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Sample records for german railway history

  1. [Emergency response management near the tracks of the public railway network: special aspects of missions connected with the German national railway system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, P; Aul, A; Vock, B; Frank, C

    2010-11-01

    Emergency response management and rescue operations concerning the railway network in Germany need special attention and implementation in several ways. The emergency response concerning the German national railway network managed by Deutsche Bahn AG is subject to various rules and regulations which have to be followed precisely. Only by following these rules and procedures is the safety of all emergency staff at the scene ensured. The German national railway network (Deutsche Bahn AG) provides its own emergency response control center, which specializes in managing its response to emergencies and dispatches an emergency response manager to the scene. This person serves as the primary Deutsche Bahn AG representative at the scene and is the only person who is allowed to earth the railway electrical power lines. This article will discuss different emergency situations concerning railway accidents and the emergency medical response to them based on a near collision with a high speed train during a rescue mission close to the railway track. Injury to personnel could only be avoided by chance and luck. The dangers and risks for rescue staff are specified. Furthermore, the article details practical guidelines for rescue operations around the German national railway track system.

  2. The railway suicide death of a famous German football player: impact on the subsequent frequency of railway suicide acts in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Kunrath, Sabine; Lukaschek, Karoline; Baumert, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The railway suicide of Robert Enke, an internationally respected German football goal keeper, sent shockwaves throughout the world of football. We analyzed its impact on the frequency of subsequent railway suicide acts (RS). Two analytic approaches were performed applying German Railway Event database Safety (EDS) data: first, an inter-year approach comparing the incidence of RS during a predefined "index period" with identical time windows in 2006 to 2008; second, an intra-year approach comparing the number of RS 28 days before and after the incidence. To analyze a possible "compensatory deficit", the number of RS in the subsequent first quarter of 2010 was compared with the identical time windows in the preceding three years. Incidence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated by Poisson regression. Findings were controlled for temperature. Compared to the preceding three years, the incidence ratio (IR) of the number of RS in the index period increased by 1.81 (1.48-2.21; p<0.001), leading to an overall percentage change of 81% (48-121%; p<0.001). Comparing the number of suicides 28 days before and after the incidence revealed an even more pronounced increase of IR (2.2; 1.6-3.0). No modifications of these associations were observed by daytime, by location of the suicide and fatality. No compensatory deficit occurred in the post-acute period. The substantial increase of RS in the aftermath of the footballer's suicide death brought about copycat behavior in an unforeseen amount, even though the media reporting was largely sensitive and preventive measures were taken. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Operating a railway system within a challenging environment: Economic history and experiences of Zimbabwe’s national railways

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a historical background to the development of the railways in Zimbabwe and then discusses their current state. Besides being a landlocked country in Southern Africa, Zimbabwe has since 2000 been saddled with socio-economic and political challenges which have seen a decline in all economic indices, hence posing some challenges to its railways. This article discusses the challenges faced by the railways as a result of high inflation, unstable currency exchange rate, brain dr...

  4. Operating a railway system within a challenging environment: Economic history and experiences of Zimbabwe’s national railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical background to the development of the railways in Zimbabwe and then discusses their current state. Besides being a landlocked country in Southern Africa, Zimbabwe has since 2000 been saddled with socio-economic and political challenges which have seen a decline in all economic indices, hence posing some challenges to its railways. This article discusses the challenges faced by the railways as a result of high inflation, unstable currency exchange rate, brain drain, poor management, government interference in management, customs border delays, and energy shortage. The problems have been addressed in unique ways and unusual solutions are proposed. These include customer financing for maintenance and spares and the resuscitation of steam locomotives. The presented solutions, lessons and issues from this experience contribute to discussions and study of railway logistics in challenging environments. Finally, current and future research issues, which have a global appeal, are presented.

  5. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  6. Learning from the Germans? History and Memory in German and European Discourses of Integration

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    Andrew Beattie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available History and memory appear to be increasingly important to discussions of European values and identity, as exemplified by references to ‘bitter experiences’ and ‘divided pasts’ in the draft EU constitution. The article takes recent suggestions that Europe could learn from German experiences of confronting multiple difficult pasts as its starting point, and considers critically what lessons those German experiences might in fact hold for ‘Europe’. It explores similarities and differences in the two integration contexts and their dominant approaches to, and assumptions about history and public memory. Specifically, it considers debates about the east-west division of the Cold War and about the place of communism and nazism in public memory. Contrary to common assumptions, the article argues that German experiences are not necessarily worth of European emulation.

  7. German Legal History: National Traditions and Transnational Perspectives

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    Thomas Duve

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I review select institutional and analytical traditions of Legal History in 20th century Germany, in order to put forth some recommendations for the future development of our discipline. A careful examination of the evolution of Legal History in Germany in the last twenty-five years, in particular, reveals radical transformations in the research framework: Within the study of law, there has been a shift in the internal reference points for Legal History. While the discipline is opening up to new understandings of law and to its neighboring disciplines, its institutional position at the law departments has become precarious. Research funding is being allocated in new ways and the German academic system is witnessing ever more internal differentiation. Internationally, German contributions and analytic traditions are receiving less attention and are being marginalized as new regions enter into a global dialogue on law and its history. The German tradition of research in Legal History had for long been setting benchmarks internationally; now it has to reflect upon and react to new global knowledge systems that have emerged in light of the digital revolution and the transnationalization of legal and academic systems. If legal historians in Germany accept the challenge these changing conditions pose, thrilling new intellectual and also institutional opportunities emerge. Especially the transnationalization of law and the need for a transnational legal scholarship offers fascinating perspectives for Legal History.

  8. Heisenberg's war. The secret history of the German bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, T.

    1993-01-01

    The history of Second World War Germany's 'Uranium Project', which often is referred to as the 'myth of the German atomic bomb', has been attracting the mind's of secret service men, futurologists, historians and journalists since after the end of the war it has become possible to lift the veil of secrecy. Powers book adds another one to the many investigations published since them. His approach to the piece of history starts with Heisenberg's visit to the U.S.A. in summer 1939, describes the plans of the German Heereswaffenamt pursued with the Uranium Project, and their counterpart on the side of the Allied Forces where German scientists, as immigrants in England and in the U.S.A., were doing their best to launch research for the development of an atomic bomb. The end of this 'competition' is marked by the internment of the ten German scientists and bomb specialists in Fall Hall. The leading story of the book centers on the small group of scientists around Heisenberg, who cleverly 'torpedoed' the development of the German atomic bomb in the years from 1939 until 1944. (HP) [de

  9. Transnational and entangled histories of National Socialism? The Turkish dimension of German interwar history

    OpenAIRE

    Ihrig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The history of National Socialism is mostly narrated and researched within its national, German context. While it appears obvious that Germany was interconnected with the broader world at the time, this has had little impact on our understanding of the history of National Socialism. This article investigates the Turkish dimension of especially early National Socialism and shows how debates on Turkey and recent events there influenced and shaped debates in the German media in the early Weimar ...

  10. Webtechnology and internet services at power rail systems of German Railway DB AG; Nutzung von Webtechnologien und Internet-Diensten bei der Energieversorgung der Deutschen Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, J.T. [DB Energie, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Internet services and the technologies of the World Wide Web are used at power rail systems of German Railway in some processes. Important applications are systems support, service and parametering of substation control- and protection equipment and the monitoring of switches and power transformers. The performance of the security claims of the asset management and the IT-Department are a condition for implementation these technologies. (orig.)

  11. [History of German-Baltic relations in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankler, H; Laschinski, G; Roots, I

    2004-04-30

    Today, the three Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, have well-known medical faculties with international standing. Their individual histories are briefly outlined. However, relations of the German academic world were closest with the university of Dorpat (today: Tartu). It was re-opened in 1802 by tsar Alexander I in order to keep young Baltic people from studying abroad. The medical faculty was its biggest faculty. The university was Russian, but the official language was German. So many a German professor came to Dorpat and many professors from Dorpat were offered a chair at a German university. The scientific imports connected Dorpat with other centres of West-European science, they brought knowledge and ideas and an exchange of information. The standard was high, and among the teaching staff was a handsome number of medical celebrities, e.g. the anatomist August Rauber and the surgeon Ernst von Bergmann. In Dorpat, Rudolf Buchheim brought a new science, experimental pharmacology, into being, which his pupil and successor, Oswald Schmiedeberg, fully established and propagated all over the world.

  12. Transnational and entangled histories of National Socialism? The Turkish dimension of German interwar history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihrig, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of National Socialism is mostly narrated and researched within its national, German context. While it appears obvious that Germany was interconnected with the broader world at the time, this has had little impact on our understanding of the history of National Socialism. This article investigates the Turkish dimension of especially early National Socialism and shows how debates on Turkey and recent events there influenced and shaped debates in the German media in the early Weimar republic. The Turkish War of Independence (1919-1923 as well as the Armenian Genocide during World War I Turkey were topics of public debate in the early Weimar Republic. While this seems surprising, if not unlikely at first, it is through translation of these events into wholly German terms and dimensions that they became highly relevant to Germany at the time. This is a contribution to entangled history and media history as it proposes a new way to understand international history and influences through public debates, news coverage, and political discourse.

  13. The Legacy of Nazism and the History Curriculum in the East German Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Gregory P.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the Marxist-Leninist curriculum assumptions about history instruction in East German schools on the legacy of Nazism. Suggests that questions raised to legitimize history instruction for East German students are relevant for students in capitalist countries. Discusses Hitler's rise to power, Soviet contributions to defeat fascism,…

  14. Wired for success: A history of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway, 1892--1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Charles Vincent

    The Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway (BA&P) was a standard gauge common carrier short line railroad within the state of Montana. A subsidiary of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company, the BA&P was built to carry ore from mines at Butte, Montana to Anaconda, twenty-six miles away, for concentrating and smelting. Other freight and passenger business was of secondary importance. In 1912, when General Electric contracted to convert the BA&P from steam to electric operation, the short line became a proving ground for main line railroad electrification, and the center of attention from advocates for electric power. Electric operation was demonstrated to be mechanically superior to the use of steam locomotives on the BA&P. Immediately after the BA&P proved the technological feasibility of high voltage direct current for moving heavy freight trains, the Chicago Milwaukee & St. Paul (CM&St.P) electrified over 600 miles of transcontinental main line using the basic technology demonstrated on the BA&P. However, on long distances of track with relatively few trains such as the CM&St.P, the capital cost of the electric distribution system exceeded the operational savings obtained by use of electric locomotives. Steam locomotives remained the primary form of railroad motive power in the United States until the 1950's, when the diesel-electric locomotive combined the mechanical efficiency of electric motors with an on-board diesel generating plant, eliminating the need for expensive electric power supply and distribution wires of conventional electrics. The BA&P purchased three diesels in the early 1950's, but relied primarily on its electric locomotives until 1967, when diesel operation became less costly than continued use of electric motive power. The BA&P offers a microcosmic view of the transformation of one industry in response to technological and economic forces as the United States moved from reliance on coal-burning steam power to electric power and internal combustion

  15. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.

  16. Backlash against American psychology: an indigenous reconstruction of the history of German critical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research.

  17. Magnetic levitation railways. 2. enlarged ed. Magnetschwebebahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miedtank, R [comp.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 129 literature references, mostly with German abstracts on: Representation of the magnetic levitation railway (MAGLEV railway) as a fast modern railway; type of design of tracks and stations; manufacture of track supports made of steel and reinforced concrete with the accuracy required for this fast railway system. Introduction of experimental sections and planning study for this means of transport. (orig./HP).

  18. Translation and Its Discontents: Key Concepts in English and German History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Key terms and concepts are crucial tools in teaching and learning in the disciplines. Different linguistic traditions approach such tools in diverse ways. This paper offers an initial contribution by a monolingual Anglophone history educator in dialogue with German history educators. It presents three different scenarios for the potential of…

  19. Germany's Intercity Express with ABB three-phase propulsion. The high-speed era begins for German Federal Railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, D.

    1991-01-01

    June 2, 1991, marked for German Federal Railway (DB) the start of a new era. On that day its new Intercity Express (ICE) trains began regular operation, setting new standards not only in travel comfort but also in technical and operational innovation. The train's present running speed on the Hamburg-Frankfurt-Munich line, which includes the longest section of DB's new high-speed 'Neubaustrecke' routes, is 250 km/h. Of the 60 ICE trains ordered by DB, 41 had been delivered by September 1991. ABB invested its entire AC drive know-how in the development of the train's power cars. Acting within a consortium, ABB Henschel supplied about one third of the electrical equipment, including transformers, power converters and the control equipment, which includes DAVID, a modern diagnostics system. Other ABB deliveries were the displays for the drivers' cabs and the locomotive's safety equipment. Among the mechanical parts ABB supplied were the bogies, doors, walls and roofs, and the brake modules. (orig.).

  20. The German Energiewende – History and status quo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hake, Jürgen-Friedrich; Fischer, Wolfgang; Venghaus, Sandra; Weckenbrock, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Industrialized nations rely heavily on fossil fuels as an economic factor. Energy systems therefore play a special part in realizing visions of future sustainable societies. In Germany, successive governments have specified their ideas on sustainable development and the related energy system. Detailed objectives make the vision of the Energiewende – the transformation of the energy sector – more concrete. Many Germans hope that the country sets a positive example for other nations whose energy systems also heavily rely on fossil fuels. A glance at the historical dimensions of this transformation shows that the origins of German energy objectives lie more than thirty years in the past. The realization of these goals has not been free from tensions and conflicts. This article aims at explaining Germany's pioneering role in the promotion of an energy system largely built on renewable energy sources by disclosing the drivers that have successively led to the Energiewende. To reveal these drivers, the historical emergence of energy politics in Germany was analyzed especially with respect to path dependencies and discourses (and their underlying power relations) as well as exogenous events that have enabled significant shifts in the political energy strategy of Germany. - Highlights: • Analysis of key drivers of the German Energiewende. • Enabled by special constellation of political developments and external incidents. • Resulted in changing power constellations and discourse dynamics. • Contended political process spurred strong economic leaders to support renewables. • Their impact drove all political parties towards nuclear phase-out and Energiewende.

  1. The German Generations and Gender Survey: Some Critical Reflections on the Validity of Fertility Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kreyenfeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper validates the fertility histories of the German Generations and Gender Survey (GGS. Focusing on the cohorts 1930-69 of West German women, the total number of children, the parity distribution and the parity progression ratios are compared to external sources. One major result from this validation is that the German GGS understates the fertility for the older cohorts and overstates it for the younger ones. We presume that two mechanisms are responsible for this pattern in the German GGS: On the one hand, children who have left parental home are underreported in the retrospective fertility histories. On the other hand, women with small children are easier to reach by the interviewer. These two mechanisms taken together produce too low numbers of children for the older and too high ones for the younger cohorts. Extending the validation to marital histories has revealed a similar bias. Our general conclusion from this investigation is that the German GGS may not be used for statistical analyses of cohort fertility and marriage trends. For subsequent surveys, we suggest integrating simple control questions in questionnaires with complex retrospective fertility and union histories.

  2. The history of forensic entomology in German-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach, H; Krettek, R; Bratzke, H; Püschel, K; Zehner, R; Amendt, J

    2004-09-10

    Megnin's book "La fauna des cadaveres" published in 1894 in France is generally accepted as a mile-stone in forensic entomology. It is hardly known that at the same time this topic was likewise explored in the German-speaking countries. Even PMI estimation based on developmental data of blowflies was performed. After a more descriptive period in the first half of the 20th century the complexity and variability of insects' biological behavior were detected and formally investigated. Improved technical facilities, enhanced comprehension of scientific studies and multidisciplinary cooperation, enabled rapid progress in forensic entomology during the last decades. With the European Association for Forensic Entomology founded in 2002 the frame work for a high standard of competency at an international level was constituted.

  3. [History of Medical Mycology in the former German Democratic Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, C; Blaschke-Hellmessen, Renate; Kielstein, P

    2002-01-01

    After the Second World War the development of medical mycology in Germany had taken a very different course in the east and west parts depending on the political division. In this respect our contribution deals with the situation in the former German Democratic Republic. Efficient mycological centres were founded step by step almost in all medical universities on the basis of the mycological laboratories in dermatological hospitals competent for diagnostic work, but also for teaching and scientific research. In this context biologists were the main stay of mycology, they finally were integrated to the same degree in the universities like physicians. The effectiveness of the Gesellschaft für Medizinische Mykologie der DDR (GMM), its board of directors and its working groups as well as the topics of human and animal mycology during this period are described. Especially the merger of the GMM with the Deutschsprachige Mykologische Gesellschaft after the reunification of Germany without problems and the kind co-operation of Prof. Dr. Johannes Müller during this procedure are emphasized.

  4. Long-Term Deflection Prediction from Computer Vision-Measured Data History for High-Speed Railway Bridges

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    Jaebeom Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of the vertical long-term deflection of a high-speed railway bridge is a crucial factor to guarantee traffic safety and passenger comfort. Therefore, there have been efforts to predict the vertical deflection of a railway bridge based on physics-based models representing various influential factors to vertical deflection such as concrete creep and shrinkage. However, it is not an easy task because the vertical deflection of a railway bridge generally involves several sources of uncertainty. This paper proposes a probabilistic method that employs a Gaussian process to construct a model to predict the vertical deflection of a railway bridge based on actual vision-based measurement and temperature. To deal with the sources of uncertainty which may cause prediction errors, a Gaussian process is modeled with multiple kernels and hyperparameters. Once the hyperparameters are identified through the Gaussian process regression using training data, the proposed method provides a 95% prediction interval as well as a predictive mean about the vertical deflection of the bridge. The proposed method is applied to an arch bridge under operation for high-speed trains in South Korea. The analysis results obtained from the proposed method show good agreement with the actual measurement data on the vertical deflection of the example bridge, and the prediction results can be utilized for decision-making on railway bridge maintenance.

  5. Long-Term Deflection Prediction from Computer Vision-Measured Data History for High-Speed Railway Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaebeom; Lee, Kyoung-Chan; Lee, Young-Joo

    2018-05-09

    Management of the vertical long-term deflection of a high-speed railway bridge is a crucial factor to guarantee traffic safety and passenger comfort. Therefore, there have been efforts to predict the vertical deflection of a railway bridge based on physics-based models representing various influential factors to vertical deflection such as concrete creep and shrinkage. However, it is not an easy task because the vertical deflection of a railway bridge generally involves several sources of uncertainty. This paper proposes a probabilistic method that employs a Gaussian process to construct a model to predict the vertical deflection of a railway bridge based on actual vision-based measurement and temperature. To deal with the sources of uncertainty which may cause prediction errors, a Gaussian process is modeled with multiple kernels and hyperparameters. Once the hyperparameters are identified through the Gaussian process regression using training data, the proposed method provides a 95% prediction interval as well as a predictive mean about the vertical deflection of the bridge. The proposed method is applied to an arch bridge under operation for high-speed trains in South Korea. The analysis results obtained from the proposed method show good agreement with the actual measurement data on the vertical deflection of the example bridge, and the prediction results can be utilized for decision-making on railway bridge maintenance.

  6. East German Journalists and the Wende: A history of the collapse and transformation of socialist journalism in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Morgan Morille Schupbach

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation utilizes archival sources and interviews to examine the transformation of the journalism profession in East Germany from the collapse of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) through the unification of the two German states. During this period of dramatic political and social upheaval, East German journalists navigated the divide between socialist journalism of the GDR and democratic journalism of the Federal Republic. By embedding the history of this professional transformat...

  7. Ethnic boundaries in national literary histories: Classification of ethnic minority fiction authors in American, Dutch and German anthologies and literary history books, 1978-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.L. Berkers (Pauwke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis article compares the classification of ethnic minority fiction writers in American, Dutch and German literary anthologies and literary history books for the period of 1978-2006. Using content analyses, ethnic boundaries are much stronger in Dutch and German textbooks than in their

  8. Disarming Hatred: History Education, National Memories, and Franco-German Reconciliation from World War I to the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Mona; Harjes, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    On May 4, 2006, French and German cultural ministers announced the publication of "Histoire/Geschichte", the world's first secondary school history textbook produced jointly by two countries. Authored by a team of French and German historians and published simultaneously in both languages, the book's release drew considerable public…

  9. The German-German history of the nuclear power plant Greifswald. Nuclear power between east and west. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegselius, Per

    2015-01-01

    The historical study covers the chapters The nuclear power plant Greifswald; Lubmin shortly before the ''Wende'' 1989; the German ''Wende''; from the last vote for the ''Volkskammer (parliament of the German Democratic Republic) to the German reunification; Lubmin in reunified Germany; conclusions and perspectives. In the attachment technical data about the reactors WWER-440/W-230 are summarized, including a list of WWERs in the former eastern bloc countries.

  10. [The original German scholarly literature of medieval falconry and the history of its scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Martina

    2007-01-01

    German scholarly literature (Fachliteratur) of the middle ages devoted to falconry falls into two main categories: Translations, mostly of latin works, and original treatises. After a short survey of falconry in the past, this article will discuss the original treatises and the history of their analysis since the 19th century. In this context it will deal with the research of the following scholars: Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, Anton von Perger, Ernst von Dombrowski, Hermann Werth, Christoph von Biedermann and--most importantly--Kurt Lindner. The appendix contains the editio princeps of the German Münchener Rezeptar I from the codex unicus, München, Universitätsbibliothek, 80 Cod. ms. 354, fol. 31r-33r (dating from the 15th century).

  11. Railway power supply - free of crises and independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigert, E.

    1981-01-01

    The German Federal Railway realizes 84% of its transport performance by electric traction. The prevailing primary energy source of the railway electric power supply is coal, but the DB uses also furnace gas, nuclear energy and hydroelectric power. The shave of mineral oil lies by about 5%. The public utilities deliver about 15%. The dispersed situation of the power stations and converter stations over the whole supply area offers the advantage of short transport distances. Therefore the 110-kV-railway mains especially meets distribution demands. Very useful is the compound operation with the Austrian Federal Railways and the Swiss Federal Railways. (orig.) [de

  12. Seismic assessment of a multi-span steel railway bridge in Turkey based on nonlinear time history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Mehmet F.; Çağlayan, Barlas Ö.

    2018-01-01

    Many research studies have shown that bridges are vulnerable to earthquakes, graphically confirmed by incidents such as the San Fernando (1971 USA), Northridge (1994 USA), Great Hanshin (1995 Japan), and Chi-Chi (1999 Taiwan) earthquakes, amongst many others. The studies show that fragility curves are useful tools for bridge seismic risk assessments, which can be generated empirically or analytically. Empirical fragility curves can be generated where damage reports from past earthquakes are available, but otherwise, analytical fragility curves can be generated from structural seismic response analysis. Earthquake damage data in Turkey are very limited, hence this study employed an analytical method to generate fragility curves for the Alasehir bridge. The Alasehir bridge is part of the Manisa-Uşak-Dumlupınar-Afyon railway line, which is very important for human and freight transportation, and since most of the country is seismically active, it is essential to assess the bridge's vulnerability. The bridge consists of six 30 m truss spans with a total span 189 m supported by 2 abutments and 5 truss piers, 12.5, 19, 26, 33, and 40 m. Sap2000 software was used to model the Alasehir bridge, which was refined using field measurements, and the effect of 60 selected real earthquake data analyzed using the refined model, considering material and geometry nonlinearity. Thus, the seismic behavior of Alasehir railway bridge was determined and truss pier reaction and displacements were used to determine its seismic performance. Different intensity measures were compared for efficiency, practicality, and sufficiency and their component and system fragility curves derived.

  13. Seismic assessment of a multi-span steel railway bridge in Turkey based on nonlinear time history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Yılmaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies have shown that bridges are vulnerable to earthquakes, graphically confirmed by incidents such as the San Fernando (1971 USA, Northridge (1994 USA, Great Hanshin (1995 Japan, and Chi-Chi (1999 Taiwan earthquakes, amongst many others. The studies show that fragility curves are useful tools for bridge seismic risk assessments, which can be generated empirically or analytically. Empirical fragility curves can be generated where damage reports from past earthquakes are available, but otherwise, analytical fragility curves can be generated from structural seismic response analysis. Earthquake damage data in Turkey are very limited, hence this study employed an analytical method to generate fragility curves for the Alasehir bridge. The Alasehir bridge is part of the Manisa–Uşak–Dumlupınar–Afyon railway line, which is very important for human and freight transportation, and since most of the country is seismically active, it is essential to assess the bridge's vulnerability. The bridge consists of six 30 m truss spans with a total span 189 m supported by 2 abutments and 5 truss piers, 12.5, 19, 26, 33, and 40 m. Sap2000 software was used to model the Alasehir bridge, which was refined using field measurements, and the effect of 60 selected real earthquake data analyzed using the refined model, considering material and geometry nonlinearity. Thus, the seismic behavior of Alasehir railway bridge was determined and truss pier reaction and displacements were used to determine its seismic performance. Different intensity measures were compared for efficiency, practicality, and sufficiency and their component and system fragility curves derived.

  14. German-speaking exiles and the writing of Indian art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The German and Austrian origins of some of India’s leading art historians from the 1930s to the 1960s is an understudied dimension of art historiography that questions the knowledge hierarchies of the British Empire and the role of foreigners in Indian nation building. The article focuses on three figures who held key positions in the Indian art world (Ernst Cohn-Wiener, Hermann Goetz and Rudolf von Leyden and argues that such German-speaking exiles played a determining role in urgent debates of the time. Participating in the circulation of foreign art and ideas in India, especially in Bombay and Baroda, they significantly impacted on the selective process of the history of art. Far from propagating an esoteric, Hindu-centred perspective on Indian art, as did many Indian nationalist art historians, émigrés championed an inclusive take on art by integrating its Muslim as well as Hindu heritage. In addition they helped launch some of India’s most innovative artists. The article thus opens up broader discussions on art and nationalism, the building of a canon and the appropriation of modernism before and after Indian independence.

  15. German Cinema as a Vehicle for Teaching Culture, Literature and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Annelise M.

    The use of German film in four instructional contexts, based on experiences in developing a university course, is discussed. One use is as part of a German culture course taught in German, emphasizing the role of film as a cultural statement of its time, intended to be either a social criticism or a propaganda tool. A second use is integration of…

  16. Using Classroom Recordings in Educational History Research. An East German Civics Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, May; Blessing, Benita

    2014-01-01

    Students learned in civics lessons in the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) that their socialist society uniquely guaranteed all individuals the right to work, and that, as good socialists, they had the duty to take on socially meaningful work. Using the example of a video recording of an East German civics lesson and its…

  17. High-Speed Maglev Trains; German Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This document is a translation of technology-specific safety requirements developed : for the German Transrapid Maglev technology. These requirements were developed by a : working group composed of representatives of German Federal Railways (DB), Tes...

  18. In search of a railway Europe : transnational railway developments in interwar Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anastasiadou, E.

    2009-01-01

    Most conventional histories that address the creation and development of railway networks start from national developments. Recent scholarship on this topic, however, has stressed the importance of formulating a transnational perspective on technological developments and infrastructural developments

  19. Uses of History and Information Asymmetries in German-Indian Business Relations before 1947

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    to nationalistically-thinking Indians. The paper deals with the long-term development of German business in India from the late nineteenth century to Indian independence in 1947. It explores which information deficits German multinationals were seeking to overcome and which strategies they employed to do so....... Empirically, the paper is based on German corporate archives, such as the electrical giant Siemens, several dye stuff companies, such as Bayer and I.G. Farben, as well as small- and medium sized manufacturers of cutlery, a typical bazaar good. Further sources come from the West Bengal State Archives...

  20. Investigating High-Speed Railways In Terms Of The Economy For Our Country and The Region

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Onur; Altan, Mehmet Fatih

    2018-01-01

    High-speed railways have a history of more than 40 years. Railways continued to be popular especially in variousparts of Eastern Europe and Asia until the end of the 1980s. As of today, we can talk about a high-speed railway thatcontinues to develop in the continents of Africa, Asia and the Americas around the world. At this point, one of themost significant factors in railways, in particular high-speed railways, is planning. Planning determines the effect ofthe railway on the economy, as wel...

  1. A True Proteus: A history of energy conservation in German science and culture, 1847-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegener, F.D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis follows the career of the law of energy conservation in German science and culture between 1847 and 1914. There is an interesting contrast between the initial reception of Hermann Helmholtz’ 1847 treatise ‘Über die Erhaltung der Kraft’, which was rejected by the editor of the Annalen der

  2. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  3. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. H.; Nash, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  4. Plotlines of Victimhood : the Holocaust in German and Dutch history textbooks, 1920-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.F. van Berkel (Marc)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBefore the 1960s, most history textbooks in Western Europe hardly contained any information about the ‘Holocaust’. This was partly because contemporary history still was a rudimentary part of the history curriculum. In addition, many teachers and textbook authors did not seem to be

  5. Farm Hall and the German atomic project of World War II a dramatic history

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David C

    2017-01-01

    This gripping book brings back to life the events surrounding the internment of ten German Nuclear Scientists immediately after World War II. It is also an "eye-witness" account of the dawning of the nuclear age, with the dialogue and narrative spanning the period before, during and after atomic bombs were dropped on Japan at the end of the war. This pivotal historical episode is conveyed, along with the emotions as well as the facts, through drama, historical narrative, and photographs of the captive German nuclear scientists - who included Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn, and Max von Laue. The unique story that unfolds in the play is based on secretly recorded transcripts of the scientists’ actual conversations at Farm Hall, together with related documents and photographs.

  6. Reel Socialism: Making sense of history in Czech and German cinema since 1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann Pedersen, Sune

    has been a vehicle of similar sense-making processes in the two history cultures. Much of the research on cinema in Germany has treated the subject in isolation, blind to the commonalities it shares with other post-communist countries, while Czech post-communist history culture and cinema has been...

  7. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  8. Living in history and living by the cultural life script: How older Germans date their autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Annette; Habermas, Tilmann

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictions from two theories on the organisation of autobiographical memory: Cultural Life Script Theory which conceptualises the organisation of autobiographical memory by cultural schemata, and Transition Theory which proposes that people organise their memories in relation to personal events that changed the fabric of their daily lives, or in relation to negative collective public transitions, called the Living-in-History effect. Predictions from both theories were tested in forty-eight-old Germans from Berlin and Northern Germany. We tested whether the Living-in-History effect exists for both negative (the Second World War) and positive (Fall of Berlin Wall) collectively experienced events, and whether cultural life script events serve as a prominent strategy to date personal memories. Results showed a powerful, long-lasting Living-in History effect for the negative, but not the positive event. Berlin participants dated 26% of their memories in relation to the Second World War. Supporting cultural life script theory, life script events were frequently used to date personal memories. This provides evidence that people use a combination of culturally transmitted knowledge and knowledge based on personal experience to navigate through their autobiographical memories, and that experiencing war has a lasting impact on the organisation of autobiographical memories across the life span.

  9. The German emergency and disaster medicine and management system—history and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Hecker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As well for optimized emergency management in individual cases as for optimized mass medicine in disaster management, the principle of the medical doctors approaching the patient directly and timely, even close to the site of the incident, is a long-standing marker for quality of care and patient survival in Germany. Professional rescue and emergency forces, including medical services, are the “Golden Standard” of emergency management systems. Regulative laws, proper organization of resources, equipment, training and adequate delivery of medical measures are key factors in systematic approaches to manage emergencies and disasters alike and thus save lives. During disasters command, communication, coordination and cooperation are essential to cope with extreme situations, even more so in a globalized world. In this article, we describe the major historical milestones, the current state of the German system in emergency and disaster management and its integration into the broader European approach. Keywords: Emergency medical systems, Disaster medicine, Public health, Germany

  10. The history of the construction und operation of the KNK II German Fast Breeder Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the German KNK fast breeder project from its beginnings in 1957 until permanent shutdown in 1991. The initial design provided for a sodium-cooled, but thermal reactor. Already during the commissioning of KNK I on the premises of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center modification into a fast nuclear power plant was decided. Considerable difficulties in licensing had to be overcome. KNK II reached high burnup values in the fuel elements and closing of the fuel cycle was achieved. A number of technical problems concerning individual components are described in detail. After the politically motivated discontinuation of the SNR 300 fast breeder project at Kalkar, KNK II was shut down for good in August 1991. (orig.) [de

  11. The History of the Construction and Operation of the German KNK II Fast Breeder Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1994-11-01

    The report gives a historical review of the German KNK fast breeder project, from its beginnings in 1957 up to permanent plant shutdown in 1991. The original design was for the sodium cooled thermal reactor KNK I, which was commissioned on the premises of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The conversion into a fast nuclear power plant however was a process, which had to overcome considerable licensing difficulties. KNK II attained high fuel element burnups, and the completion of the fuel cycle was achieved. Various technical problems encountered in specific components are described in detail. After the termination of the SNR 300 fast breeder project in Kalkar for political reasons, KNK II was shutdown in August 1991

  12. The German emergency and disaster medicine and management system-history and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Norman; Domres, Bernd Dieter

    2018-04-01

    As well for optimized emergency management in individual cases as for optimized mass medicine in disaster management, the principle of the medical doctors approaching the patient directly and timely, even close to the site of the incident, is a long-standing marker for quality of care and patient survival in Germany. Professional rescue and emergency forces, including medical services, are the "Golden Standard" of emergency management systems. Regulative laws, proper organization of resources, equipment, training and adequate delivery of medical measures are key factors in systematic approaches to manage emergencies and disasters alike and thus save lives. During disasters command, communication, coordination and cooperation are essential to cope with extreme situations, even more so in a globalized world. In this article, we describe the major historical milestones, the current state of the German system in emergency and disaster management and its integration into the broader European approach. Copyright © 2018. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  13.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...

  14. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  15. [The German Museum for the History of Medicine: a museum tour from the perspective of urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisinger, M M

    2012-08-01

    In 1973, Germany's first museum of the history of medicine was founded in the former anatomical theatre of Ingolstadt University. Today, the baroque building with its beautiful medical garden is one of the attractions of the old city of Ingolstadt. The paper gives a round tour through the permanent exhibition, the medical technology wing and the herbal garden. The emphasis is put on those objects and plants which have a connection to the history of urology, from a "ladies urinal" to the world's first ESWL apparatus.

  16. A True Proteus: A history of energy conservation in German science and culture, 1847-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, F. D. A.

    2009-11-01

    This thesis follows the career of the law of energy conservation in German science and culture between 1847 and 1914. There is an interesting contrast between the initial reception of Hermann Helmholtz’ 1847 treatise ‘Über die Erhaltung der Kraft’, which was rejected by the editor of the Annalen der Physik, and its later status as a classic of science. ‘Energy’ was the shared concept of the disciplines. It was used by physiologists, physicists, psychologists, sociologists and philosophers. Moreover, the law of energy conservation also made a huge cultural impact. The period around 1900 has justly been called an energetic era. Why did the law of energy conservation become such a universal success? The obvious way to explain this success would be to say: because it is true, and subsequently comment upon its great scientific value. This thesis adopts a different perspective. It adopts Wittgenstein’s definition of meaning as use in language. Consequently, the meaning of the law is only referred to in relation to the way in which it was put to use in communicative practice. From this perspective it is immediately evident that the understanding of the law of energy conservation was subject to considerable change. Helmholtz initially conceptualized the law in terms of atoms and forces; Gustav Kirchhoff and Ernst Mach, rejected atoms and forces as hypothetical entities and they preferred to use the more mundane concept of work instead; Wilhelm Ostwald, finally, thought of energy as an immaterial substance. This thesis meticulously follows the changes in use and understanding to which the law was subject as it penetrated German science and culture. Communication and interests, rather than natural essences, are the central explanatory concepts of the thesis. From 1847 onwards Helmholtz and Du Bois-Reymond actively sought to spread the law of energy conservation among their colleagues and the general public. They told their fellow physiologists, for example, that

  17. THE RAILWAYS THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sout'h Africa's armed forces were small, and their material resources ... scheme, contingency planning proceeded. On the outbreak of ... hannesburg); a Railway Operating Company; a Mechanical .... ded his verdict that from the points of view.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients with a history of macrovascular disease: a German perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massi-Benedetti Massimo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to project health-economic outcomes relevant to the German setting for the addition of pioglitazone to existing treatment regimens in patients with type 2 diabetes, evidence of macrovascular disease and at high risk of cardiovascular events. Methods Event rates corresponding to macrovascular outcomes from the Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular Events (PROactive study of pioglitazone were used with a modified version of the CORE Diabetes Model to simulate outcomes over a 35-year time horizon. Direct medical costs were accounted from a healthcare payer perspective in year 2005 values. Germany specific costs were applied for patient treatment, hospitalization and management. Both costs and clinical benefits were discounted at 5.0% per annum. Results Over patient lifetimes pioglitazone treatment improved undiscounted life expectancy by 0.406 years and improved quality-adjusted life expectancy by 0.120 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs compared to placebo. Direct medical costs (treatment plus complication costs were marginally higher for pioglitazone treatment and calculation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER produced a value of €13,294 per QALY gained with the pioglitazone regimen versus placebo. Acceptability curve analysis showed that there was a 78.2% likelihood that pioglitazone would be considered cost-effective in Germany, using a "good value for money" threshold of €50,000 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were most sensitive to changes in the simulation time horizon. After adjustment for the potential stabilization of pancreatic β-cell function with pioglitazone treatment, the ICER was €6,667 per QALY gained for pioglitazone versus placebo. Conclusion The findings of this modelling analysis indicated that, for patients with a history of macrovascular disease, addition of pioglitazone to existing therapy reduces the long

  19. Development of a super high speed railway and ML 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Y

    1973-07-01

    A history of the development progress is given, followed by a discussion of the propulsion system for a super high speed railway-structure. Induction linear motors and synchronous linear motors are discussed in some detail. The maintenance system is then described (basic test apparatus-rotary type superconductive magnetic force maintenance system, etc.). Experiments using a linear running superconductive magnetic test car are discussed. Developments of super high speed railways in America, France, England, West Germany, etc. are described.

  20. Viscoelastic dynamic models of resilient elements used in railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbiciak Artur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected theoretical aspects concerning viscoelastic dynamic modelling of resilient elements used in railway tracks. In order to characterize the research methodology for resilient mats in railway tracks, German Standards [1-4] are used herein. The main goal of the paper is to demonstrate the procedure of insertion loss calculation for a single degree of freedom truck system containing under-ballast mats. Selected results of certain dynamic characteristics of resilient truck systems (transmissibility, Bode and Nyquist plots etc. are also discussed. The results of calculations visualized in graphs, were obtained by using own applications written in programming language MATLAB.

  1. The Railway Transport Cabinet of the Kyiv Commercial Institute: educational activities and library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasievа Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the history of foundation and activities of the Railway Transport Cabinet of the Kyiv Commercial Institute are recreated and an attempt is made to trace the way of its library book fonds which "has been lost" during the institute numerous transformations.The Railway Transport Cabinet was established as a supportive educational subdivision of the Merchandising Museum of the Kyiv Commercial Institute. Its purpose was to gather materials on railway science from the improved models of railway transport to the rich collection of specialized literature in foreign languages. In this regard a library was organized in a cabinet; it consisted of professional books and documents covering the railway science, railroads organization and operation, various manuals, diagrams etc. The novelty of the publication lies in the disclosure of the history of the Kyiv Commercial Institute Railway Transport Cabinet library, which has not yet been an object of a special book science research.

  2. DC Cable for Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  3. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  4. Subcontracting Railway Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    railway infrastructure manager (InfraMan), whichis subcontracting maintenance tasks to other companies. InfraMan has implemented various central elements in managing their subcontractors. The latter are required to present a safety plan as part of their bid, they must be approved if they are to be awarded...

  5. Formalism in the first half of the twentieth century: ‘pure science’ or a case of effective rhetoric? [Review of: M.B. Frank, D. Adler German art history and scientific thought: beyond formalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, A.

    2012-01-01

    German Art History and Scientific Thought - Beyond Formalism discusses the relation between art history and the human and natural sciences in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. All contributions in this volume highlight the way in which this exchange affected art history on a

  6. Evacuation Route: Restoring the Railway Transportation of People During the Great Patriotic War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potemkina Marina Nikolaevna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the role of the railway transport in migration from the frontline to the Soviet rear during the Great Patriotic War. The research is based on the analysis of the published and archival documents, personal diaries, letters, memoirs, texts of interview with the people who lived through the evacuation. The methodological foundation of the research was based on the theoretical principles made by the Everyday History. Surge attack of the German troops and cruel occupational policy caused the necessity of evacuation of civilians to the Eastern regions of the country. The evacuation was both spontaneous and organized and helped to save millions of human lives. The lack of evacuation plans in case of a war, incompleteness of the railway transport renovation, transport routes destroyed by the enemy and the stream of refugees were among the main factors which complicated evacuation process. The conditions of transportation differed according to the time and the circumstances of the evacuation and a person’s position in social hierarchy. There were some problems during the evacuation, such as regulation of the rail service, sanitation of the carriages, nutrition system, psychological shock. People had to spend weeks in the carriages suffering from cold, hunger and diseases. During the evacuation a new alternative reality appeared with its rules and regulations which changed the concepts of tangible assets and moral values. The priority for any person was to survive, which meant to be independent and to do everything possible.

  7. To the Vandals They Are Stone: A Profane Pre-History of the German Temple of Art, 1794-1830

    OpenAIRE

    Goff, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    This is the story of how German writers, scholars, bureaucrats and custodians of art at all levels witnessed and participated in the French despoliations of European art collections over the course of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and how in the aftermath of these events they developed new ideas about the place and purpose of art in modern cultural and political life at the beginning of the nineteenth century. In this period German scholars were forming new theories about the autonom...

  8. [History of diaphanoscopy. Pictures from the history of otorhinolaryngology, illustrated by instruments from the collection of the Ingolstadt German Medical History Museum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1998-05-01

    introduced this technique prior to Voltolini. Voltolini had died in 1889 and could not comment on this. A careful study of the original publications, however, shows that Cozzolino had only inspected the nasal cavity with retronasal illumination, but had not demonstrated the maxillary sinus by transillumination. The diaphanoscopy of the paranal sinuses was very soon elaborated to perfection: Vohse in 1890 applied it to the frontal sinuses, Gerber in 1900 invented a double diaphanoscope for examining both frontal sinuses simultaneously. Although the shortcomings of diaphanoscopy soon became apparent, the method was widely used for about half a century, but in the end could not compete with modern techniques of radiography and ultrasound. The history is related in detail and illustrated with numerous figures.

  9. [2000 year history of tonsillectomy. Images from the history of otorhinolaryngology, highlighted by instruments from the collection of the German Medical History Museum in Ingolstadt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1997-12-01

    The etymology of the anatomical terms and their use in history are elucidated: "Tonsil" (from Latin tonsa = the oar) in use since Celsus (about 40 AD). The Greek terms of that time, "antiádes", "paristhmia", were not adopted in later medical terminology. "Amygdala" (Greek/Latin = the almond) was introduced by Vesalius in 1543. Vesalius was also the first to depict the tonsils in a specimen of the whole human body; Duverney (1761) gives the first exact depiction of the pharyngeal region. Special anatomical and histological studies of the tonsils were carried out in the 19 century. Cornelius Celsus in Rome (about 40 AD) described the blunt removal of the tonsils by use of the finger. This method was favoured anew by numerous laryngologists at the beginning of the 20th century when it had been realised that a gentle enucleation of the entire tonsil including its capsule was advisable against cutting off a slice, but before long this procedure was discarded again for hygienic reasons. Precursors of special instruments for tonsillectomy were instruments designed for shortening the uvula: uvulotomy. Paré (1564) and Scultetus (1655) devised instruments that permitted placing a thread shaped like a snare around the uvula and cutting it off by strangulation. Hildanus (1646), Scultetus (1655) and Heister (1763) presented an instrument of the guillotine-type for uvulotomy. This instrument was modified by P. S. Physick (USA 1828) and used for tonsillotomy. It became the prototype for a number of similar instruments which were to follow: W. M. F. Fahnestock (USA 1832). M. Mackenzie (London 1880), G. Sluder (USA 1911). Besides these guillotines snares were also perfected and used for tonsillotomy, e.g. by W. Brünings (1908). The concentration on tonsillotomy aimed at performing the operation as quickly as possible, especially in children, as it was not yet possible to sustain general anaesthesia for a longer period of time while doing surgery in the pharynx. The operation of

  10. Railway Reform in Germany: Restructuring, Service Contracts, and Infrastructure Charges

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the reform process in the German railway sector. We take a look at the process and the outcome of the reform and compare it with the theoretical findings. The regionalisation of the regional rail passenger services is of a special importance to us. We scrutinise the contracts for the provision of these services and try to find interrelations between the different contract elements. A further emphasis is placed on the influence of the European Commission on the reform process. We an...

  11. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross....../overtake each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected....... Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....

  12. Innovative Railway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  13. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies : III Deutsch-Sdwestafrika (SWA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Deutsch-Sdwestafrika (SWA) during the early twentieth century. For the

  14. Transatlantic Enlightenment : Peter Gay and the drama of German history in the United States, 1930s-1970s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first research on the life and work of the Jewish German-American historian Peter Gay (1923-2015). The dissertation analyzes the impact of Gay’s experience of emigration from Nazi Germany to the United States on his idea of western culture. It focuses especially on the period from the

  15. Conspiracy, Guilt and Rationality: The Memory and History of the German Military Occupation of Denmark on 9 April 1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    The German Military Occupation of Denmark 9. April 1940 was undertaken as a surprise attack and met very short Danish military resistance. It created for long debates, juridical encounters and dicussuions regarding future Danish military policy. Historical analyses did not became dominant before ...

  16. Covert Operation ``Sun God'' - History of German Solar Research in the Third Reich and Under Allied Occupation (German Title: Kommandosache ``Sonnengott'' - Geschichte der deutschen Sonnenforschung im Dritten Reich und unter alliierter Besatzung)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Michael P.

    Between 1939 and 1945 the Luftwaffe of the Third Reich invested large sums in solar research and the establishment of a chain of solar observatories under the code word “Sun God”. Observations of the different phenomena of solar activity were intended to allow a dependable daily prediction of the best frequency bands for long-range military radio. For the development of these research activities the Luftwaffe used a young astrophysicist, who - being the son of a well-known leftist publisher of the Weimar Republic - did appear not well suited to perform “war decisive research” for the Nazi regime: Karl-Otto Kiepenheuer (1910-1975). Circumventing the usual academic tenure, Hitler's war turned the barely thirty-year-old and up to then rather unsuccessful Kiepenheuer into an influential director of a research institution, which he was to remain for the next three decades as well. This book recounts the history of German solar research in the period 1939-1949, her entanglement with the crimes of the Nazi regime as well as her use by the Western Allies until the founding of the German Federal Republic.

  17. Book Review: Russia-Germany. Milestones of the Joint History in the Collective Memory. 20th Century / ed. by H. Muller, A. O. Chubaryan ; by the Decision of the Joint Commission on Studying the Modern History of the Russian-German Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vashkau Nina Emilyevna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of a Russian-German textbook that describes the events of the 20th century. The book has been created by the Common Board for Research on the History of the Russian-German Relationships and can be used as learning material in schools and universities of both countries.

  18. Music to Teach German By.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Leo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how music can be intergrated with regular lesson plans to teach German vocabulary, grammar, and history and to give insights into German culture. Also included are sources for basic background information, a list of recordings of the German music, and notes on selecting and presenting it in the language class. (SED)

  19. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradai S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.

  20. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...

  1. Case for railway electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, A.N.

    1981-06-10

    The publication earlier this year of the joint BR-DTp final report of the review of main line electrification represented the culmination of over two years work; the study is almost certainly the most complex and comprehensive of this type ever undertaken. Heavy reliance on computer models allowed business analysis over the 34-year timespan of the review to extend to a level of detail that was not expected at the time of the last such investigation, the 1931 Weir Report of the Committee on Main Line Railway Electrification. It is encouraging that, despite the sweeping changes in both technology and economic conditions during the intervening years, the verdict remains highly favourable.

  2. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 7 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The topics of this volume extend from the work of the islamic scienticst al-Tusi in the 13th century to the development of astronomical instrumentation at the Carl Zeiss Jena Company in the second half of the 20th century. The contents of the remaining articles are found between these limits: the well-known textbooks of Johannes de Sacrobosco, Tycho Brahe's stays in Augsburg, Gottfried Kirch's calendars, published around 1700, a portrait of Bessel, made during his Königsberg time, Fraunhofer's successors at the Munich Optical Institute, and Einstein's cosmological ideas in his ``Four lectures on the Theory of Relativity''. The earliest disputation of the learned Jesuit Christoph Scheiner is printed for the first time in a German translation. The volume is concluded by a bibliographical overview on historical Venus transits, additional short notes, an obituary of Jerzy Dobrzycki, and book reviews. Most papers are written in German. Main papers have English abstracts.

  3. Transnational entanglements in the history of psychiatry. South Tyrolian patients in German asylums, c. 1940-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Müller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Object of this article is the destiny of psychiatric inmates in Wuerttemberg asylums, 1940-1945. These patients from Italian regions of Vicenza, Udine, Trento, Alto Adige and various locations more were delegated and, to a substantial number, illegally deported to the German asylums Zwiefalten, Schussenried and Weissenau, all in South Wuerttemberg, in 1940 and 1943. Attention is focused on the pioneering state pre-negotiations, and the so-called option treaties between the German Reich and Fascist Italy as part of the general aspect of National Socialist bio-Politics. The treatment of these South Tyrol patients in the asylums themselves, as well as their fate will be put into the context of the resettlement actions at the margins of the Third Reich, which started in 1939 and widely affected the European continent. It is referred to other sub-groups of migrating population from Italy to the German Reich as well, as a contrasting aspect of this contribution

  4. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 5 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    This book contains articles on 16th century horoscopes, on Athanasius Kircher's ``Organum Mathematicum'', on Gottfried Kirch's idea of an astronomical society, on a stellar photometer dating from 1786, on Bessel's review of Gauss' ``Theoria Motus'', on letters by F.X. von Zach, on the discovery of the minor planet Eros, as well as on the astronomers Christoph Scheiner, Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau, Georg Koch and Felix Linke. Short contributions and book reviews conclude this volume. Most papers are written in German. Main papers have English abstracts.

  5. Railway noise annoyance on the railway track in northwest slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultznerova, Alzbeta; Eva, Panulinova; Kucharova, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large high-loaded railway track in Northwest Slovakia. The measurements of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods were taken. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition, the annoyance level and sleep disturbance of residents affected by railway noise were evaluated by a validated questionnaire on a pilot sample of 107 respondents living near the important railway track. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train were extremely high especially at night, clearly exceeding the nighttime limits of equivalent sound pressure level established by the Decree of the Slovak Ministry of Health (No.549/2007) (L Aeq  = 55 dB). Measurements at one point during the night exceeded the limit values of up to 17.4 dB. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which caused irritability, headache, poor concentration, and insomnia. In addition, 19.64% of the residents claimed that nocturnal noise pollution was the most distressing. The results of bivariate analysis showed a higher risk of annoyance especially for railway noise [OR MH  = 7.80 (4.02-15.14)] and the noise from industry [OR MH  = 3.08 (1.72-5.50)] in the exposed location. The effects of railway traffic on annoyance/sleep and psychosocial well-being were evaluated in a few studies. In accordance with our results the railway noise mostly disturbs sleep and rest of the respondents. The pilot survey showed the importance of sleep and rest disturbance by railway noise and the possibilities of getting worse health condition in the future. Noise abatement measures and strategies should, therefore, be implemented in an effective and manageable way increasing the environmental advantages of rail transport.

  6. Magnetically suspended railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C

    1977-07-28

    The invention concerns the emergency support of a magnetically suspended railway. On failure of the magnetic suspension/tracking system, the vehicles touch down on the rail configuration by means of emergency gliding elements like sliding shoes, skids, or the like. In doing this, the touch-down shock of the emergency gliding elements has to be limited to a force maximum as small as possible. According to the invention a spring-attenuator combination is used for this purpose, the spring characteristic being linear while the attenuator has a square-law characteristic for the compressing and a linear characteristic for the yielding motion. The force maximum thus achieved is exactly half the size of the physically smallest possible force maximum for an emergency gliding element springed without damping.

  7. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources...

  8. VoLTE performance in railway scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  9. VoLTE Performance in Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  10. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  11. ‘Towards an “exakte Kunstwissenschaft”(?. Part II: The new German art history in the nineteenth century: a summary of some problems'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Muthesius

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on what has been outlined in ‘Part I’ and on additional references to other new German work, as well as to articles by two of the protagonists of the 1870s and 1880s, Anton Springer and Moritz Thausing. The central issue is the nineteenth century’s desire for a Verwissenschaftlichung of the subject, to render the subject ‘purely scientific’. Principally this concerns the way in which older kinds of connoisseurship were juxtaposed to the new claims of a strictly ‘historical’ approach. Much shorter sections touch on aspects of style, iconography and form, as well as on the history of the provision of illustrations.

  12. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 3. (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The main papers of this issue deal with previously unknown details of the foundation of the astronomical observatories in Gotha and in Königsberg (with numerous original documents by F.W. Bessel), with the Mecklenburg ordnance survey (1853-1873, with previously unknown letters by C.F. Gauss), with the merits of the Leipzig astronomer G.A. Jahn, with the internationality of the Astronomische Gesellschaft, and with early, previously little noted works on the expansion of the Universe. The issue contains a description of the important collection of sundials in the Kassel museum, discussions about the Medieval ``Phantom Period'', about Goethe's description of the zodiacal light, as well as obituaries and book reviews. Most papers in German, one in English.

  13. The German-German history of the nuclear power plant Greifswald. Nuclear power between east and west. 2. ed.; Die deutsch-deutsche Geschichte des Kernkraftwerkes Greifswald. Atomenergie zwischen Ost und West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per [Technische Hochschule Stockholm (Sweden). Bereich Gesellschaft, Wissenschaft und Technik

    2015-07-01

    The historical study covers the chapters The nuclear power plant Greifswald; Lubmin shortly before the ''Wende'' 1989; the German ''Wende''; from the last vote for the ''Volkskammer (parliament of the German Democratic Republic) to the German reunification; Lubmin in reunified Germany; conclusions and perspectives. In the attachment technical data about the reactors WWER-440/W-230 are summarized, including a list of WWERs in the former eastern bloc countries.

  14. History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine”: The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: “History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine” (German: “Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin”, abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed. PMID:28584871

  15. "History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine": The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: "History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine" (German: "Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin", abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed.

  16. [On the history of the German Democratic Republic Journal Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology (1949-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitge, M; Kumbier, E

    2015-05-01

    Scientific journals were established in the Soviet occupied zone following WWII in order to distinguish themselves from the other occupying powers. Starting in 1949 a journal with the title "Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology" was founded as no publishing house existed in the field of psychiatry and neurology and it became necessary to establish a new journal that was competitive. The journal was primarily distributed in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1990 but the interest internationally was very limited. State affairs had a great influence from the very beginning so that the political involvement was reflected in the selection of staff, such as the publishers and the head of the editorial department and by the close interconnection between the Society for Psychiatry and Neurology of the GDR and the editorship of the journal. The publishers who were primarily responsible and the authors were at the interface of politics and science. Nevertheless, in an international comparison many parallels can be found in the orientation with respect to the content.

  17. Introductory strategies for the automation of suburban railway systems; Einfuehrungsstrategien fuer die Automatisierung von Nahverkehrsbahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, N. [Siemens Transportation Systems, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    Driverless automatic operation is a cost-effective and passenger-friendly form of handling services in suburban railway systems. It is intended to introduce this operating mode also in railway systems that have so far been operated in a conventional mode. The article outlines solution concepts and introductory strategies for changing the operating mode. (orig.) [German] Der fahrerlose automatische Betrieb stellt eine wirtschaftliche und fahrgastfreundliche Form der Betriebsabwicklung von Nahverkehrssystemen dar. Ziel ist es, diese Betriebsform auch bei bislang konventionell betriebenen Bahnen einzufuehren. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt Loesungsansaetze und Einfuehrungsstrategien fuer die Umstellung auf einen automatischen Betrieb. (orig.)

  18. LTE for Railways: Impact on Performance of ETCS Railway Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    The Global System for Mobile Communications-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with considerable shortcomings in terms of capacity and data transmission capabilities. Because of these shortcomings, GSM-R is becoming the element limiting the number of running trains in areas with high...... train concentration, such as major train stations. Moreover, GSM-R cannot support advanced data services. Hence, modern technologies, such as long-term evolution (LTE), have to be evaluated as possible railway communication technologies to replace GSM-R in the future. This article analyzes...... the characteristics of the LTE railway radio access network in terms of eNodeB (LTE base station) density and eNodeB transmission power. Based on this analysis, a set of computer-based simulation scenarios (e.g., OPNET) with varying numbers of eNodeBs is evaluated regarding the achieved transfer delay and data...

  19. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  20. RESTRUCTURING INDONESIAN RAILWAY – INTEGRATION OR SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utut Widyanto

    2013-05-01

    The study found that the separation model is still the best approach for restructuring Indonesian railway but if looking at the Indonesian railway current condition with its problem of backlog assets it would be better that the separation approach is used in the development of railway in other islands. Keywords: Restructuration, separation, funds, operator.

  1. Acoustic energy propagation around railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Petra

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with the issues of acoustic energy propagation around railways. The research subject was noise emission spreading into the surroundings during the passage of trains over a directly travelled steel bridge construction. Noise emissions were measured using direct measurements in the field. The measurements were performed in two measurement profiles. The noise exposures A LAE measured near the steel bridge construction were compared against the noise exposures A LAE captured on an open track. From the difference of these data, the noise level of the steel bridge structure was determined. Part of the research was to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction of the railway track superstructure on the acoustic situation in the given section of the railway track. The article describes the methodology of measurements, including the processing and evaluation of measured data. The article points out the noise levels of the steel bridge construction and assesses changes in the acoustic situation after the reconstruction.

  2. A PROPOSAL FOR MAKING A RISK MAP OF ROCKFALL BY EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE TO RAILWAY TRACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukata, Takahiro; Mori, Taiki; Shibuya, Satoru

    An incident of rockfall may trigger serious damage to the safety as well as the after-the-event maintenance of railway transportation. In an attempt to minimize such damage caused by rockfall incident, the railway companies regularly in spect the concerned slopes along the railway, and take necessary measures. In the current practice, however, it is very difficult to make a full control of slopes in danger spreading over the wide area due to the limited human and financial resources. Accordingly, it is urgently needed for the railway firms to establish cost-effective as well as reliable system for the slope management. A risk map based on the impact statement of rockfall to railway track is of great use for not only enhancing the efficiency of slope inspection, but also planning the disaster prevention of railway. In this paper, a methodology for establishing a risk map by considering the impact statement to railway truck in a quantitative manner is proposed. In so doing, the rockfall movement on a slope was numerically simulated in match with each categorized type of slopes. The applicability of this proposed method for the slope management practice is examined based on a number of case histories.

  3. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  4. Engaging with German history: Reactions of the third post-war generation to cinematic representations of the Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kopf-Beck

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the number of surviving contemporary witnesses of the Holocaust is rapidly declining, media reports are increasingly important for transmitting history to the “Third Generation.” The focus of this quasi-experimental study is on the recipient-side effects for school pupils of viewing TV documentaries that use different strategies to represent the Holocaust. For this purpose, 12 school classes (N = 184 were asked by questionnaire about their national identification and previous engagement with the Holocaust. Three weeks later, the study participants were shown one of six different film excerpts, whereby each film excerpt was viewed by respectively one group from Baden-Württemberg and one from Thüringen. The different reactions to the excerpts were sampled using standardized items and open-response essay questions. The results point to the conditions under which TV documentaries elicit contra-indexed effects and how enlightenment on past injustice can be achieved using cinematic material, without eliciting defensive reactions, and thereby make possible a constructive engagement with history.

  5. Waiting experience in railway environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hagen, M.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2014-01-01

    At railway stations, waiting time is usually an unavoidable aspect of the journey for train passengers. According to the attentional model of time, pleasant surroundings and other forms of distraction reduce perceived waiting time. Not every individual reacts identically in the same surroundings.

  6. Histoire, mémoire et identité nationale History, memory and national identity. A German triptych confronted by present-day social evolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Rambour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La responsabilité morale et politique à l’égard du passé est toujours sous-jacente dans la culture politique allemande. Toute tentative destinée à penser l’identité nationale, à mettre à jour ses principales caractéristiques, se trouve confrontée à la prégnance d’une mémoire collective particulièrement lourde de sens et de conséquences. De récentes polémiques sur l’attitude à adopter face à l’histoire et à l’idée nationale montrent combien cet héritage est structurant dans la réflexion sur la problématique identitaire. Si l’histoire, la mémoire et l’identité semblent indissociables dans ce contexte spécifique, des aspirations à une certaine « normalité » se manifestent quant à la manière de vivre ce passé et de s’exprimer au présent. La chute du Mur de Berlin et la réunification ont replacé le thème de l’identité nationale au centre des débats, réactivant ainsi une forme de dilemme entre un sentiment de culpabilité devant l’histoire et le désir d’un rapport « normalisé » à la nation allemande. Les transformations dont l’Allemagne est le théâtre depuis la dernière décennie rendent toutefois nécessaire le maintien d’une vigilante attention. Une situation d’insécurité économique et sociale, associée au temps qui risque d’atténuer la vivacité de souvenirs pourtant lourds, rappellent que la mémoire conditionne aussi la manière dont une nation réunifiée se projette dans l’avenir et y vit son identité.The moral and political responsibility regarding the past always underlies German political culture. Any attempt to conceive national identity, to update its main features, is faced with the vividness of a meaningful, collective memory, fraught with consequences. Recent controversies about the way to deal with history and the national idea show the extent to which this heritage structures the reflection on identity problems. Though history, memory and

  7. Silent Film in the German Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, David

    In addition to using films in the German classroom to introduce students to German culture and history, it is important to show and study the film as film. This procedure emphasizes the importance of the film as a part of creative arts in Germany and demands student participation in observation and discussion. Many German silent films are…

  8. Impact of service quality management (SQM) practices on Indian railways : study of South Central Railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to present a framework developed for assisting Railways to monitor and : control the quality of services provided to passengers. The study evaluated the passenger Rail Service quality of : Indian Railways by develo...

  9. Real-time Railway Traffic Management : Dispatching in complex, large and busy railway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Railway is an important and sustainable transportation mode, which despite good potentials results in a limited attractiveness, mostly due to the perceived consequences of unreliability. In fact, busy railway networks with frequent and heterogeneous services are highly sensitive to delay

  10. Fuel cells in railway systems. Project report; Brennstoffzellen im Schienenverkehr. Projektbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The project report describes the state of the art of fuel cell technology and the specific requirements of railway systems. Potential applications in the state of Schleswig-Holstein are gone into. [German] In diesem Projektbericht wird der Stand der Brennstoffzellentechnik und die Entwicklung von Anforderungen des Schienenverkehrs an diese Technik ermittelt. Darueber hinaus wird untersucht, inwieweit eine Modellregion Schleswig-Holstein zur weiteren Entwicklung der Technik beitragen kann.

  11. Dynamic response of railway tracks in tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang , T; Duhamel , Denis; Forêt , Gilles; Yin , H.P.; Joyez , P; Caby , R

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Periodically supported beams subjected to a moving load are often used for modelling the railway dynamics and analytical solutions have been developed for such modelling [3, 4]. More complex models can be constructed by including supports with damping or non-linear stiffness elements. This study deals with the dynamical modelling of non-ballasted railways, especially railways in tunnels. The model is developed as a dynamical system of multi-degree of freedom. Under the...

  12. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  13. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  14. 76 FR 59482 - The New Brunswick Railway Company-Continuance in Control Exemption-Maine Northern Railway Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... requirements of 49 U.S.C. 11323-25, for Eastern Maine Railway, a Class III rail common carrier to continue in... Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.; Maine Northern Railway Company--Modified Rail...

  15. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  16. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  17. The keys to Europe : regulating railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of the railways in Europe in the middle of the nineteenth century quickly raised new questions about harmonizing standards to allow them to travel over national borders. Negotiations regarding how to run international railways involved entrepreneurs, engineers, and politicians from

  18. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...

  19. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  20. Railway timetabling from an operations research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); D. Huisman (Dennis); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe Operations Research (OR) models and techniques that can be used for determining (cyclic) railway timetables. We discuss the two aspects of railway timetabling: ($i$) the determination of arrival and departure times of the trains at the stations and other

  1. The Network effects of Railway Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten; Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2006-01-01

    Network effects is when a change at one place in the railway network results in changes elsewhere in the network – maybe even far away from the original change. Railway investments have network effects, and therefore, this paper describes the network effects and how these network effects can...

  2. German Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

  3. German Orientalism

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Olin

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...

  4. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  5. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  6. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  7. Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and Railway Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, Mikael; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Smith, Michael; Gustavsson, Sara; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s.

  8. Assessing The Impact Of Railway Restructuring In Nigeria | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study presents railway restructuring as a solution option to railway problems in Nigeria. It aims at ascertaining the efficiency of the critical input factors of Nigerian Railway corporation (NRC) while comparing it with that of the restructured developed and best practices railways to establish the basis for restructuring.

  9. Rail Transport : Framework for Improving Railway Sector Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Olievschi, Vasile Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    In most of the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries railways have played, throughout history, a key part in the economic development maintaining a dominant role in transporting freight and passengers at low costs. During the last 50 years, the road transport in the region as throughout the world has expanded rapidly due to the aggressive development of the automobile industry. African gover...

  10. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  11. 78 FR 56769 - South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways-Intra-Corporate Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Cooper and Berkeley Railroad Company South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35762] South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--The...

  12. The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: Results from the ALPNAP-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Lercher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s/90s, a number of socio-acoustic surveys and laboratory studies on railway noise effects have observed less reported disturbance/interference with sleep at the same exposure level compared with other modes of transportation. This lower grade of disturbance has received the label "railway bonus", was implemented in noise legislation in a number of European countries and was applied in planning and environmental impact assessments. However, majority of the studies investigating physiological outcomes did not find the bespoke difference. In a telephone survey (N=1643 we investigated the relationship between railway noise and sleep medication intake and the impact of railway noise events on motility parameters during night was assessed with contact-free high resolution actimetry devices. Multiple logistic regression analysis with cubic splines was applied to assess the probability of sleep medication use based on railway sound level and nine covariates. The non-linear exposure-response curve showed a statistically significant leveling off around 60 dB (A, Lden. Age, health status and trauma history were the most important covariates. The results were supported also by a similar analysis based on the indicator "night time noise annoyance". No railway bonus could be observed above 55 dB(A, Lden. In the actimetry study, the slope of rise of train noise events proved to be almost as important a predictor for motility reactions as was the maximum sound pressure level - an observation which confirms similar findings from laboratory experiments and field studies on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance. Legislation using a railway bonus will underestimate the noise impact by about 10 dB (A, Lden under the conditions comparable with those in the survey study. The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting.

  13. The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: results from the ALPNAP-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercher, P; Brink, M; Rudisser, J; Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Baulac, M; Defrance, J

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s/90s, a number of socio-acoustic surveys and laboratory studies on railway noise effects have observed less reported disturbance/interference with sleep at the same exposure level compared with other modes of transportation. This lower grade of disturbance has received the label "railway bonus", was implemented in noise legislation in a number of European countries and was applied in planning and environmental impact assessments. However, majority of the studies investigating physiological outcomes did not find the bespoke difference. In a telephone survey (N=1643) we investigated the relationship between railway noise and sleep medication intake and the impact of railway noise events on motility parameters during night was assessed with contact-free high resolution actimetry devices. Multiple logistic regression analysis with cubic splines was applied to assess the probability of sleep medication use based on railway sound level and nine covariates. The non-linear exposure-response curve showed a statistically significant leveling off around 60 dB (A), Lden. Age, health status and trauma history were the most important covariates. The results were supported also by a similar analysis based on the indicator "night time noise annoyance". No railway bonus could be observed above 55 dB(A), Lden. In the actimetry study, the slope of rise of train noise events proved to be almost as important a predictor for motility reactions as was the maximum sound pressure level - an observation which confirms similar findings from laboratory experiments and field studies on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance. Legislation using a railway bonus will underestimate the noise impact by about 10 dB (A), Lden under the conditions comparable with those in the survey study. The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting.

  14. Eight Hundred Years of Modern Language Learning and Teaching in the German-Speaking Countries of Central Europe: A Social History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Konrad

    2018-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of FLT in the German-speaking regions of Europe from medieval times to the present day, within a framework of language politics, communicative needs and educational ideologies. The languages addressed are French, Italian, Spanish, English, Russian and Turkish. Basic social and professional data of the various groups of…

  15. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...

  16. SURVEY RESULTS AND TESTING OF RAILWAY BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. H. Haniiev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the survey and testing of railway bridges by the State Joint-Stock Railway Company «Uzbekiston Temir Yollari» («Uzbekistan Railways». It is stated that in the existing rules on determination of the capacity of bridges the recommendations on taking into account the cumulative deflection to the moment of technical diagnostics of spans on the bridge capacity are absent. The author states on the need to develop a method for determining the wear of spans on restriction of the residual deflection in the bridge floor slabs.

  17. Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature.

  18. The creosote content of used railway crossties as compared with European stipulations for hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfelder, Tomas; Sandstroem, Elin

    2008-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar have supported the rails. With impregnated crossties having a lifespan of approximately 50 years, their creosote content is considered as quite safely stored while in dug-down usage. This situation of relative safety does, however, change into acute risk upon replacement and destruction. Carrying a highly flammable content, creosote crossties discharge a pulse of carcinogenic PAH compounds if burnt as ordinary waste. Safe destruction is therefore required if concentrations exceed a critical limit stipulated by the European Union. Since safe destruction is a process of considerable expense, there is a tendency among financial stakeholders to underestimate the creosote content of used railway crossties. In order to actually test whether concentrations generally exceed the critical limit, a set of used creosote ties was therefore sampled while still situated in the railway embankment. With a standard sum of sixteen PAH compounds used as an expression of their total creosote content, the generic concentration was formally inferred and found to significantly exceed the critical limit. The same applies to the fraction of seven carcinogenic PAH compounds, that alone exceed the stipulated limit for hazardous waste. It was also found that the material of railway embankments, whether or not the crossties were used in switches and/or railway yards, and sample depth within the crosstie, has a significant effect on creosote concentrations. Regardless of the status of these factors, the concentrations significantly exceed the critical limit that defines hazardous waste within the European Union

  19. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM. ... involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. ... the processed signals to control electromagnetic devices through motor drivers.

  20. High-speed railways in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotani, Y.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of conventional railways in Japan, leading up to the Shinkansen line, which at present runs at speeds up to 210km/h, and will in the future be speeded up to 260km/h. It then goes on to review the development of a superconductive, magnetically levitated train, which will constitute the next generation of railways, running at speeds of up to 500km/h. (author)

  1. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2017-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  2. Mine railway equipments management information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Han, K.; Duan, T.; Liu, Z.; Lu, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2007-06-15

    Based on client/server and browser/server models, the management information system described realized the entire life-cycle management of mine railway equipment which included universal equipment and special equipment in the locomotive depot, track maintenance division, electrical depot and car depot. The system has other online functions such as transmitting reports, graphics management, statistics, searches, graphics wizard and web propaganda. It was applied in Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd.'s Railway Transport Department. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  3. The liberalisation of the railways in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Trampus, Francesca

    2000-01-01

    It is certainly high time to talk about policy for the railways not only in the Russian Federation but also in Europe, where the railways are vital part of the Community transport sector and need to be promoted and revitalized, especially considering the increasing air-traffic and railroad congestion, the environmental problems, the traffic noise, the accidents and the growing opposition to the unchecked development of the new road infrastructure. Railtrack’s business is supported by state-fu...

  4. Model for Railway Infrastructure Management Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Stojić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The provision of appropriate quality rail services has an important role in terms of railway infrastructure: quality of infrastructure maintenance, regulation of railway traffic, line capacity, speed, safety, train station organization, the allowable lines load and other infrastructure parameters.The analysis of experiences in transforming the railway systems points to the conclusion that there is no unique solution in terms of choice for institutional rail infrastructure management modes, although more than nineteen years have passed from the beginning of the implementation of the Directive 91/440/EEC. Depending on the approach to the process of restructuring the national railway company, adopted regulations and caution in its implementation, the existence or absence of a clearly defined transport strategy, the willingness to liberalize the transport market, there are several different ways for institutional management of railway infrastructure.A hybrid model for selection of modes of institutional rail infrastructure management was developed based on the theory of artificial intelligence, theory of fuzzy sets and theory of multicriteria optimization.KEY WORDSmanagement, railway infrastructure, organizational structure, hybrid model

  5. Parameters of passenger facilities according to railway station characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej HAVLENA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents ways and goals of categorization of railway stations and stops in the Czech railway network. The aim of this categorization is to classify railway stations (or stops in the railway network according to a suite of entrance parameters (e.g. municipality population, transfer links, job opportunities, tourist attractiveness. On the basis of these parameters, railway stations and stops will be classified into several categories, which will be used to specify the conclusions for station equipment concerning ticket offices, commercial services, waiting rooms and other accessories. Research results can be used as a support for infrastructure managers and railway operators to optimise the scale of their services.

  6. [From otoscope to ophthalmoscope and back. The interwoven history of their invention and introduction into medical practice. Pictures from the history of otorhinolaryngology, illustrated by instruments from the collection of the Ingolstadt German Medical History Museum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1995-11-01

    derived from the already well known ophthalmoscope by adapting the diameter and focal distance to this special application. His primary concern was to use daylight instead of artificial light for otoscopy. Von Tröltsch did not know Hofmann's publication, but later did not hesitate to acknowledge Hofmann's priority. It was von Tröltsch who popularized the concave reflector with a central aperture as the instrument of choice in otoscopy, and subsequently also for rhinoscopy and laryngoscopy. Further modifications were devised to have the hands free for operations. Thus the reflector was fixed to the forehead by strap and buckle or a vulcanite band, or it was provided with a handle that was to be held between the teeth, or it was attached to a spectacle frame. The details of this interwoven history are related and highlighted by numerous quotations and historical illustrations.

  7. Formalism in the first half of the twentieth century: ‘pure science’ or a case of effective rhetoric? Mitchell B. Frank and Daniel Adler (eds, German Art History and Scientific Thought – Beyond Formalism, Ashgate, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Witte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available German Art History and Scientific Thought – Beyond Formalism discusses the relation between art history and the human and natural sciences in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. All contributions in this volume highlight the way in which this exchange affected art history on a practical and methodological level, but at the same time illustrate how the quest for objectivity and scientific methods was accompanied by an irrational search for essential characteristics of art through race. Especially the exchange with psychology, physiognomy, and psychophysiology supported this kind reasoning in circles in which objectivity was related to holistic explanations. This led to a rhetoric of objective Kunstwissenschaft that spoke in terms of rational facts, but in which the concepts of character and evolution resulted in highly ideological interpretations, which became discredited after 1945. However, the post-war reaction to this in itself again affected another turn towards the ‘objective’ which goes to show how external, political, changes affected the relation between art history and the sciences.

  8. [Nitrous oxide production by the German Armed Forces in the 20th century : History of medicine and pharmacy in the Armed Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronabel, D B J

    2010-03-01

    The nitrous oxide production unit of the German Armed Forces was a worldwide unique facility which was only employed in the former main medical depot at Euskirchen (nitrous oxide: medical gas which is now obsolete). The last unit was phased out in 2002 and brought to the main medical depot at Blankenburg. Unfortunately the unit is now no longer in the depot and seems to have disappeared. This article describes the nitrous oxide production process and the use of the production unit which was designed by the Socsil company of Switzerland.

  9. [Mental health status in railway female workers and its occupational influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, F L; Liu, Z M; Liu, Z S; Zou, J F; Yu, W L; Li, H M; Li, J; Kong, L M; Jiang, Q

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the mental health status of railway female workers and related influencing factors, and to provide a scientific strategy for labor protection regulations in railway female workers. Methods: Cluster sampling was used to select 5033 female workers from Jinan, Nanning, Qinghai-Tibet, and Wuhan railway systems in China from January to August, 2016. A uniform reproductive health questionnaire, as well as the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) , was used to investigate their general information (age, marital status, education level, and family income) , work type (day shift, night shift, or work on shift) , work position, and the presence or absence of exposure to occupational hazardous factors. The score on each factor of SCL-90 and the positive rate of mental health status were calculated. Results: The positive rate of mental health status was 10.6% in railway female workers. The workers exposed to occupational hazardous factors had a significantly higher positive rate of mental health status than those not exposed to occupational hazardous factors (14.20% vs 8.02%, P mental health status between workers with different ages, marital status, education levels, histories of abortion, or annual family income levels ( P mental health problems ( OR =1.797, 95% CI : 1.393-2.318; OR =0.641, 95% CI : 0.498-0.827; OR =0.586, 95% CI : 0.439-0.783; OR =0.580, 95% CI : 0.378-0.890) . Conclusion: Railway female workers have lower levels of mental health than the general population and are under significant occupational stress. Exposure to occupational hazardous factors, night shift, overwork, and carrying heavy objects are associated with the development of mental health problems in railway female workers.

  10. Germans or Jews? German-Speaking Jews in Post-War Europe: An Introduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, Kateřina; Rechter, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, November (2017), s. 69-74 ISSN 0075-8744 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Jews * Germans * post- war period Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) https://academic.oup.com/leobaeck/issue/volume/62?browseBy=volume

  11. Construction and Operation of Railway Bridges and Ferries in the Lower Volga Streamflow (End of 19th – First Half of 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPALEV M.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of operation of Russia’s first railway ferry and the process of bridge construction across the lower Volga streamflows at Ryazan-Ural (now Volga railway line in Saratov, Stalingrad (Volgograd and Astrakhan. River railway ferries “Saratovskaya pereprava” and “Saratovsky ledokol” were built in 1894 in England and water crafts “Vtoraya pereprava” (1909 and “Stalin” (1926 were floated out in Volga in Nizhny Novgorod, from the Sormov plant. As a rule, the organization of transportations by means of steam locomotives and waggons through Volga during the first half of the 20th century preceded the construction of capital metal railway bridges, such as Astrakhan (1909 and Saratov (1935, and also a combined railway-automobile bridge through the Volga (Stalingrad Hydro-Electric Power Station (1961. The article is devoted not only to the technical features of ferries, bridges, but their efficient use in peace time and war time. So, the carrying capacity of the Saratov railway ferry increased in more than three times from 1907 to 1916. The Ryazan-Ural railway ferries were actively used by new Bolshevist regime. After the railroad construction on the left bank of Volga in autumn and winter of 1941, railway ferries “Stalin” and “Saratovskaya pereprava” were used for the carriage of military trains and population evacuation from the western bank of Volga. The author describes one of the most heroic and tragic facts in the history of Stalingrad battle using the example of the special operation railway ferry flooding and its consequent reconstruction.

  12. Railway diagnosis of electric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Vladimir Sergeevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in noise level at cities is increasing the requirements to functional interaction of road users - pedestrians and drivers - with the parameters of the environment as a leading component of Afferentation synthesis in the complicated complex of locomotive activity. City noise is one of the most widespread factors of unfavorable living and working conditions. The noise of high intensity provokes diseases, lowers labor activity. At present, many large cities pay much attention to electric vehicles. The authors present an analysis of the poor state of tram track in areas of high noise and vibration of car and under-sleeper base design. A negative effect of noise and vibration on the formation of urban areas environment is shown as well as the impact of these conditions on the person. The advantages of the application of electric transport are specified, noise displacement curve of railway and under sleeper base is plotted depending on the frequency of the applied load and the modulus of elasticity, as well as under sleeper base vibroacceleration depending on time. The authors offer a systematic study on the basis of a mathematical model of the sources of noise in the process of a tram motion.

  13. A tutorial on fundamental model structures for railway timetable optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This guide explains the role of railway timetables relative to all other railway scheduling activities, and then presents four fundamental timetable formulations suitable for optimization. Timetabling models may be classified according to whether they explicitly model the track structure, and whe......This guide explains the role of railway timetables relative to all other railway scheduling activities, and then presents four fundamental timetable formulations suitable for optimization. Timetabling models may be classified according to whether they explicitly model the track structure...

  14. Alignment analysis of urban railways based on passenger travel demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Planning of urban railways like Metro and especially Light Rail Transit often result in multiple alignment alternatives from where it can be difficult to select the best one. Travel demand is a good foundation for evaluating a railway alignment for its ability to attract passengers. Therefore...... and can be applied as decision support in different stages of the urban railway alignment planning....

  15. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section... EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in scope... bylaws of such organizations, shall be employers within the meaning of the act. (a) An organization doing...

  16. Effect of Different Structure Type Traffic On Railway Line Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleba Radosław

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article points to methods of analyzing railway traffic conditions based on two parameters: capacity and delay of trains. The impact of the differentiated railway type structure on the capacity of the railway line was presented. Particular attention has been paid to the assessment of commonly used simplifications in analyzes.

  17. [Is there a German history of evidence-based medicine? Methodic standards of therapeutic research in the early 20th century and Paul Martini's "Methodology of therapeutic investigation" (1932)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, S; Roelcke, V; Raspe, H

    2005-07-29

    The article addresses the history of evidence-based medicine in Germany. Its aim was to reconstruct the standard of clinical-therapeutic investigation in Germany at the beginning of the 20 (th) century. By a historical investigation of five important German general medical journals for the time between 1918 and 1932 an overview of the situation of clinical investigation is given. 268 clinical trails are identified, and are analysed in view of their methodological design. Heterogeneous results are found: While few examples of sophisticated methodology exist, the design of the majority of the studies is poor. A response to the situation described can be seen in Paul Martini's book "Methodology of Therapeutic Investigation", first published in 1932. Paul Martini's biography, his criticism of the situation of clinical-therapeutic investigation of his time, the major points of his methodology and the reception of the book in Germany and abroad are described.

  18. 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David; Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Iida, Masanobu; Nelson, James; Thompson, David; Tielkes, Thorsten; Towers, David; Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The book reports on the 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held on 9 – 13 September, 2013, in Uddevalla, Sweden. The event, which was jointly organized by the Competence Centre Chalmers Railway Mechanics (CHARMEC) and the Departments of Applied Mechanics and Applied Acoustics at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, covered a broad range of topics in the field of railway noise and vibration, including: prospects, legal regulations and perceptions; wheel and rail noise; prediction, measurements and monitoring; ground-borne vibration; squeal noise and structure-borne noise; and aerodynamic noise generated by high-speed trains. Further topics included: resilient track forms; grinding, corrugation and roughness; and interior noise and sound barriers. This book, which consists of a collection of peer-reviewed papers originally submitted to the workshop, not only provides readers with an overview of the latest developments in the field, but also offers scientists and engineers essent...

  19. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail......, resulting in problems for safe operation of the vehicle. Therefore, it should be avoided in everyday operation. Furthermore, the creation of multiple solution branches suggests that the critical speed of a vehicle should be determined from a comprehensive analysis of the various kinds of possible...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  20. 76 FR 6517 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35461] Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a Class III carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption \\1\\ under 49 CFR 1150.41 to...

  1. Teaching German-Americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolzmann, Don Heinrich

    1976-01-01

    A university course entitled "The German-Americans" attempted to study and evaluate German culture in the U. S. Lecture topics and term paper theses are listed and a selected annotated bibliography of German-American culture is included. (CHK)

  2. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...

  3. Power System Unbalance due to Railway Electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatopoulos, Athanasios; Vikelgaard, Henrik; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    The decision to electrify the main part of the Danish railway at the same time where the supply and generation of electrical power in Denmark moves to a more decentralized structure, raises concerns regarding the balanced and secure operation of the power grid. Adverse effects include, among others......, the lifetime reduction of rotating machines and the malfunction of HVDC converters. Toward this direction, this paper aims to review the challenges and mitigation solutions with respect to voltage unbalance, focusing on the conditions relevant to the electrification of the Danish railway....

  4. [Reaction time tests in Leipzig, Paris and Würzburg. The Franco-German history of a psychological experiment, 1890-1910].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroy, Jacqueline; Schmidgen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This article diiscusses from a comparative perspective the complex history of the reaction experiment with the Hipp chronoscope, one of the central experiments of late 19th-century psychology. It focuses on Wilhelm Wundt's (1832-1920) Institute for Experimental Psychology in Leipzig and on the Paris Laboratory for Physiological Psychology at the Sorbonne, which was initially directed by Henry Beaunis (1830-1921), but soon came to be dominated by the research activities of Alfred Binet (1857-1911). When the Paris psychologists founded their Laboratory in 1889, they took the Leipzig Institute as their model. In the early 1890s they adopted the reaction time experiment that had been central to Wundt's psychology. Shortly after, they modified this experiment according to their own specific interests. For Binet, it no longer served as a method for identifying the elementary components of "general" consciousness (as in Wundt), but for classifying "individual" personalities. The methodological and technological changes that Binet introduced into the experimental practice of psychology had no immediate impact on the research work in Leipzig. However, they influenced the "Wurzburg School" of psychology under Wundt's former assistant, Oswald Külpe (1862-1915). This illustrates that the comparative history of transfers of "experimental systems" (Rheinberger) across national borders is not simply a history of mere transports. Rather, it is a history of transferences that sometimes includes surprising "re-transferences".

  5. Existing Noise Level at Railway Stations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway transportation known as one of the most environmental friendly transportation mode. However, the significance problems of railway transportation are noise pollution and negatively impact the wellbeing of the whole community. Unfortunately, there has been lack of public awareness about the noise level produce by the railway transportation in Malaysia. This study investigates the noise level produced by railway transportation in Malaysia specifically by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB. Methods of collecting existing noise level at railway stations in Malaysia are briefly discussed in this study. The finding indicates that the noise level produced by the railway transportation in Malaysia which is by KTMB is considered as dangerous to human being and also exceed the noise limit that has been assigned by Department of Environment Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Malaysia. A better noise barrier and improved material should be developed to mitigate the existing noise level produced by railway transportations in Malaysia.

  6. Railway safety climate: a study on organizational development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-09-07

    The safety climate of an organization is considered a leading indicator of potential risk for railway organizations. This study adopts the perceptual measurement-individual attribute approach to investigate the safety climate of a railway organization. The railway safety climate attributes are evaluated from the perspective of railway system staff. We identify four safety climate dimensions from exploratory factor analysis, namely safety communication, safety training, safety management and subjectively evaluated safety performance. Analytical results indicate that the safety climate differs at vertical and horizontal organizational levels. This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence of the multilevel safety climate in a railway organization, presents possible causes of the differences under various cultural contexts and differentiates between safety climate scales for diverse workgroups within the railway organization. This information can be used to improve the safety sustainability of railway organizations and to conduct safety supervisions for the government.

  7. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  8. The State of the Railways in SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the railways at many key points in Natal and the ... feking to a point just north of the Orange River on the Cape Main Line ... occupied to a point some three miles north of .... All photographs supplied by the Publicity and Travel Department of the.

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility in railways. Analysis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunsola, Ade [Parsons Group International, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Mariscotti, Andrea [Genoa Univ. (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) applied to railway systems. Focuses on the principles and application of EMC concepts to railway signalling, communications, power/traction and rolling stocks. Written by leading experts in the field. A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process from the beginning. The link is represented by standards and their correct application, as a support to analysis, testing and demonstration.

  10. Design of railway obstacle detection prototype

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xungu, Sipho A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Survey Inspection Device (SID) test prototype platform to serve as an early warning system for locomotives and was to travel 2km ahead of a locomotive in order to inspect the railway for possible obstacles such as human beings, livestock and collisions...

  11. Monitoring of transition zones in railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, B.; Priest, J.; Holscher, P.; Powrie, W.

    2009-01-01

    Transitions between railway track on embankments or natural ground and fixed structures such as bridges and culverts often require substantial additional maintenance to preserve line, level and ride quality. This extra maintenance not only increases costs but also causes delays. Despite its

  12. Introducing gaming simulation in the Dutch railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation in the Dutch railways in the domain of capacity management and traffic control is increasingly difficult to implement because of the large interconnectedness of all processes and separation into different institutions and organizations. Meanwhile there is a push for quality improvements

  13. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  14. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER... conclusion reached the question will be submitted to the Interstate Commerce Commission for determination...

  15. Performance communication of the Belgian railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form of

  16. Resolving instability in railway timetabling problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besinovic, Nikola; Quaglietta, E.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    A growth of the railway transportation demand is forecasted in the next decades which needs an increase of network capacity. Where possible, infrastructure upgrading can release extra capacity, although in some cases this is not enough to satisfy the entire transportation demand unless optimised

  17. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfieri, A.; Groot, R.; Kroon, L.G.; Schrijver, A.

    2006-01-01

    Railway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of rolling

  18. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfieri (Arianna); R. Groot (Rutger); L.G. Kroon (Leo); A. Schrijver (Lex)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractRailway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of

  19. The German Economy and U.S.-German Economic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Should the SPD and The Left overcome existing differences, the grouping could represent a leftward shift in German politics. Alliance ’90 / The...and replaced it with less generous social assistance benefits already available to poor individuals, regardless of employment history . These changes...director at Volkswagen . 48Hans-Werner Sinn, Can Germany Be Saved?, p. 108. 49 Alister Miskimmon and Walter E. Paterson, “Conclusion: coping with the

  20. German-American Studies in a New Vein: Resources and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghouse, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    The history of German-American culture is outlined and several indexes and resources for material on German culture in America are listed. Approaches to such studies include regional focus, German theater in America, and oral history to bring classroom activities closer to real world patterns and problems. (CHK)

  1. An innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Malvezzi, M.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Rindi, A.; Vettori, G.

    2014-11-01

    In modern railway automatic train protection and automatic train control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. The aim of this work has been developing an innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles able to enhance the performances, in terms of speed and position estimation accuracy, of the classical odometry algorithms, such as the Italian Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno (SCMT). The proposed strategy consists of a sensor fusion between the information coming from a tachometer and an Inertial Measurements Unit (IMU). The sensor outputs have been simulated through a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle. The work has provided the development of a custom IMU, designed by ECM S.p.a, in order to meet their industrial and business requirements. The industrial requirements have to be compliant with the European Train Control System (ETCS) standards: the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), a project developed by the European Union to improve the interoperability among different countries, in particular as regards the train control and command systems, fixes some standard values for the odometric (ODO) performance, in terms of speed and travelled distance estimation. The reliability of the ODO estimation has to be taken into account basing on the allowed speed profiles. The results of the currently used ODO algorithms can be improved, especially in case of degraded adhesion conditions; it has been verified in the simulation environment that the results of the proposed localisation algorithm are always compliant with the ERTMS requirements

  2. Psychiatric research and science policy in Germany: the history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M M

    2000-09-01

    The Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (DFA) in Munich, one of the most important research institutes in the field of theoretical and clinical psychiatry, was founded in 1917 by Emil Kraepelin. Its financial existence between the world wars was assured by generous donations from the Jewish American scholar and philanthropist James Loeb. The scientific work done by Walther Spielmeyer (neuropathology), Felix Plaut (serology), Kurt Schneider (clinical psychiatry) and Ernst Rudin (psychiatric genetics) earned the DFA a reputation as an international center for psychiatry and neurology. During the 'Third Reich' Ernst Rudin cooperated with the National Socialist health system. His genetic concepts provided support for eugenic programmes such as forced sterilization of individuals with psychoses. These complex interactions underscore the importance of the DFA in understanding the recent history of medicine in Germany.

  3. Develop railway engineering modules in UTK civil engineering undergraduate and graduate courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The importance of railway transport has long been recognized. However, no railway : engineering courses have been provided in the UTK civil engineering curricula. The : objective of this education project is to develop some railway engineering module...

  4. Communication Technologies Support to Railway Infrastructure and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R), which is state-of-the-art railway mobile communication technology, is gradually replacing legacy analogue radio systems. Although GSM-R is an unquestionable achievement in terms of European railway interoperability, from a telecommunication point of view, it is an obsolete...... are considered to replace GSM-R in the future. This thesis is focused on Long Term Evolution (LTE) as one of the most likely successors to GSM-R. As a technology designed for commercial purposes, LTE has to be investigated specifically in railway environment. Using computer-based simulations, the LTE network...... important railway applications: European Train Control System (ETCS) signalling and railway-specific voice communication. Therefore, LTE is technically capable of replacing GSM-R as the communication network for the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). Moreover, the simulation results show...

  5. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  6. Model of traffic access mode and railway station choice of suburban railway system in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor RAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the establishment of a model of understanding the access mode and railway station choice of Slovenian passengers. Therefore, a model has been designed to predict the determination of existing decision making preferences of railway users about the access mode and railway station choice with a stated preference survey and face to face method. The target group in the survey were railway passengers in the suburban environment that use the rail for work and school purposes. The total number of respondents was 412. The survey showed that most passengers access the railway station with car (60,2%, by foot (26,2%, with public transport (bus – 8,3% and with bike (5,3%. Average distance to the station is 4,9 km, average time of access is 10,5 min. Upon exit most passengers walk to the final destination (84,5%, use the public transport (bus – 14,1%, car (1,2% or bike (0,2%. Average time from exit of the train to final destination is 13,1 min, average distance is 1,58 km.

  7. INDIAN RAILWAYS AND FAMINE 1875-1914: Magic Wheels and Empty Stomachs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Sweeney

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers interpreted famines in nineteenth century British India as problems of distribution, rather than food production. Railways provided speedier and cheaper transport than road methods employed during that time. They were more reliable than canals, which needed rainfall to facilitate transport. However, they were expensive to construct and maintain, and the British offered various levels of state support to encourage private investors under the façade of laissez faire capitalism. The effectiveness of the largest investment program in the history of the British Empire, in combating appalling famines, was questionable. There was a failure to overcome acute price increases in wheat and rice, and morefundamentally, deindustrialization and poverty in India, all of which colonial railways encouraged.

  8. Towards a real-time Structural Health Monitoring of railway bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Vagnoli, Matteo; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John

    2017-01-01

    More than 350,000 railway bridges are present on the European railway network, making them a key infrastructure of the whole railway network. Railway bridges are continuously exposed to changing environmental threats, such as wind, floods and traffic load, which can affect safety and reliability of the bridge. Furthermore, a problem on a bridge can affect the whole railway network by increasing the vulnerability of the geographic area, served by the railway network. In this paper a Bayesian B...

  9. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak.

  10. Efficiency and Robustness in Railway Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Simon Henry; Pisinger, David

    reliability. Offering these services presents a challenging sequence of planning problems for operators. These range from problems considered on a daily basis to planning for years in the future, with different problems interacting and influencing each other. Operations research methods can be used...... to effectively model, investigate, and solve railway planning problems. Despite advances in computational power these large problems are still challenging to solve, especially as more modelling detail is sought. Within a Danish context this thesis seeks to apply operations research methods to different planning...... problems beyond past approaches, and where applicable, investigate solution methods that place more focus on the passenger and passenger experience. To cater to the growing demand for rail transport, and compete with different modes of transport, Danish railway operators must offer a consistent, reliable...

  11. A Survey on Robustness in Railway Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Bull, Simon Henry

    2018-01-01

    Planning problems in passenger railway range from long term strategic decision making to the detailed planning of operations.Operations research methods have played an increasing role in this planning process. However, recently more attention has been given to considerations of robustness...... in the quality of solutions to individual planning problems, and of operations in general. Robustness in general is the capacity for some system to absorb or resist changes. In the context of railway robustness it is often taken to be the capacity for operations to continue at some level when faced...... with a disruption such as delay or failure. This has resulted in more attention given to the inclusion of robustness measures and objectives in individual planning problems, and to the providing of tools to ensure operations continue under disrupted situations. In this paper we survey the literature on robustness...

  12. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Railways Analysis and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunsola, Ade

    2013-01-01

    A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process f...

  13. The noise factor in railway locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, T

    1982-09-01

    This article concerns the problem of acoustic work conditions on railway locomotives. The objective results of sonometric surveys in locomotive cabins are compared with subject data received from locomotive crews obtained by means of a specific questionnaire 'The Subjective Estimation of Noise'. The analysis touched 9 type of locomotives; steam, diesel and electric engines. We asked drivers of different age groups and with varying lengths of professional service for their opinions The aim of the investigation was to determine the following points: 1. to analyse the drivers' subjective estimation of the noise in the locomotive cabins; 2. to define length of time for which the driver remains under the influence of the noise after finishing work; 3. to investigate the question of perception and understanding of sounds and vocal signals used in the locomotive. These problems are a small part of the general plan to improve work conditions on the Polish National Railways.

  14. APPRAISAL OF USED WOODEN RAILWAY SLEEPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HAWA HAMZAH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wooden sleepers to prestressed concrete sleepers has marked as advancement in the railway sleepers industry in Malaysia. Despite superiority of these man-made composite sleepers, wooden sleepers still lead in terms of track performance qualities in particular on its natural elasticity. An initiative to investigate the degree of degradation of used wooden sleepers and the possibility of reusing them on low capacity railway track in Malaysia as a means of reducing the overall track rehabilitation cost was undertaken. Used wooden sleepers were tested according to Australian Standard, Railway Track Material, Prestressed Concrete Sleepers (AS 1085:14:2003 on Rail Seat Vertical Load Test and Centre Positive Bending Moment Test. Six wooden sleeper samples were tested under the static load until failure. Benchmarking was carried on high strength prestressed concrete sleeper, tested according to AS 1085:14:2003: Rail Seat - Positive Moment Test. The results obtained showed the maximum load that the used wooden sleepers can carry surpassed the design load of KTMB specifications and it is about 58% of high strength prestressed concrete sleeper.The maximum deflection produced by all used wooden sleepers is 20 mm showing that the sleepers maintained their elastic behaviour. Modulus of Elasticity ranging from 21 to 27 kN/mm2 of which within the standard value, indicating weathering process does not so much affect their stiffness. Most sleepers showed crack patterns propagated in the longitudinal direction. Toughness value is almost one half of the high strength prestressed concrete sleeper. This study indicates that there is a potential of reusing the wooden sleepers for light loading of the railway track. Hence, an extensive study is recommended to be carried out under fatigue loading condition.

  15. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  16. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  17. Fatigue lifetime estimation of railway axles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Fajkoš, R.; Matušek, P.; Hutař, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, MAR (2017), s. 139-157 ISSN 1350-6307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Residual fatigue lifetime * Railway axle * Variable amplitude loading * Fatigue crack propagation * Damage tolerance methodology Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2016

  18. An Improved Walk Model for Train Movement on Railway Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Keping; Mao Bohua; Gao Ziyou

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved walk model for simulating the train movement on railway network. In the proposed method, walkers represent trains. The improved walk model is a kind of the network-based simulation analysis model. Using some management rules for walker movement, walker can dynamically determine its departure and arrival times at stations. In order to test the proposed method, we simulate the train movement on a part of railway network. The numerical simulation and analytical results demonstrate that the improved model is an effective tool for simulating the train movement on railway network. Moreover, it can well capture the characteristic behaviors of train scheduling in railway traffic. (general)

  19. Germans or Jews? German-Speaking Jews in Post-War Europe: An Introduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, Kateřina; Rechter, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, November (2017), s. 69-74 ISSN 0075-8744 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Jews * Germans * post-war period Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) https://academic.oup.com/leobaeck/issue/volume/62?browseBy=volume

  20. ISSUES OF ORGANIZING THE PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION ON US RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Korobiova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on a study of the US railway transport organization management during passenger transportation. Methodology. Studies were carried out on the basis of the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on passenger transportation in the USA. Findings. Negative trends in the work of the passenger complex of the Ukrainian railways are the slowdown in the volumes of transportation, the progressive aging of the rolling stock and the overall activity running at a loss for Ukrzaliznytsia. In this regard, the actual task for domestic rail transport is the implementation of industry reforms. Therefore, the paper presented the study of the experience of organizing the passenger transportation on US railways, whose peculiarity is the extremely high degree of competition between modes of transport. As a result of the conducted analysis for working conditions of the US and Ukrainian railways, the general conditions for the functioning of the railways in both countries connected with passenger transportation securing have been established. It was found that general condition for execution of railway passenger transportation for the United States and Ukraine is the subsidization of this activity and combined use of infrastructure for the freight and passengers’ transportations. In this connection, when developing approaches to reforming the passenger economy of Ukraine's railways, it is advisable to use the experience of the United States in assessing the social effectiveness of rail transport, the impact of passenger transportation on the conditions of freight trains handling, and combined use of railway infrastructure by freight and passenger companies. Originality. The author determined the general trends in the development of passenger railway transportation in the US and Ukraine. Practical value. The resulted methods of organizing the operation of the US railway passenger transportation complex can be adapted to solve

  1. Geschichte durch Geschichten: Uberlegungen zu Gunter Grass, "Mein Jahrhundert," im DaF-Unterricht (History through Stories: Thoughts on Using Gunter Grass'"My Century" in the German as a Foreign Language Class).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Explores whether and how an offering of authentic texts can be made useful for a German class that is focused on German culture and geography. Learning goals and practical strategies are derived from the unique characteristics of the texts. (Author/DMK)

  2. Performance of LTE in High Speed Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with a number of shortcomings in terms of capacity and capability. These shortcomings become a major issue for railways as GSM-R may limit the number of running trains in some areas and it cannot support advanced data services. Hence...

  3. Improving Punctuality and Transfer Reliability by Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch railway network is operated close to capacity with the current safety system. This leaves little space for control by process operators by which a delayed train can cause severe delay propagation. The NS currently invest a large amount in punctuality improvement of the railway operations.

  4. The effects of 10 years Railway investment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten A.

    1998-01-01

    The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period.......The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period....

  5. Formal Methods and Safety Certification: Challenges in the Railways Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Ferrari, Alessio; Gnesi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The railway signalling sector has historically been a source of success stories about the adoption of formal methods in the certification of software safety of computer-based control equipment.......The railway signalling sector has historically been a source of success stories about the adoption of formal methods in the certification of software safety of computer-based control equipment....

  6. Seismic Performance of Multi-Span RC Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Barrau, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Presently, there is no clear method for determining the optimal railway bridge design for a particular ground type and expected seismic intensity. Four main types of RC bridge dominate the current multi-span railway bridge design trends – the Simply Supported Beam, Continuous Box-Girder (CBG), CBG...

  7. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    ). Furthermore, the paper describes an interlocking table generator (ITG) that generates automatically a well-formed interlocking table from a well-formed railway network layout. Experiments with the DSL and ITG using the RAISE tools and the C++ implementation show that the use of the DSL and ITG can increase...... the productivity and significantly reduce errors in the specifications of railway interlocking systems....

  8. The Penarroya mining railway; El Ferrocaril minero de Penarroya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grado Contreras, J. I. de

    2009-07-01

    The French Society Miniere et Metallurgique de Panarroya mining railway, 241 km long, was the second largest private narrow gauge railway in Spain. Located in the inland. linked the coal and galena mines with foundries and also with the national railroads grid, to transport the minerals to national and foreign markets. (Author)

  9. The Ginghai-Tibet railway and Tibet tourism: travelers' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Ming Su; Geoffrey Wall

    2009-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet railway opened in July 2006 and boosted Tibetan tourism markedly by increasing the accessibility and affordability of travel from China to Tibet. This study evaluates the railway's impacts on tourists' travel decisions and experiences in Tibet. The relative importance of the train journey in comparison with the destination experience in...

  10. WAYS OF IMPROVEMENT RAILWAY TRANSPORT IN OVERPASS ECONOMIC CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Deineka

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article a problem of adapting the railway transport to market requirements is presented and the ways of improving its competitiveness are investigated. Some measures and reserves of improving the operation efficiency for the railway transport are offered.

  11. The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu railway extension. ... One key strategy employed was to side with the faction of the Nigerian petty bourgeoisie whose political, economic and class interests were in agreement with ... The 400-mile extension was eventually constructed and opened in 1964.

  12. Disruption Management of Rolling Stock in Passenger Railway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with real-time disruption management of rolling stock in passenger railway transportation. We present a generic framework for modeling disruptions in railway rolling stock schedules. The framework is presented as an online combinatorial decision problem where the

  13. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  14. Developing a Service Improvement System for the National Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Heijnsbroek, Martin; Bosma, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is essential for public and railway services, because firms in these industries have contracts with governments requiring them to achieve specific customer satisfaction targets. In this paper, we describe a National Dutch Railways project in which we identify the major

  15. Application of data clustering to railway delay pattern recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2018-01-01

    K-means clustering is employed to identify recurrent delay patterns on a high traffic railway line north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The clusters identify behavioral patterns in the very large (“big data”) data sets generated automatically and continuously by the railway signal system. The results re...

  16. Railway track circuit fault diagnosis using recurrent neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, T.D.; Verbert, K.A.J.; Babuska, R.

    2017-01-01

    Timely detection and identification of faults in railway track circuits are crucial for the safety and availability of railway networks. In this paper, the use of the long-short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network is proposed to accomplish these tasks based on the commonly available

  17. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity...

  18. Railway station structures designed for densely populated urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vákár, L.I.; Snijder, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, the interest in public transit increased because of its contribution in solving the problem in mobility. This resulted in a worldwide need for building new railway stations and expanding existing ones. A railway station forms no longer a building on its own, but part of a larger complex.

  19. Railway Endowment in Italy’s Provinces, 1839-1913

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, Peter D.; Ciccarelli, Carlo

    This paper presents new annual estimates of railway extension in Italian provinces at 1913 borders for the period 1839-1913. The main operator of the Italian railway network (Ferrovie dello Stato) published in 1911 a unique set of homogeneous historical five year maps illustrating the routes of

  20. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes a study performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to evaluate the level of safety provided under severe accident conditions during the shipment of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. The evaluation is performed using data from real accident histories and using representative truck and rail cask models that likely meet 10 CFR 71 regulations. The responses of the representative casks are calculated for structural and thermal loads generated by severe highway and railway accident conditions. The cask responses are compared with those responses calculated for the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. By comparing the responses it is determined that most highway and railway accident conditions fall within the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. For those accidents that have higher responses, the probabilities anf potential radiation exposures of the accidents are compared with those identified by the assessments made in the ''Final Environmental Statement on the Transportation of Radioactive Material by Air and other Modes,'' NUREG-0170. Based on this comparison, it is concluded that the radiological risks from spent fuel under severe highway and railway accident conditions as derived in this study are less than risks previously estimated in the NUREG-0170 document

  1. Level and determinants of knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis among railway workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Menke, J Michael; Challakere Ramaswamy, Vasudeva Murthy; Abdul Manaf, Rizal; Alabsi, Aied M; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) among Malaysian railway workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based sampling. The assessment instrument was a face-validated, prepiloted, self-administered instrument with sociodemographics and knowledge items on knee OA. Mean (± SD) age of the respondents was 41.4 (± 10.7), with the majority aged 50 years or older (34.9%). Of the total respondents, 53.6% had low levels of knowledge of knee OA disease. Multivariate analysis found that four demographic predictors, age ≥ 50 years, family history of knee OA, self-awareness, and clinical diagnosis of the disease entity, were significantly associated with knowledge scores. The finding of a low level knee OA knowledge among Malaysian railway workers points to an urgent need for massive information to be disseminated among the workers at risk to foster primary prevention and self-care.

  2. 77 FR 47922 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Northern Lines Railway, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... includes: (a) Track 204 between 33rd Avenue North and Rice Junction, Minn.; and (b) Track 203 between milepost 0.0, at Rice Junction, and milepost 5.71, just west of the Highway I-94 overpass (the Lines). \\1....C.C. 605 (1978), as modified in Mendocino Coast Railway--Lease & Operate--California Western...

  3. Railway line capacity consumption of different railway signalling systems under scheduled and disturbed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Corman, F.; D'Ariano, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capacity consumption on a Dutch railway line both under scheduled and disturbed traffic conditions. For the scheduled condition the standard UIC compression method is used, while the computation of capacity consumption under disturbed conditions requires multiple simulation

  4. HIGH SPEED RAILWAY LINES – FUTURE PART OF CZECH RAILWAY NETWORK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Týfa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper first describes high speed rail generally and explains the relationship between high speed and conventional railway networks (according to the vehicle types in operation on the network. The core of the paper is comprised of the methodology for choosing the best route for a railway line and its application to the high speed railway connection Praha – Brno. The Algorithm used assumes the existence of more route proposals, which could be different in terms of the operational conception, line routing or types of vehicles used. The optimal variant is the one with the lowest daily cost, which includes infrastructure and vehicle costs; investment and operational costs. The results from applying this model confirmed the assumption, that a dedicated high speed railway line, only for high speed trains, has the same or lower investment costs than a line for both high speed and conventional trains. Furthermore, a dedicated high line also has a lower cost for infrastructure maintenance but a higher cost for buying high speed multiple units.

  5. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  6. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  7. The electricity supply industry in the German Federal Republic in the year 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The present report continues the series of the annual reports issued so far, in the same form and arrangement of the available statistical material, which have been published in 'Elektrizitaetswirtschaft' since 1950 and as special publication. On the basis of official data the report gives a statistical review of public electricity supply, the industrial private undertakings and the power supply to the German Federal Railways. By combining these three groups - after omitting any overlap of the available data - an overall review of the development of electricity supply in the whole of the German Federal Republic is made possible. (orig.) [de

  8. Maintenance management of railway infrastructures based on reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, Marco; Garetti, Marco; Centrone, Domenico; Fumagalli, Luca; Piero Pavirani, Gian

    2012-01-01

    Railway infrastructure maintenance plays a crucial role for rail transport. It aims at guaranteeing safety of operations and availability of railway tracks and related equipment for traffic regulation. Moreover, it is one major cost for rail transport operations. Thus, the increased competition in traffic market is asking for maintenance improvement, aiming at the reduction of maintenance expenditures while keeping the safety of operations. This issue is addressed by the methodology presented in the paper. The first step of the methodology consists of a family-based approach for the equipment reliability analysis; its purpose is the identification of families of railway items which can be given the same reliability targets. The second step builds the reliability model of the railway system for identifying the most critical items, given a required service level for the transportation system. The two methods have been implemented and tested in practical case studies, in the context of Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, the Italian public limited company for railway transportation.

  9. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    When looking at railway planning, a discrepancy exists between planners who focus on the train operations and publish fixed railway schedules, and passengers who look not only at the schedules but also at the entirety of their trip, from access to waiting to on-board travel and egress. Looking...... with fluctuating passenger demand. A key aspect is the robustness of railway timetables. Empirical evidence indicates that passengers give more importance to travel time certainty than travel time reductions, as passengers associate an inherent disutility with travel time uncertainty. This disutility may...... be broadly interpreted as an anxiety cost for the need for having contingency plans in case of disruptions, and may be looked at as the motivator for the need for delay-robust railway timetables. Interestingly, passenger-oriented optimisation studies considering robustness in railway planning typically limit...

  10. Railway Station Built In The Interwar Period In Telšiai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Dabašinskienė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most important and biggest railway station in Telšiai as a part of one of the first railroads Kretinga – Telšiai – Kužiai built in the interwar period is examined in this article. A variety of elements of the station’s infrastructure with special attention to passenger stations, houses for railway workers and warehouses (pakhauze are revealed in the article. The significance of Lietūkis warehouses founded in the territory of the station and their connections with the railroad are discussed. Moreover, the arrangement of Telšiai Station buildings in the territory are analyzed and compared to the preserved site plan of the station and photo of the situation dated back to the Second World War taken by Germans from the air. While comparing the available sources, urban developments of the station area are discussed. The analysis material is based on archival sources, the interwar documentary publications and research of the location.

  11. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L. M., E-mail: LMFisher@niitfa.ru; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V. [National Technical Physics and Automation Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  12. A Predictive Maintenance Model for Railway Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Wen, Min; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    presents a mathematical model based on Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) which is designed to optimize the predictive railway tamping activities for ballasted track for the time horizon up to four years. The objective function is setup to minimize the actual costs for the tamping machine (measured by time......). Five technical and economic aspects are taken into account to schedule tamping: (1) track degradation of the standard deviation of the longitudinal level over time; (2) track geometrical alignment; (3) track quality thresholds based on the train speed limits; (4) the dependency of the track quality...

  13. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  14. Safety of Transmission in Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franekova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of data security in safety - related transmission systems defined within railway process. It is intent on summary of treats and security tools against them within closed and open security systems. In details is analysed possibility of using channel coding techniques and cryptography mechanisms, which are defined according to norms EN 50159. For chosen security mechanisms are deal mathematical apparatus of probability of undetected error determination for channel decoders, relations for determination decipher encoder's complexity and error probability of cryptography code word.

  15. The importance of railway noise in France

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, M

    1979-01-01

    A national survey on environmental nuisances due to all forms of transport was made in France during 1977. From among the data gathered, it is possible to extract results concerning the impact of nuisance due to railways, partly from results of questionnaires and partly from results of acoustical measurements. Interviews and measurements were made in several towns, at randomly selected dwellings. Rail and air transport noise nuisance impacts appeared to be of comparable importance, with that of road transport very much larger than either. (0 refs).

  16. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, L. M.; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered

  17. Freight railway operator timetabling and engine scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lukas; Gendreau, M.; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider timetable design at a European freight railway operator. The timetable is designed by choosing the time of service for customer unit train demands among a set of discrete points. These discrete points are all found within the a time-window. The objective of the model...... is to minimize cost while adhering to constraints regarding infrastructure usage, demand coverage, and engine availability. The model is solved by a column generation scheme where feasible engine schedules are designed in a label setting algorithm with time-dependent cost and service times....

  18. Research into human factors affecting the railway system; Studien zu menschlichen Einflussfaktoren im Eisenbahnsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerl, Malte; Feldmann, Frederike; Rumke, Axel; Pelz, Markus [DLR e.V., Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verkehrssystemtechnik

    2010-07-01

    The Institute for Transportation Systems (ITS) at the German Aerospace Center DLR in Braunschweig has for many years been conducting research into current and future topics relating to railway transportation. Supplementing the in-house technical infrastructure including e.g. RailSiTe {sup registered} (Rail Simulation and Testing) and RailDriVE {sup registered} (Rail Driving Validation Environment), a new test environment for Rail Human Factors Research has been established to investigate such factors as they affect locomotive drivers. The aim is to analyse current issues and new concepts regarding human-machine interaction and test them under conditions that are as true-to-life as possible without exposure to real-life safety-critical situations. The test environment allows for investigation across the spectrum, starting with workplace analysis and going on from potential modifications to existing user interfaces through to the analysis of prototype assistance systems. (orig.)

  19. History of the German Cardiac Society (DGHKF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, W

    2002-01-01

    1927 Foundation of the DGHKF by Prof. A. Weber and Prof. B. Kisch in Bad Nauheim. The first executive board of the DGHKF consists of A. Weber, Bad Nauheim, H. E. Hering, Köln, J. Rihl, Prag, B. Kisch, Köln, and H. Eppinger, Freiburg. Registered office was William-G. Kerckhoff-Herzforschungsinstitut, Bad Nauheim, under direction of Prof. F. Groedel. 1933 Emigration of F. Groedel to the United States of America. 1933-1941 Prof. E. Koch becomes acting chairman but Groedel remains director and influences fate and finances from his New York domicile and practice. 1938 Emigration of B. Kisch to the United States of America. 1948 Foundation of the "American College of Cardiology" in the United States. (Executive board: Groedel and Kisch). 1948 Prof. H. Schäfer is the new executive secretary of the society (executive board: K. Matthes, Erlangen, F. Hildebrandt, Bad Nauheim/Giessen, C. Oelemann, Bad Nauheim, A. Weber, Bad Nauheim, E. Wollheim, Lund). 1952 Incorporation of the Kerckhoff-Institute into the Max-Planck-Society, Appointment of Prof. R. Thauer to the directorship of the Kerckhoff-Institute and election to the position of the executive secretary until 1976. 1972 Appointment of Prof. W. Schaper to the Kerckhoff-Institute, Bad Nauheim. 1976 Election of Prof. Wolfgang Schaper to the executive board of the society and assumption of the office of the executive secretary until 1989.

  20. Stress-strain properties of railway steel at strain rates of upto 105 per second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, M.S.J.; Islam, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the stress-strain characteristics of railway steel at strain rates of up to 10 5 /s at room temperature determined by a new technique. In determining the results, account has been taken of the strain-rate variation, the total strain and the strain rate history. The effect of friction, material inertia and temperature rise is also assessed and an empirical constitutive equation describing the strain-rate and strain sensitive flow stress for this type of steel is proposed. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Josef; Skočilas, Jan; Skočilasová, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    The article deals with assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics. The essential characteristics of a suspension are represented by the stiffness constants of the equivalent springs and the eigen frequencies of the oscillating movements in reference to the main central inertia axes of a vehicle. The premise of the experimental determination of these characteristic is the knowledge of the gravity center position and the knowledge of the main central inertia moments of the vehicle frame. The vehicle frame performs the general spatial movement when the vehicle moves. An analysis of the frame movement generally arises from Euler's equations which are commonly used for the description of the spherical movement. This solution is difficult and it can be simplified by applying the specific assumptions. The eigen frequencies solutions and solutions of the suspension stiffness are presented in the article. The solutions are applied on the railway and road vehicles with the simplifying conditions. A new method which assessed the characteristics is described in the article.

  2. Monitoring of railway bridges in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makoto; Komon, Kazuki; Narumoto, Asao; Sugidate, Masao; Mori, Takeshi; Miki, Chitoshi

    2000-06-01

    In Japan, some monitoring systems have been introduced to evaluate conditions of the railway structures. In this work, we introduce the monitoring systems of railway bridges. Here, for example, we show the abstraction of fatigue damage monitoring system. The crack propagation properties of a side notched SUS304 thin sheet, which is affixed to a fatigue test specimen, is studied to develop a fatigue damage monitoring sensor. When cyclic loads are applied to the fatigue specimen, the side notched thin sheet behaves as a displacement controlled condition. The stress intensity factor (Delta) K is expressed by the following equation; (Delta) K equals (Delta) (sigma) (root)GL/2 where GL is the gauge length of the thin sheet. The thin sheet is fatigue pre-cracked, stress- relieved and affixed to a specimen. The results of fatigue crack propagation tests show that the crack propagation rate is dependent on stress range and gauge length, but not on crack length. Under sufficient mean stress conditions, the fatigue crack propagation rate is well expressed by a power low of (Delta) K even at such a low stress range as 20 MPa. Fatigue damage accumulated during a monitoring period can be estimated from crack propagation during the period. The sensitivity of the sensor is controlled through the gauge length of the sensor.

  3. Simplified Transit Procedure in Railway Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kokorović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The current transit procedure in railway transport that iscarried out on the basis of the Customs Act [ 11 of the Republicof Croatia is applied only up to the border, i. e. the issued documentsand guarantees are valid only up to the border, and byjoining the Convention on Common transit procedure, i. e. integrationof the Republic of Croatia in the European Union, theRepublic of Croatia will also have to implement the regulationsand rules of Simplified transit procedure valid in each of thethirty member states. In international railway traffic, the transportof goods is regulated by the Convention concerning InternationalCarriage by Rail- COT IF [2 1 and usage of the CIMwaybill (Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Rail.If the goods are transported in Simplified transit procedure, theformalities regarding the transport of goods performed by railcarriers using the international waybill CIM will be significantlysimplified and accelerated. In principle there are no delays dueto customs on the borders when crossing the EU borders andborders of the Convention member states, contributing greatlyto the acceleration of the transport of goods, reduction of waitingcosts and paperwork, as well as influence on the schedulereliability.

  4. Energy efficient solutions for the complete railway system; Energieeffiziente Loesungen fuer das Gesamtsystem Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, M.; Rechenberg, K.; Hein, G. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Innovative technologies for the power supply of electric railway vehicles by stationary and mobile devices allow to operate the complete railway system in an energy efficient manner and therefore reduce the energy consumption considerably. So it is necessary to examine the power supply of the railway network as well as the railway vehicles and their own operational behaviour within the railway network. A complete tramway system was choosen as one example. (orig.)

  5. Guideline for load and resistance assessment of existing european railway bridges

    OpenAIRE

    JENSEN, Jens S; CASAS, Joan R; KAROUMI, Raid; PLOS, Mario; CREMONA, Christian; MELBOURNE, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Many of the European railway bridges are getting close to the end of their service life. At the same time the railway operators demand higher axle loads for freight trains and higher speeds for passenger trains. This requires new and better approaches for assessing both the railway loads and the resistance of railway bridges. The main objective of the "Guideline for Load and Resistance Assessment of Existing European Railway Bridges", developed within EU founded project "Sustainable Bridge...

  6. Tools for the Classroom. Gruezi Miteinand! A Focus on Swiss-German Culture and Language Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehle-Vieregge, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Swiss-German language and culture rarely form the core focus in basic German language instruction. This article examines Swiss-German culture, focusing on geography and history, language, sports, world organizations, legendary figures, literature, music, art, holidays, and food. It points out online resources that touch upon aspects of Swiss…

  7. Multicultural Education: Israeli and German Adolescents' Knowledge and Views Regarding the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamai, Shmuel; Yardeni, Eran; Klages, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    This study probes a unique case of multicultural education of Israeli and German students regarding the Holocaust. Their knowledge level of German history leading to the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party to power, knowledge about the Holocaust, the relation between their knowledge of attitudes toward the "other" (German/Israeli) group, and their…

  8. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  9. Management of low adhesion on railway tracks in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Andersen, Henning Boje

    with purely technical aspects of e.g. braking and WSP systems, but focus on the implied requirements for organisations and drivers. The report is largely based on literature describing measures taken by existing railway organisations, comprising, besides a few journal article, largely reports by railway...... incident in 2011 in Denmark and the braking ability of a specific type of train (Havarikommissionen 2012), but since expanded to encompass general problems with low adhesion (Nielsen et al. 2012). This report thus addresses problems that are already well‐known to Danish railway organisations...

  10. Current and future flood risk to railway infrastructure in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, Philip; Kellermann, Patric; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Dillenardt, Lisa; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2017-04-01

    Railway infrastructure plays an important role in the transportation of freight and passengers across the European Union. According to Eurostat, more than four billion passenger-kilometres were travelled on national and international railway lines of the EU28 in 2014. To further strengthen transport infrastructure in Europe, the European Commission will invest another € 24.05 billion in the transnational transport network until 2020 as part of its new transport infrastructure policy (TEN-T), including railway infrastructure. Floods pose a significant risk to infrastructure elements. Damage data of recent flood events in Europe show that infrastructure losses can make up a considerable share of overall losses. For example, damage to state and municipal infrastructure in the federal state of Saxony (Germany) accounted for nearly 60% of overall losses during the large-scale event in June 2013. Especially in mountainous areas with little usable space available, roads and railway lines often follow floodplains or are located along steep and unsteady slopes. In Austria, for instance, the flood of 2013 caused € 75 million of direct damage to railway infrastructure. Despite the importance of railway infrastructure and its exposure to flooding, assessments of potential damage and risk (i.e. probability * damage) are still in its infancy compared with other sectors, such as the residential or industrial sector. Infrastructure-specific assessments at the regional scale are largely lacking. Regional assessment of potential damage to railway infrastructure has been hampered by a lack of infrastructure-specific damage models and data availability. The few available regional approaches have used damage models that assess damage to various infrastructure elements (e.g. roads, railway, airports and harbours) using one aggregated damage function and cost estimate. Moreover, infrastructure elements are often considerably underrepresented in regional land cover data, such as

  11. Auction pricing of network access for North American railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The question of pricing train paths for "open access" railway networks in North America is discussed. An auction process is suggested as necessary to maintain transparency in the contracting process. Multiple random samples of auction pricing for a single track railway line demonstrate...... that the infrastructure entity will receive approximately 15.6% less than the true value of the contracted train paths. This loss of revenue threatens the objective of reducing government subsidy for the railway network. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Railway capacity and expansion analysis using time discretized paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Pisinger, David; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2017-01-01

    of railway freight transportation on a long term strategic level. The model uses an hourly time discretization and analyses the impact of railway network expansions based on future demand forecasts. It provides an optimal macroscopic freight train schedule and can indicate the time and place of any...... variable penalties for the different passenger busy time slots. As part of a European Union project, all models are applied to a realistic case study that focuses on analyzing the capacity of railway network, in Denmark and Southern Sweden using demand forecasts for 2030. Results suggest that informative...

  13. Dynamic Response of Railway Bridges Subjected to Passing Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravčík Milan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some issues related to dynamic effects in railway bridges focussed on the dynamic behaviour of the small and medium span simply supported railway bridges subjected to a series of moving vehicle. Presented parametric study is focused on the dynamic deflection of the simply supported railway bridge of the span Lb = 38 m, due to the series moving loads representing a conventional train with the IC-coaches, with the impact to the speed up to 160 km/h applied in Slovakia.

  14. An economic evaluation of setting up physical barriers in railway stations for preventing railway injury: evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2011-10-01

    Setting physical barriers, for example platform screen doors (PSDs), has been proven to be effective in preventing falls onto railway tracks, but its cost-effectiveness is not known. For economic evaluation of public health interventions, the importance of including non-health factors has been noted despite a lack of empirical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSDs, which are installed in part of the Hong Kong railway system, for preventing railway injuries. Data on railway injuries from 1997 to 2007 were obtained from the railway operators. Poisson regression was used to examine the risk reduction. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated to assess the cost-effectiveness based on (1) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) only and (2) DALYs with potential fare revenue and passengers' waiting time lost due to railway circulation collapse. The PSD installation has effectively reduced railway injuries (adjusted 5-year average percentage change: -68.8%, pfair and appropriate value of the intervention's cost-effectiveness is needed.

  15. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  16. [Sample German LAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  17. Automated vehicle for railway track fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, M.; Sujay, S.; Tushar, B.; Chitra, P.

    2017-11-01

    For the safety reasons, railroad tracks need to be inspected on a regular basis for detecting physical defects or design non compliances. Such track defects and non compliances, if not detected in a certain interval of time, may eventually lead to severe consequences such as train derailments. Inspection must happen twice weekly by a human inspector to maintain safety standards as there are hundreds and thousands of miles of railroad track. But in such type of manual inspection, there are many drawbacks that may result in the poor inspection of the track, due to which accidents may cause in future. So to avoid such errors and severe accidents, this automated system is designed.Such a concept would surely introduce automation in the field of inspection process of railway track and can help to avoid mishaps and severe accidents due to faults in the track.

  18. Framework for Railway Phase-based Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    spending) to evaluate the project alternatives. The comparison result can identify the most cost-efficient solution in a long run and therefore reduce the overall costs. This article defines a phase-based framework to guide the railway maintenance and renewal project planning at strategic level....... The framework evaluates the project options from a larger LCC scope: The costs from train operation companies and passengers, together with the maintenance and renewal costs from Infrastructure Managers are included in the calculation. The framework simplifies the planning processes and the LCC calculation...... and compared. A case study is introduced in the article to demonstrate how the framework works to compare timber sleepers and concrete sleepers from strategic planning level. Two Life Cycle Cost oriented policies are discussed to illustrate: high quality track is necessity to improve the cost efficiency...

  19. Overhead mining railway, particularly for underground use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, L

    1976-05-20

    Overhead mining railways are usually equipped with a friction wheel drive in underground use. This drive has the advantage over a gear drive that it is more robust and therefore more economic. However, it produces unsatisfactory running for difficult sections with steep gradients up or down or places where deposits of grease and dirt are inevitable. It is proposed to change over to a gear drive at such sections. The high degree of wear, which is characteristic of this type of drive, can be reduced if the drive is only used in difficult sections. It is proposed that the gear drive should be automatically switched on and off by means of stops or contacts on the rails.

  20. Reliability analysis of maintenance operations for railway tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhayma, N.; Bressolette, Ph.; Breul, P.; Fogli, M.; Saussine, G.

    2013-01-01

    Railway engineering is confronted with problems due to degradation of the railway network that requires important and costly maintenance work. However, because of the lack of knowledge on the geometrical and mechanical parameters of the track, it is difficult to optimize the maintenance management. In this context, this paper presents a new methodology to analyze the behavior of railway tracks. It combines new diagnostic devices which permit to obtain an important amount of data and thus to make statistics on the geometric and mechanical parameters and a non-intrusive stochastic approach which can be coupled with any mechanical model. Numerical results show the possibilities of this methodology for reliability analysis of different maintenance operations. In the future this approach will give important informations to railway managers to optimize maintenance operations using a reliability analysis

  1. Basic stages of introduction of kontrolingu in management railway enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kokovikhina, O.

    2011-01-01

    In the article research existent approaches in relation to introduction of financial kontrolingu in activity of subjects of menage and ten stages of introduction of kontrolingu are offered in the management of railway transport enterprises.

  2. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Squeal noise from wheel/rail and brake disc/pad frictional contact is typical in railways. ... squeal noise by multibody simulation of a rail car running on rigid rails. ... system, traditional complex eigenvalue analysis by finite element was used.

  3. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  4. An integrated micro-macro approach to robust railway timetabling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bešinović, Nikola; Goverde, Rob M P; Quaglietta, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing demand for railway transportation infrastructure managers need improved automatic timetabling tools that provide feasible timetables with enhanced performance in short computation times. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework for timetable design which combines a microsc...

  5. Railway Transportation Engineering (CEE 408) Course updates and online conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-20

    The new order of lectures provides students with a sound introduction to the main concepts behind efficiency and economic railway operations. This naturally follows into the design of railcars for safe, efficient and economical operations. With railc...

  6. Synergies of the Liberalization of the Railway Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panák Michal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of transport market brings various effects, which in the context of the assessment of synergies can affect in different ways the company, a customer as such, and transport undertakings operating on the railway transport market as well. This paper provides an innovative perspective on the relationship between liberalization and synergy, defining new types of synergies that have not yet been monitored in the conditions of railway transport. This approach is interesting because of the possibility of assessing the operation of railway undertakings in the open transport market. The eminent is characteristic of integration type synergies and emergence type synergies in relation to railway transport, as well as the breakdown of synergies in relation to the customer and carrier.

  7. High speed railway track dynamics models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically summarizes the latest research findings on high-speed railway track dynamics, made by the author and his research team over the past decade. It explores cutting-edge issues concerning the basic theory of high-speed railways, covering the dynamic theories, models, algorithms and engineering applications of the high-speed train and track coupling system. Presenting original concepts, systematic theories and advanced algorithms, the book places great emphasis on the precision and completeness of its content. The chapters are interrelated yet largely self-contained, allowing readers to either read through the book as a whole or focus on specific topics. It also combines theories with practice to effectively introduce readers to the latest research findings and developments in high-speed railway track dynamics. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, postgraduates and engineers in the fields of civil engineering, transportation, highway & railway engineering.

  8. Modeling track access charge to enhance railway industry performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Miraj, Perdana; Berawi, Abdur Rohim Boy; Susantono, Bambang; Leviakangas, Pekka; Radiansyah, Hendra

    2017-11-01

    Indonesia attempts to improve nation's competitiveness by increasing the quality and the availability of railway network. However, the infrastructure improperly managed by the operator in terms of the technical issue. One of the reasons for this problem is an unbalanced value of infrastructure charge. In 2000's track access charge and infrastructure maintenance and operation for Indonesia railways are equal and despite current formula of the infrastructure charge, issues of transparency and accountability still in question. This research aims to produce an alternative scheme of track access charge by considering marginal cost plus markup (MC+) approach. The research combines qualitative and quantitative method through an in-depth interview and financial analysis. The result will generate alternative formula of infrastructure charge in Indonesia's railway industry. The simulation also conducted to estimate track access charge for the operator and to forecast government support in terms of subsidy. The result is expected to enhance railway industry performance and competitiveness.

  9. THE EVALUATION OF OUTSOURCING USE ON UKRAINIAN RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Stasiuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of outsourcing possibilities on the railway transport of Ukraine is realized. The kinds of activities, which are promising for transfer through outsourcing to small enterprises, are proposed.

  10. ECONOMIC EFFECT OF INTRODUCTION OF MODULAR TECHNOLOGY IN RAILWAY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Bilous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore the current state of the railway engineering industry in the world, the problems of its development prospects, especially the introduction of the modular process technology and economic impact of its introduction. Methodology. The research is based on statistical information from public sources, which is used to confirm the veracity of the thesis put forward about the feasibility of further implementation of the principle of modularity in the railway engineering sector. Data was also obtained from the websites of manufacturers of railway equipment. Also, in the study of the issue, analytical articles on the economic development of the sector of railway engineering in the world were used. Results of the research showed that today, in transport engineering industry, in particular – in the railway engineering, there is a problem of inefficient implementation and use of technological developments, which are used in the manufacture of railway rolling stock. Many technical solutions are duplicated, leading to more time and financial costs. At the same time, there is no free access to information about existing technical solutions, which significantly slows down the development of rail transport. One of the main solutions to the problem is the use of modular technology in the design and manufacture of rolling stock. Leading global manufacturers have already begun to use the modules in the production of their rolling stock, but the technology is not yet sufficiently developed and finds its realization only in reducing the costs of production of rolling stock by specific manufacturers. The full benefits of the new technology have not yet been obtained by producers and operators. Thus, there is a considerable margin for the implementation of modular technology in the production of railway vehicles, which will result in further reducing both production costs and the costs of maintenance, operation and repair of

  11. An investigation of employee motivation at Botswana railways / John Latolang

    OpenAIRE

    Latolang, John

    2011-01-01

    Botswana Railways has been facing low employee motivation and productivity for some time. Companies such as Air Botswana which had been experiencing similar issues decided to privatise to increase its efficiency and, as a result, turned things around. Hence, using both quantitative and qualitative investigation at the Headquarters of the Botswana Railways, this study sought to determine the extent of employee motivation and how to enhance it in order to increase employee produc...

  12. Railway projects prioritisation for investment : application of goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ahern, Aoife; Anandarajah, Gabrial

    2007-01-01

    This research develops a weighted integer goal-programming model for prioritising railway projects for investment. The goal of the model is to prioritise the identified projects for investment while maximising the objectives and meeting the budget limit for capital investment. The model minimises the goal deviations of the objectives. The objectives of the model include quantitative and qualitative attributes. The model is applied to prioritise the new railway projects, which have a total cos...

  13. Study on high reliability safety valve for railway vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ruikun; Zhang, Shixi; Xu, BuDu

    2017-09-01

    Now, the realization of most of the functions of the railway vehicles rely on compressed air, so the demand for compressed air is growing higher and higher. This safety valve is a protection device for pressure limitation and pressure relief in an air supply system of railway vehicles. I am going to introduce the structure, operating principle, research and development process of the safety valve designed by our company in this document.

  14. Distributed optical fiber sensors for integrated monitoring of railway infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardo, Aldo; Coscetta, Agnese; Porcaro, Giuseppe; Giannetta, Daniele; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    We propose the application of a distributed optical fiber sensor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, as an integrated system for safety monitoring of railway infrastructures. The strain distribution was measured dynamically along a 60 meters length of rail track, as well as along a 3-m stone arch bridge. The results indicate that distributed sensing technology is able to provide useful information in railway traffic and safety monitoring.

  15. SOLUTION FOR AN EQUIPMENT OF RAILWAY BRIDGE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mihai SIMA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for the railway bridges monitoring based on the use of already existing equipments in the railway installations and some new equipments based on photo-elements, as well. This kind of equipments can function in continue and discontinuous regime, means of them tracking down if the bridge piles suffered movements by different reasons. This aspect can put in danger the safety of the circulation on that bridge.

  16. A modelling approach for railway overhead line equipment asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Kilsby, Paul; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John

    2017-01-01

    The Overhead Line Equipment (OLE) is a critical sub-system of the 25kV AC overhead railway electrification system. If OLE asset management strategies can be evaluated using a whole lifecycle cost analysis that considers degradation processes and maintenance activities of the OLE components, the investment required to deliver the level of performance desired by railway customers and regulators can be based on evidence from the analysis results. A High Level Petri Net (HLPN) model, proposed in ...

  17. Reconstruction of railway energy lines; Rekonstruktion von Bahnenergieleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Matthias [DB Energie Gmbh, Berlin (Germany); Wahlen, Manfred [DB Energie Gmbh, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    As is the case for other overhead lines, 110 kV railway energy lines are assumed to have a service life of 80 years. When this service life ends or the lines are adapted to the state of the art as necessary, all components of the overhead line are renewed. For the reconstruction of railway energy lines, the specifications laid down in planning and environmental laws, operational management aspects and the local ambient and development situation are decisive project planning parameters. (orig.)

  18. Automatic Verification of Railway Interlocking Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob Lyng

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experiences in applying formal verification to a large industrial piece of software. The are of application is railway interlocking systems. We try to prove requirements of the program controlling the Swedish railway Station Alingsås by using the decision procedure which...... express thoughts on what is needed in order to be able to successfully verify large real-life systems....

  19. Perspectives of transport logistics in the railway transport enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Elagin, Yu; Obruch, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the main directions of development of transport logistics. Identified as the main types of general transport logistics, as well as the rail sector, in which logistics acquires a dominant role in terms of reform. Also highlights the main features of transport logistics for railway transport enterprises and proved the importance of integrating function in modern conditions of development. The authors noted that to ensure the effective development of railway tran...

  20. Developing noise control strategies for entire railway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertli, Jakob

    2006-06-01

    The EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49) requires member states to deliver noise maps to the commission by 2007 and action plans by 2008 both for agglomerations as well as for major roads, railways and airports. Noise mitigation projects resulting from action plans are usually very expensive and therefore may threaten the economic viability of the railways in the current harsh competitive transport market, thus hindering sustainable transport policies. It is therefore of vital interest that the action plans and the resulting projects are designed in the most cost-effective way possible. The EU and Union of Railways (UIC) sponsored project Strategies and Tools to Assess and Implement noise Reducing measures for Railway Systems (STAIRRS) recognized this need and developed a tool, with which such optimal solutions can be obtained for entire railway networks. Since data collection is the most expensive part of the analysis, noise mapping data is ideally collected in such a way that it can be used for the calculation of the different scenarios, from which the most cost-effective action plans are chosen. The paper shows how the STAIRRS tool is used for this purpose and how cost-effectiveness considerations have led to optimal railway noise mitigation strategies in Switzerland and have given a basis for noise related decision making in Luxembourg.

  1. Word order in the Germanic languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois, ...

  2. Estimating national exhaust emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, Faruk; Elbir, Tolga

    2007-01-01

    The estimated exhaust emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey were presented. The emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), hydrocarbon compounds (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the diesel locomotives and railcars were calculated using the railway traffic data recorded by Turkish State Railways (TSR) for the period of 2000-2005. EPA emission factors were used for different vehicle types and operation modes such as shunting and line-hauling. Total emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey were estimated as 384 t y - 1 for HC, 1016 t y - 1 for CO, 6799 t y - 1 for NO X , 256 t y - 1 for PM, 357 t y - 1 for SO 2 and 383 537 t y - 1 for CO 2 for the year 2005. The distribution of emissions with respect to type of railway vehicles shows that the mainline locomotives contribute ∝ 91% to the total emissions. The increases of 22%, 39% and 49% in the current numbers of mainline locomotives, shunting locomotives and diesel railcars, respectively corresponding to the full capacity of railway network in Turkey will increase the annual emissions to 431 t y - 1 for HC, 1121 t y - 1 for CO, 7399 t y - 1 for NO X , 342 t y - 1 for PM, 552 t y - 1 for SO 2 and 420 256 t y - 1 for CO 2 . Total railway emissions constitute 0.15%, 0.08% and 4.21% of total Turkish traffic emissions for HC, CO and NO X , respectively. (author)

  3. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  4. Development of a guide for prioritization of railway bridges for repair and replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop evaluation bases for the repair, rehabilitation, and replacement of existing : railway bridges. Considering the importance of bridges to the railway network, the research involved the review and : analysis o...

  5. Traffic and transport technology-road, railway, and water-borne transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This is "Part 2: Case Studies - Chapter 9" of the book, "The Japanese Experience in Technology", and includes the following subsections: Modernization and the railway; The transportation network; Issues in railway policy; Original design and producti...

  6. Soil erosion on road and railways embankments in the Canyoles river Basin. Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Antonio, Giménez-Morera; Félix Ángel, González-Peñaloza; María, Burguet; Paulo, Pereira; José Reyes, Ruiz

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean landscapes are man-made. Its human ecosystems are characterized by a high population density, a long history of human settlement and an intense exchange of goods and people (Cerdà et al., 2010). This was possible due to a dense road network, most of it created during the Roman Empire. Modern roads and railways increased drastically during the last 30 years in the Mediterranean. Spain is a clear example of the acceleration of the road and railway infrastructures (Bel, 2005), especially during the 1960s as the tourism started to become a big issue in this part of the World. The increase in road and railways during the last 30 years resulted in a new transport system in Spain, which is based on high-speed railways and motorways. The characteristic of these infrastructures is that they were built by means of embankments, and little is now about the erosional response of those embankments to rainfall. The objective of this research is to assess the soil losses measured in road and railway embankments. The Canyoles River watershed was selected as an example of a region with a dense and recently developed modern network of roads, motorways and railway. The Canyoles river watershed is the natural path between the Mediterranean coast and Central Spain, the capital of the country and the touristic regions. Two motorways and two railways were built or re-built during the last two years and this paper assesses their impact on soil and water losses. As soil erosion rates are dependent on the high intensity - low frequency rainfall events, rainfall simulation experiments (40 experiments) were conducted (1 m2 plots; 60 minutes duration; 78 mm h-1 intensity) were carried out over plots on 2 railway (n=10 + 10) and motorway (n=10 + 10) research sites in August 2011, under very dry conditions. Soil moisture was below 5 % in the top 2 cm soil layer. The vegetation cover was very low in the two road and two railway embankments as the average cover was 4.2 % ranging from

  7. Stiffness of Railway Soil-Steel Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machelski Czesław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The considerable influence of the soil backfill properties and that of the method of compacting it on the stiffness of soil-steel structures is characteristic of the latter. The above factors (exhibiting randomness become apparent in shell deformation measurements conducted during construction and proof test loading. A definition of soil-shell structure stiffness, calculated on the basis of shell deflection under the service load, is proposed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the stiffness is the inverse of the deflection influence function used in structural mechanics. The moving load methodology is shown to be useful for testing, since it makes it possible to map the shell deflection influence line also in the case of group loads (concentrated forces, as in bridges. The analyzed cases show that the shell’s span, geometry (static scheme and the height of earth fill influence the stiffness of the structure. The soil-steel structure’s characteristic parameter in the form of stiffness k is more suitable for assessing the quality of construction works than the proposed in code geometric index ω applied to beam structures. As shown in the given examples, parameter k is more effective than stiffness parameter λ used to estimate the deformation of soil-steel structures under construction. Although the examples concern railway structures, the methodology proposed in the paper is suitable also for road bridges.

  8. OOA composite structures applicable in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite sandwich structures offers several advantages over conventional structural materials such as lightweight, high bending and torsional stiffness, superior thermal insulation and excellent acoustic damping. In the aerospace industry, sandwich composites are commonly manufactured using the autoclave process which is associated with high operating cost. Out-of-autoclave (OOA manufacturing has been shown to be capable of producing low cost and high performance composites. In this paper we present results of experimental testing of various sandwich materials according various standards and actual requirements in transport industry. We compared the different types of surface and paint systems, because these layers are the most important in contact with the surrounding environment and load conditions. In the experimental measurements were used various materials. For the core of the sandwich structure were selected aluminium honeycomb, aramid honeycomb and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate foam core. Support layers were chosen two kinds of predimpregnated materials. The conditions of measurements were requirements for strength and rigidity, safety - flame resistance and reflectivity resistance. The samples were tested at the 3 - point bending test according to standard EN ISO 178, by modified test to determine the force required to rapture threaded insert, by test of reflectivity according to UIC CODE 844-4 R and according to standard EN 45545-2 fire protection of railway vehicles.

  9. Railway bridge monitoring during construction and sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Casanova, Nicoletta; Kronenberg, Pascal; Vurpillot, Samuel

    1997-05-01

    The Moesa railway bridge is a composite steel concrete bridge on three spans of 30 m each. The 50 cm thick concrete deck is supported on the lower flanges of two continuous, 2.7 m high I-beams. The bridge has been constructed alongside an old metallic bridge. After demolishing this one, the new bridge has been slid for 5 m by 4 hydraulic jacks and positioned on the refurbished piles of the old bridge. About 30 fiber optic, low-coherence sensors were imbedded in the concrete deck to monitor its deformations during concrete setting and shrinkage, as well as during the bridge sliding phase. In the days following concrete pour it was possible to follow its thermal expansion due to the exothermic setting reaction and the following thermal and during shrinkage. The deformations induced by the additional load produced by the successive concreting phases were also observed. During the bridge push, which extended over six hours, the embedded and surface mounted sensors allowed the monitoring of the curvature variations in the horizontal plane due to the slightly uneven progression of the jacks. Excessive curvature and the resulting cracking of concrete could be ruled out by these measurements. It was also possible to observe the bridge elongation under the heating action of the sun.

  10. Stiffness of Railway Soil-Steel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machelski, Czesław

    2015-12-01

    The considerable influence of the soil backfill properties and that of the method of compacting it on the stiffness of soil-steel structures is characteristic of the latter. The above factors (exhibiting randomness) become apparent in shell deformation measurements conducted during construction and proof test loading. A definition of soil-shell structure stiffness, calculated on the basis of shell deflection under the service load, is proposed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the stiffness is the inverse of the deflection influence function used in structural mechanics. The moving load methodology is shown to be useful for testing, since it makes it possible to map the shell deflection influence line also in the case of group loads (concentrated forces), as in bridges. The analyzed cases show that the shell's span, geometry (static scheme) and the height of earth fill influence the stiffness of the structure. The soil-steel structure's characteristic parameter in the form of stiffness k is more suitable for assessing the quality of construction works than the proposed in code geometric index ω applied to beam structures. As shown in the given examples, parameter k is more effective than stiffness parameter λ used to estimate the deformation of soil-steel structures under construction. Although the examples concern railway structures, the methodology proposed in the paper is suitable also for road bridges.

  11. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  12. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  13. Power-Electronics Issues of Modern Electric Railway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEIMEL, A.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available After de-regulation of the former state-owned railways and severe restructuring of the railway industry in the last 15 years, more innovative vehicle concepts saw the light of the day. Power electronics, already formerly being a pacemaker for progress of traction vehicles, brought forth an utmost standardization of the main drive by means of the IGBT-converter-fed induction motor drive. This is independent of the railway supply voltage system or of a diesel prime mover, for locomotives, high-speed and mass-transit trains as well as for tramways. Vehicles able to operate on all four European railway voltage systems have become feasible and are used now widely. New trends as Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors or Medium-Frequency Transformers are discussed, and a short overlook over actual field-oriented high-performance motor control systems - including a speed-sensorless variant - is given. Power electronics dominates the field of conversion of the 16.7-Hz railway supply power, typical for Central Europe, from the 50-Hz three-phase utility grid.

  14. Integrity Evaluation of Railway Bogie Using Infrared Thermography Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk

    2011-01-01

    The lock-in thermography was employed to evaluate the integrity of railway bogies. Prior to the actual application on railway bogies, in order to assess the detectability of known flaws, the calibration reference panel was prepared with various dimensions of artificial flaws. The panel was composed of structural steel, which was the same material with actual bogies. Through lock-in thermography evaluation, the optimal frequency of heat source was determined for the best flaw detection. Based on the defects information, the actual defect assessments on railway bogie were conducted with different types of railway bogies, which were used for the current operation. In summary, the defect assessment results with thermography method showed a good agreement as compared with the conventional inspection techniques. Moreover, it was found that the novel infrared thermography technique could be an effective way for the inspection and the detection of surface defects on bogies since the infrared thermography method provided rapid and non-contact mode for the investigation of railway bogies

  15. Energetic optimization of regenerative braking for high speed railway systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilli, Amedeo; Meli, Enrico; Nocciolini, Daniele; Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of longitudinal dynamics of the High-speed train ETR1000 is presented. • The model includes on board traction and braking subsystems. • Interactions between overhead line and power line are modelled. • The model is validated on real experimental data. • An energy storage strategy for a high-speed line is proposed. - Abstract: The current development trend in the railway field has led to an ever increasing interest for the energetic optimization of railway systems (especially considering the braking phases), with a strong attention to the mutual interactions between the loads represented by railway vehicles and the electrical infrastructure, including all the sub-systems related to distribution and smart energy management such as energy storage systems. In this research work, the authors developed an innovative coupled modelling approach suitable for the analysis of the energetic optimization of railway systems and based on the use of the new object oriented language Matlab-Simscape™, which presents several advantages with respect to conventional modelling tools. The proposed model has been validated considering an Italian Direct Current High-speed line and the High-speed train ETR 1000. Furthermore, the model has been used to perform an efficiency analysis, considering the use of energy storage devices. The results obtained with the developed model show that the use of energy recovery systems in high-speed railway can provide great opportunities of energy savings.

  16. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizjak Karmen Fifer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world’s total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  17. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  18. Impact of high-speed railway accessibility on the location choices of office establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigers, J.

    2006-01-01

    High-speed railways are becoming increasingly common in Europe. In the Netherlands soon the HSL-South will be opened. This high-speed railway line connects the Randstad to Brussels and Paris. A prominent aim of this new railway is to improve international competitiveness of the Netherlands. As a

  19. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... number of carloads interchanged with NSR in a given year.\\1\\ AARR states that the interchange commitment..., Canadian National Railway Company (CN), CSX Transportation, Inc., and Wheeling & Lake Erie Railway in Toledo; the Indiana and Ohio Railway and CN in Diann, Mich.; NSR in Milan, Mich.; and Great Lakes Central...

  20. Evaluation of ETCS performance with LTE as alternative railway communication network using OPNET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is a communication mobile network designed to fulfill specific communication needs of railways. GSM-R is being widely deployed across Europe and other countries around the world for providing railway voice and train control services (ETCS). Despite that, GSM-R already shows...

  1. Passenger oriented railway disruption management by adapting timetables and rolling stock schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veelenturf, L.P.; Kroon, L.G.; Maróti, G.

    2017-01-01

    In passenger railway operations, unforeseen events require railway operators to adjust their timetable and their resource schedules. The passengers will also adapt their routes to their destinations. When determining the new timetable and rolling stock schedule, the railway operator has to take

  2. Safety motion increase of trains by improvement diagnostics process devices of railway automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.Bondarenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex use of methods of nondestructive check for the automated diagnostics electromagnetic relays of railway automation the first class reliability is offered. The methods determination of their mechanical parameters are resulted, that allows to exclude a human factor from the control, promote reliability of devices railway automation and safety motion of railway transport.

  3. A three-level framework for performance-based railway timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Besinovic, N.; Binder, A.; Cacchiani, V.; Quaglietta, E.; Roberti, R.; Toth, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of railway operations depends highly on the quality of the railway timetable. In particular for dense railway networks it can be a challenge to obtain a stable robust conflict-free and energy-efficient timetable with acceptable infrastructure occupation and short travel times. This

  4. Routing trains through railway junctions: A new set-packing approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ryan, David

    2011-01-01

    The problem of routing trains through railway junctions is an integral part of railway operations. Large junctions are highly interconnected networks of track where multiple railway lines merge, intersect, and split. The number of possible routings makes this a very complicated problem. We show h...

  5. Prediction of railway induced ground vibration through multibody and finite element modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kouroussis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The multibody approach is now recognized as a reliable and mature computer aided engineering tool. Namely, it is commonly used in industry for the design of road or railway vehicles. The paper presents a framework developed for predicting the vibrations induced by railway transportation. Firstly, the vehicle/track subsystem is simulated, on the basis of the home-made C++ library EasyDyn, by mixing the multibody model of the vehicle and the finite element model of the track, coupled to each other through the wheel/rail contact forces. Only the motion in the vertical plane is considered, assuming a total symmetry between left and right rails. This first step produces the time history of the forces exerted by the ballast on the foundation, which are then applied to a full 3-D FEM model of the soil, defined under the commercial software ABAQUS. The paper points out the contribution of the pitch motion of the bogies and carbodies which were neglected in previous publications, as well as the interest of the so-called coupled-lumped mass model (CLM to represent the influence of the foundation in the track model. The potentialities of the model are illustrated on the example of the Thalys high-speed train, riding at 300 km h−1 on the Belgian site of Mévergnies.

  6. Inspection and Numerical Analysis of an Ottoman Railway Bridge in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin H. Almasri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of bridges represents a big challenge, since they require enormous economic effort and specialized technical skills. Bridges were historically important as they help connecting people and thus diffusing cultures, sharing ideas, and providing the backbone of transportation networks. This study focuses on the inspection and structural analysis of a 20th-century Ottoman railway stone arched bridge located on the Hejaz railway network in Jordan. The bridge has a very important cultural heritage value which stems from its history. The bridge stone material was cut and tested to determine its strength, in order to be used in the analysis. The structural analysis was carried out to assess the structural condition of the bridge and its suitability for reuse. The study includes static analysis under gravity loads and seismic analysis under earthquake loads. Despite the existence of deterioration in the bridge body construction materials due to a combination of human and natural factors, the analysis results proved enough structural capability to sustain the imposed gravity loads, but not a strong earthquake.

  7. Recent advances in the fundamental understanding of railway vehicle dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this article is the calculation of the critical speed for railway vehicles. It is emphasised that it is misleading to formulate the mathematical problem as a stability problem. It must correctly be formulated as a problem of existence of coexisting solutions to the full non-linear dy......The topic of this article is the calculation of the critical speed for railway vehicles. It is emphasised that it is misleading to formulate the mathematical problem as a stability problem. It must correctly be formulated as a problem of existence of coexisting solutions to the full non......-linear dynamical problem. The lowest speed at which there exist more critical speed in road tests. A couple of examples show applications of the method to various dynamical models of railway vehicles. Freight wagons are treated in the end of the article because the dry friction damping with stick-slip and end...

  8. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    and railway noise and adiposity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993-1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated....... Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors......, significant increases were also found for BFMI and LBMI. All associations followed linear exposure-response relationships. Exposure to railway noise was not linearly associated with adiposity measures. However, exposure > 60 dB was associated with a 0.71-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.23, 1...

  9. Approaches for reducing structural vibration of the carbody railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the weight of the railway vehicles stands as a decisive rule in their design, entailed by higher velocities, the need to consume less energy and lower the manufacturing costs, along with the maximization of the use of loads on the axle. Once complied with this rule, the vehicle flexibility increases and leads to an easy excitation of the structural vibrations in the carbody, with an impact upon the ride comfort in the railway vehicle. For a better ride comfort in lightweight railway vehicles, both vibration isolation approaches and structural damping approaches have been introduced. The paper herein submits a brief review of the main structural damping approaches aiming to reduce the amplitude in the carbody structural vibrations, based on the use of the piezoelectric elements in passive control schemes. The paper outcomes show the potential of the presented methods concerning the reduction of the flexible vibrations in the carbody and the ride comfort improvement.

  10. Study of Drivers’ Behaviour at a Passive Railway Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kasalica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The number of killed and injured persons in incidents at railway level crossings is generally increasing on the Serbian Railways, particularly at passive crossings. In this paper we researched the direct behaviour of road traffic participants at a conventional railway passive crossing. Method: Direct observational study of drivers’ behaviour at a level crossing. Results: Sixty-one road vehicle drivers were observed in the moments of train approach. The probability of crossing varies depending on the train distance and the time the driver has to cross the crossing. The drivers who have limited visibility cannot estimate the speed of the approaching train well and make more risky decisions. Conclusion: This study shows that the number of “risky crossings” is worrying as the result of such crossings is a large number of accidents with fatal consequences at the passive crossings in Serbia.

  11. Capacity gain with an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    , such as 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE). T his paper describe s how to adapt the reversible multi - chain/channel queuing system to model an LTE cell serving ETCS - equipped trains . It is proposed to use the multiple user chains available in the model to represent varying bitrate in LTE radio access network....... Usin g this model , LTE and GSM - R are compare d in terms of capacity on an example at Copenhagen Main Train Station . The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the benefits that railway operators and infrastructure managers can expect from the introduc tion of LTE , as a telecommunication technology...... Control System (ETCS) signaling , the capacity of GSM - R turns out to be insufficient . GSM - R cannot ful fill the railway requirements , in terms of the number of simultaneous ETCS connections . This is why , alternative , more efficient communication technologies should be considered by railways...

  12. A cascading failure model for analyzing railway accident causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Tao; Li, Ke-Ping

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new cascading failure model is proposed for quantitatively analyzing the railway accident causation. In the model, the loads of nodes are redistributed according to the strength of the causal relationships between the nodes. By analyzing the actual situation of the existing prevention measures, a critical threshold of the load parameter in the model is obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed cascading model, simulation experiments of a train collision accident are performed. The results show that the cascading failure model can describe the cascading process of the railway accident more accurately than the previous models, and can quantitatively analyze the sensitivities and the influence of the causes. In conclusion, this model can assist us to reveal the latent rules of accident causation to reduce the occurrence of railway accidents.

  13. Kronecker Algebra-based Deadlock Analysis for Railway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mittermayr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Deadlock analysis for railway systems differs in several aspects from deadlock analysis in computer science. While the problem of deadlock analysis for standard computer systems is well-understood, multi-threaded embedded computer systems pose new challenges. A novel approach in this area can easily be applied to deadlock analysis in the domain of railway systems. The approach is based on Kronecker algebra. A lazy implementation of the matrix operations even allows analysing exponentially sized systems in a very efficient manner. The running time of the algorithm does not depend on the problem size but on the size of the solution. While other approaches suffer from the fact that additional constraints make the problem and its solution harder, our approach delivers its results faster if constraints are added. In addition, our approach is complete and sound for railway systems, i.e., it generates neither false positives nor false negatives.

  14. AUTOMATIC RAILWAY POWER LINE EXTRACTION USING MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on power line extraction technology using mobile laser point clouds has important practical significance on railway power lines patrol work. In this paper, we presents a new method for automatic extracting railway power line from MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning data. Firstly, according to the spatial structure characteristics of power-line and trajectory, the significant data is segmented piecewise. Then, use the self-adaptive space region growing method to extract power lines parallel with rails. Finally use PCA (Principal Components Analysis combine with information entropy theory method to judge a section of the power line whether is junction or not and which type of junction it belongs to. The least squares fitting algorithm is introduced to model the power line. An evaluation of the proposed method over a complicated railway point clouds acquired by a RIEGL VMX450 MLS system shows that the proposed method is promising.

  15. A comparative study of performance measurement standards of railway operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongjirawut Siripong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European standard (EN 13816, is one of the widely accepted standards for measuring the quality of public passenger transport (PPT service. EN 13816 indicates 8 measurement criteria, 29 sub-criteria and 193 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs to be used to measure the performance of railway operators. Nowadays, there are other addition criteria beyond EN13816, developed by various organisations. This research firstly aims to explore the service performance measurement of railway operators used by actual railway operators at international level and in Thailand. After an intensive review of performance measurement standards, 9 standards are compiled and compared in terms of criteria, sub-criteria and KPIs using a cluster analysis methodology. The result found additional performance measurement aspects at 2 sub-criteria and 91 KPIs in addition to EN 13816. This research summarized and compared different performance measurement standards to measure service quality of metro rail line.

  16. Seismic impact of the railway on the geotechnical constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolárik, Martin; Pinka, Miroslav

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the focus on more ecological means of material and persons transport is still higher. Big loads can be transported on railways more effectively and with lower environment impact than on roads. The geotechnical structures are inherent parts of railway infrastructure, such as embankments, sides of notches and, of course, tunnels, foundation constructions of buildings or pillars of bridges and the others geotechnical constructions (e.g. retaining walls, culverts, transition area of bridges). By train pass, vibrations are caused and these vibrations are relayed to the soil. These vibrations can make adverse impact to surrounding objects and to technologies placed in. This so far uncared-for influence gets into the foreground by current trend of everyday life technical equipment increasing. The article introduces different kinds of geotechnical structures and the influence of by-passing railway transport on their constructions and surroundings. The data are evaluated in the amplitude and frequency domain.

  17. Psychohistory before Hitler: early military analyses of German national psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendersky, J W

    1988-04-01

    As part of a grandiose post-World War I psychological project to predict the behavior of nations, the U.S. Military Intelligence Division (MID) utilized racial and social psychological theories to explain an alleged problematic German national character. Though unsuccessful, this project has major significance in the history of psychohistory. For the newly discovered MID files reveal that ideas, attitudes, and biases many psychohistorians subsequently identified as manifestations of a peculiar German national character had previously been held by American officers and reputable psychologists. What American analysts would, in 1940, view as symptoms of a maladjusted German mind, their predecessors had, in 1920, considered valid scientific concepts.

  18. Historical flora of Moscow’s Railway Junction (until 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinogradova Yulia Konstantinovna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the biodiversity at the railways. The list of species found within the Moscow Railways (≈300 km from 1851 until today has been compiled based on herbarium data [MHA, MW, LE] and personal observations conducted in 1980-2016. The list of “railways’ flora” includes 1087 taxa from 447 genera of 94 families – this is significantly higher than what is known for the railroads of other regions. A brief comparative analysis with the “railways’ flora” in other regions of the world in respect of the species number, taxonomy and life form spectrum has been performed. The therophytes absolutely prevail in the life-form spectrum (46 percent. The role of the railways as a pathway for alien species has been confirmed. Around 54 percent of all alien plants recorded for the Moscow Region (Moscow and Moscow Region grow along the railways. Several species new for the former USSR territory was found there, as well as many species new for the Moscow Region. The Railways are not only “donors/sources” of alien species, they also act as a refugee area for “the escapees”: over 30 years, Asclepias syriaca has been growing within the section of the Kursk-Moscow railway located near the All-Russian Research Institute of Medical and Aromatic Plants. Galega officinalis, a specie that forms a 200 m2 area of tangled vegetation, was found there, too. A trend when plants fall out of cultivation was established, this is how Sedum hispanicum and S. album emerged. The article also marks the role of the rail slopes as a refugium of rare and endangered plants of the natural flora: some 35 species included in the Red Book of Moscow were found within the area.

  19. Big data for risk analysis: The future of safe railways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueres Esteban, M.

    2016-07-01

    New technology brings ever more data to support decision-making for intelligent transport systems. Big Data is no longer a futuristic challenge, it is happening right now: modern railway systems have countless sources of data providing a massive quantity of diverse information on every aspect of operations such as train position and speed, brake applications, passenger numbers, status of the signaling system or reported incidents.The traditional approaches to safety management on the railways have relied on static data sources to populate traditional safety tools such as bow-tie models and fault trees. The Big Data Risk Analysis (BDRA) program for Railways at the University of Huddersfield is investigating how the many Big Data sources from the railway can be combined in a meaningful way to provide a better understanding about the GB railway systems and the environment within which they operate.Moving to BDRA is not simply a matter of scaling-up existing analysis techniques. BDRA has to coordinate and combine a wide range of sources with different types of data and accuracy, and that is not straight-forward. BDRA is structured around three components: data, ontology and visualisation. Each of these components is critical to support the overall framework. This paper describes how these three components are used to get safety knowledge from two data sources by means of ontologies from text documents. This is a part of the ongoing BDRA research that is looking at integrating many large and varied data sources to support railway safety and decision-makers. (Author)

  20. New Porta Susa - Turin Railway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio d'Ascia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project of the new station of Torino Porta Susa is the project of a huge urban public space, where the station, conceived as an urban gallery, becomes a real street, a “passage”, a new kind of urbanity shape for the future city. The railway station’s transparent volume - a 385 m (the length of the TGV long steel and glass tunnel, 30 m. width, with a variable height compared to the outdoor street level (between 12 and 3 m at the height of the cover - is proposed as a modern reinterpretation of the nineteenth century’s urban galleries and the great historical station’s halles, as well as a kind of symbolic building. Symbol of movement, of the travel universe and the presence of the transportation universe in the contemporary city, urban simulacrum of the object train disappeared from the urban scene below the future Central Spine. The sinuous movement of the tunnel follows the flows of urban pedestrians from the city towards the different transportation modes presents at various levels (national and international lines AV, regional lines, subways, taxis ... emphasizing with its lowering the presence of the big void inside of the underground subway station, about 20 meters deep. The gallery, oriented north-south, folds with its internal pedestrian paths to bring natural light and the sky of Turin, to the quays of trains (at an altitude of -10 m and the Subway (which share -20, transformed so’ in a sort of urban sidewalks. The fast rhythm of the structure of arches with step 360 cm. is marked by the presence of numerous openings along the longitudinal development of the gallery, which is crossed by three transversal passages inside the gallery and is bounded by two others on the north and south of the lot, connecting the city from east to west at street level in continuity with pre-existing axes. The presence of these transversal passages accentuates the urban value of the Spina which was to re-connect the two sides of the city until

  1. Dynamics of a railway vehicle on a laterally disturbed track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; True, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this article a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a railway bogie running on a tangent track with a periodic disturbance of the lateral track geometry is presented. The dynamics is computed for two values of the speed of the vehicle in combination with different values of the wavelen......In this article a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a railway bogie running on a tangent track with a periodic disturbance of the lateral track geometry is presented. The dynamics is computed for two values of the speed of the vehicle in combination with different values...

  2. A codimension two bifurcation in a railway bogie system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tingting; True, Hans; Dai, Huanyun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive analysis is presented to investigate a codimension two bifurcation that exists in a nonlinear railway bogie dynamic system combining theoretical analysis with numerical investigation. By using the running velocity V and the primary longitudinal stiffness (Formula...... coexist in a range of the bifurcation parameters which can lead to jumps in the lateral oscillation amplitude of the railway bogie system. Furthermore, reduce the values of the bifurcation parameters gradually. Firstly, the supercritical Hopf bifurcation turns into a subcritical one with multiple limit...

  3. Synthesis of railway-signaling plans using reachability games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasting, Patrick Frederik Soelmark; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    (the control system) controls signals and points and the universal player (the antagonistic environment) controls movement of trains. A winning strategy for the existential player provides a signaling plan that will safely guide trains through the network. The concepts from the railway network model......In this work, we show the feasibility of using functional programming (more specifically F#) in connection with gamebased methods for synthesis of correct-by-construction controllers (also called signaling plans) for railway networks. This is a massively resource-demanding application. A model...

  4. Robustness indicators and capacity models for railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    In a world continuous striving for higher mobility and the use of more sustainable modes of transport, there is a constant pressure on utilising railway capacity better and, at the same time, obtaining a high robustness against delays. During the planning of railway operations and infrastructure ....... This has motivated the research conducted and described in this thesis, where the objective has been to develop and improve existing methods to achieve timetable and infrastructure plans with robust capacity utilisation aimed at the strategic and early tactical planning phases....

  5. Development of prototype DC superconducting cable for railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masaru; Fukumoto, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kenji; Miryala, Muralidhar

    2010-01-01

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTSC) wire has significant potential for railway system applications. HTSC wire is currently a promising candidate for various engineering applications such as transformers and motors for railway system. HTSC direct current (DC) cable is ideal for a feeder of the overhead contact line system between the substation and the electric train. We completed a prototype Bi-2223 tape based direct current cable for trial purposes of several meters length. In the energizing experiment the current of 1720 A successfully constantly flew.

  6. Dynamics of railway bridges, analysis and verification by field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper discusses different aspects of railway bridge dynamics, comprising analysis, modelling procedures and experimental testing. The importance of realistic models is discussed, especially regarding boundary conditions, load distribution and soil-structure interaction. Two theoretical case studies are presented, involving both deterministic and probabilistic assessment of a large number of railway bridges using simplified and computationally efficient models. A total of four experimental case studies are also introduced, illustrating different aspects and phenomena in bridge dynamics. The excitation consists of both ambient vibrations, train induced vibrations, free vibrations after train passages and controlled forced excitation.

  7. German energy market 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Weltenergierat, Berlin

    2017-01-01

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [de

  8. Research of noise emission sources in railway transport and effective ways of their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvolenský Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the EU conditions attention is systematically paid to noise reduction on the railways. Because TSI rules systematically tighten limits for noise emissions from railway vehicles, noise research must be addressed by all Member States, as the main technical solutions for railway vehicles and construction technological aspects of railway operations can result in lower noise exposure of affected areas or objects. The paper focuses on theoretical investigation of sources and paths of sound propagation, possibilities of noise reduction both on vehicles and by infrastructure and experimental measurements of the situation in transport practice. Methodology for reducing railway noise around tracks has been presented, too.

  9. German Idealism Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of essays provides an exemplary overwiew of the diversity and relevance of current scholarship on German Idealism. The importance of German Idealism for contemporary philosophy has recieved growing attention and acknowledgment throughout competing fields of contemporary philosophy...... scholarly debates beyond merely antiquarian perspectives. This renaissance has been a major factor of current efforts to bridge the gap between so-called "nalytic" and so-called "continental" philosophy. The volume provides a selection of readings that contributes to systematic treatments of philosophical...

  10. Vulnerability assessment and mitigation for the Chinese railway system under floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; Ouyang, Min; Peeta, Srinivas; He, Xiaozheng; Yan, Yongze

    2015-01-01

    The economy of China and the travel needs of its citizens depend significantly on the continuous and reliable services provided by its railway system. However, this system is subject to frequent natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, and debris flow. A mechanism to assess the railway system vulnerability under these hazards and the design of effective vulnerability mitigation strategies are essential to the reliable functioning of the railway system. This article proposes a comprehensive methodology to quantitatively assess the railway system vulnerability under floods using historical data and GIS technology. The proposed methodology includes a network representation of the railway system, the generation of flood event scenarios, a method to estimate railway link vulnerability, and a quantitative vulnerability value computation approach. The railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption related to the number of interrupted trains and the durations of interruption. A maintenance strategy to mitigate vulnerability is proposed that simultaneously considers link vulnerability and number of trains using it. Numerical experiments show that the flood-induced vulnerability of the proposed representation of the Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly value in July, and the proposed vulnerability mitigation strategy is more effective compared to other strategies. - Highlights: • We propose a methodology to assess flood-induced railway system vulnerability. • Railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption. • Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly vulnerability in July. • We propose an effective maintenance strategy considering link vulnerability and burden

  11. Annoyance and activity disturbance induced by high-speed railway and conventional railway noise: a contrastive case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guo-Qing; Lin, Qi-Li; Li, Zheng-Guang; Kang, Jian

    2014-03-07

    High-speed railway (HR, Electrified railway with service speed above 200 km/h.) noise and conventional railway (CR, Electrified railway with service speed under 200 km/h.) noise are different in both time and frequency domain. There is an urgent need to study the influence of HR noise and consequently, develop appropriate noise evaluation index and limits for the total railway noise including HR and CR noise. Based on binaural recording of HR and CR noises in a approximate semi-free field, noise annoyance and activity disturbance induced by maximal train pass-by events in China were investigated through laboratory subjective evaluation. 80 students within recruited 102 students, 40 males and 40 females, 23.9 ± 2.1 years old, were finally selected as the subjects. After receiving noise stimulus via headphone of a binaural audio playback system, subjects were asked to express the annoyance or activity disturbance due to railway noise at a 0-100 numerical scale. The results show that with the same annoyance rating (A) or activity disturbance rating (D), the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) of CR noise is approximately 7 dB higher than that of HR noise. Linear regression analysis between some acoustical parameters and A (or D) suggests that the coefficient of determination (R2) is higher with the instantaneous fast A-weighted sound pressure level (LAFmax) than that with LAeq. A combined acoustical parameter, LHC = 1.74LAFmax + 0.008LAFmax(Lp-LAeq), where Lp is the sound pressure level, was derived consequently, which could better evaluate the total railway noise, including HR and CR noise. More importantly, with a given LHC, the noise annoyance of HR and CR noise is the same. Among various acoustical parameters including LHC and LAeq, A and D have the highest correlation with LHC. LHC has been proved to be an appropriate index to evaluate the total railway noise, including both HR and CR. However, it should be pointed out that this study provides

  12. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  13. On German Unity 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of .... living and the shortage of foreign exchange forced the government of the .... manded a great deal of empathy and care above and beyond the normal call of duty. ... The periods of service completed by conscripts in the NPA were set off against the.

  14. Storytelling and German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  15. Assessment of Stochastic Capacity Consumption in Railway Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2015-01-01

    The railway industry continuously strive to reduce cost and utilise resources optimally. Thus, there is a demand for tools that are able to fast and efficiently provide decision-makers with solutions that can help them achieve their goals. In strategic planning of capacity, this translates...

  16. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1999-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...

  17. Dynamics of Railway Vehicles and Rail/Wheel Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2007-01-01

    of the most important dynamic effects on vehicle dynamic problems are described. In chapter 7 characteristic features of railway vehicle dynamics are described, and in chapter 8 recommendations are presented for the numerical handling that is necessary for the investigation of vehicle dynamic problems...

  18. Effective Development and Verification of Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This document presents a method for effective development of software for a product line of similar railway control systems. The software is constructed in three steps: first a specifications in a domain-specific language is created, then a formal behavioural controller model is automatically...

  19. Automated generation of formal safety conditions from railway interlocking tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for extracting formal safety conditions from interlocking tables for railway interlocking systems. The tool has been applied to generate safety conditions for the interlocking system at Stenstrup station in Denmark, and the SAL model checker tool has been used to check...

  20. Detection of failures of axle-bearings of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bižić Milan B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure of axle-bearing is one of the most common causes of derailments of railway vehicles which are usually accompanied by huge material damage and human casualties. Modern railways are working intensively on the development and implementation of appropriate systems for early detection of axlebearing malfunctions, which are typically manifested by increasing of its temperature. The most common approach is based on the use of wayside systems or checkpoints located in certain places along the track. There is also an innovative approach that involves using the system for continuous measuring and online monitoring of axle-boxes temperature. The main aim is to provide early detection of malfunctions of the axle-bearing and prevention of the potential derailment. This paper analyses the existing solutions for the detection of axle-bearings malfunctions with special emphasis on the working principle and the main advantages and disadvantages. The paper presents the basics of the one newly developed wireless measuring system for on-line monitoring of axle-boxes temperature. The measuring system was tested in real conditions and can be successfully applied to the commercial railway vehicles. The main conclusion is that systems for on-line monitoring of axle-bearings temperatures are far more efficient than wayside systems. Obtained results may be important for those who deal with these and similar problems, problems of development, exploitation and maintenance of railway vehicles, strategies, regulations, etc.

  1. A calculation model for the noise from steel railway bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, M.H.A.; Thompson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The sound level of a train crossing a steel railway bridge is usually about 10 dB higher than on plain track. In the Netherlands there are many such bridges which, for practical reasons, cannot be replaced by more intrinsically quiet concrete bridges. A computational model is described for the

  2. Delay propagation and process management at railway stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Hansen, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    Process operators at large railway stations have the difficult task to secure a fluent train traffic flow while minimizing deviations from established timetables. Variation in actual train departure times is inevitable due to many circumstances such as arrival delays and fluctuations in alighting

  3. Strategy for predicting railway-induced vibrations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Persson, Kent; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2016-01-01

    Urban densification is a way of accommodating population growth. Land adjacent to railways is used for constructing residences and other buildings, and new tramway systems are planned. Under these circumstances, nearby buildings will be exposed to vibrations and noise that may become a nuisance...

  4. Developing resilience signals for the Dutch railway system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; Herrera, I.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; van der Vorm, J.; Woods, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    A resilience state model for a railway system is proposed consisting of three boundaries putting pressure on the operating state: Safety, Performance (Capacity & Punctuality) and Workload. In order to model the pressure of the boundaries, an additional dimension is added where the slope represents

  5. Railway Porters of Mumbai : Social Capital in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitering, D.; Nooteboom, G.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the scope and limitations of social capital and local forms of social security in the informal sector through a case study of railway coolies at Dadar station, Mumbai. The complex organisation of the coolies, virtually excluded from state or enterprise social security schemes,

  6. Finding suspects in multiple cameras for improved railway protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, J.W.; Bouma, H.; Baan, J; Oliveira Filho, J. de; Brink, M. van der

    2014-01-01

    The capability to find individuals using CCTV cameras is important for surveillance applications at large areas such as railway stations, airports and shopping centers. However, it is laborious to track and trace people over multiple cameras post incident. In this paper, we describe the live

  7. Sensitivity analysis of railpad parameters on vertical railway track dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oregui Echeverria-Berreyarza, M.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Li, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of railpad parameters on vertical railway track dynamics, incorporating the nonlinear behavior of the fastening (i.e., downward forces compress the railpad whereas upward forces are resisted by the clamps). For this purpose, solid railpads, rail-railpad

  8. Organisational citizenship behaviour among railway employees in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of differences in age, education and tenure on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). The purposive sample comprised 839 permanently employed staff in a railway organisation in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Participants completed the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour ...

  9. High-Speed Railways and Urban Networks in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Haoran

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, High-Speed Railway (HSR) networks have been developed intensely over the last few decades, such as Tokyo-Osaka, the first HSR corridor in Japan, the TGV in France and the ICE in Germany. HSR has also experienced exponential growth in China so that currently China’s HSR networks are the

  10. Sweden goes in for railways - an example to Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingland, Tore

    2004-01-01

    It is a sad fact that in their 150th anniversary, with very few exceptions, the Norwegian railways still use the first generation network, which dates back to the late 1800s. Off course, this puts the train at a serious disadvantage in the competition with cars and buses, which run on a third or four generation network of roads. The Norwegian Parliament has cut down on the fuel tax for the road traffic. They might have used this tax to provide much more environmentally friendly transport facilities. Green taxes are a proper means of adapting society to a sustainable way of using energy. The article contrasts the Norwegian policy with the Swedish one. The Swedes are preparing to invest twice as much in railways as in roads for the period of 2004 - 2015, while in Norway three times as much money will be spent on roads as on railways. Politicians in Norway essentially agree to concentrate on the railway, but they do not do it. Conservationists expect a clear change of course in the communications policy, with Sweden as a model

  11. Robustness in Railway Operations (RobustRailS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    This study considers the problem of enhancing railway timetable robustness without adding slack time, hence increasing the travel time. The approach integrates a transit assignment model to assess how passengers adapt their behaviour whenever operations are changed. First, the approach considers...

  12. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  13. Electrical injuries due to railway high tension cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, M; Kay, S

    1985-08-01

    We have noted a large number of young boys being admitted to our Unit with burns due to railway high tension cables. On review of these cases we have noted: most of the burns were due to arcing, there is a high level of ignorance among the population at risk. We propose some ways of preventing these injuries.

  14. Planning of resource maintenance at building of railway bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klykov Michael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Publication contains the results of research on the problem of resources provision perfecting of erection processes of railway bridges including consideration of forecasting demand questions to material resources, formations of delivery schedules of materials and designs, definitions of insurance reserves in regards to suppliers of material and technical production.

  15. Experimental analysis of railway track settlement in transition zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Liu, X.

    2017-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are the locations with considerable changes in the vertical support structures. Due to the differential stiffness and settlement in the open track and the engineering structure resulting in the dynamic amplification of the wheel forces, track settlement is usually

  16. Transparency and performance communication: a case study of Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – In an attempt to gain insight into the effects of transparent communication on critical performances, this paper aims to explore performance measures and communication of a large‐scale service organization, i.e. the Dutch Railways (Nederlandse Spoorwegen, (NS)). Design/methodology/approach

  17. Fatigue Properties of Orthotropic Decks on Railway Bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frýba, Ladislav; Gajdoš, Lubomír

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (1999), s. 639-652 ISSN 0141-0296 Grant - others:XX(CZ) ERRI D 191 Keywords : railway bridges * orthotropic decks * fatigue Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.364, year: 1999

  18. Formal Verification of the Danish Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    in the new Danish interlocking systems. Instantiating the generic model with interlocking configuration data results in a concrete model and high-level safety properties. Using bounded model checking and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify safety properties for model instances corresponding to railway...

  19. Damage Detection in Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers using Acoustic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A.; Kaewunruen, S.; Janeliukstis, R.; Papaelias, M.

    2017-10-01

    Prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are safety-critical elements in railway tracks that distribute the wheel loads from the rails to the track support system. Over a period of time, the concrete sleepers age and deteriorate in addition to experiencing various types of static and dynamic loading conditions, which are attributable to train operations. In many cases, structural cracks can develop within the sleepers due to high intensity impact loads or due to poor track maintenance. Often, cracks of sleepers develop and present at the midspan due to excessive negative bending. These cracks can cause broken sleepers and sometimes called ‘center bound’ problem in railway lines. This paper is the world first to present an application of non-destructive acoustic emission technology for damage detection in railway concrete sleepers. It presents experimental investigations in order to detect center-bound cracks in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. Experimental laboratory testing involves three-point bending tests of four concrete sleepers. Three-point bending tests correspond to a real failure mode, when the loads are not transferred uniformly to the ballast support. It is observed that AE sensing provides an accurate means for detecting the location and magnitude of cracks in sleepers. Sensor location criticality is also highlighted in the paper to demonstrate the reliability-based damage detection of the sleepers.

  20. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1998-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic spec...

  1. Selection and testing of ballast stones for underground railway tracks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ballast is broken pieces of hard rocks such as sandstones, schist, etc. approximately 25- 60 mm size, over which the railway tracks are laid. The function of the ballast is to transfer the applied load over a large surface, provide adequate elasticity, prevent creep and hold the sleepers in position. Also under wet conditions, ...

  2. Practice Oriented Algorithmic Disruption Management in Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractHow to deal with a disruption is a question railway companies face on a daily basis. This thesis focusses on the subject how to handle a disruption such that the passenger service is upheld as much as possible. The current mathematical models for disruption management can not yet be

  3. Borchert's "Lesebuchgeschichten": History and Culture through Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Wolfgang Borchert's "Lesebuchgeschichten" present a summary view of German society before and after World War II and could easily serve as the focal point for a presentation of the Third Reich in a course on German culture and history. The works are described here. (CHK)

  4. I have a dream... for electricity production in France. Wind and photovoltaic: history of an evil scam. Climate and energy: the French-German Council of Ministers said... (on the 19 February 2014 at the Elysee Palace)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-03-01

    In a first article, the author expresses a dream in which France could produce energy with nuclear and hydraulic energy while putting aside wind turbines and photovoltaic panels which he considers as wrongly seducing chimeras. He also supports the project of construction of two EPRs per year during 30 years (from 2017 to 2047), and relies on the development of new fast breeder reactors. In a second article, he denounces the promotion of renewable energies which is, according to him, a scam. He notably refers to actual costs and supposed job creations. The third article comments and criticizes the content of the statement made by the French-German Council of Ministers on the Climate-Energy issue with the aim of a better coordination of energy transition processes. He more particularly discusses issues related to public policies, to industrial and technological cooperation

  5. 77 FR 25229 - Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ....31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), and to operate, a line of railroad referred to as the Brampton Lead, beginning just beyond the northernmost turnout switch at NSR milepost FL 5.5... revoke the exemption under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) may be filed at any time. The filing of a petition to...

  6. 77 FR 68886 - Aiken Railway Company, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Lines of Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Carolina Railway Service Corporation (WCRS), and Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins (collectively, the Hawkins) seek Board approval to continue in control of AIKR upon AIKR's becoming a Class III rail carrier... 5, 2012. WCRS and the Hawkins are reminded that they are not authorized to control AIKR until the...

  7. Do cities deserve more railway stations? The choice of a departure railway station in a multiple-station region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Givoni, M.; Rietveld, P.

    2014-01-01

    Promoting the use of rail is an important element in sustainable transport policy. One of the most important decisions to make in planning the railway network is on the number of stations to provide. Stations are the access points to rail services and while each additional station increases rail's

  8. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

  9. Enrichment and Bioavailability of Trace Elements in Soil in Vicinity of Railways in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Watanabe, Izumi; Ozaki, Hirozaku; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the concentrations, distribution, pollution levels, and bioavailability of 12 trace elements in soils along 6 different railways in Japan. Three diesel powered railways and three electricity powered railways were chosen as target. Surface soils (railways for analysis. Digestion and extraction were performed before concentration and bioavailability analysis. Enrichment factor was applied to investigate contamination levels of selected elements. The mean concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb in soil samples were higher than soil background value in Japan. Concentrations of trace elements in soils along different railway had different characteristics. Horizontal distribution of Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, and Pb in soil samples showed obviously downtrend with distance along railways with high frequency. Concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, and Co were higher in soils along railways which pass through city center. According to principal component analysis and cluster analysis, concentrations of Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb could be considered as the indicators of soil contamination level along electricity powered trains, whereas indicators along diesel powered trains were not clear. Enrichment factor analysis proved that operation of freight trains had impact on pollution level of Cr, Ni, and Cd. Bioavailability of Mn, Co, Zn, and Cd in soil along electricity-powered railways were higher, and bioavailability of Pb in railways located in countryside was lower. Thus, enrichment and bioavailability of trace elements can be indicators of railway-originated trace elements pollution in soil.

  10. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  11. Exploring similarities between the German and the Dutch ‘ethical’ traditions: Possibilities of the history of religion for a theological approach to Old Testament studies in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Vorster

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how dialectic theology caused a loss of interest in the history of religion, which was seen as out of touch with the current world. The distinction between theology and the history of religion became increasingly vague. The article focuses on the contribution of Rainier Albertz in his two-volume Religionsgeschichte Israels in alttestamentlicher Zeit (History of Israelite religion in the Old Testament period, 1992. Albertz proposed that the history of religion should be restored to serve as the ‘more sensible discipline for abridging the Old Testament’. This article points out several advantages to this approach, namely a different kind of Old Testament theology, starting from current theological problems and searching through the thematic segments of Israel’s religious history and that of early Christianity for analogous insights relevant to the problems in question. This article develops the argument that Albertz’s suggestions open up possibilities for establishing a vibrant theological environment in South Africa, where theologians from a diverse society can start from different perspectives on current problems, consider the Bible as part of a uniquely defined set of relevant factors and present a kaleidoscope of cross-balancing ‘African’ theological perspectives. The aim of this approach is to enhance the possibilities of Albertz’s suggestions by relating them, in context, to insights from ethical theology in the hope of reviving the debate regarding repositioning the history of religion in a different kind of theological approach. This debate is long in coming: it may already have lost close to 20 years in deserved attention.

  12. Innovation in tradition. Tönnies Fonne's Russian-German phrasebook (Pskov, 1607)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Pepijn

    2011-01-01

    The study explores the history of the language of a manuscript known as Tönnies Fonne’s Russian-German Phrasebook (Pskov 1607). The phrasebook is not, as many scholars have assumed, the result of the efforts of a 19-year-old German merchant, who came to Russia to learn the language and who recorded

  13. African Postal Heritage : Tanzania 1885-1920s : part I : German East Africa, 1885-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    An earlier version of this African Postal Heritage Paper was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 119 / 2015: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies; III Deutsch Ostafrika / German East Africa", written by Ton Dietz.

  14. The Fulcum, the Late Roman and Byzantine Testudo: the Germanization of Roman Infantry Tactics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Rance

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The tactic of forming a shield-wall, although called by the Germanic name fulcum first in Maurice’s Strategicon in the sixth century, has a long history of use by the Roman legions, and is not an instance of Germanic influence on Roman tactics.

  15. A century of shocks : The evolution of the German city size distribution 1925-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Maarten; Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; Schramm, Marc

    This paper uses empirical evidence on the evolution and structure of the West-German city size distribution to assess the relevance of three different theories of urban growth. The West-German case is of particular interest as Germany's urban system has been subject to some of history's largest

  16. Image of Europe from Abroad: The Pleasures and Pitfalls of Teaching German Cinema in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Jennifer Marston

    2006-01-01

    This article describes strategies specific to teaching German film courses at American universities, particularly how to capture the interest of students who have not studied film previously and have little understanding of German culture, history, or the language. I suggest starting with discussions on the interrelatedness of "foreign…

  17. Holdings of the Federal German Government in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the direct and more important indirect holdings of the Federal German Government and its special assets ERP, Compensation Fund, Federal Mail and Federal Railway. Part A provides a total survey of the number of government holdings. For the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets the shares in nominal capital and registered foundation capital, number of employees and dividend on profits are presented. In Parts B to M, the narrative parts, the most important holdings are reported on more in detail (sphere of activities, economic development, composition of the corporate bodies). The listing order does not reflect any order of importance. The following part N contains alphabetic indexes. Indexes I and II list all the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets irrespective of the nominal capital volume and share of holdings. In index III, are listed only companies with corporate activites and a nominal capital of at least 100.000 German Marks of which the Federal Government and/or its special assets hold directly or indirectly at least 25 percent. Holdings of these undertakings of which the Federal Government does not have majority ownership, and which are not dependent on it under the regulations governing shareholdings either, are not considered. (orig.) [de

  18. FEATURES OF THE RESEARCH WORK ELEMENTS DEFORMABILITY OF RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific paper is supposed the determination of basic physical and structural conditions in modeling life cycle of the elements of the railway line for the study of deformation processes as the basis of normative base of the track at the condition of railway safety. Methodology. To achieve the aim principles of the elasticity theory and wave propagation process in the description of the interaction between the track and rolling stock were used. Findings. The basic physical and structural conditions under which it is necessary to carry out the simulation of the life cycle of the elements of the railway line for the study of deformation processes were determined. The basic physical and structural principles of drawing the design schemes of railway track elements for the process assessment of the track deformation work were formulated. The decision correctness and the possibility of the problem solution are proved. Originality. The study of the track reliability questions motivates the development of new models, allow considering it for some developments. There is a need to identify the main physical and structural conditions for assembly design schemes based on assessment and prediction of possible track state changes during its operation. The paper presents the basic principles of physical and structural drafting design schemes of railway line items for which Huygens’ principle is implemented. This principle can be performed only when the four dimensional space: the volume changing over time is considered. Practical value. Analytical models applied in determining the parameters of strength and resistance lines, fully satisfy the task, but can not be used to determine the parameters of track reliability. One of the main impossibility factors of these models is quasidynamic approach. Therefore, as a rule, receive and examine not only dynamic process of a railway track, but also its consequences. Besides, these models are related to

  19. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  20. Research on the Special Railway Intelligence Transportation Hierarchy and System Integration Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jie WANG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the rapid development of information technology in the field of railway transportation, the problems of establishing a digital, integrated and intelligent special railway system need to be solved immediately. This paper designs and implements the intelligent transportation information system based on the unique pattern of transportation organization, the characteristics of transportation operations and the workflow of special railway. Through the detailed analysis of system architecture and framework design, the main subsystems and the internal comprehensive integrated principle, business system from a system integration perspective of the special railway is optimized, which can be able to realize the integration of all kinds of information resources. The implementation of integration and the special railway intelligent system is a great change in terms of maximizing transportation capacity, improving efficiency and guaranteeing the safety of special railway transportation.

  1. Evaluation of railway transportation efficiency based on super-cross efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xiuyuan

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of railway transportation is an important index. It can measure the development of railway transportation enterprises, and the efficiency of railway transportation has become a hot issue in the study of railway development. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely applied to railway efficiency analysis. In this paper, BBC model and super-cross efficiency model are constructed by using DEA theory, taking the 18 Railway Bureau as the research object, with the mileage, the number of employees, locomotive number, average daily loading number as input indicators, the passenger turnover, freight turnover and transport income as output indicators, then calculated and evaluated comprehensive efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. We get that the super-cross efficiency is more in line with the actual situation. Getting the super-cross efficiency is more in line with the actual situation.

  2. Analyzing the causation of a railway accident based on a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Li, Ke-Ping; Luo, Zi-Yan; Zhou, Jin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a new model is constructed for the causation analysis of railway accident based on the complex network theory. In the model, the nodes are defined as various manifest or latent accident causal factors. By employing the complex network theory, especially its statistical indicators, the railway accident as well as its key causations can be analyzed from the overall perspective. As a case, the “7.23” China—Yongwen railway accident is illustrated based on this model. The results show that the inspection of signals and the checking of line conditions before trains run played an important role in this railway accident. In conclusion, the constructed model gives a theoretical clue for railway accident prediction and, hence, greatly reduces the occurrence of railway accidents.

  3. DOMAINS OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, WHICH NEED THE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Procházková

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the railway accidents sources in the Czech Republic on the basis of knowledge on complex system behaviour. It derives seven categories of sources of railway accidents. The individual categories include the accident sources from the same field domain. These domains are: technical related to rail traffic vehicles; technical related to rail infrastructure and railway station; railway operation control – organizational causes; railway operation control – cyber causes; control of rail traffic vehicles; attack on the train; domain legislative and other. The results show that for railway traffic safety improvement, it is necessary to pay attention to all categories, and especially to these that lead to organizational accidents origination.

  4. Railway Crossing Risk Area Detection Using Linear Regression and Terrain Drop Compensation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Mei; Fu, Zhou-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1) we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC) technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2) we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3) we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP) to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas. PMID:24936948

  5. Railway Crossing Risk Area Detection Using Linear Regression and Terrain Drop Compensation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yuan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1 we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2 we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3 we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas.

  6. Analyzing the causation of a railway accident based on a complex network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xin; Li Ke-Ping; Luo Zi-Yan; Zhou Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new model is constructed for the causation analysis of railway accident based on the complex network theory. In the model, the nodes are defined as various manifest or latent accident causal factors. By employing the complex network theory, especially its statistical indicators, the railway accident as well as its key causations can be analyzed from the overall perspective. As a case, the “7.23” China—Yongwen railway accident is illustrated based on this model. The results show that the inspection of signals and the checking of line conditions before trains run played an important role in this railway accident. In conclusion, the constructed model gives a theoretical clue for railway accident prediction and, hence, greatly reduces the occurrence of railway accidents. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. A Bayesian Network methodology for railway risk, safety and decision support

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboob, Qamar

    2014-01-01

    For railways, risk analysis is carried out to identify hazardous situations and their consequences. Until recently, classical methods such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Event Tree Analysis (ETA) were applied in modelling the linear and logically deterministic aspects of railway risks, safety and reliability. However, it has been proven that modern railway systems are rather complex, involving multi-dependencies between system variables and uncertainties about these dependencies. For train ...

  8. A Statistical Approach to Planning Reserved Electric Power for Railway Infrastructure Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Brabec, M. (Marek); Pelikán, E. (Emil); Konár, O. (Ondřej); Kasanický, I. (Ivan); Juruš, P. (Pavel); Sadil, J.; Blažek, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the requirements on railway infrastructure administration is to provide electricity for day-to-day operation of railways. We propose a statistically based approach for the estimation of maximum 15-minute power within a calendar month for a given region. This quantity serves as a basis of contracts between railway infrastructure administration and electricity distribution system operator. We show that optimization of the prediction is possible, based on underlying loss function deriv...

  9. Load management potentials for the railway power system; Potenziale fuer das Lastmanagement im Bahnenergiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Julius; Aniceto, Josep M. [SBB AG Infrastruktur Energie, Zollikofen (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The railway power supply system of the Schweizerische Bundesbahnen (SBB) is characterised by major load fluctuations that are expected to increase in the future. The available power that is generated must be kept at absolute load peak level which causes high costs. Simulations show that a load management is a practicable way of noticeably reducing load peaks in the SBB railway power supply system without having an adverse effect on railway operations or the energy demand.

  10. Railway automatic safety protection system based on GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Hai Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic protection system of railway safety is designed for the railway construction workers to protect alarm, and the safety protection device by using GPS satellite positioning system to acquire location information of the operating point, through the CTC/TDCS system and computer monitoring system for the running of the train position and the arithmetic distance. Achieving timely and continuously forecasts about the distance of the train which is apart from the operating point to prompt the voice alarm of the approaching train. Using digital technology to realize the function of the traditional analog interphone, eliminates the quality problems of the call. With the GSM-R, mobile wireless transmission channel and terminal technology, it overcomes the restrictions of the analog interphone which influenced by communication distance and more problems of blind areas. Finally to achieve practical, convenient, applicable and adaptable design goals.

  11. Modern techniques for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngigi, R W; Pislaru, C; Ball, A; Gu, F

    2012-01-01

    A modern railway system relies on sophisticated monitoring systems for maintenance and renewal activities. Some of the existing conditions monitoring techniques perform fault detection using advanced filtering, system identification and signal analysis methods. These theoretical approaches do not require complex mathematical models of the system and can overcome potential difficulties associated with nonlinearities and parameter variations in the system. Practical applications of condition monitoring tools use sensors which are mounted either on the track or rolling stock. For instance, monitoring wheelset dynamics could be done through the use of track-mounted sensors, while vehicle-based sensors are preferred for monitoring the train infrastructure. This paper attempts to collate and critically appraise the modern techniques used for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics by analysing the advantages and shortcomings of these methods.

  12. Growth of Railway Network in China (1988-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Tarkhov

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available 20. 000 km of new railways were built in China in1988-2002. The railway network has increased its topologicalcomplexity from 75 to 112 circuits and the new 3nt topologicallayer appeared in 1993 and the 4'h will emerge in 2004 after the opening of the rail ferry Dalian - Yan-tai. The main features ofthe recent Chinese rail network are: 1 the predominance ofmeridional-ity, 2 the spatial disproportion between the easterncoastal area (with dense network and the empty western part,3 the low level of electrification (20% and the low share ofdouble-track sections (30%, 4 the land-lock orientation ofthe whole network and a small number of lines along the seacoasts. These disproportions are the main obstacles for a harmonicspatial devel-opment of the economic structure.

  13. High-speed railway signal trackside equipment patrol inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan

    2018-03-01

    High-speed railway signal trackside equipment patrol inspection system comprehensively applies TDI (time delay integration), high-speed and highly responsive CMOS architecture, low illumination photosensitive technique, image data compression technique, machine vision technique and so on, installed on high-speed railway inspection train, and achieves the collection, management and analysis of the images of signal trackside equipment appearance while the train is running. The system will automatically filter out the signal trackside equipment images from a large number of the background image, and identify of the equipment changes by comparing the original image data. Combining with ledger data and train location information, the system accurately locate the trackside equipment, conscientiously guiding maintenance.

  14. Towards Signalling Maintenance Scheduling for European Railway Traffic Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad

    signalling system. Therefore, the entire maintenance system needs to change from the previous system to the newest system, and hence, new optimisation techniques need to be established so as to facilitate managers in creating ideal maintenance strategies. The aim of this thesis is to develop new maintenance......The European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is the newest signalling standard that has been introduced in the railway industry. The aim of ERTMS is to ensure better signalling communication amongst various train systems, and hence, to help in attaining improved connectivity and commuting...... between European countries. In various countries across the world, there is a gradual shift from the current signalling systems to ERTMS. Amongst the European countries, Denmark was the first country to commence a full upgrading of its signalling system to ERTMS. A variety of maintenance requirements...

  15. System of preparing the personnel for railway of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullaaziz ARTIKBAEV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper, by the example of training for the railway industry in Uzbekistan, focuses on the experiences and characteristics of Uzbekistan's integration into the international system of education, a framework of qualifications of the European Commission. Tashkent Institute of Railway Engineering has: rated the students' knowledge of the possibility of mutual recognition and accreditation based on the comparability of disciplines and curricula; included in its institutional strategy doctoral program, which has national features aimed at providing career opportunities for young researchers and university teachers based on the fundamental nature and the humanization of education, providing the preparation of the highly qualified specialists, ensures the interconnection and interdependence at all levels of technical education: secondary, undergraduate, graduate, doctoral and post-graduate training and re-training to maintain the knowledge and skills of teachers at the level of requests engineering and production of the XXI century.

  16. Phase-based Planning for Railway Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui

    2017-01-01

    is important in terms of economy and rail operations. This study presents two types of Phase-based Decision Support System (PDSS), i.e. Functional Phase-Based Planning Approach (F-PBPA) and Process-Oriented Phase-Based Planning Approach (PO-PBPA). They are used for decision support for the planning...... of the railway infrastructure maintenance activities at the strategic planning level. The objective is to achieve better economy, as well as improve cost efficiency. F-PBPA consists of ve main phases: Data Collection, Technical Optimization (TeO), Economic Optimization (EcO), Constrained Optimization (Co...... the costs. Finally, constrained optimization (CoO) includes additional constraints and it allows the railway expert to adjust input parameters, thereby to obtain alternative maintenance plans. PO-PBPA contains another systematic phase based process. With a focus on Life Cycle Cost (LCC), PO-PBPA can guide...

  17. Time-Dependent Topology of Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-10-01

    The railway sleepers are very important component of railway track structure. The sleepers can be manufactured by using timber, concrete, steel or other engineered materials. Nowadays, prestressed concrete has become most commonly used type of sleepers. Prestressed concrete sleepers have longer life-cycle and lower maintenance cost than reinforced concrete sleepers. They are expected to withstand high dynamic loads and harsh environments. However, durability and long-term performance of prestressed concrete sleepers are largely dependent on creep and shrinkage responses. This study investigates the long-term behaviours of prestressed concrete sleepers and proposes the shortening and deflection diagrams. Comparison between design codes of Eurocode 2 and AS3600-2009 provides the insight into the time-dependent performance of prestressed concrete sleepers. The outcome of this paper will improve the rail maintenance and inspection criteria in order to establish appropriate sensible remote track condition monitor network in practice.

  18. Local cyclic deformation behavior and microstructure of railway wheel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, F.; Eifler, D.

    2004-01-01

    The current investigations concentrate on the relation between the loading and environmental conditions, the local microstructure and the fatigue behavior of highly stressed railway wheel and tire steels. Experiments under stress control and total strain control were performed at ambient temperature with servohydraulic testing systems. Superimposed mean loadings allow an evaluation of cyclic creep and mean stress relaxation effects. Strain, temperature and electrical measuring techniques were used to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of specimens from different depth positions of the cross-sections of UIC-specified wheel components (UIC: International Railway Union). The measured values show a strong interrelation. The microstructural characterization of the different material conditions was done by light and scanning electron microscopy together with digital image processing

  19. Translating textbooks: Russian, German, and the language of chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Using the cases of three Russian chemistry textbooks from the 1860s--authored by Freidrich Beilstein, A. M. Butlerov, and D. I. Mendeleev--this essay analyzes their contemporary translation into German and the implications of their divergent histories for scholars' understanding of the processes of credit accrual and the choices of languages of science.

  20. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  1. Evaluation of cyclic battery ageing for railway vehicle application

    OpenAIRE

    Sigle, Sebastian; Kaimer, Stefan; Dittus, Holger; Barai, Anup; McGordon, Andrew; Widanage, W. Dhammika

    2017-01-01

    Mobile transportation systems rely heavily on hydrocarbon based internal combustions engines (ICE) as the prime mover of vehicles. For rail applications electrification of the route provides an opportunity to improve efficiency and eliminate local emissions at point of use. However, route electrification is not always cost effective for secondary routes which see lower passenger volumes and less frequent trains; there is therefore an increasing interest in railway vehicles being equipped with...

  2. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for structural and railway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, H. Y.; Liu, S. Y.; Guan, B. O.; Chung, W. H.; Chan, T. H.; Cheng, L. K.

    2005-02-01

    Historically, due to the high cost of optical devices, fiber-optics sensor systems were only employed in niche areas where conventional electrical sensors are not suitable. This scenario changed dramatically in the last few years following the explosion of the Internet which caused the rapid expansion of the optical fiber telecommunication industry and substantially driven down the cost of optical components. In recent years, fiber-optic sensors and particularly fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have attracted a lot of interests and are being used in numerous applications. We have conducted several field trials of FBG sensors for railway applications and structural monitoring. About 30 FBG sensors were installed on the rail tracks of Kowloon-Canton Railway Corp. for train identification and speed measurements and the results obtained show that FBG sensors exhibit very good performance and could play a major role in the realization of "Smart Railway". FBG sensors were also installed on Hong Kong's landmark TsingMa Bridge, which is the world longest suspension bridge (2.2 km) that carries both trains and regular road traffic. The trials were carried out with a high-speed (up to 20 kHz) interrogation system based on CCD and also with a interrogation unit that based on scanning optical filter (up to 70 Hz). Forty FBGs sensors were divided into 3 arrays and installed on different parts of the bridge (suspension cable, rocker bearing and truss girders). The objectives of the field trial on the TsingMa Bridge are to monitor the strain of different parts of the bridge under railway load and highway load, and to compare the FBG sensors' performance with conventional resistive strain gauges already installed on the bridge. The measured results show that excellent agreement was obtained between the 2 types of sensors.

  3. Deregulating the Norwegian railway: a survey of empirical experiences abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Røstadli, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Portraying implications of deregulation, this thesis presents an extensive review of deregulation in the European railway. It targets various decision variables concerning the introduction of competitive tendering in the rail industry. This thesis attempts to take a pragmatic stand offering an improved understanding vis-à-vis on decisions that have yet to be made, concentrating on possible competition forms, auction designs and contract designs. It offers learning points and tr...

  4. Evaluating efficiency of passenger railway stations: a DEA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Preston, John; Khadem Sameni, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Stations are bottlenecks for railway transportation as they are where traffics merge and diverge. Numerous activities such as passengers boarding, alighting and interchanging, train formation and technical checks are also done at these points. The number of platforms is limited and it is vital to do all the work efficiently. For the first time in the literature, we implement a methodology based on data envelopment analysis which is benchmarked from ports and airport efficiency studies. It can...

  5. The dynamic behaviour of a railway mine vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Manen, P.; Brickle, B.V.

    1983-06-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model of a railway mine vehicle which is capable of predicting its dynamic behaviour in response to track inputs. The predictions of the model have been compared with the results of tests carried out on a new high speed mine vehicle and the correlation shown is good. The model yields frequency response information for the vehicle and may be used to simulate dynamic behaviour in response to track irregularities. (4 refs.)

  6. Privatization policies or degradation policies?. The case of spanish railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Peláez, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the key strategies in the process to modernize the European economy is the privatization of railway transport; separating infrastructure maintenance from transport management. Privatization has led to farreaching changes with respect to organizations, professional careers, and the very culture of railway work. The opinions held by those most closely involved in and affected by these changes can contribute to the analysis of occupational health and safety with a view to preventing failures that have occurred in previous railway privatization processes. In this article, we analyze the effects of this privatization model on the safety and health of railway workers as well as on the safety of passengers and freight.

    Una estrategia clave en el proceso de modernización de la economía europea es la liberalización del transporte ferroviario, separando el mantenimiento de las infraestructuras de la gestión del transporte. Nos encontramos en un momento de transformación de las organizaciones, de la carrera profesional y de la propia cultura de trabajo ferroviaria. La percepción que trabajadores y directivos tienen sobre las tendencias de cambio en el ámbito de la seguridad y salud pueden contribuir a un diagnóstico acertado que permita no repetir anteriores fracasos en procesos liberalizadores del transporte ferroviario. En este artículo, analizamos las consecuencias, en un sector estratégico, de este modelo liberalizador sobre las condiciones de seguridad y salud de los trabajadores, y su efecto sobre la seguridad de los pasajeros y mercancías.

  7. Travel ticket sales optimization at Prague Main Railway Station

    OpenAIRE

    Kuběnová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This Master's Thesis concerns the travel ticket sales at Prague Main Railway Station. Based on a detailed analysis of provided data, its aim is to put forward suggestions on how to optimize travel ticket sales. Through evaluating the volume of travel tickets sold within the given time period and the number of open cash-desks, along with a cost analysis of sales channels, this thesis reaches its final conclusions. Microsoft Excel was the main analysis tool for compiling graphs. A sound knowled...

  8. Corrosion processes on weathering steel railway bridge in Prague

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Viktor; Křivý, Vít; Buchta, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    This contribution deals with experimental corrosion tests carried out on the weathering steel railway bridge in Prague. The basic specific property of the weathering steel is an ability to create in favourable environment a protective patina layer on its surface. Since 1968 weathering steel is used under the name “Atmofix” in the Czech Republic and can be used as a standard structural material without any corrosion protection. The weathering steel Atmofix is mostly used for bridge structures ...

  9. Strengthening of a railway bridge with NSMR and CFRP tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Bennitz, Anders; Danielsson, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening of structures with CFRP is today considered an accepted method to upgrade concrete structures. In this paper two different CFRP strengthening systems are combined to give extended service life to a Swedish double-trough-double-track railway bridge, constructed in concrete with a 10 ....... Sensors on bars and tubes display proofs of utilization of the CFRP while displacement sensors and strain gauges on the steel reinforcement due to the small loads in the service limit state show minor effect....

  10. Vibrations of a delivery car excited by railway track crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litak, Grzegorz; Borowiec, Marek; Hunicz, Jacek; Koszalka, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Vertical vibrations of a delivery car passing through railway tracks have been investigated in this paper. The application of recurrence plots allows to examine short time series of acceleration non-stationary courses. Recurrence quantification analysis and square deviations estimated in small windows have been used to monitor car vibrations and transient behaviour. Measuring acceleration on the 'sprung' and 'unsprung' masses of a vehicle has enabled also to test the quality of a car suspension.

  11. Study on Electromagnetic Interference of high-speed railway EMU

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG Qiang; LIU Jin-jiang; CHENG Ning

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation generated by pantograph-catenaries detachment is one of the inevitable problems with the development of high-speed railway this paper is focusing on the generating mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic noise caused by pantograph-catenaries system. Based on previous research, we build an integrated model of catenaries and locomotive system, and study the electromagnetic disturbance characteristics using software FEKO. The simulation experiment results in th...

  12. Principles of Logistics Applied to Railway Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main challenge of logistics is delivering right assortment of products in exact amount, to exact place, in exact time, ecologically and for exact price. Logistics deals with freight transport but when the word ‘products’ is changed to ‘passengers’, then many principles can be applied to passenger transport. Railway passenger transport is the key part of passenger transport system, so it is necessary to optimize it on logistics philosophy at first.

  13. Structural impact response for assessing railway vibration induced on buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Mouzakis, Harris P.; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos E.

    2018-03-01

    Over the syears, the rapid growth in railway infrastructure has led to numerous environmental challenges. One such significant issue, particularly in urban areas, is ground-borne vibration. A common source of ground-borne vibration is caused by local defects (e.g. rail joints, switches, turnouts, etc.) that generate large amplitude excitations at isolated locations. Modelling these excitation sources is particularly challenging and requires the use of complex and extensive computational efforts. For some situations, the use of experiments and measured data offers a rapid way to estimate the effect of such defects and to evaluate the railway vibration levels using a scoping approach. In this paper, the problem of railway-induced ground vibrations is presented along with experimental studies to assess the ground vibration and ground borne noise levels, with a particular focus on the structural response of sensitive buildings. The behaviour of particular building foundations is evaluated through experimental data collected in Brussels Region, by presenting the expected frequency responses for various types of buildings, taking into account both the soil-structure interaction and the tramway track response. A second study is dedicated to the Athens metro, where transmissibility functions are used to analyse the effect of various Athenian building face to metro network trough comprehensive measurement campaigns. This allows the verification of appropriate vibration mitigation measures. These benchmark applications based on experimental results have been proved to be efficient to treat a complex problem encountered in practice in urban areas, where the urban rail network interacts with important local defects and where the rise of railway ground vibration problems has clearly been identified.

  14. Locally linear approximation for Kernel methods : the Railway Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Alberto; González, Javier

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new kernel, the Railway Kernel, that works properly for general (nonlinear) classification problems, with the interesting property that acts locally as a linear kernel. In this way, we avoid potential problems due to the use of a general purpose kernel, like the RBF kernel, as the high dimension of the induced feature space. As a consequence, following our methodology the number of support vectors is much lower and, therefore, the generalization capab...

  15. Logistic management materials-technical support railway enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Dykan, V.; Borozenetc, T.

    2014-01-01

    The essence of logistics management. Determine the feasibility of applying the principles of logistics management in organizing the logistics of railway transport. Discussed measures to develop suppliers in the implementation of logistics management logistics. Identified the need to develop and implement regulatory and methodical system to improve materials-technical support through the introduction of modern logistics principles. Applied systemic campaign to organize the materials-technical ...

  16. Dataset Documentation for the ERTMS-Oriented Signalling Maintenance in the Danish Railway System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad

    2017-01-01

    This documentation provides information about the dataset generated as part of a PhD thesis (Towards Signalling Maintenance Scheduling Problem for European Railway Traffic Management System ) for the signaling maintenance of the Danish railway system . The data instances (M.Pour 2018a; M.Pour 2018b......) have been created for the purpose of adaptation to the newest railway signalling standard which is so called European Railway Traffic Management System(ERTMS). The chapter provides explanation of the different types of maintenance tasks in the ERTMS, followed by data definition. Furthermore...

  17. The Preventive Signaling Maintenance Crew Scheduling Problem for European Railway Traffic Management system (ERTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad; Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    , the western part of Denmark. This case is particularly interesting, since the entire railway signalling system is currently being upgraded to the new European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) standard. The new signals need continuous maintenance and in this article we plan the distribution of crew......A railway system is a large and complex infrastructure, which requires continuous maintenance in order to function correctly. Proper maintenance is critical but can also be costly. In this paper we consider the practical case of planning the preventive maintenance of railway signals in Jutland...

  18. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  19. Risk Evaluation of Railway Coal Transportation Network Based on Multi Level Grey Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Wang, Xifu

    2018-01-01

    The railway transport mode is currently the most important way of coal transportation, and now China’s railway coal transportation network has become increasingly perfect, but there is still insufficient capacity, some lines close to saturation and other issues. In this paper, the theory and method of risk assessment, analytic hierarchy process and multi-level gray evaluation model are applied to the risk evaluation of coal railway transportation network in China. Based on the example analysis of Shanxi railway coal transportation network, to improve the internal structure and the competitiveness of the market.

  20. Controlled Blasting for Deconstruction of a Railway Bridge Near Sahibganj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S. K.; Ghosh, A. K.; Oraon, S.

    2018-06-01

    Some of the Indian Railway bridges require reconstruction for electrification and expansion of railway tracks. Dismantling of bridge within time schedule in densely populated area requires controlled and pre-planned blasting methodology for safe pulling down of the structure and quick removal of blasted debris for fast restoration of tracks and smooth plying of trains. The three arched railway bridge (Bridge No. 61) located between Sahibganj and Karamtola cases one such example where the bridge was dismantled and the track was restored within 4 h of blasting, though the stipulated block period for demolition and restoration of tracks was 6 h. The 25.48 m long three-arched bridge was drilled and blasted with 225 number of blastholes (32 mm diameter) and 100 kg explosive (25 mm diameter). Length of blastholes varied between 0.5 and 1.8 m with blast geometry of 0.3-0.35 m burden and 0.33 m spacing. This paper deals with the conceptual and theoretical model developed for identification of the key locations for drilling and implementation of the same. It also discusses about the precautionary measures and the drilling pattern adopted for quick demolition and speedy restoration of tracks.

  1. Design of a bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester for railway monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is one of prospective methods for railway monitoring due to the long term operation and low maintenance performances. How to supply power to the wireless sensor nodes has drawn much attention recently. In railway monitoring, the idea of converting ambient vibration energy from vibration of railway track induced by passing trains to electric energy has made it a potential way for powering the wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a bimorph cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester was designed based on a single degree of freedom model. Experimental test was also performed to validate the design. The first natural frequency of the bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester was decreased from 117.1 Hz to 65.2 Hz by adding 4 gram tip mass to the free end of the 8.6 gram energy harvester. In addition, the power generation of the piezoelectric energy harvester with 4 gram tip mass at resonant frequency was increased from 0.14 mW to 0.74 mW from 2.06 m/s 2 base excitation compared to stand alone piezoelectric energy harvester without tip mass

  2. Design of a bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester for railway monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong [Univ. of Connecticut, Connecticut (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Wireless sensor network is one of prospective methods for railway monitoring due to the long term operation and low maintenance performances. How to supply power to the wireless sensor nodes has drawn much attention recently. In railway monitoring, the idea of converting ambient vibration energy from vibration of railway track induced by passing trains to electric energy has made it a potential way for powering the wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a bimorph cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester was designed based on a single degree of freedom model. Experimental test was also performed to validate the design. The first natural frequency of the bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester was decreased from 117.1 Hz to 65.2 Hz by adding 4 gram tip mass to the free end of the 8.6 gram energy harvester. In addition, the power generation of the piezoelectric energy harvester with 4 gram tip mass at resonant frequency was increased from 0.14 mW to 0.74 mW from 2.06 m/s{sup 2} base excitation compared to stand alone piezoelectric energy harvester without tip mass.

  3. Locomotive Schedule Optimization for Da-qin Heavy Haul Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiye Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main difference between locomotive schedule of heavy haul railways and that of regular rail transportation is the number of locomotives utilized for one train. One heavy-loaded train usually has more than one locomotive, but a regular train only has one. This paper develops an optimization model for the multilocomotive scheduling problem (MLSP through analyzing the current locomotive schedule of Da-qin Railway. The objective function of our paper is to minimize the total number of utilized locomotives. The MLSP is nondeterministic polynomial (NP hard. Therefore, we convert the multilocomotive traction problem into a single-locomotive traction problem. Then, the single-locomotive traction problem (SLTP can be converted into an assignment problem. The Hungarian algorithm is applied to solve the model and obtain the optimal locomotive schedule. We use the variance of detention time of locomotives at stations to evaluate the stability of locomotive schedule. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization model, case studies for 20 kt and 30 kt heavy-loaded combined trains on Da-qin Railway are both conducted. Compared to the current schedules, the optimal schedules from the proposed models can save 62 and 47 locomotives for 20 kt and 30 kt heavy-loaded combined trains, respectively. Therefore, the effectiveness of the proposed model and its solution algorithm are both valid.

  4. BOTTOM TO TOP APPROACH FOR RAILWAY KPI GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto VILLAREJO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Railway maintenance especially on infrastructure produces a vast amount of data. However, having data is not synony-mous with having information; rather, data must be processed to extract information. In railway maintenance, the de-velopment of key performance indicators (KPIs linked to punctuality or capacity can help planned and scheduled maintenance, thus aligning the maintenance department with corporate objectives. There is a need for an improved method to analyse railway data to find the relevant KPIs. The system should support maintainers, answering such ques-tions as what maintenance should be done, where and when. The system should equip the user with the knowledge of the infrastructure's condition and configuration, and the traffic situation so maintenance resources can be targeted to only those areas needing work. The amount of information is vast, so it must be hierarchized and aggregated; users must filter out the useless indicators. Data are fused by compiling several individual indicators into a single index; the resulting composite indicators measure multidimensional concepts which cannot be captured by a single index. The paper describes a method of monitoring a complex entity. In this scenario, a plurality of use indices and weighting values are used to create a composite and aggregated use index from a combination of lower level use indices and weighting values. The resulting composite and aggregated indicators can be a decision-making tool for asset managers at different hierarchical levels.

  5. Integral Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation for Railway Traction Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garramiola, Fernando; Del Olmo, Jon; Poza, Javier; Madina, Patxi; Almandoz, Gaizka

    2018-05-13

    Due to the increasing importance of reliability and availability of electric traction drives in Railway applications, early detection of faults has become an important key for Railway traction drive manufacturers. Sensor faults are important sources of failures. Among the different fault diagnosis approaches, in this article an integral diagnosis strategy for sensors in traction drives is presented. Such strategy is composed of an observer-based approach for direct current (DC)-link voltage and catenary current sensors, a frequency analysis approach for motor current phase sensors and a hardware redundancy solution for speed sensors. None of them requires any hardware change requirement in the actual traction drive. All the fault detection and isolation approaches have been validated in a Hardware-in-the-loop platform comprising a Real Time Simulator and a commercial Traction Control Unit for a tram. In comparison to safety-critical systems in Aerospace applications, Railway applications do not need instantaneous detection, and the diagnosis is validated in a short time period for reliable decision. Combining the different approaches and existing hardware redundancy, an integral fault diagnosis solution is provided, to detect and isolate faults in all the sensors installed in the traction drive.

  6. [Railway use of asbestos-containing rubble: environmental hygienic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsov, V A; Kashanskiĭ, S V; Domnin, S G; Tikhova, T S; Trofimova, E V; Novoselova, T A; Bogdanov, G B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of the gravimetric and counting concentrations of respirable asbestos fibers while working with sand-and-crushed stone mixtures, obtained from the concentration of chrysotile asbestos, at distances of 25, 50, and 100 m from the working place, as well as in a car saloon when the electric train passes along the area of these operations following an hour, a day, and a year after the completion of work, in warm and colds seasons of a year. It is concluded that the use of asbestos-containing sand-and-crushed stone mixtures on the railway leads to a higher anthropogenic asbestos load on the population living in the railway right-of-way, on railway workers and passengers. In this connection, it is necessary to evaluate risk factors of asbestos-induced diseases among the above contingents. The authors consider that due to the fact that asbestos-containing sand-and-crushed stone mixtures are well wetted with water, followed by the formation of a firm surface crust that prevents dust formation, as well as the short duration and rare frequency of operations relating their change, it is necessary to irrigate the repair areas with water or surfactant liquids after work termination.

  7. Controlled Blasting for Deconstruction of a Railway Bridge Near Sahibganj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S. K.; Ghosh, A. K.; Oraon, S.

    2018-02-01

    Some of the Indian Railway bridges require reconstruction for electrification and expansion of railway tracks. Dismantling of bridge within time schedule in densely populated area requires controlled and pre-planned blasting methodology for safe pulling down of the structure and quick removal of blasted debris for fast restoration of tracks and smooth plying of trains. The three arched railway bridge (Bridge No. 61) located between Sahibganj and Karamtola cases one such example where the bridge was dismantled and the track was restored within 4 h of blasting, though the stipulated block period for demolition and restoration of tracks was 6 h. The 25.48 m long three-arched bridge was drilled and blasted with 225 number of blastholes (32 mm diameter) and 100 kg explosive (25 mm diameter). Length of blastholes varied between 0.5 and 1.8 m with blast geometry of 0.3-0.35 m burden and 0.33 m spacing. This paper deals with the conceptual and theoretical model developed for identification of the key locations for drilling and implementation of the same. It also discusses about the precautionary measures and the drilling pattern adopted for quick demolition and speedy restoration of tracks.

  8. Bottom to Top Approach for Railway KPI Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, Roberto; Johansson, Carl-Anders; Leturiondo, Urko; Simon, Victor; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    Railway maintenance especially on infrastructure produces a vast amount of data. However, having data is not synonymous with having information; rather, data must be processed to extract information. In railway maintenance, the development of key performance indicators (KPIs) linked to punctuality or capacity can help planned and scheduled maintenance, thus aligning the maintenance department with corporate objectives. There is a need for an improved method to analyse railway data to find the relevant KPIs. The system should support maintainers, answering such questions as what maintenance should be done, where and when. The system should equip the user with the knowledge of the infrastructure's condition and configuration, and the traffic situation so maintenance resources can be targeted to only those areas needing work. The amount of information is vast, so it must be hierarchized and aggregated; users must filter out the useless indicators. Data are fused by compiling several individual indicators into a single index; the resulting composite indicators measure multidimensional concepts which cannot be captured by a single index. The paper describes a method of monitoring a complex entity. In this scenario, a plurality of use indices and weighting values are used to create a composite and aggregated use index from a combination of lower level use indices and weighting values. The resulting composite and aggregated indicators can be a decision-making tool for asset managers at different hierarchical levels.

  9. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  10. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  11. German Atomic Energy Act turns fifty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The German Atomic Energy Act entered into force on January 1, 1960. It turns fifty at the beginning of 2010. Is this a reason to celebrate or rather the opposite? Lawyers, in principle, can view old pieces of legislation from 2 perspectives: On the one hand, aged laws are treated in a spirit of veneration and are celebrated as proven. On the other hand, an anniversary of this kind can be a welcome reason for demands to abolish or, at least, fundamentally renew that law. Over the past half century, the German Atomic Energy Act went through stormy and varied phases both of a legal and a political character. Its 50 th anniversary is likely to spark off very conflicting evaluations as well. A review of legal history shows that the German or, rather, the Federal German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) was not a first-of-its-kind piece of legislation but stemmed from the 1957 EURATOM Treaty, in a way representing a latecomer of that treaty. The Atomic Energy Act experienced a number of important developments throughout its history: - In 1975, compulsory licensing of fuel element factories was introduced. - The back end of the fuel cycle, especially final storage, were incorporated in the Atomic Energy Act comprehensively first in 1976. - In 1985, legislators decided in favor of unlimited nuclear liability. - In 1994 and 1998, only some innovations in special items were introduced under the headings of environmental impact assessment and suitability for repository storage because the controversy about nuclear power did not permit a fundamental alignment towards a more comprehensive modern safety law. - The decision to opt out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in 2002 drew the final line so far of decisions about directions of nuclear law in a major amendment. In parallel, the decisions by the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court in the late 1970s and, above all, the 1980s provided important assistance which has remained valid to this day. What is

  12. Reinvention, renewal or repetition? the great western railway and occupational safety on Britain’s railways, c.1900-c.1920

    OpenAIRE

    Esbester, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In 1913, the Great Western Railway introduced an occupational safety education campaign that appeared to be a radical break with all previous methods of promoting safety in the British industrial workplace. In this paper, I assess the extent to which this “new” campaign reinvented occupational safety education in Britain. I argue that the Great Western combined new techniques of communicating safety messages with the relatively traditional content of those messages. Rather than a simple repet...

  13. Railway bogie vibration analysis by mathematical simulation model and a scaled four-wheel railway bogie set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visayataksin, Noppharat; Sooklamai, Manon

    2018-01-01

    The bogie is the part that connects and transfers all the load from the vehicle body onto the railway track; interestingly the interaction between wheels and rails is the critical point for derailment of the rail vehicles. However, observing or experimenting with real bogies on rail vehicles is impossible due to the operational rules and safety concerns. Therefore, this research aimed to develop a vibration analysis set for a four-wheel railway bogie by constructing a four-wheel bogie with scale of 1:4.5. The bogie structures, including wheels and axles, were made from an aluminium alloy, equipped with springs and dampers. The bogie was driven by an electric motor using 4 round wheels instead of 2 straight rails, with linear velocity between 0 to 11.22 m/s. The data collected from the vibration analysis set was compared to the mathematical simulation model to investigate the vibration behavior of the bogie, especially the hunting motion. The results showed that vibration behavior from a scaled four-wheel railway bogie set significantly agreed with the mathematical simulation model in terms of displacement and hunting frequency. The critical speed of the wheelset was found by executing the mathematical simulation model at 13 m/s.

  14. [Scale effect of Li-Xiang Railway construction impact on landscape pattern and its ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-zhi; Qiu, Peng-hua; Fang, Yuan-min

    2015-08-01

    As a large corridor project, plateau railway has multiple points and passes various sensitive environments along the railway. The determination of the scope of impact on ecological environment from railway construction is often controversial in ecological impact assessment work. Taking the Tangbu-Jiantang section of Li-Xiang Railway as study object, and using present land use map (1:10000) in 2012 and DEM as data sources, corridor cutting degree index ( CCI) and cumulative effect index of corridor (CCEI) were established by topology, buffer zone and landscape metrics methods. Besides, the ecological risk index used for railway construction was improved. By quantitative analysis of characteristics of the spatio-temporal change of landscape pattern and its evolution style at different spatial scales before and after railway construction, the most appropriate evaluation scale of the railway was obtained. Then the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variation of ecological risk within this scale before and after railway construction were analyzed. The results indicated that the cutting model and degree of railway corridor to various landscape types could be effectively reflected by CCI, and the exposure and harm relations between risk sources and risk receptors of railway can be measured by CCEI. After the railway construction, the railway corridor would cause a great deal of middle cutting effect on the landscape along the railroad, which would influence wood land and grassland landscape most greatly, while would cause less effect of edge cutting and internal cutting. Landscape indices within the 600 m buffer zone demonstrated the most obvious scale effect, therefore, the 600 m zone of the railway was set as the most suitable range of ecological impact assessment. Before railway construction, the low ecological risk level covered the biggest part of the 600 m assessment zone. However, after the railway construction, the ecological risk increased significantly, and

  15. Systematic review of research on railway and urban transit system suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L; Bardon, Cécile

    2016-03-15

    We critically review research on railway suicides to inform suicide prevention initiatives and future studies, including who is at risk and why, and behaviours at track locations. Literature was identified from Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and our documentation centre, and contacting 71 railway companies, resulting in 716 articles and eight unpublished reports, with 94 having empirical data on 55 unique studies. Research quality was critically assessed. The quality of studies varies greatly with frequent shortcomings: no justification of sample size, lacking information on the reliability and validity of measures, no explanation nor theoretical understanding of findings. Railway suicides resemble closely people who use other methods, although they tend to be younger. As with other suicide methods, mental health problems are likely to be present. Railway suicide attempters usually die, but most urban transportation systems attempters survive. Railway suicides are rarely impulsive; people usually go to the railway for the purpose of killing themselves. Hotspots have been the focus of some prevention measures. We know little about why people choose railway suicide, but studies of survivors suggest they often thought they would have an immediate, certain and painless death. Media reports on railway suicides can increase their incidence. Most research focuses on the incidence and characteristics of events and attempters. Research has not shown that railway suicides are different from suicides by other means. Better quality research is needed, particularly studies that investigate why people use railways to kill themselves and how railway suicides can be effectively prevented, as well as more evaluations of prevention programmes. Because of significant variations by country and region in characteristics of railway suicides, prevention programmes should conduct a local assessment of the characteristics of attempters and incidents. We need more research on

  16. Diurnally varying annoyance due to railway and road traffic noise; Laermbelaestigung durch Strassen- und Schienenverkehr zu unterschiedlichen Tageszeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberg, D. [Zentrum fuer Angewandte Psychologie, Umwelt- und Sozialforschung (ZEUS GmbH), Bochum (Germany); Guski, R. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Psychologie, Bochum (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    One of the most prominent non-auditory effects of noise influencing the life quality of human beings is the disturbance of activities (i.e. communicating, relaxing, working, sleeping). The disturbance of activities results in noise annoyance, and in the long run may lead to further health effects. Due to the fact that activities vary diurnally it is plausible to assume that peoples'' responses to noise differ depending on the times of day. The aim of the study, which is part of the German research network ''Quiet Traffic'' is to provide empirical data of dose-response relationships for different times of day (excluding the night). 1110 residents from four areas with dominant road traffic noise (683 subjects) and from two areas with dominant railway noise (427 subjects) have been asked in a face-to-face interview for contentment with house and living environment and noise reactions. 131 persons of the total sample took part in an additional study (experience-sampling study) in which the hourly noise annoyance was measured for three consecutive days using a handheld computer. For each subject individual source-specific immission noise level for each hour of the day has been calculated. There is higher annoyance due to road traffic noise in the late afternoon/evening from 4 pm to 7 pm. For railway noise higher annoyance is reported in the evening from 6 pm to 10 am. The reported differences in noise annoyance depending on the times of day are higher with increasing noise level. (orig.)

  17. German atomic low meeting 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    2005-01-01

    The conference report on the German atomic law meeting 2004 contains 14 contributions on the German atomic legislation within four parts: Damage precaution in the operational phase; Legal general requirements for the final disposal - considerations ''de lege lata'' and ''de lege ferenda''. Financing of the site searching by a statutory company (''Verbandsmodell''). Atomic supervision authority - federal executive administration or federal self administration?

  18. Self-reported history of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and STI-related utilization of the German health care system by men who have sex with men: data from a large convenience sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel J; Marcus, Ulrich

    2011-05-18

    In Germany, testing and treatment of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) services are not provided by one medical discipline, but rather dispersed among many different providers. Common STIs like gonorrhoea or Chlamydia infection are not routinely reported. Although men who have sex with men (MSM) are particularly vulnerable to STIs, respective health care utilization among MSM is largely unknown. A sexual behaviour survey among MSM was conducted in 2006. Questions on self-reported sexual behaviour, STI-related health care consultation and barriers to access, coverage of vaccination against hepatitis, screening for asymptomatic STIs, self-reported history of STIs, and partner notification were analysed. Analysis was stratified by HIV-serostatus (3,511 HIV-negative/unknown versus 874 positive). General Practitioners, particularly gay doctors, were preferred for STI-related health care. Low threshold testing in sex-associated venues was acceptable for most respondents. Shame and fear of homophobic reactions were the main barriers for STI-testing. More than half of the respondents reported vaccination against hepatitis A/B. HIV-positive MSM reported screening offers for STIs three to seven times more often than HIV-negative or untested MSM. Unlike testing for syphilis or hepatitis C, screening for asymptomatic pharyngeal and rectal infections was rarely offered. STIs in the previous twelve months were reported by 7.1% of HIV-negative/untested, and 34.7% of HIV-positive respondents. Self-reported histories of STIs in MSM convenience samples differ significantly by HIV-serostatus. Higher rates of STIs among HIV-positive MSM may partly be explained by more testing. Communication between health care providers and their clients about sexuality, sexual practices, and sexual risks should be improved. A comprehensive STI screening policy for MSM is needed.

  19. 77 FR 69929 - Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation, Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins-Continuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Railway Service Corporation, Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins--Continuance in Control Exemption--Aiken Railway Company, LLC Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation (WCRS) and Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins (the Hawkins) (collectively, Applicants) have filed a verified notice of exemption...

  20. Competitiveness of the railway transportation in the conditions of functioning of the infrastructure new organizational-economic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Mishchenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The transport infrastructure of railways of the countries of EU-27 in the conditions of functioning new organizational-economic mechanism, and also dynamics of level of competitiveness of a railway transportation as result of reforming of railways of the countries of EU-27, in the conditions of realisation of the European transport legislation is investigated.

  1. The Railway and the River: Conduits of Dickens’s Imaginary City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, B.; Murail, E.; Thornton, S.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the railway and the river as two key conduits of Dickens’ imaginary city, arguing that each simultaneously connects and fractures the modern urban world that he depicts. Focusing on Dombey and Son and Our Mutual Friend, the chapter explores how railway and river combine

  2. The effects of the Qinghai–Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yili; Hu, Zhongjun

    2012-01-01

    The impact of land transportation on local soil environments is an important topic in environmental and ecological sciences. The rapid development of transportation infrastructure lends increasing importance to studies that identify and evaluate related heavy metal pollution. This paper discusses the effects of railways on soil heavy metal enrichments in the Tibetan plateau. At a representative area along the Haergai–Delingha railway, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were measured in 127 topsoil samples (0–10 cm depth). The results indicate that railway transport has a significant effect on the concentration of Zn, Cd and Pb in the soil, with levels of enrichment ranging from no pollution to significant pollution. The affected area was within 20 m of the railway. The soil at Delingha was the most contaminated soil with heavy metals, and the enrichment level of Cd in the soil was the highest along the Qinghai–Tibet railway. The horizontal distributions of the three heavy metals present different characteristics at different sampling sites, which may be due to discrepancies in terrain and vegetation types. Alkaline soils and guardrails along the railway might reduce the effect of soil pollution on local people and animals. -- Highlights: ► Levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in soils are affected by railway transportation. ► Cadmium enrichment is especially high. ► The affected area for these pollutants was within 20 m of the railway. ► The distributions of metal presented different characteristics in different sites.

  3. Environmental risks of high-speed railway in China: Public participation, perception and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Two decades ago China entered an era with rapid expansion of transport infrastructure. In an ambitious plan on high-speed railway development, China plans to have the longest high-speed railway network by 2020. Social concerns and anxiety with the adverse environmental and social risks and impacts

  4. 78 FR 71037 - New Orleans & Gulf Coast Railway Company, Inc.-Lease Exemption Containing Interchange Commitment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35777] New Orleans & Gulf... Company New Orleans & Gulf Coast Railway Company, Inc. (NOGC), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a... to a third-party railroad, BNSF Railway Company and the New Orleans Public Belt are located in very...

  5. The potential cost from passengers and how it impacts railway maintenance and renewal decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    To plan Maintenance and Renewals (M&R) for the heavy railway lines, scheduling work possession time and deciding the closure of railway line are quite challenging for Infrastructure Manager (IM) at tactical planning level. As usual, the direct costs such as the materials costs, man power price...

  6. The role of the railways in the future of air transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Givoni, M.; Banister, D.

    2007-01-01

    The role of the railways in the air transport industry is usually limited to provision of access to airports. However, the development of high-speed rail networks and the congestion and environmental problems faced by the air transport industry suggest the railways could have a greater role in

  7. Rolling Stock Rescheduling in Passenger Railways: Applications in short-term planning and in disruption management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractModern society is highly dependent on a reliable railway system for workforce mobility and easy access to the cities. However, the daily operations of a large passenger railway system are subject to unexpected disruptions such as rolling stock breakdowns or malfunctioning infrastructure.

  8. Delay estimation on a railway-line with smart use of micro-simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper formulates a delay propagation model that estimates total railway line delay as a polynomial function of a single primary delay. The estimate is derived from a finite series of delays over a horizon that spans two dimensions: the length of the railway line and the number of trains in t...

  9. Life cycle assessment of a railway bridge: comparison of two superstructure designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    Railway bridges currently encounter the challenges of increasing the load capacity while the environmental sustainability should be achieved. However, it has been realised that the environmental assessment of railway bridges has not been integrated into the decision-making process, the standard g...

  10. Second Best Decision Making of Railway Operators: How to fix Fares, Frequency and Vehicle Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Woudenberg, van Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Railway networks are characterised by variations in demand on different links. Optimal strategies therefore call for a differentiated treatment of fares, frequencies and vehicle sizes in various links. However, for several reasons, railway operators may apply uniform levels for these decision

  11. GIS-Based Railway Route Selection for the Proposed Kenya-Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a procedure developed for automated railway feasibility analysis based on GIS and Multi-Criteria analysis. Good engineering railway alignment requirements are assessed and suitable factors and constraints for feasibility analysis derived. Relevant digital map layers are then prepared and reclassified ...

  12. Advantages of low frequencies in converter-supplied railway traction power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, Thorsten [Atkins Sverige AB, Vaesteras (Sweden); Behmann, Uwe

    2013-05-15

    As soon as a railway will be supplied from the public 50 Hz grid by means of static converters and no longer by direct transformers, you are free to choose its frequency. With the standardised railway frequency of 16 (2)/(3) Hz considerable advantages in line infrastructure can be utilised and thus energy and capital expenditures can be saved.

  13. 77 FR 74739 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35701] Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Petition for Declaratory Order Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NS) filed a petition for..., APCO began removing trees and erecting electrical transmission towers and lines on its land. Thereafter...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix to Subtitle A - United States Railway Association-Employee Responsibilities and Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accident insurance plan or other employee welfare or benefit plan that is maintained by a business or... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false United States Railway Association-Employee... Subtitle A, App. Appendix to Subtitle A—United States Railway Association—Employee Responsibilities and...

  15. 78 FR 2483 - Ohio Terminal Railway Company-Operation Exemption-Hannibal Real Estate, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Railway Company--Operation Exemption--Hannibal Real Estate, LLC Ohio Terminal Railway Company (OTRC),\\1\\ a... near Hannibal, in Monroe County, Ohio (the Line), pursuant to an operating agreement with Hannibal Real Estate, LLC (Hannibal). \\1\\ OTRC is a wholly owned, corporate subsidiary of Carload Express, Inc. (CEI...

  16. Finance-economical indexes of efficiency of development of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chekhovska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of formation of public joint-stock company of railway transport of the common use, by an author it is suggested to carry out the analysis of efficiency of subsequent development of railway transport, leaning against indexes which represent the finance-economical constituent of results of activity of corporate enterprises.

  17. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  18. Opportunity to Save Historical Railway Infrastructure - Adaptation and Functional Conversion of Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwojewska, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    After years of neglect and underinvestment, the Polish railways are now witnessing a rapid modernization of both their technical facilities and rolling stock. However, this is true only of the main railway lines connecting major urban complexes. It is worth pointing out that a great number of secondary lines, railway stations and halts still has not been covered by the transformation process. Railway facilities, warehouses and service features are in decay. Rapid technological developments have caused numerous architectural structures of historical interest and service features to fall out of use. There are historical railway facilities dating back to the late 19th or early 20th centuries, whose condition is constantly deteriorating. The only way to save these structures is to change the manner, in which they are being used, and attract new investors and operators. The adaptation of buildings may be carried out in a number of ways by following different strategies. The process depends on the structure’s current condition and significance for the railway network. The facilities which are disused as a result of technological changes in the rolling stock and infrastructure include workshops, steam locomotive bays, turntables and warehouses. Their size and location within a city make them a perfect place for commercial services, exhibitions, heritage sites, concerts and other events attracting great numbers of people. Other strategies may be used for constructions located next to railways lines, whose role has declined. Such constructions include small railway stations, warehouses, reloading and forwarding facilities, railway ramps, railway staff buildings as well as residences for railway employees. Railway stations located at large junctions can handle passenger traffic or freight loading operations. As well as acting as the only window to the world, railway stations in small towns housed all the services available in the place. At the same time, they served as

  19. H∞ control of railway vehicle suspension with MR damper using scaled roller rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yu-Jeong; You, Won-Hee; Hur, Hyun-Moo; Park, Joon-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper was applied to the secondary suspension to reduce the vibration of a car body. The control performance of the MR damper was verified by numerical analysis with a 1/5 scale railway vehicle model in accordance with the similarity law. The analysis results were then validated in tests. In particular, the objective of the study was to understand how the control performance affected the dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle and to systematically analyze the relationship between control performance and dynamic characteristics depending on various running speeds. To achieve this, experimental results for the dynamic characteristics of the scaled MR damper designed for the 1/5 scale railway vehicle model were applied to the railway vehicle model. The H ∞ control method was applied to the controller. The means of designing the railway vehicle body vibration controller and the effectiveness of its results were studied. (paper)

  20. On the Development of Intelligent Railway Information and Safety Systems: An Overview of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Tokody

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article focuses on the research and development planning for innovative railway systems. Within such a general framework, the specific objectives of the research have been defined within the framework of a large Intelligent Railway System project in Hungary. Our theoretical research work at the university is combined with practical experience gained at the Hungarian State Railways. In the course of this research work, the development of an intelligent railway system has been investigated by leveraging on the fruitful cooperation between academic and industrial partners, in order to promote the application and integration possibilities of the development results, as well as the introduction of innovative components in the railway system. In such a context, this article discusses the research plan, preliminary and long-term expected results, sharing objectives and experiences with the aim of providing novel views in an extremely current and challenging field of research.

  1. Potential applications for energy from renewable sources in the railway sector; Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten erneuerbarer Energiequellen im Bahnsektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenberg, Philipp; Goldenberg, Vladimir; Reppich, Marcus [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Making use of energy from renewable sources has strategic and security-policy relevance. Since DB AG is a major energy consumer, the use of energy from renewable sources in railway operations will make economic sense in the long run. The railways depend on a very high security of energy supply nationwide. Efficient energy management can help enhance the security of supply to the railways. In addition, there are large potential energy savings to be made in railway operations. Major efforts are required to reach this objective. Using energy from renewable sources and increasing energy efficiency are two indispensable prerequisites for a sustainable energy supply to the railways as well as for increasing their attractiveness. (orig.)

  2. Subsidence Evaluation of High-Speed Railway in Shenyang Based on Time-Series Insar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Wei, Lianhuan; Li, Jiayu; Liu, Shanjun; Mao, Yachun; Wu, Lixin

    2018-04-01

    More and more high-speed railway are under construction in China. The slow settlement along high-speed railway tracks and newly-built stations would lead to inhomogeneous deformation of local area, and the accumulation may be a threat to the safe operation of high-speed rail system. In this paper, surface deformation of the newly-built high-speed railway station as well as the railway lines in Shenyang region will be retrieved by time series InSAR analysis using multi-orbit COSMO-SkyMed images. This paper focuses on the non-uniform subsidence caused by the changing of local environment along the railway. The accuracy of the settlement results can be verified by cross validation of the results obtained from two different orbits during the same period.

  3. Becoming German: Integration, Citizenship and Territorialization of Germanness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    understandings of integration and Germanness, this paper highlights the neglected aspect of the ascendance of Integrationspolitik since the turn of the century: namely how it superseded previous regime of completely bifurcated migration policy for "foreigners" on the one hand, and so-called "settlers" of German......, seen ever more as residing within its state territory rather than some diffuse cultural-linguistic space. Moving our understanding of Germanness beyond the "ethnic nationhood model" (Faist 2008), I argue thus that, in conjunction with the new citizenship law, the emergence of Integrationspolitik...

  4. Magnetotellurics with long distance remote reference to reject DC railway noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanstein, T.; Jiang, J.; Strack, K.; Ritter, O.

    2014-12-01

    Some parts of railway network in Europe is electrified by DC current. The return current in the ground is varying in space, time and power when the train is moving. Since the train traffic is active 24 hours, there is no quite time. The train signal is dominating for periods longer than 1 s and is a near field source. The transfer function of the magnetotelluric sounding (MT) is influenced by this near field source, the phase is going to zero and amplitude increase with slope 1 for longer periods. Since this dominating noise is present all day robust magnetotelluric processing technique to identify and remove outliers are not applicable and sufficient. The remote reference technique has successfully been applied for magnetotelluric soundings Combining an disturbed local MT data set with the data of the remote station, which is recording simultaneously the horizontal magnetic fields, can improve the data quality. Finding a good remote station during field survey is difficult and expensive. There is a permanent MT remote reference station in Germany. The set up and maintance is done by the GFZ - Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The location is near Wittstock and has good signal-to-noise-ratio with low cutural noise, the ground is almost lD and recording since May 2010. The electric and magnetic field is continously recorded with 250 Hz sampling and induction coils. The magnetic field is also recorded with fluxgate magnetometers and 5 Hz sampling. The distance to the local MT site is about 600 km.

  5. Environmental impact of oil transportation by tankers, pipelines, railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chelidze, M.A.; Kaviladze, I.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Tsitskishvili, L.B.; Ninua, T.L.; Kordzaxia, G.I.; Gavasheli, L.; Petriashvili, E.T.; Alania, M.L.; Gigolashvili, Sh.Z.; Kordzakhia, M.O.; Chankotadze, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Considering all types of risks (technical, operational, natural hazards (e.g. geo-hazards) and third party intrusion), the underground pipelines constructed in accordance with the international standards are the most safe and reliable system for oil transportation. Statistical data provided by CONCAWE and US Department of Transportation confirms that the pipeline related spills are rare and mainly related to the old pipelines. Georgia's experience yet confirms the general sound guess that the situation in our countries is not the same as in western Europe or USA and accordingly the CONCAWE statistical data can not be applied mechanically. Two spills (although small and manageable), during the recent 4 years and some discovered illegal hot-taps on the Baku-Supsa pipeline indicate that the issue of third party intrusion risks is much higher in the region and well organized security system is required to protect the pipeline from intentional damage. Of course the pipeline system can not function isolated and it is integrated with the other systems of oil transportation, mainly with off-shore terminals and tankers. The most significant of the recorded pollution damages are related to the tanker collisions (like Prestige and Exxon Valdez cases). The basic fact, which we would like to stress, is that the environmental risks related to the tanker collisions are much higher for such confined or semi-confined systems as Black and Caspian seas. The overloading of the Black Sea transportation capacity and especially its limiting narrow point - the Bosporus will inevitably lead in future to the implementation of the restrictive measures limiting transportation of oil by tankers in the Black Sea. Therefore, the role of the BTC pipeline as major transportation system will increase significantly. We consider that responsibility of the scientific society is to facilitate this process as soon as the BTC pipeline is functional. The railway transportation of oil is quite

  6. Occupational Stress and Hypertension among Railway Loco Pilots and Section Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Devasigamoney

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A cross-sectional study on occupational stress was conducted on loco pilots in 2008, in view of loco pilots being one of the high strain jobs in Indian Railways. Subsequently, a comparative cross-sectional study on occupational stress was conducted among section controllers in 2011, which is another high strain job of Indian Railways. Objective: The studies were conducted to analyze and compare occupational stress and hypertension. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study on occupational stress and hypertension was conducted among 230 loco pilots in 2008, and subsequently, a comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 82 section controllers in 2011. Materials and Methods: A closed end 24 item questionnaire on occupational stress was administered. Systolic blood pressure above 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg were considered as hypertension as per the VII Joint National Committee. Chi-square test and t-test were used for testing significance at P < 0.05. Results: The mean stress score was 8.56 in loco pilots and 7.32 in section controllers. The number of loco pilots with more than 12 stress factors was 49 (21.3%) and the number of section controllers with more than 12 stress factors was 7 (8.5%). The number employees with more than 12 stress factors in different categories of loco pilots were 30 (32%) in the goods category, 12 (12%) in the mail/passenger category, and 7 (19%) in the shunter category, and 3 (11%) in the supervisory category and 4 (7%) in the on-board category of section controllers. The prevalence of hypertension in loco pilots was 36.52% (84) and in the section controllers was 53.66% (44). The prevalence of hypertension in the category with more than 12 stress factors was 30.61% (15) in the loco pilots and 28.57% (2) in the section controllers. The prevalence of hypertension in the both the study groups were higher in the older age, with a family history of hypertension, and with a body mass index of

  7. Occupational Stress and Hypertension among Railway Loco Pilots and Section Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Devasigamoney

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on occupational stress was conducted on loco pilots in 2008, in view of loco pilots being one of the high strain jobs in Indian Railways. Subsequently, a comparative cross-sectional study on occupational stress was conducted among section controllers in 2011, which is another high strain job of Indian Railways. The studies were conducted to analyze and compare occupational stress and hypertension. A cross-sectional study on occupational stress and hypertension was conducted among 230 loco pilots in 2008, and subsequently, a comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 82 section controllers in 2011. A closed end 24 item questionnaire on occupational stress was administered. Systolic blood pressure above 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg were considered as hypertension as per the VII Joint National Committee. Chi-square test and t -test were used for testing significance at P stress score was 8.56 in loco pilots and 7.32 in section controllers. The number of loco pilots with more than 12 stress factors was 49 (21.3%) and the number of section controllers with more than 12 stress factors was 7 (8.5%). The number employees with more than 12 stress factors in different categories of loco pilots were 30 (32%) in the goods category, 12 (12%) in the mail/passenger category, and 7 (19%) in the shunter category, and 3 (11%) in the supervisory category and 4 (7%) in the on-board category of section controllers. The prevalence of hypertension in loco pilots was 36.52% (84) and in the section controllers was 53.66% (44). The prevalence of hypertension in the category with more than 12 stress factors was 30.61% (15) in the loco pilots and 28.57% (2) in the section controllers. The prevalence of hypertension in the both the study groups were higher in the older age, with a family history of hypertension, and with a body mass index of more than 25 kg/m 2 . The mean occupational stress and employees with more than 12 stress

  8. Statistical analysis of cone penetration resistance of railway ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saussine Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic penetrometer tests are widely used in geotechnical studies for soils characterization but their implementation tends to be difficult. The light penetrometer test is able to give information about a cone resistance useful in the field of geotechnics and recently validated as a parameter for the case of coarse granular materials. In order to characterize directly the railway ballast on track and sublayers of ballast, a huge test campaign has been carried out for more than 5 years in order to build up a database composed of 19,000 penetration tests including endoscopic video record on the French railway network. The main objective of this work is to give a first statistical analysis of cone resistance in the coarse granular layer which represents a major component of railway track: the ballast. The results show that the cone resistance (qd increases with depth and presents strong variations corresponding to layers of different natures identified using the endoscopic records. In the first zone corresponding to the top 30cm, (qd increases linearly with a slope of around 1MPa/cm for fresh ballast and fouled ballast. In the second zone below 30cm deep, (qd increases more slowly with a slope of around 0,3MPa/cm and decreases below 50cm. These results show that there is no clear difference between fresh and fouled ballast. Hence, the (qd sensitivity is important and increases with depth. The (qd distribution for a set of tests does not follow a normal distribution. In the upper 30cm layer of ballast of track, data statistical treatment shows that train load and speed do not have any significant impact on the (qd distribution for clean ballast; they increase by 50% the average value of (qd for fouled ballast and increase the thickness as well. Below the 30cm upper layer, train load and speed have a clear impact on the (qd distribution.

  9. THE BASING OF STABILIZATION PARAMETERS OF A FORTIFIED RAILWAY BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to stabilization parameters determination of reinforced railway bed. At the present time, the railway plays the leading role in transport system to ensure the needs of freight and passenger traffic. In modern conditions railway operation concentrates on ensuring the necessary level of track reliability, including the roadbed, this is one of the main elements of road structures. The purpose of this article is the determination of basic parameters of stress-strain state to stabilize the soil subgrade embankment by reinforced materials. Methodology. To achieve this goal the following tasks of researches were solved: the effect of reinforcing layer of geomaterial on deformation properties of soil subgrade in various design of strengthening was investigated, the distributions of stresses in the subgrade were determined, reinforced of geomaterials under state load. Experimental studies to explore the nature of the deformation model subgrade at various degrees of stress were carried out. Findings. The analysis of the results of performed experimental and theoretical studies permitted to do the following conclusions. In conducting researches determined the distribution of stresses in the subgrade reinforced geomaterials under static load. The complex of experimental studies allows exploring the nature of the deformation model subgrade at various degrees of stress. Originality. On the basis of the theoretical studies have been regarded the problem of determining the stress-strain state of subgrade reinforced geomaterials by measuring stresses in its application for step loads. Practical value. The practical value was presented by the results of evaluating the effect of reinforcing way for changing the stress-strain state of subgrade.

  10. A concept of vehicle-based collision prevention in self-organized railway systems (SOG); Konzept zur fahrzeuggestuetzten Kollisionsvermeidung im selbstorganisierenden Gueterverkehr (SOG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, H.

    2002-07-01

    Self-organizing vehicles are a revolution in railway transport: They find their own way in the available railway network, and they detect and solve conflicts encountered on the way. - The report presents the algorithms for conflict identification and solution. Conflicts are mapped according to the number of conflict sites, the travelling direction of the vehicles in the conflict sites, and particularities of the programmed destinations. Solution schemes are presented for each type of conflict. The applicability of the algorithms is illustrated by a simulation and in trial operation of real vehicles. [German] Selbstorganisierend verkehrende Fahrzeuge revolutionieren den Schienengueterverkehr. Sie suchen ihren Fahrweg durch das ihnen zur Verfuegung stehende Gleisnetz selbst. Sie erkennen und loesen Konflikte innerhalb der von ihnen gewaehlten Fahrwege. - In dieser Arbeit werden die Algorithmen fuer die Konflikterkennung und Konfliktloesung beschrieben. Konflikte werden in Konfliktarten eingeteilt. Kriterien dafuer sind die Anzahl der Konfliktorte, die Fahrtrichtungen der Fahrzeuge innerhalb der Konfliktorte sowie Besonderheiten der programmierten Zielorte. Fuer jede Konfliktart werden schematisierte Loesungen angegeben. Die Tauglichkeit der Algorithmen wurde in einer Simulation und einem Testbetrieb mit realen Fahrzeugen gezeigt. (orig.)

  11. Task forces for the European railway: trains and rail systems of the future; Task Force der EG: Zuege und Eisenbahnsysteme der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonk, W. [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General VII Transport

    1999-02-01

    To achieve greatest benefit from the R and D activities of the EC, the Commission introduced the concept to task forces in 1995. One of these is concerned with 'trains and rail systems of the future'. This was to be seen as an element in a far-reaching political framework guideline, so bringing together hitherto separate strands of railway-related transport with industrial and research policy, contributing to revival of the sector. The main objective of these joint efforts was to contribute to radical structural and cultural changes on the railway so as - on the basis of market orientation, quality demands and cost efficiency - to give greater weight among the population to future transport challenges. This article reviews the main results attained by way of the task force and how these will be implemented in the 5th framework programme of the European Community. (orig.) [German] Um mit den FuE-Aktivitaeten der Europaeischen Gemeinschaft groessten Nutzen zu erzielen, richtete die Kommission im Jahre 1995 das Konzept von Task Forces ein. Eine dieser Task Forces beschaeftigte sich mit dem Thema 'Zuege und Eisenbahnsysteme der Zukunft'. Es war als ein Element einer weitgesteckten politischen Rahmenrichtlinie anzusehen, wobei es die vorher getrennten Straenge der eisenbahngebundenen Verkehre mit der Industrie- und Forschungspolitik zusammenbrachte und dadurch zur Wiederbelebung des Sektors beitragen konnte. (orig.)

  12. Automatic radar target recognition of objects falling on railway tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroué, A; Heddebaut, M; Elbahhar, F; Rivenq, A; Rouvaen, J-M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic radar target recognition procedure based on complex resonances using the signals provided by ultra-wideband radar. This procedure is dedicated to detection and identification of objects lying on railway tracks. For an efficient complex resonance extraction, a comparison between several pole extraction methods is illustrated. Therefore, preprocessing methods are presented aiming to remove most of the erroneous poles interfering with the discrimination scheme. Once physical poles are determined, a specific discrimination technique is introduced based on the Euclidean distances. Both simulation and experimental results are depicted showing an efficient discrimination of different targets including guided transport passengers

  13. Environmental comparison of a railway bridge with alternative designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2012-01-01

    Railway bridges are complex structures that remain for a long life span and consume large amount of material and energy throughout the life span. All of those lead to considerable resource depletion and environmental burdens. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a comprehensive tool...... for quantifying and assessing the environmental impacts of the products through its whole life cycle. This paper presents a comparative case study between two alternative designs of Banafjäl Bridge: ballast track design and fixed slab track design. The methodology of LCA is utilized as a supporting tool...

  14. Development of Broadband Telecommunication System for Railways using Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Nakagawa, Shingo; Matsubara, Hiroshi; Tatsui, Daisuke; Seki, Kiyotaka; Haruyama, Shinichiro; Teraoka, Fumio

    We developed a high-speed telecommunication system applicable to railways, to improve customer service and efficiency of operator's telecommunication between the ground facilities and trains under operations. We manufactured a mobile telecommunication system, capable of recording the transfer rate of 1Gbps in theory by applying the laser beam communication technology. We carried out a field test using trains in active service, and obtained the result of the transfer rate of approximately 700Mbps on the TCP layer between the ground and the train running at a speed of approximately 130km/h.

  15. Biodiesel fuel costs and environmental issues when powering railway locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Abdul; Ziemer, Norbert; Tatara, Robert; Moraga, Reinaldo; Mirman, Clifford; Vohra, Promod

    2010-09-15

    Issues for adopting biodiesel fuel, instead of petrodiesel, to power railroad locomotives are engine performance and emissions, fuel infrastructure, and fuel cost. These are evaluated for B2 through B100 blends. Biodiesel's solvent action on fuel systems is addressed. With biodiesel, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions are unchanged or reduced. Nitrogen oxides are elevated but it is believed that engine alterations can minimize these emissions. A Transportation Model, using data from a major railway, has demonstrated that refueling depots can be fully supplied with biodiesel at a pricing premium of 1% to 26%, depending on blend and geographical location.

  16. Travel Models for Corridors of Metropolitan Areas Served by Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems.

  17. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TOXIC CHEMICAL DISPERSION AFTER ACCIDENT AT RAILWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This research focuses on the development of an applied numerical model to calculate the dynamics of atmospheric pollution in the emission of dangerous chemical substances in the event of transportation by railway. Methodology. For the numerical simulation of transport process of the dangerous chemical substance in the atmosphere the equation of convection-diffusion pollutant transport is used. This equation takes into account the effect of wind, atmospheric diffusion, the power of emission source, as well as the movement of the source of emission (depressurized tank on the process of pollutant dispersion. When carrying out computing experiment one also takes into account the profile of the speed of the wind flow. For the numerical integration of pollutant transport in the atmosphere implicit finite-difference splitting scheme is used. The numerical calculation is divided into four steps of splitting and at each step of splitting the unknown value of the concentration of hazardous substance is determined by the explicit running account scheme. On the basis of the numerical model it was created the code using the algorithmic language FORTRAN. One conducted the computational experiments to assess the level of air pollution near the railway station «Illarionovo» in the event of a possible accident during transportation of ammonia. Findings. The proposed model allows you to quickly calculate the air pollution after the emission of chemically hazardous substance, taking into account the motion of the emission source. The model makes it possible to determine the size of the land surface pollution zones and the amount of pollutants deposited on a specific area. Using the developed numerical model it was estimated the environmental damage near the railway station «Illarionovo». Originality. One can use the numerical model to calculate the size and intensity of the chemical contamination zones after accidents on transport. Practical value

  18. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  19. A novel linear switched reluctance motor for railway transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldaban, Ferhat; Ustkoyuncu, Nurettin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a new linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) structure, especially suitable for high-speed railway systems. The new model has a double active stator configuration and provides high force for many applications with low cost. The characteristics of the LSRM are obtained by using finite element analysis (FEA) and analytical calculations. The results of the FEA and analytical calculations are presented, and compared with experimental results. In addition, a classical double-sided LSRM (DSLSRM) is modeled with the same specifications of the new motor structure and the results are compared.

  20. Mechanical modelling and application of vibroacoustic isolators in railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbiciak Artur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents systematization and description of vibroacoustic isolators used in railway tracks (due to track structure type, with special attention paid to resilient mats. As in the second part of the paper the state-space mechanical model of a system with Under-Ballast Mat is formulated. Also some numerical problems arising from the mass matrix singularity are discussed. The poles of the system were calculated by using Matlab. Moreover, the influence of various parameters on the system’s insertion loss and its transmissibility was visualized in figures.

  1. Ecological aspects of using biological diesel oil in railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Lingaitis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of various transport facilities used in Europe is rapidly growing. They release a big amount of pollutants into the atmosphere. Therefore, environment protection from these pollutants ejected by internal combustion engines is a key problem facing us today and which will be acute in the future. Biofuel is the only effective and widely used alternative fuel which can reduce pollution of the environment. The main aim of the present paper is to perform a comparative analysis of burnt gases of engines using rapeseed oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel oil and to determine ecological effectiveness of biofuel used in diesel locomotive engines in railway transport.

  2. The Farm Hall reports. Intercepted conversations of the German nuclear scientists interned in England in 1945/46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechenberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    This detailed report critically highlights the contents of the Farm Hall transcripts, which have meanwhile been published both in the original English and German version. Secondary literature up to the summer of 1933 has also been taken into account and is commented on. The introduction, which outlines the previous history (the German uranium project during World War II), is intended to facilitate understanding of the intercepted conversations between the German uranium researchers. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Between Expulsion and Rescue. The Transports for German-speaking Jews of Czechoslovakia in 1946

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, Kateřina

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2018), s. 66-92 ISSN 8756-6583 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-01775Y Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : German-speaking Jews * Czechoslovakia * transports Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  4. How old are Germanic lambs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    2017-01-01

    Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto...

  5. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  6. Research and new technologies in transportation. Vol. 1. High-speed railway systems: Maglev technology. Forschung und neue Technologien im Verkehr. Bd. 1. Schnellbahnsysteme: Magnetbandtechnolgie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    High-speed magnetic levitation technology opens up a new dimension for long-distance passenger transport with speeds ranging between ground travel and flying. The status of development and test results of the German TRANSRAPID magnetic levitation system and corresponding activities abroad will be reported on. Both the new vehicle technology of the TRANSRAPID 07 and results of application studies at home and abroad will be presented. High-speed magnetic railway technology - status and development perspectives; readiness for service, safety and reliability, application studies. The book comprises 11 papers read at the symposium on the subject of high-speed trains. 14 papers have been recorded separately in this database. (orig./HW).

  7. PERSPECTIVES OF UKRAINIAN RAILWAY TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON NARROW-GAUGE LINES OF ZAKARPATTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kuznetsov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The purpose of the paper is: (1 the definition of perspectives development of Ukrainian railway tourism on the narrow gauge lines of Zakarpattia; 2 technical condition analysis of Borzhava narrow gauge railway for the project to restore the effective functioning of mountain railways track, width 750 mm in the Carpathian region, with the possibility of their accession to the distributed travel network; 3 the study of the modern state and tendencies of development of tourist industry of Ukraine and the passenger economy of national railways; 4 clarification of the role and place of the railway tourism in the transportation system. Methodology. The expert group has carried out field inspections and field investigations of facilities track facilities and passenger infrastructure, rolling stock and ancillary industries involved in the functioning narrow-gauge railway. It was estimated the overall technical condition of the railway track and engineering structures section of narrow-gauge Railways in the Carpathian region. Findings. In the framework of on-site examinations of the expert group found that the objects of tracks, passenger and freight infrastructure, rolling stock and ancillary industries involved in the operation of narrow-gauge Railways are in poor condition and require significant updates and major repairs. But the routes of passenger trains remain fit for participation in the project of development of railway tourism of Ukraine Originality. For the first time the state of the narrow-gauge railway for further implementation of the project on the development of rail tourism in Ukraine was realized. The analysis of foreign experience of organization of railway tourism has been carried out. The modern state and tendencies of development of tourist industry of Ukraine was studied, the factors of competitiveness of rail transport for providing tourist transport in Ukraine were identified and systematized.Practical value. The recovery

  8. RISK VIP: Evaluation of Flood Risk on the French Railway Network Using an Innovative GIS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding can have significant direct and indirect negative effects on a railway network affecting both infrastructure and rail operations. Such impacts include the delaying or cancelling of train services, damage to railway structures or the implementation of costly maintenance and monitoring programs to ensure the safety and performance of the railway system. Identifying sections of railway line at risk from flooding allows appropriate actions to be targeted at specific areas and contributes to an effective asset management plan. Flooding of railway infrastructure can have numerous sources including surface water run-off, insufficient capacity of hydraulic structures or the inundation of embankments located in floodplains. Consequences of flooding include the destabilisation of structures (surface erosion of embankments or the undermining of bridge foundations, differential settlement of structures and damage to the track structure. This paper details an innovative approach developed at the SNCF using a Geographic Information System (GIS model to identify zones of the railway network at risk of different types of flooding. The GIS model RiskVIP has been constructed through the assessment of three distinct components of risk: “Vulnerability” (assessment of the susceptibility of the railway infrastructure to flood conditions, Intensity’ (capacity of a catchment to generate a flood flow, Probability’ (probability of a rainfall event.Through the application of decision trees, the component ‘Intensity’ has been characterised in the model by the physical properties of the catchment intercepted by the railway line (surface area of the catchment, slope and land cover characteristics and “Vulnerability” by the infrastructure itself (type, geometry and the presence of hydraulic structures. In order to evaluate its efficiency at identifying sites at risk of flooding, the model has been tested in the region of Languedoc-Roussillon in France

  9. The German experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, W.

    1978-01-01

    An account is presented of the opposition in Germany to atomic power (AP). A short history is given of the anti-AP movement and demonstrations. The political effects of AP, the erosion of civil liberties and the development of the atomic state are discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Investigation on energy efficient sensor node placement in railway systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayona Philipose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently wireless sensor network (WSN has been widely used for monitoring railway tracks and rail tunnels. The key requirement in the design of such WSN is to minimize the energy consumption so as to maximize the network lifetime. This paper includes the performance of an improved medium access control (MAC protocol, namely, time adaptive-bit map assisted (TA-BMA protocol, for the purpose of communication between the sensors placed in a railway wagon. The train is considered to be moving at a constant speed, and the sensor nodes are stationary with respect to the motion of train. The effect of mobility on the proposed MAC protocol is determined using genetic algorithm (GA, and the observed increase in energy consumption on considering mobility is 18.51%. Performance analysis of the system model is carried out using QualNet (ver. 7.1, and the energy consumption in transmit mode, receive mode, percentage of time in sleep mode, end-to-end delay and throughput are investigated.

  11. A hierarchical network modeling method for railway tunnels safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Liu, Xumin

    2017-02-01

    Using network theory to model risk-related knowledge on accidents is regarded as potential very helpful in risk management. A large amount of defects detection data for railway tunnels is collected in autumn every year in China. It is extremely important to discover the regularities knowledge in database. In this paper, based on network theories and by using data mining techniques, a new method is proposed for mining risk-related regularities to support risk management in railway tunnel projects. A hierarchical network (HN) model which takes into account the tunnel structures, tunnel defects, potential failures and accidents is established. An improved Apriori algorithm is designed to rapidly and effectively mine correlations between tunnel structures and tunnel defects. Then an algorithm is presented in order to mine the risk-related regularities table (RRT) from the frequent patterns. At last, a safety assessment method is proposed by consideration of actual defects and possible risks of defects gained from the RRT. This method cannot only generate the quantitative risk results but also reveal the key defects and critical risks of defects. This paper is further development on accident causation network modeling methods which can provide guidance for specific maintenance measure.

  12. GPR Laboratory Tests For Railways Materials Dielectric Properties Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca De Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In railways Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR studies, the evaluation of materials dielectric properties is critical as they are sensitive to water content, to petrographic type of aggregates and to fouling condition of the ballast. Under the load traffic, maintenance actions and climatic effects, ballast condition change due to aggregate breakdown and to subgrade soils pumping, mainly on existing lines with no sub ballast layer. The main purpose of this study was to validate, under controlled conditions, the dielectric values of materials used in Portuguese railways, in order to improve the GPR interpretation using commercial software and consequently the management maintenance planning. Different materials were tested and a broad range of in situ conditions were simulated in laboratory, in physical models. GPR tests were performed with five antennas with frequencies between 400 and 1800 MHz. The variation of the dielectric properties was measured, and the range of values that can be obtained for different material condition was defined. Additionally, in situ GPR measurements and test pits were performed for validation of the dielectric constant of clean ballast. The results obtained are analyzed and the main conclusions are presented herein.

  13. Noise annoyance through railway traffic - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta Zannin, Paulo Henrique; Bunn, Fernando

    2014-01-08

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large Latin American city. Measurements were taken of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods with and without blowing their horns. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition - annoyance of the residents - affected by railway noise, was evaluated based on interviews. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train with its horn blowing are extremely high, clearly exceeding the daytime limits of equivalent sound pressure level - Leq = 55 dB(A) - established by the municipal laws No 10.625 of the city of Curitiba. The Leq = 45 dB (A) which is the limit for the night period also are exceeded during the passage of trains. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which causes irritability, headaches, poor concentration and insomnia, and 88% of them claimed that nocturnal noise pollution is the most distressing. This study showed that the vast majority of residents surveyed, (69%) believe that the noise of the train can devalue their property.

  14. The impact of aerodynamics on fuel consumption in railway applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan TARUS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main consequence of on air flow surrounding a moving train resides in the aerodynamic drag and a certain pressure distribution on the frontal and lateral surfaces of the vehicle. The actual value of the aerodynamic drag (if pre-determined may lead to a more accurate design of the whole locomotive power transmission. The aerodynamic drag may be estimated by using two specific experiments: the traction method and the free launch method. While the first one uses highly complex equipment, the second is easier to use due to the relative low number of devices required. The present work’s main goal is to illustrate the importance of aerodynamic design of the railway vehicles, as their performances are influenced by the aerodynamic drag. In order to illustrate the influence of the aerodynamic shape of o locomotive body, we have chosen the latest diesel model available on the local market, the Class 621 EGM locomotives, currently in service at the national passenger railway operator, CFR Călători SA.

  15. Application of FMEA method in railway signalling projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmel Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the FMEA method application, which is relevant in verification of design of two separated railway signalling systems. The efficiency of the method at the stage of the design was discussed. The method was identified as an important element of safety management process and as safety analysis method, which is included in the Safety Case and is applied for the sake of safety arguments and its assessment. Safety process management comprises several phases and appropriate actions, linked with each other in the way to create safety life cycle consistent with system life cycle. The safety case is a set of documents demonstrating that the product is compliant with defined safety requirements including analysis that indicates the correctness of the design and the correct reaction of the system to the failures, with appropriate and requested fail-safe reaction. It is necessary that railway signalling system should fulfil SIL4 requirement and remain safe in case of occurrence any kind of single failure of the equipment considered as possible.

  16. Gantry Crane Scheduling with Interference Constraints in Railway Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Railway container terminals, where gantry cranes are responsible for loading and unloading containers between freight trains and yards, are important hubs of hinterland logistics transportation. Terminal managers confront the challenge in improving the efficiency of their service. As the most expensive equipment in a terminal, the operational performance of gantry cranes is a crucial factor. In this paper, the gantry crane scheduling problem of railway container terminals is investigated. A mixed integer programming model which considers the effect of dwelling position dependent processing times is formulated. In addition, the safety distances, the travel times and the non-crossing requirement of cranes are incorporated in the mathematical model. A novel discrete artificial bee colony algorithm is presented to solve the intractable scheduling problem. Computational experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm on some randomly constructed instances based on typical terminal operational data. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can obtain near optimal solutions for the investigated problem in a reasonable computational time.

  17. Track Detection in Railway Sidings Based on MEMS Gyroscope Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broquetas, Antoni; Comerón, Adolf; Gelonch, Antoni; Fuertes, Josep M.; Castro, J. Antonio; Felip, Damià; López, Miguel A.; Pulido, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a two-step technique for real-time track detection in single-track railway sidings using low-cost MEMS gyroscopes. The objective is to reliably know the path the train has taken in a switch, diverted or main road, immediately after the train head leaves the switch. The signal delivered by the gyroscope is first processed by an adaptive low-pass filter that rejects noise and converts the temporal turn rate data in degree/second units into spatial turn rate data in degree/meter. The conversion is based on the travelled distance taken from odometer data. The filter is implemented to achieve a speed-dependent cut-off frequency to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Although direct comparison of the filtered turn rate signal with a predetermined threshold is possible, the paper shows that better detection performance can be achieved by processing the turn rate signal with a filter matched to the rail switch curvature parameters. Implementation aspects of the track detector have been optimized for real-time operation. The detector has been tested with both simulated data and real data acquired in railway campaigns. PMID:23443376

  18. Performance of Railway Sleepers with Holes under Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chie Hong; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Mlilo, Nhlanganiso

    2017-12-01

    Prestressed concrete sleepers are essential structural components of railway track structures, with the purpose of redistributing wheel loads from the rails to the ground. To facilitate cables and signalling equipment, holes are often generated in these prestressed concrete sleepers. However, the performance of these sleepers under impact loading may be a concern with the addition of these holes. Numerical modelling using finite element analysis (FEA) is an ideal tool that enables static and dynamic simulation and can perform analyses of basic/advanced linear and nonlinear problems, without incurring a huge cost in resources like standard experimental test methods would. This paper will utilize the three-dimensional FE modelling software ABAQUS to investigate the behaviour of the prestressed concrete sleepers with holes of varying sizes upon impact loading. To obtain the results that resemble real-life behaviour of the sleepers under impact loading, the material properties, element types, mesh sizes, contact and interactions and boundary conditions will be defined as accurately as possible. Both Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) and Brittle Cracking models will be used in this study. With a better understanding of how the introduction of holes will influence the performance of prestressed sleepers under impact loading, track and railway engineers will be able to generate them in prestressed concrete sleepers without compromising the sleepers’ performance during operation

  19. Criminal Justice History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krause

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses studies on the history of crime and the criminal law in England and Ireland published during the last few years. These reflect the ›history of crime and punishment‹ as a more or less established sub-discipline of social history, at least in England, whereas it only really began to flourish in the german-speaking world from the 1990s onwards. By contrast, the legal history of the criminal law and its procedure has a strong, recently revived academic tradition in Germany that does not really have a parallel in the British Isles, whose legal scholars still evidence their traditional reluctance to confront penal subjects.

  20. Coursebook of German: Gender Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova

    2015-01-01

    The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the ...