largest part of the load for tub-type cases. The door anti-sweat heaters represent a major share of the refrigeration load for frozen food door reach-in cases. Figure ES-2 shows the distribution of display cases in a typical supermarket (ES-2). Open, multi-deck, medium temperature display cases typically comprise about half of the refrigerated fixtures in a store (ES-3). In addition, medium temperature fixtures and storage coolers account for roughly 70 to 75 percent of the total store refrigeration load with open, multi-deck cases

  2. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  3. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  4. Using a 3D virtual supermarket to measure food purchase behavior: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Jiang, Yannan; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hendrika Margaretha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-04-28

    There is increasing recognition that supermarkets are an important environment for health-promoting interventions such as fiscal food policies or front-of-pack nutrition labeling. However, due to the complexities of undertaking such research in the real world, well-designed randomized controlled trials on these kinds of interventions are lacking. The Virtual Supermarket is a 3-dimensional computerized research environment designed to enable experimental studies in a supermarket setting without the complexity or costs normally associated with undertaking such research. The primary objective was to validate the Virtual Supermarket by comparing virtual and real-life food purchasing behavior. A secondary objective was to obtain participant feedback on perceived sense of "presence" (the subjective experience of being in one place or environment even if physically located in another) in the Virtual Supermarket. Eligible main household shoppers (New Zealand adults aged ≥18 years) were asked to conduct 3 shopping occasions in the Virtual Supermarket over 3 consecutive weeks, complete the validated Presence Questionnaire Items Stems, and collect their real supermarket grocery till receipts for that same period. Proportional expenditure (NZ$) and the proportion of products purchased over 18 major food groups were compared between the virtual and real supermarkets. Data were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. A total of 123 participants consented to take part in the study. In total, 69.9% (86/123) completed 1 shop in the Virtual Supermarket, 64.2% (79/123) completed 2 shops, 60.2% (74/123) completed 3 shops, and 48.8% (60/123) returned their real supermarket till receipts. The 4 food groups with the highest relative expenditures were the same for the virtual and real supermarkets: fresh fruit and vegetables (virtual estimate: 14.3%; real: 17.4%), bread and bakery (virtual: 10.0%; real: 8.2%), dairy (virtual: 19.1%; real: 12.6%), and meat and fish (virtual: 16

  5. Persian Records by the Lindström Company: Triangle of Political Relationships, Local Agents and Recording Company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The earliest engagement of German gramophone companies in recording Persian music dates back to 1906-7, when three tracks were recorded for the Beka Company and a dozen recordings were issued on the Globophon label. About twenty years later the Lindström company was engaged in the process of

  6. Control optimizations for heat recovery from CO2 refrigeration systems in supermarket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of supermarket energy control system model. • Heat recovery from CO 2 refrigeration system in supermarket space conditioning. • Effect of pressure controls of CO 2 refrigeration system on heat recovery potentials. • Control optimization of CO 2 refrigeration system for heat recovery in supermarket. - Abstract: A modern supermarket energy control system has a concurrent need for electricity, food refrigeration and space heating or cooling. Approximately 10% of this energy is for conventional gas-powered heating. In recent years, the use of CO 2 as a refrigerant in supermarket systems has received considerable attention due to its negligible contribution to direct greenhouse gas emissions and excellent thermophysical and heat transfer properties. CO 2 refrigeration systems also offer more compact component designs over a conventional HFC system and heat recovery potential from compressor discharge. In this paper, the heat recovery potential of an all-CO 2 cascade refrigeration system in a supermarket has been investigated using the supermarket simulation model “SuperSim” developed by the authors. It has been shown that at UK weather conditions, the heat recovery potential of CO 2 refrigeration systems can be increased by increasing the condenser/gas cooler pressure to the point where all the heat requirements are satisfied. However, the optimum level of heat recovery will vary during the year and the control system should be able to continuously optimize this level based on the relative cost of energy, i.e., gas and electricity

  7. Is a reduction in distance to nearest supermarket associated with BMI change among type 2 diabetes patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Laraia, Barbara A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Blanchard, Samuel D; Warton, E Margaret; Moffet, Howard H; Karter, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether residing within 2 miles of a new supermarket opening was longitudinally associated with a change in body mass index (BMI). We identified 12 new supermarkets that opened between 2009 and 2010 in 8 neighborhoods. Using the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry, we identified members with type 2 diabetes residing continuously in any of these neighborhoods 12 months prior to the first supermarket opening until 10 months following the opening of the last supermarket. Exposure was defined as a reduction (yes/no) in travel distance to the nearest supermarket as a result of a new supermarket opening. First difference regression models were used to estimate the impact of reduced supermarket distance on BMI, adjusting for longitudinal changes in patient and neighborhood characteristics. Among patients in the exposed group, new supermarket openings reduced travel distance to the nearest supermarket by 0.7 miles on average. However, reduced distance to nearest supermarket was not associated with BMI changes. Overall, we found no evidence that reduced supermarket distance was associated with reduced levels of obesity for residents with type 2 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-Markets in Ghana: Early Warning Signals and Preventive Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etornam Kosi Anku

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The source of conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-markets arise from the use of market power and economies of scale by one group against the other. This study explores the tensions that exist between modern retailers and their traditional counterparts as a result of the influx of supermarkets in Ghana. The main objective of the study is to compare attributes related to the control of access to consumers by the Supermarket and the Wet-market. In this study, the dot-survey approach of Rapid Market Assessment Technique was used to elicit information from 438 respondents at the Madina market (wet-market and Melcom (supermarket over a period of two weeks and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW comparison test and descriptive statistics were employed for the analysis. The results revealed that consumers patronise the supermarkets for convenience and the wet-market for freshness of product. Their purchasing decisions were affected by their level of education and product selections of the retailer. The highly educated preferred to shop at the Supermarket instead of the Wet-market; however, over 50% of respondents preferred the wet-market for fresh food products and the supermarket for non-food items. Each retailer receives its fair share of purchases from its loyal customers, therefore the revolution arising from the supermarket influx in Ghana has not yet resulted into conflict between supermarkets and their traditional counterparts, though it is inevitable if nothing is done to prevent it from happening. To avoid the conflict, it is recommended that policies should be instituted to (i improve the market infrastructures and shopping environment in the Wet-markets, (ii give tax concession to modern retailers who source products from local farmers and small-scale processors, (iii enable traditional retailers position themselves on the fringe and co-exist with modern retailers and (iv enforce public standards with regards to food safety laws in the traditional

  9. Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, U; Winkler, L L; Mikkelsen, B E; Bloch, P; Glümer, C

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effects of two interventions on consumer purchases of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the Danish island of Bornholm: a 20% discount on F&V combined with improved shelf-space allocation, and improved shelf-space allocation alone. A space management intervention to promote F&V sales was performed in two large discount supermarkets on Bornholm in Denmark for 3 months (September-November 2012). In addition, a 20% discount on F&V was introduced for 3 months in one of the supermarkets ('space + price'). The effect was evaluated using sales data from the two intervention supermarkets and three control supermarkets from the same supermarket chain but in Odsherred, Denmark (control area). Both the effect on sales of fresh F&V and potential unhealthy substitution effects were evaluated using multi-level regression analyses. During the price intervention period, the index number for sales of fresh vegetables increased by 22.2% (P=0.001) in the 'space + price' intervention supermarket compared with the control supermarkets. Furthermore, the index number for the sale of organic fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 12.1% (P=0.04) and the sale of the total amount of fruit and vegetables (fresh, frozen, dried and canned) increased by 15.3% (P=0.01) compared with the control supermarkets. In the 'space only' intervention supermarket no significant increase in the sale of fruit and vegetables was found. No unhealthy substitution effects were found. In conclusion, a 20% price reduction on F&V significantly increased sales of F&V. The effect was most pronounced on vegetables and no negative/unhealthy substitution effects were found.

  10. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Stephan; Nzuma, Jonathan M.; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-01

    Background While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people’s health have not been analyzed up till now. Objective This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people’s BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome. Design This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality. Results Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2) (Psupermarkets also contributes to higher levels of FBG (+ 0.3 mmol/L) (PSupermarkets and their food sales strategies seem to have direct effects on people’s health. In addition to increasing overweight and obesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people’s food choices. PMID:28934333

  11. The Moderating Influence of Supermarket Satisfaction on Out-of-Stock Store Switching Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    . Based on a survey of 631 grocery consumers, this study investigates the moderating influence of preferred supermarket satisfaction on relations between quality consciousness, price consciousness, pre-planning propensity and out-of-stock store switching, and also examines the direct influence...... of these variables on out-of-stock store switching. The results indicate that whereas preferred supermarket satisfaction negatively moderates the relation between quality consciousness and out-of-stock store switching, preferred supermarket satisfaction positively moderates the relation between price consciousness...

  12. Introduction to the RFID Technology in the Application of the Smart Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Binbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RFID technology is no stranger to more or less have contacted various of industries in nowadays. Premier wen Jiabao put forward the “experience China” in 2009, after the application of IOT (Internet of things is rocketed development and RFID technology is absolutely necessary as the core of IOT. On the experiment background of campus supermarket, this paper briefly introduces the application of RFID technology in the intelligent supermarket that mainly included four parts. Through analysis of system, it detailed interpretation that IOT bring changes to campus supermarket.

  13. Side scanner for supermarkets: a new scanner design standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Charles K.; Cheng, J. K.

    1996-09-01

    High speed UPC bar code has become a standard mode of data capture for supermarkets in the US, Europe, and Japan. The influence of the ergonomics community on the design of the scanner is evident. During the past decade the ergonomic issues of cashier in check-outs has led to occupational hand-wrist cumulative trauma disorders, in most cases causing carpal tunnel syndrome, a permanent hand injury. In this paper, the design of a side scanner to resolve the issues is discussed. The complex optical module and the sensor for aforesaid side scanner is described. The ergonomic advantages offer the old counter mounted vertical scanner has been experimentally proved by the industrial funded study at an independent university.

  14. Integration of energy efficient technologies in UK supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochieng, E.G.; Jones, N.; Price, A.D.F.; Ruan, X.; Egbu, C.O; Zuofa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to determine if the integration of energy efficient technologies in UK supermarkets can determine consumer behaviour, and to establish if such activities can help satisfying the environmental elements of the clients corporate social responsibilities (CSR) in an attempt to create a competitive advantage. A literature review of existing material considered the history and drivers of sustainability, the types of energy efficient technologies and factors concerning CSR and consumer behaviour in relation to the supermarket industry. Interviews with 15 senior store managers were recorded and transcribed. The opinions of the senior store managers were then sought and analysed using qualitative research software NVivo software. Validity of the data was achieved at a later stage through workshops. The results of this paper suggested that there is a definite lack of awareness and knowledge amongst customers regarding energy efficient technologies. From the findings, it was further established that the key driver for retailers who integrate energy efficient technologies is fiscal incentives, although it was suggested some retailers use CSR strategies to report there are environmental achievements it was ultimately found that cost savings were the primary driver. - Highlights: • The effect of sustainability towards consumer behaviour was explored. • Majority of consumers are unaware of energy efficient technologies. • Energy efficient technologies do not determine or create shifts in paradigm in consumer actions. • Stores are driven to integrate energy efficient technologies more by government legislation. • Participants were clear in making the point that their image and reputation was based on trust

  15. Assessing the success of the German Eco-label. Examination of the effectiveness of the label from the viewpoint of companies using the label and chosen experts; Erfolgskontrolle Umweltzeichen. Ueberpruefung der Wirksamkeit aus Sicht der zeichennutzenden Unternehmen und ausgewaehlter Experten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haessler, R D; Mahlmann, I; Schoenheit, I

    1998-10-01

    In the forefront of this examination, in which different heuristic methods were used - i.e. interviews, telephone and written surveys - and in the sense of an examination of success, are the previous experiences of the users and interested groups of the German eco-label. This deals individually with, among other things, the preceived environment-related and economic meaning of the eco-label, the reason for using the label, the experiences of using the label or the relationship of the label to other eco-labels and environmental advertising statements, as well as the critical recognition and objections to the `Blue Angel`. Alongside the analysis of all the up-to-date practical knowledge, possibilities for the improvement and development of the `Blue Angel` should also be derived. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Vordergrund der Untersuchung stehen im Sinne einer Erfolgskontrolle die bisherigen Erfahrungen der Nutzer und der interessierten Kreise mit dem Umweltzeichen `Blauer Engel`. Dabei geht es im einzelnen u.a. um die wahrgenommene umweltbezogene und oekonomische Bedeutung des `Blauen Engel`, die Gruende fuer die Nutzung des Umweltzeichens, die Erfahrungen mit der Nutzung oder das Verhaeltnis zu anderen Umweltzeichen und Umwelt-Werbeaussagen, aber auch um kritische Anmerkungen und Einwaende gegenueber dem Umweltzeichen `Blauer Engel`. Neben der Analyse der bisherigen Erfahrungen sollen auch Vorschlaege fuer die Verbesserung und zukuenftige Fortentwicklung des `Blauen Engel` abgeleitet werden. (orig.)

  16. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  17. Children's exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets: An objective analysis using GPS technology and wearable cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T; Pearson, A L; Stanley, J; Smith, M; Barr, M; Ni Mhurchu, C; Signal, L

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing within alcohol retailers has been associated with higher rates of childhood drinking, brand recognition, and marketing recall. This study aimed to objectively measure children's everyday exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets. Children aged 11-13 (n = 167) each wore a wearable camera and GPS device for four consecutive days. Micro-spatial analyses were used to examine exposures within supermarkets. In alcohol retailing supermarkets (n = 30), children encountered alcohol marketing on 85% of their visits (n = 78). Alcohol marketing was frequently near everyday goods (bread and milk) or entrance/exit. Alcohol sales in supermarkets should be banned in order to protect children from alcohol marketing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between diet and perceived and objective access to supermarkets among low-income housing residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S.V.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-01-01

    In the U.S., supermarkets serve as an important source of year-round produce (Chung & Myers, 1999), and yet access to supermarkets may be scarce in “food deserts,” or poor, urban areas that lack sources of healthy, affordable food (Cummins & Macintyre, 2002). This study examined objective distance to the nearest supermarket and participant-report of supermarket access in relation to fruit and vegetable intake. Street-network distance to the closest supermarket was calculated using GIS mapping. Perceived access was assessed by a survey question asking whether participants had a supermarket within walking distance of home. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 828 low-income housing residents in three urban areas in greater-Boston. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the association between perceived and objective supermarket access and diet. Fruit and vegetable consumption was low (2.63 servings/day). Results suggest that most low-income housing residents in greater-Boston do not live in “food deserts,” as the average distance to a supermarket was 0.76 km (range 0.13–1.22 km). Distance to a supermarket was not associated with fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.22). Perceived supermarket access was strongly associated with increased fruit and vegetable intake (0.5 servings/day) after controlling for socio-demographic covariates (p supermarket within walking distance from home despite the objective presence of a supermarket within 1 km consumed significantly fewer fruits and vegetables (0.56 servings/day) than those with a supermarket who reported one, even after controlling for socio-demographic variables (p = 0.0008). Perceived measures of the food environment may be more strongly related to dietary behaviors than objective ones, and may incorporate components of food access not captured in objective measures. PMID:22727742

  19. Changes in Diet after Introduction of a Full Service Supermarket in a Food Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A.; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Hunter, Gerald P.; Flórez, Karen R.; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A.; Sloan, Jennifer C.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts (areas with limited access to healthy foods) has been proposed as an important policy strategy to confront inequalities in healthy food access. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we enrolled n=1,372 randomly selected households from two comparable neighborhoods, one of which received a full-service supermarket in 2013. We looked at the impact on residents’ diet, perceived access to healthy foods and satisfaction with one’s neighborhood as a...

  20. Small Farmers and Big Retail: trade-offs of supplying supermarkets in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Michelson, Hope; Reardon, Thomas; Perez, Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    In Nicaragua and elsewhere in Central America, small-scale farmers are weighing the risks of entering into contracts with supermarket chains. We use unique data on negotiated prices from Nicaraguan farm cooperatives supplying supermarkets to study the impact of supply agreements on producers’ mean output prices and price stability. We find that prices paid by the domestic retail chain approximate the traditional market in mean and variance. In contrast, we find that mean prices paid by Wal-ma...

  1. Psychological interventional approach for reduce resource consumption : Reducing plastic bag usage at supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtomo, Shoji; OHNUMA, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the reduction of plastic bag usage at supermarkets. Many behaviors leading to potential damage to the environment may be unintentional. This study applied a dual motivation model to plastic bag usage and examined the effects of an intervention aimed at promoting pro-environmental behavior. A voice prompt intervention was implemented in Japanese supermarkets. In the first (control) week, shoppers were given free plastic bags by the cashier. In the sec...

  2. Not always sunny in paradise: prices and brand diversity in touristic areas supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Javier (Campos Méndez); Jiménez González, Juan Luis; Suárez-Alemán, Ancor

    2012-01-01

    Using a dataset from consumption patterns in the island of Gran Canaria collected by the authors, this paper attempts to quantify some non-positive effects of tourism on local destination retail markets for goods and services. In particular, we empirically prove, controlling by factors such as population, size of supermarkets or number of competitors, two main effects: first, that supermarkets located in touristic areas charge higher prices than those in non-touristic areas; and second, that ...

  3. Association Between Neighborhood Supermarket Presence and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Laraia, Barbara A; Warton, E Margaret; Blanchard, Samuel D; Moffet, Howard H; Downing, Janelle; Karter, Andrew J

    2017-06-15

    We estimated associations between neighborhood supermarket gain or loss and glycemic control (assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values) in patients from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry (n = 434,806 person-years; 2007-2010). Annual clinical measures were linked to metrics from a geographic information system for each patient's address of longest residence. We estimated the association between change in supermarket presence (gain, loss, or no change) and change in HbA1c value, adjusting for individual- and area-level attributes and according to baseline glycemic control (near normal, Supermarket loss was associated with worse HbA1c trajectories for those with good, moderate, and poor glycemic control at baseline, while supermarket gain was associated with marginally better HbA1c outcomes only among patients with near normal HbA1c values at baseline. Patients with the poorest baseline HbA1c values (≥9.0%) had the worst associated changes in glycemic control following either supermarket loss or gain. Differences were not clinically meaningful relative to no change in supermarket presence. For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, gaining neighborhood supermarket presence did not benefit glycemic control in a substantive way. The significance of supermarket changes on health depends on a complex interaction of resident, neighborhood, and store characteristics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioecono...

  5. Investigations of Heat Recovery in Different Refrigeration System Solutions in Supermarkets. Effsys2 project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawalha, Same; Chen, Yang

    2010-07-01

    Supermarkets are intensive energy consumers with constantly increasing number of installations. About 50 % of the energy consumption in the supermarket is absorbed by the refrigeration system to cover the cooling demands. Simultaneously, heating is needed in the supermarket where the rejected heat from the refrigeration system is usually higher than the needs. It is an interesting possibility to utilize the rejected heat from the refrigeration system to cover the heating needs in supermarkets. The objective of this project is to investigate the heat recovery performance of the new refrigeration system solutions in supermarket applications. The focus is on environmentally friendly systems with natural working fluids, mainly CO{sub 2} trans-critical systems. The project analyzes the temperature levels and capacities of rejected heat from different system solutions and investigates its matching with the heating needs in supermarkets. Using simulation tools this project also aims at defining the system solution/s which has good energy efficiency for simultaneous cooling and heat recovery.

  6. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  7. [Sample German LAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  8. German power options: Lack of clarity will be costly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The German environment minister Norbert Roettgen (CDU) revived the German debate about the future of nuclear power in February when he argued for a limited lifetime extension of Germany's nuclear plants. His statements created much dissent in his own party and with the coalition partner FDP. The government will not take a formal decision before the autumn, but the contradicting messages from inside the government send highly ambiguous signals to electricity utilities with investment plans in Germany. What does the German government want the companies to do?

  9. Proximity to Fast-Food Outlets and Supermarkets as Predictors of Fast-Food Dining Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Jessica K; Duncan, Dustin T; Elbel, Brian

    2016-08-01

    This study used cross-sectional data to test the independent relationship of proximity to chain fast-food outlets and proximity to full-service supermarkets on the frequency of mealtime dining at fast-food outlets in two major urban areas, using three approaches to define access. Interactions between presence of a supermarket and presence of fast-food outlets as predictors of fast-food dining were also tested. Residential intersections for respondents in point-of-purchase and random-digit-dial telephone surveys of adults in Philadelphia, PA, and Baltimore, MD, were geocoded. The count of fast-food outlets and supermarkets within quarter-mile, half-mile, and 1-mile street network buffers around each respondent's intersection was calculated, as well as distance to the nearest fast-food outlet and supermarket. These variables were regressed on weekly fast-food dining frequency to determine whether proximity to fast food and supermarkets had independent and joint effects on fast-food dining. The effect of access to supermarkets and chain fast-food outlets varied by study population. Among telephone survey respondents, supermarket access was the only significant predictor of fast-food dining frequency. Point-of-purchase respondents were generally unaffected by proximity to either supermarkets or fast-food outlets. However, ≥1 fast-food outlet within a 1-mile buffer was an independent predictor of consuming more fast-food meals among point-of-purchase respondents. At the quarter-mile distance, ≥1 supermarket was predictive of fewer fast-food meals. Supermarket access was associated with less fast-food dining among telephone respondents, whereas access to fast-food outlets were associated with more fast-food visits among survey respondents identified at point-of-purchase. This study adds to the existing literature on geographic determinants of fast-food dining behavior among urban adults in the general population and those who regularly consume fast food. Copyright

  10. Word order in the Germanic languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois, ...

  11. Company analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenster, Per V.; Hussey, David

    This volume looks at the company appraisal as a whole, examining the continuing need to appraise companies as part of the continuing strategy process. Building from a sound basis of theory, the text aims to be practical and to give guidance to senior managers and others involved in the strategy...... process. It is thus a book primarily aimed at managers, but should also be useful for MBA students undertaking strategy assignments It provides helpful, practical guidance and identifies weaknesses of traditional methods. It also presents a variety of tools which may be used in the appraisal process...

  12. Franco-German nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leny, J.C.; Huettl, A.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear energy is the number one power source in the European Union. However, the first generation units would be replaced from the year 2010 onwards. In this prospect, Siemens and Framatome have drawn together in designing and commercializing a common product initially destined for the export market which has become the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project. The two companies have floated with equal participation the NPI (Nuclear Power International) sub-company to manage this project. The French and German utilities participate to the financing of the project, at present at the basic stage, and the safety authorities of both countries have carried out a joint evaluation of EPR safety. With a 1500 Mwe capacity, EPR will be equipped with advanced safety systems more performing than the existing systems. Conceivers want to maintain the economic competitiveness of EPR with respect to coal power plants. EPR will take over the oldest power plants by producing a safer and cheaper energy to provide for the needs of the developed countries and then of the developing countries with no risk for the environment. An enormous effort of communication must be carried out to reduce the public anxiety and to calm down the nuclear debate and show up its merits, in particular in Europe, where its contribution is vital. (J.S.)

  13. A NEW PARADIGM FOR INDIAN SUPERMARKET RETAILERS BASED ON CUSTOMER-CENTRIC STRATEGIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema S. Shenoy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Supermarket retailers in India admist fierce competition and the only way out is through the attainment of competitive advantage. Strategy is the route to attain competitive advantage that could facilitate firms attain superior performance. The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework on customer-centric retail strategy, to facilitate supermarket retailers in India attain competitive advantage. The paper draws heavily from existing literature on retail strategies and competitive advantage in order to ascertain the most effective customer-centric strategies. Adding strength to the research is the result derived from interviews of supermarket managers and customers; and also the results of pilot study .The work involves identification of constructs and research hypothesis for the proposed framework. The framework contributes to literature by emphasizing on not just effective customer-centric strategies but also, on specific performance outcomes that supermarket retailers could be enjoying riding on these strategies. A new dimension to attainment of competitive advantage and superior performance has definitely been recognized by this research effort. Supermarket retailers in India can be certain of attaining competitive advantage by riding on the proposed strategies.

  14. Seattle's minimum wage ordinance did not affect supermarket food prices by food processing category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoden, Amanda L; Buszkiewicz, James H; Drewnowski, Adam; Long, Mark C; Otten, Jennifer J

    2018-06-01

    To examine the impacts of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance on food prices by food processing category. Supermarket food prices were collected for 106 items using a University of Washington Center for Public Health Nutrition market basket at affected and unaffected supermarket chain stores at three times: March 2015 (1-month pre-policy enactment), May 2015 (1-month post-policy enactment) and May 2016 (1-year post-policy enactment). Food items were categorized into four food processing groups, from minimally to ultra-processed. Data were analysed across time using a multilevel, linear difference-in-differences model at the store and price level stratified by level of food processing. Six large supermarket chain stores located in Seattle ('intervention') affected by the policy and six same-chain but unaffected stores in King County ('control'), Washington, USA. One hundred and six food and beverage items. The largest change in average price by food item was +$US 0·53 for 'processed foods' in King County between 1-month post-policy and 1-year post-policy enactment (P food processing level strata in Seattle v. King County stores at 1-month or 1-year post-policy enactment. Supermarket food prices do not appear to be differentially impacted by Seattle's minimum wage ordinance by level of the food's processing. These results suggest that the early implementation of a city-level minimum wage policy does not alter supermarket food prices by level of food processing.

  15. An Empirical Study on the Preference of Supermarkets with Analytic Hierarchy Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng Siew, Lam; Singh, Ranjeet; Singh, Bishan; Weng Hoe, Lam; Kah Fai, Liew

    2018-04-01

    Large-scale retailers are very important to the consumers in this fast-paced world. Selection of desirable market to purchase products and services becomes major concern among consumers in their daily life due to vast choices available. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to determine the most preferred supermarket among AEON, Jaya Grocer, Tesco, Giant and Econsave by the undergraduate students in Malaysia with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model. Besides that, this study also aims to determine the priority of decision criteria in the selection of supermarkets among the undergraduatestudents with AHP model. The decision criteria employed in this study are product quality, competitive price, cleanliness, product variety, location, good price labelling, fast checkout and employee courtesy. The results of this study show that AEON is the most preferred supermarket followed by Jaya Grocer, Tesco, Econsave and Giant among the students based on AHP model. Product quality, cleanliness and competitive price are ranked as the top three influential factors in this study. This study is significant because it helps to determine the most preferred supermarket as well as the most influential decision criteria in the preference of supermarkets among the undergraduate students with AHP model.

  16. Total Energy. Sustainable cooling and heating in supermarkets; Total Energy. Duurzame koeling en verwarming supermarkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    In 8 articles attention is paid to different aspects of cooling and heating in supermarkets: new coolants in the food retail sector, the climate plan of the Dutch Food Retail Association (CBL), he Round Table discussion with between CBL and supermarket chains about research results, approach and targets, the use of CO2 refrigeration in supermarkets, leakage of coolants from refrigerators and freezers in Dutch supermarkets, the energy efficient and environment-friendly refrigerator and freezer equipment of the distribution centre of supermarket chain C1000 in Raalte, Netherlands, changes for cooling techniques in the EIA energy list (Energy investment deduction scheme) and finally education options for the refrigeration industry in the Netherlands. [Dutch] In 8 artikelen wordt aandacht geschonken aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. koeling en verwarming in supermarkten: nieuwe koelmiddelen in de 'food retail sector, het klimaatplan van de brancheorganisatie Centraal Bureau Levensmiddelenhandel (CBL), het Rondetafel overleg met de CBL en supermarktketens over onderzoeksresultaten, aanpak en doelen, de toepassing van CO2 koeling in supermarkten, lekkage van koelmiddelen uit koel- en vriesinstallaties in Nederlandse supermarkten, de energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke koel-vriesinstallatie van het distributiecentrum van de supermarktketen C1000 in Raalte, wijzigingen voor koeltechniek in de EIA energielijst (Energie Investeringsaftrek subsidieregeling), en tenslotte opleidingsmogelijkheden voor de koeltechnische sector in Nederland.

  17. Socioeconomic status, energy cost, and nutrient content of supermarket food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Johnson, Tricia J; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Whited, Matthew C; Ventrelle, Jennifer C

    2012-04-01

    The relative affordability of energy-dense versus nutrient-rich foods may promote socioeconomic disparities in dietary quality and obesity. Although supermarkets are the largest food source in the American diet, the associations between SES and the cost and nutrient content of freely chosen food purchases have not been described. To investigate relationships of SES with the energy cost ($/1000 kcal) and nutrient content of freely chosen supermarket purchases. Supermarket shoppers (n=69) were recruited at a Phoenix AZ supermarket in 2009. The energy cost and nutrient content of participants' purchases were calculated from photographs of food packaging and nutrition labels using dietary analysis software. Data were analyzed in 2010-2011. Two SES indicators, education and household income as a percentage of the federal poverty guideline (FPG), were associated with the energy cost of purchased foods. Adjusting for covariates, the amount spent on 1000 kcal of food was $0.26 greater for every multiple of the FPG, and those with a baccalaureate or postbaccalaureate degree spent an additional $1.05 for every 1000 kcal of food compared to those with no college education. Lower energy cost was associated with higher total fat and less protein, dietary fiber, and vegetables per 1000 kcal purchased. Low-SES supermarket shoppers purchase calories in inexpensive forms that are higher in fat and less nutrient-rich. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact on Dietary Choices after Discount Supermarket Opens in Low-Income Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie Bell; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Sharpe, Patricia A; Rafferty, Ann P

    2018-04-11

    To examine (1) the association of a new supermarket opening with dietary intake and perceptions of healthy food availability, and (2) associations of distance to the primary food store and mean prices of fruits, vegetables, and sugary beverages with levels of consumption of these foods and body mass index in a low-income, southeastern community. The researchers used cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire data and supermarket audit data collected in the supermarket community and comparison community before (2015) and after (2016) the supermarket opening. A difference-in-difference analysis employed propensity scores to compare pretest and posttest differences between communities. There were no significant differences between communities on dietary behaviors. There was a significant cross-sectional, inverse association between distance to the primary food store and fruit and vegetable consumption among all respondents in 2016. The results suggest that adding a new discount supermarket is not necessarily associated with improvements in residents' fruit, vegetable, or sugary beverage consumption, or in their perceptions of the availability of healthy food in the neighborhood. However, distance to the store may be important. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Stocking the genetic supermarket: reproductive genetic technologies and collective action problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris; Douglas, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the 'genetic supermarket'. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation from one another, this may have a negative effect on society as a whole, including future generations. In this article we argue that RGTs targeting height, innate immunity, and certain cognitive traits could lead to collective action problems. We then discuss whether this risk could in principle justify state intervention in the genetic supermarket. We argue that there is a plausible prima facie case for the view that such state intervention would be justified and respond to a number of arguments that might be adduced against that view. © 2014 The Authors. Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Introduction of a Supermarket via Tax-Credits in a Low-Income Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dixon, L Beth

    2017-01-01

    Interest and funding continue to grow for bringing supermarkets to underserved areas, yet little is known about their impact. A quasi-experimental study was used to determine the impact of a new supermarket opening as a result of tax and zoning incentives. The study took place in the South Bronx, New York City, New York. Studied were residents of two South Bronx neighborhoods deemed high need. Food purchasing and consumption were examined via surveys and 24-hour dietary recalls before and at two points after the supermarket opened (1-5, 13-17 months). Data were analyzed using difference-in-difference models controlling for gender, race and ethnicity, age, education, marital status, and self-reported income. Ordinary least squares and logistic regression models were estimated for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. At baseline, 94% to 97% of consumers shopped at a supermarket. There was a 2% increase in this behavior in the intervention community ( p supermarket did not result in substantial or broad changes in purchasing patterns or nutritional quality of food consumed, though smaller, positive changes were observed over a 1-year period. Future work should examine different contexts and a broader set of outcomes, including economic development.

  1. Market control through eco-efficiency and eco-consumption: an analysis based on supermarkets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Guivant

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with a discussion of the changing role of supermarkets in the food system. According to some authors, the system itself has now entered its third stage. Among the numerous transformations that are a part of this process, we give particular salience to two: a the role of supermarkets in turning consumers into consumers of organic foods and produce and b the strategies of the supermarket sector in sustainable management and construction. Sustainability has become an increasingly central motif in the supermarket sector’s strategies, something that has evidently become possible due to the imprecise nature of the concept. Our analysis is fundamentally based on the theory of ecological modernization and secondarily on the new economic sociology of market objects. Through this theoretical framework, we are able to illustrate retail sector tendencies in global market flux, as well as the influence of non-governmental organization and consumer group action. Lastly, we reveal the complex mosaic of the sector’s tendencies. A non-dichotomous and non-essentialist perspective is required in order to understand how environmental dynamics and demands come to form part not only of the discourse but of influential practices of these powerful economic actors which may have unintended consequences on relationships between production and consumption within the new rules of the globalization of markets. Keywords: sustainable consumption, supermarkets, theory of ecological modernization.

  2. Pre-Interaction Management in Multinational Companies in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvapil, Jiri; Sherman, Tamah

    2009-01-01

    This article is devoted to the linguistic, communicative and sociocultural situation in branches of multinational companies located in the Czech Republic and Hungary. There are typically several languages used in these branches. In addition to the local languages, there are the languages of the parent companies--most commonly English or German,…

  3. International business activities of German producers of petroleum and natural gas; Auslandsaktivitaeten deutscher Erdoel-/Erdgasproduzenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-04-15

    The contribution reports on international business activities of the following German companies: RWE Dea; Petro-Canada; E.ON Ruhrgas; EWE; Bayerngas. [German] Es wird ueber die Auslandsaktivitaeten folgender deutscher Firmen berichtet: Wintershall; RWE Dea; Petro-Canada; E.ON Ruhrgas; EWE; Bayerngas.

  4. Aggregation and Control of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, control strategies for aggregation of a portfolio of supermarkets towards the electricity balancing market, is investigated. The supermarkets are able to shift the power consumption in time by pre-cooling the contained foodstuff. It is shown how the flexibility of an individual...... supermarket can be modeled and how this model can be used by an aggregator to manage the portfolio to deliver upward and downward regulation. Two control strategies for managing the portfolio to follow a power reference are presented and compared. The first strategy is a non-convex predictive control strategy...... while the second strategy consists of a PI controller and a dispatch algorithm. The predictive controller has a high performance but is computationally heavy. In contrast the PI/dispatch strategy has lower performance, but requires little computational effort and scales well with the number...

  5. Marketing Strategy of Rural Supermarket Chain in Ningxia Based on the Long Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Long Tail,the political,economical,social and technological environment for the development of rural supermarket chain in Ningxia is analyzed.The problems in the marketing strategy of Ningxia rural supermarket chain are pointed out,including single products and uneven level of quality,the products,which can not satisfy farmers’ needs;low quality of the personnel and imperfect information system,thus the traditional way of marketing is challenged.In the end,from the perspective of products,position,price,and personnel,the marketing strategies for the development of Ningxia rural supermarket chain based on the Long Tail Theory are put forward.

  6. Does opening a supermarket in a food desert change the food environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Hunter, Gerald; Collins, Rebecca L; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Beckman, Robin; Nugroho, Alvin K; Sloan, Jennifer C; Wagner, La'Vette; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-07-01

    Improving access to healthy foods in low-income neighborhoods is a national priority. Our study evaluated the impact of opening a supermarket in a 'food desert' on healthy food access, availability and prices in the local food environment. We conducted 30 comprehensive in-store audits collecting information on healthy and unhealthy food availability, food prices and store environment, as well as 746 household surveys in two low-income neighborhoods before and after one of the two neighborhoods received a new supermarket. We found positive and negative changes in food availability, and an even greater influence on food prices in neighborhood stores. The supermarket opening in a 'food desert' caused little improvement in net availability of healthy foods, challenging the underpinnings of policies such as the Healthy Food Financing Initiative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Membangkit Spontanitas Belanja Pada Supermarket Melalui Promosi, Pramuniaga dan Atmosfer Toko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Sunawarman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui gambaran “Pengaruh Promosi Penjualan Dan Pramuniaga Serta Atmosfer Toko Terhadap Spontanitas Belanja Di Supermarket Toserba XYZ Sunda Bandung”. Adapun yang menjadi target populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah konsumen Supermarket Toserba XYZ Sunda Bandung dan sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 80 orang responden. Dalam penelitian ini, metode yang digunakan adalah deskriptif verifikatif dan alat analisis yang digunakan adalah regresi linier berganda yang bertujuan untuk mengukur sejauh mana pengaruh antara variabel yang satu dan lainnya serta menggunakan uji hipotesis t dan F yang bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh variabel promosi penjualan pramuniaga dan atmosfer toko terhadap spontanitas belanja secara parsial dan simultan. Hasil menunjukaan promosi penjualan, pramuniaga dan atmosfer toko dapat mempengaruhi perilaku spontanitas belanja konsumen Supermarket Toserba XYZ Sunda Bandung.

  8. German energy policy in deregulated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    2000-01-01

    The author argues in favor of a more fact-oriented German energy policy: Firstly, German energy policy must accept the new European framework of a market economy. This means that German utilities must no longer be burdened with the implementation of political objectives. The German power industry needs a level playing field for competition on a European scale. Consequently, also the European partner countries should not limit themselves to the minimum conditions of the Single Market Directive in opening their markets. Secondly, German energy policy must develop new forms of cooperation with the power industry so as to maintain domestic employment and the addition of value despite considerably stronger competitive pressure. Also the conflicting targets of sustainability, continuity of supply, and economic viability must not only be discussed, but must be turned into productive approaches. Thirdly, this means that there must be no inadmissible solution in matters nuclear. If the German power industry is to remain strong, in the interest of domestic jobs and opportunities for the future, it must not lose any more domestic market share to other European companies. Fourthly, we need a new energy policy which takes cognizance of the results of market development in a more rational, less emotional way. In this respect, it should be limited henceforth to supporting renewable energies and technologies so as to enhance energy efficiency in line with market requirements. Fifthly, German energy policy must not commit the mistake of enforcing deregulation and, at the same time, exempting large segments of the market from competition. Thus, the planned expansion of renewable energies, and the increase in cogeneration to more than thirty percent of the German electricty generation, by way of quotas and revenues for electricity from these sources fed into the public grid, are incompatible with competition in Europe. The electricity tax within the framework of the eco tax, the

  9. E-mobil on the right track. Electromobility: Germans' industry must build up networks if staying in competition; Am E-Mobil geht kein Weg vorbei. Elektromobilitaet: Will die heimische Industrie mitmischen, muss sie starke Netzwerke bilden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauss, Olaf

    2010-09-13

    Electromobility is moving on. But Germans industry must hurry up, because Chinas' automotive industry don't sleep. The competition becomes more and more stronger and Germans' companies will win, if they startup immediately. (GL)

  10. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Lukar E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38% and back (median 33% of store, and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres. Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets.

  11. Relationship between mode choice and the location of supermarkets – empirical analysis in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman KLEMENTSCHITZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of the study work is to gain data about shopping and mobility behaviour at small local supermarkets with sales floor space less than 1.000 m2. Four location types have been defined and discussed; rural  peripheral location, rural  central location, urban – central location and urban – peripheral location. 200 shoppers each location were interviewed at the exit of the supermarket, which means a total of 800 interviews were carried out during all day times and working days of the supermarket. As expected, the mode choice is strongly dependent on the location of the supermarket. In car oriented settlements, which can be found at rural peripheral locations, nearly all shoppers accessed the supermarket with their cars. If weighting the expenditure per visit with the frequency of visits, the average expenditure per month and mode can be derived. The average purchase per month between the modes is more or less balanced. A difference in behaviour lies in the fact that cyclists and pedestrians go shopping more frequently but are spending less per visit. Additionally, the results of this study are indicating the existence of a potential mode shift, especially if there is better land use planning for supermarket locations. Furthermore, considering the given situation and a given threshold of less than 5 kilograms of weight of the goods purchased, more than fifty percent of all shoppers could use non motorised modes with insignificant loss of travel quality. Combined with short travel distances to the next shop (the average distance is 4.9 km, a change to alternative means of transport would be relatively easy for a significant number of shoppers.

  12. Field Testing and Modeling of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems as a Demand Response Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, Michael; Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Anthony, Jamie

    2016-08-26

    Supermarkets offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns; however, refrigeration as the largest load has been challenging to access. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; lighting; and anti-sweat heaters. This project evaluated and quantified the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory. DR events were carried out and results measured in an operational 45,590-ft2 supermarket located in Hillsboro, Oregon. Key results from the project include the rate of temperature increase in freezer reach-in cases and walk-ins when refrigeration is suspended, the load shed amount for DR tests, and the development of calibrated models to quantify available DR resources. Simulations showed that demand savings of 15 to 20 kilowatts (kW) are available for 1.5 hours for a typical store without precooling and for about 2.5 hours with precooling using only the low-temperature, non-ice cream cases. This represents an aggregated potential of 20 megawatts within BPA's service territory. Inability to shed loads for medium-temperature (MT) products because of the tighter temperature requirements is a significant barrier to realizing larger DR for supermarkets. Store owners are reluctant to allow MT case set point changes, and laboratory tests of MT case DR strategies are needed so that owners become comfortable testing, and implementing, MT case DR. The next-largest barrier is the lack of proper controls in most supermarket displays over ancillary equipment, such as anti-sweat heaters, lights, and fans.

  13. Bisphenol A in supermarket receipts and its exposure to human in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-You; Chang, Wen-Jing; Sojinu, Samuel O; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2013-08-01

    Paper receipt has been documented as one major source of bisphenol A (BPA) for human exposure but little has been done by researchers to elaborate the potential health risk caused by handling paper receipt up to date. In the present study, BPA was analyzed in 42 supermarket receipts collected from Shenzhen, China. BPA was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from 2.58 to 14.7mgg(-1). In most cases, the total amount of BPA on the receipt was at least one thousand times the amount found in the epoxy lining of a food can, another controversial use of the chemical. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of BPA via handling of supermarket receipt ranged from 2 to 347μgday(-1) (mean, 40.4μgday(-1)) for a supermarket cashier and from 0.24 to 3.98μgday(-1) (mean, 0.69μgday(-1)) for general population. Based on the cumulative probability distribution of the calculated daily exposure to BPA via handling supermarket receipt, the EDI at the 0.1th and 1th percentile for supermarket cashier and general population, were already larger than 100ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1), while at the 0.2th and 71th percentile, the EDI for both populations reached 1000ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1). Considering the adverse endocrine disruptive effects of BPA and the dosage exposure level (from tens to hundreds ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1)), human exposure to BPA in Shenzhen deserves more attention. Sensitivity analysis result showed that the handling time and frequency of supermarket receipts are the most important variables that contributed to most of the total variance of exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Consulting-Research Froblems with German and American Multinational Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    International researchers need to be aware of international problems and multinational managerial codes when they work with worldwide organizations. This paper develops the premise that consulting with German multinational companies is more complex than consulting with or researching for American firms. Discussion focuses on the following three…

  15. Strategic Outsourcing in the German Engine Building Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Outsourcing is an organizational measure that changesthe ressource dependencies of a Company. In this paper, a framework is developed from the perspective of the ressource dependence approach to explain strategic outsourcing in the German engine building industry. On the basis of the NIFA panel...

  16. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Jensen, Jørgen Bauck; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality is demonst......This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality...

  17. Retail private label’s strategies: A case study in a large brazilian Supermarket chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bulamah Spineli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study approaches the advantages and risks related to private labels under a retailers’ perspective, as well as the private label strategies and its growth in the Brazilian market. The paper analyses the strategies used by a large Brazilian supermarket chain with regards to its private labels’ management, using the case study method. The results showed the existence of two private label lines of products, with different strategies: one line of light products (proprietary brand and another line of products that carry the name of the supermarket under study (retail brand endorsement, both classified as using the fantasy positioning strategy.

  18. Evaluating the Impact of Communication Network Performance on Supervisory Supermarket Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Minko, Tomasz; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the impact of non-ideal communication networks on system performance of hierarchical control systems. It develops a stepwise evaluation approach that is applied to the example scenario of a supervisory controller for supermarket temperature control, addressing...... of communication network performance on the supermarket refrigeration control and resulting energy costs using simulation models. The results show that the controller is resilient to downstream information delays, however upstream delays or up- and downstream information loss can cause significant performance...

  19. On subcooler design for integrated two-temperature supermarket refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, No. 4800, Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The energy saving opportunity of supermarket refrigeration systems using subcooler between the medium-temperature (MT) refrigeration system and the low-temperature (LT) refrigeration system has been identified in the previous work. This paper presents a model-based comprehensive analysis on the subcooler design. The optimal subcooling control is discussed as well. With optimal subcooler size and subcooling control, the maximum energy savings of integrated two-temperature supermarket refrigeration system using R404A or R134a as working fluid can achieve 27% or 20%, respectively. The load ratio of MT to LT system and the operating conditions have considerable impact on the energy savings. (author)

  20. Price and convenience: The influence of supermarkets on consumption of ultra-processed foods and beverages in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Priscila Pereira; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Canella, Daniela Silva; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of convenience and price of ultra-processed foods and beverages on purchases at supermarkets. The study used data on food and beverage acquisition for household consumption from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, performed in a random sample of 55,970 households between 2008 and 2009. Foods and beverages were categorized into four groups, according to characteristics of food processing. Retail stores were grouped into supermarkets and other food stores. Proportion of calories from foods and beverages purchased at supermarkets and other food stores, and respective mean prices (R$/1000 kcal), were calculated according to households' geographical and socioeconomic characteristics. Effect of convenience in household purchases at retail stores was expressed by the acquisition of several food items at the same store. The influence of convenience and prices of ultra-processed products on purchases at supermarkets was analyzed using log-log regression model with estimation of elasticity coefficients. The mean prices of foods and beverages purchased at supermarkets were 37% lower in comparison to other food stores. The share of ultra-processed foods and beverages in purchases made at supermarkets was 25% higher than at other food stores. An increase of 1% in prices of ultra-processed food items led to a 0.59% reduction in calorie acquisition at supermarkets (R 2  = 0.75; p food items purchased at supermarkets resulted in 1.83% increase in calorie acquisition of ultra-processed foods and beverages (p food items purchased at supermarkets, in comparison to other food stores, are relevant to explain higher share of purchases of ultra-processed foods and beverages at supermarkets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of supermarket till receipts to determine the fat and energy intake in a UK population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransley, J K; Donnelly, J K; Khara, T N; Botham, H; Arnot, H; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

    2001-12-01

    To validate the use of supermarket receipts as an index of fat and energy intake in a population that buys most of its food from supermarkets. Cross-sectional, prospective dietary survey - feasibility study. Households situated within a 20-mile radius of a large (Tesco) supermarket in Leeds. Two hundred and fourteen households who spend >or=60% of their food purse in (Tesco and other) supermarkets. Mean daily household purchase of fat, energy and percentage energy from fat contained in food from supermarkets were 185 g, 19.2 MJ and 35.9%. Mean daily household intakes of fat and energy were 190 g and 20.7 MJ, and 35% of energy was derived from fat. Mean household size was 2.4 persons. The association between the amount of fat and energy purchased from supermarkets and the amount of fat and energy consumed by households was strong. 0.90 MJ (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-1.0) of energy were consumed for every 1 MJ purchased from supermarkets and 0.76 g (95% CI: 0.64-0.87) of fat were consumed for every 1 g of fat purchased. The results show a strong association between estimates of the intakes of fat and energy and percentage energy from fat using 4-day food diaries and 28 days of receipts, in populations who buy most of their food from supermarkets. They also show that the fat content of total food purchases from supermarkets is 35.9% energy from fat compared with 33% energy from fat recommended by the Department of Health. This preliminary research indicates the feasibility of and potential for utilising large quantities of readily available data generated from supermarket checkouts in dietary surveys.

  2. German energy market 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Weltenergierat, Berlin

    2017-01-01

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [de

  3. German Idealism Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of essays provides an exemplary overwiew of the diversity and relevance of current scholarship on German Idealism. The importance of German Idealism for contemporary philosophy has recieved growing attention and acknowledgment throughout competing fields of contemporary philosophy...... scholarly debates beyond merely antiquarian perspectives. This renaissance has been a major factor of current efforts to bridge the gap between so-called "nalytic" and so-called "continental" philosophy. The volume provides a selection of readings that contributes to systematic treatments of philosophical...

  4. CO2-refrigeration. Investment in an energy efficient supermarket; CO2-koeling. Investeren in een energiezuinige supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    Modem entrepreneurs invest in an energy-neutral supermarket. By that they are working on corporate social responsibility, sustainability and a green image of their company. The reduction of energy consumption results in an indirect reduction of CO2 emission by electric power stations. That is why more and more transcritical refrigeration plants with the natural refrigerant CO2, with global warming impact of 1, will be applied. The energy investment deduction scheme EIA, executed by NL Agency, stimulates a large number of energy saving measures which result in a financial profit for the investing owner or manager. [Dutch] Moderne ondememers investeren in een energieneutrale supermarkt. Ze zijn immers bezig met maatschappelijk verantwoord ondememen, verduurzaming en een groene uitstraling van hun bedrijf. Het terugdringen van het energiegebruik reduceert de indirecte CO2-uitstoot bij de elektriciteitscentrale aanzienlijk. Daarom worden steeds meer transkritische koel-vriesinstallaties die werken met het natuurlijke koudemiddel CO2, met een GWP-waarde van 1, toegepast. De Energie-investeringsaftrekregeling EIA, uitgevoerd door Agentschap NL, stimuleert een groot aantal energiebesparende maatregelen die ten goede komen aan de eigenaar of beheerder.

  5. Quality assurance at a German power station company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czychon, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Operational Management System of the Emsland nuclear power station is described, together with its aims and system architecture as well as the structure and modus operandi of the Integrated Operational Management System Manager. The completion of repair work and the processing of modification and maintenance reports are explained as examples. Experience gained in the introduction and use of the system is presented. figs., 6 refs

  6. SAFER - Company Snapshot - SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  7. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  8. Nutritional Informatics: Mining Supermarket Sales Data as a Nutritional Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Kristina Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Many nutritional assessment techniques, including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls have innate limitations such as expensive protocols, high respondent burden, and self-reporting biases. Supermarket sales data have shown promise as a new, indirect, inexpensive nutritional assessment method in recent studies. The…

  9. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Samantha J.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. (Contains 1…

  10. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    OpenAIRE

    Farrimond, Samantha J; Leland, Louis S

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin.

  11. The Battle for Health and Beauty: What Drives Supermarket and Drugstore Category-Promotion Lifts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, Arjen; Gijsbrechts, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies promotion-induced competition between supermarkets and drugstores, resulting from increased channel blurring and category overlap. It documents the relative impact of price cuts and feature ads at the two channels, and establishes substantive factors underlying their differences

  12. The battle for health and beauty : What drives supermarket and drugstore category-promotion lifts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, A.I.J.G.; Gijsbrechts, Els

    This paper studies promotion-induced competition between supermarkets and drugstores, resulting from increased channel blurring and category overlap. It documents the relative impact of price cuts and feature ads at the two channels, and establishes substantive factors underlying their differences

  13. One-deal-fits-all? : On category sales promotion effectiveness in smaller versus larger supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, A.J.; Gijsbrechts, E.

    2011-01-01

    Even within a store chain and format, supermarket outlets often exhibit substantial differences in selling surface. For chain managers, this raises the issue of correctly anticipating the promotion lift, and of profitably managing promotion activities, across these outlets. In this paper, we

  14. The Effectiveness of Supermarket Posters in Helping to Find Missing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, James Michael; Arnal, Jack; Hicks, Jason L.

    2009-01-01

    One approach used to help find missing children is to place posters of them at the exits of supermarkets. The present research addresses the question of how effective that approach is likely to be. Posters of 8 missing children were displayed on a bulletin board at a cooperating grocery store. Customers leaving the store completed a survey and…

  15. Food taxes and calories purchased in the virtual supermarket : a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.P.; Kroeze, willemieke; Waterlander, Wilma; de Boer, Michiel; Steenhuis, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of three food taxation schemes on energy (kcal), saturated fat (gram) and sugar (gram) purchased in the virtual supermarket. Design/methodology/approach Based on the literature, three food taxation schemes were developed (sugar tax,

  16. Mystery shopping and alcohol sales: do supermarkets and liquor stores sell alcohol to underage customers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Prinsen, Sander

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Dutch national policy regarding alcohol and youth relies on retailers’ willingness to refuse to sell alcohol to underage customers. This study examined unobtrusively whether supermarkets and liquor stores do indeed comply with the legal age restrictions for alcohol sales. - Methods: A

  17. Shop 'til you hear it drop - Influence of Interactive Auditory Feedback in a Virtual Reality Supermarket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Høeg, Emil Rosenlund; Mangano, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment aiming to investigate the impact of auditory feedback in a virtual reality supermarket scenario. The participants were asked to read a shopping list and collect items one by one and place them into a shopping cart. Three conditions were presented randomly...

  18. Supermarket shopper movements versus sales and the effects of scent, light, and sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de René A.; Maaskant, Anna M.; Kremer, Stefanie; Holthuysen, Nancy T.E.; Stijnen, Daniella A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Common sense assumes that supermarket sales of specific products are driven by the number of visitors and by their behavior during their visit. In addition, certain shopping ambiances probably stimulate a certain shopper behavior, resulting in more sales. Surprisingly, these relationships have

  19. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  20. Process Evaluation of a Comprehensive Supermarket Intervention in a Low-Income Baltimore Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryan M; Rothstein, Jessica D; Gergen, Jessica; Zachary, Drew A; Smith, Joyce C; Palmer, Anne M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Supermarket-based interventions are one approach to improving the local food environment and reducing obesity and chronic disease in low-income populations. We implemented a multicomponent intervention that aimed to reduce environmental barriers to healthy food purchasing in a supermarket in Southwest Baltimore. The intervention, Eat Right-Live Well! used: shelf labels and in-store displays promoting healthy foods, sales and promotions on healthy foods, in-store taste tests, increasing healthy food products, community outreach events to promote the intervention, and employee training. We evaluated program implementation through store environment, taste test session, and community event evaluation forms as well as an Employee Impact Questionnaire. The stocking, labeling, and advertising of promoted foods were implemented with high and moderate fidelity. Taste test sessions were implemented with moderate reach and low dose. Community outreach events were implemented with high reach and dose. Supermarket employee training had no significant impact on employees' knowledge, self-efficacy, or behavioral intention for helping customers with healthy purchasing or related topics of nutrition and food safety. In summary, components of this intervention to promote healthy eating were implemented with varying success within a large supermarket. Greater participation from management and employees could improve implementation. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. Diet quality of supermarket sales circulars measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine how closely the contents of weekly supermarket sales circulars conform to current dietary guidance and how closely the diet quality of those foods compare to that of the U.S. population’s intakes. Food and beverage items (n = 9,151) in 52 weekly circulars ...

  2. Learning, Knowing and Controlling the Stock: The Nature of Employee Discretion in a Supermarket Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison; Kakavelakis, Kostas; Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between Head Office and stores in a large British supermarket chain. It focuses on the role played by a range of technological tools available for managing the stock and connecting different parts of the productive system and the implications this has for employee learning in stores. The evidence…

  3. Binocular glaucomatous visual field loss and its impact on visual exploration--a supermarket study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Katrin; Kasneci, Enkelejda; Aehling, Kathrin; Heister, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i) assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii) to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP), and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC) were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item). Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s) to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a "time-effective" compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task.

  4. Understanding interactions with the food environment: an exploration of supermarket food shopping routines in deprived neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Despite a sustained academic interest in the environmental determinants of diet, relatively little is known about the ways in which individuals interact with their neighbourhood food environment and the use of its most important element, the supermarket. This qualitative study explores how residents of deprived neighbourhoods shop for food and how the supermarket environment influences their choices. Go-along interviews were conducted with 26 residents of Sandwell, a uniformly deprived metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, UK. Routine approaches to food shopping are characterised in terms of planning and reliance on the supermarket environment. Four distinct routines are identified: chaotic and reactive; working around the store; item-by-item; and restricted and budgeted. This suggests that residents of deprived neighbourhoods do not have uniform responses to food environments. Responses to supermarket environments appear to be mediated by levels of individual autonomy. A better understanding of how residents of deprived neighbourhoods interact with their food environment may help optimise environmental interventions aimed at improving physical access to food in these places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Classification of 'healthier' and 'less healthy' supermarket foods by two Australasian nutrient profiling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Gorton, Delvina; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2010-09-10

    To determine whether a modified version of the Heart Foundation Tick (MHFT) nutrient profiling model appropriately classifies supermarket foods to endorse its use for identifying 'healthier' products eligible for promotion in a supermarket intervention trial. Top-selling products (n=550) were selected from an existing supermarket nutrient composition database. Percentage of products classified as 'healthier' by the MHFT and a modified comparator model (Food Standards Australia New Zealand; MFSANZ) were calculated. Percentage agreement, consistency (kappa statistic), and average nutrient values were assessed overall, and across seven food groups. The MHFT model categorised 16% fewer products as 'healthier' than the MFSANZ model. Agreement and consistency between models were 72% and kappa=0.46 (P=0.00), respectively. For both models, 'healthier' products were on average lower in energy, protein, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium than their 'less healthy' counterparts. The MHFT nutrient profiling model categorised regularly purchased supermarket foods similarly to the MFSANZ model, and both appear to distinguish appropriately between 'healthier' and 'less healthy' options. Therefore, both models have the potential to appropriately identify 'healthier' foods for promotion and positively influence food choices.

  6. Using a 3D Virtual Supermarket to Measure Food Purchase Behavior: A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterlander, W.E.; Jiang, Y.N.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Mhurchu, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition that supermarkets are an important environment for health-promoting interventions such as fiscal food policies or front-of-pack nutrition labeling. However, due to the complexities of undertaking such research in the real world, well-designed randomized

  7. A case study : to design a XL supermarket in the Netherlands and its consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, T.T.; Santos, Eliana Sousa; Baptista, Luís Santiago; Matos, Maria João Pereira de; Pedrosa, Patrícia Santos; Figueiredo, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    On the outskirts of the centre of Eindhoven (a medium-sized town in the south of the Netherlands), an existing supermarket located along the ring road, which forms part of a chain named "Albert Heijn," was doubled in size in 2002, making it the flagship of a new "extra large" formula, called "AH

  8. Association between distance to nearest supermarket and provision of fruits and vegetables in English nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Gallis, John A; L Penney, Tarra; Monsivais, Pablo; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2017-07-01

    With 796,500 places available for children in England, pre-school nurseries could serve as an important setting for population-wide dietary intervention. It is critical to understand the determinants of healthy food provision in this setting, which may include access to food stores. This study examined the association between objective, GIS-derived supermarket proximity and fruit and vegetable serving frequency, using data from 623 English nurseries. Overall, 116 (18%) nurseries served fruits and vegetables infrequently (supermarket proximity. In adjusted multivariable regression models, nurseries farthest from their nearest supermarket (Q5, 1.7-19.8km) had 2.38 (95% CI 1.01-5.63) greater odds of infrequent provision. Our results suggest that supermarket access may be important for nurseries in meeting fruit and vegetable provision guidelines. We advance a growing body of international literature, for the first time linking the food practices of institutions to their neighbourhood food retail context. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Preventing refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets from being discarded on hot days by mpc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems. It deals with one special condition when the extremely high outdoor temperature causes the compressor to saturate, and work at its maximum capacity. In a traditional control, refrigerated foodstuffs inside display...

  10. FAKTOR-FAKTOR SEBAGAI PERTIMBANGAN KONSUMEN DALAM MELAKUKAN PEMBELIAN DI SUPERMARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Tri Cahyono

    2009-06-01

    the economies of scale. Supermarkets adopt a number of pricing and non-pricing strategies to attract customers such as price limits, predatory pricing, and intertemporal price discrimination, for example, discounts at the end of the week and at certain other times. Their non-pricing strategies include advertising, longer opening hours (especially on weekends, bundling or tying (combined purchases, and free parking.

  11. Model-based predictive control scheme for cost optimization and balancing services for supermarket refrigeration Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerts, H.H.M.; Shafiei, S.E.; Stoustrup, J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Boje, E.; Xia, X.

    2014-01-01

    A new formulation of model predictive control for supermarket refrigeration systems is proposed to facilitate the regulatory power services as well as energy cost optimization of such systems in the smart grid. Nonlinear dynamics existed in large-scale refrigeration plants challenges the predictive

  12. Plant-wide dynamic and static optimisation of supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh

    2013-01-01

    Optimising the operation of a supermarket refrigeration system under dynamic as well as steadystate conditions is addressedin thispaper. For thispurpose anappropriateperformance function that encompasses food quality, system efficiency, and also component reliability is established. The choice...... in the system. Simulation results is used to substantiate the suggestedmethodology....

  13. On German Unity 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of .... living and the shortage of foreign exchange forced the government of the .... manded a great deal of empathy and care above and beyond the normal call of duty. ... The periods of service completed by conscripts in the NPA were set off against the.

  14. Storytelling and German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  15. Sustainable consumption in supermarket retail : a case of Walmart Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Minelle Enéas da; Nascimento, Luis Felipe Machado do; Jappe, Marcio Luis Miron

    2014-01-01

    On the context of new market relations, this aims to analyze how Walmart Brazil relates itself with its suppliers under the sustainable consumption perspective. For that, with an exploratory research and qualitative approach, the brand Hiper Bompreço, in Recife (Brazil) was analyzed under sustainability background. The dissemination throughout the supply chain of sustainability demonstrates an evolution in the placement of a company in the market, thus, it was identified a slight orientation ...

  16. Music to Teach German By.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Leo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how music can be intergrated with regular lesson plans to teach German vocabulary, grammar, and history and to give insights into German culture. Also included are sources for basic background information, a list of recordings of the German music, and notes on selecting and presenting it in the language class. (SED)

  17. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak, E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  18. The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals. Cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Jennifer; Adams, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges ('healthier', luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of 'healthier' meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available - particularly amongst meals specifically marked as 'healthier'. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as 'healthier'. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals. Cross-sectional analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Jennifer; Adams, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. Methods: We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges (‘healthier’, luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. Results: 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of ‘healthier’ meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Conclusions: Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available – particularly amongst meals specifically marked as ‘healthier’. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as ‘healthier’. PMID:25963106

  20. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH 4 /g VS added was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH 4 ) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH 4 /g VS added , respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH 4 /g VS added was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly

  1. Changes in Diet after Introduction of a Full Service Supermarket in a Food Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A.; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Hunter, Gerald P.; Flórez, Karen R.; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A.; Sloan, Jennifer C.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts (areas with limited access to healthy foods) has been proposed as an important policy strategy to confront inequalities in healthy food access. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we enrolled n=1,372 randomly selected households from two comparable neighborhoods, one of which received a full-service supermarket in 2013. We looked at the impact on residents’ diet, perceived access to healthy foods and satisfaction with one’s neighborhood as a place to live. Baseline data was collected in 2011, and follow-up in 2014. Relative to the comparison neighborhood, we found a net positive change in the intervention neighborhood in overall dietary quality, total kilocalories, added sugars, and solid fats, alcohol and added sugars (SoFAAS). However, we did not observe differential improvement in fruit and vegetable intake, whole grain consumption or body mass index (BMI). Regular users of the new supermarket had significantly improved perceived access to healthy foods compared to others, but use of the new supermarket was not related to dietary changes or to improvements with neighborhood satisfaction. Our study is the first to our knowledge to have found significant improvements in multiple dietary outcomes and neighborhood satisfaction among residents of a food desert, following the opening of a supermarket. Our study supports the Healthy Food Financing Initiative and other policies that incentivize food retail venues to locate in food deserts, but we recommend further efforts proceed with caution until research has clarified the mechanisms through which diet is improved and associations with weight status/obesity have been observed. PMID:26526243

  2. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  3. The virtual supermarket: an innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; Scarpa, Michael; Lentz, Daisy; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2011-07-25

    Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The application can be obtained via an URL

  4. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenhuis Ingrid HM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66 revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food

  5. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The

  6. Trends in the Internationalisation of R&D - the German Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Beise; Heike Belitz

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present latest facts about the R&D activities of German multinational companies abroad and R&D activities of foreign companies in Germany. These results confirm that Germany is still an attractive location for R&D activites of multinational companies in many technological fields. However, the internationalisation of R&D is closely linked with the internationalisation of sales and production. In the commonly accepted eclectic theoretical approach by Dunning direct investment i...

  7. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  8. The happy hen on your supermarket shelf: what choice does industrial strength free-range represent for consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Christine; Brunswick, Carly; Kotey, Jane

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates what "free-range" eggs are available for sale in supermarkets in Australia, what "free-range" means on product labelling, and what alternative "free-range" offers to cage production. The paper concludes that most of the "free-range" eggs currently available in supermarkets do not address animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health concerns but, rather, seek to drive down consumer expectations of what these issues mean by balancing them against commercial interests. This suits both supermarkets and egg producers because it does not challenge dominant industrial-scale egg production and the profits associated with it. A serious approach to free-range would confront these arrangements, and this means it may be impossible to truthfully label many of the "free-range" eggs currently available in the dominant supermarkets as free-range.

  9. Prediction and analysis of the seasonal performance of tri-generation and CO2 refrigeration systems in supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.; Suamir, I.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integration model of a trigeneration with CO 2 refrigeration systems in supermarket. ► Validation of the developed integration model with site and laboratory measurement. ► Application of the trigeneration system in power generation and space conditioning. ► Performance analysis and comparison of the integrated system in supermarket. - Abstract: A modern supermarket energy control system has a concurrent need for electricity, space heating or cooling, and food refrigeration. The power supply to the supermarket is primarily from the national grid, where losses in efficiency are due to the processes of energy conversion and transmission. Combined heat and power (CHP) offers the potential to locally produce electrical power and heating which could save energy and reduce CO 2 emissions in the long run. During the summer months, as the space heating requirement in a supermarket is relatively small, the energy efficiency of a CHP installation can be improved by using excess thermal energy to drive a sorption refrigeration system to provide space cooling or refrigeration. This process is also known as tri-generation. In recent years, the use of CO 2 as a refrigerant in supermarkets has received considerable attention due to its negligible contribution to direct greenhouse gas emissions and excellent thermophysical and heat transfer properties. Consequently, the application of a tri-generation system in a supermarket with CO 2 refrigeration merits further investigation. In this paper, to evaluate the performance of a tri-generation system in the supermarket, a previously tested 80 kWe microturbine device was applied into an operational supermarket to generate power and provide space heating and cooling through exhaust heat. The performance evaluation and comparison for this tri-generation application is based on the prediction from an integrated model of supermarket energy control, cascade CO 2 refrigeration and tri-generation systems. The results

  10. Interplay of Socioeconomic Status and Supermarket Distance Is Associated with Excess Obesity Risk: A UK Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-10-25

    U.S. policy initiatives have sought to improve health through attracting neighborhood supermarket investment. Little evidence exists to suggest that these policies will be effective, in particular where there are socioeconomic barriers to healthy eating. We measured the independent associations and combined interplay of supermarket access and socioeconomic status with obesity. Using data on 9702 UK adults, we employed adjusted regression analyses to estimate measured BMI (kg/m²), overweight (25 ≥ BMI obesity (≥30), across participants' highest educational attainment (three groups) and tertiles of street network distance (km) from home location to nearest supermarket. Jointly-classified models estimated combined associations of education and supermarket distance, and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Participants farthest away from their nearest supermarket had higher odds of obesity (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58), relative to those living closest. Lower education was also associated with higher odds of obesity. Those least-educated and living farthest away had 3.39 (2.46-4.65) times the odds of being obese, compared to those highest-educated and living closest, with an excess obesity risk (RERI = 0.09); results were similar for overweight. Our results suggest that public health can be improved through planning better access to supermarkets, in combination with interventions to address socioeconomic barriers.

  11. Interplay of Socioeconomic Status and Supermarket Distance Is Associated with Excess Obesity Risk: A UK Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Burgoine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available U.S. policy initiatives have sought to improve health through attracting neighborhood supermarket investment. Little evidence exists to suggest that these policies will be effective, in particular where there are socioeconomic barriers to healthy eating. We measured the independent associations and combined interplay of supermarket access and socioeconomic status with obesity. Using data on 9702 UK adults, we employed adjusted regression analyses to estimate measured BMI (kg/m2, overweight (25 ≥ BMI < 30 and obesity (≥30, across participants’ highest educational attainment (three groups and tertiles of street network distance (km from home location to nearest supermarket. Jointly-classified models estimated combined associations of education and supermarket distance, and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI. Participants farthest away from their nearest supermarket had higher odds of obesity (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58, relative to those living closest. Lower education was also associated with higher odds of obesity. Those least-educated and living farthest away had 3.39 (2.46–4.65 times the odds of being obese, compared to those highest-educated and living closest, with an excess obesity risk (RERI = 0.09; results were similar for overweight. Our results suggest that public health can be improved through planning better access to supermarkets, in combination with interventions to address socioeconomic barriers.

  12. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  13. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument...... promotion intensities are socially excessive. Moreover, the welfare implications are determined by the two opposite effects of price advertising: (1) the informing and therefore welfare-improving effect, and (2) the welfare-harming effect that higher transportation costs incur when promotions are used....... Using a spatial model that accounts for consumer shopping behavior and retailer pricing behavior, I structurally estimate consumer demand and the marginal costs of promotion, following the discrete choice literature and moment inequality approach. The simulation results numerically show that the private...

  14. HFC-134A and HCFC-22 supermarket refrigeration demonstration and laboratory testing. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Aspen Systems and a team of nineteen agencies and industry participants conducted a series of tests to determine the performance of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and CFC-502 for supermarket application. This effort constitutes the first phase of a larger project aimed at carrying out both laboratory and demonstration tests of the most viable HFC refrigerants and the refrigerants they replace. The results of the Phase I effort are presented in the present report. The second phase of the project has also been completed. It centered on testing all viable HFC replacement refrigerants for CFC-502. These were HFC-507, HFC-404A, and HFC-407A. The latter results are published in the Phase II report for this project. As part of Phase I, a refrigeration rack utilizing a horizontal open drive screw compressor was constructed in our laboratory. This refrigeration rack is a duplicate of one we have installed in a supermarket in Clifton Park, NY.

  15. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte

    regressed on SES indicators (percentage of: recent immigrants, lack of high school diploma, population under 35 yr, and average household income in Euros) using negative binomial analysis. Findings: In the fully adjusted models, income was significantly associated with fast food exposure......, but not with supermarket exposure. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income, in the presence of populations under 35 yrs of age, remained a significant predictor for fast food outlet exposure (IRR = 0.66-0.80) in the final model. Conclusions: In the city of Copenhagen, low-income neighborhoods...... have better exposure to supermarkets than their high income counterparts. However, we detected the opposite trend in the patterning of fast food outlets, such that neighborhoods in the lowest income quartile had less exposure to food outlets than higher income ones. These findings support studies...

  16. Supporting the Supermarket Shopping Experience through a Context-Aware Shopping Trolley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience....

  17. Design of different types of indirect cooling systems in supermarkets - Comparison of energy use and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline

    2007-08-15

    A case study has been performed comparing 11 different cases of indirect cooling systems in supermarkets. The influence of the selection of cooling-coil/heat exchanger design, display cabinets, type of secondary refrigerant, types of valves, types of pumps and type of system design has been investigated. The cases have been selected to be representative for a large number of supermarkets in Sweden. However, some of the cases are only hypothetical and do no not exist in reality so far. The results show that savings of both energy and money can be significant, by the selection of efficient components and system design. An iterative procedure, for finding the optimal operating point (liquid inlet temperature and liquid flow rate) is suggested. This procedure has been evaluated with good results

  18. The German energy transition. Design, implementeation, cost and lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnerstall, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The book presents a comprehensive and systematic account of the concept, the current status and the costs of the German energy transition: the Energiewende. Written by an insider who has been working in the German energy industry for over 20 years, it follows a strictly non-political, neutral approach and clearly outlines the most relevant facts and figures. In particular, it describes the main impacts of the Energiewende on the German power system and Germany's national economy. Furthermore, it addresses questions that are of global interest with respect to energy transitions, such as the cost to the national economy, the financial burden on private households and companies and the actual effects on CO{sub 2} emissions. The book also discusses what could have been done better in terms of planning and implementing the Energiewende, and identifies important lessons for other countries that are considering a similar energy transition.

  19. The German energy transition. Design, implementeation, cost and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnerstall, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive and systematic account of the concept, the current status and the costs of the German energy transition: the Energiewende. Written by an insider who has been working in the German energy industry for over 20 years, it follows a strictly non-political, neutral approach and clearly outlines the most relevant facts and figures. In particular, it describes the main impacts of the Energiewende on the German power system and Germany's national economy. Furthermore, it addresses questions that are of global interest with respect to energy transitions, such as the cost to the national economy, the financial burden on private households and companies and the actual effects on CO 2 emissions. The book also discusses what could have been done better in terms of planning and implementing the Energiewende, and identifies important lessons for other countries that are considering a similar energy transition.

  20. Less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently in large supermarket chains in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Potvin Kent

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of food expenditures are made in supermarkets and this environment influences our purchasing and food intake. Breakfast cereals are frequently marketed as healthy food choices. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of in–store promotions for cold breakfast cereals in Canadian supermarkets and to determine whether healthier or less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently. Methods Data was collected once per week over a four-week period from a convenience sample of the five largest Canadian supermarkets in the Ottawa/Gatineau area. Data collection included the number of shelf facings, promotional displays, and the cost of cereals/100 g. The UK Nutrient Profiling Model was used to determine the healthfulness of each breakfast cereal. Results 29.8% (n = 67 of the 225 unique cereals were classified as healthier and 70.2% (n = 158 were classified as less healthy. Less healthy cereals were displayed at eye level, in the profitable middle shelves, 2.9 times more frequently than healthier cereals. There were 5.3 times more breakfast cereal shelf facings, 4.2 more end cap displays, 1.7 more mid-aisle displays and 3.3 more special pricing signage for less healthy cereals compared to healthier cereals. Less healthy cereals had a significantly higher average total number of shelf facings compared to healthier cereals (t = −4.28 (280.8, p < .001. Conclusions Breakfast cereal manufacturers need to consider reformulation of their breakfast cereals to improve their healthfulness and supermarkets need to increase the marketing of healthy breakfast cereals within their stores.

  1. Indicators of the relative availability of healthy versus unhealthy foods in supermarkets: a validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Mackenzie, Tara; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2017-01-01

    Background In-store availability of healthy and unhealthy foods may influence consumer purchases. Methods used to measure food availability, however, vary widely. A simple, valid, and reliable indicator to collect comparable data on in-store food availability is needed. Methods Cumulative linear shelf length of and variety within 22 healthy and 28 unhealthy food groups, determined based on a comparison of three nutrient profiling systems, were measured in 15 New Zealand supermarkets. Inter-ra...

  2. Binocular glaucomatous visual field loss and its impact on visual exploration--a supermarket study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sippel

    Full Text Available Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP, and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item. Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p < 0.001. Furthermore, patients who passed the task showed a significantly higher number of glances towards the visual field defect (VFD area than patients who failed (t-test, p < 0.05. According to these results, glaucoma patients with defects in the binocular visual field display on average longer search times in a naturalistic supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a "time-effective" compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task.

  3. Supermarket refrigeration. Optimization of suction pressure in existing refrigerators; Supermarktkaelte. Saugdruck optimieren in Bestandskaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Philipp; Mueller, Markus [Eckelmann AG, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The new E*LDS firmware E*COP{sup +} from Eckelmann AG (Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany) for the optimization of the suction pressure supplies a demand-oriented adaptation of the suction pressure. The new feature is ideal for an update of existing systems with thermostatic expansion valves. Using this update operators of supermarket operators may save about 10% energy with little effort.

  4. Less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently in large supermarket chains in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Rudnicki, Erika; Usher, Crystal

    2017-11-13

    The majority of food expenditures are made in supermarkets and this environment influences our purchasing and food intake. Breakfast cereals are frequently marketed as healthy food choices. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of in-store promotions for cold breakfast cereals in Canadian supermarkets and to determine whether healthier or less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently. Data was collected once per week over a four-week period from a convenience sample of the five largest Canadian supermarkets in the Ottawa/Gatineau area. Data collection included the number of shelf facings, promotional displays, and the cost of cereals/100 g. The UK Nutrient Profiling Model was used to determine the healthfulness of each breakfast cereal. 29.8% (n = 67) of the 225 unique cereals were classified as healthier and 70.2% (n = 158) were classified as less healthy. Less healthy cereals were displayed at eye level, in the profitable middle shelves, 2.9 times more frequently than healthier cereals. There were 5.3 times more breakfast cereal shelf facings, 4.2 more end cap displays, 1.7 more mid-aisle displays and 3.3 more special pricing signage for less healthy cereals compared to healthier cereals. Less healthy cereals had a significantly higher average total number of shelf facings compared to healthier cereals (t = -4.28 (280.8), p supermarkets need to increase the marketing of healthy breakfast cereals within their stores.

  5. The impact of a supermarket nutrition rating system on purchases of nutritious and less nutritious foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Sweeney, Matthew J; Sobal, Jeffery; Just, David R; Kaiser, Harry M; Schulze, William D; Wethington, Elaine; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of a nutrition rating system on consumers' food purchases in supermarkets. Aggregate sales data for 102 categories of food (over 60 000 brands) on a weekly basis for 2005-2007 from a supermarket chain of over 150 stores are analysed. Change in weekly sales of nutritious and less nutritious foods, after the introduction of a nutrition rating system on store shelves, is calculated, controlling for seasonality and time trends in sales. One hundred and sixty-eight supermarket stores in the north-east USA, from January 2005 to December 2007. Consumers purchasing goods at the supermarket chain during the study period. After the introduction of the nutrition ratings, overall weekly food sales declined by an average of 3637 units per category (95 % CI -5961, -1313; P<0·01). Sales of less nutritious foods fell by 8·31 % (95 % CI -13·50, -2·80 %; P=0·004), while sales of nutritious foods did not change significantly (P=0·21); as a result, the percentage of food purchases rated as nutritious rose by 1·39 % (95 % CI 0·58, 2·20 %; P<0·01). The decrease in sales of less nutritious foods was greatest in the categories of canned meat and fish, soda pop, bakery and canned vegetables. The introduction of the nutrition ratings led shoppers to buy a more nutritious mix of products. Interestingly, it did so by reducing purchases of less nutritious foods rather than by increasing purchases of nutritious foods. In evaluating nutrition information systems, researchers should focus on the entire market basket, not just sales of nutritious foods.

  6. Variation in supermarket exposure to energy-dense snack foods by socio-economic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Thornton, Lukar E; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the availability of energy-dense,nutrient-poor snack foods (and fruits and vegetables) in supermarkets located insocio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional supermarket audit. Melbourne, Australia. Measures included product shelf space and number of varieties for soft drinks, crisps, chocolate, confectionery and fruits and vegetables, as well as store size. Thirty-five supermarkets (response 83 %) from neighbourhoods in the lowest and highest quintile of socio-economic disadvantage. Shelf space allocated to soft drinks (23?6m v. 17?7m, P50?006), crisps (16?5m v. 13?0m, P50?016), chocolate (12?2m v. 10?1m, P50?022) and confectionery (6?7m v. 5?1m, P50?003) was greater in stores from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. After adjustment for store size (stores in disadvantaged areas being larger), shelf space for confectionery (6?3m v. 5?6m, P50?024) and combined shelf space for all energy-dense foods and drinks (55?0m v. 48?9m, P50?017) remained greater in stores from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The ratio of shelf space allocated to fruits and vegetables to that for energy-dense snack foods also varied by socio-economic disadvantage after adjustment for store size (most disadvantaged v. least disadvantaged: 1?7 v. 2?1, P50?025). Varieties of fruits and vegetables and chocolate bars were more numerous in less disadvantaged areas (P,0?05). Exposure to energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks in supermarketswas greater in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Thismay impact purchasing, consumption and cultural norms related to eatingbehaviours and may therefore work against elimination of the known socioeconomicgradient in obesity levels. Reform of supermarket stocking practicesmay represent an effective means of obesity prevention.

  7. Values, food and bags: A study of consumption decisions in a laboratory supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Matthey; Tim Kasser

    2013-01-01

    We study the relation between people's personal values and environmentally friendly consumption behavior. We first assessed subjects' personal values using the Aspiration Index. Then subjects participated in a laboratory supermarket offering organic and conventional food products and different kinds of bags. The results suggest that subjects' personal values are poor predictors of their ecologically-relevant consumption behavior. However, we find that subjects who spontaneously reflected upon...

  8. Consumers' Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Bollinger, Bryan; Sacco, Jocelyn; Liebman, Eli; Vanderlee, Lana; Zuo, Fei; Rosella, Laura; L'abbe, Mary; Manson, Heather; Hammond, David

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This study is one of the first to report the positive impact of an on-shelf nutrition labelling system on supermarket sales and revenues-key information that was specifically requested by the US National Academies, as such labelling interventions may be more sustainable if they lead to higher revenues. Providing a nutrition rating system on the front of food packages or on retail shelf tags has been proposed as a policy strategy for supporting healthier food choices. Guiding Stars is an on-shelf nutrition labelling system that scores foods in a supermarket based on nutritional quality; scores are then translated into ratings of 0 to 3 stars. It is consistent with evidence-informed recommendations for well-designed labels, except for not labelling 0-star products. The largest supermarket retailer in Canada rolled out the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets across Ontario, Canada. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which consumers respond to an on-shelf nutrition labelling system in supermarkets to inform current and future nutrition labelling policies and practices. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we conducted a quasi-experimental study across 3 supermarket banners (or "chains") in Ontario, one of which implemented the Guiding Stars system in 2012. We used aggregated

  9. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  10. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  11. Buying behavior in Chinese supermarkets: A comparison across four major cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    The purpose of this paper is to report a study of buying behaviour of imported food products in Chinese supermarkets. Imports of food products to China have increased substantially in the past decade. The present study offers the results from an investigation of retailers' buying behaviour of imp...... of supplier selection criteria and buying behaviour as well as structural characteristics of the retailers. The findings have important implications for exporters of food products to the Chinese retail market.......The purpose of this paper is to report a study of buying behaviour of imported food products in Chinese supermarkets. Imports of food products to China have increased substantially in the past decade. The present study offers the results from an investigation of retailers' buying behaviour...... of imported food products in four major Chinese cities (i.e., Bejing, Shanghai, Gaungzhou, and Chengdu). Knowledge about potential differences in supermarket structure and buying behaviour between regions will be a prerequisite to foreign food suppliers trying to capitalise on increased consumer demands...

  12. Do socio-economic factors influence supermarket content and shoppers' purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V S; Gomez, Maria; Colagiuri, Ruth

    2009-12-01

    Obesity is at crisis proportions. Individuals of low socio-economic status (SES) are more likely to consume higher energy dense diets than their high socio-economic status counterparts. The contribution of supermarket purchases of energy dense, nutrient poor foods has not been well-researched and has largely depended on unverified self-report. We estimated the proportion of supermarket shelf space dedicated to non-core foods in nine supermarkets (in five high and four low SES areas) in metropolitan Sydney. We analysed 204 shoppers' dockets (102 from high and 102 from low SES areas) for purchases of confectionery; sugar sweetened, carbonated beverages and cordials, sweet biscuits and cakes, and crisps and popcorn. After adjusting for the number of people shopped for, low SES shoppers purchased significantly more non-core foods than high SES shoppers (p=0.039), especially chips and sugar sweetened, carbonated beverages and cordials. There was no difference in the shelf space dedicated to non-core foods, or between non-core foods purchased and the proportion of shelf space occupied by them in either low or high SES areas. Increased purchase of non-core foods by low SES shoppers who are already at higher risk of obesity than high SES shoppers is cause for concern. Further research is required to explore underlying reasons for this association.

  13. A cost comparison of more and less nutritious food choices in US supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Njike, Valentine; Treu, Judith A; Reynolds, Jesse; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Katz, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    The present study directly compared prices of more and less nutritious foods within given categories in US supermarkets. Foods selected from six supermarkets in Jackson County were categorized using the five criteria of the Nutrition Detectives™ (ND) programme and an item-to-item cost comparison was made using posted prices. The nutritional quality of foods was distinguished using the clues of the ND nutrition education programme for elementary-school children and validated using the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Supermarkets in Jackson County, MO, USA. Not applicable. The average price of the item for more nutritious foods did not differ significantly from that of less nutritious foods overall ($US 2·89 (sd $US 0·74) v. $US 2·85 (sd $0·68), P = 0·76). More nutritious breads cost more than less nutritious breads ($US 3·36 (sd $ US 0·28) v. $US 2·56 (sd $US 0·80, P = 0·03), whereas more nutritious cereals ($US 2·46 (sd $US 0·69) v. $US 3·50 (sd $US 0·30), P cost less. Our findings indicate that it is possible to choose more nutritious foods within many common categories without spending more money and suggest that making small improvements in dietary choices does not invariably cost more.

  14. Consumer taste tests and milk preference in low-income, urban supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stephanie; Davis, Erica; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Foster, Gary D; Glanz, Karen; Karpyn, Allison

    2015-06-01

    To explore shoppers' responses to the taste of different types of cow's milk in a blind taste test and to examine their willingness to purchase lower-fat milk as part of an in-store marketing intervention. Participants were recruited on-site in the supermarket to participate in a blind taste test of three varieties of cow's milk and asked to guess what type they sampled. The taste testing was conducted as part of the Healthy Retail Solution (HRS) intervention that took place in four large supermarkets in Philadelphia, PA, USA over the course of six months. Adults (n 444) at participating Philadelphia supermarkets. The majority of participants at all stores reported typically purchasing higher-fat milk. Forty per cent of participants reported buying whole milk, 38 % purchased milk with 2 % fat. Very few participants correctly identified all three milk samples during the taste test (6·9 %) and a majority of participants were unable to identify the type of milk they self-reported typically purchased. Most consumers could not accurately distinguish between various types of milk. Taste testing is a promising strategy to introduce lower-fat milks to consumers who have not tried them before. Campaigns to purchase skimmed, 1 % or 2 % milk may result in significant energy reduction over time and can serve as a simple way to combat overweight and obesity.

  15. Customer Perception of a Supermarket Nutrition Centre Staffed by a Registered Dietitian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, KATE; Taper, JANETTE; Quintal, DEBORAH

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' attitudes toward a supermarket nutrition centre staffed full time by a registered dietitian. A questionnaire was administered over three consecutive days in that store and in a control store that was similar to the experimental site in every way, except for the absence of a nutrition centre. Participants were chosen randomly at timed intervals in specific areas of the store. Of 428 customers approached, 232 agreed to participate in the survey. At the experimental site, 75% of the participants were extremely satisfied with the registered dietitian's services and 69% ranked having a registered dietitian on staff in any store as extremely important, compared to 31% at the control site (p importance of 13 required and optional services offered by the supermarkets, 15% of participants at the experimental site ranked having a registered dietitian on staff in the top five, compared with 4% at the control site (p service. There may therefore be an expanded role for registered dietitians in the supermarket setting.

  16. Package design and nutritional profile of foods targeted at children in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana; Saldamando, Luis de; Curutchet, María Rosa; Ares, Gastón

    2017-06-12

    Marketing of unhealthy products has been identified as one of the main characteristics of the food environment that negatively affects children's eating patterns. Restrictions on advertising of unhealthy foods to children have already been imposed in different countries. However, marketing strategies are not limited to broadcast and digital advertising, but also include package design. In this context, the current study aimed to describe the food products targeted at children and sold in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay, in terms of package design and nutrient profile. Two supermarkets in Montevideo were selected for data collection. In each supermarket, all products targeted at children were identified. Products were analyzed in terms of package design and nutritional profile, considering the Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile Model. A total of 180 unique products were identified, which included a wide range of product categories. The great majority of the products corresponded to ultra-processed products with excessive amounts of sodium, free sugars, total fat, saturated fat, and/or trans fat, which are not recommended for frequent consumption. Several marketing strategies were identified in the design of packages to attract children's attention and drive their preferences. The most common strategies were the inclusion of cartoon characters, bright colors, childish lettering, and a wide range of claims related to health and nutrition, as well as the products' sensory and hedonic characteristics. The study's findings provide additional evidence on the need to regulate packaging of products targeted at children.

  17. Package design and nutritional profile of foods targeted at children in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Giménez

    Full Text Available Abstract: Marketing of unhealthy products has been identified as one of the main characteristics of the food environment that negatively affects children’s eating patterns. Restrictions on advertising of unhealthy foods to children have already been imposed in different countries. However, marketing strategies are not limited to broadcast and digital advertising, but also include package design. In this context, the current study aimed to describe the food products targeted at children and sold in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay, in terms of package design and nutrient profile. Two supermarkets in Montevideo were selected for data collection. In each supermarket, all products targeted at children were identified. Products were analyzed in terms of package design and nutritional profile, considering the Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile Model. A total of 180 unique products were identified, which included a wide range of product categories. The great majority of the products corresponded to ultra-processed products with excessive amounts of sodium, free sugars, total fat, saturated fat, and/or trans fat, which are not recommended for frequent consumption. Several marketing strategies were identified in the design of packages to attract children’s attention and drive their preferences. The most common strategies were the inclusion of cartoon characters, bright colors, childish lettering, and a wide range of claims related to health and nutrition, as well as the products’ sensory and hedonic characteristics. The study’s findings provide additional evidence on the need to regulate packaging of products targeted at children.

  18. Nutrition education in supermarkets: an unsuccessful attempt to influence knowledge and product sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, R W; Pirie, P L; Rosenthal, B S; Gerber, W M; Murray, D M

    1982-06-01

    Although much evidence links dietary patterns with coronary heart disease, effective and economical methods for inducing dietary change in nonclinical populations are needed to influence public health. This study was designed as a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of conducting effective nutrition education campaigns in supermarket settings. Eight supermarkets from a supermarket chain in the Twin Cities area participated. Four were assigned to an experimental condition in which educational materials consisting of posters, recipes, and brochures were placed in the dairy section during a 6-month period. Four other stores were assigned to a control condition and received no educational materials. Shoppers in experimental and control stores completed a nutrition survey pre- and post-intervention. In addition, sales data for 25 dairy products were collected during a 10-month period. A significant increase in knowledge on the nutrition survey between pre- and posttests occurred among shoppers in all stores. There was no significant knowledge or product sales effect due to the education campaign. Study results suggest that, overall, shopper knowledge of food selections for cardiovascular disease risk reduction is high and improving. Unfortunately, knowledge is often not reflected in food purchase patterns.

  19. Economic analysis of a herpes zoster vaccination program in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Megan A; Kuehl, Peggy G; Liu, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    To examine the economic impact of providing herpes zoster vaccine (ZOS) in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies in a midwestern metropolitan area from the perspective of the pharmacy and to identify factors associated with greater rates of vaccine delivery and profitability. 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Immunizations with ZOS were expanded from 2 pharmacies to all 19 affiliated pharmacies. Various methods to promote the vaccine were used, including personal selling, store signage, and circular ads. In addition to a broad perspective pharmacoeconomic model, a localized perspective model is proposed to determine profitability for the service. Factors associated with greater success in vaccine delivery and profitability were identified. Net financial gains or losses were calculated for each vaccine administered for each of the 19 pharmacies and for the entire supermarket chain. 662 vaccines were given during the study period, accounting for 6.7% of all eligible patients. The profit per vaccine averaged $9.60 (5.7%) and $28.37 (18.9%) using the broad and localized perspective models, respectively. Success of the ZOS program was demonstrated using both models. Certain factors correlated with greater profits when using the localized perspective model.

  20. Trigeneration in food retail: An energetic, economic and environmental evaluation for a supermarket application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiartha, N.; Tassou, S.A.; Chaer, I.; Marriott, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results on the evaluation of energy utilisation efficiency and economic and environmental performance of a micro-gas turbine (MGT) based trigeneration system for supermarket applications. A spreadsheet energy model has been developed for the analysis of trigeneration systems and a 2800 m 2 sales area supermarket was selected for the feasibility study. Historical energy demand data were used for the analysis, which considered factors such as the fraction of the heat output used to drive the absorption chillers, the chiller COP and the difference between electricity and gas prices. The results showed that energy and environmental benefits can be obtained from the application of trigeneration systems to supermarkets compared to conventional systems. The payback period of natural gas driven trigeneration systems and greenhouse gas emissions savings will depend on the relative gas and electricity prices and the COP of the vapour compression and absorption systems. It was also shown that operation at full electrical output gives a better performance than a heat load-following strategy due to the reduction of the electrical generation efficiency of the MGT unit at part load conditions.

  1. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  2. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  3. Oil and Cars: The Impact of Crude Oil Prices on the Stock Returns of Automotive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Lis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are testing whether the impact of oil prices is different on the overall market and automotive companies. In addition we investigate, if this relationship is nonlinear. For this we use stock return data of US, German and Japanese car companies, and returns of share indices from the same countries as control variables, and Brent crude oil price changes. We first estimate the impact of crude oil on the indices, then clean the indices from these influences, and afterwards estimate the impact on the stocks. For this we are using OLS and EGARCH (1,1. We conclude that in general the car companies‘ stocks do not react more adversely as the overall market to crude oil price increases, while Japanese companies do not show any excess sensitivity at all. German companies tend to be sensitive, and US and German companies are together more sensitive in the more recent time periods.

  4. INTERNATIONALIZATION PLANNING : The German market analysis for Alkuvoima East Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Klimchuk, Sviatoslav

    2013-01-01

    The study is focused on estimating the potential of the digital marketing market in Germany, and formulating the recommendations for the small-sized Bulgarian-Finnish digital marketing agency Alkuvioma East Ltd. in respect of the company’s potential entry in the German market. The primary aim of the research is a comprehensive analysis of the market that covers the study of the market size, demand, competitors and customers. The company itself is also subjected to the analysis with partic...

  5. SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  6. Association of a Community Campaign for Better Beverage Choices With Beverage Purchases From Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Schneider, Glenn E; Choi, Yoon-Young; Li, Xun; Harris, Jennifer; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Hyary, Maia; Highsmith Vernick, Nicolette; Appel, Lawrence J

    2017-05-01

    Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets. Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor's product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. Sales were tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (-19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, -369 fl oz; 95% CI, -469 to -269 fl oz; P sports drinks (-86.3 fl oz; 95% CI, -343.6 to 170.9 fl oz) and diet soda (-17.8 in HC stores vs -11.3 in comparison stores; DID adjusted mean, -78.9 fl oz; 95% CI, -182.1 to 24.4 fl oz) decreased in both communities, but the decreases were not significantly

  7. German War Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This game became known as ajedrez in Spanish, xadres in Portuguese, and zatrikion in Greek. The game was introduced to Western Europe generally by...six companies, one or two cavalry squadrons, and a quarter or a half of a battery.59 A large game en - compassed the tactical exercise of forces up

  8. A Nodal Pricing Analysis of the Future German Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, O.; Hers, J.S.; Bartholomew Fisher, E.; Brunekreeft, G.; Hobbs, B.F.

    2009-05-01

    The electricity market in Germany is likely to undergo several significant structural changes over the years to come. Here one may think of Germany's ambitious renewable agenda, the disputed decommissioning of nuclear facilities, but also unbundling of TSO's as enforced by European regulation. This study is a scenario-based analysis of the impact of different realizations of known investment plans for transmission and generation capacity on the future German power market while accounting for internal congestion. For this analysis the static equilibrium model of the European electricity market COMPETES is deployed, including a 10-node representation of the German highvoltage grid. Results for the multi-node analysis indicate that price divergence and congestion are likely to arise in the German market as renewable additions affecting mainly the North of Germany, the debated decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the South, and the expected decommissioning of coal-fired facilities in Western Germany appear to render current investment plans for transmission capacity insufficient. The current system of singlezone pricing for the German market may therewith be compromised. However, transmission additions would not benefit all market parties, with producers in exporting regions and consumers in importing regions being the main beneficiaries. Vertical unbundling of German power companies could increase the incentive for constructing transmission lines if generation capacity would cause Germany to be a net-importing country. In case Germany remains a net-exporting country, the effects of vertical unbundling on cross-border capacity are less clear cut.

  9. The impact of financial incentives on participants' food purchasing patterns in a supermarket-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Crawford, David A; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha Nd; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Ball, Kylie

    2017-08-25

    The impacts of supermarket-based nutrition promotion interventions might be overestimated if participants shift their proportionate food purchasing away from their usual stores. This study quantified whether participants who received price discounts on fruits and vegetables (FV) in the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial (RCT) shifted their FV purchasing into study supermarkets during the intervention period. Participants were 642 females randomly assigned to a 1) skill-building (n = 160), 2) price reduction (n = 161), 3) combined skill-building and price reduction (n = 160), or 4) control (n = 161) group. Participants self-reported the proportion of FV purchased in study supermarkets at baseline, 3- and 6-months post-intervention. Fisher's exact and χ 2 tests assessed differences among groups in the proportion of FV purchased in study supermarkets at each time point. Multinomial logistic regression assessed differences among groups in the change in proportionate FV purchasing over time. Post-intervention, 49% of participants purchased ≥50% of their FV in study supermarkets. Compared to all other groups, the price reduction group was approximately twice as likely (RRR: 1.8-2.2) to have increased proportionate purchasing of FV in study supermarkets from baseline to post-intervention (psupermarkets during the intervention period. Unless food purchasing data are available for all sources, differential changes in purchasing patterns can make it difficult to discern the true impacts of nutrition interventions. The SHELf trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials Registration ISRCTN39432901, Registered 30 June 2010, Retrospectively registered ( http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN39432901 ).

  10. Supermarket access, transport mode and BMI: the potential for urban design and planning policy across socio-economic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maureen; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-12-01

    To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scales and transport modes across areas of socio-economic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations to investigate associations between supermarket density and proximity, vegetable and fruit intake and BMI at five geographic scales representing distances people travel to purchase food by varying transport modes. A stratified analysis by area-level disadvantage was conducted to detect optimal distances to supermarkets across socio-economic areas. Spatial distribution of supermarket and transport access was analysed using a geographic information system. Melbourne, Australia. Adults (n 3128) from twelve local government areas (LGA) across Melbourne. Supermarket access was protective of BMI for participants in high disadvantaged areas within 800 m (P=0·040) and 1000 m (P=0·032) road network buffers around the household but not for participants in less disadvantaged areas. In urban growth area LGA, only 26 % of dwellings were within 1 km of a supermarket, far less than 80-90 % of dwellings suggested in the local urban planning policy. Low public transport access compounded disadvantage. Rapid urbanisation is a global health challenge linked to increases in dietary risk factors and BMI. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying the most appropriate geographic scale to inform urban planning policy for optimal health outcomes across socio-economic strata. Urban planning policy implementation in disadvantaged areas within cities has potential for reducing health inequities.

  11. Uses of History and Information Asymmetries in German-Indian Business Relations before 1947

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    to nationalistically-thinking Indians. The paper deals with the long-term development of German business in India from the late nineteenth century to Indian independence in 1947. It explores which information deficits German multinationals were seeking to overcome and which strategies they employed to do so....... Empirically, the paper is based on German corporate archives, such as the electrical giant Siemens, several dye stuff companies, such as Bayer and I.G. Farben, as well as small- and medium sized manufacturers of cutlery, a typical bazaar good. Further sources come from the West Bengal State Archives...

  12. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  13. 2013 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings; Deutsche Kaelte- und Klimatagung 2013. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    These proceedings cover the following main topics: cryoengineering - superconduction / energy storage; cryoapplications in biology and medicine; metrology; adsorption processes; condensation/evaporation; working fluids / simulation; ice production; plants and compressors; expansion and ejectors or recooling; use of cooling (passenger car air conditioning, supermarket); refrigerants; plant efficiency; emissions and legislation; air conditioning and use of heat pumps; air quality and control; building technology and block-type thermal power stations. [German] Dieser Tagungsbericht enthaelt folgende Themenschwerpunkte: Kryotechnik - Supraleitung/Energiespeicher; Kryoanwendungen in der Biologie und Medizin; Messtechnik; Adsorptionsprozesse; Kondensation/Verdampfung; Arbeitsfluide/Simulation; Eiserzeugung; Anlagen und Verdichter; Expansion und Ejektoren bzw. Rueckkuehlung; Kaelteanwendung (PKW-Klimatisierung; Supermarkt); Kaeltemittel; Anlageneffizienz; Emissionen und Gesetzgebung; Klimatechnik und Waermepumpenanwendung; Luftqualitaet und Regelung; Gebaeudetechnik und BHKW.

  14. Becoming German: Integration, Citizenship and Territorialization of Germanness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    understandings of integration and Germanness, this paper highlights the neglected aspect of the ascendance of Integrationspolitik since the turn of the century: namely how it superseded previous regime of completely bifurcated migration policy for "foreigners" on the one hand, and so-called "settlers" of German......, seen ever more as residing within its state territory rather than some diffuse cultural-linguistic space. Moving our understanding of Germanness beyond the "ethnic nationhood model" (Faist 2008), I argue thus that, in conjunction with the new citizenship law, the emergence of Integrationspolitik...

  15. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilliland Jason

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario by using a geographic information system (GIS to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes.

  16. A Census of Midsize to Large Supermarkets in Toronto: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Consumer Nutrition Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Andi; Levy, Jennifer; Bassil, Kate; Vanderlinden, Loren; Barnett, Olanna White; Minaker, Leia M; Mulligan, Kate; Campbell, Monica

    2018-02-26

    Assess the consumer nutrition environment in midsize to large supermarkets by supermarket type and area-level socioeconomic variables. Cross-sectional census of 257 supermarkets using the Toronto Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores. Toronto, Canada. Availability; price and linear shelf space of fruits and vegetables vs energy-dense snack foods by supermarket type; after-tax, low-income measure; and neighborhood improvement area. Multivariate linear regression. There was a high availability of fruits (7.7 of 8) and vegetables (9.5 of 11). There was similar linear shelf space for fruits and vegetables vs energy-dense snack foods (ratio, 1.1 m). Adjusted fruit prices were lowest in quintiles 1 (β = -$1.30; P = .008), 2 (β = -$1.41; P = .005), and 3 (β = -$1.89; P discount stores (β = -$5.64; P discount (β = -$5.49; P discount (β = -$1.16; P < .001) and higher in other stores (β = + $0.67; P < .001) vs conventional. Findings do not indicate inequities in shelf space, availability, or price across diverse neighborhoods. Practitioners can use findings to help consumers navigate supermarkets to make healthy choices. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes. PMID:18423005

  18. Can the introduction of a full-service supermarket in a food desert improve residents' economic status and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Beckman, Robin; Flórez, Karen R; DeSantis, Amy; Collins, Rebecca L; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the impacts of a new supermarket in a low-income desert, on residents' economic status and health. We surveyed a randomly selected cohort in two low-income Pittsburgh neighborhoods before and about 1 year following the opening of a supermarket. We used difference-in-difference approach to test changes across the two neighborhoods in residents' food security, United States Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infant and Children participation, employment, income, and self-reported health/chronic disease diagnoses. We observed declines in food insecurity (-11.8%, P supermarket relative to residents of the comparison neighborhood. We also found suggestive evidence that residents' incomes increased more ($1550, P = .09) and prevalence of diabetes increased less in the neighborhood with the supermarket than in the comparison neighborhood (-3.6%, P = .10). Locating a new supermarket in a low-income neighborhood may improve residents' economic well-being and health. Policymakers should consider broad impacts of neighborhood investment that could translate into improved health for residents of underserved neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detailed analysis of the supermarket task included on the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yasushi; Yoshino, Aihide; Muramatsu, Taro; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    The supermarket task, which is included in the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test, requires the quick (1 min) generation of words for things that can be bought in a supermarket. Cluster size and switches are investigated during this task. We investigated how the severity of dementia related to cluster size and switches on the supermarket task in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We administered the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test to 250 patients with very mild to severe Alzheimer's disease and to 49 healthy volunteers. Patients had Mini-Mental State Examination scores from 12 to 26 and Clinical Dementia Rating scale scores from 0.5 to 3. Patients were divided into four groups based on their Clinical Dementia Rating score (0.5, 1, 2, 3). We performed statistical analyses between the four groups and control subjects based on cluster size and switch scores on the supermarket task. The score for cluster size and switches deteriorated according to the severity of dementia. Moreover, for subjects with a Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5, cluster size was impaired, but switches were intact. Our findings indicate that the scores for cluster size and switches on the supermarket task may be useful for detecting the severity of symptoms of dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  20. MERGER ACCOUTING FOR COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2014-01-01

    Companies, especially nowadays, are characterized through great mobility, fast circulation of capital, occurring in their chase for profit. In this context, companies look for alliances, economical and political assistance. These objectives can materialize through merging of companies. The merger can be internal (between Romanian companies) or transboundary, which includes foreign companies. In order to correctly reflect these events, the merger operations must be regulated and mu...

  1. Korean Investment in EU through Holding Companies: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Bong Lee

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available When transnational enterprises set subsidiary companies in certain area, their major aim is to invest indirectly through the holding companies which hold invested share. Especially, because of the geographical neighborhood and economic integration, investing by holding companies is common in Europe. In Europe, taking full advantage of holding company is out of the following two reasons. Firstly, the efficiency and flexibility of the manage strategy of a group could be elevated by making full use of the holding company. Secondly, the transnational enterprises have the possibility of flexible management at the tax strategy level. Recently, the Korean companies are making the best use of holding companies when they are Marching into the EU. In the year 1996, group K purchased 8 enterprises of a certain industry section of B, a German company, setting holding companies in Germany. The analysis result of the case shows that the manage efficiency could be risen and the taxation could be reduced by way of making use of holding companies. As to the Korean investment efficiency of overseas indirect investment in EU, this thesis brought forward a blueprint about integrating the local companies.

  2. How old are Germanic lambs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    2017-01-01

    Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto...

  3. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  4. Homonymous Visual Field Loss and Its Impact on Visual Exploration: A Supermarket Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasneci, Enkelejda; Sippel, Katrin; Heister, Martin; Aehling, Katrin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) may critically interfere with quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVFDs on a supermarket search task and to investigate the influence of visual search on task performance. Ten patients with HVFDs (four with a right-sided [HR] and six with a left-sided defect [HL]), and 10 healthy-sighted, sex-, and age-matched control subjects were asked to collect 20 products placed on two supermarket shelves as quickly as possible. Task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item ( T C -failed = 4.84 seconds based on the performance of healthy subjects). Eye movements were analyzed regarding the horizontal gaze activity, glance frequency, and glance proportion for different VF areas. Seven of 10 HVFD patients (three HR, four HL) passed the supermarket search task. Patients who passed needed significantly less time per correctly collected item and looked more frequently toward the VFD area than patients who failed. HL patients who passed the test showed a higher percentage of glances beyond the 60° VF ( P < 0.05). A considerable number of HVFD patients performed successfully and could compensate for the HVFD by shifting the gaze toward the peripheral VF and the VFD area. These findings provide new insights on gaze adaptations in patients with HVFDs during activities of daily living and will enhance the design and development of realistic examination tools for use in the clinical setting to improve daily functioning. (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01372319, NCT01372332).

  5. The Supermarket Revolution in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Lovre, Koviljko; Brankov, Tatjana Papic

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the modern grocery retail trends in Serbia in the transition process as well as its influence on the end consumer. Our research has shown that the retail market in Serbia is still immature, as it is of low concentration; it has poor format structure and under-represented private label market share. The supermarket revolution has so far not brought any benefits to the consumers in the sense of lowering food prices. Compared to the base year (2004-2006=100), in t...

  6. Recruitment and selection for the packer position in a supermarket network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Moraes Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of personnel recruitment and selection is a common practice to hire people in organizations. The goal of this study is to report and to reflect about this process in a supermarket chain, which operates in food and non-food retail in the state of Sao Paulo. The purpose of the present intervention was to facilitate the recruitment and selection process for the packer position. After the intervention, we noticed an improvement on the hiring process, on the working conditions and a turnover reduction in this position.

  7. Fault Detection and Isolation for a Supermarket Refrigeration System - Part Two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Rasmussen, Karsten B.; Kieu, Anh T.

    2011-01-01

    be isolated by using a bank of UIOs. Thereby, a complete FDI approach is proposed by combining the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF) and UIO methods, after an extensive comparison of KF-, EKF- and UIO-based FDI methods is carried out. The simulation tests show that the complete FDI approach has a good......The Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Unknown Input Observer (UIO) for a supermarket refrigeration system is investigated. The original system's state $T_{goods}$ (temp. of the goods) is regarded as a system unknown input in this study, so that the FDI decision is not disturbed...

  8. Energy and environmental performance assessment of R744 booster supermarket refrigeration systems operating in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullo, Paride; Elmegaard, Brian; Cortella, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical comparison among different commercial refrigeration systems in terms of annual energy consumption and environmental impact. Eight configurations were studied: a R744/R134a cascade refrigeration system (baseline), a conventional and an improved R744 booster system...... as on the running modes of a conventional European supermarket. A transition zone, which occurred between sub critical and transcritical operations, was adopted.The results showed that all the enhanced configurations may achieve a comparable energy saving to the one of the baseline in both the selected locations...

  9. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  10. Customer Service Quality in Large Supermarkets in Ibagué, Colombia: Analysis through the SERVQUAL Multidimensional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rubio Guerrero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is affecting all economies and their organizations seeking to maximize their profits through customer satisfaction. Within this context, large supermarkets have had significant growth; hence, it is important to know the quality of the service customers are receiving in these stores. Currently, service quality measures in these stores in the global market are scarce. This article presents the results of the measurement of the quality of service customers receive from large supermarkets in Ibagué - Colombia, by using the SERVQUAL multi-item scale, which is a tool applied to service quality, comprising five dimensions in 22 items and evaluating characteristics related to tangible aspects, reliability, responsibility, guaranty, security, and empathy. The population studied are customers who visit these supermarkets with mixed research approach (qualitative and quantitative; the results showed customer satisfaction with personnel kindness, customer attention services, agility in attention, customer care, behavior of security personnel, product promoters, merchandisers, cashiers, packers, and supervisors

  11. Overweight and obesity: can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S; Maroko, Andrew R; Schechter, Clyde B; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Maantay, Juliana

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction. Consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fast food retailers with adverse health outcomes, policymakers should be encouraged to adopt policies that incentivize the establishment of supermarkets and the modification of existing food store markets and retailers to offer healthier choices. Reaching within neighborhoods and modifying the physical environment and public health prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of those neighborhoods may play a key role in creating healthier communities.

  12. Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, Claire M; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hm; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Waterlander, Wilma E

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the availability of packaged food products in New Zealand supermarkets by level of industrial processing, nutrient profiling score (NPSC), price (energy, unit and serving costs) and brand variety. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data on packaged supermarket

  13. Food shopping transition: socio-economic characteristics and motivations associated with use of supermarkets in a North African urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Sophie; Traissac, Pierre; Bricas, Nicolas; Maire, Bernard; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; El Ati, Jalila; Delpeuch, Francis

    2010-09-01

    In the context of the nutrition transition and associated changes in the food retail sector, to examine the socio-economic characteristics and motivations of shoppers using different retail formats (large supermarkets (LSM), medium-sized supermarkets (MSM) or traditional outlets) in Tunisia. Cross-sectional survey (2006). Socio-economic status, type of food retailer and motivations data were collected during house visits. Associations between socio-economic factors and type of retailer were assessed by multinomial regression; correspondence analysis was used to analyse declared motivations. Peri-urban area around Tunis, Tunisia, North Africa. Clustered random sample of 724 households. One-third of the households used LSM, two-thirds used either type of supermarket, but less than 5 % used supermarkets only. Those who shopped for food at supermarkets were of higher socio-economic status; those who used LSM were much wealthier, more often had a steady income or owned a credit card, while MSM users were more urban and had a higher level of education. Most households still frequently used traditional outlets, mostly their neighbourhood grocer. Reasons given for shopping at the different retailers were most markedly leisure for LSM, while for the neighbourhood grocer the reasons were fidelity, proximity and availability of credit (the latter even more for lower-income customers). The results pertain to the transition in food shopping practices in a south Mediterranean country; they should be considered in the context of growing inequalities in health linked to the nutritional transition, as they differentiate use and motivations for the choice of supermarkets v. traditional food retailers according to socio-economic status.

  14. Coursebook of German: Gender Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova

    2015-01-01

    The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the ...

  15. The Strategic Challenge of Capacity for German Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomauske, Bruno; Moloney, Barry; Charlier, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Experience of decommissioning across the world has allowed the nuclear industry to develop and enhance most of the technologies required for safe and efficient dismantling of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). One strategic challenge confronting the industry now is how to scale up implementation to address the burgeoning demand for dismantling of full size NPPs during the period 2016-2040. The German decommissioning programme will provide early evidence of whether the European industry can rise to this strategic challenge. It is widely reported in the media that German utilities will spend some Euro 30-40 Bn decommissioning NPPs during the next 25 years. In total, 22 NPPs will progress through the typical three stage programme encompassing post operations, dismantling and site clearance, with a peak occurring in the 2020's. Politically, immediate dismantling is strongly preferred as the strategy for the NPPs, so there will be a surge in decommissioning expenditure starting as soon as 2017. A critical issue is whether the German nuclear industry has sufficient capacity to deliver the programme, and where utilities may seek participation by other European companies. Innovation may be required, perhaps at a non-technical level. The circumstances of the German market require a thorough understanding. While the market is apparently open and receptive to international participation, three factors make it hard for foreign companies to penetrate. The political and regulatory environment is tough and for many foreign companies difficult to understand quickly. Utilities are mostly pursuing self-perform decommissioning strategies to preserve employment for their skilled workforce, limiting scope for some contractors. Finally, an innovative and highly experienced German nuclear industry can present formidable competition. Yet, this industry does not possess all the capacity needed for the utilities' programmes. Risks for new entrants can

  16. Intelligibility of Standard German and Low German to Speakers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.S.; Kürschner, Sebastian; van Bezooijen, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the intelligibility of spoken Low German and Standard German for speakers of Dutch. Two aspects are considered. First, the relative potential for intelligibility of the Low German variety of Bremen and the High German variety of Modern Standard German for speakers of Dutch is

  17. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light...... fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality...

  18. The Stockouts Study: an Examination of the Extent and the Causes in the São Paulo Supermarket Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Rigato Vasconcellos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Stockouts remain a significant retail problem. Progress has been limited, as estimates of stockout rates in the past forty years have consistently averaged above 8 percent. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance and extent of the stockout problem in the supermarket sector in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from the perspective of the supermarket managers themselves. Results suggest that the level of stockouts is high. Generally, the suppliers are mentioned as being the ones mainly responsible for stockouts. These results suggest that managers have significant opportunities to reduce retail stockouts by taking preventative actions.

  19. A Mixed-Method Assessment of a New Supermarket in a Food Desert: Contributions to Everyday Life and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Chrisinger, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Initiatives to build supermarkets in low-income areas with relatively poor access to large food retailers (���food deserts���) have been implemented at all levels of government, although evaluative studies have not found these projects to improve diet or weight status for shoppers. Though known to be influential, existing evaluations have neglected in-store social dynamics and shopper behaviors. Surveys and walking interviews were used with shoppers (n���=���32) at a supermarket developed thr...

  20. Cooling sausage and cheese with solar power. A concept for the future. Rewe commissioned its first green supermarket; Solarstrom kuehlt Wurst und Kaese. Konzept mit Zukunft. Rewe eroeffnete seinen ersten gruenen Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, Antje

    2010-02-15

    In only five months, the Rewe Markt GmbH constructed its first ''Green Building'', a supermarket building which may serve as a model for the whole food production industry. The supermarket consumes 50 percent less energy than a conventional supermarket building, and most of the energy consumed is also produced on site. (orig.)

  1. Shutdown and cleanup of the East German uranium ore mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, W.; Boettcher, J.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1991, the company was changed from SDAG Wismut into a private company (GmbH under German law) with the sole purpose of cleaning up the decommissioned uranium ore mining and dressing plants in such a way that pollutants, contaminated soil, water and air, and other damage to the environment will be removed both from the plant premises and from associated real estate. (orig./HP) [de

  2. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...

  3. Family food purchases of high- and low-calorie foods in full-service supermarkets and other food retailers by Black women in an urban US setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Chrisinger

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health interventions to increase supermarket access assume that shopping in supermarkets is associated with healthier food purchases compared to other store types. To test this assumption, we compared purchasing patterns by store-type for certain higher-calorie, less healthy foods (HCF and lower-calorie, healthier foods (LCF in a sample of 35 black women household shoppers in Philadelphia, PA. Data analyzed were from 450 food shopping receipts collected by these shoppers over four-week periods in 2012. We compared the likelihood of purchasing the HCF (sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet/salty snacks, and grain-based snacks and LCF (low-fat dairy, fruits, and vegetables at full-service supermarkets and six other types of food retailers, using generalized estimating equations. Thirty-seven percent of participants had household incomes at or below the poverty line, and 54% had a BMI >30. Participants shopped primarily at full-service supermarkets (55% or discount/limited assortment supermarkets (22%, making an average of 11 shopping trips over a 4-week period and spending mean (SD of $350 ($222. Of full-service supermarket receipts, 64% included at least one HCF item and 58% at least one LCF. Most trips including HCF (58% and LCF (60% expenditures were to full-service or discount/limited assortment supermarkets rather than smaller stores. Spending a greater percent of total dollars in full-service supermarkets was associated with spending more on HCF (p = 0.03 but not LCF items (p = 0.26. These findings in black women suggest a need for more attention to supermarket interventions that change retailing practices and/or consumer shopping behaviors related to foods in the HCF categories examined. Keywords: Obesity, Store choice, Food choice, Food shopping, Supermarkets, African Americans

  4. Electric Holding Company Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Holding companies are electric power utilities that have a holding company structure. This vector polygon layer represents the area served by electric power holding...

  5. Large Scale Product Recommendation of Supermarket Ware Based on Customer Behaviour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kanavos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we present a prediction model based on the behaviour of each customer using data mining techniques. The proposed model utilizes a supermarket database and an additional database from Amazon, both containing information about customers’ purchases. Subsequently, our model analyzes these data in order to classify customers as well as products, being trained and validated with real data. This model is targeted towards classifying customers according to their consuming behaviour and consequently proposes new products more likely to be purchased by them. The corresponding prediction model is intended to be utilized as a tool for marketers so as to provide an analytically targeted and specified consumer behavior. Our algorithmic framework and the subsequent implementation employ the cloud infrastructure and use the MapReduce Programming Environment, a model for processing large data-sets in a parallel manner with a distributed algorithm on computer clusters, as well as Apache Spark, which is a newer framework built on the same principles as Hadoop. Through a MapReduce model application on each step of the proposed method, text processing speed and scalability are enhanced in reference to other traditional methods. Our results show that the proposed method predicts with high accuracy the purchases of a supermarket.

  6. Emotion Work and Musculoskeletal Pain in Supermarket Cashiers: A Test of a Sleep-Mediation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria U. Kottwitz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive movement and a lack of postural change are known risk factors for musculoskeletal pain in cashiers. This study tests emotional dissonance – the demand to keep being polite to impolite customers – as an additional risk factor. Furthermore, sleep problems are expected to mediate the link between emotion work and musculoskeletal pain. Data contains 103 female supermarket cashiers from three supermarkets of a large retailer responded to a questionnaire (participation rate 60.6%. An open question asked for the most negative job facets in daily work. Standardized questionnaire were used to assess emotional dissonance, sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain. Responses to the open question showed experience of unkind customers as the most prevalent negative experience at work reported by 47.6% of cashiers, followed by prolonged sitting (8.7%. Emotional dissonance was a significant predictor of neck and back pain when BMI, age, part-time work, and change of hand function during their shift (work rotation were controlled (β = .30, p < .01. Moreover, sleep problems were confirmed as a mediator with respect to neck and back pain (B = .21, SE = .10, CI = 02–.22. No mediation was found in prediction of pain in arms and shoulders or hips, legs, and feet. Emotional dissonance in work of cashiers appeared as a unique risk factor of neck and back pain. Work design should pay more attention to the social demands of cashier work.

  7. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangeli G. Vital

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α=0.05. TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention.

  8. Effects of sales promotions, weight status, and impulsivity on purchases in a supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2014-05-01

    Several environmental factors contribute to increased food consumption and play a role in the prevalence of obesity, like portion size, accessibility and relative price of high caloric foods, food commercials, and sales promotions. However, not everyone seems equally sensitive to these environmental cues and both obesity and impulsivity appears to play a role. In this study, food purchases in an internet supermarket are tested in 118 participants, with or without sales promotions for snack foods. Both weight status and response inhibition, an index of impulsivity, are measured. Participants with less inhibitory control purchased in total more calories from the internet supermarket then participants with more inhibitory control. In addition, sales promotion, weight status, and inhibitory control appeared to interact in their effect on snack food purchases: participants with less inhibitory control and overweight bought more calories of snacks in the sales promotions condition, but not in the control condition. For the other participants, with normal weight and/or high inhibitory control, sales promotions had no effect on their purchases of calories of snacks. It seems that especially the combination of low inhibitory control and overweight makes participants vulnerable for environmental cues. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. Fault Detection and Isolation for a Supermarket Refrigeration System - Part One

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Rasmussen, Karsten B.; Kieu, Anh T.

    2011-01-01

    Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Kalman Filter (KF) technique for a supermarket refrigeration system is explored. Four types of sensor fault scenarios, namely drift, offset, freeze and hard-over, are considered for two temperature sensors, and one type of parametric fault scenario, n....... The test results show that the EKF-based FDI method generally performances better and faster than the KF-based method does. However, both methods can not handle the isolation between sensor faults and parametric fault.......Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Kalman Filter (KF) technique for a supermarket refrigeration system is explored. Four types of sensor fault scenarios, namely drift, offset, freeze and hard-over, are considered for two temperature sensors, and one type of parametric fault scenario...... isolation purpose, a bank of KFs arranged by splitting measurements is constructed for sensor fault isolation, while the Multi-Model Adaptive Estimation (MMAE) method is employed to handle parametric fault isolation. All these approaches are extended and checked by using Extended KF technique afterwards...

  10. Where do food desert residents buy most of their junk food? Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Christine A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Hunter, Gerald P; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-10-01

    To examine where residents in an area with limited access to healthy foods (an urban food desert) purchased healthier and less healthy foods. Food shopping receipts were collected over a one-week period in 2013. These were analysed to describe where residents shopped for food and what types of food they bought. Two low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods with limited access to healthy foods in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Two hundred and ninety-three households in which the primary food shoppers were predominantly female (77·8 %) and non-Hispanic black (91·1 %) adults. Full-service supermarkets were by far the most common food retail outlet from which food receipts were returned and accounted for a much larger proportion (57·4 %) of food and beverage expenditures, both healthy and unhealthy, than other food retail outlets. Although patronized less frequently, convenience stores were notable purveyors of unhealthy foods. Findings highlight the need to implement policies that can help to decrease unhealthy food purchases in full-service supermarkets and convenience stores and increase healthy food purchases in convenience stores.

  11. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychosocial Influences on Fruit and Vegetable Intake Following a NYC Supermarket Discount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernales-Korins, Maria; Ang, Ian Yi Han; Khan, Shamima; Geliebter, Allan

    2017-08-01

    To assess the effect of a 50% discount on fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the purchase and intake of F&V and on psychosocial determinants of F&V intake: self-efficacy (SE), stages of change (SOC), and perceived barriers (PB). This randomized controlled trial was conducted in local supermarkets over 16 weeks, including a 4-week baseline, 8-week discount intervention, and 4-week follow-up. Shoppers with overweight or obesity (BMI > 25) were randomized to receive a discount or no discount via their reward scan card after the baseline. Twenty-four-hour recalls and psychosocial measures were obtained for each study period. Purchases (P supermarket discount intervention led to increases in purchases and intakes of F&V and increases in the psychosocial factors SE and SOC and did not decrease PB. The discount intervention prompted participants to move from the preparation to action stage of SOC, which acted as a mediator for increased F&V intake. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  13. Energy performance of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning integrated systems working with natural refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchinato, Luca; Corradi, Marco; Minetto, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The current trends in commercial refrigeration aim at reducing the synthetic refrigerant charge, either by minimising the internal volume of the circuit or by utilising natural refrigerants, and at energy saving. The energy efficiency of supermarkets can be improved by optimising components design, recovering thermal and refrigerating energy, adopting innovative technology solutions, integrating the HVAC system with medium temperature and low temperature refrigeration plants and, finally, reducing thermal loads on refrigerated cases. This study aims at investigating the performance of different lay-out and technological solutions where only natural refrigerants are used and at finding the potential for improving energy efficiency over the traditional systems in different climates. In the analysis, chillers and heat pumps working with ammonia or propane, medium temperature systems working with ammonia or propane and carbon dioxide as heat transfer fluid or with carbon dioxide as the refrigerant and low temperature systems working with carbon dioxide are considered and benchmarked with a state-of-the-art HFCs based plant. The most efficient investigated solution enables an annual energy saving higher than 15% with respect to the baseline solution for all the considered climates. - Highlights: ► Different natural refrigerants supermarket HVAC and R integrated systems are analysed. ► Some of the proposed solutions offer a significant benefit over the baseline one. ► Up to 18.7% energy saving is achieved in the considered climates. ► The refrigeration unit condensation by the AC chiller offers the poorest results.

  14. KUALITAS UDARA DALAM RUANG DI DAERAH PARKIR BASEMENT DAN PARKIR UPPERGROUND (STUDI KASUS DI SUPERMARKET SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono S Huboyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing building growth in urban areas is limited by land availability. Lack of space in this area lead to build high rise building rather landed building. In this type of building, parking area is built in the basement and or upperground inside the building. Within this enclosed space, indoor air quality might a problem. This study focus to compare emerged pollutants between basement parking area and upperground parking area in supermarket building. The dust sampler, the impinger and the CO monitor were used to measure TSP, NO2 and CO concentrations respectively in these areas during supermarket operations. In the basement area, in particular, the TSP concentrations tend to exceeds 300 µg/m3 mainly at weekend period. While for NO2 and CO concentrations still meet the air quality standard. Based on these findings it seems the main source of pollutants was derived from dust resuspension. Thus, the mitigation measures to reduce this dust resuspension should be emphasized in order to prevent air quality deterioration in the basement parking area.

  15. Transactions at a Northeastern Supermarket Chain: Differences by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Moran, Alyssa; Hou, Tao; Blue, Dan; Greene, Julie; Thorndike, Anne N; Polacsek, Michele; Rimm, Eric B

    2017-10-01

    Although one in seven Americans receives Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, little is known about how these benefits for food are spent because individual-level sales data are not publicly available. The purpose of this study is to compare transactions made with and without SNAP benefits at a large regional supermarket chain. Sales data were obtained from a large supermarket chain in the Northeastern U.S. for a period of 2 years (April 2012-April 2014). Multivariate multiple regression models were used to quantify relative differences in dollars spent on 31 predefined SNAP-eligible food categories. Analyses were completed in 2016. Transactions with SNAP benefit use included higher spending on less healthful food categories, including sugar-sweetened beverages ($1.08), red meat ($1.55), and convenience foods ($1.34), and lower spending on more healthful food categories, such as fruits (-$1.51), vegetables (-$1.35), and poultry (-$1.25) compared to transactions without SNAP benefit use. These findings provide objective data to compare purchases made with and without SNAP benefits. Next steps should be to test proposed SNAP modifications to determine whether they would have the intended effect of promoting healthier purchasing patterns among SNAP beneficiaries. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. German offshore wind turbine farms - status and prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    As a consequence of Germany's forthcoming phase-out of nuclear power the German government has initiated a number of activities in order to further development of renewable energy in the future. Offshore wind power has been chosen to play a central part. Although the first wind turbine has yet to be erected in German waters there is no doubt that it is a matter of time before the growing German market will gather speed. The objective of this report is to provide Danish business enterprises with interests in wind power with an insight into the German offshore wind power market and the export possibilities of the present and in the near future. As introduction the report lists the general outlines for construction and operation of wind turbine farms in Germany, furthermore, a number of additional conditions that Danish business enterprises should be aware of are listed. The introduction is followed by an up-to-the -minute status account of all ongoing projects. This part of the report has been made on the basis of a questionnaire send out by the Danish Embassy to project leaders in the business enterprises behind the project planning. Finally, the report provides an overview of all partners behind the planned wind farms. The overview contains contact information as well as information about the composition of project companies and consortiums. (BA)

  17. Global oil company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Global Oil Company Profiles provides a comprehensive review of 50 of the top oil companies in the world. Each chapter is devoted to an individual company, providing an invaluable insight into the organisation, its structure and operations. Using the most recent data available, the report offers an up-to-date analysis of performance and future direction, as well as a unique benchmarking system for each company profiled. (author)

  18. Global gas company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a detailed assessment of 60 of the top gas companies form around the world, analysing them according to their internal dynamics and in relation to their competitors. It devotes each chapter to an individual company, providing invaluable insight into the organisation's operational background, financial performance and strategic goals. Using the most up-to-date information available, Global Gas Company Profiles allows you to make detailed analysis of each company's performance and future direction. (author)

  19. Globalization and the German model of capitalism--erosion or survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, C

    2000-06-01

    The German business system has been regarded as a particularly tightly coupled system, with embeddedness of even multinational companies (MNCs) in their home base as particularly deep. A study of the impact of companies' changing internationalization, if not globalization, strategies is therefore especially suited to test competing claims about their effects on the German business system. Are we experiencing an erosion of this system, an adaptation in a largely path-dependent way, or even a greater specialization and stronger crystallization of the German business system? To investigate these questions, the paper examines a small number of German MNCs in their domestic and international context. More particularly, the work focuses on whether and how their emergent globalization activities affect the reproduction or erosion of the three institutional complexes which shape the factors of production: the financial system; the innovation system; and the industrial relations system. The paper concludes that a new type of transformation--hybridization--is emerging. It is regarded as a consequence of German companies' growing integration into a global economic system.

  20. Association of a Community Campaign for Better Beverage Choices With Beverage Purchases From Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Glenn E.; Choi, Yoon-Young; Li, Xun; Harris, Jennifer; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Hyary, Maia; Highsmith Vernick, Nicolette; Appel, Lawrence J.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. Objective To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. Design, Setting, and Partipicants This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets. Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor’s product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. Exposures The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. Main Outcomes and Measures Sales were tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. Results Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (−19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, −369 fl oz; 95% CI, −469 to −269 fl oz; P < .01). Fruit drink sales decreased (−15.3%) in HC stores and remained stable (−0.6%) in comparison stores (DID adjusted mean, −342 fl oz

  1. Supermarket market-channel participation and technology decisions of horticultural producers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Y. Mainville

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the relationships between growers’ choice of market channel (emphasizing the supermarket market-channel versus others, technology use, and grower characteristics such as human capital and farm size. Three key findings emerged. First, both tomato and lettuce growers selling to the supermarket market-channel had more human capital than those not participating. Second, while farm size was important in whether lettuce growers sell to supermarkets, it was not important for tomato growers. Third, technology use was significantly more capital-intensive among lettuce growers selling to the supermarket channels, however, that was generally not the case for tomato growers. These results are important to agribusiness researchers and policymakers interested in technology design and research and extension to enable producers to adapt to the needs of changing agrifood markets, with new requirements of attributes of products and transactions, which in turn have implications for technology adoption and human capital investment among growers. This is particularly pressing in places like Brazil where the market for horticultural products is changing quickly, conditioned by the rapid rise of supermarkets.Este artigo analisa as relações entre a escolha dos canais de distribuição dos produtores (enfatizando distribuição por meio de supermercados versus outros canais, o uso da tecnologia e as características dos produtores como capital humano e tamanho da propriedade. Foram identificados três resultados principais. O primeiro revela que produtores de tomate e alface que distribuem por meio de supermercados apresentaram maior capital humano que aqueles que não utilizam esse canal. O segundo resultado indica que enquanto o tamanho da propriedade foi importante para produtores de alface decidirem distribuir por meio de supermercados, essa variável não foi importante para produtores de tomate. O terceiro resultado sugere que o uso da

  2. Section 1: Company directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This is a 1992 directory of those companies doing business in all areas of the independent power producers industry. The listing includes the company name, address, telephone and FAX numbers, and the name of a company contact. The listing is international in scope

  3. New German abortion law agreed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit.

  4. MERGER ACCOUTING FOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies, especially nowadays, are characterized through great mobility, fast circulation of capital, occurring in their chase for profit. In this context, companies look for alliances, economical and political assistance. These objectives can materialize through merging of companies. The merger can be internal (between Romanian companies or transboundary, which includes foreign companies. In order to correctly reflect these events, the merger operations must be regulated and must respect national and international regulations. One important request concerning the merger operations is that the accounting values of the assets, debts and ownership equity must be brought to the present financial value.

  5. Prediction of Ownership and Control Concentration in German and UK Initial Public Offerings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The paper investigates why the corporate landscapes of Germany and UK are so different in terms of control by analyzing ownership and control evolution in recent IPOs. We report the control evolution of a sample of size- and industry-matched German and UK companies six years subsequent to the

  6. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  7. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  8. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J; Boede, U; Ostertag, K; Radgen, P

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  9. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  10. Change of behaviour when selecting food products in a supermarket environment after reminding consumers about weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Anna-Maria

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to explore how the behaviour of consumers changed while they selected food in a supermarket environment after they were reminded about weight management. This investigation was carried out from the perspective of selection criteria, reading of package labels, nutritional quality of the products selected and time taken to select a product. The subjects, who were actively watching their weight, participated in two consecutive tasks in a supermarket. They were given a shopping list of eleven food categories and asked to think aloud while selecting from each category a product they usually buy and a product they would use for weight management. The data (n 792 selections) were collected through interviews and a verbal analysis protocol combined with wireless audio-visual observation. Thirty-six consumers were recruited from a sample of 367 supermarket customers. Kuopio, Finland. The subjects' behaviour changed radically after they were reminded about weight management. In the first selection, taste and familiarity were the main food selection criteria while in the latter selection the energy/fat content predominated. Consequently, the nutritional quality of products improved greatly because subjects read package labels twice as much in the latter selection. The time taken to select a product increased significantly, on average, from 23 (sd 10) to 60 (sd 51) s/product (P = 0·000). Only by reminding consumers about weight management was there a significant impact on their food selection behaviour. Marketing communication should be developed which quickly and easily promotes consumers' awareness of healthy food in supermarkets.

  11. Exposure to flour dust in South African supermarket bakeries: modeling of baseline measurements of an intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Meijster, T.; Lopata, A.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Heederik, D.; Jeebhay, M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to flour dust has been reported as an important risk factor for allergic respiratory disease among bakery workers. A high prevalence of allergic sensitization and asthma was recently reported in South African supermarket bakeries. The aim of this study was to conduct a

  12. Exposure to flour dust in South African supermarket bakeries: Modeling of baseline measurements of an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Meijster, T.; Lopata, A.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Heederik, D.; Jeebhay, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to flour dust has been reported as an important risk factor for allergic respiratory disease among bakery workers. A high prevalence of allergic sensitization and asthma was recently reported in South African supermarket bakeries. The aim of this study was to conduct a

  13. Limits to growth in organic sales : price elasticity of consumer demand for organic food in Dutch supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the

  14. Use of supermarket receipts to estimate energy and fat content of food purchased by lean and overweight families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransley, J K; Donnelly, J K; Botham, H; Khara, T N; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the energy and fat content of food purchased for home consumption by households comprising mainly overweight individuals (OH), with those comprising mainly lean individuals (LH). 214 supermarket shoppers and their household were recruited from a Tesco supermarket in Leeds (UK). Households collected supermarket receipts and completed a shopping diary for 28-days, and each member of the household completed a 4-day food record. OH purchased food higher in fat (38% total energy from fat) than LH, (34.9%: p=0.001) and they purchased more energy and fat per adult equivalent, per day than LH (10.05 MJ compared to 9.15 MJ: p=0.01 and 103 g compared to 86 g:p=0.001). Households were 15% more likely to be classified as OH for each additional MJ of energy purchased per person, per day, after adjusting for number of children, household size, age, sex and social class. It was concluded that food purchasing behaviour may be linked to the prevalence of obesity in households who shop at supermarkets.

  15. Real-life memory and spatial navigation in patients with focal epilepsy: ecological validity of a virtual reality supermarket task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, P; Lahr, D; Kohsik, A; Dyck, E; Markowitsch, H J; Bien, C G; Botsch, M; Piefke, M

    2014-02-01

    Ecological assessment and training of real-life cognitive functions such as visual-spatial abilities in patients with epilepsy remain challenging. Some studies have applied virtual reality (VR) paradigms, but external validity of VR programs has not sufficiently been proven. Patients with focal epilepsy (EG, n=14) accomplished an 8-day program in a VR supermarket, which consisted of learning and buying items on a shopping list. Performance of the EG was compared with that of healthy controls (HCG, n=19). A comprehensive neuropsychological examination was administered. Real-life performance was investigated in a real supermarket. Learning in the VR supermarket was significantly impaired in the EG on different VR measures. Delayed free recall of products did not differ between the EG and the HCG. Virtual reality scores were correlated with neuropsychological measures of visual-spatial cognition, subjective estimates of memory, and performance in the real supermarket. The data indicate that our VR approach allows for the assessment of real-life visual-spatial memory and cognition in patients with focal epilepsy. The multimodal, active, and complex VR paradigm may particularly enhance visual-spatial cognitive resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATIONS FOR SUPERMARKET REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS. Project Summary (EPA/600/SR-95/028)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study that provided information regarding the merits of using ammonia with a secondary brine loop for supermarket refrigeration systems. The ammonia systems were compared with an equivalent R-22 system. The models used in the study are provided with...

  17. On-line Auto-Tuning of PI Control of the Superheat for a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Andersen, Casper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2011-01-01

    An online PI auto-tuning method is proposed for superheat control for a type of supermarket refrigeration systems. The proposed procedure consists of three serial steps: Step-One uses one of the two proposed empirical methods, namely multi-step method and relay method, for modeling initialization...

  18. Multi-ejector concept for R-744 supermarket refrigerators; Multi-Ejektoren Konzept fuer R-744 Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, Armin [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Foersterling, Sven [TLK-Thermo GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Banasiak, Krzystof [Silesian Univ. of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    Supermarkets are commercial buildings with major energy consumption and contribute also to relatively large direct emissions of greenhouse (GHG) through emissions of refrigerants from the refrigeration plants and the air conditioning system installed. The huge majority of these systems, which are installed in European supermarkets, are applying HFC-404A as working fluid. Average annual leakage rates in Europe are in the range of 15-20 % of the total charge. Worldwide the figure is about 30 % and HCFC-22 being the main refrigerant in use. Restrictions on the use of synthetic refrigerants are coming into force in several countries. There is a need for a natural refrigerant which allows for a safe investment in efficient refrigeration systems which will not be forced to be retrofitted by legislation in the future. Systems applying R-744 as the only refrigerant have been developed and more than 500 supermarkets exist in Europe, mainly in northern and mid-European countries. However, the systems still have large potential in development with respect to energy efficiency, heat recovery and cost efficiency. The paper describes the calculation method to identify the possible annual energy savings for different supermarket systems layout. The adoption of non-controlled ejectors and additional function such as heat recovery are evaluated. Results show relevant improvements in system efficiency when heat recovery has been adopted. Ejector usage is not widely spread at the moment. Thus, a theoretical analysis applying the programming language Modelica has been carried out. (orig.)

  19. Communication of corporate responsibility measures as pictured by the practice of communication of the climate protection engagement of German and Australian energy companies; Die Kommunikation von Corporate Responsibility-Massnahmen dargestellt an der Praxis der Kommunikation des Klimaschutz-Engagements deutscher und australischer Energieunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, Christian

    2013-06-01

    In his assessment of the CSR communication practices (CSR - corporate social responsibility) the author of the book under consideration reports on a conflictual field of action for the takeover of social responsibility which is discussed highly controversial in the public. The realization of the idea of climate protection in their corporate strategies by large energy companies is discussed. Politics and society see a special responsibility for climate protection in such energy companies which may influence the market by means of active corporate actions due to their size or business segments.

  20. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    the V° requirements or the V* requirements. Haider (1993, p. 62) and Koopman (1995), who also discuss such immobile verbs, only account for verbs with two prefix-like parts (e.g., German uraufführen ‘to perform (a play) for the first time' or Dutch herinvoeren ‘to reintroduce'), not for the more...... frequent type with only one prefix-like part (e.g., German bauchreden/Dutch buikspreken ‘to ventriloquize'). This analysis will try to account not only for the data discussed in Haider (1993) and Koopman (1995) but also for the following: - why immobile verbs include verbs with only one prefix-like part...... are immobile, - why such verbs are not found in Germanic VO-languages such as English and Scandinavian....

  1. The German version of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE): evaluation of content validity and adaptation to the German-speaking context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-11-01

    The Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) was developed for the assessment of physical-, psychological-, and environment-related needs in the elderly. The aim of this study was to revise and adapt the German version of the CANE with regard to the content validity of the instrument. Following a multistage approach, face-to-face interviews using the CANE, an expert survey and a multidisciplinary consensus conference were conducted in order to evaluate the frequency and relevance of met and unmet needs in the German elderly population, and to modify the content of the CANE for the German-speaking countries. In Germany, unmet physical needs including physical health, medication, eyesight/hearing/communication, mobility/falls, self-care, and continence were found to have top priority closely followed by social needs (company, intimate relationships, daytime activities, information, and abuse/neglect). Psychological needs were the lowest ranked care category. Experts' proposals for the improvement of the German version of the CANE were collected. All findings were discussed and integrated in the multidisciplinary consensus conference with the result of a revised and adapted CANE that is applicable in the German-speaking context. The provision of an adapted and improved German version of the CANE may substantially contribute to a comprehensive and valid assessment of needs in the elderly population. The results of this study represent an important basis for comprehensive needs assessment in the elderly in the theoretical and practical field of healthcare and health services research.

  2. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Liu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network products. Due to specifications in Service Agreements Levels, penalties for failures of telecommunications products are very high. This article shares information that is not widely known, including a list of OST companies and the open source projects on which they depend, the size and diversity of venture capital investment in OST companies, the nature of the commercial product-open source software and company-project relationships, ways in which OST companies make money, benefits and risks of OST companies, and competition between OST companies. Analysis of this information provides insights into the ways in which companies can build business models around open source software. These findings will be of interest to entrepreneurs, top management teams of incumbent companies that sell telecommunications products, and those who care about Ontario's ability to compete globally.

  3. GPS or travel diary: Comparing spatial and temporal characteristics of visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Y Scully

    Full Text Available To assess differences between GPS and self-reported measures of location, we examined visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets using a spatiotemporal framework. Data came from 446 participants who responded to a survey, filled out travel diaries of places visited, and wore a GPS receiver for seven consecutive days. Provided by Public Health Seattle King County, addresses from food permit data were matched to King County tax assessor parcels in a GIS. A three-step process was used to verify travel-diary reported visits using GPS records: (1 GPS records were temporally matched if their timestamps were within the time window created by the arrival and departure times reported in the travel diary; (2 the temporally matched GPS records were then spatially matched if they were located in a food establishment parcel of the same type reported in the diary; (3 the travel diary visit was then GPS-sensed if the name of food establishment in the parcel matched the one reported in the travel diary. To account for errors in reporting arrival and departure times, GPS records were temporally matched to three time windows: the exact time, +/- 10 minutes, and +/- 30 minutes. One third of the participants reported 273 visits to fast food restaurants; 88% reported 1,102 visits to supermarkets. Of these, 77.3 percent of the fast food and 78.6 percent supermarket visits were GPS-sensed using the +/-10-minute time window. At this time window, the mean travel-diary reported fast food visit duration was 14.5 minutes (SD 20.2, 1.7 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. For supermarkets, the reported visit duration was 23.7 minutes (SD 18.9, 3.4 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. Travel diaries provide reasonably accurate information on the locations and brand names of fast food restaurants and supermarkets participants report visiting.

  4. GPS or travel diary: Comparing spatial and temporal characteristics of visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Jason Y; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Hurvitz, Philip M; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    To assess differences between GPS and self-reported measures of location, we examined visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets using a spatiotemporal framework. Data came from 446 participants who responded to a survey, filled out travel diaries of places visited, and wore a GPS receiver for seven consecutive days. Provided by Public Health Seattle King County, addresses from food permit data were matched to King County tax assessor parcels in a GIS. A three-step process was used to verify travel-diary reported visits using GPS records: (1) GPS records were temporally matched if their timestamps were within the time window created by the arrival and departure times reported in the travel diary; (2) the temporally matched GPS records were then spatially matched if they were located in a food establishment parcel of the same type reported in the diary; (3) the travel diary visit was then GPS-sensed if the name of food establishment in the parcel matched the one reported in the travel diary. To account for errors in reporting arrival and departure times, GPS records were temporally matched to three time windows: the exact time, +/- 10 minutes, and +/- 30 minutes. One third of the participants reported 273 visits to fast food restaurants; 88% reported 1,102 visits to supermarkets. Of these, 77.3 percent of the fast food and 78.6 percent supermarket visits were GPS-sensed using the +/-10-minute time window. At this time window, the mean travel-diary reported fast food visit duration was 14.5 minutes (SD 20.2), 1.7 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. For supermarkets, the reported visit duration was 23.7 minutes (SD 18.9), 3.4 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. Travel diaries provide reasonably accurate information on the locations and brand names of fast food restaurants and supermarkets participants report visiting.

  5. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen: associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M; Nordahl, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte; Holstein, Bjørn E; Powell, Lisa M; Due, Pernille

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v. indicators of socio-economic status (percentage of recent immigrants, percentage without a high-school diploma, percentage of the population under 35 years of age and average household income in Euros) was performed using negative binomial analysis. Copenhagen, Denmark. The unit of analysis was neighbourhood (n 400). In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictor for supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income remained significantly associated with fast-food outlet exposure (rate ratio = 0·66-0·80) in the final model. In the city of Copenhagen, there was no evidence of spatial patterning of supermarkets by income. However, we detected a trend in the exposure to fast-food outlets, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe.

  6. Family food purchases of high- and low-calorie foods in full-service supermarkets and other food retailers by Black women in an urban US setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin W; DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Hillier, Amy E; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2018-06-01

    Public health interventions to increase supermarket access assume that shopping in supermarkets is associated with healthier food purchases compared to other store types. To test this assumption, we compared purchasing patterns by store-type for certain higher-calorie, less healthy foods (HCF) and lower-calorie, healthier foods (LCF) in a sample of 35 black women household shoppers in Philadelphia, PA. Data analyzed were from 450 food shopping receipts collected by these shoppers over four-week periods in 2012. We compared the likelihood of purchasing the HCF (sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet/salty snacks, and grain-based snacks) and LCF (low-fat dairy, fruits, and vegetables) at full-service supermarkets and six other types of food retailers, using generalized estimating equations. Thirty-seven percent of participants had household incomes at or below the poverty line, and 54% had a BMI >30. Participants shopped primarily at full-service supermarkets (55%) or discount/limited assortment supermarkets (22%), making an average of 11 shopping trips over a 4-week period and spending mean (SD) of $350 ($222). Of full-service supermarket receipts, 64% included at least one HCF item and 58% at least one LCF. Most trips including HCF (58%) and LCF (60%) expenditures were to full-service or discount/limited assortment supermarkets rather than smaller stores. Spending a greater percent of total dollars in full-service supermarkets was associated with spending more on HCF (p = 0.03) but not LCF items (p = 0.26). These findings in black women suggest a need for more attention to supermarket interventions that change retailing practices and/or consumer shopping behaviors related to foods in the HCF categories examined.

  7. Influence of motorization and supermarket-proliferation on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the inhabitants of a small town on Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Nobuyuki; Yogi, Hiroyuki; Takara, Masaki; Higa, Moritake; Kouki, Tsuyoshi; Ohshiro, Yuzuru; Mimura, Goro; Komiya, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Motorization and supermarket-proliferation affect lifestyles. About 15 years ago, Okinawans went to several shops on foot, but now they go to supermarkets by car. The influences of these changes on the prevalence of diabetes are uncertain. OBJECTIVE AND MEASUREMENTS: The influence of motorization and supermarket-proliferation on the prevalence of diabetes was studied in the inhabitants of a town on Okinawa, Japan. Measurements were composed of anthropometry and blood chemistry. Participants were asked where they buy food and daily necessities (several shops or a supermarket) and how they get there (by car or on foot). Serial cross-sectional. Inhabitants of the island of Okinawa were studied. In 1991, 24% went to several shops and 20% to a supermarket. However, in 2004, only 3.1% went to several shops and 83% to a supermarket. In 1991, 55% went to shopping places on foot and 38% by car. However, in 2004, only 14% went on foot and 76% by car. The prevalence of diabetes in Okinawa increased from 4.7% in 1991 to 8.4% in 2004. The prevalence of diabetes correlated positively with the percent of inhabitants going to supermarkets, and those going there by car. In 1991, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 4.7% in men and 4.6% in women; no difference was noted between men and women. In 2004, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased to 9.2% in men and to 7.5% in women. The increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes from 1991 to 2004 was higher in men than in women. About 15 years ago, Okinawans went to shops on foot, but now they go to supermarkets by car. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Motorization and supermarket-proliferation are associated with the increases of the prevalence of diabetes. The increase in diabetes prevalence was higher in men than in women.

  8. German Consumers’ Attitude towards Selenium-Biofortified Apples and Acceptance of Related Nutrition and Health Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Wortmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates consumers’ acceptance of Se-biofortified apples, as well as Se health and nutrition claims that have been approved by the European Commission. Despite indications that such statements are more likely to be accepted if the carrier product itself has a healthy image, unprocessed fruits biofortified with Se have not been investigated in this context yet. Apples as the most frequently-consumed type of fresh fruit in Germany may offer the potential to improve the Se status of consumers when the produce is enriched with Se. Therefore, an online survey of 356 German adults was conducted to analyze different aspects that could affect the perception of and preference for the proposed product concept by consumers. The findings indicate a moderate acceptance of Se-biofortified apples, as well as of Se health and nutrition claims among the participants. Additional information about beneficial health effects of Se had a significant impact on consumer acceptance. People who regularly eat convenience food and prefer to buy apples at supermarkets were particularly attracted by the product idea. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate good prospects for a successful introduction of Se-rich apples in the German food market, if the produce is advertised with approved health and nutrition claims.

  9. The role of the compliance officer – a comparison of US, UK and German law and practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanzenbach, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The thesis introduces the role of the corporate compliance officer under US, UK and German law and practice. The aim of the thesis is to analyze the compliance function within private sector companies in the three selected jurisdictions in order to establish a model of the German compliance officer. My research is intended to bridge the gap in knowledge concerning the applicable legal standards required to ensure the effectiveness of this position. There is a lack of uniformity and standardiz...

  10. Bioremediation in Germany: Markets, technologies, and leading companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, T.; Glass, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation has become an internationally accepted remediation tool. Commercial bioremediation activities take place in many European countries, but Germany and the Netherlands are the clear European leaders, with both having a long history of public and private sector activity in biological technologies. The German bioremediation market has been driven by government regulation, in particular the waste laws that apply to contaminated soils. The 1994 German market for bioremediation is estimated at $70 to 100 million (US $). There are at least 150 companies active in bioremediation in Germany, most of which practice bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, either in situ or ex situ. Because of their predominance in the current European market, German firms are well positioned to expand into those nations in the European Union (EU) currently lacking an environmental business infrastructure

  11. [Prevalence and utilisation of health promotion in German enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, D; Schnabel, P-E

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of health promotion in German enterprises, differentiated by size, sector, and the companies' business situations. Representative data were analysed from the survey of working conditions in Germany (n=20,000) that was conducted by the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) and the Federal Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA). Thirty-eight percent of interviewed employees confirmed that health promotion activities had been carried out in their company during the last two years. The prevalence varied significantly, depending on the company's size, sector, and business situation. In cases of implementation, a higher percentage of employees participated in micro and small companies than in medium-sized or large companies. With respect to the implementation of health promotion, more advice and support are needed, particularly in micro and small enterprises. There is still a need for health promotion activities which meet the special needs of micro and small enterprises. Furthermore there is still a need to invest in an infrastructure which allows their adequate supply. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  12. Educational campaigns at point of purchase in rural supermarkets improve stroke knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuteru; Honda, Shoji; Watanabe, Masaki; Ando, Yukio

    2015-02-01

    The number of elderly people is dramatically increasing, and this trend is especially pronounced in rural populations. The aim of the present study was to verify the effectiveness of stroke education in a rural area. The stroke educational flyers were distributed for 3 weeks at the point of purchase within supermarkets. Questionnaires were used to determine knowledge about stroke and appropriate emergent action on identifying stroke. A total of 882 people responded to the questionnaires before (n = 409) and 3 months after (n = 473) the campaign. Of these, 686 (77.8%) were aged 65 years or older. The percentages of correct answers for hemiplegia and one-sided numbness (P point-of-purchase stroke campaign using educational flyers could meaningfully affect stroke knowledge among elderly persons in a rural community. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Shelf-life extension of convenience meat products sold in Indian supermarkets by radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Shobita Rao, M.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-12-01

    A variety of ready-to-cook meat products available in Indian supermarkets (mutton mince, chicken mince, chicken chunks, and chicken legs) were studied. The samples were irradiated (2.5 kGy), or left untreated as control, and stored at 0-3 °C for up to 21 days. The effect of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties was evaluated at intervals during the storage period. Irradiated samples had a longer shelf-life at 0-3 °C compared with the corresponding non-irradiated samples. Fecal coliforms were eliminated by irradiation treatment. Radiation processed samples had lower counts of Staphylococcus spp. There were no significant organoleptic changes in irradiated samples stored at chilled temperatures.

  14. Shelf-life extension of convenience meat products sold in Indian supermarkets by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Shobita Rao, M. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P., E-mail: spchawla@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-12-15

    A variety of ready-to-cook meat products available in Indian supermarkets (mutton mince, chicken mince, chicken chunks, and chicken legs) were studied. The samples were irradiated (2.5 kGy), or left untreated as control, and stored at 0-3 {sup o}C for up to 21 days. The effect of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties was evaluated at intervals during the storage period. Irradiated samples had a longer shelf-life at 0-3 {sup o}C compared with the corresponding non-irradiated samples. Fecal coliforms were eliminated by irradiation treatment. Radiation processed samples had lower counts of Staphylococcus spp. There were no significant organoleptic changes in irradiated samples stored at chilled temperatures.

  15. Psychiatric care in the Middle East: a "mental health supermarket" in the town of Lod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Ginette; Renert, Noa; Mahuda, Israela; Strous, Rael D

    2004-01-01

    It is often in times of political tension and hostilities that community mental health care is neglected. We describe a novel and creative community mental health program where a combination of professional mental health workers and an innovative mental health system network combine to provide a remarkably successful and tension free mental health care arrangement in an area of high political and intergroup hostility. The system, termed the "mental health supermarket," encompasses multi-component rehabilitation, hospital liaison and interagency collaborative care. The framework succeeds in settling fears and insecurities between various communities as well as catering to a fragmented and lower income community, while introducing an element of self-determination in personal mental health care.

  16. Model-Based Predictive Control Scheme for Cost Optimization and Balancing Services for Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerts, Hermanus H. M.; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    A new formulation of model predictive control for supermarket refrigeration systems is proposed to facilitate the regulatory power services as well as energy cost optimization of such systems in the smart grid. Nonlinear dynamics existed in large-scale refrigeration plants challenges the predictive...... control design. It is however shown that taking into account the knowledge of different time scales in the dynamical subsystems makes possible a linear formulation of a centralized predictive controller. A realistic scenario of regulatory power services in the smart grid is considered and formulated...... in the same objective as of cost optimization one. A simulation benchmark validated against real data and including significant dynamics of the system are employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme....

  17. Shelf-life extension of convenience meat products sold in Indian supermarkets by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Shobita Rao, M.; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    A variety of ready-to-cook meat products available in Indian supermarkets (mutton mince, chicken mince, chicken chunks, and chicken legs) were studied. The samples were irradiated (2.5 kGy), or left untreated as control, and stored at 0-3 o C for up to 21 days. The effect of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties was evaluated at intervals during the storage period. Irradiated samples had a longer shelf-life at 0-3 o C compared with the corresponding non-irradiated samples. Fecal coliforms were eliminated by irradiation treatment. Radiation processed samples had lower counts of Staphylococcus spp. There were no significant organoleptic changes in irradiated samples stored at chilled temperatures.

  18. Training multitasking in a virtual supermarket: a novel intervention after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Debbie; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Katz, Noomi

    2009-01-01

    To explore the potential of the VMall, a virtual supermarket running on a video-capture virtual reality system, as an intervention tool for people who have multitasking deficits after stroke. Poststroke, 4 participants received ten 60-min sessions over 3 weeks using the VMall. The intervention focused on improving multitasking while the participant was engaged in a virtual shopping task. Instruments included the Multiple Errands Test-Hospital Version (MET-HV) in a real mall and in the VMall. Participants achieved improvements ranging from 20.5% to 51.2% for most of the MET-HV measures performed in a real shopping mall and in the VMall. The data support the VMall's potential as a motivating and effective intervention tool for the rehabilitation of people poststroke who have multitasking deficits during the performance of daily tasks. However, because the sample was small, additional intervention studies with the VMall should be conducted.

  19. [A study on occupational stress in commercial workers of a supermarket in Yinchuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Zhu, Ling-qin; Liu, He-rong; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Zhen-xiang

    2004-05-01

    To study difference in occupational stress between men and women commercial workers in a supermarket in Yinchuan, Ningxia. Totally, 679 commercial workers in a supermarket were investigated with questionnaire of occupational stress indicator (OSI), matched on age, length of service, educational level, marital status and type of work. Score of occupational stress factors, relationships, home/work balance and organizational atmosphere in women commercial workers was 143.48, 30.86, 20.82 and 15.16, respectively, obviously higher than that in men, with 134.89, 28.61, 18.75 and 13.93, respectively. Score of psychological health and satisfaction in women was 39.86 and 14.82, respectively, lower than that in men, with 43.84 and 17.66, respectively, which indicate that occupational stress in women was more severe with a more stressful psychological reaction than in men. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the main predicting factor for job satisfaction was personal relationships in women, and organizational atmosphere, managerial role and workload in men. Those for psychological health was control strategy and organizational atmosphere in women, and organizational atmosphere and recognition in men, those for physical illness was workload in women and support strategy and physical exercises in men, and those for stress level was support strategy in women and coping strategy in men. Women commercial workers experienced much more stress, with more severe stress reaction in their work, than men did. The main factors affecting occupational stress reaction and level of stress in women and men were not quite similar.

  20. Beyond Supermarkets: Food Outlet Location Selection in Four U.S. Cities Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Guilkey, David K; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-03-01

    Understanding what influences where food outlets locate is important for mitigating disparities in access to healthy food outlets. However, few studies have examined how neighborhood characteristics influence the neighborhood food environment over time, and whether these relationships differ by neighborhood-level income. Neighborhood-level data from four U.S. cities (Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; Oakland, CA) from 1986, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 were used with two-step econometric models to estimate longitudinal associations between neighborhood-level characteristics (z-scores) and the log-transformed count/km 2 (density) of food outlets within real estate-derived neighborhoods. Associations were examined with lagged neighborhood-level sociodemographics and lagged density of food outlets, with interaction terms for neighborhood-level income. Data were analyzed in 2016. Neighborhood-level income at earlier years was negatively associated with the current density of convenience stores (β= -0.27, 95% CI= -0.16, -0.38, prestaurant density in low-income neighborhoods (10th percentile of income: β= -0.17, 95% CI= -0.34, -0.002, p=0.05), and the density of smaller grocery stores across all income levels (β= -0.27, 95% CI= -0.45, -0.09, p=0.003). There was a lack of policy-relevant associations between the pre-existing food environment and the current density of food outlet types, including supermarkets. Socioeconomically disadvantaged and minority populations may attract "unhealthy" food outlets over time. To support equal access to healthy food outlets, the availability of "less healthy" food outlets types may be relatively more important than the potential lack of supermarkets or full-service restaurants. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrates and nitrites in selected vegetables purchased at supermarkets in Siedlce, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczuk, Jolanta; Wadas, Wanda; Głozak, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables constitute a vital part of the human diet, being the main source of minerals, vitamins, dietary fibre and phytochemicals. They however, also contain nitrates and nitrites, which adversely affect human health. To determine nitrate and nitrite content in selected vegetables purchased at supermarket chains in Siedlce and to assess their impact on consumer health. Vegetable samples were purchased from local supermarkets in Siedlce, town situated in the Mazovian province (Voivodeship) of Poland. These consisted of 116 samples of nine vegetables types including butterhead and iceberg lettuce, beetroot, white cabbage, carrot, cucumber, radish, tomato and potato collected between April and September 2011. Concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were determined by standard colorimetric methods used in Poland, with results expressed as mg per kg fresh weight of vegetables. Nitrate concentrations varied between 10 mg x kg(-1) to 4800 mg x kg(-1). The highest mean nitrate concentrations were found in radishes (2132 mgkg(-1)), butterhead lettuce (1725 mg x kg(-1)), beetroots (1306 mg x kg(-1)) and iceberg lettuce (890 mg x kg(-1)), whereas the lowest were found in cucumber (32 mg x kg(-1)) and tomato (35 mg x kg(-1)). Nitrite levels were also variable; the highest concentrations measured were in beetroot (mean 9.19 mg x kg(-1)) whilst much smaller amounts were present in carrot, cucumbers, iceberg lettuce, white cabbage, tomatoes and potatoes. The daily adult consumption of 100 g amounts of the studied vegetables were found not exceed the ADI for both nitrates and nitrites. Findings indicated the need for monitoring nitrate and nitrite content in radishes, butterhead lettuce and beetroot due to consumer health concerns.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of transcritical CO{sub 2} booster refrigeration systems in supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Y.T., E-mail: yunting.ge@brunel.ac.u [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Tassou, S.A. [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The CO{sub 2} booster systems are widely applied in supermarket refrigeration. {yields} Control optimisation can improve the performance of the CO{sub 2} refrigeration systems. {yields} The effects of some important parameters on the system performance are examined. {yields} The optimal high-side pressure in the transcritical cycles is established and derived. -- Abstract: Due to less environmental impact, the CO{sub 2} booster refrigeration system has been widely applied in the modern supermarket as a substitute for the conventional R404A multiplex system. However, the performance efficiency of the CO{sub 2} system still requires further improvement in order to save energy; thus, one of the most efficient techniques would be to investigate and employ the optimal controls for refrigerant high side pressures at various operating states. In this paper, the possible parameters affecting system efficiency of the CO{sub 2} system in the transcritical cycle at a higher ambient air temperature are identified through thermodynamic analysis, but cannot be quantified mathematically because of the high non-linearity involved. Instead, sensitive analysis of the system by means of the thermodynamic model is used to examine the effects of parameters including high side refrigerant pressure, ambient air temperature, refrigerant intermediate pressure, and medium and low evaporating temperatures, superheating, effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger, and compressor efficiency on system performance. Consequently, the optimal high side pressure in the transcritical cycle is established and derived as a function of three important parameters consisting of ambient air temperature, the effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger and compressor efficiency. In addition, optimal operating parameters such as the intermediate pressure are also proposed to improve the system performance.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of transcritical CO2 booster refrigeration systems in supermarket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The CO 2 booster systems are widely applied in supermarket refrigeration. → Control optimisation can improve the performance of the CO 2 refrigeration systems. → The effects of some important parameters on the system performance are examined. → The optimal high-side pressure in the transcritical cycles is established and derived. -- Abstract: Due to less environmental impact, the CO 2 booster refrigeration system has been widely applied in the modern supermarket as a substitute for the conventional R404A multiplex system. However, the performance efficiency of the CO 2 system still requires further improvement in order to save energy; thus, one of the most efficient techniques would be to investigate and employ the optimal controls for refrigerant high side pressures at various operating states. In this paper, the possible parameters affecting system efficiency of the CO 2 system in the transcritical cycle at a higher ambient air temperature are identified through thermodynamic analysis, but cannot be quantified mathematically because of the high non-linearity involved. Instead, sensitive analysis of the system by means of the thermodynamic model is used to examine the effects of parameters including high side refrigerant pressure, ambient air temperature, refrigerant intermediate pressure, and medium and low evaporating temperatures, superheating, effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger, and compressor efficiency on system performance. Consequently, the optimal high side pressure in the transcritical cycle is established and derived as a function of three important parameters consisting of ambient air temperature, the effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger and compressor efficiency. In addition, optimal operating parameters such as the intermediate pressure are also proposed to improve the system performance.

  4. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce flour dust exposures in supermarket bakeries in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatjies, Roslynn; Meijster, Tim; Heederik, Dick; Sander, Ingrid; Jeebhay, Mohamed F

    2014-12-01

    A recent study of supermarket bakery workers in South Africa demonstrated that 25% of workers were sensitised to flour allergens and 13% had baker's asthma. Evidence on exposure reduction strategies using specifically designed interventions aimed at reducing the risk of baker's asthma is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different control measures to reduce airborne flour dust exposure using a randomised design. A group-randomised study design was used to assign 30 bakeries of a large supermarket chain store to two intervention groups and a control group, of which 15 bakeries were studied. Full-shift environmental personal samples were used to characterise exposure to flour dust and wheat and rye allergens levels pre-intervention (n=176) and post-intervention (n=208). The overall intervention effect revealed a 50% decrease in mean flour dust, wheat and rye allergen exposure. The reduction in exposure was highest for managers (67%) and bakers (47%), and lowest for counterhands (23%). For bakers, the greatest reduction in flour dust was associated with control measures such as the use of the mixer lid (67%), divider oil (63%) or focused training (54%). However, the greatest reduction (80%) was observed when using a combination of all control measures. A specially designed intervention strategy reduced both flour dust and allergen levels. Best results were observed when combining both engineering controls and training. Further studies will investigate the long-term health impact of these interventions on reducing the disease burden among this group of bakers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from vegetables with regards to the marketing stage (farm vs. supermarket).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Helmke, Katharina; Hölzel, Christina Susanne; Bauer, Johann

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether and to what extent fresh produce from Germany plays a role as a carrier and reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. For this purpose, 1001 vegetables (fruit, root, bulbous vegetables, salads and cereals) were collected from 13 farms and 11 supermarkets in Germany and examined bacteriologically. Phenotypic resistance of Enterobacter cloacae (n=172); Enterobacter gergoviae (n=92); Pantoea agglomerans (n=96); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=295); Pseudomonas putida (n=106) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=100) against up to 30 antibiotics was determined by using the microdilution method. Resistance to ß-lactams was most frequently expressed by P. agglomerans and E. gergoviae against cefaclor (41% and 29%). Relatively high resistance rates were also observed for doxycycline (23%), erythromycin (21%) and rifampicin (65%) in E. faecalis, for spectinomycin (28%) and mezlocillin (12%) in E. cloacae, as well as for streptomycin (19%) in P. putida. In P. aeruginosa, relatively low resistance rates were observed for the aminoglycosides amikacin, apramicin, gentamicin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin (bacteria isolated from farm samples were higher than those of the retail markets whenever significant differences were observed. This suggests that expressing resistance is at the expense of bacterial viability, since vegetables purchased directly at the farm are probably fresher than at the supermarket, and they have not been exposed to stress factors. However, this should not keep the customer from buying directly at the farm, since the overall resistance rates were not higher than observed in bacteria from human or animal origin. Instead, peeling or washing vegetables before eating them raw is highly recommended, since it reduces not only the risk of contact with pathogens, but also that of ingesting and spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Public Shareholdership Energy Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kist, A.W.; Crone, F.J.M.; Hudig, D.F.; Ketting, N.G.; De Swaan, T.; Willems, R.

    2008-06-01

    National and international developments on the energy markets and changes in legislation and regulation require a renewed strategic orientation of energy companies and their shareholders. Decentralized authorities will have to reconsider their position as a shareholder in energy companies carefully. This report provides an overview of the recommendations of the Kist Commission on how provinces and municipalities can make a well-considered choice as shareholder of energy companies. [mk] [nl

  7. Privatised companies and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salini, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    The Italian Government decided to adopt the public company structure where a little group of medium-term investors had the task of supporting the transition of the privatised companies to the market. The article examines the reasons for this decision and its failure in attaining the purpose, not excluding the possibility for the public company of imposing itself in the long period and in a context of a minor legislative intervention and more effective Corporate Governance rules [it

  8. The Danish Press during the German Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...

  9. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  10. [Mental health at the workplace - the view of companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Kissling, Werner

    2013-11-01

    To assess the views of employees (human resource, works council, supervisors, and executives) of German business companies and administrations toward the issue of mental health at the workplace. Cross sectional survey of N = 348 employees with staff responsibility. Employees of German companies see their colleagues as moderately mentally stressed. About 14 % of all employees are judged to suffer from a mental disease. These numbers have risen in recent years. About 37 % of all mental illnesses are seen as caused by work conditions. The handling of mental illness at the workplace is seen as insufficient and in many cases stigmatizing. At least subjectively the issue of mental illness in the workplace has gained in importance in recent years. Possible interventions should especially address executives and supervisors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Irradiation behavior of German PWR RPV steels under operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.; Hein, H. [AREVA NP Gmbh (Germany); Ganswind, J. [VGB PowerTech e.V. (Germany); Widera, M. [RWE Power AG (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the last standard surveillance capsule of the original RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) surveillance programs of the 11 currently operating German PWR has been evaluated. With it the standard irradiation surveillance programs of these plants was completed. In the present paper, irradiation data of these surveillance programs will be presented and a final assessment of the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels with respect to current standards KTA 3203 and Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2 will be given. Data from two units which are currently under decommissioning will also be included, so that data from all 13 German PWR manufactured by the former Siemens/KWU company (now AREVA NP GmbH) are shown. It will be shown that all surveillance data within the approved area of chemical composition verify the limit curve RT(limit) of the KTA 3203, which is the relevant safety standard for these plants. An analysis of the data shows, that the prediction formulas of Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2 Pos. 1 or from the TTS model tend to overestimate the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels. Possible reasons for this behavior are discussed. Additionally, the data will be compared to data from the research project CARISMA to demonstrate that these data are representative for the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels. Since the data of these research projects cover a larger neutron fluence range than the original surveillance data, they offer a future outlook into the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels under long term conditions. In general, as a consequence of the relatively large and beneficial water gap between core and RPV, especially in all Siemens/KWU 4-loop PWR, the EOL neutron fluence and therefore the irradiation induced changes in mechanical properties of the German PWR RPV materials are rather low. Moreover the irradiation data indicate that the optimized RPV materials specifications that have been applied in particular for the

  12. A Suggested Curriculum Outline for German in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutterbuck, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines a four-year program of German study aiming to give students a basic ability in spoken and written German, knowledge of German culture, and preparation for advanced German study. Study topics and textbooks are included. (CHK)

  13. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  14. The German radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Klaus; Neider, Rudolf

    1977-01-01

    The German Standards Institute (DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung, Berlin) is engaged in health physics standards development in the following committees. The Nuclear Standards Committee (NKe), which deals mainly with nuclear science and technology, the fuel cycle, and radiation protection techniques. The Radiology Standards Committee (FNR), whose responsibilities are traditionally the principles of radiation protection and dosimetry, applied medical dosimetry, and medical health physics. The German Electrotechnical Commission (DKE), which is concerned mostly with instrumentation standards. The Material Testing Committee (FNM), which is responsible for radiation protection in nonmedical radiography. The current body of over one hundred standards and draft standards was established to supplement the Federal German radiation protection legislation, because voluntary standards can deal in more detail with the specific practical problems. The number of standards is steadily expanding due to the vigorous efforts of about thirty working groups, consisting of essentially all leading German experts of this field. Work is supported by the industry and the Federal Government. A review of the present status and future plans, and of the international aspects with regard to European and world (ISO, etc.) standards will be presented

  15. Headstart German Program. Cultural Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This module provides cultural information that will be helpful to military personnel in understanding some aspects of the German way of life. The topics covered in the booklet are: housing, postal services, forms of address, courtesies, getting around, driving, hotels, restaurants, beer and wine, recreation, entertainment, health spas, shopping,…

  16. Measuring Micro-Level Effects of a New Supermarket: Do Residents Within 0.5 Mile Have Improved Dietary Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus, Stephanie; Athens, Jessica; Cantor, Jonathan; Elbel, Brian

    2018-06-01

    Local and national policies to encourage supermarket opening or expansion are popular strategies for improving access to healthy food for residents in neighborhoods lacking these types of stores, yet few evaluations of such initiatives exist. Our aim was to test whether a newly opened supermarket in the Bronx, NY, changed household availability of healthy and unhealthy food items and reported daily consumption of these items among respondents residing in close proximity (≤0.5 mile) to the new supermarket. This quasi-experimental study evaluated changes in purchasing and consumption habits of residents within 0.5 mile of the new supermarket as compared to residents living more than 0.5 mile from the supermarket. Data were collected through street intercept surveys at three different times: once before the store opened (March to August 2011) and in two follow-up periods (1 to 5 months and 13 to 17 months after the store opened). This study analyzed a subset of successfully geocoded resident intersections from the larger study. We surveyed 3,998 residents older than the age of 18 years in two Bronx neighborhoods about their food-purchasing behaviors before the store opened and in two follow-up periods. Responses from residents whose intersections were successfully geocoded (N=3,378) were analyzed to examine the consumption and purchasing behaviors of those in close proximity to the new store. A new supermarket opened in a low-access neighborhood in the Bronx with the help of financial incentives through New York City's Food Retail Expansion to Support Health (FRESH) program. The primary outcome evaluated was the change in percent of respondents reporting that the following food items were "always available" in the home: milk, fruit juice, soda, pastries, packaged snacks, fruits, and vegetables. As a secondary outcome, we explored changes in self-reported daily servings of these items. A difference-in-difference analysis was performed, controlling for age, education

  17. Open Experimentation on Phenomena of Chemical Reactions via the Learning Company Approach in Early Secondary Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Katharina; Witteck, Torsten; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Presented is a case study on the implementation of open and inquiry-type experimentation in early German secondary chemistry education. The teaching strategy discussed follows the learning company approach. Originally adopted from vocational education, the learning company method is used to redirect lab-oriented classroom practice towards a more…

  18. Excessive Profits of German Defense Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    its business unit Thyssen Krupp Marine Systems, is a German defense contractor. (2) Tognom AG Tognum AG owned the MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH before... Friedrichshafen provided engines for many ships of the German Navy and for German battle tanks, such as the Leopard I and Leopard II. MTU refers to the

  19. [German influences on Romanian medical terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Răcilă, R G; Răileanu, Irena; Rusu, V

    2008-01-01

    The medical terminology plays a key part both in the study of medicine as well as in its practice. Moreover, understanding the medical terms is important not only for the doctor but also for the patients who want to learn more about their condition. For these reasons we believe that the study of medical terminology is one of great interest. The aim of our paper was to evaluate the German linguistic and medical influences on the evolution of the Romanian medical terminology. Since the Romanian-German cultural contacts date back to the 12th century we had reasons to believe that the number of German medical words in Romanian would be significant. To our surprise, the Romanian language has very few German words and even less medical terms of German origin. However, when we searched the list of diseases coined after famous medical personalities, we found out that 26 % of them bore the names of German doctors and scientists. Taken together this proves that the German medical school played an important role on the evolution of Romanian medicine despite the fact that the Romanian vocabulary was slightly influenced by the German language. We explain this fact on the structural differences between the Romanian and German languages, which make it hard for German loans to be integrated in the Romanian lexis. In conclusion we state that the German influence on the Romanian medical terminology is weak despite the important contribution of the German medical school to the development of medical education and healthcare in Romania. Key

  20. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2017-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grades...

  1. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  2. Silent Film in the German Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, David

    In addition to using films in the German classroom to introduce students to German culture and history, it is important to show and study the film as film. This procedure emphasizes the importance of the film as a part of creative arts in Germany and demands student participation in observation and discussion. Many German silent films are…

  3. Virtual Company and Modelbank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1996-01-01

    Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank......Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank...

  4. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  5. "We call it Springbok-German!": language contact in the German communities in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Varieties of German are spoken all over the world, some of which have been maintained for prolonged periods of time. As a result, these transplanted varieties often show traces of the ongoing language contact as specific to their particular context. This thesis explores one such transplanted German language variety – Springbok- German – as spoken by a small subset of German Lutherans in South Africa. Specifically, this study takes as its focus eight rural German communities acr...

  6. Process evaluation of two environmental nutrition programmes and an educational nutrition programme conducted at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.H.M. Steenhuis; P. van Assema (Patricia); A. Reubsaet; G.J. Kok (Gerjo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article describes the process evaluation of two environmental programs and a educational nutrition program, implemented at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias. Studies conducted earlier, indicated that the programs had no effect on consumers’ eating behavior. Consequently, the more

  7. VULNERABILITY OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMEAN ANDREEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In present, the study of vulnerability of companies is increasing in every field due to the unstable economic environment influences. The object of this research is to define and identify vulnerabilities of companies and the establishment of evaluation methods at their level. This article emphasizes the importance and usefulness of one of the best known model in this way, from our point of view, namely Băileşteanu, Negrila Pattern. This pattern covers both external factors and internal ones, that increase vulnerabilities of companies, and fit the companies in which the state of vulnerability are (vitality, viability, vulnerability, high vulnerability, difficulty and high difficulty, with a matrix. The result of the research is that any company belonging to any field, can be analyzed using this model, and assigned to one of the conditions defined within.

  8. Future challenges for the management of power supply companies; Zukuenftige Herausforderungen fuer das Management von EVU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bausch, A. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Allgemeine Betriebswirtschaftslehre/Internationales Management; Jacobs Univ., Bremen (Germany). Professur fuer Strategisches Management und Controlling; Werthschulte, S.; Schumacher, T. [Accenture GmbH (Germany); Holst, A. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Allgemeine Betriebswirtschaftslehre/Internationales Management; Fritz, T. [Jacobs Univ., Bremen (Germany). Professur fuer Strategisches Management und Controlling

    2007-06-15

    Among the challenges on power supply companies seeking profitable growth are strategic corporate development in terms of product and process innovation and the management's and employees' capacity for change. This was the outcome of a survey conducted as part of the ''Value Creator III'' study performed among 130 executives of German, Austrian and Swiss companies operating in the energy sector. Based on a review of companies' past successes and expectations for the future the study presents business models for tomorrow's energy market and classifies companies within a past-and-future portfolio according to their market prospects.

  9. The German Economy and U.S.-German Economic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Should the SPD and The Left overcome existing differences, the grouping could represent a leftward shift in German politics. Alliance ’90 / The...and replaced it with less generous social assistance benefits already available to poor individuals, regardless of employment history . These changes...director at Volkswagen . 48Hans-Werner Sinn, Can Germany Be Saved?, p. 108. 49 Alister Miskimmon and Walter E. Paterson, “Conclusion: coping with the

  10. The current situation of waste management at German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottenrott, G.; Mirschinka, V.

    2002-01-01

    An overview is given about the main points of the agreement between the four utility companies and the German government on June 11, 2001, concerning waste management and disposal. The current waste management situation is compared with the effects of the agreement on the future development of the German waste management concept. Major innovations are the discontinuation of reprocessing, the establishment of local intermediate storage facilities for fuel elements and the suspension of the exploration works conducted on the salt dome at Gorleben. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of a government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and children's dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Moran, Alyssa; Dixon, L Beth; Kiszko, Kamila; Cantor, Jonathan; Abrams, Courtney; Mijanovich, Tod

    2015-10-01

    To assess the impact of a new government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and dietary habits in children. A difference-in-difference study design was utilized. Two neighbourhoods in the Bronx, New York City. Outcomes were collected in Morrisania, the target community where the new supermarket was opened, and Highbridge, the comparison community. Parents/caregivers of a child aged 3-10 years residing in Morrisania or Highbridge. Participants were recruited via street intercept at baseline (pre-supermarket opening) and at two follow-up periods (five weeks and one year post-supermarket opening). Analysis is based on 2172 street-intercept surveys and 363 dietary recalls from a sample of predominantly low-income minorities. While there were small, inconsistent changes over the time periods, there were no appreciable differences in availability of healthful or unhealthful foods at home, or in children's dietary intake as a result of the supermarket. The introduction of a government-subsidized supermarket into an underserved neighbourhood in the Bronx did not result in significant changes in household food availability or children's dietary intake. Given the lack of healthful food options in underserved neighbourhoods and need for programmes that promote access, further research is needed to determine whether healthy food retail expansion, alone or with other strategies, can improve food choices of children and their families.

  12. Scale effects in food environment research: Implications from assessing socioeconomic dimensions of supermarket accessibility in an eight-county region of South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hibbert, James D; Porter, Dwayne E; Lawson, Andrew B; Liese, Angela D

    2016-03-01

    Choice of neighborhood scale affects associations between environmental attributes and health-related outcomes. This phenomenon, a part of the modifiable areal unit problem, has been described fully in geography but not as it relates to food environment research. Using two administrative-based geographic boundaries (census tracts and block groups), supermarket geographic measures (density, cumulative opportunity and distance to nearest) were created to examine differences by scale and associations between three common U.S. Census-based socioeconomic status (SES) characteristics (median household income, percentage of population living below poverty and percentage of population with at least a high school education) and a summary neighborhood SES z-score in an eight-county region of South Carolina. General linear mixed-models were used. Overall, both supermarket density and cumulative opportunity were higher when using census tract boundaries compared to block groups. In analytic models, higher median household income was significantly associated with lower neighborhood supermarket density and lower cumulative opportunity using either the census tract or block group boundaries, and neighborhood poverty was positively associated with supermarket density and cumulative opportunity. Both median household income and percent high school education were positively associated with distance to nearest supermarket using either boundary definition, whereas neighborhood poverty had an inverse association. Findings from this study support the premise that supermarket measures can differ by choice of geographic scale and can influence associations between measures. Researchers should consider the most appropriate geographic scale carefully when conducting food environment studies.

  13. Albanian and UK Consumers’ Perceptions of Farmers’ Markets and Supermarkets as Outlets for Organic Food: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina-Evera Qendro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elicit UK and Albanian consumers’ perceptions of food outlets in order to understand their views on supermarkets and farmers’ markets as outlets for organic food. A qualitative research methodology was chosen as the best way to get an in-depth understanding of how consumers of these two different countries understand and evaluate buying organic food from two different food outlets. This exploratory research is a first step to find out how and why organic food is being bought in supermarkets and farmers’ markets. The results show that respondents associated organic with vegetables and fruit, that taste good, are healthy, and are free of pesticides and hormones. The importance of motives varies between the outlets they prefer for buying organic food. An interesting finding is the fact that Albanian respondents refer to the farmers’ markets as the villagers’ market.

  14. High tax on high energy dense foods and its effects on the purchase of calories in a supermarket. An experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Havermans, Remco C; Giesen, Janneke C A H; Jansen, Anita

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined whether a high tax on high calorie dense foods effectively reduces the purchased calories of high energy dense foods in a web based supermarket, and whether this effect is moderated by budget and weight status. 306 participants purchased groceries in a web based supermarket, with an individualized budget based on what they normally spend. Results showed that relative to the no tax condition, the participants in the tax condition bought less calories. The main reduction was found in high energy dense products and in calories from carbohydrates, but not in calories from fat. BMI and budget did not influence the effectiveness of the tax. The reduction in calories occurred regardless of budget or BMI implying that a food tax may be a beneficial tool, along with other measures, in promoting a diet with fewer calories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Only CO2 as coolant for supermarket Plus Vermaning, Olst, Netherlands; Alleen CO2 als koudemiddel bij Plus Vermaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jans, R. [Coolsultancy, Rucphen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Early July 2009 the Dutch supermarket Plus Vermaning in Olst was reopened. The cooling installation in this supermarket is among the first in the Netherlands equipped with only the natural cooling agent R744 (CO2) and is also equipped with a heat recovery system. A gas connection is no longer required in this store. The time has come to list the experiences. [Dutch] Begin juli 2009 is in Olst, Nederland, de supermarkt van Plus Vermaning heropend. De koelinstallatie in deze supermarkt is als een van de eersten in Nederland uitgevoerd met uitsluitend het natuurlijke koudemiddel R744 (CO2) en is verder voorzien van een warmteterugwinning (WTW) systeem. Een gasaansluiting is in de winkel niet meer aanwezig. Nu is het tijd de ervaringen op een rij te zetten.

  16. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  17. Psychosocial working conditions and well-being among immigrant and German low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Annekatrin

    2011-04-01

    Despite a steady increase of immigrant workers in Germany in the past decades, occupational health research has only peripherally addressed psychosocial working conditions and immigrant worker well-being. This study has two aims: (1) to investigate differences in psychosocial stressors and resources between immigrant and German low-wage workers, and (2) to examine group differences in their association with well-being using a structural equation modeling multiple group analysis approach. Eighty-nine immigrant and 146 German postmen of a German mail service company were surveyed. Results reveal more stressors in the social work environment for the immigrant workers than for their German coworkers but similar levels of task-related stressors in both groups. Stressors are more strongly associated with psychological distress among the German workers. In terms of resources, job control serves as a resource only among German workers, whereas supervisor and coworker support are more important for immigrant workers. These differences suggest that cultural factors, previous work experiences, and expectations influence the worker's experience of psychosocial working conditions and have a direct impact on worker health.

  18. KNOWLEDGE IN LEARNING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Cristina VASILE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes are the only constant value in the current unpredictable economy. Under these circumstances leaders and employees must manage the external and internal environment and bring profitability for their companies. This paper gives an introductory approach to different perspective over learning companies in international literature. Different theoretical aspects, models and theories are taken into account for having a higher visibility to the complex concept of learning companies from leadership side to multiculturalism as the firm profitability should be the final goal of each economic system. The article concludes that not the process of learning is important but the adaptability to every different environment must be seen as vital.

  19. An analysis of the number of parking bays and checkout counters for a supermarket using SAS simulation studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2014-07-01

    Two important factors that influence customer satisfaction in large supermarkets or hypermarkets are adequate parking facilities and short waiting times at the checkout counters. This paper describes the simulation analysis of a large supermarket to determine the optimal levels of these two factors. SAS Simulation Studio is used to model a large supermarket in a shopping mall with car park facility. In order to make the simulation model more realistic, a number of complexities are introduced into the model. For example, arrival patterns of customers vary with the time of the day (morning, afternoon and evening) and with the day of the week (weekdays or weekends), the transport mode of arriving customers (by car or other means), the mode of payment (cash or credit card), customer shopping pattern (leisurely, normal, exact) or choice of checkout counters (normal or express). In this study, we focus on 2 important components of the simulation model, namely the parking area, the normal and express checkout counters. The parking area is modeled using a Resource Pool block where one resource unit represents one parking bay. A customer arriving by car seizes a unit of the resource from the Pool block (parks car) and only releases it when he exits the system. Cars arriving when the Resource Pool is empty (no more parking bays) leave without entering the system. The normal and express checkouts are represented by Server blocks with appropriate service time distributions. As a case study, a supermarket in a shopping mall with a limited number of parking bays in Bangsar was chosen for this research. Empirical data on arrival patterns, arrival modes, payment modes, shopping patterns, service times of the checkout counters were collected and analyzed to validate the model. Sensitivity analysis was also performed with different simulation scenarios to identify the parameters for the optimal number the parking spaces and checkout counters.

  20. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Minat dan Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen Produk Pangan Organik di Supermarket Brastagi Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, Fenny Krisna

    2016-01-01

    People’s awareness of the trend in having healthy lifestyle has developed since the last decade. Healthy lifestyle has encouraged people to consume organic foods. Brastagi Supermarket, Medan, is one of the modern retail stores which have great opportunity to market its organic food products. Consumers are expected to have preference to organic foods. The problem is that consumers from the upper and middle class are not regular customers. The objective of the research was to analyze some facto...

  1. GPS or travel diary: Comparing spatial and temporal characteristics of visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, Jason Y.; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    To assess differences between GPS and self-reported measures of location, we examined visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets using a spatiotemporal framework. Data came from 446 participants who responded to a survey, filled out travel diaries of places visited, and wore a GPS receiver for seven consecutive days. Provided by Public Health Seattle King County, addresses from food permit data were matched to King County tax assessor parcels in a GIS. A three-step process was used to v...

  2. Customer Service Quality in Large Supermarkets in Ibagué, Colombia: Analysis through the SERVQUAL Multidimensional Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Guerrero, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is affecting all economies and their organizations seeking to maximize their profits through customer satisfaction. Within this context, large supermarkets have had significant growth; hence, it is important to know the quality of the service customers are receiving in these stores. Currently, service quality measures in these stores in the global market are scarce. This article presents the results of the measurement of the quality of service customers receive from large superm...

  3. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    de Wijk, Ren? A.; Maaskant, Anna J.; Polet, Ilse A.; Holthuysen, Nancy T. E.; van Kleef, Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Even though whole grain foods have various health benefits, consumers have been found not to eat enough of them. Nudging interventions are built on the premise that food purchases and consumption are strongly influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of a small and inexpensive nudging intervention on bread choices in a real-life supermarket context. An in-store experiment was conducted in two six-week periods in two ...

  4. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova; Sergey Nikolaevich Kirillov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations...

  5. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  6. A process evaluation of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha N D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David A

    2016-02-24

    Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) was a randomized controlled trial that operationalized a socioecological approach to population-level dietary behaviour change in a real-world supermarket setting. SHELf tested the impact of individual (skill-building), environmental (20% price reductions), and combined (skill-building + 20% price reductions) interventions on women's purchasing and consumption of fruits, vegetables, low-calorie carbonated beverages and water. This process evaluation investigated the reach, effectiveness, implementation, and maintenance of the SHELf interventions. RE-AIM provided a conceptual framework to examine the processes underlying the impact of the interventions using data from participant surveys and objective sales data collected at baseline, post-intervention (3 months) and 6-months post-intervention. Fisher's exact, χ (2) and t-tests assessed differences in quantitative survey responses among groups. Adjusted linear regression examined the impact of self-reported intervention dose on food purchasing and consumption outcomes. Thematic analysis identified key themes within qualitative survey responses. Reach of the SHELf interventions to disadvantaged groups, and beyond study participants themselves, was moderate. Just over one-third of intervention participants indicated that the interventions were effective in changing the way they bought, cooked or consumed food (p < 0.001 compared to control), with no differences among intervention groups. Improvements in purchasing and consumption outcomes were greatest among those who received a higher intervention dose. Most notably, participants who said they accessed price reductions on fruits and vegetables purchased (519 g/week) and consumed (0.5 servings/day) more vegetables. The majority of participants said they accessed (82%) and appreciated discounts on fruits and vegetables, while there was limited use (40%) and appreciation of discounts on low-calorie carbonated

  7. Agar Plates Made from Common Supermarket Substances and Bacillus subtilis Natto as an Inexpensive Approach to Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz-Josef Scharfenberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the possible limitations that financial restrictions may have on students’ independent experimentation at school, we developed and implemented an inexpensive approach for basic microbiology education. We describe four nutrient agars consisting only of everyday substances available from the supermarket or online that we developed to replace standard agars and specific agars. Additionally, we selected Bacillus subtilis natto as an example of a pure-culture species. Our tip first reports the four supermarket-substance agar variants; second, it suggests utilizing them to introduce basic microbiological techniques; and third, it introduces B. subtilis natto in the context of the antibacterial effects of antibiotics as well as of supermarket products which students can bring to class from home. We implemented our approach in microbiology education at school as well as in pre-service teacher education and in in-service teacher professional development courses at our university. Finally, our paper provides worksheets for all the experiments. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices. If the soil plates described in the activity are opened, a minimum of Biosafety Level 2 is required.

  8. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijk, René A.; Maaskant, Anna J.; Polet, Ilse A.; Holthuysen, Nancy T. E.; van Kleef, Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Even though whole grain foods have various health benefits, consumers have been found not to eat enough of them. Nudging interventions are built on the premise that food purchases and consumption are strongly influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of a small and inexpensive nudging intervention on bread choices in a real-life supermarket context. An in-store experiment was conducted in two six-week periods in two supermarkets to investigate the effects of accessibility on consumers’ purchase of healthier whole grain and other types of bread. In the high accessibility condition, healthier bread was placed in a more convenient location for the shopper on the left side of the shelves where it was encountered first. In the low accessibility condition, it was placed on the right side. There were consistent significant differences in sales between supermarkets, types of bread, day of the week, but not between low and high accessibility. Additional research is needed to better understand the effects of convenience and accessibility on bread choices. PMID:27010704

  9. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijk, René A; Maaskant, Anna J; Polet, Ilse A; Holthuysen, Nancy T E; van Kleef, Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Even though whole grain foods have various health benefits, consumers have been found not to eat enough of them. Nudging interventions are built on the premise that food purchases and consumption are strongly influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of a small and inexpensive nudging intervention on bread choices in a real-life supermarket context. An in-store experiment was conducted in two six-week periods in two supermarkets to investigate the effects of accessibility on consumers' purchase of healthier whole grain and other types of bread. In the high accessibility condition, healthier bread was placed in a more convenient location for the shopper on the left side of the shelves where it was encountered first. In the low accessibility condition, it was placed on the right side. There were consistent significant differences in sales between supermarkets, types of bread, day of the week, but not between low and high accessibility. Additional research is needed to better understand the effects of convenience and accessibility on bread choices.

  10. Buying food on sale: a mixed methods study with shoppers at an urban supermarket, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Etienne J; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Stites, Shana D; Singletary, S Brook; Cooblall, Clarissa; DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann

    2014-09-04

    The obesity epidemic has drawn attention to food marketing practices that may increase the likelihood of caloric overconsumption and weight gain. We explored the associations of discounted prices on supermarket purchases of selected high-calorie foods (HCF) and more healthful, low-calorie foods (LCF) by a demographic group at high risk of obesity. Our mixed methods design used electronic supermarket purchase data from 82 low-income (primarily African American female) shoppers for households with children and qualitative data from focus groups with demographically similar shoppers. In analyses of 6,493 food purchase transactions over 65 weeks, the odds of buying foods on sale versus at full price were higher for grain-based snacks, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages (odds ratios: 6.6, 5.9, and 2.6, respectively; all P snacks. The odds of buying foods on sale versus full price were not higher for any of any of the LCF (P ≥ .07). Without controlling for quantities purchased, we found that spending increased as percentage saved from the full price increased for all HCF and for fruits and vegetables (P ≤ .002). Focus group participants emphasized the lure of sale items and took advantage of sales to stock up. Strategies that shift supermarket sales promotions from price reductions for HCF to price reductions for LCF might help prevent obesity by decreasing purchases of HCF.

  11. A Review of the Passiv Haus Concept and an Examination of How This Was Applied to a Supermarket in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wegner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to garner a full understanding of low energy construction across a variety of sectors in countries throughout the world, and then investigate how the Passiv Haus concept was applied to a Supermarket in Ireland. In order to carry out this investigation, a case study was performed on the energy efficiency and performance of a Tesco store in Tramore. It was found that its electrical cosumption was 24% lower than equivalent stores which were not built to the high specification of the Passiv Haus Standard. As this supermarket is the first of its kind in the world, and with both the SEAl and the European Parliament pushing for this method of construction to be adopted,i11 this standard will most likely in some shape or form become a new building standard in Ireland. This supermarket offers a unique insight into what can be expected in bui lding design and const ruction in this sector if it is undertaken.

  12. Buying Food on Sale: A Mixed Methods Study With Shoppers at an Urban Supermarket, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Stites, Shana D.; Singletary, S. Brook; Cooblall, Clarissa; DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The obesity epidemic has drawn attention to food marketing practices that may increase the likelihood of caloric overconsumption and weight gain. We explored the associations of discounted prices on supermarket purchases of selected high-calorie foods (HCF) and more healthful, low-calorie foods (LCF) by a demographic group at high risk of obesity. Methods Our mixed methods design used electronic supermarket purchase data from 82 low-income (primarily African American female) shoppers for households with children and qualitative data from focus groups with demographically similar shoppers. Results In analyses of 6,493 food purchase transactions over 65 weeks, the odds of buying foods on sale versus at full price were higher for grain-based snacks, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages (odds ratios: 6.6, 5.9, and 2.6, respectively; all P supermarket sales promotions from price reductions for HCF to price reductions for LCF might help prevent obesity by decreasing purchases of HCF. PMID:25188276

  13. The nutritional content of supermarket beverages: a cross-sectional analysis of New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepulis, Lynne; Mearns, Gael; Hill, Shaunie; Wu, Jason Hy; Crino, Michelle; Alderton, Sarah; Jenner, Katharine

    2018-02-07

    To compare the nutritional content, serving size and taxation potential of supermarket beverages from four different Western countries. Cross-sectional analysis. Multivariate regression analysis and χ 2 comparisons were used to detect differences between countries. Supermarkets in New Zealand (NZ), Australia, Canada and the UK. Supermarket beverages in the following categories: fruit juices, fruit-based drinks, carbonated soda, waters and sports/energy drinks. A total of 4157 products were analysed, including 749 from NZ, 1738 from Australia, 740 from Canada and 930 from the UK. NZ had the highest percentage of beverages with sugar added to them (52 %), while the UK had the lowest (9 %, P8 % sugar) categories. There is substantial difference between countries in the mean energy, serving size and proportion of products eligible for fiscal sugar taxation. Current self-regulatory approaches used in these countries may not be effective to reduce the availability, marketing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and subsequent intake of free sugars.

  14. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalida M. Svastisalee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n=6,096 with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n=80. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow=1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid=1.40; CI:  1.03–190. Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR=1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21. Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.

  15. A Mixed-Method Assessment of a New Supermarket in a Food Desert: Contributions to Everyday Life and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Initiatives to build supermarkets in low-income areas with relatively poor access to large food retailers ("food deserts") have been implemented at all levels of government, although evaluative studies have not found these projects to improve diet or weight status for shoppers. Though known to be influential, existing evaluations have neglected in-store social dynamics and shopper behaviors. Surveys and walking interviews were used with shoppers (n = 32) at a supermarket developed through the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative in Philadelphia, PA. Key informant interviews with stakeholders in the supermarket's development and operations provided additional context to these shopper experiences. Data were collected in July and September 2014 and qualitatively analyzed in NVivo 10.0. Participants described how the retailer helped them adapt or cope with difficult shopping routines and how it presented a reliable high-quality option (in terms of cleanliness, orderliness, and social atmosphere) in contrast to other neighborhood retailers. Health concerns were also identified, especially among those managing chronic disease for themselves or a family member. These issues underscored multiple points of challenge required to adjust shopping and eating behavior. In-store supports that reflect these challenges are warranted to more fully address food deserts and reduce health disparities.

  16. Use of household supermarket sales data to estimate nutrient intakes: a comparison with repeat 24-hour dietary recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2010-01-01

    Electronic supermarket sales data provide a promising, novel way of estimating nutrient intakes. However, little is known about how these data reflect the nutrients consumed by an individual household member. A cross-sectional survey of 49 primary household shoppers (age [mean+/-standard deviation age]=48+/-14 years; 84% female) from Wellington, New Zealand, was undertaken. Three months of baseline electronic supermarket sales data were compared with individual dietary intakes estimated from four random 24-hour dietary recalls collected during the same 3-month period. Spearman rank correlations between household purchases and individual intakes ranged from 0.54 for percentage of energy from saturated fat (Psupermarket sales data may be a useful surrogate measure of some nutrient intakes of individuals, particularly percentage of energy from saturated and total fat. In the case of a supermarket intervention, an effect on household sales of percentage energy from saturated and total fat is also likely to impact the saturated and total fat intake of individual household members. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Temperature ranges of the application of air-to-air heat recovery ventilator in supermarkets in winter, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yanming; Wang, Youjun; Zhong, Ke [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Liu, Jiaping [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Energy consumption is an important issue in China. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, more and more commercial buildings use air-to-air heat recovery ventilators as energy saving units for recovering heat from the exhaust air in ventilation systems in current years. In the present paper, critical temperatures of air-to-air heat recovery systems for supermarkets in winter are recommended and discussed for the four cities in different climate zones of China. The analysis shows that the temperature of fresh air in winter can be categorized into three regions, i.e., recovery region, transition region and impermissible recovery region. The results also indicate that the latent heat recovery is not suitable for ventilation energy savings in supermarkets in winter. Meanwhile, the applicability of sensible heat recovery in supermarkets depends on outdoor climate and fresh air flow rate. If a variable rotational speed fan is used to introduce fresh air into the building, heat recovery does always function as planned in winter for all the selected cities except Guangzhou, and most values of the COP are much higher than 2.5. Otherwise, there is the risk of negative impact on building energy savings in all cities except Harbin. (author)

  18. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René A de Wijk

    Full Text Available Even though whole grain foods have various health benefits, consumers have been found not to eat enough of them. Nudging interventions are built on the premise that food purchases and consumption are strongly influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of a small and inexpensive nudging intervention on bread choices in a real-life supermarket context. An in-store experiment was conducted in two six-week periods in two supermarkets to investigate the effects of accessibility on consumers' purchase of healthier whole grain and other types of bread. In the high accessibility condition, healthier bread was placed in a more convenient location for the shopper on the left side of the shelves where it was encountered first. In the low accessibility condition, it was placed on the right side. There were consistent significant differences in sales between supermarkets, types of bread, day of the week, but not between low and high accessibility. Additional research is needed to better understand the effects of convenience and accessibility on bread choices.

  19. 'Economy' line foods from four supermarkets and brand name equivalents: a comparison of their nutrient contents and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S; Nelson, M

    2003-10-01

    Achieving healthy eating targets for low income households can be difficult because of economic barriers. Several UK supermarkets have introduced 'value line' or 'economy line' foods to improve their attractiveness to low income consumers. The costs and nutrient contents of five 'economy' line products of four major English supermarkets - Asda, KwikSave, Sainsbury and Tesco - were compared with branded (but not 'own label') equivalents. Single samples of tinned tomatoes, long-life orange juice, potatoes, sausages and white bread were purchased in each supermarket. They represented items of potential importance in relation to 'healthy' choices in the shopping baskets of low income households. Nutrients analysed were fat, sodium, potassium, iron, calcium, vitamin C, and energy. Economy line foods had a nutrient composition similar to and often better than the branded goods. The economy line products frequently had nutrient contents more in line with the Balance of Good Health (e.g. lower fat and sodium) compared with the branded goods. In terms of nutrients per pence, the economy line products were far better value for money compared with the branded lines. Economy line foods represent excellent value for money and are not nutritionally inferior to the branded products. They have a potentially important role to play in the promotion of healthy eating, especially amongst low income households.

  20. Bull Moose Tube Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  1. Company environmental communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriola, L.; Luciani, R.; Borghini, S.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental communication is becoming a sine qua non for companies which are more and more pressed by the need to reinforce communication with interested parties: environmental groups, local communities, local and national authorities, employees, share-holders, banks, insurance companies, customers and consumers. Reliable environmental information, just like economical and property data, is now required during both company take-over and financing, and in some cases it can affect insurance premiums. In fact, environmental guarantees are more and more often required because breaching environmental regulations can entail legal sanctions going as far as suspension of business. There now also Green investment funds that engage their resources only against specific environmental guarantees on the part of the companies that, before being selected for the investment, are submitted to rather accurate questionnaires by the investment manager [it

  2. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Liu

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST) companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network pro...

  3. The virtual oil company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, C.A.; Haney, R.M.; Ross, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    In anticipation of continuing declines in upstream activity levels over the next 15 years, the virtual oil company model articulates a vision of fewer, leaner, but financially stronger firms that concentrate only on their core competencies and outsource the rest through well-structured partnering arrangements. Freed from the ''clutter,'' these leading companies will be in better position to focus on those opportunities that offer the potential for renewed reserve and revenue growth

  4. Approaching comparative company law

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

  5. Healthy or Unhealthy on Sale? A cross-sectional study on the proportion of healthy and unhealthy foods promoted through flyer advertising by supermarkets in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensbergen, Eva A H; Waterlander, Wilma E; Kroeze, Willemieke; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2015-05-06

    It is generally assumed that supermarkets promote unhealthy foods more heavily than healthy foods. Promotional flyers could be an effective tool for encouraging healthier food choices; however, there is a lack of good-quality evidence on this topic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the proportions of healthy and unhealthy foods on promotion in Dutch supermarket flyers. Supermarket food promotions were assessed using the weekly promotional flyers of four major Dutch supermarkets over a period of eight weeks. All promotions were evaluated for healthiness, price discount, minimum purchase amount, product category and promotion type. The level of healthiness consists of a 'healthy' group; products which have a positive effect on preventing chronic diseases and can be eaten every day. The 'unhealthy' group contain products which have adverse effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. Data were analysed using ANOVA, independent t-tests and chi-square tests. A total of 1,495 promotions were included in this study. There were more promotions in the unhealthy category; 70% of promotions were categorised as unhealthy. The price discount was greater for the healthy promotions (mean 29.5%, SD 12.1) than for the two categories of unhealthy promotions (23.7%, SD 10.8; 25.4%, SD 10.5, respectively), a tendency which was mainly due to discounts in the fruit and vegetables category. To obtain the advertised discount, a significantly higher number of products had to be purchased in the unhealthy category than in the healthier categories. Promotions in the category meat, poultry and fish category occurred frequently. Compared to traditional supermarkets, discounter supermarkets had higher percentages of unhealthy food discounts, lower discount levels and lower minimum purchase amounts. This research confirmed that unhealthy foods are more frequently advertised than healthier foods in Dutch supermarket flyers. Moreover, consumers had to buy more products to

  6. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompon Wanwimolruk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits and also the maximum residue limits (MRL regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015. MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice. This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets and 99% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets and 100% (supermarkets for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets and 97% (supermarkets for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets and 35% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets and 55% (supermarkets for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets and 49% (supermarkets for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold

  7. Physician-owned companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuik, John P

    2007-05-15

    The author relates his experience in the development of a spinal implant development company (K2M) that is significantly advised by physicians. To provide information about the development of a spinal implant company (K2M) advised by a group of professional spinal surgeons. To relate the federal laws (STARK and anti-kickback) as they pertain to surgeon-influenced companies. To discuss the role of a scientific advisory board. A self-developed company was developed together with significant, but minority physician financial input and majority scientific advice. A privately owned spinal implant development corporation (K2M) was developed 3 years ago. Physician financial participation was less than 20% (Stark laws state no more than 40%). Users of product are greater than 60% non-investor physicians. The development of a large scientific advisory board has been very influential in product development. A privately owned spinal implant company (K2M) has been developed strictly within Federal laws. Its board of scientific advisors that receives recompense commissurate only with effort significantly impacts the company policy.

  8. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124- 1000, filed on behalf of itself and other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company...

  9. Clusters e redes de cooperação de pequenas e médias empresas: observatório europeu, caso alemão e contribuições ao caso brasileiro Clusters and cooperation networks of small and medium-sized companies: analysis of european and German experiences and contributions to the brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Cecílio Gerolamo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os recentes estudos sobre clusters e redes de cooperação de pequenas e médias empresas na Europa, realizados pela Comissão Européia, bem como a descrição da atual estratégia de desenvolvimento de redes de competência na Alemanha (Kompetenznetze Deutschland, abordando especificamente o caso da região de Berlim e Brandemburgo. O objetivo principal é, por meio das análises dos programas europeus de desenvolvimento de clusters e redes de cooperação entre pequenas e médias empresas, verificar possibilidades de adaptação para a realidade brasileira no que se refere a arranjos produtivos locais e parques tecnológicos. Em linhas gerais, pequenas e médias empresas pertencentes a clusters na Europa têm demonstrado desempenho acima da média quando comparadas às demais empresas de seus respectivos setores. O aumento da competitividade de clusters e o crescimento econômico regional estão fortemente associados ao investimento em inovação. Esse é o caso da Alemanha que incentiva o desenvolvimento de inovação por meio de suas redes de competência. A região Berlim-Brandemburgo retrata o exemplo de uma estratégia coerente de desenvolvimento local. Pode-se dizer que possíveis alternativas para o Brasil seriam o apoio mais direto do poder público, foco em inovação e definição de processos para gerenciamento das redes de cooperação.This paper presents studies on clusters and cooperation networks of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs developed by the European Commission, as well as a description of the current German strategy for developing competence networks (Kompetenznetze Deutschland, focusing specifically on the case of the regions of Berlin and Brandenburg. The main goal of this work is to analyze the experience of the European and German initiatives and to verify the possibilities of adapting such initiatives to the context of local productive systems and technology parks in Brazil. In

  10. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens in Chickens Sandwiches Distributed in Different Supermarkets of Tehran Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mashak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing urbanization, immigration and tourism has changed the human lifestyle. This modern lifestyle has demanded safety, quality, and fast availability of ready to eat (RTE foods like chicken sandwiches. Objectives: For presentation of proper solutions regarding food safety, identification of pathogens in different foods is necessary. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of chicken sandwiches distributed in Tehran province, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 chicken sandwich samples (chicken sausage, chicken fillet, minced chicken fillet were purchased from different supermarkets in Tehran city randomly during 2013 and transported to the laboratory of food hygiene of Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch under temperature-controlled conditions for bacteriological examination by American Public Health Association (APHA method. Results: The average count ± standard error (and percent of unacceptable samples of S. aureus, B. cereus and Coliform were 1.6 ± 0.56 (28%, 2.0 ± 0.62 (10%, 4.2 ± 1.12 (50% CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were identified in 21% of chicken sandwich samples. Conclusions: The large number of foodborne pathogens detected in this study, represented a potential health hazard to consumers. Thus, it is necessary to employ Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in order to minimize the risk caused by secondary contamination.

  11. Factors associated with supermarket and convenience store closure: a discrete time spatial survival modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua L; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2018-06-01

    While there is a literature on the distribution of food stores across geographic and social space, much of this research uses cross-sectional data. Analyses attempting to understand whether the availability of stores across neighborhoods is associated with diet and/or health outcomes are limited by a lack of understanding of factors that shape the emergence of new stores and the closure of others. We used quarterly data on supermarket and convenience store locations spanning seven years (2006-2012) and tract-level census data in four US cities: Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; San Francisco, California. A spatial discrete-time survival model was used to identify factors associated with an earlier and/or later closure time of a store. Sales volume was typically the strongest indicator of store survival. We identified heterogeneity in the association between tract-level poverty and racial composition with respect to store survival. Stores in high poverty, non-White tracts were often at a disadvantage in terms of survival length. The observed patterns of store survival varied by some of the same neighborhood sociodemographic factors associated with lifestyle and health outcomes, which could lead to confusion in interpretation in studies of the estimated effects of introduction of food stores into neighborhoods on health.

  12. Implications of supermarket access, neighbourhood walkability and poverty rates for diabetes risk in an employee population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Cynthia J; Yount, Byron W; Eyler, Amy A

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes is a growing public health problem, and the environment in which people live and work may affect diabetes risk. The goal of the present study was to examine the association between multiple aspects of environment and diabetes risk in an employee population. This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Home environment variables were derived using employees' zip code. Descriptive statistics were run on all individual- and zip-code-level variables, stratified by diabetes risk and worksite. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was then conducted to determine the strongest associations with diabetes risk. Data were collected from employee health fairs in a Midwestern health system, 2009-2012. The data set contains 25 227 unique individuals across four years of data. From this group, using an individual's first entry into the database, 15 522 individuals had complete data for analysis. The prevalence of high diabetes risk in this population was 2·3 %. There was significant variability in individual- and zip-code-level variables across worksites. From the multivariable analysis, living in a zip code with higher percentage of poverty and higher walk score was positively associated with high diabetes risk, while living in a zip code with higher supermarket density was associated with a reduction in high diabetes risk. Our study underscores the important relationship between poverty, home neighbourhood environment and diabetes risk, even in a relatively healthy employed population, and suggests a role for the employer in promoting health.

  13. Foods advertised in US weekly supermarket sales circulars over one year: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, Lisa; Payne, Collin R; Whigham, Leah D; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela J; Hoverson, Bonita S; Kranz, Sibylle

    2014-09-23

    The nutritional content of Americans' shopping carts is suboptimal despite federal dietary guidance, in this case, the MyPlate consumer icon which displays desired proportions of vegetables, fruits, dairy, grains and protein foods for consumption. Consumers mention print advertising-such as weekly sales circulars-frequently as influencing their grocery shopping decisions. To examine and describe the relative proportions of advertised foods aggregated into the MyPlate food grouping system, a content analysis of 9 209 foods advertised in 52 weekly supermarket newspaper sales inserts in 2009 from a local grocery chain was conducted in a Midwestern community. Overall, the protein foods group was most often represented in sales circulars (25% of total items), followed by grains (18%); dairy (10%); vegetables (8%) and fruits (7%). Less than 3% of sales advertisements were for dark green and red & orange vegetables. Over twice as much whole fruit versus 100% fruit juice was advertised (70% vs. 30%, respectively; P advertised in the fall, and slightly more dark green vegetables were advertised in winter and spring than in summer and fall (P = 0.05). The average American diet, including underconsumption of fruits and vegetables but overconsumption of protein foods, was reflected in the relative frequency of food groups advertised in weekly sales circulars. Modifying sales circulars to represent healthier food groups may preserve retail profits (considering these groups' higher profit margin) while promoting adherence to federal dietary guidance.

  14. [Acceptance of yoghurt with different functional ingredients among consumers in supermarkets in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Shene, Carolina; Rubilar, Mónica; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2010-12-01

    In view of the interest in the role of foodstuffs in improving wellbeing and health, the object of this study is to distinguish consumer typologies in Temuco, La Araucanía Region, Chile, according to their preferences for different functional ingredients, flavouring, colouring and price in yoghurt. A semi-structured survey was applied to 400 supermarket customers. The respondents ordered eight alternative yoghurts according to their preferences, with different functional ingredients (fibre, antioxidants), flavourings (sugar, sweetener), colouring (natural, artificial) and three price options, for a conjoint analysis with fractional factorial design. Variables affecting knowledge of "functional food" were evaluated using a binomial logit model. It was determined by conjoint analysis that in general a preference existed for yoghurt containing fibre, sweetener, natural colouring, and at the lowest price. Three typologies were distinguished by analysis of hierarchical conglomerates: the majority segment (48.8%) displayed a greater preference for fibre; the second (41.7%) also preferred fibre, but gave first priority to artificial colouring and preferred a higher price. The minority (9.5%) was the only segment to prefer antioxidants. The typologies differed significantly in satisfaction with their food-related life, knowledge of the function of fibre and presence of cancer and obesity in some member of the respondent's family. The binomial logit model was significant (P acceptance of yoghurt enriched with fibre and with added sweetener.

  15. A multi-stakeholder evaluation of the Baltimore City virtual supermarket program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Lagisetty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing access to healthy foods and beverages in disadvantaged communities is a public health priority due to alarmingly high rates of obesity. The Virtual Supermarket Program (VSP is a Baltimore City Health Department program that uses online grocery ordering to deliver food to low-income neighborhoods. This study evaluates stakeholder preferences and barriers of program implementation. Methods This study assessed the feasibility, sustainability and efficacy of the VSP by surveying 93 customers and interviewing 14 programmatic stakeholders who had recently used the VSP or been involved with program design and implementation. Results We identified the following themes: The VSP addressed transportation barriers and food availability. The VSP impacted customers and the city by including improving food purchasing behavior, creating a food justice “brand for the city”, and fostering a sense of community. Customers appreciated using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP benefits to pay for groceries, but policy changes are needed allow online processing of SNAP benefits. Conclusions This evaluation summarizes lessons learned and serves as a guide to other public health leaders interested in developing similar programs. Provisions in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA Farm Bill 2014 allow for select grocers to pilot online transactions with SNAP benefits. If these pilots are efficacious, the VSP model could be easily disseminated.

  16. Usulan Pengembangan Komunikasi Pemasaran Melalui Strategi Customer Bonding (Studi Kasus : Supermarket Hero di Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Sukwadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The consequence of competition is the decrease of the number of customers which causes Hero Supermarket closed down several of its outlets. This decrease is also caused by the existence of internal issue of marketing communication (promotion which lacked a strong concept. The ineffective selection of communication channel which in turn fails to conform the activity to the public. For that, the identification in marketing communication activity through Customer Bonding strategy is needed. Through marketing communication program assessment with Customer Bonding (Awareness Bonding, Relationship Bonding, and Advocacy Bonding, intensity of marketing communication problem can be identified, through survey assessment (management and costumer, analyzed with statistical testing like validity and reliability test, Spearman Correlation test and Cross tab test. The questionnaires will be given to 13 respondents from Hero Management by using quota sampling and 100 customers using stratified sampling.               Through marketing communication program assessment using Customer Bonding, marketing communication intensity and correlation analysis between marketing communication program and consumer loyalty are obtained. From this analysis, it is shown that there is noise in marketing communication that influences information sending to customer. Hero must maintain marketing communication program which focuses in marketing program that have competitive advantages. Beside that, evaluation has always to be done in order to improve customer loyalty. Keywords: communication, customer bonding, loyalty

  17. ASSESSING SUPERMARKET FOOD SHOPPER REACTION TO HORSEMEAT SCANDAL IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Amofa Yamoah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer reaction to food scares has been given considerable research attention but insights into specific shopper segments’ reactions to food scares, especially those that do not pose direct health risk to the public is limited. This paper examines how different life-stage shopper segments reacted to the horsemeat scandal in the UK. This paper draws on the analysis of supermarket loyalty card dataset of 1.7 million beef burger shoppers to establish the effect of the horsemeat scandal on retail sales value and volume as well as the rate of withdrawal of life-stage shopper segments from the affected products. The results show consistent weekly decline in retail sales value and volume across all life-stage segments over six consecutive weeks after the first horsemeat scandal announcement. Young families, pensioners and young adults segments withdrew from affected products in accordance with their typical perception and attitudes to risk. Contrary to expectation older adults withdrew faster than young families from the affected products. The findings of the study offer useful insights and strategic direction for managers working to ensure that food scares are managed to the benefit of the public and the food industry.

  18. Incidence of Larval Anisakiosis in Ocean Fish Sold Through Network of Supermarket Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted on a sample of 33 ocean fish of consumption, mackerel and herring uneviscerated and frosen, packed in plastic bags, different weights and purchased from supermarket chain stores, concerning the incidence and intensity of parasitism by larvae of Anisakis sp. to gut and visceral level, lesion picture caused and also some morphological measurements, reveals an incidence of anisakiasis of 60.0% to 72.2% in mackerel and respectively in herring. Regarding the infestation intensity of Anisakis larvae sp., infestations dominate weakly the mackerel (44.4%, followed by medium (33.3% and massive (22.0%. In contrast to the herring are dominant the medium infestations (46.1%, followed by massive (30.7% and low infestations (23.1%.Table of lesion caused by larval stages in gut and visceral level is characterized by intestinal congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and hemoragico – necrotic and the presence of larval cystic foci on serous of gut, kidneys, liver and gonads. Morphological investigations carried out on a sample of 20 larvae, collected from herring and mackerel, regarding biometric aspects, cuticular and of color, body size variables highlights from 13.0 mm / 0.6 mm minimum to 27.0 / 0.6 mm maximum, with an average of 20.0 mm / 0.5 mm, comparable to those presented in the speciality literature.

  19. A multi-stakeholder evaluation of the Baltimore City virtual supermarket program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisetty, Pooja; Flamm, Laura; Rak, Summer; Landgraf, Jessica; Heisler, Michele; Forman, Jane

    2017-10-23

    Increasing access to healthy foods and beverages in disadvantaged communities is a public health priority due to alarmingly high rates of obesity. The Virtual Supermarket Program (VSP) is a Baltimore City Health Department program that uses online grocery ordering to deliver food to low-income neighborhoods. This study evaluates stakeholder preferences and barriers of program implementation. This study assessed the feasibility, sustainability and efficacy of the VSP by surveying 93 customers and interviewing 14 programmatic stakeholders who had recently used the VSP or been involved with program design and implementation. We identified the following themes: The VSP addressed transportation barriers and food availability. The VSP impacted customers and the city by including improving food purchasing behavior, creating a food justice "brand for the city", and fostering a sense of community. Customers appreciated using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits to pay for groceries, but policy changes are needed allow online processing of SNAP benefits. This evaluation summarizes lessons learned and serves as a guide to other public health leaders interested in developing similar programs. Provisions in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Bill 2014 allow for select grocers to pilot online transactions with SNAP benefits. If these pilots are efficacious, the VSP model could be easily disseminated.

  20. Analysis on energy saving potential of integrated supermarket HVAC and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The paper presents a model-based analysis on the energy saving potential of supermarket HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning) and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers among the high-temperature HVAC system, the medium-temperature refrigeration system, and the low-temperature refrigeration system. The principle of energy reduction is to have the higher COP (coefficient of performance) system generate more cooling capacity to increase the cooling capacity or reduce the power consumption of the lower COP system. The subcooler could be placed between the medium-temperature and low-temperature systems, between the high-temperature and medium-temperature systems, and between the high-temperature and low-temperature systems. All integration scenarios of adding one, two and three subcoolers have been investigated. The energy saving potential varies with the load ratio between high-, medium- and low-temperature systems, COP of three systems, and the ''on-off'' duty time of HVAC system. The optimal sequence of adding subcoolers is also proposed. (author)