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Sample records for german mainz triga-mk-2 reactor

  1. The research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, G.; Eberhardt, K.; Trautmann, N.

    2006-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Institut fuer Kernchemie became first critical on August 3 rd , 1965. It can be operated in the steady state mode with a maximum power of 100 kWth and in the pulse mode with a peak power of 250 MWth. A survey of the research programmes performed at the TRIGA Mainz is given covering applications in basic research as well as applied science in nuclear chemistry and nuclear physics. Furthermore, the reactor is used for neutron activation analysis and for education and training of scientists, teachers, students and technical personal. Important projects for the future of the TRIGA Mainz are the UCN (ultra cold neutrons) experiment, fast chemical separation, medical applications and the use of the NAA as well as the use of the reactor facility for the training of students in the fields of nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics and radiation protection. Taking into account the past and future operation schedule and the typically low burn-up of TRIGA fuel elements (∝4 g U-235/a), the reactor can be operated for at least the next decade taking into account the fresh fuel elements on stock and without changing spent fuels. (orig.)

  2. Research work at the TRIGA Mainz reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, Norbert

    1976-01-01

    In the last two years the research activities at the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Mainz have mainly been concentrated on the investigation of short- lived nuclides of medium mass number produced by thermal-neutron induced fission of 235 U and other fissile materials. For the identification of these nuclides and for detailed studies of their properties rapid chemical separation procedures in combination with high-resolution gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy as well as mass-separated samples have been used. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for technetium. Continuous separation methods from aqueous solutions and in the gas phase, accomplished by combining a gas jet recoil transport system with an on-line operating solvent extraction technique and a thermo- chromatographic method, are presented. The application of such procedures to decay scheme and delayed neutron studies is demonstrated by a few examples. The experimental set-up and the method for nuclear spin - and magnetic moment measurements on alkali isotopes far from the region of beta-stability applying the nuclear radiation detected optical pumping technique to mass- separated samples of neutron-rich alkali nuclides are briefly described. (author)

  3. Five years of operating the TRIGA Mainz reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, Georg

    1970-01-01

    Considerable obstacles had to be surmounted before TRIGA MAINZ, first TRIGA reactor built in Germany, reached initial criticality in 1965. Subsequent five years' operation did not raise any major problems. The facility has proven quite reliable and particularly well suited for the purposes of the nuclear chemistry research program pursued at Mainz University. Extensive use is made of the pulse mode of operation. As a result, fuel elements are obviously somewhat overstressed, even though most pulses performed are of the 1.50 dollar size. Maximum licensed steady state power of 100 kW till now has met the requirements of most experiments. However, efforts are in progress to improve irradiation conditions by increasing the reactor power to 300 kW. (author)

  4. Medical and radiobiological applications at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Kratz, J.-V.; Schmitz, T.; Schutz, C.; Werner, S.; Appelman, K.; Moss, R.; Blaickner, M.; Nawroth, T.; Otto, G.; Schmidberger, H.

    2010-01-01

    At the University of Mainz, Germany, a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) project has been started with the aim to expand and advance the research on the basis of the TAOrMINA protocol for the BNCT treatment of liver metastases of colorectal cancer. Irradiations take place at the TRIGA Mark II reactor. Biological and clinical research and surgery take place at the University and its hospital of Mainz. Both are situated in close vicinity to each other, which is an ideal situation for BNCT treatment, as similarly performed in Pavia, in 2001 and 2003. The application of BNCT to auto-transplanted organs requires development in the methodology, as well as regard to the irradiation facility and is part of the complex, interdisciplinary treatment process. The additional high surgical risk of auto-transplantation is only justified when a therapeutic benefit can be achieved. A BNCT protocol including explantation and conservation of the organ, neutron irradiation and re-implantation is logistically a very challenging task. Within the last years, research on all scientific, clinical and logistical aspects for the therapy has been performed. This includes work on computational modelling for the irradiation facility, tissue and blood analysis, radiation biology, dosimetry and surgery. Most recently, a clinical study on boron uptake in both healthy and tumour tissue of the liver and issues regarding dosimetry has been started, as well as a series of cell-biology experiments to obtain concrete results on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ionizing radiation in liver tissue. (author)

  5. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schütz, C.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed at Pavia (Italy) a few ...

  6. Operation and maintenance experience at the TRIGA Mainz reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, Helmut

    1976-01-01

    Oscillations observed in the linear power channel especially at low steady state power with the pulse-rod in down position were found to be due to wear of connections of the pulse-rod. The downstream water from the cooling system caused a swing of the rod, which in turn induced the power oscillations. The wear can be regarded as normal, as more than 10,000 pulses have been performed so far. The repairs of the rod assembly are described. No major problems in operation and maintenance of the TRIGA Mainz were met since 1974. Results of routine inspections as fuel element measurements, power calibrations, etc., are described and discussed. (author)

  7. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schutz, C.; Schmitz, T.; Kratz, J.V. [Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Brochhausen, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. [Department of Pathology, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bortulussi, S.; Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy); Kudejova, P. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Appelman, K.; Moss, R. [Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bassler, N. [University of Aarhus, Norde Ringade, DK-8000, Aarhus C (Denmark); Blaickner, M.; Ziegner, M. [Molecular Medicine, Health and Environment Department, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH (Austria); Sharpe, P.; Palmans, H. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Otto, G. [Department of Hepatobiliary, Pancreatic and Transplantation Surgery, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed in Pavia (Italy) a few years ago, where patients with liver metastases were treated by combining BNCT with auto-transplantation of the organ. Here, in Mainz, a preclinical trial has been started on patients suffering from liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma. In vitro experiments and the first animal tests have also been initiated to investigate radiobiological effects of radiation generated during BNCT. For both experiments and the treatment, a reliable dosimetry system is necessary. From work elsewhere, the use of alanine detectors appears to be an appropriate dosimetry technique. (author)

  8. Replacement of the cooling system of the TRIGA Mainz reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, H.

    1988-01-01

    The inspection of the reactor facility resulted in a recommendation to install a new heat exchanger and at the same time to separate the primary cooling circuit and the water purification system. Due to possible the deposition of lime and organic matter on the tubes, the heat transfer rate has decreased. In the meantime a rule has been introduced, according to which the pressure in the secondary cooling circuit must be permanently higher than in the primary cooling circuit which prompted the design of a new cooling system. The detail planning was completed in December 1987. In response to the regulatory requirements a motion for a replacement of the cooling system was submitted to the authorities. The start of the procedure is possible a year after the obtaining of the licenses. In the planning of the changes an upgrading of the steady state power to 300 kW is envisioned

  9. The research reactor TRIGA Mainz. A neutron source for versatile applications in research and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.; Kronenberg, A.

    2000-01-01

    Currently, four research reactors with a thermal power ranging from 0.1 to 23 MW th are in operation in Germany and one new reactor (20 MW th ) is under construction. The TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Institut fuer Kernchemie became first critical on August 3, 1965. It can be operated in the steady state mode with a maximum power of 100 kW th and in the pulse mode with a peak power of 250 MW th . A survey of the research programmes carried out at the TRIGA Mainz is given covering a wide range of applications in basic and applied science in nuclear chemistry, nuclear- and particle physics. Furthermore, the reactor is used for neutron activation analysis and for education and training of students and technical personal. (orig.) [de

  10. Upgrade of the ultracold neutron source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlenberg, J.; Ross, K.U.; Beck, M.; Heil, W.; Karch, J.; Kories, F.; Kretschmer, M. [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Ries, D. [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory for Particle Physics, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zuerich, Institute for Particle Physics, Zuerich (Switzerland); Siemensen, C.; Geppert, C.; Karpuk, S.; Reich, T.; Sobolev, Y.; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Hild, N. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory for Particle Physics, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zuerich, Institute for Particle Physics, Zuerich (Switzerland); Lauss, B. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory for Particle Physics, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    The performance of the upgraded solid deuterium ultracold neutron source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz is described. The current configuration stage comprises the installation of a He liquefier to run UCN experiments over long-term periods, the use of stainless steel neutron guides with improved transmission as well as sputter-coated non-magnetic {sup 58}NiMo alloy at the inside walls of the thermal bridge and the converter cup. The UCN yield was measured in a ''standard'' UCN storage bottle (stainless steel) with a volume of 32 litres outside the biological shield at the experimental area yielding UCN densities of 8.5/cm{sup 3}; an increase by a factor of 3.5 compared to the former setup. The measured UCN storage curve is in good agreement with the predictions from a Monte Carlo simulation developed to model the source. The growth and formation of the solid deuterium converter during freeze-out are affected by the ortho/para ratio of the H{sub 2} premoderator. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of EPR response of alanine and Gd₂O₃-alanine dosimeters exposed to TRIGA Mainz reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrale, M; Schmitz, T; Gallo, S; Hampel, G; Longo, A; Panzeca, S; Tranchina, L

    2015-12-01

    In this work we report some preliminary results regarding the analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) response of alanine pellets and alanine pellets added with gadolinium used for dosimetry at the TRIGA research reactor in Mainz, Germany. Two set-ups were evaluated: irradiation inside PMMA phantom and irradiation inside boric acid phantom. We observed that the presence of Gd2O3 inside alanine pellets increases the EPR signal by a factor of 3.45 and 1.24 in case of PMMA and boric acid phantoms, respectively. We can conclude that in the case of neutron beam with a predominant thermal neutron component the addition of gadolinium oxide can significantly improve neutron sensitivity of alanine pellets. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of both response of alanine and Gd-added alanine pellets with FLUKA code were performed and a good agreement was achieved for pure alanine dosimeters. For Gd2O3-alanine deviations between MC simulations and experimental data were observed and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of a superthermal ultracold neutron source based on a solid deuterium converter for the TRIGA Mainz reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Research in fundamental physics with the free neutron is one of the key tools for testing the Standard Model at low energies. Most prominent goals in this field are the search for a neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) and the measurement of the neutron lifetime. Significant improvements of the experimental performance using ultracold neutrons (UCN) require reduction of both systematic and statistical errors.The development and construction of new UCN sources based on the superthermal concept is therefore an important step for the success of future fundamental physics with ultracold neutrons. Significant enhancement of today available UCN densities strongly correlates with an efficient use of an UCN converter material. The UCN converter here is to be understood as a medium which reduces the velocity of cold neutrons (CN, velocity of about 600 m/s) to the velocity of UCN (velocity of about 6 m/s).Several big research centers around the world are presently planning or constructing new superthermal UCN sources, which are mainly based on the use of either solid deuterium or superfluid helium as UCN converter.Thanks to the idea of Yu.Pokotilovsky, there exists the opportunity to build competitive UCN sources also at small research reactors of the TRIGA type. Of course these smaller facilities don't promise high UCN densities of several 1000 UCN/cm 3 , but they are able to provide densities around 100 UCN/cm 3 for experiments.In the context of this thesis, it was possible to demonstrate succesfully the feasibility of a superthermal UCN source at the tangential beamport C of the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. Based on a prototype for the future UCN source at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRMII) in Munich, which was planned and built in collaboration with the Technical University of Munich, further investigations and improvements were done and are presented in this thesis. In parallel, a second UCN source for the radial beamport D was designed and

  13. Investigation of a superthermal ultracold neutron source based on a solid deuterium converter for the TRIGA Mainz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, Thorsten

    2010-12-22

    Research in fundamental physics with the free neutron is one of the key tools for testing the Standard Model at low energies. Most prominent goals in this field are the search for a neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) and the measurement of the neutron lifetime. Significant improvements of the experimental performance using ultracold neutrons (UCN) require reduction of both systematic and statistical errors.The development and construction of new UCN sources based on the superthermal concept is therefore an important step for the success of future fundamental physics with ultracold neutrons. Significant enhancement of today available UCN densities strongly correlates with an efficient use of an UCN converter material. The UCN converter here is to be understood as a medium which reduces the velocity of cold neutrons (CN, velocity of about 600 m/s) to the velocity of UCN (velocity of about 6 m/s).Several big research centers around the world are presently planning or constructing new superthermal UCN sources, which are mainly based on the use of either solid deuterium or superfluid helium as UCN converter.Thanks to the idea of Yu.Pokotilovsky, there exists the opportunity to build competitive UCN sources also at small research reactors of the TRIGA type. Of course these smaller facilities don't promise high UCN densities of several 1000 UCN/cm{sup 3}, but they are able to provide densities around 100 UCN/cm{sup 3} for experiments.In the context of this thesis, it was possible to demonstrate succesfully the feasibility of a superthermal UCN source at the tangential beamport C of the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. Based on a prototype for the future UCN source at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRMII) in Munich, which was planned and built in collaboration with the Technical University of Munich, further investigations and improvements were done and are presented in this thesis. In parallel, a second UCN source for the radial beamport D was

  14. The German reactor safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1980-01-01

    The most important results of the German risk study of a nuclear power plant equipped with a pressurized water reactor were published in August 1979. The main volume of the study with the approach used and the results elaborated has been available for reference since late 1979. Eight technical volumes contain detailed descriptions and documentations of the investigations carried out. The reference facility used as a basis for the technical plant studies was unit B of the Biblis Nuclear Power Station, a KWU PWR of 3750 MW thermal power. This contribution provides more detailed explanations of the methods and the results of the risk study illustrated by examples. The description refers to accident categories and categories of radioactivity releases, probabilities of specific sequences of accident events, and the damage associated with core meltdown accidents as a function of various types of failure. For purposes of evaluation and application of the results the limits in the basic assumptions of the study are referred to. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Research activities at the TRIGA Mainz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.; Trautmann, N.

    2002-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Mainz University became first critical on August 3, 1965. It can be operated in the steady state mode with a maximum power of 100 kW and in the pulse mode with a peak power of 250 MW. The TRIGA Mainz is mainly used for neutron activation analysis, isotope production, basic research in nuclear chemistry and nuclear physics as well as for education and training

  16. Dose calculation in biological samples in a mixed neutron-gamma field at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Mainz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, T.; Blaickner, M.; Schütz, C.

    2010-01-01

    and pin-diodes. Material and methods. When L-α-alanine is irradiated with ionizing radiation, it forms a stable radical which can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The value of the ESR signal correlates to the amount of absorbed dose. The dose for each pellet is calculated using......To establish Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for non-resectable liver metastases and for in vitro experiments at the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz, Germany, it is necessary to have a reliable dose monitoring system. The in vitro experiments are used to determine the relative......-calculations for mixed radiation fields and the Hansen & Olsen alanine detector response model. With the acquired data about the background dose and charged particle spectrum, and with the acquired information of the neutron flux, we are capable of calculating the dose to the tissue. Conclusion. Monte Carlo simulation...

  17. MAINZ: MAMI microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Officially inaugurated at the end of January was the new Mainz Microtron - MAMI - which became fully operational last summer after a final three-year construction phase at Johannes Gutenberg University

  18. Research with Neutrons at the TRIGA Mainz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Institut fuer Kernchemie of the Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet in Mainz became first critical on August 3, 1965 and is still intensively used for basic research, applied science and educational purposes. Considering the past and future operation schedule and the low burn-up of the fuel elements (∼4 g 235 U/a), the reactor can be operated for at least the next decade taking into account the fresh fuel elements on stock and without changing spent fuels. The operation of the TRIGA Mainz has been extended very recently until the year 2020. The TRIGA Mainz can be operated in the steady state mode with a maximum power of 100 kWth and in the pulse mode with a peak power of 250 MWth. Until now, more than 16600 pulses have been carried out without any fuel failure. For irradiations the TRIGA Mainz has a central experimental tube, three pneumatic transfer systems and a rotary specimen rack with 40 positions which allows the irradiation of 80 samples at the same time. In addition, the TRIGA Mainz includes four horizontal beam ports penetrating the concrete shielding and extending inside the pool towards the reflector. A graphite thermal column provides a source of well-thermalized neutrons suitable for physical research or biological and medical irradiations. Important projects for the future of the TRIGA Mainz are the production of ultracold neutrons (UCN) and experiments with UCN, high precision mass measurements and laser spectroscopy of short-lived fission products (TRIGA-TRAP), the production of radionuclides for fast chemical separations, medical and radiopharmaceutical applications, and the use of the neutron activation analysis for the application in archeometry, solar energy technique, criminalistics and vine analysis. Furthermore, studies are performed to judge if the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) can be applied at the TRIGA Mainz for cancer treatment of liver metastases. Also, the reactor facility is used for the training

  19. German research reactor back-end provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, Siegfried; Gruber, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Germany has several types of Research Reactors in operation. These reactors use fuel containing uranium of U.S. origin. Basically all the fuel which will be spent until May 2006 will be returned to the U.S. under existing contracts with the U.S. Department of Energy. The contracts are based on the U.S. FRR SNF (Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel) Program which started in May 1996 and which will last for 10 years. In 1990, the German Federal Government started a program to long-term store (approx. 40 years) and finally dispose of spent fuel in Germany after the so-called U.S. fuel return window will be closed. In order to long-term store the fuel, a special container was designed which covers all different types of spent fuel from the Research Reactors. The container called 'CASTOR MTR 2' is basically licensed and is already in use for the spent fuel of Russian origin from the 'Research Reactor Rossendorf' in the eastern part of Germany. All that fuel is expected to be stored in the existing intermediate storage facility, the so-called BZA (Brennelemente Zwischenlager Ahaus). BZA already accomodates spent fuel from the former THTR-300 high temperature reactor. A final repository does not yet exist in Germany. Alternative provisions to close the back-end of the Research Reactor fuel cycle are reprocessing at COGEMA (France) or in Russian facilities, perspectively. Waste return in a form to be agreed will be mandatory, at least in France. (author)

  20. German concept and status of the disposal of spent fuel elements from German research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorowski, K.; Storch, S.; Thamm, G.

    1995-01-01

    Eight research reactors with a power ≥ 100 kW are currently being operated in the Federal Republic of Germany. These comprise three TRIGA-type reactors (power 100 kW to 250 kW), four swimming-pool reactors (power 1 MW to 10 MW) and one DIDO type reactor (power 23 MW). The German research reactors are used for neutron scattering for basic research in the field of solid state research, neutron metrology, for the fabrication of isotopes and for neutron activation analysis for medicine and biology, for investigating the influence of radiation on materials and for nuclear fuel behavior. It will be vital to continue current investigations in the future. Further operation of the German research reactors is therefore indispensable. Safe, regular disposal of the irradiated fuel elements arising now and in future operation is of primary importance. Furthermore, there are several plants with considerable quantities of spent fuel, the safe disposal of which is a matter of urgency. These include above all the VKTA facilities in Rossendorf and also the TRIGA reactors, where disposal will only be necessary upon decommissioning. The present paper report is concerned with the disposal of fuel from the German research reactors. It briefly deals with the situation in the USA since the end of 1988, describes interim solutions for current disposal requirements and then mainly concentrates on the German disposal concept currently being prepared. This concept initially envisages the long-term (25--50 years) dry interim storage of fuel elements in special containers in a central German interim store with subsequent direct final disposal without reprocessing of the irradiated fuel

  1. Review of the German Reactor Safety Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1980-01-01

    The accident risks in German nuclear power plants are reviewed. Parameters influencing the extent and consequences of an accident are differentiated. Risks of normal operation, war, and sabotage have not been considered. Measures taken by the operating shaft in the course of an accident are taken into account. The knowledge thus gained can be applied in the planning of emergency measures. (DG) [de

  2. Institut fuer Kernchemie, Univ. Mainz. Annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1984-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and speeches. The work concern fast chemical separations, the detection of short-lived nuclides, mass separations, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear fission, heavy ion research, superheavy elements, radionuclide ecology, and the operation of the TRIGA Mainz reactor. (HSI) [de

  3. Status of the TRIGA user facility in Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kories, Fabian; Heil, Werner; Karch, Jan Peter; Sobolev, Yury [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus; Hampel, Gabriele; Reich, Tobias; Trautmann, Norbert [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) offer unique opportunities for investigating the properties of the free neutron with exceptionally high precision such as the measurement of its lifetime. At the pulsed TRIGA reactor in Mainz, a superthermal UCN source using solid deuterium as converter is operational and delivers up to 10 UCN/cm{sup 3} in typical storage volumes of 10 l. Within PRISMA Cluster of excellence, this source will be upgraded to a targeted strength of 100 UCN/cm{sup 3} in order to transform TRIGA Mainz into a world-leading user facility for UCN research. Besides the installation of a He liquefier to sustain long-term experiments, the existing neutron guides have to be replaced by high-quality guides with low surface roughness which are internally coated with Ni-58 to increase the phase space for UCN transport. The poster gives a status report on the activities at the UCN source at TRIGA Mainz.

  4. The French-German common safety approach for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Chevet, P.F.

    1995-01-01

    A common safety approach has been defined for future electronuclear plants in the framework of the French-German European Pressurised water Reactor (EPR) project. Improvements in the domain of containment are required in future reactors conception to prevent any risk of core fusion under high and low pressure. Another objective is to reduce significantly the radioactive releases due to other accidents in order to reduce spatial and temporal environmental and human protection procedures. Protection against external aggressions (plane fall, explosions, earthquakes,..), prevention of pipe rupture in the primary circuits, limitation of hydrogen production in the case of water-zirconium complete reaction, cooling of the reactor in the case of core fusion, and radiologic consequences of accidents are the main points discussed by the French-German safety authorities to define the common safety standards of the EPR project. (J.S.)

  5. Pumps for German pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dernedde, R.

    1984-01-01

    The article describes the development of a selection of pumps which are used in the primary coolant system and the high-pressure safety injection system and feed water system during the past 2 decades. The modifications were caused by the step-wise increasing power output of the plants from 300 MW up to 1300 MW. Additional important influences were given be the increased requirements for quality assurance and final-documentation. The good operating results of the delivered pumps proved that the reliability is independent of the volume of the software-package. The outlook expects that consolidation will be followed by additional steps for the order processing of components for the convoy pumps. KW: main coolant pump; primary system; boiler feed pump; reactor pump; secondary system; barrel insert pump; pressure water reactor; convoy pump; state of the art.

  6. Consequence model of the German reactor safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Aldrich, D.; Burkart, K.; Horsch, F.; Hubschmann, W.; Schueckler, M.; Vogt, S.

    1979-01-01

    The consequency model developed for phase A of the German Reactor Safety Study (RSS) is similar in many respects to its counterpart in WASH-1400. As in that previous study, the model describes the atmosphere dispersion and transport of radioactive material released from the containment during a postulated reactor accident, and predicts its interaction with and influence on man. Differences do exist between the two models however, for the following reasons: (1) to more adequately reflect central European conditions, (2) to include improved submodels, and (3) to apply additional data and knowledge that have become available since publication of WASH-1400. The consequence model as used in phase A of the German RSS is described, highlighting differences between it and the U.S. model

  7. Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors: German Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschek, W.

    2012-01-01

    General German situation: • After Fukushima decision to phase out definitely until 2022; • Currently only 9 reactors left (2 BWRs and 7 PWRs); • Start of new search for final repository all over Germany (salt, clay); • Discussion on retrievable repository; • Search for methods to reduce risk from waste repositories. Future prospects: • Continuation of work within EU programs; • Continuation of work within international organizations (IAEA, NEA-OECD); • New CRP‘s are of interest; • Education and training; • Focus on safety: prevention and mitigation; • Embedded in work on transmutation and waste treatment; • Cycle studies to demonstrate both sustainability potential and waste burning capability (reduced loads for final repositories) of FR

  8. German Phase B [risk study] highlights the role of [reactor] accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Phase B of the German probabilistic risk assessment study, now scheduled for publication this month, suggests that reactor accident management measures can prevent or mitigate about 90 per cent of event sequences. (author)

  9. The development of the breeder reactor program of the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunschild, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This article recapitulates the stages of the program which is in hand in the German Federal Republic concerning breeder reactors with fast neutrons. In particular, it describes in detail the causes for the delays in the construction of the demonstration reactor SRN 300 (Kalkar) for which the commissioning has now been fixed for 1987. It emphasizes the importance of the collaboration which exists in Europe for the establishment of the projects and the construction of fast neutron power stations, including the SNR 2 reactor; the construction of the latter could begin in the German Federal Republic at the end of the Eighties [fr

  10. Risk-oriented analysis on the German prototype fast breeder reactor SNR-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Koeberlein, K.; Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit, Garching, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    On request of a fact-finding committee of the German Federal Parliament, a risk-oriented analysis on the SNR-300, the German prototype fast breeder reactor, has been performed to allow a pragmatic safety comparison of the SNR-300 and a modern light-water reactor. Results of the technical plant analysis have been summarized in seven release categories. Accident consequences have been calculated for the actual site at Kalkar/Rhine. The results indicate that for the SNR-300 both the frequency of major accidents and the consequences of accidents are smaller than for the pressurized-water reactor analyzed in the German Risk Study. This article summarizes the methods and main results of the analysis of the SNR-300

  11. Evaluation of proposed German safety criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsell, A.W.

    1980-05-01

    This work reviews proposed safety criteria prepared by the German Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) for future licensing of gas-cooled high-temperature reactor (HTR) concepts in the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparison is made with US General Design Criteria (GDCs) in 10CFR50 Appendix A and with German light water reactor (LWR) criteria. Implications for the HTR design relative to the US design and safety approach are indicated. Both inherent characteristics and design features of the steam cycle, gas turbine, and process heat concepts are taken into account as well as generic design options such as a pebble bed or prismatic core

  12. Experiences with interpretation and application of the German Atomic Energy Act for the German research reactors in Geesthacht FRG-1 and FRG-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1980-01-01

    The German research reactors FRG-1 and FRG-2 have passed different types of licensing procedures in the past years. It is reported about the experiences we have got in the interpretation and application of section 7 of the German Atomic Energy Act. Following these experiences an estimation is done for the licensing procedure for the reduction of the uranium enrichment. (orig.) [de

  13. Environmental impacts of Chernobyl reactor accident in German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The radiation monitoring results published in this SAAS report correspond with the introductory paper to the compilation of data measured in the German Democratic Republic in the period May to September 1986, which was submitted to the IAEA in October 1986. The conclusion to be drawn from these results is that it was at no time necessary to restrict food consumption or to change nutritional habits in order to avoid detrimental health effects [fr

  14. Innovative Control concepts for German pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, Raphael; Kuhn, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Controlling reactor power without any manual support is becoming more and more important. The READIG project (READIG = Reactor Instrumentation and Digital Control) power control system installed in unit 2 of the Philippsburg nuclear power station (KKP 2) requires no manual intervention except for specific strategy criteria settings. It was even possible to eliminate the power distribution set points. With minor adaptations, this concept can be applied in other PWR plants as well. KKP 2 is a PWR plant with particularly sophisticated core charges; as a consequence, the I and C systems were adapted accordingly. The increase in integral reactor power and the low-leakage core charges are the main reasons for lower limiting margins, especially in peak limiting. The standard control concept was supplemented in such a way that a more precise fine control concept for power distribution in the full-load regime is achieved. The READIG project fully utilizes the possibilities offered by digital TXS Technology, which is why use is also made of physical parameterization. The new power distribution control concept has these advantages: - Operation at small peak-/DNB-reactor output limitation margins. - Stable control without manual intervention also in load cycles and in the frequency control mode. - Simplified operation due to omission of the power distribution set point. - Reduction to zero of the frequency of L-bank steps at constant power with superimposed frequency control mode. - Reduction to zero of the frequency of D-bank steps at constant power with superimposed frequency control mode. - Lower quantities of demineralized water to be fed at constant power with superimposed frequency control mode (±1%). (orig.)

  15. Present and future use of TRIGA reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, H.; Junker, D.; Krauss, O.

    1986-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany nine research reactors are presently in operation, three of which are TRIGA reactors. These are the TRIGA Mark I reactors at Hannover and Heidelberg with a steady state power of 250 kW and the TRIGA Mark II reactor at Mainz with a steady power of 100 kW and a peak pulsing power of 250 MW. The decommissioning of a number of research reactors, including the TRIGA Mark III reactor at Neuherberg near Munich, is reason enough to think about the present and future use of our reactors. The German TRIGA reactors met a lively interest of scientists, since they went into operation. Presently they are well used especially in biomedical (Hannover, Heidelberg) and basic research (Mainz). In the course of about 20 years of operation the techniques and requirements of experiments changed and consequently the use of the reactors too. Certainly this will be so in the future. But thanks to its versatile experimental facilities, this type of reactor can meet the various experimental demands. So we are looking forward to a good utilisation of our German TRIGA reactors in future and taking into account the low costs for personal, energy and fuel, we are quite confident that they will be in operation still for many years. (author)

  16. Piscina cubierta en Taubertsberg Mainz, Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apel, O.

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available The enclosed swimming pool built at Mainz involves two separate levels. The ground level contains the entrance hall, a bar, a gymnasium as well as heating, water renewal, purifying and sterilising installations. On the second level, in addition to the pool, which is 25 x 15 m in area, and a learner's pool, there are changing rooms for men and women, and shower and washing rooms. The building is of compound structure, and the enclosing walls are highly diaphanous, giving the interior much luminosity and a somewhat ethereal quality which characterises it in a very marked manner.El edificio destinado a piscina cubierta, construido en Mainz, consta de dos plantas: La planta baja aloja la zona de ingreso, el bar, un gimnasio, etc., y las instalaciones para: la calefacción, renovación, depuración y esterilización del agua, etc. La planta primera, además de los vestuarios —de señoras y de caballeros—, bloques de duchas y aseos, etc., alberga una piscina de 15 m x 25 m y otra de aprendizaje. El edificio es de estructura mixta y gran diafanidad de cerramientos, lo que proporciona una gran luminosidad y cierto aspecto etéreo que le caracteriza y distingue.

  17. Franco-German nuclear cooperation: from the 'common product' to the first European pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignon, D.

    1999-01-01

    It has now been 10 years since Framatome and Siemens decided to collaborate on the design and sales of an advanced nuclear power plant (NPP) model based on pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology. Originally called the 'common product', this model was renamed the European pressurized water reactor when Electricite de France (EDF) and the German electric utilities joined this cooperative development effort in 1992. Since the beginning, this cooperation has been formalized in the framework of an agreement that led to the founding of a joint and equally owned subsidiary, Nucler Power International (NPI), which is reponsible for leading the development of the new model and later handling its export sales

  18. German Light-Water-Reactor Safety-Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seipel, H.G.; Lummerzheim, D.; Rittig, D.

    1977-01-01

    The Light-Water-Reactor Safety-Research Program, which is part of the energy program of the Federal Republic of Germany, is presented in this article. The program, for which the Federal Minister of Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany is responsible, is subdivided into the following four main problem areas, which in turn are subdivided into projects: (1) improvement of the operational safety and reliability of systems and components (projects: quality assurance, component safety); (2) analysis of the consequences of accidents (projects: emergency core cooling, containment, external impacts, pressure-vessel failure, core meltdown); (3) analysis of radiation exposure during operation, accident, and decommissioning (project: fission-product transport and radiation exposure); and (4) analysis of the risk created by the operation of nuclear power plants (project: risk and reliability). Various problems, which are included in the above-mentioned projects, are concurrently studied within the Heiss-Dampf Reaktor experiments

  19. Utility experience in reactor noise analysis in German LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, A.; Weingarten, J.; Wach, D.

    1988-01-01

    Reactor noise analysis has a long history in Fed. Rep. of Germany. Since the early 60ies it was directed to early fault, malfunction and anomaly detection in nuclear power plants. When successful diagnoses showed the high potential and benefits including economic and safety aspects, also the utilities began to have a vivid concern in application of the developed methods and systems. The know-how transfer from specialized teams to the onsite personnel as well as the development of more ''intelligent'' online systems are important present and future tasks for further improvement of their efficiency. The diagnostic group of GRS is active in both fields and has close cooperation with several utilities to achieve these objectives. Modern signal processing equipment and access to a comprehensive knowledge base stored in data banks are provided by the data analysis center of GRS. The available capabilities are described and examples of analysis results within the cooperation utilities/GRS are given. (author)

  20. Breeders: operational experience with fast power reactors in five states - more intensive German-French breeder cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1978-01-01

    In the past year contracts have been signed and implemented for German-French cooperation in LMFBR development and commercialization. - The first German nuclear power station with a sodium cooled fast reactor, KNK II in Karlsruhe, is going into operation. - Construction of the prototype SNR 300 at Kalkar (Lower Rhine) is slowing down awaiting a decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court. - On the international level, remarkable experience in the operation of fast power reactors has accumulated. - Possible fuel cycle alternatives are being evaluated by an international committee. (orig.) [de

  1. Research activities at the TRIGA Mainz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.

    1994-01-01

    The experimental programme at the TRIGA Mainz covers a wide range of applications in different fields. Two of the four beam tubes are used for the development of fast and mainly continuous chemical separation procedures. These procedures are applied for the investigation of short-lived nuclides and for studies of the chemical behaviour of the heaviest elements. At the third beam tube an on-line mass-separator facility with a microwave-induced plasma as an ion source is installed. Very recently the fourth beam tube has been modified for the production of polarized neutrons by interaction with optically pumped 3 He atoms. The other irradiation facilities are used for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of different samples, among them geological and environmental ones, tracer production for chemical investigations, neutron irradiations of rat brain tissue to explore the utility of 157 Gd for cancer therapy and γ-ray irradiations for biological purposes. (author)

  2. Study of the accidental risk of the German fast breeder prototype reactor SNR-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeberlein, K.

    1983-01-01

    A fact-finding committee of the German Federal Parliament in July 1980 recommended to perform a 'risk-oriented study' of the SNR-300, the German 300 MWe fast breeder prototype reactor being under construction at Kalkar. The main aim of this study was to allow a comparative safety evaluation between the SNR-300 and a modern PWR, thus to prepare a basis for a political decision on the SNR-300. Methods and main results of the study are presented in this paper. In the first step of the study six groups of accidents have been identified which may initiate core destruction. By reliability analyses, expected frequency of each group has been estimated. Conditional probabilities for conceivable reactor tank failure modes have been analysed. Tank failure after core destruction leads to release of energy and radioactive material into the containment system. Such accident sequences have been pursued further. Based on a number of core destruction initiators and tank failure modes and various combinations of success and failure states of the containment systems, detailed calculations of different containment scenarious were carried out. From the results of the plant systems analysis, five release categories have been defined. Possible effects of external events and releases of radioactivity from the spent fuel storage pool have also been analysed. In order to quantify the degree of uncertainty of the calculated frequencies, subjective probability distributions of fixed, but inaccurately known quantities have been propagated through the calculations. Using the release categories as input, accident consequences were calculated for the site Kalkar. Though the uncertainty bandwidths for the accident frequencies estimated in the SNR-300 analysis are much wider than for the PWR, the analysis indicates that frequencies of severe accidents, and consequences, are smaller for the SNR-300 than for the PWR as analysed in the 'German Risk Study'. (orig.)

  3. Reactor safety and radiation protection. Draft of the BMU deparmental budget 16 of the 1998 German federal budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The expenditures earmarked for reactor safety and radiation protection in the 1998 budget of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Reactor Safety (BMU) total DM 101 million. The expenditures of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) are to amount to a total of DM 579 million. These are the figures included in departmental budget 16 of the 1998 federal budget, which was discussed by the Federal Parliament in September 1997. The atw compilation singles out a number of significant items of the departmental budget. (orig.) [de

  4. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: German Pebble Bed Reactor design and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This report describes and evaluates several gas-cooled reactor plant concepts under development within the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The concepts, based upon the use of a proven Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element design, include nuclear heat generation for chemical processes and electrical power generation. Processes under consideration for the nuclear process heat plant (PNP) include hydrogasification of coal, steam gasification of coal, combined process, and long-distance chemical heat transportation. The electric plant emphasized in the report is the steam turbine cycle (HTR-K), although the gas turbine cycle (HHT) is also discussed. The study is a detailed description and evaluation of the nuclear portion of the various plants. The general conclusions are that the PBR technology is sound and that the HTR-K and PNP plant concepts appear to be achievable through appropriate continuing development programs, most of which are either under way or planned

  5. Comparison of radioactive doses after the last protection layer insight the reactor structure for Russian VVER-1000 and German PWR-1300 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, A.; Mansourshaiflu, N.; Alizadeh, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    In pressurized reactors (VVER and PWR), various protections layers are used for reducing the output core doses. At any protection layer, some amount of neutron and gamma doses is reduced. In this project the axial flux of neutron and gamma beams have been evaluated at various protection layers in the operation state the German PWR-1300 and Russian VVER-1000 reactors by the MCNP computer code. For the purpose of effective use of the MCNP code and assuring its correct performance about of fluxed beams common and series of scientific answers and bench marks should be considered and the results obtained by the MCNP code, be compared with this answers. Then by using appropriate method, for reducing the flux variants of neutron and gamma beams at various protection layers of German PWR-1300 and Russian VVER-1000 reactors of the operation state of both reactors have been accelerated. In this projects, bench marks are computations and numbers existing in PSAR's present at Bushehr nuclear power plant. At the end, by using the results obtained and the standard doses, the time which a person can have work activity at the reactor wall (after the last protection layer), was compared for the operation status of the German PWR-1300 and Russian VVER-1000 reactors

  6. Alize 3 - first critical experiment for the franco-german high flux reactor - calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharmer, K.

    1969-01-01

    The results of experiments in the light water cooled D 2 O reflected critical assembly ALIZE III have been compared to calculations. A diffusion model was used with 3 fast and epithermal groups and two overlapping thermal groups, which leads to good agreement of calculated and measured power maps, even in the case of strong variations of the neutron spectrum in the core. The difference of calculated and measured k eff was smaller than 0.5 per cent δk/k. Calculations of void and structure material coefficients of the reactivity of 'black' rods in the reflector, of spectrum variations (Cd-ratio, Pu-U-ratio) and to the delayed photoneutron fraction in the D 2 O reflector were made. Measurements of the influence of beam tubes on reactivity and flux distribution in the reflector were interpreted with regard to an optimum beam tube arrangement for the Franco- German High Flux Reactor. (author) [fr

  7. Change of attitude and behaviour of the West-German population after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, H.J.; Rosenbauer, J.; Matiaske, B.

    1987-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the West-German population has shown to be much more aware of the hazards emanating from environmental pollution and chemical or radioactive contamination of food. It could be observed that, on the whole, consumption of important basic food has been reduced, so that the population's supply with various, significant nutrients is expected to deteriorate. The nutrients to be mentioned in this context are primarily calcium, riboflavin, folic acid, and ascorbic acid. Investigations over the period May to July 1986 show that the reactor accident's impact on the food consumption behaviour subsides only slowly, and it remains to be seen to what extent changes and fluctuations in the population's nutritional behaviour will have to be taken as 'normal'. Hence some sort of nutritional deficiency can be expected among certain groups of the population, either temporarily or over a prolonged period. A National Survey of Food Consumption currently in preparation will yield more detailed insight into the whole process. (orig./MG) [de

  8. The model of atmospheric diffusion and deposition adopted for the German reactor risk study (phase A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.G.; Vogt, S.

    1980-01-01

    The consequence model of the German reactor risk study comprises the release of radioactivity and thermal energy from the containment, the atmospheric diffusion, and the deposition of activity on the ground, the calculation of dose equivalents induced via the main exposure pathways, and the calculation of early and late health effects to the population, taking into account emergency actions for the protection of the public. The following exposure pathways are included in the model: external irradiation from the passing cloud and from the activity deposited on the ground, inhalation of the cloud activity and of resuspended material, and ingestion of contaminated food. Account is taken of the following effects: building wake, plume rise to thermal energy release, dynamic change of diffusion parameters, and plume depletion due to radioactive decay, dry and wet deposition. The calculations are performed for 115 weather sequences with starting times evenly distributed over one year. It is shown that such a choice of weather sequences reflects the total variety of meteorological situations, including precipitation, in a statistically adequate way. The area of the Federal Republic of Germany is divided into four meteorological site-regions, each with typical meteorological characteristics. Each power reactor site is assigned to one of the meteorological site-regions

  9. Outcome of Mainz II pouch urinary diversion after radical cystectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome of Mainz II pouch urinary diversion after radical cystectomy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer: our experience. ... Nine (82%) had a histological diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma, and two (18%) were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Ten (91%) patients had high‑grade disease, whereas only 1 ...

  10. The European pressurized water reactor. The French-German advanced PWR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, M.P.; Seidelberger, H.; Broecker, B.; Serviere, G.

    1995-01-01

    In order to derive full benefit from the Franco-German experience and to maintain a continuous development process, the EPR is of an evolutionary design. It is also an innovative product, intended to combine competitiveness, improved operability and enhanced safety. With a large electrical output, in the range of 1400-1500 MW, the EPR has an excellent cost-size ratio and is fully adapted to the scarcity of sites. It is also suitable for the development of scale-down products based on the same technology. The progress in safety that can be achieved with the EPR can be used to further enhance the already very high level of safety of the current French and German nuclear plants: (1) by an improvement of the preventive level of the defence-in-depth concept, and (2) by the implementation of additional features, mainly for the containment, to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents. Economically, the generation cost objective of the EPR will be at least as good as that of the French N4 reactor series. Improvements in safety may imply some additional investment costs, compared with those of the current plants, but the EPR is designed to achieve reductions of the other components of the generation costs, i.e. the fuel cycle costs and the operation and maintenance costs. The paper also describes some major design features of of the EPR: the safety systems, the containment and confinement functions, the arrangement of buildings, protection against external attacks, the man-machine interface, and instrumentation and control. 5 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Impacts of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the territories of the former German Democratic Republic in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    Several reports by SAAS (the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board of the German Democratic Republic) have been discussing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident through 1989. Only a summary had been published for 1989 in the environmental radioactivity annual report. Institut fuer Umweltschutz had been in charge of the publication of a more detailed account as part of the 'environmental report' but the project was abandoned since the institute was wound up as of October 1990. The report under review concludes the separate German Demoncratic Republic reporting by publishing the part of the manuscript on environmental contamination caused by artificial radionuclides which gives the 1989 situation on the basis of the previous results on the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The appendix lists the SAAS reports published in the past. (orig./BBR) [de

  12. Conflicting opinions: The controversy accompanying the site selection for a German reactor facility (1950-1955)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleitsmann, R.J.

    1986-12-01

    The foundation and history of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KfK) partly reflects the history of nuclear energy and the historical development of the German technology sector which in particular with respect to its topical implications (e.g. the acceptance of advanced technologies) is unfortunately still being underestimated in most cases. Studying the historical development of an institution such as Kfk reveals regional ties, municipal, district, neighbourhood and industrial ties which are normally buried and veiled. The history of its foundation and development bears evidence of the fact that Kfk is an integral part of the Karlsruhe technology region. The period from 1952 to 1955 was characterized by vehement disputes preceding the final site selection for the first nuclear reactor facility of the Federal Republic of Germany. Each endeavouring to be selected th competitors, i.e. the Free State of Bavaria represented by the city of Munich and the newly established Southwestern Baden-Wuerttemberg represented by the city of Karlsruhe virtually vied with one another for the most attractive proposals and bids. They were both fully aware of the fact that a positive decision would mean to assume obligations in the order of magnitude of enormous million sums. The slightest chance of being chosen the very region to house the promising and hopeful 'nuclear energy industry' of the Federal Republic of Germany evidently required rather high bids on both sides. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Problems raised by the results of the German reactor risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.G.; Vogt, S.

    1982-01-01

    The main subject of the German Reactor Risk Study is the assessment of the collective risk to the public due to the nuclear power plant operation - particularly due to uncontrolled accidents - in the Federal Republic of Germany. Whereas the collective risk is reasonably small as compared to other risks, the study also revealed the low probability end of maximum consequences, which are large enough - although extremely improbable - as to be termed catastrophic. It is shown, however, that the maximum number of early fatalities is strongly dependent on some conservative assumptions and on roughly averaged parameters. The results of recent research work suggest for example that the steam explosion can be neglected and the chemical reaction of radioiodine in the containment should be taken into account. The activity deposition on the ground should be simulated more realistically if single cases such as the maximum are to be evaluated. The possible margin of conservatism of the maximum consequences is shown to be more than one order of magnitude. (author)

  14. Status and perspectives of the Mainz neutrino mass experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, H.; Barth, H.; Bleile, A.

    1997-01-01

    New data from the decay of molecular tritium studied with the Mainz solenoid retarding spectrometer are presented. From a region close to the end-point we deduce an upper limit for the mass of the electron antineutrino of m ν c 2 ν 2 c 4 = - 22 ± 17 stat ± 14 sys eV 2 . Possible improvements and the perspectives of the experiment are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Colon pouch (Mainz III) for continent urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Liatsikos, Evangelos N; Sakelaropoulos, George; Rödder, Kilian; Hohenfellner, Rudolph; Fisch, Margit

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the use of a continent cutaneous pouch made exclusively of colon (Mainz pouch III), as excellent results with the Mainz pouch III in irradiated patients suggested that the indication for this type of urinary diversion could be extended. The outcome of 24 patients with continent cutaneous urinary diversions using colon segments (Mainz pouch III) was investigated retrospectively. Overall, 22 of the patients had a malignant disease and two a benign disease; 16 had a hysterectomy and pelvic exenteration for gynaecological tumours; two men with a rhabdomyosarcoma of the prostate had a radical cystoprostatectomy; one woman had pelvic exenteration for bladder cancer; one man had a simultaneous rectum resection due to infiltrating rectal cancer, and another a left nephrectomy with cystectomy for concomitant kidney and bladder tumour. Benign indications were hyper-reflexive bladder after polytrauma and two cases of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Eighteen patients had radiotherapy (32-48 Gy) before the urinary diversion. The mean (range) follow-up was 35 (12-65) months. The mean pouch capacity was 293.8 mL. Three patients died during the follow-up (two from disease progression and one suicide); 20 patients were fully continent, four with reduced pouch capacity (<300 mL) had slight incontinence and are wearing a protective pad (band-aid at the umbilicus). All patients use intermittent self-catheterization (mean catheterization frequency 6.8/day, range 6-12). Complications related to the pouch were one outlet stenosis that required revision. Postoperative pouchograms showed asymptomatic reflux in four patients. None of the patients developed metabolic acidosis or diarrhoea. The Mainz pouch III is an alternative to other types of continent urinary diversion.

  16. Irradiation facility at the TRIGA Mainz for treatment of liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, G. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)], E-mail: gabriele.hample@uni-mainz.de; Wortmann, B. [Evonik Energy Services GmbH Essen, Ruettenscheider Str. 1-3, D-45128 Essen (Germany); Blaickner, M. [Austrian Research Centers, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Knorr, J. [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Energietechnik, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Kratz, J.V. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Lizon Aguilar, A. [Evonik Energy Services GmbH Essen, Ruettenscheider Str. 1-3, D-45128 Essen (Germany); Minouchehr, S. [Transplantationschirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Nagels, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Strahlenforschung (ISF), Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Otto, G. [Transplantationschirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schmidberger, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schuetz, C.; Vogtlaender, L. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor at University of Mainz provides ideal conditions for duplicating BNCT treatment as performed in Pavia, Italy, in 2001 and 2003 [Pinelli, T., Zonta, A., Altieri, S., Barni, S., Braghieri, A., Pedroni, P., Bruschi, P., Chiari, P., Ferrari, C., Fossati, F., Nano, R., Ngnitejeu Tata, S., Prati, U., Ricevuti, G., Roveda, L., Zonta, C., 2002. TAOrMINA: from the first idea to the application to the human liver. In: Sauerwein et al. (Eds.), Research and Development in Neutron Capture Therapy. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy, Monduzzi editore, Bologna, pp. 1065-1072]. In order to determine the optimal parameters for the planned therapy and therefore for the design of the thermal column, calculations were conducted using the MCNP-code and the transport code ATTILA. The results of the parameter study as well as a possible configuration for the irradiation of the liver are presented.

  17. Extension and update of the reliability data for fire protection equipment in German light water reactors; Ergaenzung und Aktualisierung von Zuverlaessigkeitskenngroessen fuer Brandschutzeinrichtungen in deutschen Leichtwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forell, Burkhard; Einarsson, Svante

    2016-12-15

    Within the BMUB project 3610R01370 ''Extension and update of reliability data for fire protection equipment in German light water reactors'' plant-specific as well as generic failure rates for the technical reliability of active fire protection features in German nuclear power plants have been calculated. Based on results of previous projects, in this project observation times of components were updated and extended and additional components and functions were assessed. Now, the data evaluated results from a total of six German reference plants with seven reactor units.

  18. Dynamic simulation of the air-cooled decay heat removal system of the German KNK-II experimental breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, B.K.

    1984-07-01

    A Dump Heat Exchanger and associated feedback control system models for decay heat removal in the German KNK-II experimental fast breeder reactor are presented. The purpose of the controller is to minimize temperature variations in the circuits and, hence, to prevent thermal shocks in the structures. The basic models for the DHX include the sodium-air thermodynamics and hydraulics, as well as a control system. Valve control models for the primary and intermediate sodium flow regulation during post shutdown conditions are also presented. These models have been interfaced with the SSC-L code. Typical results of sample transients are discussed

  19. Searches for dark photons at the Mainz Microtron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, H.; Achenbach, P.; Gayoso, C. Ayerbe; Beranek, T.; Bernauer, J. C.; Böhm, R.; Correa, L.; Denig, A.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Gómez, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Mihovilovič, M.; Middleton, D. G.; Müller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pochodzalla, J.; Rohrbeck, M.; Majos, S. Sánchez [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); and others

    2013-11-07

    The A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) operates high resolution spectrometers at very high luminosities for fixed target electron scattering experiments. The setup is well suited for the search for dark photons in the mass range between 50 MeV and 300 MeV. In these experiments, a possible dark photon would appear as a sharp peak in the mass spectrum of di-lepton electro-production. In this presentation the potential of the setup is presented and the possibilities for future experiments for dark photon searches at MAMI are discussed.

  20. The materials concept in German light water reactors. A contribution to plant safety, economic performance and damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilg, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    Major decisions taken as early as in the planning and construction phases of nuclear power plants may influence overall plant life. Component quality at the beginning of plant life is determined very much also by a balanced inclusion of the 'design, choice of materials, manufacturing and inspection' elements. One example of the holistic treatment of design, choice of material, and manufacture of important safety-related components in pressurized water reactors is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in which the ferritic compound tubes, with inside claddings, for the control rod drive nozzles are screwed into the vessel top. Also the choice of Incoloy 800 for the steam generator tubes, and the design of the main coolant pipes with inside claddings as seamless pipe bends / straight pipes with integrated nozzles connected to mixed welds with austenitic pipes are other special design features of the Siemens/KWU plants. A demonstrably high quality standard by international comparison to this day has been exhibited by the austenitic RPV internals of boiling water reactors, which were made of a low-carbon Nb-stabilized austenitic steel grade by optimum manufacturing technologies. The same material is used for backfitting austenitic pipes. Reliable and safe operation of German nuclear power plants has been demonstrated for more than 4 decades. One major element in this performance is the materials concept adopted in Germany also in the interest of damage prevention. (orig.)

  1. Recovery of a broken inspection lance from the reactor vessel of the German sodium cooled fast breeder reactor SNR 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menck, J.W.; Hoeft, E.; Kirchner, G.

    1988-01-01

    An inspection lance for flow and vibration measurements was installed into the SNR-300 rotating plug. Centering and guiding of the lower end of the lance was effected in the central grid plate insert. The lance was torn off due to handling problems. The task consisted in recovering all defective parts from the reactor vessel and re-establishing the intact initial state. (author)

  2. Publication of the second amendment to the German-French Convention on the construction and operation of a very high flux reactor and to its complementary agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Full text in German, English, and French of the amendment to the London Convention of December 9, 1981 between the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning the operating cost and the use of the high flux reactor in Grenoble at the Max-von-Laue Institute. (HP) [de

  3. Gas Reactor International Cooperative Program. Interim report. Safety and licensing evaluaion of German Pebble Bed Reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The Pebble Bed Gas Cooled Reactor, as developed in the Federal Republic of Germany, was reviewed from a United States Safety and Licensing perspective. The primary concepts considered were the steam cycle electric generating pebble bed (HTR-K) and the process heat pebble bed (PNP), although generic consideration of the direct cycle gas turbine pebble bed (HHT) was included. The study examines potential U.S. licensing issues and offers some suggestions as to required development areas

  4. Reactor engineering and engineered reactor safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings give the full text of the lectures held by acknowledged French experts at the KTG Seminar in Mainz on March 10, 1987, all dealing with the leading topic of the current status of reactor engineering and development in France. Although the basic engineering principles and construction lines as well as the safety philosophy are the same in France as in West Germany, there have been distinctive developments over many years in the two countries that by now are not well known even among experts in this field, and hence cannot be properly assessed. Non-availability of relevant surveys or other type of literature in the German language reviewing the French developments is another factor that hitherto was a handicap to mutual exchange of information. The seminar was intended to close this gap. The proceedings should be read by all those in West Germany who wish to be informed about the developments in reactor engineering and reactor safety in France. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Franco-German cooperation for the physical protection of the EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalouneix, J.; Hagemann, A.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the proceeding that has been followed in the EPR (European pressurized water reactor) project concerning physical protection against malevolent actions and robbery of nuclear materials. Before the different options of the nuclear island were definitely set, a task group had been constituted to examine if these options could hamper the setting of physical protection measures that are required by the legislation of the 2 countries. Another group composed of experts from IPSN/GRS (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire / Gesellschaft fur Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit) had the task to define common requirements concerning the physical protection of reactors in Germany and in France. In this framework the EPR project team has prepared a technical document reviewing the different dispositions that have been retained to assure the physical protection of the reactor. (A.C.)

  6. Seismic design principles for the German fast breeder reactor SNR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangette, A.M.; Peters, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    The leading aim of a seismic design is, besides protection against seismic impacts, not to enhance the overall risk in the absence of seismic vibrations and, secondly, to avoid competition between operational needs and a seismic structural design. This approach is supported by avoiding overconservatism in the assumption of seismic loads and in the calculation of the structural response. Accordingly the seismic principles are stated as follows: restriction to German or equivalent low seismicity sites with intensities (SSE) lower VIII at frequency lower than 10 -4 /year; best estimate of seismic input-data without further conservatism; no consideration of OBE. The structural design principles are: 1. The secondary character of the seismic excitation is explicitly accounted for; 2. Energy absorption is allowed for by ductility of materials and construction. Accordingly strain criteria are used for failure predictions instead of stress criteria. (author). 1 fig

  7. Seismic design principles for the German fast breeder reactor SNR 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, K.A.; Peters, K.A.; Rosenhauer, W.

    1987-01-01

    The safety issue of an adequate and optimized external event protection is of course that unnecessary hardware precautions might promote internal disturbances or hamper their control. It has up to now not satisfactorily been realized that the only serious context for seismic impacts on a fast reactor is their attributed potential of overriding core disruptive accident prevention, see e.g. GRS 1982. General and exaggerated antiseismic design features not focussed upon this point may as well turn out to be non-negligible initators in the absence of seismic vibrations. Unexpected snubber difficulties requiring additional reactor scrams and decay heat removal phases may be named as a simple example. The presented seismic design principles reflect the progress made in the concerned fields of analysis and do serve on the other hand as guidelines for research and development efforts under work. (orig./GL)

  8. Newest results from the Mainz neutrino-mass experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Fickinger, L.; Kraus, Ch.; Otten, E.W.; Ulrich, H.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Kazachenko, O.; Kovalik, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mainz neutrino-mass experiment investigates the endpoint region of the tritium β-decay spectrum with a MAC-E spectrometer to determine the mass of the electron antineutrino. By the recent upgrade, the former problem of dewetting T 2 films has been solved, and the signal-to-background ratio was improved by a factor of 10. The latest measurement leads to m ν 2 -3.7 ± 5.3(stat.) ± 2.1(syst.) eV 2 /c 4 , from which an upper limit of m ν 2 (95% C.L.) is derived. Some indication for the anomaly, reported by the Troitsk group, was found, but its postulated half-year period is contradicted by our data. To push the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV/c 2 , a new larger MAC-E spectrometer is proposed. Besides its integrating mode, it could run in a new nonintegration operation MAC-E-TOF mode

  9. Immersion and contact freezing experiments in the Mainz wind tunnel laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppers, Oliver; Mayer, Amelie; Diehl, Karoline; Mitra, Subir; Borrmann, Stephan; Szakáll, Miklós

    2016-04-01

    Immersion and contact freezing are of outmost important ice nucleation processes in mixed phase clouds. Experimental studies are carried out in the Mainz vertical wind tunnel laboratory in order to characterize these nucleation processes for different ice nucleating particles (INP), such as for mineral dust or biological particles. Immersion freezing is investigated in our laboratory with two different experimental techniques, both attaining contact-free levitation of liquid droplets and cooling of the surrounding air down to about -25 °C. In an acoustic levitator placed in the cold room of our laboratory, drops with diameters of 2 mm are investigated. In the vertical air stream of the wind tunnel droplets with diameter of 700 micron are freely floated at their terminal velocities, simulating the flow conditions of the free atmosphere. Furthermore, the wind tunnel offers a unique platform for contact freezing experiments. Supercooled water droplets are floated in the vertical air stream at their terminal velocities and INP are injected into the tunnel air stream upstream of them. As soon as INP collides with the supercooled droplet the contact freezing is initiated. The first results of immersion and contact freezing experiments with cellulose particles both in the acoustic levitator and in the wind tunnel will be presented. Cellulose is considered as typical INP of biological origin and a macrotracer for plant debris. Nucleating properties of cellulose will be provided, mainly focusing on the temperature, INP concentration, and specific surface area dependences of the freezing processes. Direct comparison between the different experimental techniques (acoustic levitator and wind tunnel), as well as between nucleation modes (immersion and contact freezing) will be presented. The work is carried out within the framework of the German research unit INUIT.

  10. A proposed wind shift model for the German reactor safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; Bayer, A.; Schueckler, M.

    1979-04-01

    To account for hourly wind direction changes, a wind shift model has been proposed. Using hourly recorded wind speed and direction data, the model modifies the angular distribution of radionuclide concentrations calculated by a straightline model, and is intended to better represent the concentrations in areas close to the reactor where potential doses might exceed the threshold level for early fatalities. 115 weather sequences were used, both with and without the proposed wind shift model, to calculate probability distributions for early fatalities. The use of the proposed model results in a reduction of the mean and peak values of that distribution by 36% and 29%, respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Possible ways and aspects of conversions for the German low power research reactors BER II, FRM, and FMRB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.-J.

    1983-01-01

    Based on the overall agreement about methods and principal results on core conversions from HEU to MEU within the work done for the IAEA Guidebook, investigations were started of the three specific cases, that means the conversions of the German Research Reactors within the German AF-Program. The first step of this work was done for the three low power MTR-reactors: the Ber II in Berlin operating at KW, FMRB in Brunswick operating at 1 MW, and FRM near Munich operating at 4 W. The simplest core from the point of view of conversion calculations was the BER II reactor. The core is made up out of 33 fuel elements and 5 control elements, it is built up on a 8 x 8 grid plate. On three sides the core is surrounded by reflector elements partially made of graphite and partially of beryllium. The main purpose of the core is to provide high neutron fluxes for the 12 beam tubes on all reflector sides. A little bit more complicated - from the conversion point of view - was the status of the Munich FRM. This is on one hand due to the two different cores they operate: a so-called normal core and a smaller beryllium core and on the other other hand due to the different uranium-loadings of fuel elements partially 230 g 235-U per element and partially 180 g 235-U per element with control elements of both plate loadings as well. The third reactor investigated was the Brunswick FMRB, which has specific design features that cause specific problems. The core is split into two parts, the so-called north core and the south core interacting via a heavy water reflector in between. Calculations with LEU-fuel - in these three cases no MEU-fuel was used - were done looking at different criteria for the conversion. The first group we call cycle length criteria and they are split into two versions, the same cycle length for LEU-fuel as for the existing HEU-fuel measured in MWd with the same excess reactivity at EOL as it exists at present; the same criterion as the previous except the cycle

  12. Development and testing of nuclear graphite for the German pebble-bed high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, G.; Delle, W.; Nickel, H.; Theymann, W.; Wilhelmi, G.

    1987-01-01

    Several types of high temperature reactors have been developed in the Federal Republic of Germany. They are all based on spherical fuel elements being surrounded by graphite as reflector material. As an example, HTR-500 developed by the Hochtemperatur Reaktorbau GmbH is shown. The core consists of the top reflector, the side reflector with inner and outer parts, the bottom reflector and the core support columns. The most serious problem with respect to fast neutron radiation damage had to be solved for the materials of those parts near the pebble bed. Regarding the temperature profile in the core, the top reflector is at 300 deg C, and as cooling gas flows from the top downward, the temperature of the inner side reflector rises to about 700 deg C at the bottom. Fortunately, the highest fast neutron load accumulated during the life time of a reactor corresponds to the lowest temperature. This makes graphite components easier to survive neutron exposure without being mechanically damaged, although the maximum fast neutron fluence is as high as 4 x 10 22 /cm 2 at about 400 deg C. HTR graphite components are divided into four classes according to loading. The raw materials for nuclear graphite, the development of pitch coke nuclear graphite, the irradiation behavior of ATR-2E and ASR-IRS and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. The European pressurized water reactor. Result of the French-German cooperation of experienced NPP suppliers and operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989 Framatome and Siemens, the two most experienced European nuclear power plant suppliers, decided to join the efforts for the development of a new reactor type for the next generation in their equally owned subsidiary nuclear power international (NPI). In 1992 Electricite de France and the major German utilities operating nuclear power plants merged their own development programs with that of nuclear power international and initiated the European pressurized water reactor (EPR) project. In order to reach the two major targets of the project, the licensability in both countries, France and Germany, and the competitiveness of nuclear energy with other alternative energy sources, the design basis which had differently developed in the two countries needed to be harmonized. In parallel, the licensing authorities of both countries extended their existing cooperation in the field of a safety survey of existing nuclear power plants to the definition of safety criteria for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Through this cooperation the licensability of EPR in France and Germany will be assured. Continuously performed cost analysis show in addition that also the second target of the project, the competitiveness with alternative primary energy sources, can be achieved. Thanks to the fruitful cooperation between all parties involved, satisfactory results have been achieved not by a simple superposition of existing design features but through a careful evaluation and combination of the best available alternatives. At the end of 1997 the basic design results were compiled in a final report. Subsequently an optimization phase was launched that further improves the competitiveness of the power generation costs. (orig.)

  14. Neutron fluence at the reactor pressure vessel wall - a comparison of French and German procedures and strategies in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricot, N.; Jendrich, U.

    2003-01-01

    While the neutrons within the core may take part in the chain reaction, those neutrons emitted from the core are basically lost for the energy production. This 'neutron leakage' represents a loss of fuel efficiency and causes neutron embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall. The latter raises safety concerns, needs to be monitored closely and may necessitate mitigating measures. There are different strategies to deal with these two undesirable effects: The neutron emission may be reduced to some extent all around the core or just at the 'hot spots' of RPV embrittlement by tailored core loading patterns. A higher absorption rate of neutrons may also be achieved by a larger water gap between the core and the RPV. In this paper the inter-relations between the distribution of neutron flux, core geometry, core loading strategy, RPV embrittlement and its surveillance are discussed at first. Then the different strategies followed by the German and French operators are described. Finally the conclusions will highlight the communalities and differences between these strategies as different approaches to the same problem of safety as well as economy. (authors)

  15. Crack formation in ferritic screws of main steam isolation valves in German boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmill, H.

    1992-01-01

    In connection with crack formations at screws of main steam isolation valves in boiling water reactors, detected for the first time in 1988 in the Federal Republic of Germany, metallographic and fractographic investigations and coating analyses of screw surfaces and crack flanks were performed in order to find out the causes. These and other investigations of damaged screws were accompanied in the years 1989 and 1990 by autoclave tests made in several laboratories. With a view to the mechanical stress of the screws, tightening tests and stress analyses were performed by means of FEM. Repeated autoclave tests were concluded recently by the Stuttgart MPA. Although these tests are not reported here, it can be stated that the results obtained fit in with the overall framework of the results summed up in this report. With regard to the kind of sample stress and the results obtained, two cases have to be distinguished in the autoclave tests discussed in this report. (orig.) [de

  16. Proposed development of a radionuclide washoff model for the German Reactor Safety Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents a brief overview of the possible development of a model for the attenuation of radionuclide concentrations in urban environments due to rainfall/runoff relationships. The following sequence of actions is suggested: (1) preliminary review, (2) exploratory modeling, (3) detailed literature review, (4) development of mathematical model, (5) development of computer model, and (6) model review including verification and sensitivity analysis. To facilitate the initiation of the indicated efforts, an introduction to the relevant literature is provided. Further, the following topics are also briefly discussed: (1) radionuclide transport and removal in the terrestrial environment, (2) need for a description of the chemical and physical forms of the radionuclides released in a reactor accident, and (3) potential importance of surface-water contamination. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Institute for Nuclear Chemistry of the University of Mainz. Annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report summarizes the points of main efforts of the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry during 1986: A. Rapid separations (thermochromatography of platinum elements; ICP source for the HELIOS mass separator; oxidation states of Lr; ionic radii of Lr 3+ and Md 3+ ; heats of hydration). B. Exotic nuclei and nuclear structure (lifetime of the 167 keV level of 97 Sr; description of the K=3/2 + side band in 99 Y with the IBF/PTQ model; pairing-free K π =1 + -rotational bands in deformed odd/odd A ≅ 100 nuclei; proton particle states in 103,105 Rh; β-decay of the 110,112 Rh isomers; β-decay half-life of 130 48 Cd and its importance for astrophysical r-process scenarios; alpha burning of 14 O; β-decay half-lives of nuclei far from stability for astrophysical application; beta delayed neutron energy spectra for application in reactor physics). C. Nuclear fission (charge distribution in the reaction 232 Th(n R ,f); isomeric ratios and decay properties of 96m,g Y, 97m,g Y and 134m,g I). D. Heavy ion reactions (quasi fission in the reaction 40 Ar + 208 Pb near the Coulomb barrier; unusual excitation-energy distribution in quasi-fission reactions; competition of direct reactions with fusion; nucleon transfer in the reaction 40 Ar + 235 U; nuclear reactions and nuclear contact in U+U collisions below the barrier; deflection function and fragmentation in the system 197 Au → 197 Au; search for exotic heavy nuclei using Rutherford backscattering). E. Ecology of radionuclides (preparation of plutonium samples for laser spectroscopy; laser resonance-ionization mass spectrometry on uranium and plutonium; capture of externally produced ions in a high frequency quadrupole trap; Chernobyl fallout in the Mainz area). (orig./RB) [de

  18. Risk-oriented analysis of the German prototype fast breeder reactor SNR-300: off-site accident consequence model and results of the study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Ehrhardt, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accident off-site consequence calculations and risk assessments performed for the ''risk oriented analysis'' of the German prototype fast breeder reactor SNR-300 were performed with a modified version of the off-site accident consequence model UFOMOD. The modifications mainly relate to the deposition and resuspension processes, the ingestion model, and the dose factors. Consequence calculations at the site of Kalkar on the Rhine River were performed for 115 weather sequences in 36 wind directions. They were based on seven release categories evaluated for the SNR-300 with two different fueling strategies: plutonium from Magnox reactors only and plutonium from light water reactors and Magnox reactors. In parallel, the corresponding frequencies of occurrence are determined. The following results are generated: 1. complementary cumulative frequency distribution functions for collective fatalities and collective doses 2. expected values of the collective fatalities and collective doses as well as distance-dependent expected values of individual fatality 3. contributions of the different exposure pathways to fatalities with respect to the various organs. For comparison with the risk of a PWR-1300, calculations for the PWR-1300 of the ''German Risk Study'' were repeated with the same modified consequence model. Comparison shows that smaller risks result for the SNR-300. However, the confidence interval bandwidths obtained for the frequencies of the release categories for the SNR-300 are larger than those of the PWR-1300

  19. Self-reported consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages in a German wine area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronk P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Petra Fronk,1 Maria Blettner,2 Heinz Decker1 1Institute for Molecular Biophysics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany; 2Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany Purpose: To describe the consumption of alcoholic beverages in a German wine area, with special attention to the number of people drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a mailed questionnaire, to investigate the weekly consumption of wine, beer, and spirits during the preceding 12 months in Mainz, the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The analysis included 948 responders aged 20–69 years. Results: A total of 948 respondents, with a mean age of 43.7 years, were included in the analysis. About 85% of the respondents consumed alcoholic beverages, with an average of about 13.5 g alcohol/day. Men drank about twice as much as women. In total, 30% of women and 24% of men reported drinking more than the TUAL, and 9.2% of women and 7.2% of men reported drinking more than twice as much as the TUAL. The highest proportion of persons drinking more than the TUAL was found among elderly people. The preferred beverage was wine, which contributed 74% (for women and 54% (for men to the total alcohol intake. On average, the respondents drank 2.8 glasses of wine per week, 1.4 bottles beer, and negligible amounts of spirits. Conclusion: Wine was the preferred alcoholic beverage in Mainz, which was expected for people living in a wine area. A rather large number of people, especially among the elderly, consumed alcohol in an amount higher than the TUAL which may be harmful to health. Keywords: beer, spirits, TUAL, Mainz

  20. Decontamination of the reactor pressure vessel and further internals and auxiliary systems in the German boiling water reactor Isar-1; Dekontamination des RDB inkl. der Einbauten wie Dampftrockner und Wasserabscheider sowie der angeschlossenen Hilfssysteme im deutschen Siedewasserreaktor ISAR 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Michael; Sempere Belda, Luis; Basu, Ashim; Topf, Christian [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). Abt. Chemistry Services; Erbacher, Thomas; Hiermer, Thomas; Schnurr, Bernhard; Appeldorn, Thomas van [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk ISAR, Essenbach (Germany). Abt. Maschinentechnik; Volkmann, Christian [ESG Engineering Services GmbH, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The German nuclear power plant ISAR 1 (KKI 1), a 878 MWe boiling water reactor of KWU design, was shut down on March 17{sup th}, 2011. With the objective to minimize the plants activity inventory accompanied by the reduction of contact dose rates of systems and components the project 'decontamination of the RPV incl. steam dryer and water separator and the connected auxiliary systems' was implemented in the first quarter of 2015. One major focus within the project was the specific in-situ decontamination of the steam dryer.

  1. Production facility for ATLAS new small wheel drift panels at JGU Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duedder, Andreas; Lin, Tai-Hua; Schott, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS Phase-I Upgrade in 2018 includes the replacement of the ATLAS Muon Small Wheel by the so-called New Small Wheel (NSW). Large-scale Micromegas detectors will serve as tracking detectors in the NSW. Parts of these detectors will be constructed at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU). In order to fulfill the requirements of the envisioned detector performance, a high precision detector construction is crucial. Especially the surface planarity of the produced detector panels has to better than 30 μm over an area of 2 m{sup 2}. Methods for the quality control of the raw material and the constructed parts have been developed and implemented. This talk gives an overview of the production facility at JGU Mainz which is used during the mass production of NSW components in coming years.

  2. The identity of new settlements. A new experimental town: Layenhof near Mainz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Venturi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though at present the attention of European planning agencies is focused on issues of re-use and green areas, a number of events are again raising the need to define proper answers to problems of new urbanization. Following a discussion on the changing definition of the urban phenomenon, the tender for a new settlement in Layenhof near Mainz in Germany and the architectural, urban design solution are presented.

  3. Nuclear Chemistry Institute, Mainz University. Annual Report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    1996-03-01

    The annual report of the Institut fuer Kernchemie addresses inter alia three main research activities. The first belongs to the area of basic research, covering studies in the fields of nuclear fission, chemistry of the super-heavy elements and of heavy-ion reactions extending from the Coulomb barrier to relativistic energies, and nuclear astrophysics in connection with the ''r process''. By means of laser technology, high-precision data could be measured of the ionization energies of berkelium and californium. Studies of atomic clusters in the vacuum of an ionization trap revealed interesting aspects. The second major activity was devoted to the analysis of environmental media, applying inter alia neutron activation analysis and resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS). The third activity resulted in the development of novel processes, or the enhancement of existing processes or methods, for applications in basic research work and in environmental analytics. Another item of interest is the summarizing report on the operation of the TRIGA research reactor. (orig./SR) [de

  4. Reactor safety in industrial nuclear power plants. Developments in a political and technical environment as it prevails in the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufs, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The present book describes the development of reactor safety in German light-water nuclear power plants from the beginnings with its multifarious links to model solutions seen in other countries, national and international research projects and accidents in conventional and nuclear power plants. It contains detailed, richly illustrated articles on specific safety techniques such as rupture safety of the pressurised envelope, safeguarding of emergency cooling in the event of accidents involving coolant loss, control technology and protection of the surroundings through containment. The results of national and international risk studies are discussed. It is shown how efforts on the part of industry, government and science to enhance safety resources and improve safety culture have been driven by a civic environment in which the use of nuclear energy has become a central issue of political debate. The book is written in readily comprehensible language and offers a wealth of material for further study.

  5. Lessons learned from exchanges between the french and german safety authorities. Comparison of the safety levels achieved for reactors built in these two countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droulers, Y.

    1988-12-01

    It is important to emphasize, right at the beginning, the exceptional extent of the assessment work performed over several years on the nuclear power plants in each country (exchange of confidential documents, communication of incidents during the plant building stage, specialist visits to the site, joint reports by the Franco-German Commission on all important safety problems). The D.F.K. (Franco-German Commission) has been the official framework for these exchanges since 1976 (the exchanges relating to FESSENHEIM and its ''twin'' plant NECKARWESTHEIM 1 began as far back as 1973 and were pursued, when construction of CATTENOM began, by a comparison with PHILIPPSBURG). Apart from its annual plenary session, it presently comprises 6 standing working groups dealing respectively with general safety problems (including primary system technology problems and exchanges on incidents discussed by two subcommittees), emergency plans, radiation protection problems, radioactive waste, fuel cycle installations, fast breeder reactors. It is also worth noting the regular meetings held by the standing groups of experts (GPR and RSK), which have enabled periodical assessment of the extent to which the approaches of the two countries to the main safety problems are tending to converge (severe accidents, operating feedback, containment, followup on the TMI and CHERNOBYL accidents, etc) and the exchanges between the IPSN and the GRS on the corresponding research programs

  6. Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz. Annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1986-01-01

    The report summarizes work on: Transport behaviour of fission products in gas jet systems; thermochromatography of lanthanides; combination of a gas jet system with an inductively coupled plasma ion source; modification of the SISAK II system for the separation of short-lived reaction products; installation of a gas jet system at the mass separator LOHENGRIN. Half-lives of neutron-rich Ru- and Rh-isotopes; levels in 114,116 Ag after β - -decay of 114,116 Pd; collective states in 230 Ra; structure of 227 Ra; proton-unbounded states in 22 Mg and 26 Si; study of the reaction 22 Ne(α,n) 25 Mg; interpretation of the solar 48 Ca/ 46 Ca abundance ratio and the correlated Ca-Ti isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite; Nilsson configurations in Rb to Y isotopes; γγ angular correlation measurements on 148 Nd; search for decay of 203 Au; identification of the new nuclides 243 Np and 244 Np; attempts to produce element 110 in fusion reactions of 40 Ar with 233,235,238 U. Charge distribution in the heavy wing in the reaction 233 U(n th ,f); isomeric ratios and angular momentum distribution for 233 U(n th ,f) in dependence of E min of the fission products; test of an ionization chamber for yield measurements. Sub. coulomb transfer in heavy collisions; angular distributions and tilting mode in quasi-fission reactions; quasi-fission in the reaction 40 Ar+ 208 Pb; binary reactions near the Coulomb barrier; excitation functions for the production of below target nuclides, search for pionic fusion; Separation and identification of 99g Tc; resonance-ionization mass spectrometry on Gd; capture and storage of Sr ions in a high frequency quadrupole trap; improvements on the laser system for resonance-ionization mass spectrometry; Radioactivity measurements after the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./RB) [de

  7. Requirements on fuel management for a safe and optimum operation of the German research reactor FRJ-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabbi, R.; Bormann, H.J.; Wolters, J.

    1997-01-01

    In case of a coarse control arm (CCAs) at FRJ-2, reactivity is added to the reactor. The amount of this reactivity depends on the efficiency of the individual CCAs which has been measured as 180% of the average reactivity of the six arms for the central arm. For this design basis accident, it is required that only 4 out of 5 residual arms must be capable of shutting down the reactor. This minimum shutdown reactivity is provided by an optimum fuel management including an experimental reactivity determination. Calculation of fuel burnup and material densities is performed by the depletion code SUSAN, which has been verified by separate calculations using ORIGEN. The difference in the reactivity values (between calculation and measurement) is mainly a consequence of the limitation of the inverse kinetic method, which is not capable of covering the effects of the flux deformation and interaction of the CCAs and core in the process of reactor scram. (author)

  8. Studies on short-lived fission products at the Mainz TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, N.

    1974-01-01

    Neutron-rich nuclei of medium mass number are produced by thermal-neutron-induced fission of heavy elements, e.g., 235 U, 239 Pu, and 249 Cf. Pulse irradiations lead to an enhancement of the ratio of short-lived activities to the accompanying longer-lived components. One approach for investigating the properties of short-lived nuclei consists in a combination of rapid chemical separations with higher-resolution gamma spectroscopy. This is demonstrated by the isolation of neutron-rich isotopes of niobium by sorption on glass and of ruthenium by solvent extraction. Other rapid separation procedures from aqueous solutions are briefly summarized and a few examples for their application in nuclear fission- and delayed neutron studies are given. Some experiments with an on-line mass separator of the ISOLDE-type, using chemical targets, are described. (U.S.)

  9. Reports covering research projects in the field of reactor safety supported by the German Federal Ministry for Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    Investigations on the safety of Light Water Reactors (LWR) being performed in the framework of the safety program 'Reactor Safety' are sponsored by the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT - Secretary of State for Research and Technology). Objective of this program is to continue improving the safety of LWR, in order to minimize the risk for the environment. With grant assistance from the Bundesminister des Innern. (BMI - Secretary of State for Home Affairs) research cont racts in the field of reactor safety are being performed. Results of these projects should contribute to resolve questions arising nuclear licensing procedures. The Forschungsbetreuung (FB - research supervision department) at the Institute for Reactor Safety (IRS), as consultants to BMFT and BMI, provides information about the progress of investigations. Individual reports will be prepared and put into standard forms by the research contractors. Each report gives information on: 1) the work accomplished, 2) the results obtained, 3) the work planned to be continued. Initial reports of research projects describe in addition the purpose of the work. A BMFT-research program on the safety of Fast Breeders (Schneller Brutreaktor - SBR) is presently under discussion. In order to define several problems, investigations included in the present compilation (RS 139, 140, 143, 162) will be previously performed. (orig.) [de

  10. High-resolution model for the simulation of the activity distribution and radiation field at the German FRJ-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, D.; Haeussler, A.; Abbasi, F.; Simons, F.; Nabbi, R.; Thomauske, B.

    2013-01-01

    F or the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Germany, activity and dose rate atlases (ADAs) are required for the approval of the domestic regulatory authority. Thus, high detailed modeling efforts are demanded in order to optimize the quantification and the characterization of nuclear waste as well as to realize optimum radiation protection. For the generation of ADAs, computer codes based on the Monte-Carlo method are increasingly employed because of their potential for high resolution simulation of the neutron and gamma transport for activity and dose rate predictions, respectively. However, the demand on the modeling effort and the simulation time increases with the size and the complexity of the whole model that becomes a limiting factor. For instance, the German FRJ-2 research reactor consisting of a complex reactor core, the graphite reflector, and the adjacent thermal and biological shielding structures represents such a case. For the solving of this drawback, various techniques such as variance reduction methods are applied. A further simple but effective approach is the modeling of the regions of interest with appropriate boundary conditions e.g. surface source or reflective surfaces. In the framework of the existing research a high sophisticated simulation tool is developed which is characterized by: - CAD-based model generation for Monte-Carlo transport simulations; - Production and 3D visualization of high resolution activity and dose rate atlases; - Application of coupling routines and interface structures for optimum and automated simulations. The whole simulation system is based on the Monte-Carlo code MCNP5 and the depletion/activation code ORIGEN2. The numerical and computational efficiency of the proposed methods is discussed in this paper on the basis of the simulation and CAD-based model of the FRJ-2 research reactor with emphasis on the effect of variance reduction methods. (orig.)

  11. High-resolution model for the simulation of the activity distribution and radiation field at the German FRJ-2 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, D.; Haeussler, A.; Abbasi, F.; Simons, F.; Nabbi, R.; Thomauske, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Damm, G. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    F or the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Germany, activity and dose rate atlases (ADAs) are required for the approval of the domestic regulatory authority. Thus, high detailed modeling efforts are demanded in order to optimize the quantification and the characterization of nuclear waste as well as to realize optimum radiation protection. For the generation of ADAs, computer codes based on the Monte-Carlo method are increasingly employed because of their potential for high resolution simulation of the neutron and gamma transport for activity and dose rate predictions, respectively. However, the demand on the modeling effort and the simulation time increases with the size and the complexity of the whole model that becomes a limiting factor. For instance, the German FRJ-2 research reactor consisting of a complex reactor core, the graphite reflector, and the adjacent thermal and biological shielding structures represents such a case. For the solving of this drawback, various techniques such as variance reduction methods are applied. A further simple but effective approach is the modeling of the regions of interest with appropriate boundary conditions e.g. surface source or reflective surfaces. In the framework of the existing research a high sophisticated simulation tool is developed which is characterized by: - CAD-based model generation for Monte-Carlo transport simulations; - Production and 3D visualization of high resolution activity and dose rate atlases; - Application of coupling routines and interface structures for optimum and automated simulations. The whole simulation system is based on the Monte-Carlo code MCNP5 and the depletion/activation code ORIGEN2. The numerical and computational efficiency of the proposed methods is discussed in this paper on the basis of the simulation and CAD-based model of the FRJ-2 research reactor with emphasis on the effect of variance reduction methods. (orig.)

  12. The Dating and Authorship of the Poem Vita Mahumeti, Attributed to Embrico of Mainz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando González Muñoz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the problems with the date of writing and the authorship of one of the first legendary accounts of the Prophet Muhammad written in Central Europe: the Vita Mahumeti, attributed to Embrico of Mainz. After presenting the available evidence and the conjectures of different scholars, a new hypothesis about the identity of the author is put forward, which at the same time enables us to clarify the dating of the work, its possible sources and meaning.

  13. 6. European conference of TRIGA reactor users. Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Sixth European Conference of TRIGA Users was held in September 1980, in Mainz, Germany under the joint sponsorship of INTERATOM and the Institut fur Kernchemie. The main areas of discussions were: Fuel cycle aspects; New reactor developments and improvements; TRIGA applications; Operating and maintenance experiences and Instrumentation

  14. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  15. High-statistics measurement of the η →3 π0 decay at the Mainz Microtron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakhov, S.; Abt, S.; Achenbach, P.; Adlarson, P.; Afzal, F.; Aguar-Bartolomé, P.; Ahmed, Z.; Ahrens, J.; Annand, J. R. M.; Arends, H. J.; Bantawa, K.; Bashkanov, M.; Beck, R.; Biroth, M.; Borisov, N. S.; Braghieri, A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Cherepnya, S.; Cividini, F.; Collicott, C.; Costanza, S.; Denig, A.; Dieterle, M.; Downie, E. J.; Drexler, P.; Ferretti Bondy, M. I.; Fil'kov, L. V.; Fix, A.; Gardner, S.; Garni, S.; Glazier, D. I.; Gorodnov, I.; Gradl, W.; Gurevich, G. M.; Hamill, C. B.; Heijkenskjöld, L.; Hornidge, D.; Huber, G. M.; Käser, A.; Kashevarov, V. L.; Kay, S.; Keshelashvili, I.; Kondratiev, R.; Korolija, M.; Krusche, B.; Lazarev, A.; Lisin, V.; Livingston, K.; Lutterer, S.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Manley, D. M.; Martel, P. P.; McGeorge, J. C.; Middleton, D. G.; Miskimen, R.; Mornacchi, E.; Mushkarenkov, A.; Neganov, A.; Neiser, A.; Oberle, M.; Ostrick, M.; Otte, P. B.; Paudyal, D.; Pedroni, P.; Polonski, A.; Ron, G.; Rostomyan, T.; Sarty, A.; Sfienti, C.; Sokhoyan, V.; Spieker, K.; Steffen, O.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strandberg, B.; Strub, Th.; Supek, I.; Thiel, A.; Thiel, M.; Thomas, A.; Unverzagt, M.; Usov, Yu. A.; Wagner, S.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Werthmüller, D.; Wettig, J.; Witthauer, L.; Wolfes, M.; Zana, L. A.; A2 Collaboration at MAMI

    2018-06-01

    The largest, at the moment, statistics of 7 ×106η →3 π0 decays, based on 6.2 ×107η mesons produced in the γ p →η p reaction, has been accumulated by the A2 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron, MAMI. It allowed a detailed study of the η →3 π0 dynamics beyond its conventional parametrization with just the quadratic slope parameter α and enabled, for the first time, a measurement of the second-order term and a better understanding of the cusp structure in the neutral decay. The present data are also compared to recent theoretical calculations that predict a nonlinear dependence along the quadratic distance from the Dalitz-plot center.

  16. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  17. Technology and techniques for parity experiments at Mainz: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Juergen

    2016-03-01

    For almost 20 years the Mainz accelerator facility MAMI delivered polarized electron beam to the parity violation experiment A4 that measured the contributions of strange sea quarks to the proton electromagnetic factors. Parity violation asymmetries were of the order of A ~5 ppm. Currently the A1 collaboration carries out single spin asymmetry measurements at MAMI (A ~20 ppm) to prepare for a measurement of neutron skin depth on lead (A ~1 ppm). For such high precision experiments active stabilization and precise determination of beam parameters like current, energy, position, and angle are essential requirements in addition to precision electron beam polarimetry. For the future P2 experiment at the planned superconducting accelerator MESA in Mainz the requirements for beam quality will be even higher. P2 will measure the weak mixing angle with 0.15 percent total uncertainty and, in addition, the neutron skin depth of lead as well as parity violation in electron scattering off 12C. A tiny asymmetry of only -0.03 ppm creates the needs to combine digital feedback with feedforward stabilizations along with new polarimetry developments like a hydro-Moller and a double-Mott polarimeter to meet the goals for systematic uncertainty. This talk gives an overview of our experience with polarimetry, analog feedbacks and compensation techniques for apparative asymmetries at the A4 experiment. It finally leads to the requirements and new techniques for the pioneering P2 experiment at MESA. First results from beam tests currently carried out at the existing MAMI accelerator, employing high speed analog/digital conversion and FPGAs for control of beam parameters, will be presented. Supported by the cluster of excellence PRISMA and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the framework of the SFB1044.

  18. Channeling experiments at planar diamond and silicon single crystals with electrons from the Mainz Microtron MAMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Tran Thi, T. N.

    2018-04-01

    Line structures were observed for (110) planar channeling of electrons in a diamond single crystal even at a beam energy of 180 MeV . This observation motivated us to initiate dechanneling length measurements as function of the beam energy since the occupation of quantum states in the channeling potential is expected to enhance the dechanneling length. High energy loss signals, generated as a result of emission of a bremsstrahlung photon with about half the beam energy at channeling of 450 and 855 MeV electrons, were measured as function of the crystal thickness. The analysis required additional assumptions which were extracted from the numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. Preliminary results for diamond are presented. In addition, we reanalyzed dechanneling length measurements at silicon single crystals performed previously at the Mainz Microtron MAMI at beam energies between 195 and 855 MeV from which we conclude that the quality of our experimental data set is not sufficient to derive definite conclusions on the dechanneling length. Our experimental results are below the predictions of the Fokker-Planck equation and somewhat above the results of simulation calculations of A. V. Korol and A. V. Solov'yov et al. on the basis of the MBN Explorer simulation package. We somehow conservatively conclude that the prediction of the asymptotic dechanneling length on the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation represents an upper limit.

  19. German Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

  20. German Orientalism

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Olin

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...

  1. Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Vivek; Vaz Salles, Marcos António

    2018-01-01

    The requirements for OLTP database systems are becoming ever more demanding. Domains such as finance and computer games increasingly mandate that developers be able to encode complex application logic and control transaction latencies in in-memory databases. At the same time, infrastructure...... engineers in these domains need to experiment with and deploy OLTP database architectures that ensure application scalability and maximize resource utilization in modern machines. In this paper, we propose a relational actor programming model for in-memory databases as a novel, holistic approach towards......-level function calls. In contrast to classic transactional models, however, reactors allow developers to take advantage of intra-transaction parallelism and state encapsulation in their applications to reduce latency and improve locality. Moreover, reactors enable a new degree of flexibility in database...

  2. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Consequences arising for research reactor operation from the planned amendment of the German atomic energy act (AtG) and atomic energy policy. Germany soon to be a third-world country in nuclear research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1999-01-01

    In the opinion of Dr. Wilfried Krull from Geesthacht, the Chairman of the German Research Reactor Trades Union, there is a great danger of the Federal Republic of Germany falling to the level of a third-world country as far as nuclear research is concerned. He says that it is a matter of urgency for binding exceptions from the general restrictions applicable to nuclear power stations to be incorporated into the opt-out amendment to nuclear law tabled by Juergen Trittin, the Minister for Environmental Affairs. He says that prohibition of reprocessing of spent fuel elements constitutes a violation of the surrender treaties concluded with the USA as part of non-proliferation. Furthermore, he states that a ban on reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from research and training reactors is counterproductive. He says that there would be a particular danger if the limitation of research reactors to a rating of one megawatt, which Trittin has in the first instance planned in an initial draft law, were to be implemented in the form of a regulation. At that point, he claims, Germany would, as far as nuclear medicine (including cancer therapy) and modern technical inspection procedures (non-destructive, of materials) are concerned, become an importing country. (orig.) [de

  4. Reactor safety in industrial nuclear power plants. Developments in a political and technical environment as it prevails in the German Federal Republic; Reaktorsicherheit fuer Leistungskernkraftwerke. Die Entwicklung im politischen und technischen Umfeld der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufs, Paul [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The present book describes the development of reactor safety in German light-water nuclear power plants from the beginnings with its multifarious links to model solutions seen in other countries, national and international research projects and accidents in conventional and nuclear power plants. It contains detailed, richly illustrated articles on specific safety techniques such as rupture safety of the pressurised envelope, safeguarding of emergency cooling in the event of accidents involving coolant loss, control technology and protection of the surroundings through containment. The results of national and international risk studies are discussed. It is shown how efforts on the part of industry, government and science to enhance safety resources and improve safety culture have been driven by a civic environment in which the use of nuclear energy has become a central issue of political debate. The book is written in readily comprehensible language and offers a wealth of material for further study.

  5. X-ray phase contrast imaging at the Mainz Microtron MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazaly, M. el

    2005-10-15

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855 MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. In a first series of experiments a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with typical photon energies in the range of 8-30 keV and a spot size of standard deviation {sigma}{sub h}=(8.6{+-}0.1) {mu}m in horizontal and {sigma}{sub v}=(7.5{+-}0.1) {mu}m in vertical direction was used to record refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450 {mu}m. As detectors X-ray films were used. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 13 m. The edge enhancement contrast C{sub ref} = (I{sub max}-I{sub min})/(I{sub max}+I{sub min}) was investigated as a function of the distance between the object and the X-ray film which was varied between 0.5 and 5.5 m. In a second series of experiments holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size {sigma}{sub v}=(0.50{+-}0.05) {mu}m and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6 keV energy. The good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13 x 13 {mu}m{sup 2} provides a highly efficient on-line detector. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. In a third series of experiments it was demonstrated that X-ray films are very useful detectors for the micro-focused and monochromized transition radiation X-ray source at MAMI. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the X-ray film Structurix D3 (Agfa) the standard deviation of the resolution was measured

  6. X-ray phase contrast imaging at the Mainz Microtron MAMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaly, M. el

    2005-10-01

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855 MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. In a first series of experiments a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with typical photon energies in the range of 8-30 keV and a spot size of standard deviation σ h =(8.6±0.1) μm in horizontal and σ v =(7.5±0.1) μm in vertical direction was used to record refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450 μm. As detectors X-ray films were used. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 13 m. The edge enhancement contrast C ref = (I max -I min )/(I max +I min ) was investigated as a function of the distance between the object and the X-ray film which was varied between 0.5 and 5.5 m. In a second series of experiments holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size σ v =(0.50±0.05) μm and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6 keV energy. The good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13 x 13 μm 2 provides a highly efficient on-line detector. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. In a third series of experiments it was demonstrated that X-ray films are very useful detectors for the micro-focused and monochromized transition radiation X-ray source at MAMI. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the X-ray film Structurix D3 (Agfa) the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be σ f =(1.1±0.4) μm, which is about a factor of 6 better as for

  7. The material concept in German light water reactors. Contribution to plant safety economic efficiency and failure provision; Das Werkstoffkonzept in deutschen Leichtwasserreaktoren. Beitrag zur Anlagensicherheit, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Schadensvorsorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilg, Ulf [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH (Germany). Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg; Koenig, Guenter [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH (Germany). Kernkraftwerk Neckarwestheim; Erve, Manfred [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In the design and construction stage of nuclear power plants relevant decisions may affect the service life of a component, and thus influence safety and availability of the plant. The German ''basic safety concept'' has an important effect on the quality of the BOL (begin of life) status. Materials selection and qualification are of significant importance for the component lifetime and the profitability of the plant. Examples for the implementation of this concept are demonstrated for the steam generator tubing material Incoloy 800, the inside-plated ferritic compound tubes as control rod drive mechanism nozzle through the RPV head of BWR plants that are not susceptible for corrosion enhanced cracking that was observed for Inconel 600 tubing. A fundamental failure analysis of crack formation in Ti stabilized austenitic pipes of BWR plants found since 1993 were definitely identified as intergranular stress corrosion caused by a local sensitization of the welding process induced overheated structured in the heat affected zone. This allowed target-oriented mitigation measures. The safety culture implemented in German nuclear plants in connection with the break preclusion or integrity concept, respectively, including a continuous actualization with respect to the state-of-the art are the technical prerequisites for damage precaution and possible life time extension.

  8. Teaching German-Americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolzmann, Don Heinrich

    1976-01-01

    A university course entitled "The German-Americans" attempted to study and evaluate German culture in the U. S. Lecture topics and term paper theses are listed and a selected annotated bibliography of German-American culture is included. (CHK)

  9. New results from the Mainz neutrino mass experiment and perspective of a new large tritium-β-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Fickinger, L.; Kraus, Ch.; Otten, E.W.; Ulrich, H.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Kazachenko, O.; Kovalik, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Mainz neutrino mass experiment investigates the endpoint region of the tritium β decay spectrum to determine the mass of the electron antineutrino. By the recent upgrade the former problem of de-wetting T 2 films has been solved and the signal-to-background-ratio was improved by a factor of 10. The latest measurement leads to m ν 2 = -1.1 ± 2.6 stat ± 1.8 sys eV 2 /c 4 (preliminary), which corresponds to an upper limit of m ν 2 (95 % C.L.) (preliminary). Some indication for the anomaly, reported by the Troitsk group, was found, but its postulated half year period is contradicted by our data. The perspectives of a new Large Tritium-β-Spectrometer to reach sub eV sensitivity will be presented. (authors)

  10. Detector studies for a high precision determination of the weak mixing angle at the future P2-experiment in Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerz, Kathrin; Baunack, Sebastian; Becker, Dominik; Diefenbach, Juergen; Glaeser, Boris; Imai, Yoshio; Jennewein, Thomas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Maas, Frank [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Helmholz-Institut Mainz (Germany); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Rodriguez, David [Helmholz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: A4-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The P2 experiment at the upcoming MESA accelerator in Mainz aims for a high precision determination of the electroweak mixing angle: The 2% measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering will allow for a determination of sin{sup 2}(θ{sub W}) of 0.15%. The experimental setup is currently being designed and will employ the use of an integrating, large solid angle magnetic solenoid spectrometer with quartz bars for the detection of elastically scattered electrons. The low-energy and high-statistics experiment places high demands on detector performance and radiation hardness of all materials used in the setup. We are going to present the current status of the development of the experiment, feasibility calculations and simulations. We put an emphasis on technology and design of a Cherenkov detector.

  11. Status of the German AF-programme. Considerations with respect to INFCE recommendations and criteria[AF = Anreicherungsreduzierung in Forschungsreaktoren (Enrichment reduction in research reactors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamm, Gerd H [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH, Research Reactor Division, Juelich (Germany)

    1983-09-01

    As is generally known, the INFCE studies carried out on a worldwide scale from 1977 to 1979 for research reactors using primarily highly enriched uranium (HEU 80% to 93% U-235) have led to the important recommendation that an effective reduction in the proliferation of weapons-usable nuclear material can be achieved by converting the fuel cycles from HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU, U-235 enrichment 20%). Further recommendations made by INFCE to the effect of restricting or markedly reducing the stockpiles of HEU materials and diminishing the production of fissile materials due to irradiation in research reactors, however, have been given secondary attention in the course of development as compared to the first recommendation mentioned above. As a result of the INFCE studies, national programmes were initiated in various countries aiming at enrichment reduction in research reactors. Essential work in this connection was commenced above all in the USA (RERTR programme), in France, Japan and in the Federal Republic of Germany (AF programme). Added to this was an IAEA support programme intended primarily for developing and threshold countries. Essential conditions in the form of criteria were elaborated by the INFCE Working Group 8C in connection with the recommendation for enrichment reduction in research reactors. These criteria are: 1. The safety margins and fuel reliability should not be reduced by a conversion from HEU to LEU cycles. 2. Losses in reactor performance (e.g. the ratio of neutron flux available for experiments) to reactor power should not be more than marginal. 3. The cost of conversion for research reactors should be kept as low as possible. 4. Any increase in operating costs after conversion should not be more than marginal. The first three criteria mentioned have been given particular attention and have a good chance of being complied with in the current worldwide development activities for a conversion of research reactors to LEU fuel cycle

  12. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  13. Introduction to German and Russian terminology in the field of reactor safety, taking the high-temperature reactor as a specific example. Einfuehrung in die deutsche und die russische Terminologie der Reaktorsicherheit am Beispiel des Hochtemperaturreaktors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, B

    1987-01-01

    The need for international cooperation in the field of reactor safety engineering has been accepted by the two countries. The diploma thesis in hand is intended as a glossary and guide for translators who start to familiarize themselves with the subject field and the terminology. The glossary sets out the terminology applied for describing the safety features and the safety systems of the reactor itself and does not cover the power plant as a whole. The thesis presents the terminology in its textual environment, and in an alphabetical word list.

  14. 1. Partial licence (new) for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor. BVG (German Federal Administrative Court), decision of 14. January 1998, Az.: 11 C 13.96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The matter to be decided by the BVG, the highest administrative court of Germany, was the competence of the licensing authority for risk assessment in the licensing procedure and its duty to perform risk assessment with reference to current state of the art in nuclear science and technology, in compliance with the Atomic Energy Act, section 7, sub-section 2, No. 3. Performance of risk assessment falling short of the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act is a cause for rescission of an operating licence or partial licence. This was the cause presented by complaining parties in legal proceedings at a lower court, referring to deficits in terms of technology (seismic risks assessment), and in terms of law. The partial construction licence was repealed by the lower court. The BVG court had to perform judicial review of an appeal logded by the reactor operators from the judgment passed by the lower court and relates exclusively to aspects of substantive law, as the Atomic Energy Act attributes priority of competence for decisions about technological aspects and contents of reactor licences to the licensing authority. The BVG dismissed the appeal for absence of defects in substantive law; the decision is non-appealable. (CB) [de

  15. Assessment of accident risks from german nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The German risk study are presented. The main objectives can be summed up as follows: (a) An assessment of the societal risk due to accidents in nuclear power plants with reference to German conditions; (b) To get experience in the field of risk analysis and to provide a basis for estimation of uncertainties; (c) To provide guidance for future activities in the German Reactor Safety Research Program. Finally several conclusions reached by this study are discussed. (author)

  16. The German-German history of the nuclear power plant Greifswald. Nuclear power between east and west. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegselius, Per

    2015-01-01

    The historical study covers the chapters The nuclear power plant Greifswald; Lubmin shortly before the ''Wende'' 1989; the German ''Wende''; from the last vote for the ''Volkskammer (parliament of the German Democratic Republic) to the German reunification; Lubmin in reunified Germany; conclusions and perspectives. In the attachment technical data about the reactors WWER-440/W-230 are summarized, including a list of WWERs in the former eastern bloc countries.

  17. The implications of the German Risk Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Koeberlein, K.

    1980-01-01

    The methods and results of the German Risk Study published in 1979 are summarized and its implications for reactor safety are discussed. It has led to suggestions that risk analysis should be more widely used for nuclear and other technological systems. It has also identified the need for specific system modifications and confirmed trends in safety research. (author)

  18. Leukemia in the proximity of a German boiling water nuclear reactor: Evidence of population exposure by chromosome studies and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannheim, B.; Heimers, A.; Oberheitmann, B.; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.; Schroeder, H.; Ziggel, H.

    1997-01-01

    The detection of an exceptional elevation of leukemia in children appearing 5 years after the start-up of the nuclear power plant Kruemmel in 1983, accompanied by a significant increase of leukemia cases in adults gave rise for investigations of radiation exposures of the population living near to the plant. The rate of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 7 parents of leukemia children and 14 other inhabitants in the proximity of the plant was significantly elevated and showed ongoing exposures over the years of operation. This finding gives rise to the hypothesis that chronic leakages by the reactor had occurred. This assumption is supported by the identification of artificial radioactivity in air, rain water, soil, and vegetation registered by the regular environmental monitoring programme of the nuclear power plant. Calculations of the corresponding source terms show that the originating emissions must have been well above authorized annual limits. The bone marrow dose is supposed to be originated mainly by incorporating of bone-seeking β- and α-emitters. (author)

  19. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  20. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  1. The nuclear training centre of the nation. Three years after Chernobyl the question is: how safe are German nuclear power reactors The reactor operators come from the training centre in Essen where everything is alright in the world of simulators: all emergencies can be managed, and MCA is not in the program. Die Atomschule der Nation. Drei Jahre nach Tschernobyl stellt sich die Frage: Wie sicher sind deutsche Atomkraftwerke In Essen wird deren Personal geschult. Am Simulator ist die Welt noch in Ordnung: Stoerfaelle sind allesamt beherrschbar - ein Super-GAU ist nicht im Programm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleich, M.

    1989-05-01

    This on-the-spot report gives an account of one day at the reactor operator's training centre of Kraftwerks-Simulator Gesellschaft in Essen, West-Germany. Heavy criticism is raised by the reporter who found out that none of the four simulators' computer programs includes the scenarios of accidents that may lead to severe reactor core damage. The conclusion drawn from this fact is that the West-German reactor operating personnel is just as incapable of managing a severe accident as their colleagues in Chernobyl. (DG).

  2. Level 2 PRA for a German BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassen, F.; Rapp, W.; Tietsch, W.; Roess, P.

    2007-01-01

    A concept for a Level 2 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (L2 PRA) for a German Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) has been developed taking into account the role of L2 PRA within the German regulatory landscape. According to this concept, a plant specific evaluation of the severe accident phenomenology as well as analyses of the accident progression for the severe accident scenarios has been performed. Furthermore a plant specific MELCOR 1.8.6 model has been developed and special MELCOR source term calculations have been performed for the different release paths. This paper will present examples from the different areas described above. (author)

  3. Alize 3 - first critical experiment for the franco-german high flux reactor - calculations; Alize 3 - premiere experience critique pour le reacteur a haut flux franco-allemand. Calculs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharmer, K [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The results of experiments in the light water cooled D{sub 2}O reflected critical assembly ALIZE III have been compared to calculations. A diffusion model was used with 3 fast and epithermal groups and two overlapping thermal groups, which leads to good agreement of calculated and measured power maps, even in the case of strong variations of the neutron spectrum in the core. The difference of calculated and measured k{sub eff} was smaller than 0.5 per cent {delta}k/k. Calculations of void and structure material coefficients of the reactivity of 'black' rods in the reflector, of spectrum variations (Cd-ratio, Pu-U-ratio) and to the delayed photoneutron fraction in the D{sub 2}O reflector were made. Measurements of the influence of beam tubes on reactivity and flux distribution in the reflector were interpreted with regard to an optimum beam tube arrangement for the Franco- German High Flux Reactor. (author) [French] Les resultats des experiences faites dans la maquette critique ALIZE III, refrigeree a l'eau legere et reflechie par l'eau lourde, ont ete compares aux calculs. On a utilise un modele de la theorie de diffusion a trois groupes rapides et epithermiques et deux groupes thermiques qui se recouvrent. Ce modele a permis de calculer la distribution de puissance dans le coeur en bon accord avec les mesures, meme dans le cas d'une forte variation du spectre des neutrons dans le coeur. L'erreur entre k{sub eff} calcule et mesure etait inferieure a 0,5 pour cent {delta}k/k. Le coefficient de vide et des materiaux de structure, la reactivite des barres 'noires', les variations du spectre (rapport Cd, rapport Pu/U) et la fraction des photo-neutrons retardes sont egalement calcules. Les mesures de reactivite et de perturbation de flux dans le reflecteur, dues aux canaux, ont ete interpretees du point de vue d'un arrangement optimum des canaux pour le Reacteur a Haut Flux Franco-Allemand. (auteur)

  4. German precursor study: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Frey, W.; von Linden, J.; Reichart, G.

    1985-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the GRS by contract of the Federal Minister of Interior. The purpose of the study is to show how the application of system-analytic tools and especially of probabilistic methods on the Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and on other operating experience can support a deeper understanding of the safety-related importance of the events reported in reactor operation, the identification of possible weak points, and further conclusions to be drawn from the events. Additionally, the study aimed at a comparison of its results for the severe core damage frequency with those of the German Risk Study as far as this is possible and useful. The German Precursor Study is a plant-specific study. The reference plant is Biblis NPP with its very similar Units A and B, whereby the latter was also the reference plant for the German Risk Study

  5. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  6. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  7. [Sample German LAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  8. Basic aspects and results of the German risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Heuser, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the investigations and results of the German Risk Study (Phase A). Similar to its American counterpart [Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400)], the German Risk Study assesses the societal risks associated with potential accidents in nuclear power plants sited in the Federal Republic of Germany. The technical part of the analysis was performed for a representative pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plant of the 1300-MW(e) class. For the risk assessment, 19 sites were considered, with a total of 25 reactor units presently in operation, under construction, or undergoing the licensing procedure. In the spring of 1981 a translation of the main report [German Risk Study-Main Report (EPRI-NP-1804-SR)], including the investigations and results of Phase A, was published by the Electric Power Research Institute

  9. Generation III+ Reactor Portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    While the power generation needs of utilities are unique and diverse, they are all faced with the double challenge of meeting growing electricity needs while curbing CO 2 emissions. To answer these diverse needs and help tackle this challenge, AREVA has developed several reactor models which are briefly described in this document: The EPR TM Reactor: designed on the basis of the Konvoi (Germany) and N4 (France) reactors, the EPRTM reactor is an evolutionary model designed to achieve best-in-class safety and operational performance levels. The ATMEA1 TM reactor: jointly designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and AREVA through ATMEA, their common company. This reactor design benefits from the competencies and expertise of the two mother companies, which have commissioned close to 130 reactor units. The KERENA TM reactor: Designed on the basis of the most recent German BWR reactors (Gundremmingen) the KERENA TM reactor relies on proven technology while also including innovative, yet thoroughly tested, features. The optimal combination of active and passive safety systems for a boiling water reactor achieves a very low probability of severe accident

  10. Word order in the Germanic languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois, ...

  11. Research reactors in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos Ruben Calabrese

    1999-01-01

    Argentine Nuclear Development started in early fifties. In 1957, it was decided to built the first a research reactor. RA-1 reactor (120 kw, today licensed to work at 40 kW) started operation in January 1958. Originally RA-1 was an Argonaut (American design) reactor. In early sixties, the RA-1 core was changed. Fuel rods (20% enrichment) was introduced instead the old Argonaut core design. For that reason, a critical facility named RA-0 was built. After that, the RA-3 project started, to build a multipurpose 5 MW nuclear reactor MTR pool type, to produce radioisotopes and research. For that reason and to define the characteristics of the RA-3 core, another critical facility was built, RA-2. Initially RA-3 was a 90 % enriched fuel reactor, and started operation in 1967. When Atucha I NPP project started, a German design Power Reactor, a small homogeneous reactor was donated by the German Government to Argentina (1969). This was RA-4 reactor (20% enrichment, 1W). In 1982, RA-6 pool reactor achieved criticality. This is a 500 kW reactor with 90% enriched MTR fuel elements. In 1990, RA-3 started to operate fueled by 20% enriched fuel. In 1997, the RA-8 (multipurpose critical facility located at Pilcaniyeu) started to operate. RA-3 reactor is the most important CNEA reactor for Argentine Research Reactors development. It is the first in a succession of Argentine MTR reactors built by CNEA (and INVAP SE ) in Argentina and other countries: RA-6 (500 kW, Bariloche-Argentina), RP-10 (10MW, Peru), NUR (500 kW, Algeria), MPR (22 MW, Egypt). The experience of Argentinian industry permits to compete with foreign developed countries as supplier of research reactors. Today, CNEA has six research reactors whose activities have a range from education and promotion of nuclear activity, to radioisotope production. For more than forty years, Argentine Research Reactors are working. The experience of Argentine is important, and argentine firms are able to compete in the design and

  12. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  13. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  14. A new measurement of the rare decay eta -> pi^0 gamma gamma with the Crystal Ball/TAPS detectors at the Mainz Microtron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B M; Prakhov, S; Aguar-Bartolom��, P; Annand, J R; Arends, H J; Bantawa, K; Beck, R; Bekrenev, V; Bergh��user, H; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Cherepnya, S; Codling, R F; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Danilkin, I V; Denig, A; Demissie, B; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Fil' kov, L V; Fix, A; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Gregor, R; Hamilton, D; Heid, E; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Jahn, O; Jude, T C; Kashevarov, V L; K��ser, A; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Kotulla, M; Koulbardis, A; Kruglov, S; Krusche, B; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J; Maghrbi, Y; Mancel, J; Manley, D M; McNicoll, E F; Mekterovic, D; Metag, V; Mushkarenkov, A; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Oberle, M; Ortega, H; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Robinson, J; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, T; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Starostin, A; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, T; Suarez, I M; Supek, I; Tarbert, C M; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Watts, D P; Werthmueller, D; Witthauer, L

    2014-08-01

    A new measurement of the rare, doubly radiative decay eta->pi^0 gamma gamma was conducted with the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. New data on the dependence of the partial decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma), on the two-photon invariant mass squared, m^2(gamma gamma), as well as a new, more precise value for the decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma) = (0.33+/-0.03_tot) eV, are based on analysis of 1.2 x 10^3 eta->pi^0 gamma gamma decays from a total of 6 x 10^7 eta mesons produced in the gamma p -> eta p reaction. The present results for dGamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma)/dm^2(gamma gamma) are in good agreement with previous measurements and recent theoretical calculations for this dependence.

  15. German energy market 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Weltenergierat, Berlin

    2017-01-01

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [de

  16. German Idealism Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of essays provides an exemplary overwiew of the diversity and relevance of current scholarship on German Idealism. The importance of German Idealism for contemporary philosophy has recieved growing attention and acknowledgment throughout competing fields of contemporary philosophy...... scholarly debates beyond merely antiquarian perspectives. This renaissance has been a major factor of current efforts to bridge the gap between so-called "nalytic" and so-called "continental" philosophy. The volume provides a selection of readings that contributes to systematic treatments of philosophical...

  17. German radionuclide exports and imports 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Protection of imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples and sealed emitters above 1850 GBq show a slight decline by 11.8%, on the basis of activity, in imports and a somewhat higher rise by 21.6% in exports in 1990. Imports returned to the level of 1988 after having experienced an extraordinary rise in 1989. Exports were slightly better than in the previous year, but still considerably below the average of the past five years. (orig.) [de

  18. Using noise diagnostics for detection and monitoring of vibrations of RPV internals, and for cause analysis in Eastern German NPP with WWER-440/230 type reactors of the Russian design type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, P.

    2000-10-01

    The report explains in detail applications and results of noise diagnostic measurements for examining vibrations which caused damage to reactor pressure vessel internals. The vibrations investigated were observed in 1975 and 1985 at the WWER-440/230 type reactors of the Russian design installed in units 1 and 2 of the Greifswald nuclear power plant, and were identified as dominant control element vibrations and abnormal core basket movements. The report presents essential operating characteristics recorded during disturbed reactor operation, the inspection results, and characteristic experimental findings from noise signal analyses and special tests examining the physical aspects of the vibration processes and their causes. Some recommendations have been derived relating to monitoring and minimization of such vibrations. (orig./CB) [de

  19. Action for declaration of annulment of reactor construction permit dismissed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Higher Administrative Court of Rheinland Pfalz has confirmed two decisions by the Koblenz Administrative Court dismissing an actions to declare the annulment of the partial construction permit issued for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor. Appeal was not admitted. The plaintiffs, who are under age and were represented by their father, are permanently resident in Schleswig-Holstein, at about 470 km from the site and have a further residence in Mainz, about 60 km away from the site. They plead to have a legitimate interest in the declaration of nullity on the grounds of the uncertainty created in legal matters by the delivery of the permit and its being unconstitutional as well as for ideological and religious reasons. The ruling deals also with the importance of the distance from the site of a nuclear reactor, which is considered to be such as to exclude the 'necessary spatial relation'. (orig./HP) [de

  20. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  1. On German Unity 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of .... living and the shortage of foreign exchange forced the government of the .... manded a great deal of empathy and care above and beyond the normal call of duty. ... The periods of service completed by conscripts in the NPA were set off against the.

  2. Storytelling and German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  3. Music to Teach German By.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Leo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how music can be intergrated with regular lesson plans to teach German vocabulary, grammar, and history and to give insights into German culture. Also included are sources for basic background information, a list of recordings of the German music, and notes on selecting and presenting it in the language class. (SED)

  4. Compilation of reports presented by the IRW together with participating industrial firms at the Reactor Session 1977 of the German Atomic Forum e.V./KTG (29 March--1 April 1977, Mannheim)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottmann, J. [comp.

    1977-02-15

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 8 reports on problematics of HTR reactors: 110Ag retention; pyrocarbon coatings on fuel particles; SiC corrosion; irradiation effects on claddings, spherical fuel elements, and graphite; quality control; and high-temperature alloy testing in HTR He. (DLC)

  5. The AFR. An approved network of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, Gabriele [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Betriebs- und Sicherheitsfragen an Forschungsreaktoren (AFR)

    2012-10-15

    AFR (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Betriebs- und Sicherheitsfragen an Forschungsreaktoren) is the German acronym for 'Association for Research Reactor Operation and Safety Issues' which was founded in 1959. Reactor managers of European research reactors mainly from the German linguistic area meet regularly for their mutual benefit to exchange experience and knowledge in all areas of operating, managing and utilization of research reactors. In the last 2 years joint meetings were held together with the French association of research reactors CER (Club d'Exploitants des Reacteurs). In this contribution the AFR, its members, work and aims as well as the French partner CER are presented. (orig.)

  6. Franco-German nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leny, J.C.; Huettl, A.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear energy is the number one power source in the European Union. However, the first generation units would be replaced from the year 2010 onwards. In this prospect, Siemens and Framatome have drawn together in designing and commercializing a common product initially destined for the export market which has become the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project. The two companies have floated with equal participation the NPI (Nuclear Power International) sub-company to manage this project. The French and German utilities participate to the financing of the project, at present at the basic stage, and the safety authorities of both countries have carried out a joint evaluation of EPR safety. With a 1500 Mwe capacity, EPR will be equipped with advanced safety systems more performing than the existing systems. Conceivers want to maintain the economic competitiveness of EPR with respect to coal power plants. EPR will take over the oldest power plants by producing a safer and cheaper energy to provide for the needs of the developed countries and then of the developing countries with no risk for the environment. An enormous effort of communication must be carried out to reduce the public anxiety and to calm down the nuclear debate and show up its merits, in particular in Europe, where its contribution is vital. (J.S.)

  7. The German-German history of the nuclear power plant Greifswald. Nuclear power between east and west. 2. ed.; Die deutsch-deutsche Geschichte des Kernkraftwerkes Greifswald. Atomenergie zwischen Ost und West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per [Technische Hochschule Stockholm (Sweden). Bereich Gesellschaft, Wissenschaft und Technik

    2015-07-01

    The historical study covers the chapters The nuclear power plant Greifswald; Lubmin shortly before the ''Wende'' 1989; the German ''Wende''; from the last vote for the ''Volkskammer (parliament of the German Democratic Republic) to the German reunification; Lubmin in reunified Germany; conclusions and perspectives. In the attachment technical data about the reactors WWER-440/W-230 are summarized, including a list of WWERs in the former eastern bloc countries.

  8. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  9. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  10. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  11. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  12. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  13. Compensation for damage in the case of transfrontier reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornig, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses possibilities to recover in German and Soviet courts claims for the compensation of damage for a German citizen arising from the reactor accident in Chernobyl. Concerning the claims for damage suffered in the Federal Republic of Germany he investigates possible breaches of bilateral or multilateral international agreements and of universal international law by the Soviet Union. (WG) [de

  14. German risk study on nuclear power plants. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertz, V.; Gueldner, W.; Hoemke, P.; Hoertner, H.; Lindauer, E.; Linden, J. von; Preischl, W.; Reichart, G.; Roehrs, W.

    1980-01-01

    This appendix discusses those studies which were carried out in phase A of the German Risk Study on the following problems: occurrence frequencies of initiating events, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel, failure rates and failure probabilities for components, probabilities for human error. The appendix describes the general procedure used in determining these parameters. In addition, it gives the individual values used and the sources employed to determine these values. (orig.) [de

  15. Are LMFBR permits unconstitutional. [German Feferal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H; Ziegler, E

    1977-12-01

    The August 18, 1977 decision by the Muenster Higher Administrative Court to have the Federal Constitutional Court investigate the constitutionality of permits granted for fast breeder power plants has aroused much attention, both in the FRG and in other countries. This is the first time that the German Atomic Energy Act is being questioned with respect to the separation of powers between legislative and executive authorities and also with respect to the principle of a constitutional state. As a result of their analysis of the first information available about the court decision the authors have some doubts as to whether the views held by the court about the consequences of the development of fast breeder reactors and of the permit granted for the SNR 300 demonstration nuclear power station are essentially correct. In view of the wording of and the official comments on the incriminated Section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act and the large number of subsequent leading decisions by the Federal Diet about fast breeder reactors also the concern about the constitutionality of that reactor line appears to be unfounded.

  16. Introduction to nuclear power reactors and their health physics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to: (1) the major systems of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR's) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR's), (2) the production and distribution of radiation sources in BWR's and PWR's, (3) the regulatory and functional requirements for nuclear power reactor design from a health physics standpoint, (4) the health physics systems provided to meet such requirements, and (5) a bibliography of documents germane to power reactor health physics design

  17. German atomic low meeting 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    2005-01-01

    The conference report on the German atomic law meeting 2004 contains 14 contributions on the German atomic legislation within four parts: Damage precaution in the operational phase; Legal general requirements for the final disposal - considerations ''de lege lata'' and ''de lege ferenda''. Financing of the site searching by a statutory company (''Verbandsmodell''). Atomic supervision authority - federal executive administration or federal self administration?

  18. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  19. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  20. [The national public discourse on priority setting in health care in German print media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesching, Florian; Meyer, Thorsten; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Germany's Central Ethics Committee of the Federal Chamber of Physicians (FCP) and other relevant national actors called for a public discourse on priority setting in health care. Politicians, members of a Federal Joint Committee and health insurance representatives, however, refused to promote or participate in the establishment of a public discussion. A change to that attitude only became apparent after former FCP President Hoppe's opening speech at the annual FCP assembly in Mainz in 2009. The present paper applies the Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse, implemented through Qualitative Content Analysis and elements of Grounded Theory, to examine the development of the national public discourse in leading German print media. It creates a matrix that represents the discourse development between May 2009 and May 2010 and reflects central actors, their "communicative phenomena" and their interactions. Additionally, the matrix has been extended to cover the period until December 2011. Hoppe's arguments for priority setting in health care are faced with a wide opposition assuming opposing prerequisites and thus demanding alternative remedies. The lack of interaction between the different parties prevents any development of the speakers' positions. Incorrect accounts, reductions and left-outs in the media representation add to this effect. Consequently, the public discussion on priority setting is far from being an evolving rational discourse. Instead, it constitutes an exchange of preformed opposing positions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. German nuclear fuel exports and imports 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Safety of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials in 1991 show a major drop by 33.8% in imports and a pronounced rise by 191.5% in exports, compared to the levels in the previous year. Source material for the purposes of these statistics refers only to uranium concentrate. Quantitatively, the biggest import items are source materials, depleted uranium, and uranium enriched up to 3%. Exports of unirradiated material quantitatively comprise mainly depleted uranium, source material, and uranium enriched up to 10%. (orig.) [de

  2. A glance on the German energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    As Germany has decided to phase out nuclear by 2022 while aiming at ambitious objectives in terms of energy savings and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, this report first highlights the interest of such an energy transition. It discusses the immediate consequences of the shutting down of the first eight reactors. It gives an overview of the German energy mix and discusses the objectives and challenges of the energy policy, and how this policy is implemented (by restructuring the electric grid, by building flame-based thermal power stations, by searching for a solution for electricity mass storage, by creating the conditions of an efficient energy saving policy). It discusses the consequences of this policy for the European and French energy policy

  3. Becoming German: Integration, Citizenship and Territorialization of Germanness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    understandings of integration and Germanness, this paper highlights the neglected aspect of the ascendance of Integrationspolitik since the turn of the century: namely how it superseded previous regime of completely bifurcated migration policy for "foreigners" on the one hand, and so-called "settlers" of German......, seen ever more as residing within its state territory rather than some diffuse cultural-linguistic space. Moving our understanding of Germanness beyond the "ethnic nationhood model" (Faist 2008), I argue thus that, in conjunction with the new citizenship law, the emergence of Integrationspolitik...

  4. alles – einfach – sofort: Service in Medizinbibliotheken: Jahrestagung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Medizinisches Bibliothekswesen (AGMB e.V. vom 27. bis 29.9.2010 in Mainz / all – simply – immediately: service in medical libraries: Annual Meeting 2010 of “Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Medizinisches Bibliothekswesen” (AGMB e.V. 27th to 29th September in Mainz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hentschel, Eike

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The annual meeting 2010 of “Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Medizinisches Bibliothekswesen” (AGMB e.V. took place 27th–29th September at Mainz university.During the main event for Advanced training of medical librarianship in Germany, Austria and Switzerland the following topics were presented and discussed:Increasing digitalization of scientific communication and the consequences, innovative services in hybrid libraries (virtual textbook collections and E-Books On-Demand, education (Master degree programm “Informations- und Wissensmanagement” in Hannover, concept and building of the medical library at Düsseldorf university (O.A.S.E., quality management according to ISO 9001, subito (new services based on § 52a+b UrhG, future of the programm “Nationallizenzen” and “Allianz-Initiative der deutschen Wissenschaftsorganisationen”, information literacy (particularly blended-learning, public relation and new strategies for communication and services, future concepts for medical libraries, library services in a UK research institute, reference management, Web 2.0 and other emerging technologies, BibNet.org, Cochrane library, MedPilot, PubMed.All relevant publishers and providers for medical libraries presented new products and services in an accompanying exhibition.

  5. How old are Germanic lambs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    2017-01-01

    Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto...

  6. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  7. Comparison of irradiated and hydrogen implanted German RPV steels using PAS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecko, Stanislav, E-mail: stanislav.pecko@stuba.sk; Sojak, Stanislav; Slugeň, Vladimír

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • German RPV steels were originally studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy. • Neutron irradiated and hydrogen ion implanted specimens were studied. • Both irradiation ways caused to increase of defect size. • We determined that the defect size was higher in implanted specimens. - Abstract: Radiation degradation of nuclear materials can be experimentally simulated via ion implantation. In our case, German reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels were studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). This spectroscopic method is a really effective tool for the evaluation of microstructural changes and for the analysis of degradation of reactor steels due to irradiation. German commercial reactor pressure vessel steels, originally from CARISMA program, were used in our study. The German experimental reactor VAK was selected as the proper irradiation facility in the 1980s. A specimen in as-received state and 2 different irradiated cuts from the same material were measured by PALS and size of defects with their intensity was indentified. Afterwards there was prepared an experiment with concern in simulation of neutron irradiation by hydrogen ion implantation on a linear accelerator with energy of 100 keV. Results are concerning on comparison between defects caused by neutron irradiation and hydrogen implantation. The size and intensity of defects reached a similar level as in the specimens irradiated in the nuclear reactor due to hydrogen ions implantation.

  8. The Mainz Neutrino Mass Experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, C.; Bornschein, L.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Flatt, B.; Kovalík, Alojz; Müller, B.; Otten, EW; Schall, JP.; Thummler, T.; Weinheimer, C.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 143, - (2005), s. 143 ISSN 0920-5632. [International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics /21./. Paříž, 14.06.2004-19.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutrino mass * tritium beta decay Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2005

  9. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  10. Coursebook of German: Gender Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova

    2015-01-01

    The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the ...

  11. The European pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leny, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The present state of development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) is outlined. During the so-called harmonization phase, the French and German utilities drew up their common requirements and evaluated the reactor concept developed until then with respect to these requirements. A main result of the harmonization phase was the issue, in September 1993, of the 'EPR Conceptual Safety Feature Review File' to be jointly assessed by the safety authorities in France and Germany. The safety objectives to be met by the EPR are specified in the second part of the paper, and some details of the primary and secondary side safety systems are given. (orig.) [de

  12. Intelligibility of Standard German and Low German to Speakers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.S.; Kürschner, Sebastian; van Bezooijen, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the intelligibility of spoken Low German and Standard German for speakers of Dutch. Two aspects are considered. First, the relative potential for intelligibility of the Low German variety of Bremen and the High German variety of Modern Standard German for speakers of Dutch is

  13. The German risk study for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1980-01-01

    In August 1979 results of the ''German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants'' were published. The Main Report, in which approach and results of the study are documented, has been available since the end of 1979. It was the charter of the study - which was performed on behalf of the Minister of Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany - to apply as far as possible the methods of the US Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) to German plant and site conditions. A direct transfer of the results was not deemed justified, mainly for the following reasons: There is quite a number of differences between the design of the reference plants of WASH-1400 (Surry-1, Peach Bottom-2) and German nuclear power plants. The mean population density in the Federal Republic of Germany is more than ten times of the United States. In the vicinity of nuclear power plants the ratio is about 3:1. To calculate the collective risk resulting from reactor accidents, a total of 25 plants at 19 different sites in the Federal Republic of Germany were considered. This included all plants with 600 MW or more electrical output, which were in operation, under construction or in licensing process by July 1, 1977. As an approximation to the real situation, it has been assumed that all 25 plants are technically identical to the reference plant

  14. New German abortion law agreed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit.

  15. State system experience with safeguarding power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehnsch, W.

    1982-01-01

    This session describes the development and operation of the State System of Accountancy and Control in the German Democratic Republic, and summarizes operating experience with safeguards at power reactor facilities. Overall organization and responsibilities, containment and surveillance measures, materials accounting, and inspection procedures will be outlined. Cooperation between the IAEA, State system, facility, and supplier authorities will also be addressed

  16. Status of development of gas-cooled reactors in Switzerland, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbling, W.; Sarlos, G.

    1988-01-01

    Swiss industrial companies and the Federal Institute for Reactor Research are involved in the framework of German-Swiss cooperation in the HTR-500 project. Another effort in Switzerland is directed to the development of a small heating reactor, in the power range of 10 to 50 MW, for district heating, one of the concepts investigated being an HTR pebble-bed reactor

  17. Biodegradability of leachates from Chinese and German municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SELIC E.; WANG Chi; BOES N., HERBELL J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW) differs significantly from German waste. The focus of this paper is on whether these differences also lead to dissimilar qualities of leachates during storage or landfilling. Leachates ingredients determine the appropriate treatment technique. MSW compositions of the two cities Guilin (China) and Essen (Germany), each with approx. 600000 inhabitants, are used to simulate Chinese and German MSW types. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is used, combining aerobic and anaerobic reaction principles, to test the biodegradability of leachates. Leachates are tested for temperature, pH-value, redox potentials, and oxygen concentration. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values are determined. Within 8 h, the biodegradation rates for both kinds of leachates are more than 90%. Due to the high organic content of Chinese waste, the degradation rate for Guilin MSW leachate is even higher, up to 97%. The effluent from SBR technique is suitable for direct discharge into bodies of water.

  18. Pressurized water reactors: the EPR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Py, J.P.; Yvon, M.

    2007-01-01

    EPR (originally 'European pressurized water reactor', and now 'evolutionary power reactor') is a model of reactor initially jointly developed by French and German engineers which fulfills the particular safety specifications of both countries but also the European utility requirements jointly elaborated by the main European power companies under the initiative of Electricite de France (EdF). Today, two EPR-based reactors are under development: one is under construction in Finland and the other, Flamanville 3 (France), received its creation permit decree on April 10, 2007. This article presents, first, the main objectives of the EPR, and then, describes the Flamanville 3 reactor: reactor type and general conditions, core and conditions of operation, primary and secondary circuits with their components, main auxiliary and recovery systems, man-machine interface and instrumentation and control system, confinement and serious accidents, arrangement of buildings. (J.S.)

  19. The German DEMO working group. Perspectives of a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Fusion development has many different challenges in the areas of plasma physics, fusion technologies, materials development and plasma wall interaction. For making fusion power a reality, a coherent approach is necessary, interlinking the different areas of work. To this end, the German fusion program started in 2010 the German DEMO Working Group, bringing together high-level experts from all the different fields, from the 3 German fusion centers Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) and Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ). An encompassing view of what will be needed with high priority, in plasma physics, in fusion technology and in the interrelation of the fields, to make fusion energy real, has been elaborated, and is presented here in a condensed way. On this basis, the 3 German fusion centers now are composing their work program, towards a fusion demonstration reactor DEMO. (orig.)

  20. Fast breeder reactors: can we learn from experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1981-01-01

    An economic analysis of FBRs, in particular the long-term benefits to be expected, with reference to the experience of the West German fast breeder reactor programme suggests ways of bringing more realism into governmental decisions on the development of new reactor types. It is suggested that if reactor manufacturers and utilities financed commercial-size demonstration plants from their own funds, then the government would get more realistic advice. (U.K.)

  1. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    the V° requirements or the V* requirements. Haider (1993, p. 62) and Koopman (1995), who also discuss such immobile verbs, only account for verbs with two prefix-like parts (e.g., German uraufführen ‘to perform (a play) for the first time' or Dutch herinvoeren ‘to reintroduce'), not for the more...... frequent type with only one prefix-like part (e.g., German bauchreden/Dutch buikspreken ‘to ventriloquize'). This analysis will try to account not only for the data discussed in Haider (1993) and Koopman (1995) but also for the following: - why immobile verbs include verbs with only one prefix-like part...... are immobile, - why such verbs are not found in Germanic VO-languages such as English and Scandinavian....

  2. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  3. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  4. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised.

  5. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  6. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  7. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  8. Objectives and present status of the German risk evaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Koeberlein, K.; Heuser, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    For the German risk evaluation study, analogous to the Rasmussen report (WASH--1400), embarked upon in June 1976, the Kernkraftwerk Biblis B serves as the plant of reference. The first interim results are available for various sub-headings of the study. The main finding seems to be the decisive importance of the containment in limiting the accident consequences even in those cases where, on account of postulated failure of safety systems, the melt down of the reactor core is to be expected. (orig./HP) [de

  9. The Danish Press during the German Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...

  10. Targets and results of the German Reactor Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walte, F.; Schmitz, V.; Kroening, M.

    1999-01-01

    The results obtained so far by the first two austenitic weld research projects show that the approach taken was the right one, as the modelling work in connection with the pulse-echo testing techniques did in fact achieve enhancements in the ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds. The tools developed are: Ray tracing, point source synthesis, and EFIT, and can be successfully applied for NDE of transverse-isotropic weld microstructures, as was shown by all verification experiments. The project tasks for EFIT simulation and verification of the ultrasonic test method applied to anisotropic, dissimilar welds are expected to be concluded towards the end of the project period. If these activities prove to be successful, too, there will be several examples available giving evidence of the feasibility and suitability of the tools for an optimisation of the test parameters. The results available to date have been obtained with tests at several welds, assuming flaw types such as root defects perpendicular to the surface, which were introduced into the specimens by notches. (orig./CB) [de

  11. German offsite accident consequence model for nuclear facilities: further development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1985-01-01

    The German Offsite Accident Consequence Model - first applied in the German Risk Study for nuclear power plants with light water reactors - has been further developed with the improvement of several important submodels in the areas of atmospheric dispersion, shielding effects of houses, and the foodchains. To aid interpretation, the presentation of results has been extended with special emphasis on the presentation of the loss of life expectancy. The accident consequence model has been further developed for application to risk assessments for other nuclear facilities, e.g., the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (SNR-300) and the high temperature gas cooled reactor. Moreover the model have been further developed in the area of optimal countermeasure strategies (sheltering, evacuation, etc.) in the case of the Central European conditions. Preliminary considerations has been performed in connection with safety goals on the basis of doses

  12. A Suggested Curriculum Outline for German in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutterbuck, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines a four-year program of German study aiming to give students a basic ability in spoken and written German, knowledge of German culture, and preparation for advanced German study. Study topics and textbooks are included. (CHK)

  13. Irradiation behavior of German PWR RPV steels under operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.; Hein, H. [AREVA NP Gmbh (Germany); Ganswind, J. [VGB PowerTech e.V. (Germany); Widera, M. [RWE Power AG (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the last standard surveillance capsule of the original RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) surveillance programs of the 11 currently operating German PWR has been evaluated. With it the standard irradiation surveillance programs of these plants was completed. In the present paper, irradiation data of these surveillance programs will be presented and a final assessment of the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels with respect to current standards KTA 3203 and Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2 will be given. Data from two units which are currently under decommissioning will also be included, so that data from all 13 German PWR manufactured by the former Siemens/KWU company (now AREVA NP GmbH) are shown. It will be shown that all surveillance data within the approved area of chemical composition verify the limit curve RT(limit) of the KTA 3203, which is the relevant safety standard for these plants. An analysis of the data shows, that the prediction formulas of Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2 Pos. 1 or from the TTS model tend to overestimate the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels. Possible reasons for this behavior are discussed. Additionally, the data will be compared to data from the research project CARISMA to demonstrate that these data are representative for the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels. Since the data of these research projects cover a larger neutron fluence range than the original surveillance data, they offer a future outlook into the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels under long term conditions. In general, as a consequence of the relatively large and beneficial water gap between core and RPV, especially in all Siemens/KWU 4-loop PWR, the EOL neutron fluence and therefore the irradiation induced changes in mechanical properties of the German PWR RPV materials are rather low. Moreover the irradiation data indicate that the optimized RPV materials specifications that have been applied in particular for the

  14. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  15. Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Correia Da Silva, L.

    2004-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows than UK and US firms.However, on a published profits basis, the pattern is reversed.Company law provisions and accounting policies account for these conflicting results.A partial adjustment model is used to estimate the implicit target

  16. The German radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Klaus; Neider, Rudolf

    1977-01-01

    The German Standards Institute (DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung, Berlin) is engaged in health physics standards development in the following committees. The Nuclear Standards Committee (NKe), which deals mainly with nuclear science and technology, the fuel cycle, and radiation protection techniques. The Radiology Standards Committee (FNR), whose responsibilities are traditionally the principles of radiation protection and dosimetry, applied medical dosimetry, and medical health physics. The German Electrotechnical Commission (DKE), which is concerned mostly with instrumentation standards. The Material Testing Committee (FNM), which is responsible for radiation protection in nonmedical radiography. The current body of over one hundred standards and draft standards was established to supplement the Federal German radiation protection legislation, because voluntary standards can deal in more detail with the specific practical problems. The number of standards is steadily expanding due to the vigorous efforts of about thirty working groups, consisting of essentially all leading German experts of this field. Work is supported by the industry and the Federal Government. A review of the present status and future plans, and of the international aspects with regard to European and world (ISO, etc.) standards will be presented

  17. Headstart German Program. Cultural Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This module provides cultural information that will be helpful to military personnel in understanding some aspects of the German way of life. The topics covered in the booklet are: housing, postal services, forms of address, courtesies, getting around, driving, hotels, restaurants, beer and wine, recreation, entertainment, health spas, shopping,…

  18. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to water cooled reactors and in particular to the cooling system of steam generating heavy water reactors (SGHWR). A two-coolant circuit is described for the latter. Full constructural details are given. (U.K.)

  19. Reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1984-01-01

    A pioneering project on the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, by the UKAEA, is described. Reactor data; policy; waste management; remote handling equipment; development; and recording and timescales, are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Reactor Safety Commission Code of Practice for Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Commission of the Federal German Republic has summarized in the form of Official Guidelines the safety requirements which, in the Commission's view, have to be met in the design, construction and operation of a nuclear power station equipped with a pressurized water reactor. The Third Edition of the RSK Guidelines for pressurized water reactors dated 14.10.81. is a revised and expanded version of the Second Edition dated 24.1.79. The Reactor Safety Commission will with effect from October 1981 use these Guidelines in consultations on the siting of and safety concept for the installation approval of future pressurized water reactors and will assess these nuclear power stations during their erection in the light of these Guidelines. They have not however been immediately conceived for the adaptation of existing nuclear power stations, whether under construction or in operation. The scope of application of these Guidelines to such nuclear power stations will have to be examined for each individual case. The main aim of the Guidelines is to simplify the consultation process within the reactor Safety Commission and to provide early advice on the safety requirements considered necessary by the Commission. (author)

  1. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation [sr

  2. Multiregion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The study of reflected reactors can be done employing the multigroup diffusion method. The neutron conservation equations, inside the intervals, can be written by fluxes and group constants. A reflected reactor (one and two groups) for a slab geometry is studied, aplying the continuity of flux and current in the interface. At the end, the appropriated solutions for a infinite cylindrical reactor and for a spherical reactor are presented. (Author) [pt

  3. Excessive Profits of German Defense Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    its business unit Thyssen Krupp Marine Systems, is a German defense contractor. (2) Tognom AG Tognum AG owned the MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH before... Friedrichshafen provided engines for many ships of the German Navy and for German battle tanks, such as the Leopard I and Leopard II. MTU refers to the

  4. [German influences on Romanian medical terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Răcilă, R G; Răileanu, Irena; Rusu, V

    2008-01-01

    The medical terminology plays a key part both in the study of medicine as well as in its practice. Moreover, understanding the medical terms is important not only for the doctor but also for the patients who want to learn more about their condition. For these reasons we believe that the study of medical terminology is one of great interest. The aim of our paper was to evaluate the German linguistic and medical influences on the evolution of the Romanian medical terminology. Since the Romanian-German cultural contacts date back to the 12th century we had reasons to believe that the number of German medical words in Romanian would be significant. To our surprise, the Romanian language has very few German words and even less medical terms of German origin. However, when we searched the list of diseases coined after famous medical personalities, we found out that 26 % of them bore the names of German doctors and scientists. Taken together this proves that the German medical school played an important role on the evolution of Romanian medicine despite the fact that the Romanian vocabulary was slightly influenced by the German language. We explain this fact on the structural differences between the Romanian and German languages, which make it hard for German loans to be integrated in the Romanian lexis. In conclusion we state that the German influence on the Romanian medical terminology is weak despite the important contribution of the German medical school to the development of medical education and healthcare in Romania. Key

  5. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2017-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grades...

  6. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  7. Silent Film in the German Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, David

    In addition to using films in the German classroom to introduce students to German culture and history, it is important to show and study the film as film. This procedure emphasizes the importance of the film as a part of creative arts in Germany and demands student participation in observation and discussion. Many German silent films are…

  8. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Sato, Morihiko.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metals such as liquid metal sodium are filled in a reactor container as primary coolants. A plurality of reactor core containers are disposed in a row in the circumferential direction along with the inner circumferential wall of the reactor container. One or a plurality of intermediate coolers are disposed at the inside of an annular row of the reactor core containers. A reactor core constituted with fuel rods and control rods (module reactor core) is contained at the inside of each of the reactor core containers. Each of the intermediate coolers comprises a cylindrical intermediate cooling vessels. The intermediate cooling vessel comprises an intermediate heat exchanger for heat exchange of primary coolants and secondary coolants and recycling pumps for compulsorily recycling primary coolants at the inside thereof. Since a plurality of reactor core containers are thus assembled, a great reactor power can be attained. Further, the module reactor core contained in one reactor core vessel may be small sized, to facilitate the control for the reactor core operation. (I.N.)

  9. German study on the risks of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollny, V.

    1987-01-01

    The 'Deutsche Risikostudie Kernkraftwerke', DRS, (German study on the risks of nuclear plants) calculates a frequency of 1/10000 years (i.e. once in 10000 years of reactor operation) for the event of insufficient cooling of the reactor core occurring. The resulting collective risk is put at approximately 10 deaths per year for 25 plants. As the explanations show, the error margin of such a risk statement is enormous. Moreover, much seems to indicate that the risk was underrated. Apart from this, risk analyses are of doubtful value in the decision process for or against the introduction of large-scale technologies. They cannot replace the individual decision of all concerned. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II

  11. "We call it Springbok-German!": language contact in the German communities in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Varieties of German are spoken all over the world, some of which have been maintained for prolonged periods of time. As a result, these transplanted varieties often show traces of the ongoing language contact as specific to their particular context. This thesis explores one such transplanted German language variety – Springbok- German – as spoken by a small subset of German Lutherans in South Africa. Specifically, this study takes as its focus eight rural German communities acr...

  12. Nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    After an introduction and general explanation of nuclear power the following reactor types are described: magnox thermal reactor; advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); pressurised water reactor (PWR); fast reactors (sodium cooled); boiling water reactor (BWR); CANDU thermal reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR); high temperature reactor (HTR); Leningrad (RMBK) type water-cooled graphite moderated reactor. (U.K.)

  13. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, Francois

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  14. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, Y.; Elias, E.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  15. Application of the accident consequences model of the German risk study to assessments of accident risks in different types of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Bayer, A.

    1982-01-01

    Within the scope of the 'German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants' (Phase A) the accident consequence model UFOMOD was developed in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. This model originally developed for pressurized water reactors has now been extended in order to obtain results about accidental releases of activity from fast breeder and high-temperature reactors, too. (RW) [de

  16. German risk study, phase (DRS-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, W.

    1992-01-01

    The first risk investigations were primarily intended to estimate the risk of accidents in nuclear power plants and to compare it with other natural risk and civilization risks. The American reactor safety study WASH 1400 and the German risk study phase A (DRS-A) gave a detailed analyses of the offsite consequences of accidents, especially the magnitude and frequency of health damage for the population. Risk investigations today are primarily used to examine the design of safety systems and to further develop the entire safety concept. Safety investigations have shown that nuclear power plants still possess safety reserves if safety systems do not operate as planned. These safety reserves can be exploited in the sense of a further development of safety by plant internal emergency measures. One purpose of risk analyses is to identify such measures and to evaluate their feasibility and effectiveness. The most important goals of the investigations in DRS-B were: Identification of vulnerabilities and possible safety improvements; determination of safety reserves during accident sequences exceeding the design limits; evaluation of plant internal emergency measures. Thus, goals in phase B compared with phase A have changed from investigations of the magnitude of damage to detailed analysis of the plant systems response under accident conditions. The magnitude of possible fission product releases is also determined in phase B. However, no new accident consequence calculations are performed. Figs and tabs

  17. The German Economy and U.S.-German Economic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Should the SPD and The Left overcome existing differences, the grouping could represent a leftward shift in German politics. Alliance ’90 / The...and replaced it with less generous social assistance benefits already available to poor individuals, regardless of employment history . These changes...director at Volkswagen . 48Hans-Werner Sinn, Can Germany Be Saved?, p. 108. 49 Alister Miskimmon and Walter E. Paterson, “Conclusion: coping with the

  18. The European Pressurized Water Reactor. A safe and competitive solution for future energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverenz, R.; Gerhard, L.; Goebel, A.

    2004-01-01

    The European Pressurized Water Reactor - the EPR - is a PWR in the 1600 MW class. Its design is based on experience feedback from several thousand reactors x years of light water reactor operation worldwide, primarily those incorporating the most recent technologies: the French N4 and the German KONVOI reactors. It is an evolutionary design that ensures continuity in the mastery of PWR technology, minimizing the risk for the customer. (author)

  19. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    It brings together the techniques data which are involved in the discussion about the utility for a research institute to acquire an atomic reactor for research purposes. This type of decision are often taken by non-specialist people who can need a brief presentation of a research reactor and its possibilities in term of research before asking advises to experts. In a first part, it draws up a list of the different research programs which can be studied by getting a research reactor. First of all is the reactor behaviour and kinetics studies (reproducibility factor, exploration of neutron density, effect of reactor structure, effect of material irradiation...). Physical studies includes study of the behaviour of the control system, studies of neutron resonance phenomena and study of the fission process for example. Chemical studies involves the study of manipulation and control of hot material, characterisation of nuclear species produced in the reactor and chemical effects of irradiation on chemical properties and reactions. Biology and medicine research involves studies of irradiation on man and animals, genetics research, food or medical tools sterilization and neutron beams effect on tumour for example. A large number of other subjects can be studied in a reactor research as reactor construction material research, fabrication of radioactive sources for radiographic techniques or applied research as in agriculture or electronic. The second part discussed the technological considerations when choosing the reactor type. The technological factors, which are considered for its choice, are the power of the reactor, the nature of the fuel which is used, the type of moderator (water, heavy water, graphite or BeO) and the reflector, the type of coolants, the protection shield and the control systems. In the third part, it described the characteristics (place of installation, type of combustible and comments) and performance (power, neutron flux ) of already existing

  20. EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) The advanced nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear energy, which provides a steady supply of electricity at low cost, has its rightful place in the energy mix of the 21. century, which puts the emphasis on sustainable development. The EPR is the only 3. generation reactor under construction today. It is an evolutionary reactor that represents a new generation of pressurized water reactors with no break in the technology used for the most recent models. The EPR was developed by Framatome and Siemens, whose nuclear activities were combined in January 2001 to form Framatome ANP, a subsidiary of AREVA and Siemens. EDF and the major German electricity companies played an active part in the project. The safety authorities of the two countries joined forces to bring their respective safety standards into line and draw up joint design rules for the new reactor. The project had three objectives: meet the requirements of European utilities, comply with the safety standards laid down by the French safety authority for future pressurized water reactors, in concert with its German counterpart, and make nuclear energy even more competitive than energy generated using fossil fuels. The EPR can guarantee a safe, inexpensive electricity supply, without adding to the greenhouse effect. It meets the requirements of the safety authorities and lives up to the expectations of electricity utilities. This document presents the main characteristics of the EPR, and in particular the additional measures to prevent the occurrence of events likely to damage the core, the leak-tight containment, the measures to reduce the exposure of operating and maintenance personnel, the solutions for an even greater protection of the environment. The foreseen development of the EPR in France and abroad (Finland, China, the United States) is summarized

  1. The status of the german AF-program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamm, G.

    1984-01-01

    The status of the german AF-program is reported in the fields of high density fuel development and qualification as well as for the conversion planning of the FRG research reactors. Up to U-densities of 2,2 g U/cm 3 and 3,2 g U/cm 3 UAlsub(x)- respectively U 3 O 8 -A1 are considered fully qualified and are available at an industrial fabrication scale. Fabrication technology development and irradiation qualification of U-silicide fuels are in good grogress whereof U 3 Si 2 -Al up to 5,0 g U/cm 3 is expected to be fully qualified within the next 2 years. Most of the german research reactors currently operated on HEU-MTR fuel will be converted to the use REU material within the eighties. Tests with REU fuel elements have been successfully started and will be extended very soon by means of which the final HEU-LEU conversion process is expected to be iniated sometimes very smoothly. (author)

  2. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova; Sergey Nikolaevich Kirillov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations...

  3. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  4. Five years German AF-Programme: Review and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamm, G [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH, Zentralabteilung Forschungsreaktoren, 5170 Juelich (Germany)

    1985-07-01

    The AF-Programme (reduced enrichment in research reactors) was officially launched by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the second half of 1979. Work under this programme carried out since then by industry and research laboratories covers the development of high-density LEU fuels up to the production stage, their qualification by irradiations and post-irradiation examinations as well as specific studies for converting the German research reactors from HEU to LEU fuel cycles. The programme was revised and updated approximately two years ago. The following decisions were made: - an extension by two years of the original period planned to expire at the end of 1984; - increased research into the development of LEU fuel fabrication technologies for application on an industrial scale; and - preference of the so-called one-step conversion of research reactors from HEU to LEU. The activities of the AF-Programme will be officially continued until the end of 1986. It will then be primarily necessary to conduct post- irradiation examinations as well as reactor conversion studies accompanying the licensing procedure. Work carried out to date has involved an extensive exchange of experience at various international meetings and on a bilateral basis. Particularly close cooperation was practised with the American RERTR programme, which made it possible to reduce the irradiations planned in Germany, especially due to the early tests of LEU plates of reduced size and fuel elements in the ORR, Oak Ridge, with subsequent post-examinations. (author)

  5. EPR by Areva. EPR the 1600+ MWe reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This brochure presents the GEN III+ EPR reactor designed by the Areva and Siemens consortium. The EPR reactor is a direct descendent of the well-proven N4 and KONVOI reactors, the most modern reactors in France and Germany. The EPR was designed by teams from KWU/Siemens and Framatome, EDF in France and the major German utilities, working in collaboration with both French and German safety authorities. The EPR integrates the results of decades of R and D programs, in particular those performed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) and the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany. The EPR benefits from the experience of several thousand reactor-years of operation of pressurized water reactor technology. This experience has put 87 AREVA PWRs online throughout the world. Innovative Features: - An outer shell covering the reactor building, the spent fuel building and two of the four safeguard buildings provides protection against large commercial or military aircraft crash. - A heavy neutron reflector that surrounds the reactor core lowers uranium consumption. - An axial economizer inside the steam generator allows a high level of steam pressure and therefore high plant efficiency. - A core catcher allows passive collection and retention of the molten core should the reactor vessel fail in the highly unlikely event of a core melt. - A digital technology and a fully computerized control room with an operator friendly man-machine interface improve the reactor protection system.

  6. EPR by Areva. EPR the 1600+ MWe reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This brochure presents the GEN III+ EPR reactor designed by the Areva and Siemens consortium. The EPR reactor is a direct descendent of the well-proven N4 and KONVOI reactors, the most modern reactors in France and Germany. The EPR was designed by teams from KWU/Siemens and Framatome, EDF in France and the major German utilities, working in collaboration with both French and German safety authorities. The EPR integrates the results of decades of R and D programs, in particular those performed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) and the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany. The EPR benefits from the experience of several thousand reactor-years of operation of pressurized water reactor technology. This experience has put 87 AREVA PWRs online throughout the world. Innovative Features: - An outer shell covering the reactor building, the spent fuel building and two of the four safeguard buildings provides protection against large commercial or military aircraft crash. - A heavy neutron reflector that surrounds the reactor core lowers uranium consumption. - An axial economizer inside the steam generator allows a high level of steam pressure and therefore high plant efficiency. - A core catcher allows passive collection and retention of the molten core should the reactor vessel fail in the highly unlikely event of a core melt. - A digital technology and a fully computerized control room with an operator friendly man-machine interface improve the reactor protection system

  7. Pressurized thermal shock analysis in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Stefan; Braun, Michael [TUEV NORD Nuclear, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    For more than 30 years TUeV NORD is a competent consultant in nuclear safety is-sues giving expert third party opinion to our clients. According to the German regulations the safety against brittle fracture has to be proved for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and with a new level of knowledge the proof has to be continuously updated with the development in international codes and standards like ASME, BS and RCC-M. The load of the RPV is a very complex transient pressure and temperature situation. Today these loading conditions can be modeled by thermal hydraulic calculations and new experimental results much more detailed than in the construction phase of German Nuclear Power Plants in the 1980s. Therefore, the proof against brittle fracture from the construction phase had to be updated for all German Nuclear Power Plants with the new findings of the loading conditions especially for a postulated small leakage in the main coolant line. The RPV consists of ferritic base material (about 250 mm) and austenitic cladding (about 6 mm) at the inner side. The base material and the cladding have different physical properties which have to be considered temperature dependently in the cal-culations. Radiation-embrittlement effects on the material are to be respected in the fracture mechanics assessment. The regions of the RPV of special interest are the core weld, the inlet and outlet nozzle region and the flange connecting weld zone. The fracture mechanics assessment is performed for normal and abnormal operating conditions and for accidents like LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). In this paper the German approach to fracture mechanics assessment to brittle fracture will be discussed from the point of view of a third party organization.

  8. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  9. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  10. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabedian, G.

    1988-01-01

    A liquid reactor is described comprising: (a) a reactor vessel having a core; (b) one or more satellite tanks; (c) pump means in the satellite tank; (d) heat exchanger means in the satellite tank; (e) an upper liquid metal conduit extending between the reactor vessel and the satellite tank; (f) a lower liquid metal duct extending between the reactor vessel and satellite tanks the upper liquid metal conduit and the lower liquid metal duct being arranged to permit free circulation of liquid metal between the reactor vessel core and the satellite tank by convective flow of liquid metal; (g) a separate sealed common containment vessel around the reactor vessel, conduits and satellite tanks; (h) the satellite tank having space for a volume of liquid metal that is sufficient to dampen temperature transients resulting from abnormal operating conditions

  11. The German competence network on nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Fritz, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The present German energy policy is based on the phase-out of nuclear electricity generation, which means that the last of the currently operating eighteen German nuclear power plants will run until about 2022. While the plants will be shut down one after the other, decommissioning will start together with interim storage of the radioactive waste. The safe waste disposal in a final repository is planned to start around 2030 and may take another two decades, i.e., in Germany nuclear competence is further needed, at least until the mid of this century. Against this background, a high-ranking commission under the direction of the Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology evaluated the publicly funded nuclear safety related research and development (R and D) activities in Germany. One of the recommendations made by the commission was the foundation of a Competence Network on Nuclear Technology for an optimum coordination of the remaining nuclear activities including aspects of future human resources in this area. This Network was established in March 2000 with the following member institutions: Research Centre Juelich, Research Centre Karlsruhe, Research Centre Rossendorf and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) in Munich and their neighbouring Technical Universities. The strategic objectives of the Competence Network include: Trend investigations on job development and on university education capacities in the nuclear technology sector; Enhanced cooperation of the Research Centres with universities in the nuclear field and support of international education initiatives (e.g. ENEN, WNU); Coordination and bundling of the activities in publicly funded reactor safety and waste management R and D programmes; Support of qualified young scientists and engineers (pre-doctoral students) - also by third-party funds; Participation in and collaboration with international projects and activities for advancements of international nuclear safety

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batheja, P.; Huber, R.; Rau, P.

    1985-01-01

    Particularly for nuclear reactors of small output, the reactor pressure vessel contains at least two heat exchangers, which have coolant flowing through them in a circuit through the reactor core. The circuit of at least one heat exchanger is controlled by a slide valve, so that even for low drive forces, particularly in natural circulation, the required even loading of the heat exchanger is possible. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Heterogeneous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Reactor upgrade loans in spring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) could start to make loans for immediate safety improvements on eastern European reactors in the first half of 1993, according to Francois Demarcq, the bank's project manager for the nuclear safety account. He reported to the German Atomforum meeting in Bonn on January 26; progress at last seems to be forthcoming on the proposals for urgent assistance put forward last year by the Group of 24 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries in Lisbon last June and the Group of 7 summit meeting in Bonn in July

  15. The opening of the debates on the extension of German nuclear plant lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.

    2010-01-01

    After having recalled that the German nuclear plants were to be progressively stopped by 2021, the author reports that the political coalition has thrown this Agenda back into question, because the development of alternative energies is insufficient to compensate the programmed closing down, and the German government wants to avoid the use of thermal plants which are generating CO 2 emissions. Negotiations are underway between the German government and the four electric companies in charge of different plants. It appears that even plants which were to be stopped in 2010, could keep on operating. The report contains tables indicating, for each nuclear plant, its type, its operator, its power, its dates of beginning and programmed end of commercial activity, its production variation in time. Some comments are given about already stopped reactors (Brunsbuttel and Krummel) which faced some problems in the past, and about waste storing sites (Asse, Gorleben, Morsleben, Konrad)

  16. The Nuclear Safety Convention - does it confirm existing German law, and update international law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, C.

    1995-01-01

    Some selected examples are discussed that are intended to answer the question of whether the NSC in its essence represents a development in confirmation of existing German nuclear law, and whether, assuming its coming into effect, this Convention will mean a step forward in the development of international law. The author examines the value of this codification of international law as such, and some of the obligations and standards such as retrofitting measures or shutdown of reactors below safety standard, and continues with briefly discussing the relationship between the NSC and nuclear liability law, the planned provisions for radiological protection in Art. 15, and the obligations for transboundary notification of safety-relevant events. These stipulations are analysed in comparison to existing international law, and with a view to their implementation under German law. Some provisions of the NSC that are based on standards of international technical guidance are compared with German regulatory guides. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Operational Art and the German 1918 Offensives

    OpenAIRE

    Zabecki, D T

    2009-01-01

    At the tactical level of war the Germans are widely regarded as having had the most innovative and proficient army of World War I. Likewise, many historians would agree that the Germans suffered from serious, if not fatal, shortcomings at the strategic level of war. It is at the middle level of warfare, the operational level, that the Germans seem to be the most difficult to evaluate. Although the operational was only fully accepted in the 1980s by many Western militaries as...

  18. Out of the German parliament into the German Museum?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieb, E.

    1989-01-01

    It is currently discussed whether the German Bundestag can deal with the interdepartmental problems of technology assessment with the Commissions of Inquiry on the one hand and whether it has adequate instruments available with the department-related standing Bundestag committees in order to deal with technology assessment. In its report the Commission of Inquiry for Technology Assessment of the past legislative period came to the conclusion that the US parliamentary advisory model which has been realized with OTA could, of course, not be transferred to the situation of the German Bundestag without hesitation, but that the Bundestag should also have a permanent scientific department staff with a sufficient number of personnel and material. The congress was to offer the possibility to discuss the problems of technology assessment with regard to this up-to-date background with experts and members of parliament of the various commissions of inquiry and commissions of the Bundestag which were summoned in order to judge essential technologies and also to solve the problem of the institutionalization of technology assessment. (orig./DG) [de

  19. Coursebook of German: Gender Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the fact that there is a problem of women discrimination in the textbooks, which provide classical gender stereotypes, where, in spite of modern social changes, women are still overrepresented in the private domain and underrepresented in the public sphere. Apart from that, gender stereotypes and gender asymmetry are embedded in the language, where the woman is often not referred to directly while the man is used in the generalizing meaning of "human". The gender asymmetry is reflected in the idioms as well. Nevertheless the analysis of modern coursebooks reveals both some changes in the presentation of women and men's occupations and in the language due to the usage of so-called "gender neutral" forms. The objective of our research lies in the linguistic analysis of the usage of the "gender neutral" forms as well as in the coursebooks on phraseology in order to find out gender asymmetries. In addition, the author focuses on gender stereotypes, men and women's behavioral patterns in different domains of life, and positive changes in the image of men and women represented in the Aspekte German coursebook.

  20. German Policy Towards Muslim Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila R. Sadykova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The past two-three decades can be characterized by the period of global migration and sharp jump of migratory streams is connected with globalization and with the economic factor, generating labor movement behind resources from Third World countries to the countries with deficiency of labor. The desire to receive comfort life becomes the major reason, and the migrant makes the decision being guided by private interest more often instead of external factors. Western Europe became one of the most important center of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war, laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Globalization of migratory streams, penetration of foreign culture groups into structure of accepting society and prevalence of multicultural, multiethnic societies are important characteristics of a modern era. Western Europe became one of the most important centers of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period, the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Special relevance the problem of reception of immigrants, in particular from the Muslim countries, got for the former colonial powers, in particular Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands. Germany also faced this problem; migrants workers from other countries were required for the post-war restoration. Now Germany still is one of the main centers of an attraction of migrants, and concentration of them in this country annually increases. Despite the steps taken by the German government on elimination of Muslim isolation in the German society, its efforts did not bear fruits so far. The majority of Muslims live their life and are still torn off from high life of the country. A possible threat of destruction of the German community appeared when the various ethnic groups

  1. Slurry reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerten, H; Zehner, P [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    Slurry reactors are designed on the basis of empirical data and model investigations. It is as yet not possible to calculate the flow behavior of such reactors. The swarm of gas bubbles and cluster formations of solid particles and their interaction in industrial reactors are not known. These effects control to a large extent the gas hold-up, the gas-liquid interface and, similarly as in bubble columns, the back-mixing of liquids and solids. These hydrodynamic problems are illustrated in slurry reactors which constructionally may be bubble columns, stirred tanks or jet loop reactors. The expected effects are predicted by means of tests with model systems modified to represent the conditions in industrial hydrogenation reactors. In his book 'Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis' (1970) Satterfield complained of the lack of knowledge about the design of slurry reactors and hence of the impossible task of the engineer who has to design a plant according to accepted rules. There have been no fundamental changes since then. This paper presents the problems facing the engineer in designing slurry reactors, and shows new development trends.

  2. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, H.P.; Heuser, F.W.; May, H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper comprises an introduction into nuclear physics bases, the safety concept generally speaking, safety devices of pwr type reactors, accident analysis, external influences, probabilistic safety assessment and risk studies. It further describes operational experience, licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Law, research in reactor safety and the nuclear fuel cycle. (DG) [de

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  4. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  5. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This chapter includes the following: General description of the RA reactor, organization of work, responsibilities of leadership and operators team, regulations concerning operation and behaviour in the reactor building, regulations for performing experiments, regulations and instructions for inserting samples into experimental channels [sr

  6. Reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, H.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  7. Modular high-temperature reactor launched (and wallchart)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinwarz, W.

    1987-01-01

    In view of the need for a technically unsophisticated, safe and economic reactor system, the KWU group has integrated the experience gained from German light-water reactor engineering and from successful operation of the German AVR experimental high-temperature reactor into the development of the High-Temperature Reactor (HTR)-module. The main components are illustrated and explained and technical data for the HTR-module is given. Safety is also considered. This includes graphs of core heat-up temperature for pebble-bed HTR and a graph of the temperature load of the fuel elements. The operation, control and applications are considered. The latter includes use in combined heat and power generation and community heating. Feasibility studies have shown that the HTR-module is cheaper, comparatively, than coal-fired power stations. (U.K.)

  8. German risk study of PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, first the status of German Risk Study is presented briefly. Specific reference is made to the investigations in Phase B of the study and related programs. Significant elements involved in the risk assessment for NPPs, mainly in the field of system and structural reliability analyses are mentioned. In particular, important outcomes and limiting facts in the process of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to evaluate the safety standard and above all the influence of individual components or subsystems on core melt frequency are discussed. (orig.)

  9. 63rd German radiological congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The book of abstracts contains abstracts of 171 papers read at the German Radiological Congress in Berlin as well as abstracts of two papers not read for lack of time. Further, there are 31 brief descriptions of the scientific exhibition. Subjects: Diagnosis of gall bladder diseases and inflammatory diseases of the large intestine; hyperthermia and irradiation in tumour therapy; nuclear methods in the diagnosis of growing and displacing processes, skeletal diseases, thromboses, embolisms, gastrointestinal and liver affections; new techniques and methods, diagnostics of the spinal tract; radiooncology; carcinoma of the ovaries; diagnostics and therapy of tumours of the lungs; computerized tomography; angiography; ultrasonic diagnosis. (MG) [de

  10. German Librarianship and Munich Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.

  11. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  12. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  13. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  14. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor and especially a high-temperature reactor in which provision is made within a pressure vessel for a main cavity containing the reactor core and a series of vertical cylindrical pods arranged in spaced relation around the main cavity and each adapted to communicate with the cavity through two collector ducts or headers for the primary fluid which flows downwards through the reactor core. Each pod contains two superposed steam-generator and circulator sets disposed in substantially symmetrical relation on each side of the hot primary-fluid header which conveys the primary fluid from the reactor cavity to the pod, the circulators of both sets being mounted respectively at the bottom and top ends of the pod

  15. German-French PWR cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, F.; Vignon, D.

    1990-01-01

    In April 1989, the two leading European nuclear power plant vendors, Framatome and Siemens, signed an agreement on cooperation covering the joint development and worldwide marketing of pressurized water reactors. For this purpose a joint subsidiary, Nuclear Power International (NPI) was founded, in which equal interests are held by Framatome and Siemens. The firm has its headquarters in Paris and another sales office in Erlangen. Its main activities are the coordination of the development of a joint advanced pressurized water reactor technology and the marketing of pressurized water reactors. Until the joint technology under development has reached commercial maturity, the lines so far developed by the parent companies will continue to be distributed. (orig.) [de

  16. Market introduction of innovative reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, A.I.V.

    1996-01-01

    Besides the development of evolutionary and passive LWR, also that of innovative reactors is attractive, because other applications (new markets) besides base load electricity generation can be thought of, and interesting new features on the area of safety or waste incineration can be shown. For market introduction however, a (partial) new infrastructure and a demonstration plant are required. Taking the abundance of fossil fuels and the accompanying low fuel prices today and in the near future into account, the funds to finance this will only become available when 1)the projected energy generating costs will be substantially lower than those of today, and 2)the costs of market introduction (i.e. the demonstration plant and the required infrastructure) will be limited. Generally speaking, there are two ways to seek competitiveness of a reactor type: 1)application of economy of scale, and 2)simplification. In this paper, an example of the second possibility is pursued for an innovative reactor type. The HR1 is a 40 MWth high temperature gas cooled reactor for heat and power cogeneration, a simplified version of the German HTR Module. The power level is chosen so small that additional safety features become apparent. For example, after a total loss of coolant the fuel remains fully intact, even if the reactor shutdown system fails and the reactor goes critical again after a number of hours. These safety features are used to omit certain components, like the emergency core cooling system, or to select a cheaper version of components, e.g. replacing the containment building by a confinement. Moreover, degradation of the safety class of certain components comes within the realm of possibilities. The cost reduction offered by these two measures are used to more than offset the economy-of-scale disadvantage of this small reactor system. (author)

  17. Research for enhancing reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    Recent research for enhanced reactor safety covers extensive and numerous experiments and computed modelling activities designed to verify and to improve existing design requirements. The lectures presented at the meeting report GRS research results and the current status of reactor safety research in France. The GRS experts present results concerning expert systems and their perspectives in safety engineering, large-scale experiments and their significance in the development and verification of computer codes for thermohydraulic modelling of safety-related incidents, the advanced system code ATHLET for analysis of thermohydraulic processes of incidents, the analysis simulator which is a tool for fast evaluation of accident management measures, and investigations into event sequences and the required preventive emergency measures within the German Risk Study. (DG) [de

  18. Thermohydraulic accident behavior of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horche, W.; Kirmse, R.; Reichenbach, D.; Weber, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    GRS, on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, conducted an assessment of the technical safety of the Greifswald nuclear generating units of the Soviet WWER-440/W-230 and W-213 reactor lines, respectively. The evaluation of existing accident analyses and the execution of some first calculations by GRS added to the know-how of GRS. This is reflected in the increased participation by GRS in international expert bodies investigating safety problems of WWER-440 plants. The contributions made towards international WWER projects within the framework of IAEA missions or as a result of bilateral consultations strengthen international partnership in the field of reactor safety in Central and Eastern Europe. (orig.) [de

  19. A German catastrophe? German historians and the Allied bombings, 1945-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Benda-Beckmann, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    As one of the major symbols of German suffering, the Allied bombing war left a strong imprint on German society. To a much wider extent than is often claimed, the Allied bombings became part of German debates on the Second World War. In both the GDR as well as the Federal Republic before and after

  20. New training reactor at Dresden Technical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.; Knorr, J.; Wolf, T.

    2006-01-01

    A total of 14 low-power (up to 10 W) training reactors have been operated at German universities, 9 of them officially classified as being operational in 2004, though for very different uses. This number is expected to drop sharply. The only comprehensive upgrading of a training reactor took place at Dresden Technical University: AKR-2, the most modern facility in Germany, started routine operation in April 2005, under a newly granted license pursuant to Sec. 7, Subsec. 1 of the German Atomic Energy Act, for training students in nuclear technology, for suitable research projects, and a a center of information about reactor technology and nuclear technology for the interested public. One special aspect of this refurbishment was the installation of digital safety I and C systems of the TELEPERM XS line, which are used also in other modern plants. This fact, plus the easy possibility to use the plant for many basic experiments in reactor physics and radiation protection, make the AKR-2 attractive also to other users (e.g. for training reactor personnel or other persons working in nuclear technology). (orig.)

  1. Experience with vibration monitoring in German PWRs Obrigheim, Grohnde, Brokdorf and Emsland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, D.; Runkel, J.

    1996-01-01

    Without any interference to the normal operation of a nuclear power plant useful informations about the vibrational behaviour and the operation conditions in the primary circuit can be obtained by noise analysis of the signals of the standard reactor instrumentation. The purpose is to detect incipient changes of mechanical and operating conditions in order to enable early failure detection and preventive maintenance. This contributes not only to the safety but also to higher availability and economic efficiency of the plant. Routine measurements and noise analysis of the signals of the reactor and primary loop instrumentation are performed in all German nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactor. This paper deals with experiences of vibration monitoring by use of noise analysis ion four utilities. The typical vibration behaviour of reactor components of the different PWRs is compared and the particular vibration behaviour of a core support flow distribution stool, of a steam generator and a main circulation pump shaft is discussed. (authors)

  2. French pollution and German lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that the German energy transition is based on a complete shutting down of nuclear power stations to replace them by renewable energy sources on the one hand, and by coal (lignite, i.e. the dirtiest coal) and gas on the other hand to compensate the intermittency of the former ones, this article notices that pollution peaks occurred in France when an eastern of north-eastern wind was blowing, and not in case of western wind. The author then wanders whether this pollution comes from Germany, and more particularly from the releases of lignite-fuelled power stations. Then, the author comments the high level of pollution associated with coal extraction and exploitation in Germany, causing thousands of deaths and resulting in lung diseases or cancers, myocardial infractions. The author then makes a parallel between, on the one hand, the ignorance of this German pollution and, on the other hand, evacuation measures around Fukushima for a radioactivity which the author considers as less dangerous in terms of life expectancy

  3. Rise and fall of the German nuclear industry; Aufstieg und Fall der deutschen Atomwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radkau, Joachim [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Neuere Geschichte; Hahn, Lothar

    2013-02-01

    The book on the rise and fall of the German nuclear industry includes five chapters: (1) From the atomic project of the second world war to the ''peaceful atom''. (2) The ''peaceful atom'' as vision: the phase of speculations. (3) Achieved facts: the unplanned triumph of the light water reactor. (4) The internally suppressed risk excites the public. (5) From the creeping to the open fall.

  4. The red atom. The help of german scientists to USSR between 1945-1961

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andurand, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue is tackled the cooperation between German and Russian scientists in nuclear energy from 1945 to 1961 and especially about the uranium enrichment by gaseous diffusion of uranium hexafluoride in cascade. The problems they encountered and their solutions are related until the explosion of the first Russian atomic bomb even if it was not a bomb with enriched uranium but with plutonium got in a nuclear reactor. (N.C.)

  5. Nuclear power in the energy economics of the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The present structure of the energy economy in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is described and the need of nuclear power stations for the future supply of energy is demonstrated. The selection of the type of nuclear reactor, the existing operating experience with nuclear equipment and the collaboration in this field with the U.S.S.R. is described. The training of personnel in nuclear techniques is noted. (H.E.G.)

  6. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toru; Murata, Ritsuko.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a spent fuel storage pool of a BWR type reactor is formed at an upper portion and enlarged in the size to effectively utilize the space of the building. Namely, a reactor chamber enhouses reactor facilities including a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container, and further, a spent fuel storage pool is formed thereabove. A second spent fuel storage pool is formed above the auxiliary reactor chamber at the periphery of the reactor chamber. The spent fuel storage pool and the second spent fuel storage pool are disposed in adjacent with each other. A wall between both of them is formed vertically movable. With such a constitution, the storage amount for spent fuels is increased thereby enabling to store the entire spent fuels generated during operation period of the plant. Further, since requirement of the storage for the spent fuels is increased stepwisely during periodical exchange operation, it can be used for other usage during the period when the enlarged portion is not used. (I.S.)

  7. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Kawashima, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the temperature distribution of the reactor container so as to moderate the thermal stress distribution on the reactor wall of LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: A good heat conductor (made of Al or Cu) is appended on the outer side of the reactor container wall from below the liquid level to the lower face of a deck plate. Further, heat insulators are disposed to the outside of the good heat conductor. Furthermore, a gas-cooling duct is circumferentially disposed at the contact portion between the good heat conductor and the deck plate around the reactor container. This enables to flow the cold heat from the liquid metal rapidly through the good heat conductor to the cooling duct and allows to maintain the temperature distribution on the reactor wall substantially linear even with the abrupt temperature change in the liquid metal. Further, by appending the good heat conductor covered with inactive metals not only on the outer side but also on the inside of the reactor wall to introduce the heat near the liquid level to the upper portion and escape the same to the cooling layer below the roof slab, the effect can be improved further. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. German risk study for nuclear power plants. Vol. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracht, K.F.; Javeri, V.; Keusenhoff, J.; Meier, S.; Roehrs, W.; Scharfe, A.; Tiltmann, M.; Mayinger, F.

    1980-01-01

    This appendix contains the analyses on core melt accidents carried out for the German risk study. These accidents constitute a major portion of the event sequences relevant to the risk. It deals, in particular, with the processes involved in the reactor core melt, the behaviour of the containment vessel including the possible types of failures, and the consequences of possible steam explosions. The investigations were performed for limiting cases for which a complete failure of the emergency core cooling and residual heat removal system is anticipated. Under these conditions, the reactor core melts down and penetrates the reactor pressure vessel bottom. In the course of the following interaction between core melt and concrete foundation, the melt is assumed to come into contact with the sump water. The evaporation of the sump water leads to an overpressure failure of the containment vessel within approximately one day after accident initiation. A destruction of the containment as a consequence of a steam explosion is considered highly unprobable. (orig.) [de

  9. Safety of light water reactors. Risks of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veser, Anke; Schlueter, Franz-Hermann; Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Paesler-Sauer, Juergen; Kessler, Guenter

    2012-01-01

    The book on the safety of light-water reactors includes the following chapters: Part I: Physical and technical safety concept of actual German and future European light-water reactors: (1) Worldwide operated nuclear power plants in 2011, (2) Some reactor physical fundamentals. (3) Nuclear power plants in Germany. (4) Radioactive exposure due to nuclear power plants. (5) Safety concept of light-water reactors. (6) Probabilistic analyses and risk studies. (7) Design of light-water reactors against external incidents. (8) Risk comparison of nuclear power plants and other energy systems. (9) Evaluation of risk studies using the improved (new) safety concept for LWR. (19) The severe reactor accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima. Part II: Safety of German LWR in case of a postulated aircraft impact. (11) Literature. (12) Review of requirements and actual design. (13) Incident scenarios. (14) Load approach for aircraft impact. (15) Demonstration of the structural behavior in case of aircraft impact. (16) Special considerations. (17) Evaluation of the safety state of German and foreign nuclear power plants. Part III: ROSOS as example for a computer-based decision making support system for the severe accident management. (19) Literature. (20) Radiological fundamentals, accident management, modeling of the radiological situation. (21) The decision making support system RODOS. (22) RODOS and the Fukushima accident. (23) Recent developments in the radiological emergency management in the European frame.

  10. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor core of nuclear reactors usually is composed of individual elongated fuel elements that may be vertically arranged and through which coolant flows in axial direction, preferably from bottom to top. With their lower end the fuel elements gear in an opening of a lower support grid forming part of the core structure. According to the invention a locking is provided there, part of which is a control element that is movable along the fuel element axis. The corresponding locking element is engaged behind a lateral projection in the opening of the support grid. The invention is particularly suitable for breeder or converter reactors. (orig.) [de

  11. Ten years of German AF-program. Review and outlook at termination of the program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamm, G.

    1991-01-01

    After a decade of work by industry and national laboratories the German AF-Program will be closed at the end of 1989. The main goal to provide all means required to convert the research reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany has been reached. Conversion concepts meeting the essential criteria worked out by INFCE and all licensing and operating specific data have been elaborated so that the reactors in their present design will be either converted from HEU to LEU operation or closed after consumption of the available HEU material. There will be no future HEU requirements for these reactors. The program work was carried out within 15 major tasks (7 x fuel development and fabrication technology, 4 x fuel qualification, 4 conversion studies) 10 of which were handled by industry. The costs finally amount to 51.5 million German Marks (56% industry). Approximately 43 million German Marks were provided by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology, the remainder largely was procured by industry. (orig.)

  12. Cooperation between the French and German safety authorities: a process of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Hennenhoefer, G.

    1996-01-01

    Considerable efforts are devoted in several countries worldwide for the designing of a new generation of electro-nuclear reactors with noticeable safety improvements with respect to the existing units. The EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project is the first example of a joint survey and collaboration effort between two countries, France and Germany, both characterized by a strong nuclear industry and competence. Franco-German relations have considerably expanded in recent years, enabling the French and German electricians, manufacturers (EDF, Siemens, Framatome..), and safety authorities (DSIN, IPSN, BMU, GRS..) to adopt common positions and decisions on fundamental topics about technical aspects of safety. This kind of collaboration and alignment was obviously only possible because two conditions were fulfilled: the discussion concerned future reactors and not those already built for which safety rules and provisions are not easily modified; and a common industrial project existed and had consequently to comply with jointly defined safety objectives. These two conditions are still fulfilled, so it should be possible for the work between French and German safety authorities to continue successfully, even in the next more delicate stage, involving definition of common positions on more detailed technical provisions. Finally, it is unthinkable that this important work undertaken by France and Germany could be carried out without frequent consultation of the safety authorities of other nuclear countries, notably in Europe. (J.S.). 1 fig

  13. The Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published

  14. The Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published earnings as

  15. German Schools Abroad: Hotspots of Elite Multilingualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…

  16. Massive job cuts threaten East German science

    CERN Multimedia

    Hamer, M

    1990-01-01

    German reunification could result in thousands of scientists losing their jobs. At the end of this year the East German state budget for science will run out. Scientists in the East are keen to find Western support to protect their research (1 page).

  17. When do German Firms Change their Dividends?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia Da Silva, L.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the dividend policy of German firms is more flexible than the one of their Anglo-American counterparts.This paper analyses the decision to change the dividend for a panel of 221 German firms from 1984 to 1994.The choice of the period of study is motivated by the fact

  18. Lexical Reading in Dysfluent Readers of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Melanie; Moll, Kristina; Jones, Manon W.; Banfi, Chiara; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Landerl, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Dyslexia in consistent orthographies like German is characterized by dysfluent reading, which is often assumed to result from failure to build up an orthographic lexicon and overreliance on decoding. However, earlier evidence indicates effects of lexical processing at least in some German dyslexic readers. We investigated variations in reading…

  19. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  20. DIMA – Annotation guidelines for German intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kügler, Frank; Smolibocki, Bernadett; Arnold, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents newly developed guidelines for prosodic annotation of German as a consensus system agreed upon by German intonologists. The DIMA system is rooted in the framework of autosegmental-metrical phonology. One important goal of the consensus is to make exchanging data between groups...

  1. Teaching German Culture: An Alternative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Maruta L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a college course on German culture in which the criterion for the inclusion of any topic in the syllabus is its mention--preferably recurrent--in the German press. Additional emphasis is placed upon the historical background of the current events. Classes are a combination of films, lectures, discussions, and student reports. (SED)

  2. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor containment vessel faced internally with a metal liner is provided with thermal insulation for the liner, comprising one or more layers of compressible material such as ceramic fiber, such as would be conventional in an advanced gas-cooled reactor and also a superposed layer of ceramic bricks or tiles in combination with retention means therefor, the retention means (comprising studs projecting from the liner, and bolts or nuts in threaded engagement with the studs) being themselves insulated from the vessel interior so that the coolant temperatures achieved in a High-Temperature Reactor or a Fast Reactor can be tolerated with the vessel. The layer(s) of compressible material is held under a degree of compression either by the ceramic bricks or tiles themselves or by cover plates held on the studs, in which case the bricks or tiles are preferably bedded on a yielding layer (for example of carbon fibers) rather than directly on the cover plates

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate and accelerate a leakage test of valves of a main steam pipe by adding a leakage test partition valve thereto. Constitution: A leakage testing partition valve is provided between a pressure vessel for a nuclear reactor and the most upstream side valve of a plurality of valves to be tested for leakage, a testing branch pipe is communicated with the downstream side of the partition valve, and the testing water for preventing leakage is introduced thereto through the branch pipe. Since main steam pipe can be simply isolated by closing the partition valve in the leakage test, the leakage test can be conducted without raising or lowering the water level in the pressure vessel, and since interference with other work in the reactor can be eliminated, the leakage test can be readily conducted parallel with other work in the reactor in a short time. Clean water can be used without using reactor water as the test water. (Yoshihara, H.)

  4. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshihito; Sano, Tamotsu; Ueda, Sabuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the liquid surface disturbance in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: A horizontal flow suppressing mechanism mainly comprising vertical members is suspended near the free liquid surface of coolants in the upper plenum. The horizontal flow of coolants near the free liquid surface is reduced by the suppressing mechanism to effectively reduce the surface disturbance. The reduction in the liquid surface disturbance further prevails to the entire surface region with no particular vertical variations to the free liquid surface to remarkably improve the preventive performance for the liquid surface disturbance. Accordingly, it is also possible to attain the advantageous effects such as prevention for the thermal fatigue in reactor vessel walls, reactor upper mechanisms, etc. and prevention of burning damage to the reactor core due to the reduction of envolved Ar gas. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. REACTOR SHIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  7. Breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollion, H.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for the development of fast reactors are briefly reviewed (a propitious neutron balance oriented towards a maximum uranium burnup) and its special requirements (cooling, fissile material density and reprocessing) discussed. The three stages in the French program of fast reactor development are outlined with Rapsodie at Cadarache, Phenix at Marcoule, and Super Phenix at Creys-Malville. The more specific features of the program of research and development are emphasized: kinetics and the core, the fuel and the components [fr

  8. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, I.; Gutscher, E.

    1980-01-01

    The core contains a critical mass of UN or U 2 N 3 in the form of a noncritical solution with melted Sn being kept below a N atmosphere. The lining of the reactor core consists of graphite. If fission progresses part of the melted metal solution is removed and cleaned from fission products. The reactor temperatures lie in the range of 300 to 2000 0 C. (Examples and tables). (RW) [de

  9. Reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, P.

    1977-01-01

    This is one of a series of articles discussing aspects of nuclear engineering ranging from a survey of various reactor types for static and mobile use to mention of atomic thermo-electric batteries of atomic thermo-electric batteries for cardiac pacemakers. Various statistics are presented on power generation in Europe and U.S.A. and economics are discussed in some detail. Molten salt reactors and research machines are also described. (G.M.E.)

  10. German versus Nordic Board Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Board structure is an important component of the individual governance of firms, and the appropriateness of the various models is one of the most debated issues in corporate governance today. A comparison of the Nordic and German approaches to the structure of corporate boards reveals stark...... conceptual differences, as emphasized by the 2014 Lekvall Report on the Nordic Corporate Governance Model. This article provides a conceptual comparison between the two approaches to board structure and confirms the fundamental divergence between both models. However, relying on a number of recent legal...... changes and developments in business practice, the article argues that board practices in the two systems effectively blur the structural distinction, and that board organization is converging in practice. It thereby contributes to the broader debates on functionality and comparative corporate law...

  11. German standard problem No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, R.

    1980-02-01

    The German Standard Problem Nr. 2 (primary circuits) is meant to check whether the presently available computing programs dealing with ECCS problems are suitable to reflect with sufficient accuracy reload and flooding processes. Changing from conventional calculation methods to the ''best-estimate'' method requires for possibility of exact comparison, as is the case here because of experimental results from the primary circuit test plant. The test plant of KWU Erlangen with primary circuit modeups on a 1:134 scale with exact level indications allows comparative testing where emergency cooling water is loaded into the system filled with saturated steam over cold lanes, or rather over the annulus modeup. The report on hand goes into detail about calculations, anticipated results and their comparison to experimental results. (orig./RW) [de

  12. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  13. Fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fast reactors have capacities to spare uranium natural resources by their breeding property and to propose solutions to the management of radioactive wastes by limiting the inventory of heavy nuclei. This article highlights the role that fast reactors could play for reducing the radiotoxicity of wastes. The conversion of 238 U into 239 Pu by neutron capture is more efficient in fast reactors than in light water reactors. In fast reactors multi-recycling of U + Pu leads to fissioning up to 95% of the initial fuel ( 238 U + 235 U). 2 strategies have been studied to burn actinides: - the multi-recycling of heavy nuclei is made inside the fuel element (homogeneous option); - the unique recycling is made in special irradiation targets placed inside the core or at its surroundings (heterogeneous option). Simulations have shown that, for the same amount of energy produced (400 TWhe), the mass of transuranium elements (Pu + Np + Am + Cm) sent to waste disposal is 60,9 Kg in the homogeneous option and 204.4 Kg in the heterogeneous option. Experimental programs are carried out in Phenix and BOR60 reactors in order to study the feasibility of such strategies. (A.C.)

  14. German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groeters, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    "German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges" examines the institutional education of German General Staff Officers, as experienced by the author, and offers a "Conceptual Competency...

  15. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  16. Joint German/French S4-Analytical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miemczyk, H.

    1979-03-01

    A joint German/French program was initiated to investigate in detail the behaviour of artificially defected fuel pins in a sodium loop of the SILOE reactor at Grenoble/France. Three irradiation experiments have been conducted in SILOE on representative SNR-type fuel pins (mixed oxide, low density, stainless steel cladding, external diameter 6 mm). The first experiment, S2, had been an unirradiated pin with a large interstitial defect (machined slit of 30x1 mm). The two following pins, S4 and S3, have been pre-irradiated in RAPSODIE (365 efpd, 10.6 % burnup). The main results of the S4-experiment are described and evaluated in the present report. They concern the following important aspects: sodium-uranate/plutonate formation and its kinetics, fuel loss, fission product release and fuel behaviour

  17. Comparison of French and German NPP water chemistry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudt, U.; Odar, S.; Stutzmann, A.

    2002-01-01

    PWRs in the western hemisphere obey basically the same rules concerning design, choice of material and operational mode. In spite of these basic similarities, the manufacturers of PWRs in different countries developed different solutions in respect to single components in the steam/water cycle. Looking specifically at France and Germany, the difference in the tubing material of the steam generators (Inconel 600/690 chosen by Framatome and Incoloy 800 chosen by the former Siemens KWU) led to specific differences in the respective chemistry programs and in some respect to different 'philosophies' in operating the water/steam cycle. Compared to this, basic differences in operating the reactor coolant system cannot be observed. Nevertheless specific solutions as zinc injection and the use of enriched B-10 are applied in German PWRs. The application of such measures arises from a specific dose rate situation in older PWRs (zinc injection) or from economic reasons mainly (B-10). (authors)

  18. Comparison of French and German NPP water chemistry programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, U. [VGB Powertech (Germany); Odar, S. [Framatome ANP GmbH (Germany); Stutzmann, A. [EDF/GDL (France)

    2002-07-01

    PWRs in the western hemisphere obey basically the same rules concerning design, choice of material and operational mode. In spite of these basic similarities, the manufacturers of PWRs in different countries developed different solutions in respect to single components in the steam/water cycle. Looking specifically at France and Germany, the difference in the tubing material of the steam generators (Inconel 600/690 chosen by Framatome and Incoloy 800 chosen by the former Siemens KWU) led to specific differences in the respective chemistry programs and in some respect to different 'philosophies' in operating the water/steam cycle. Compared to this, basic differences in operating the reactor coolant system cannot be observed. Nevertheless specific solutions as zinc injection and the use of enriched B-10 are applied in German PWRs. The application of such measures arises from a specific dose rate situation in older PWRs (zinc injection) or from economic reasons mainly (B-10). (authors)

  19. A German research project about applicable graphite cutting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.; Quade, U.; Bach, F.W.; Wilk, P.

    2001-01-01

    In Germany, too, quite large quantities of irradiated nuclear graphite, used in research and prototype reactors, are waiting for an environmental way of disposal. While incineration of nuclear graphite does not seem to be a publicly acceptable way, cutting and packaging into ductile cast iron containers could be a suitable way of disposal in Germany. Nevertheless, the cutting of graphite is also a very difficult technique by which a large amount of secondary waste or dust might occur. An applicable graphite cutting technique is needed. Therefore, a group of 13 German partners, consisting of one university, six research reactor operators, one technical inspection authority, three engineering companies, one industrial cutting specialist and one commercial dismantling company, decided in 1999 to start a research project to develop an applicable technique for cutting irradiated nuclear graphite. Aim of the project is to find the most suitable cutting techniques for the existing shapes of graphite blocks with a minimum of waste production rate. At the same time it will be learned how to sample the dust and collect it in a filter system. The following techniques will be tested and evaluated: thermal cutting, water jet cutting, mechanical cutting with a saw, plasma arc cutting, drilling. The subsequent evaluation will concentrate on dust production, possible irradiation of staff, time and practicability under different constraints. This research project is funded by the German Minister of Education and Research under the number 02 S 7849 for a period of two years. A brief overview about the work to be carried out in the project will be given. (author)

  20. Generation IV reactors: reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardonnier, J.L.; Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O.; Arnoux, P.; Bergeron, A.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.; Delpech, M.; Garnier, J.C.; Anzieu, P.; Francois, G.; Lecomte, M.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metal reactor concept looks promising because of its hard neutron spectrum. Sodium reactors benefit a large feedback experience in Japan and in France. Lead reactors have serious assets concerning safety but they require a great effort in technological research to overcome the corrosion issue and they lack a leader country to develop this innovative technology. In molten salt reactor concept, salt is both the nuclear fuel and the coolant fluid. The high exit temperature of the primary salt (700 Celsius degrees) allows a high energy efficiency (44%). Furthermore molten salts have interesting specificities concerning the transmutation of actinides: they are almost insensitive to irradiation damage, some salts can dissolve large quantities of actinides and they are compatible with most reprocessing processes based on pyro-chemistry. Supercritical water reactor concept is based on operating temperature and pressure conditions that infers water to be beyond its critical point. In this range water gets some useful characteristics: - boiling crisis is no more possible because liquid and vapour phase can not coexist, - a high heat transfer coefficient due to the low thermal conductivity of supercritical water, and - a high global energy efficiency due to the high temperature of water. Gas-cooled fast reactors combining hard neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle open the way to a high valorization of natural uranium while minimizing ultimate radioactive wastes and proliferation risks. Very high temperature gas-cooled reactor concept is developed in the prospect of producing hydrogen from no-fossil fuels in large scale. This use implies a reactor producing helium over 1000 Celsius degrees. (A.C.)

  1. Research reactors - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Status of French breeder development and German-French cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendryes, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fast breeder reactors in France is at present characterized by the successful operation of the 250 MW reactor, Phenix, and the speedy progress made in construction of the 1200 MW Superphenix plant. The technical concept of Superphenix is a logical extension of the Phenix concept, i.e., the pool type sodium cooled breeder reactor. While the only change in the primary system has been an increase in capacity, the main modification over Phenix is the change from small modular steam generators to four large units. The development of the work to date does not cast any doubt upon the envisaged date of first criticality in the second half of 1982. The basis of German-French cooperation is a joint declaration by the then Ministers for Research of the two countries on February 13, 1976 in which the Ministers had expressed themselves in favor of close cooperation between both countries in the development of safe, reliable and economic fast breeder reactors. On this basis, the two governments, the research centers and the industrial partners in the two countries, including the previous partners in Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy, agreed on the general principles of this cooperation. Meanwhile, the cooperation formalized in 1977 has been activated. Both in research and development and among planning and building industries the exchange of know-how and cooperation is in full swing. The joint company, SERENA, is the pool for the know-how introduced by the partners and the sole representative of the partners in the scheme. (orig.) 891 UA [de

  3. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  4. Lessons from American-German nuclear power plant construction. Quality, safety and costs of an attempt to integrate American and German nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchwald, K.

    1979-05-01

    The 1300 MW nuclear power plant at Muelheim-Kaerlich has been under construction since the beginning of 1975. It is being equipped with a pressurised water reactor which has been adapted to the German client's requirements and German licensing practice, based on a license held by Babcock and Wilcox USA (B and W). The problems which have arisen in making this adaptation are the result of different requirements in the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany which make it very difficult to integrate the two technologies. Full integration will almost certainly be impossible, but integration to the widest possible extent is important because it might mean both greater safety and reduced costs. In this article it is intended to show where the problems of integration lie and how they might perhaps be overcome. (author)

  5. German energy market 2014; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Energie fuer Deutschland'

    2015-03-15

    In 2014 the German government's primary goal of engaging German power suppliers to step up their production of renewable energy while speeding up energy efficiency improvement measures continued to dominate the debate. The present article provides an updated overview of the German energy market. Following on from last year's edition it gives a condensed synopsis of key indicators of the energy economy. Besides summarising general facts about the energy mix it goes into detail about the following individual energy resources: crude oil, natural gas, brown coal, hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. It also explains current price trends in both the international and domestic markets.

  6. Comparison between Dutch and German buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lony, R.J.M.; Molenaar, D.J.; Rietkerk, J.; Schuiling, D.J.B.W.; Zeiler, W. [TU/e, Univ. of Technology Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brunk, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    German buildings are often seen as an example to Dutch architects and Dutch building services consultants. Goal of this article is to examine and to understand differences between the Dutch and German top office buildings. Objective is to examine to which extent these buildings were designed intelligently. An Intelligent Building is one that provides a productive cost effective environment through the optimisation of six basic elements; site, skin, systems, structures, services, space plan and staff and the interrelationship between them. Based on these six aspects the comparison is made between Dutch and German buildings. (orig.)

  7. German causative events with placement verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Knop Sabine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have described the semantic uses of German posture verbs, but only few have dealt with German placement verbs. The present study wants to make up for this gap. Starting from a collection of examples from the core corpora of the Digitales Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (DWDS and some former studies on posture verbs, it first describes the variety of the most common German placement verbs stellen (‘to put upright’, legen (‘to lay down’, setzen (‘to set’ and stecken (‘to stick’.

  8. Nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F; George, B V; Baglin, C J

    1978-05-10

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given.

  9. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  10. Bioconversion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  11. Utilization of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Full text: Report on an IAEA interregional training course, Budapest, Hungary, 5-30 November 1979. The course was attended by 19 participants from 16 Member States. Among the 28 training courses which the International Atomic Energy Agency organized within its 1979 programme of technical assistance was the Interregional Training Course on the Utilization of Nuclear Research Reactors. This course was held at the Nuclear Training Reactor (a low-power pool-type reactor) of the Technical University, Budapest, Hungary, from 5 to 30 November 1979 and it was complemented by a one-week Study Tour to the Nuclear Research Centre in Rossendorf near Dresden, German Democratic Republic. The training course was very successful, with 19 participants attending from 16 Member States - Bangladesh, Bolivia, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Iraq, Korean Democratic People's Republic, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam and Yugoslavia. Selected invited lecturers were recruited from the USA and Finland, as well as local scientists from Hungarian institutions. During the past two decades or so, many research reactors have been put into operation around the world, and the demand for well qualified personnel to run and fully utilize these facilities has increased accordingly. Several developing countries have already acquired small- and medium-size research reactors mainly for isotope production, research in various fields, and training, while others are presently at different stages of planning and installation. Through different sources of information, such as requests to the IAEA for fellowship awards and experts, it became apparent that many research reactors and their associated facilities are not being utilized to their full potential in many of the developing countries. One reason for this is the lack of a sufficient number of trained professionals who are well acquainted with all the capabilities that a research reactor can offer, both in research and

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement of the accessibility of that part of a nuclear reactor serving for biological shield is proposed. It is intended to provide within the biological shield, distributed around the circumference of the reactor pressure vessel, several shielding chambers filled with shielding material, which are isolated gastight from the outside by means of glass panes with a given bursting strength. It is advantageous that, on the one hand, inspection and maintenance will be possible without great effort and, on the other, a large relief cross section will be at desposal if required. (UWI) [de

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  14. Official announcement of the directive on protection of nuclear power plant equipped with LWR-type reactors from human intrusion or other interference by third parties. Announcement of BMU (German Federal Ministry Environment), of 6 Dec. 1995 - RS I 3 13151 - 6/14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An operating permit for a nuclear power plant is to be granted only if the applicant and facility operator presents evidence guaranteeing the legally required physical protection and other security measures for protection from human instrusion and other type of interference. As a basis for review and licensing, the competent authorities in 1987 have issued a directive specifying the requirements to be met for physical protection of nuclear power plant equipped with PWR-type reactors, and in 1994 followed a second, analogous directive relating to nuclear power plant with BWR-type reactors. The directive now announced for physical protection of nuclear power plant equipped with LWR-type reactors combines and replaces the two former ones, and from the date of the announcement is the only applicable directive. The text of the directive is not reproduced for reasons of secrecy protection. (orig./CB) [de

  15. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  16. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  17. USA: German in the Changing Landscape of Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlock, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies recent indicators of the state of German Studies in the United States with special attention to postsecondary enrollments in German. It additionally reviews challenges to the postsecondary teaching of German as they manifest themselves both locally and nationally, including the positioning of German Studies in the life of…

  18. A German format for pupils’ training

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Every year CERN welcomes thousands of pupils from schools worldwide for a half-day visit to the Laboratory. However, since 2011 about ten selected students from Germany have been given the opportunity to experience CERN in much greater depth. They are fully sponsored by the German Ministry of Education and supported by an organising structure at TU Dresden - the Dresden University of Technology - led by Michael Kobel. It’s an investment that's paying off in Germany.   The German teachers who participated in the “Netzwerk Teilchenwelt” project, at CERN last week. “Netzwerk Teilchenwelt” is a project that involves 23 German universities, the DESY Laboratory, several schools and, of course, CERN. Launched in 2010 with a contribution from the German Ministry for Science and Research of about 1 million euros over three years, the project has so far involved over 4,000 students and 500 teachers. “Thanks to this project, both pupils...

  19. NPPCI - topics in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegenbein, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes research and development activities in the field of computerized operator support systems, self-powered detectors, boiling diagnostic and loose part detection systems in the German Democratic Republic

  20. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  1. Approaching German Culture: A Tentative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Royal; Woloshin, David

    1974-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the five universal problems of cultural orientation: 1) human nature, 2) social relations, 3) man and nature, 4) time, 5) space, as they are reflected in German and American culture. (PP)

  2. German approach to VLLW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecking, D.

    1997-01-01

    Waste generated in German nuclear facilities is exhaustively and selectively manage through a system adapted to the waste's characteristics. The management of the waste ensures that the impact on the workers, population and the environment is acceptable. This is done through a detailed documentation and quality assurance program which applies not only to radioactive waste but also to cleanable material used within a licensed practice. In Germany the producer is responsible for the waste generated in a licensed facility and is therefore responsible for the correct disposal, which depends on the waste's characteristics. Since the waste producer requires a license for all activities involving radioactive substances, the atomic authority is continuously informed and can therefore monitor the producer for compliance with the regulations. The use and disposal of all material in a licensed practice is documented and can therefore be traced by the authorities. Clearance is seen in Germany as the best way of managing non-radioactive material in a licensed practice. Germany has developed clearance procedures which guarantee that after clearance the radiological impact is negligible. (author)

  3. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  4. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative 'Nanotechnologie erobert Maerkte' (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society

  5. German-Brazilian nuclear deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs

  6. Example of establishing the recycling of scrap metal as a waste management option within German regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenstein, Matthias; Delfs, Johannes; Karschnick, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The German Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz, AtG) specifies the German nuclear licensing and supervising regulations. On that basis the German federal states are responsible for licensing and supervising of nuclear power plants (NPPs) located in that state. The Ministry of Energy, Agriculture, the Environment and Rural Areas (MELUR) is the authority responsible for the state Schleswig-Holstein, in which the NPPs Brokdorf, Brunsbuettel, Kruemmel and the research reactor HZG are located. In the licensing and supervisory procedures the authority may consult authorized experts. In addition to the AtG, the German Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlenschutzverordnung, StrlSchV) specifies regulations for clearance according to the 10 μSv-concept. The clearance of metal by recycling / melting is one option within the regulations of the StrlSchV. For a clearance an additional license given by the MELUR is necessary. In that license and the application documents as well as in the supervisory procedures very specific regulations are implemented. This includes regulations for clearance at third parties in foreign countries. In this talk a short introduction to the German regulations focussed on clearance according to the 10 μSv-concept will be given. The specific regulations in the license of clearance will be presented and also the application documents for NPPs in Schleswig-Holstein will be discussed. Furthermore it will be illustrated on what terms the MELUR decided to agree upon the recycling of scrap metal with the aim of clearance according to Radiation Protection 89 in foreign countries along with the German regulatory framework. (authors)

  7. Reactor safety research in times of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1970ies reactor safety research sponsored by the German Ministry of Economics an Technology and its predecessors and pursued independently from interests of industry or industrial associations as well as from current licensing issues significantly contributed to the extension of knowledge regarding risks and possible threats associated with the operation of nuclear power plants. The results of these research activities triggered several measures taken by industry and utilities to further enhance the internationally recognized high safety standards of nuclear power plants in Germany. Furthermore, by including especially universities in the distinguished research activities a large number of young scientists were given the opportunity to qualify in the field of nuclear reactor technology and safety thus contributing to the preservation of competence during the demographic change. The nuclear phase out in Germany affects also issues of reactor safety research in Germany. While Germany will progressively decrease and terminate the use of nuclear energy for public power supply other countries in Europe and in other parts of the world are continuing, expanding and even starting the use of nuclear power. As generally recognized, nuclear safety is an international issue and in the wake of the Fukushima disaster there are several initiatives to launch a system of internationally binding safety rules and guide lines. The German Competence Alliance therefore has elaborated a framework of areas were future reactor safety research will still be needed to support German efforts based on own and independent expertise to continuously develop and establish highest safety standards for the use of nuclear power supply domestic and abroad.

  8. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural......, but represents a separate attitudinal meaning dimension. Moreover, the findings support that both prenuclear and nuclear fundamental frequency (F0) patterns must be taken into account in the analysis of tune meaning....

  9. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  10. German Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    depressed and less integrated into their new societies.29 Germany’s Turkish population exemplifies this integration deficit. Of Germany’s 4.3 million...the German Chancellor in a YouTube video, for example), the German press tends to abandon their earlier self-restraint and freely publishes the...Germany’s most well-known Salafist preachers. In addition to being mentored by Pierre Vogel, Cuspert appeared in YouTube recordings at Islam

  11. A German Perspective on Security Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect German citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.

  12. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator is described which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40--60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator. 2 claims, 4 figures

  13. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield

  14. Reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Murase, Michio; Yokomizo, Osamu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a BWR type reactor facility capable of suppressing the amount of steams generated by the mutual effect of a failed reactor core and coolants upon occurrence of an imaginal accident, and not requiring spacial countermeasures for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel. Namely, a means for supplying cooling water at a temperature not lower by 30degC than the saturated temperature corresponding to the inner pressure of the containing vessel upon occurrence of an accident is disposed to a lower dry well below the pressure vessel. As a result, upon occurrence of such an accident that the reactor core should be melted and flown downward of the pressure vessel, when cooling water at a temperature not lower than the saturated temperature, for example, cooling water at 100degC or higher is supplied to the lower dry well, abrupt generation of steams by the mutual effect of the failed reactor core and cooling water is scarcely caused compared with a case of supplying cooling water at a temperature lower than the saturation temperature by 30degC or more. Accordingly, the amount of steams to be generated can be suppressed, and special countermeasure is no more necessary for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel is no more necessary. (I.S.)

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilroy, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved cover structure for liquid metal cooled fast breeder type reactors is described which it is claimed reduces the temperature differential across the intermediate grid plate of the core cover structure and thereby reduces its subjection to thermal stresses. (UK)

  16. Reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses reactor licensing and includes the legislative basis for licensing, other relevant legislation , the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, important regulations, regulatory document, policies, and standards. It also discusses the role of the CNSC, its mandate and safety philosophy

  17. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Sekine, Katsuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the thickness of a reactor container and reduce the height and the height and plate thickness of a roof slab without using mechanical vibration stoppers. Constitution: Earthquake proofness is improved by filling fluids such as liquid metal between a reactor container and a secondary container and connecting the outer surface of the reactor container with the inner surface of the secondary container by means of bellows. That is, for the horizontal seismic vibrations, horizontal loads can be supported by the secondary container without providing mechanical vibration stoppers to the reactor container and the wall thickness can be reduced thereby enabling to simplify thermal insulation structure for the reduction of thermal stresses. Further, for the vertical seismic vibrations, verical loads can be transmitted to the secondary container thereby enabling to reduce the wall thickness in the same manner as for the horizontal load. By the effect of transferring the point of action of the container load applied to the roof slab to the outer circumferential portion, the intended purpose can be attained and, in addition, the radiation dose rate at the upper surface of the roof slab can be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Narabayashi, Naoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The represent invention concerns a reactor system with improved water injection means to a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. A steam pump is connected to a heat removing system pipeline, a high pressure water injection system pipeline and a low pressure water injection system pipeline for injecting water into the pressure vessel. A pump actuation pipeline is disposed being branched from a main steam pump or a steam relieaf pipeline system, through which steams are supplied to actuate the steam pump and supply cooling water into the pressure vessel thereby cooling the reactor core. The steam pump converts the heat energy into the kinetic energy and elevates the pressure of water to a level higher than the pressure of the steams supplied by way of a pressure-elevating diffuser. Cooling water can be supplied to the pressure vessel by the pressure elevation. This can surely inject cooling water into the pressure vessel upon loss of coolant accident or in a case if reactor scram is necessary, without using an additional power source. (I.N.)

  19. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  20. Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented German by Native German Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…

  1. Advances in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The current IAEA programme in advanced nuclear power technology promotes technical information exchange between Member States with major development programmes. The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Advances in Heavy Water Reactors was organized by the IAEA in the framework of the activities of the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR) and hosted by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Sixty-five participants from nine countries (Canada, Czech Republic, India, German, Japan, Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Romania and USA) and the IAEA attended the TCM. Thirty-four papers were presented and discussed in five sessions. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. All recommendations which were addressed by the participants of the Technical Committee meeting to the IWGATWR have been submitted to the 5th IWGATWR meeting in September 1993. They were reviewed and used as input for the preparation of the IAEA programme in the area of advanced water cooled reactors. This TCM was mainly oriented towards advances in HWRs and on projects which are now in the design process and under discussion. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. New about research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorenkov, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The multi-purpose research reactor MAPLE (Canada) and concept of new reactor MAPLE-CNF as will substitute the known Canadian research reactor NRU are described. New reactor will be used as contributor for investigations into materials, neutron beams and further developments for the CANDU type reactor. The Budapest research reactor (BRR) and its application after the last reconstruction are considered also [ru

  3. German Spent Nuclear Fuel Legacy: Characteristics and High-Level Waste Management Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schwenk-Ferrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany is phasing-out the utilization of nuclear energy until 2022. Currently, nine light water reactors of originally nineteen are still connected to the grid. All power plants generate high-level nuclear waste like spent uranium or mixed uranium-plutonium dioxide fuel which has to be properly managed. Moreover, vitrified high-level waste containing minor actinides, fission products, and traces of plutonium reprocessing loses produced by reprocessing facilities has to be disposed of. In the paper, the assessments of German spent fuel legacy (heavy metal content and the nuclide composition of this inventory have been done. The methodology used applies advanced nuclear fuel cycle simulation techniques in order to reproduce the operation of the German nuclear power plants from 1969 till 2022. NFCSim code developed by LANL was adopted for this purpose. It was estimated that ~10,300 tonnes of unreprocessed nuclear spent fuel will be generated until the shut-down of the ultimate German reactor. This inventory will contain ~131 tonnes of plutonium, ~21 tonnes of minor actinides, and 440 tonnes of fission products. Apart from this, ca.215 tonnes of vitrified HLW will be present. As fission products and transuranium elements remain radioactive from 104 to 106 years, the characteristics of spent fuel legacy over this period are estimated, and their impacts on decay storage and final repository are discussed.

  4. The program for Central and Eastern Europe organized by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfort, E.; Wolf, J.; Weil, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, within the overall concept of the Federal Government to help establish democracy and a social market economy in Eastern Europe, is to contribute to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety evaluations of Soviet-type reactors in the former German Democratic Republic have given rise to findings since 1990 which resulted in qualified cooperation especially in Russia and Ukraine. These activities mainly serve to strengthen the role of supervisory authorities in the interest of nuclear safety, and to make available technical inspection systems for nuclear power plants. German experts also conducted safety analyses and radioactivity measurements in situ. The financial expenditure between 1990 and 1995 totaled approx. DM 150 million. The money was spent on some 75 different projects for which contracts were awarded to qualified German firms. All measures, from analyses to the provision of equipment to training seminars, serve the purpose of providing help towards self-help, together with an adequate transfer of know-how. (orig.) [de

  5. Reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Masaru; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Mogi, Toshihiko; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor core, a fuel inventory at an outer peripheral region is made smaller than that at a central region. Fuel assemblies comprising a small number of large-diameter fuel rods are used at the central region and fuel assemblies comprising a great number of smalldiameter fuel rods are used at the outer peripheral region. Since a burning degradation rate of the fuels at the outer peripheral region can be increased, the burning degradation rate at the infinite multiplication factor of fuels at the outer region can substantially be made identical with that of the fuels in the inner region. As a result, the power distribution in the direction of the reactor core can be flattened throughout the entire period of the burning cycle. Further, it is also possible to make the degradation rate of fuels at the outer region substantially identical with that of fuels at the inner side. A power peak formed at the outer circumferential portion of the reactor core of advanced burning can be lowered to improve the fuel integrity, and also improve the reactor safety and operation efficiency. (N.H.)

  6. Dictionary for veterinary science and biosciences. German-English/English-German. With trilingual appendix: Latin terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, R.

    1988-01-01

    This dictionary has been compiled as a result of many years experience of translating German texts in the biological sciences, particularly veterinary medicine. The author's aim is to supplement the standard German-English general dictionaries with technical terms to in the fields of anatomy, microbiology, physiology, parasitology, pathology, pharmacology, toxicology and zootechny, with special reference to domestic animals and their diseases. (orig.) [de

  7. DDR-Landeskundliches im Deutschunterricht (East German Culture in the German Lesson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazel, Gerhard

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates with concrete examples from the texts of a German class for advanced learners how aspects of East German culture can be realized in vocabulary, in lectures, and in the development of listening comprehension and speaking skills. Texts are appended. (DJD)

  8. Sodium boiling noise topics in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegenbein, D.

    1982-01-01

    In German Democratic Republic, the research and development program GDR in the field of nuclear energy is directed' only to selected topics. For instances in the Central Institute for Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences a number of tasks related to process diagnosis have been solved as a contribution to the safe and economical operation of our nuclear. power plants. As a result of these investigations noise diagnosis systems have been developed for the primary loops of the 440 MW units. Signals of about 120 detectors can be analysed wth this equipment for plant surveillance and for an early detection of malfunctions. Some topics in the research on Fast Breeder Reactors are directed to selected contributions in the field of process diagnosis. Their solution shall support a fast industrial application of this reactor type. In addition to calculations for reactor core design, primarily related to operational safety of large LMFBRs, noise analysis technique has been applied to acoustic signals for leak detection in sodium heated steam generators as well as for boiling detection in the reactor core. It seems to be promising to investigate whether the same signal analysis methods can be applied to leak and boiling detection, respectively. If this would be possible one could take a standard monitor into consideration for the surveillance of both plant components. Our recent investigations have shown that the beginning of the sodium-water reaction as well as the inspection of sodium boiling is characterized by changes in the statistic signal parameters. Deviations from the normal state can be recognized by measuring actual values of such statistic characteristics of acoustic and/or neutron flux signals. Activities were concentrated mainly on surveillance methods for sodium heated steam generators. A system is in preparation using acoustic as well as chemical methods, taking into account the requirement of diversity for a surveillance system. The boiling

  9. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? – A study on language-motor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children. PMID:29538404

  10. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? - A study on language-motor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Daniela Katharina; Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children.

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; McLaughlin, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the pressure vessel of the water-cooled nuclear reactor there is provided an internal flange on which the one- or two-part core barrel is hanging by means of an external flange. A cylinder is extending from the reactor vessel closure downwards to a seat on the core cupport structure and serves as compression element for the transmission of the clamping load from the closure head to the core barrel (upper guide structure). With the core barrel, subject to tensile stress, between the vessel internal flange and its seat on one hand and the compression of the cylinder resp. hold-down element between the closure head and the seat on the other a very strong, elastic sprung structure is obtained. (DG) [de

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the nuclear reactor availability by enabling to continuously exchange fuels in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region during operation. Constitution: A control rod is withdrawn to the midway of a highly enriched uranium region by means of control rod drives and the highly enriched uranium region is burnt to maintain the nuclear reactor always at a critical state. At the same time, fresh uranium-slightly enriched uranium is continuously supplied gravitationally from a fresh fuel reservoir through fuel reservoir to each of fuel pipes in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region. Then, spent fuels reduced with the reactivity by the burn up are successively taken out from the bottom of each of the fuel pipes through an exit duct and a solenoid valve to the inside of a spent fuel reservoir and the burn up in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region is conducted continuously. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mikio; Yamauchi, Koki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the channel stability and the reactor core stability in a spontaneous circulation state of coolants. Constitution: A reactor core stabilizing device comprising a differential pressure automatic ON-OFF valve is disposed between each of a plurality of jet pumps arranged on a pump deck. The stabilizing device comprises a piston exerted with a pressure on the lower side of the pump deck by way of a pipeway and a valve for flowing coolants through the bypass opening disposed to the pump deck by the opening and closure of the valve ON-OFF. In a case where the jet pumps are stopped, since the differential pressure between the upper and the lower sides of the pump deck is removed, the valve lowers gravitationally into an opened state, whereby the coolants flow through the bypass opening to increase the spontaneous circulation amount thereby improve the stability. (Yoshino, Y.)

  14. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.; Struensee, S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the use of burnable poisons in a nuclear reactor, especially in PWRs, in order to improve the controllability of the reactor. An unsymmetrical arrangement in the lattice is provided, if necessary also by insertion of special rods for these additions. It is proposed to arrange the burnable poisons in fuel elements taken over from a previous burn-up cycle and to distribute them, going out from the side facing the control rods, over not more than 20% of the lenth of the fuel elements. It seems sufficient, for the burnable poisons to bind an initial reactivity of only 0.1% and to become ineffective after normal operation of 3 to 4 months. (ORU) [de

  15. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  17. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels

  18. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, P.; Davidson, D.F.; Thatcher, G.

    1980-01-01

    The cooling system of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor of the pool kind is described. It has an intermediate heat exchange module comprising a tube-in-shell heat exchanger and an electromagnetic flow coupler in the base region of the module. Primary coolant is flowed through the heat exchanger being driven by electromagnetic interaction with secondary liquid metal coolant flow effected by a mechanical pump. (author)

  19. The high-temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, U.

    1991-01-01

    The book deals with the development of the German high-temperature reactor (pebble-bed), the design of a prototype plant and its (at least provisional) shut-down in 1989. While there is a lot of material on the HTR's competitor, the fast breeder, literature is very incomplete on HTRs. The author describes HTR's history as a development which was characterised by structural divergencies but not effectively steered and monitored. There was no project-oriented 'community' such as there was for the fast breeder. Also, the new technology was difficult to control there were situations where no one quite knew what was going on. The technical conditions however were not taken as facts but as a basis for interpretation, wishes and reservations. The HTR gives an opportunity to consider the conditions under which large technical projects can be carried out today. (orig.) [de

  20. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    Between a PWR's reactor pressure vessel made of steel and the biological shield made of concrete there is a gap. This gap is filled up with a heat insulation facting the reactor pressure vessel, for example with insulating concrete segments jacketed with sheet steel and with an additional layer. This layer serves for smooth absorption of compressive forces originating in radial direction from the reactor pressure vessel. It consists of cylinder-segment shaped bricks made of on situ concrete, for instance. The bricks have cooling agent ports in one or several rows which run parallel to the wall of the pressure vessel and in alignment with superposed bricks. Between the layer of bricks and the biological shield or rather the heat insulation, there are joints which are filled, however, with injected mortar. That guarantees a smooth series of connected components resistant tom compression. Besides, a slip foil can be set between the heat insulation and the joining joint filled with mortar for the reduction of the friction at thermal expansions. (TK) [de

  1. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  2. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Michiko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain an optimum structural arrangement of IRM having a satisfactory responsibility to the inoperable state of a nuclear reactor and capable of detecting the reactor power in an averaged manner. Constitution: As the structural arrangement of IRM, from 6 to 16 even number of IRM are bisected into equial number so as to belong two trip systems respectively, in which all of the detectors are arranged at an equal pitch along a circumference of a circle with a radius rl having the center at the position of the central control rod in one trip system, while one detector is disposed near the central control rod and other detectors are arranged substantially at an equal pitch along the circumference of a circle with a radius r2 having the center at the position for the central control rod in another trip system. Furthermore, the radius r1 and r2 are set such that r1 = 0.3 R, r2 = 0.5 R in the case where there are 6 IRM and r1 = 0.4 R and R2 = 0.8 R where there are eight IRM where R represents the radius of the reactor core. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. MLR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazantsev, E.P.; Egorenkov, P.M.; Nasonov, V.A.; Smimov, A.M.; Taliev, A.V.; Gromov, B.F.; Kousin, V.V.; Lantsov, M.N.; Radchenko, V.P.; Sharapov, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The Material Testing Loop Reactor (MLR) development was commenced in 1991 with the aim of updating and widening Russia's experimental base to validate the selected directions of further progress of the nuclear power industry in Russia and to enhance its reliability and safety. The MLR reactor is the pool-type one. As coolant it applies light water and as side reflector beryllium. The direction of water circulation in the core is upward. The core comprises 30 FA arranged as hexagonal lattice with the 90-95 mm pitch. The central materials channel and six loop channels are sited in the core. The reflector includes up to 11 loop channels. The reactor power is 100 MW. The average power density of the core is 0.4 MW/I (maximal value 1.0 MW/l). The maximum neutron flux density is 7.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the core (E>0.1 MeV), and 5.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the reflector (E<0.625 eV). In 1995 due to the lack of funding the MLR designing was suspended. (author)

  4. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Toshihisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent cladding tube injuries due to thermal expansion of each of the pellets by successively extracting each of the control rods loaded in the reactor core from those having less number of notches, as well as facilitate the handling work for the control rods. Constitution: A recycle flow control device is provided to a circulation pump for forcibly circulating coolants in the reactor container and an operational device is provided for receiving each of the signals concerning number of notches for each of the control rods and flow control depending on the xenon poisoning effect obtained from the signals derived from the in-core instrument system connected to the reactor core. The operational device is connected with a control rod drive for moving each of the control rods up and down and a recycle flow control device. The operational device is set with a pattern for the aimed control rod power and the sequence of extraction. Upon extraction of the control rods, they are extracted successively from those having less notch numbers. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Hatamiya, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Terufumi; Fukui, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Ryuhei; Murase, Michio; Naito, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    In order to suppress the pressure elevation in a reactor container due to high temperature and high pressure steams jetted out upon pipeway rupture accidents in the reactor container, the steams are introduced to a pressure suppression chamber for condensating them in stored coolants. However, the ability for suppressing the pressure elevation and steam coagulation are deteriorated due to the presence of inactive incondensible gases. Then, there are disposed a vent channel for introducing the steams in a dry well to a pressure suppression chamber in the reactor pressure vessel, a closed space disposed at the position lower than a usual liquid level, a first channel having an inlet in the pressure suppression chamber and an exit in the closed space and a second means connected by way of a backflow checking means for preventing the flow directing to the closed space. The first paths are present by plurality, a portion of which constitutes a syphon. The incondensible gases and the steams are discharged to the dry well at high pressure by using the difference of the water head for a long cooling time after the pipeway rupture accident. Then, safety can be improved without using dynamic equipments as driving source. (N.H.)

  6. Reactor core in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1989-01-01

    In a reactor core in FBR type reactors, a portion of homogenous fuels constituting the homogenous reactor core is replaced with multi-region fuels in which the enrichment degree of fissile materials is lower nearer to the axial center. This enables to condition the composition such that a reactor core having neutron flux distribution either of a homogenous reactor core or a heterogenous reactor core has substantially identical reactivity. Accordingly, in the transfer from the homogenous reactor core to the axially heterogenous reactor core, the average reactivity in the reactor core is substantially equal in each of the cycles. Further, by replacing a portion of the homogenous fuels with a multi-region fuels, thereby increasing the heat generation near the axial center, it is possiable to reduce the linear power output in the regions above and below thereof and, in addition, to improve the thermal margin in the reactor core. (T.M.)

  7. Mortality of German travellers on passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Herzog, Jan; Püschel, Klaus; Harth, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, more and more Germans decided to spend their holidays on a passenger vessel. This study examined the frequencies and causes of deaths of German travellers aboard passenger vessels of all flags. The shipboard deaths of all German travellers within the time period from 1998 to 2008 were counted using the German civil central register in Berlin. The available documentation in this register provides information on frequencies, circumstances and causes of deaths on ships. In the above-mentioned period of time, the total cohort of German travellers on cruise ships is estimated to be 5.97 million persons. During the 11-year examination period, 135 shipboard deaths of German passengers [102 males (75.6%) and 33 females (24.4%)] were recorded. Out of these travellers, 110 died on cruise ships. When considering only the passengers on cruise ships (without those on ferries) an average crude mortality rate of 1.8 per 100,000 German passengers was calculated. The crude mortality rate of shipboard death for males and females was 2.5 and 0.8 per 100,000 German passengers with a mean age of 71.2 years [standard deviation (SD) 16.0 years] and 73.3 years (SD 16.0 years), respectively. Significantly, more deceased travellers older than 70 years were observed on traditional cruise ships and resort vessels than on passenger ferries (P = 0.001). The causes of death were documented in 85 cases (63.0%). Out of these documented deaths, 82 (96.5%) cases were regarded to be natural causes (particularly circulatory diseases) and 3 (3.5%) as unnatural causes (twice drowning and once an accidental fall). In spite of the large proportion of unknown causes of death, this study argues for a high significance of internal causes of deaths among German passengers. Thus, ship's doctors-particularly those on traditional cruise ships-should be well experienced in internal and geriatric medicines. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  8. Psychiatric care in the German prison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.

  9. German neutron scattering conference. Programme and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.

  10. German neutron scattering conference. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.

  11. Management and storage of spent research reactor fuel within the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1996-01-01

    Research reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany and their needs for the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel are described. Existing long-term interim storage facilities are described. Special licensing and legal restrictions imposed by the German Atomic Energy Act are outlined. Possible final solutions for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle for research reactors, including reprocessing in the United Kingdom or France, return of US-origin fuel and a home-grown German solution are discussed. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  12. The injector linac for the Mainz microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euteneuer, H.; Braun, H.; Herminghaus, H.; Scholer, H.; Weis, T.

    1988-01-01

    The design and setup of a 3.5 MeV, 100μA injector for a cascade of race track microtrons is presented. It replaces a 2.1 MeV Van De Graaff for getting higher reliability, improved beam dynamics in the first RTM by increased and more stable input energy, as well as an easier access and a better vacuum to launch a beam of polarized electrons. In this paper, the considerations which led under given boundary conditions to the final design concept are discussed and its realization with PARMELA is described. Details of the linac setup are given. First operation showed a good longitudinal performance (energy stability ≤ ±2 star 10 -4 , spectrum ≤ 1 star 10 -3 FWHM, bunch length ≤ ± 1.5 degrees) and an excellent reproducibility of machine operation

  13. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  14. Enteric methane emissions from German dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammgen, U; Rosemann, C; Haenel, H D

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the German agricultural emission inventory used a model for the assessment of methane emissions from enteric fermentation that combined an estimate of the energy and feed requirements as a function of performance parameters and diet composition, with the constant methane conversion rate......, as stated by IPCC. A methane emission model was selected here that is based on German feed data. It was combined with the hitherto applied model describing energy requirements. The emission rates thus calculated deviate from those previously obtained. In the new model, the methane conversion rate is back......-calculated from emission rates and gross energy intake rates. For German conditions of animal performance and diet composition, the national means of methane conversion rates range between 71 kJ MJ(-1) and 61 kJ MJ(-1) for low and high performances (4700 kg animal(-1) a(-1) in 1990 to 7200 kg animal(-1) a(-1...

  15. The German risk study. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.

    1980-01-01

    A severe nuclear power plant accident can be followed by a considerable release of radioactive effluents into the atmosphere. Due to atmospheric dispersion, areas of different sizes can be contaminated. The corresponding doses can cause early illnesses, early fatalities, latent effects and genetic effects. They are accompanied by economic effects. Within the consequence model of the German Risk Study, early and late fatalities and genetically significant doses are calculated. The calculations are based on real data or phenomena such as the population around 19, present or future German sites, or 115 real weather sequences, as well as on models such as an atmospheric dispersion model, a dose model, a model of protective actions or a health effects model. Within this lecture, the consequence model applied in the German Risk Study will be discussed in detail and the results will be presented. (orig./RW)

  16. Increased SRP reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAfee, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    Major changes in the current reactor hydraulic systems could be made to achieve a total of about 1500 MW increase of reactor power for P, K, and C reactors. The changes would be to install new, larger heat exchangers in the reactor buildings to increase heat transfer area about 24%, to increase H 2 O flow about 30% per reactor, to increase D 2 O flow 15 to 18% per reactor, and increase reactor blanket gas pressure from 5 psig to 10 psig. The increased reactor power is possible because of reduced inlet temperature of reactor coolant, increased heat removal capacity, and increased operating pressure (larger margin from boiling). The 23% reactor power increase, after adjustment for increased off-line time for reactor reloading, will provide a 15% increase of production from P, K, and C reactors. Restart of L Reactor would increase SRP production 33%

  17. Nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It's presented data about nuclear research reactors in the world, retrieved from the Sien (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: research reactors by countries; research reactors by type; research reactors by fuel and research reactors by purpose. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Structure of the German electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The German integrated association is a union of those electric power supply utilities in the Federal Republic of Germany which cooperate in the integrated operation of 220 kV and 380 kV. The German integrated association (DVG) was founded in 1948. Its main task is to create the technical, operational and legal conditions for the cooperation in the national and international integrated system. The inclusion of the new Federal States has been practiced for the first time with the 320 MW power station in Offleben. (DG) [de

  19. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  20. 'German Angst' vs 'Danish Easy Going'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    national lines. Whereas insecurity and its related fear and anxiety played a huge role in the German interviews (‘German Angst’), the Danish freelancers attached less importance to the topic of insecurity and showed almost no sign of related anxiety (‘Danish Easy-going’). Some reasons for this can be found...... in the different social security backgrounds and welfare state programmes of the two countries, but these differences cannot explain the very different ways of talking about and dealing with the topic. Therefore, I suggest that the differences can be understood in the context of trust as a multi...

  1. German family policy at the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies of welfare reforms encounter two problems. First, the counterfactual problem is that in the real world schemes and their reforms do not coexist simultaneously and are hard to compare. Second, the contextual problem derives from the absence of comparable measures for change. Mi...... introduce a new concept of fairness and a focus on gender equality to German family policies........ Microsimulation helps to overcome these problems. It compares policy options - actual reforms or reform plans - simultaneously and provides a comparable measure: the disposable income of model families. This article uses a type-case approach to investigate recent reforms of the German parental leave benefit...

  2. German energy policy in deregulated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    2000-01-01

    The author argues in favor of a more fact-oriented German energy policy: Firstly, German energy policy must accept the new European framework of a market economy. This means that German utilities must no longer be burdened with the implementation of political objectives. The German power industry needs a level playing field for competition on a European scale. Consequently, also the European partner countries should not limit themselves to the minimum conditions of the Single Market Directive in opening their markets. Secondly, German energy policy must develop new forms of cooperation with the power industry so as to maintain domestic employment and the addition of value despite considerably stronger competitive pressure. Also the conflicting targets of sustainability, continuity of supply, and economic viability must not only be discussed, but must be turned into productive approaches. Thirdly, this means that there must be no inadmissible solution in matters nuclear. If the German power industry is to remain strong, in the interest of domestic jobs and opportunities for the future, it must not lose any more domestic market share to other European companies. Fourthly, we need a new energy policy which takes cognizance of the results of market development in a more rational, less emotional way. In this respect, it should be limited henceforth to supporting renewable energies and technologies so as to enhance energy efficiency in line with market requirements. Fifthly, German energy policy must not commit the mistake of enforcing deregulation and, at the same time, exempting large segments of the market from competition. Thus, the planned expansion of renewable energies, and the increase in cogeneration to more than thirty percent of the German electricty generation, by way of quotas and revenues for electricity from these sources fed into the public grid, are incompatible with competition in Europe. The electricity tax within the framework of the eco tax, the

  3. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2006-01-01

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  4. Inauguration of the Moscow-based office of GRS/IPSN-RISKAUDIT by the Federal German Minister of the Environment, Mr. Klaus Toepfer, and the Minister of Industry, Mr. Dominique Strauss-Kahn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The German and the French Government as well as the EC are taking particular interest in cooperative activities with the Russian Federation in the field of reactor safety enhancement and protection of the environment. The existing cooperation is expected to be intensified by the establishment of a common office in Moscow. The organisation, tasks and financing scheme of the RISKAUDIT office are explained in the languages German, Russian and French. (HP) [de

  5. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R.

    1979-01-01

    The support grid for the fuel rods of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor has a regular hexagonal contour and contains a large number of unit cells arranged honeycomb fashion. The totality of these cells make up a hexagonal shape. The grid contains a number of strips of material, and there is a window in each of three sidewalls staggered by one sidewall. The other sidewalls have embossed protrusions, thus generating a guide lining or guide bead. The windows reduce the rigidity of the areas in the middle between the ends of the cells. (DG) [de

  6. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Gruber, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with control rods in channels between fuel assemblies wherein the fuel assemblies incorporate guide rods which protrude outwardly into the control rod channels to prevent the control rods from engaging the fuel elements. The guide rods also extend back into the fuel assembly such that they are relatively rigid members. The guide rods are tied to the fuel assembly end or support plates and serve as structural members which are supported independently of the fuel element. Fuel element spacing and support means may be attached to the guide rods. 9 claims

  7. German and Ukrainian Phonological Isomorphs. Typology: Germanic and Slavic Languages. German-Ukraine-Slavic Contrasting Correspondence Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The works of many scholars on Germanic and Slavic Languages do not really try to contrast the two biggest Indo-European language families, but analyse them seperately, as any close comparison seem to be unconvincible. In many works, we find some parts that usually would deal with loan words/borrowings/barbarisms. And, yet, we noticed that there…

  8. Case studies on the feasibility of the transient analysis system STAR in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, W.E.; Felkel, L.; Zapp, A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of distubances which actually have occurred in German nuclear power plants a case-study has been performed to evaluate the feasibility of the computer-based disturbance analysis system STAR. By means of a compact plant simulator the disturbances collected have been remodelled and anlysed, on-line, with the disturbance analysis system STAR. In the last phase of the project experiments have been performed with reactor operators to get their reaction to, and opinion on, computerbased-operator aids. (orig.) [de

  9. High-Speed Maglev Trains; German Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This document is a translation of technology-specific safety requirements developed : for the German Transrapid Maglev technology. These requirements were developed by a : working group composed of representatives of German Federal Railways (DB), Tes...

  10. China as A Growing Strategic Market for German Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun

    2011-01-01

    @@ German Companies view China as a more strategically important market, despite their concerns over China's regulatory environment, according to a re-port from the German Chamber of Commerce in China.

  11. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor (e.g. one having coolant down-flow through a core to a hearth below) thermal insulation (e.g. of a floor of the hearth) comprises a layer of bricks and a layer of tiles thereon, with smaller clearances between the tiles than between the bricks but with the bricks being of reduced cross-section immediately adjacent the tiles so as to be surrounded by interconnected passages, of relatively large dimensions, constituting a continuous chamber extending behind the layer of tiles. By this arrangement, lateral coolant flow in the inter-brick clearances is much reduced. The reactor core is preferably formed of hexagonal columns, supported on diamond-shaped plates each supported on a pillar resting on one of the hearth-floor tiles. Each plate has an internal duct, four upper channels connecting the duct with coolant ducts in four core columns supported by the plate, and lower channels connecting the duct to a downwardly-open recess common to three plates, grouped to form a hexagon, at their mutually-adjacent corners. This provides mixing, and temperature-averaging, of coolant from twelve columns

  12. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hirohide; Otonari, Jun-ichiro; Tozaki, Yuka.

    1993-01-01

    Partition walls are disposed between a reactor pressure vessel and a suppression chamber to separate a dry well to an upper portion and a lower portion. A communication pipe is disposed to the partition walls. One end of the communication pipe is opened in an upper portion of the dry well at a position higher than a hole disposed to a bent tube of the suppression chamber. When coolants overflow from a depressurization valve by an erroneous operation of an emergency reactor core cooling device, the coolants accumulate in the upper portion of the dry well. When the pipeline is ruptured at the upper portion of the pressure vessel, only the inside of the pressure vessel and the upper portion of the dry well are submerged in water. In this case, the water level of the coolants does not elevate to the opening of the commuication pipe but they flow into the suppression chamber from the hole disposed to the bent tube. Since the coolants do not flow out to the lower portion of the dry well, important equipments such as control rod drives disposed at the lower portion of the dry wall can be prevented from submerging in water. (I.N.)

  13. Reactor monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tamotsu.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention monitors a reactor so that each of the operations for the relocation of fuel assemblies and the withdrawal and the insertion of control rods upon exchange of fuel assemblies and control rods in the reactor. That is, when an operator conducts relocating operation by way of a fuel assembly operation section, the device of the present invention judges whether the operation indication is adequate or not, based on the information of control rod arrangement in a control rod memory section. When the operation indication is wrong, a stop signal is sent to a fuel assembly relocating device. Further, when the operator conducts control rod operation by way of a control rod operation section, the device of the present invention judges in the control rod withdrawal judging section, as to whether the operation indication given by the operator is adequate or not by comparing it with fuel assembly arrangement information. When the operation indication is wrong, a stop signal is sent to control rod drives. With such procedures, increase of nuclear heating upon occurrence of erroneous operation can be prevented. (I.S.)

  14. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor has an upper and a lower grid plate. Protrusions project from the upper grid plate. Fuel assemblies having end fittings fit between the grid plates. An arrangement is provided for accepting axial forces generated during the operation of the nuclear reactor by the flow of the cooling medium and thermal expansion and irradiation-induced growth of the fuel assembly, which comprises rods. Each fuel assembly rests on the lower grid plate and its upper end is elastically supported against the upper grid plate by the above-mentioned arrangement. The arrangement comprises four (for example) torsion springs each having a torsion tube and a torsion bar nested within the torsion tube and connected at one end thereto. The other end of the torsion bar is connected to an associated one of four lever arms. The torsion tube is rigidly connected to the other end fitting and the springs are disposed such that the lever arms are biassed against the protrusions. (author)

  15. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  16. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  17. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-11-01

    This single page document is the November 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the production reactor.

  18. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-01

    This single page document is the October 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  19. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-15

    This single page document is the October 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  20. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-09-15

    This single page document is the September 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  1. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-15

    This single page document is the December 16, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  2. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-01

    This single page document is the December 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  3. Reactor theory and power reactors. 1. Calculational methods for reactors. 2. Reactor kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Various methods for calculation of neutron flux in power reactors are discussed. Some mathematical models used to describe transients in nuclear reactors and techniques for the reactor kinetics' relevant equations solution are also presented

  4. The perception of the fehmarnbelt connection among german stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Sandrina; Jespersen, Per Homann

    This report gives an overview of the planned improvements of the German hinterland infrastructure connected to the fixed Fehmarn Belt Link (FBL), as well as the views of the key German stake holders towards the FBL.......This report gives an overview of the planned improvements of the German hinterland infrastructure connected to the fixed Fehmarn Belt Link (FBL), as well as the views of the key German stake holders towards the FBL....

  5. Maize synfuel for E. German market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-31

    Bijenkorf Starch Company (ZBB) in the Netherlands plans to produce 30 million litre/year of alcohol gasoline additive for the East German market. Start up is scheduled for 1983 with costs around $33 million. Production costs are estimated at 95 Dutch cents/litre.

  6. Phocine Distemper in German Seals, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlsein, Peter; Beineke, Andreas; Haas, Ludwig; Greiser-Wilke, Irene; Siebert, Ursula; Fonfara, Sonja; Harder, Timm; Stede, Michael; Gruber, Achim.D.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 21,700 seals died during a morbillivirus epidemic in northwestern Europe in 2002. Phocine distemper virus 1 was isolated from seals in German waters. The sequence of the P gene showed 97% identity with the Dutch virus isolated in 1988. There was 100% identity with the Dutch isolate from 2002 and a single nucleotide mismatch with the Danish isolate. PMID:15200869

  7. Dictionary of chemistry. English/German

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenske, G.

    1992-01-01

    This English/German dictionary covers more than 100.000 terms from chemistry, chemical engineering and related fields. It also contains molecular formulas, as well as numerous synonyms and areas of application. IUPAC terminology is emphasized, and outdated or rare terminology is indicated. (MM) [de

  8. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  9. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    Scientia Militaria vol 44, no 1, 2016, pp 168-189. doi: 10.5787/44-1-1166 ..... report the presence of a body of German submarines moving south towards Cape Town. Despite ...... London: Arms and Armour Press, 1989, 100–101; Keegan op.

  10. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  11. On the German Language in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brian A.

    Sociolinguistic patterns among German immigrants to the United States of America are examined in this paper. Earlier studies in this area, including Wolfgang Viereck's work published in "Orbis" in 1967 and 1968, are examined. Through an analysis of the immigration patterns of the citizens of Glarus, Switzerland, in 1845 to New Glarus,…

  12. Recent Developments in German Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Manjon, M.C.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2004-01-01

    We contrast the features of the German corporate governance system with those of other systems and discuss the recent regulatory initiatives.For example, the rules on insider trading and anti-trust have been strengthened.The Restructuring Act has been revised to prevent minority shareholders from

  13. German energy market 2016; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland

    2017-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt gegeben, der auch in diesem Jahr eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun- und Steinkohle, Elektrizitaet sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine aktuelle Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  14. Latitudinal Variation of Germane in Jovian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Wang et al (2016) presented a chemical-dynamical model for Jupiter's atmosphere that predicted abundances of Germane and other disequilibrium species as a function of latitude, under the assumption that only vertical transport is relevant and no horizontal advection occurs. The model disagrees with the latitudinal distributions derived from high-resolution spectral data acquired from the CRIRES instrument at the VLT as described in Giles et al. 2017. Wang et al. 2016 predicts a maximum molar abundance of Germane at (0.7±0.2) ppb with depletion at higher latitudes, while Giles et al. 2017 predicts a constant molar abundance of Germane at 0.58 ppb with no depletion. We explore an empirical horizontal term for the diffusive transport coefficient as a function of latitude, which does not produce a satisfactory result unless highly arbitrary variations of the vertical eddy mixing term as a function of latitude are imposed. We therefore also explore a horizontal wind from the equator that produces a constant latitudinal profile by transporting Germane-rich gas to the poles, effectively producing a Hadley cell. References: Giles, R. S., Fletcher, L. N., & Irwin, P. G. (2017). Latitudinal variability in Jupiter's tropospheric disequilibrium species: GeH 4, AsH 3 and PH 3. Icarus, 289, 254-269. Wang, D., Lunine, J.I., Mousis, O., 2016. Modeling the disequilibrium species for Jupiter and Saturn: implications for Juno and Saturn entry probe. Icarus 276, 21-38.

  15. German and Russian Adolescents' Environmental Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szagun, Gisela; Pavlov, Vladimir I.

    German (n=610) and Russian (n=610) adolescents in 3 age groups, 12, 15, and 18 years, were given a questionnaire assessing their feelings towards environmental destruction, their readiness for pro-environmental action, and their ethical attitude toward nature. In both nationalities anxiety, sadness, and anger about environmental destruction were…

  16. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  17. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  18. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilbach, Judith

    2014-01-01

    abstractThe trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it

  19. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keilbach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it maintained at the same time ideological boundaries.

  20. The Advanced German Course: A Multidimensional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutcavage, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Describes an advanced language course that focuses on modern German culture and society, and emphasizes advanced reading, grammar, conversation, and composition. This framework can be enhanced by regular incorporation of audio and video technology into the program as a means of heightening students' awareness of language and topical issues.…

  1. German Cultural Packets 13 and 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlanta Public Schools, GA.

    These German culture packets are designed to accompany A-LM Level II and include a statement of the rationale behind the unit, the objectives of the packet, the activities themselves, and a brief evaluation by the student. The activities involve the use of the basic text, the student workbook, corresponding tapes, and fellow students as partners…

  2. Introduction to German Culture: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Describes a course, taught in English, entitled "Introduction to German Culture," which was designed to meet the needs of students who have visited or plan to visit Germany and want to take a course in its contemporary culture, politics, and social problems. (SED)

  3. Suicidal ideation in German primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiborg, J.F.; Gieseler, D.; Lowe, B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine suicidal ideation in a sample of German primary care patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study and included 1455 primary care patients who visited 1 of 41 general practitioners (GPs) working at 19 different sites. Suicidal ideation and psychopathology were

  4. Organization of the German nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Corporate ownership within the German nuclear industry has evolved constantly during the last decade, and recent acquisitions and mergers, reunification of the country, as well as preparation for a unified European power market, have led to many significant changes during the past two years. The country's nuclear industry continues to struggle under an increasingly anti-nuclear political environment, yet nuclear power provided more than one-third of Germany's total electricity generation in 1991. As in many countries, particularly in western Europe, many German companies involved in different facets of the nuclear industry are interrelated. Usually as a means of horizontal or vertical integration, the country's nuclear utilities own, directly or indirectly, shares in uranium mining projects; conversion, enrichment, and fabrication companies; or other utilities' nuclear power plants. The utilities own partial interests in companies in supporting industries as well, including transportation firms, waste management companies, uranium broker/traders, and nuclear equipment manufacturers. While the majority of the companies owned are German, numerous investments are made in non-German firms also

  5. Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part I, German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 1" focus on the development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The contents of this guide focus on: (1) course description, (2) broad goals and performance objectives,…

  6. Lernen Wir Deutsch!: Part 2, German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 2" focus on development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The grammar of the course includes the study of nouns, pronouns, and verbs. Possessive determiners are…

  7. Legal claims against Belgian reactors?; Rechtsmittel gegen belgische Reaktoren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The Belgian reactors Tihange 2 and Doel 3 have been restarted in November 2015 after the problem of hydrogen flakes in the reactor pressure vessels had been investigated. The permission to restart has been the object both of critical statements by the German Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMUB) and of lawsuits filed with Belgian law courts by a group of German municipalities led by the city of Aachen and by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia. According to a general principle of the law of nations, a state is not permitted to operate installations near its border, which cause significant environmental damage in a neighbouring state. However, it is not quite clear how this principle applies to the issue of potential accidents of nuclear power plants. According to the author, a tangible threat of an accident is required; mere doubts and concerns about the extent of safety margins are not sufficient.

  8. The CEA research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Two main research reactors, specifically designed, PEGASE reactor and Laue-Langevin high flux reactor, are presented. The PEGASE reactor was designed at the end of the 50s for the study of the gas cooled reactor fuel element behaviour under irradiation; the HFR reactor, was designed in the late 60s to serve as a high yield and high level neutron source. Historical backgrounds, core and fuel characteristics and design, flux characteristics, etc., are presented. 5 figs

  9. Atomic reactor thermal engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ryong

    1983-02-01

    This book starts the introduction of atomic reactor thermal engineering including atomic reaction, chemical reaction, nuclear reaction neutron energy and soon. It explains heat transfer, heat production in the atomic reactor, heat transfer of fuel element in atomic reactor, heat transfer and flow of cooler, thermal design of atomic reactor, design of thermodynamics of atomic reactor and various. This deals with the basic knowledge of thermal engineering for atomic reactor.

  10. Coolant mixing in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, T; Grunwald, G

    1998-10-01

    The behavior of PWRs during cold water or boron dilution transients is strongly influenced by the distribution of coolant temperature and boron concentration at the core inlet. This distribution is the needed input to 3-dimensional neutron kinetics to calculate the power distribution in the core. It mainly depends on how the plugs of cold or unborated water formed in a single loop are mixed in the downcomer and in the lower plenum. To simulate such mixture phenomena requires the application of 3-dimensional CFD (computational fluid dynamics) codes. The results of the simulation have to be validated against mixture experiments at scaled facilities. Therefore, in the framework of a research project funded by BMBF, the institute creates a 1:5 mixture facility representing first the geometry of a German pressurized water reactor and later the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) geometry. The calculations are based on the CFD Code CFX-4. (orig.)

  11. Improving Critical Thinking and Authenticity in Testing Business German

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Maxim, Hiram

    1998-01-01

    in Business German, the Priifung Wirtschaftsdmtsch Intmnational [International Business German Examination] (PWD) and the Zertijikat I)mtschfur den Bmuf [German Cer- tificate for Professional Purposes] (ZDfB), test only students' information retrieval skills and fail to assess their critical thinking...

  12. Christian mission agencies and the question of slavery in German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to the imperial designs of their government, with little commitment to improving the wellbeing of Cameroonians. Little wonder colonial and missionization exploitation which is inseparable from the modern understanding of slavery was at its highest during the German era. Keywords: German Cameroon, German missions, ...

  13. The German Program and International Education: A Comprehensive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConeghy, Patrick M.

    1990-01-01

    Argues for a comprehensive approach toward teaching German as a second language in response to students' needs to acquire a global perspective. Rather than stressing only syntax, grammar, and vocabulary, German language education should also attempt to teach sensitivity to, knowledge of, and insight into German culture. (JL)

  14. Nuclear reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of different reactor types designed to exploit controlled fission reactions are explained. Reactors vary from low power research devices to high power devices especially designed to produce heat, either for direct use or to produce steam to drive turbines to generate electricity or propel ships. A general outline of basic reactors (thermal and fast) is given and then the different designs considered. The first are gas cooled, including the Magnox reactors (a list of UK Magnox stations and reactor performance is given), advanced gas cooled reactors (a list of UK AGRs is given) and the high temperature reactor. Light water cooled reactors (pressurized water [PWR] and boiling water [BWR] reactors) are considered next. Heavy water reactors are explained and listed. The pressurized heavy water reactors (including CANDU type reactors), boiling light water, steam generating heavy water reactors and gas cooled heavy water reactors all come into this category. Fast reactors (liquid metal fast breeder reactors and gas cooled fast reactors) and then water-cooled graphite-moderated reactors (RBMK) (the type at Chernobyl-4) are discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Steam generators. English-German, German-English. Dampferzeuger. Englisch-Deutsch, Deutsch-Englisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, H D

    1986-01-01

    This pocket dictionary contains the most important technical terms relating to steam generators both in English-German and German-English. Part of the terms go with additional definitions or explanations. Furthermore numerous examples are presented to explain the underlying rules for the formation of word combinations. In addition, entries include a number of general terms, as experience shows that suitable equivalents for use in technical texts are often needed precisely by the specialist. (HAG).

  16. Topical papers on heavy water, fuel fabrication and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A total of four papers is presented. The first contribution of the Federal Republic of Germany reviews the market situation for reactors and the relations between reactor producers and buyers as reflected in sales agreements. The second West German contribution gives a world-wide survey of fuel element production as well as of fuel and fuel element demand up to the year 2000. The Canadian paper discusses the future prospects of heavy-water production, while the Ecuador contribution deals with small and medium-sized nuclear power plants

  17. MPR multi-purpose reactor to be built in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Competing with two enterprises from the US and Canada and with a French-German consortium, INVAP won a bid for the supply of a research reactor to Egypt. This is the most important contract ever made by Argentina involving the supply, on a turnkey operation, of a complex facility that incorporates advanced technologies developed in our country and for a sum of approximately 80 million US dollars

  18. The development of the gas cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the present technological state is given on the basis of the developments made so far. Some milestones of development - e.g. the German gas breeder memorandum, the Gas Breeder Reactor Association the results of the BR-2 radiation experiments and of GfK-KWU design and safety studies - are described. The problems connected with a large store of plutonium are also discussed. (UA/AK) [de

  19. Cross-linguistic vowel variation in trilingual speakers of Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jörg; Heeringa, Wilbert J; Schoormann, Heike E

    2017-08-01

    The present study compares the acoustic realization of Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German vowels by trilingual speakers in the Saterland. The Saterland is a rural municipality in northwestern Germany. It offers the unique opportunity to study trilingualism with languages that differ both by their vowel inventories and by external factors, such as their social status and the autonomy of their speech communities. The objective of the study was to examine whether the trilingual speakers differ in their acoustic realizations of vowel categories shared by the three languages and whether those differences can be interpreted as effects of either the differences in the vowel systems or of external factors. Monophthongs produced in a /hVt/ frame revealed that High German vowels show the most divergent realizations in terms of vowel duration and formant frequencies, whereas Saterland Frisian and Low German vowels show small differences. These findings suggest that vowels of different languages are likely to share the same phonological space when the speech communities largely overlap, as is the case with Saterland Frisian and Low German, but may resist convergence if at least one language is shared with a larger, monolingual speech community, as is the case with High German.

  20. Pathfinder irradiation of advanced fuel (Th/U mixed oxide) in a power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant Pinheiro, R.

    1993-01-01

    Within the joint Brazilian-German cooperative R and D Program on Thorium Utilization in Pressurized Water Reactors carried out from 1979 to 1988 by Nuclebras/CDTN, KFA-Juelich, Siemens/KWU and NUKEM, a pathfinder irradiation of Th/U mixed oxide fuel in the Angra 1 nuclear power reactor was planned. The objectives of this irradiation testing, the irradiation strategy, the work performed and the status achieved at the end of the joint Program are presented. (author)

  1. Experiences in radioisotope production in the German Democratic Republic with special reference to radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been carried out in the German Democratic Republic for 30 years. Based on a 10 MW research reactor, a cyclotron and certain irradiation facilities at units of national nuclear power stations, a widespread assortment of radioisotopes is produced with emphasis to radiopharmaceuticals as the main materials. Domestic production covers the national demand in these products where the production is technologically feasible under our conditions. A complete supply of the users in the country (more than 7000 licences) is accomplished by an intense co-operation with neighbouring countries, including mutual assistance in reactor shut down periods and supply with special radioactive materials and products. International co-operation within the framework of the IAEA takes place, mainly as scientific and technological assistance to many developing countries. (author)

  2. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.

    The people of Ontario have begun to receive the benefits of a low cost, assured supply of electrical energy from CANDU nuclear stations. This indigenous energy source also has excellent safety characteristics. Safety has been one of the central themes of the CANDU development program from its very beginning. A great deal of work has been done to establish that public risks are small. However, safety design criteria are now undergoing extensive review, with a real prospect of more stringent requirements being applied in the future. Considering the newness of the technology it is not surprising that a consensus does not yet exist; this makes it imperative to discuss the issues. It is time to examine the policies and practice of reactor safety management in Canada to decide whether or not further restrictions are justified in the light of current knowledge

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Weber, R.; Bauer, A.

    1975-01-01

    The refuelling of a PWR power reactor of about 1,200 MWe is performed by a transport pipe in the containment leading from an external to an internal fuel pit. A wagon to transport the fuel elements can go from a vertical loading position to an also vertical deloading position in the inner fuel pit via guide rollers. The necessary horizontal movement is effected by means of a cable line through the transport pipe which is inclined at least 10 0 . Gravity thus helps in the movement to the deloading position. The cable line with winch is fastened outside the containment. Swivelling devices tip the wagon from the horizontal to the vertical position or vice versa. Loading and deloading are done laterally. (TK/LH) [de

  4. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.; Glahe, E.

    1976-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor of the kind which is charged with spherical reaction elements and in which control rods are arranged to be thrust directly into the charge, each control rod has at least one screw thread on its external surface so that as the rod is thrust into the charge it is caused to rotate and thus make penetration easier. The length of each control rod may have two distinct portions, a latter portion which carries a screw thread and a lead-in portion which is shorter than the latter portion and which may carry a thread of greater pitch than that on the latter portion or may have a number of axially extending ribs instead of a thread

  5. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hideyasu; Oyamada, Osamu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a container for a reactor provided with a pressure suppressing chamber pool which can prevent bubble vibrating load, particularly negative pressure generated at the time of starting to release exhaust from a main steam escape-safety valve from being transmitted to a lower liner plate of the container. Constitution: This arrangement is characterized in that a safety valve exhaust pool for main steam escape, in which a pressure suppressing chamber pool is separated and intercepted from pool water in the pressure suppressing chamber pool, a safety valve exhaust pipe is open into said safety valve exhaust pool, and an isolator member, which isolates the bottom liner plate in the pressure suppressing chamber pool from the pool water, is disposed on the bottom of the safety valve exhaust pool. (Nakamura, S.)

  6. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    In the system described the fuel elements are arranged vertically in groups and are supported in such a manner as to tend to tilt them towards the center of the respective group, the fuel elements being urged laterally into abutment with one another. The elements have interlocking bearing pads, whereby lateral movement of adjacent elements is resisted; this improves the stability of the reactor core during refuelling operations. Fuel elements may comprise clusters of parallel fuel pins enclosed in a wrapper of hexagonal cross section, with bearing pads in the form of spline-like ribs located on each side of the wrapper and extending parallel to the longitudinal axis of the fuel element, being interlockable with ribs on pads of adjacent fuel elements. The arrangement is applicable to a reactor core in which fuel elements and control rod guide tubes are arranged in modules each of which comprises a cluster of at least three fuel elements, one of which is rigidly supported whilst the others are resiliently tilted towards the center of the cluster so as to lean on the rigidly supported element. It is also applicable to modules comprising a cluster of six fuel elements, each resiliently tilted towards a central void to form a circular arch. The modules may include additional fuel elements located outside the clusters and also resiliently tilted towards the central voids, the latter being used to accommodate control rod guide tubes. The need for separate structural members to act as leaning posts is thus avoided. Such structural members are liable to irradiation embrittlement, that could lead to core failure. (U.K.)

  7. To question of NPP power reactor choice for Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Makhanov, Y.M.; Reznikova, R.A.; Sidorenco, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The requirements to NPP power reactors that will be under construction in Kazakhstan are proved and given in the report. A comparative analysis of the most advanced projects of power reactors with light and heavy water under pressure of large, medium and low power is carried out. Different reactors have been considered as follows: 1. Reactors with high-power (700 MW(el) and up) such as EPR, French - German reactor; CANDU-9, Canadian heavy-water reactor; System 80+, developed by ABB Combustion Engineering company, USA; KNGR, Korean reactor of the next generation; APWR, Japanese advanced reactor; WWER-1000 (V-392) - development of Atomenergoproect /Gydropress, Russian Federation; EP 1000, European passive reactor. 2. Reactors with medium power (300 MW (el) - 700 MW (el): AP-600, passive PWR of the Westinghouse company; CANDU-6, Canadian heavy-water reactor; AC-600, Chinese passive PWR; WWER-640, Russian passive reactor; MS-600 Japanese reactor of Mitsubishi Company; KSNP-600, South Korean reactor. 3. Reactors with low power (a few MW(el)- 300 MW(el)): IRIS, reactor of IV generation, developed by the International Corporation of 13 organizations from 7 countries, SMART, South Korean integrated reactor; CAREM, Argentina integrated reactor; MRX, Japanese integrated reactor; 'UNITERM', Russian NPP with integrated reactor, development of NIKIET; AHEC-80, Russian NPP, developed by OKBM. A comparison of the projects of the above-mentioned power reactors was carried out with respect to 15 criteria of nuclear, radiating, ecological safety and economic competitiveness, developed especially for this case. Data on a condition and prospects of power production and power consumption, stations and networks in Kazakhstan necessary for the choice of projects of NPP reactors for Kazakhstan are given. According to the data a balance of power production and power consumption as a whole in the country was received at the level of 59 milliard kw/h. However, strong dis balance

  8. To question of NPP power reactor choice for Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Makhanov, Y.M.; Reznikova, R.A.; Sidorenco, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The requirements to NPP power reactors that will be under construction in Kazakhstan are proved and given in the report. A comparative analysis of the most advanced projects of power reactors with light and heavy water under pressure of large, medium and low power is carried out. Different reactors have been considered as follows: 1. Reactors with high-power (700 MW(el) and up) such as EPR, French - German reactor; CANDU-9, Canadian heavy-water reactor; System 80+, developed by ABB Combustion Engineering company, USA; KNGR, Korean reactor of the next generation; APWR, Japanese advanced reactor; WWER-1000 (V-392) - development of Atomenergoproect /Gydropress, Russian Federation; EP 1000, European passive reactor. 2. Reactors with medium power (300 MW (el) - 700 MW (el): AP-600, passive PWR of the Westinghouse company; CANDU-6, Canadian heavy-water reactor; AC-600, Chinese passive PWR; WWER-640, Russian passive reactor; MS-600 Japanese reactor of Mitsubishi Company; KSNP-600, South Korean reactor. 3. Reactors with low power (a few MW(el)- 300 MW(el)): IRIS, reactor of IV generation, developed by the International Corporation of 13 organizations from 7 countries, SMART, South Korean integrated reactor; CAREM, Argentina integrated reactor; MRX, Japanese integrated reactor; 'UNITERM', Russian NPP with integrated reactor, development of NIKIET; AHEC-80, Russian NPP, developed by OKBM. A comparison of the projects of the above-mentioned power reactors was carried out with respect to 15 criteria of nuclear, radiating, ecological safety and economic competitiveness, developed especially for this case. Data on a condition and prospects of power production and power consumption, stations and networks in Kazakhstan necessary for the choice of projects of NPP reactors for Kazakhstan are given. According to the data a balance of power production and power consumption as a whole in the country was received at the level of 59 milliard kw/h. However, strong dis balance in the

  9. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  10. MPR multi-purpose reactor to be built in Egypt. MPR reactor de usos multiples a construir en Egipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1992-01-01

    Competing with two enterprises from the US and Canada and with a French-German consortium, INVAP won a bid for the supply of a research reactor to Egypt. This is the most important contract ever made by Argentina involving the supply, on a turnkey operation, of a complex facility that incorporates advanced technologies developed in our country and for a sum of approximately 80 million US dollars.

  11. R&D Activities in German Nuclear Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk-Ferrero, A.

    2015-01-01

    Germany is phasing out its nuclear energy use. The seven oldest Light Water Reactors (taken offline in 2011 for a safety review immediately following the Fukushima accident) and the Kruemmel Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) are already shut down; six others would go offline by 2021 at the latest and the three newest by 2022. Phasing out nuclear power must not be regarded as synonymous with “phasing out” nuclear expertise. Long after Germany has completed its NPP shutdown, such skills will remain essential for activities such as ensuring reactor safety, radiation protection, decommissioning, ultimate disposal of radioactive waste and crisis management, and for maintaining a critical outlook on international developments. The German Government underlined this fact when launching the 6th Energy Research Programme entitled “Research for an Environmentally Sound, Reliable and Affordable Energy Supply” in August 2011. The dispute on questions of nuclear waste management and disposal in Germany is not only framed by the political parties’ different perspectives and conflicts between the antinuclear movement and official politics, but is also characterised by the dissent among experts regarding fundamental questions of nuclear waste storage. Especially for high-level radioactive waste there are still debates about the possible repository type and site. In 2014 the study on “Partitioning and Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: benefits and Challenges in Research and Implementation” has been performed under the supervision of National Academy of Science and Engineering–acatech. Acatech recommended continuing the R&D activities on P&T in Germany within a wide European framework and examining the options for future participation of Germany in P&T oriented research in Europe in order to follow a European perspective with a possible benefit to German nuclear industry. German research should concentrate on the key areas: efficient partitioning and transmutation of

  12. The reduction of background signal in bismuth germanate scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, T.A.

    1986-07-01

    Bismuth germanate (BGO) is one of several new scintillator materials developed in recent years. It has similar energy resolution (6-8%) to sodium iodide (NaI) but it is non-hygroscopic, has a much better Peak-to-Compton ratio and a stopping power about 2.3 times greater than NaI. For counting activated foils it represents an improvement on NaI for high efficiency counting where the resolution of a germanium spectrometer is not required. Two scintillators bought for this purpose were found to have a higher than expected background signal between 500 keV and 2 MeV which was traced to Bi207, an active isotope of bismuth with a 38 year half-life and not listed as occurring naturally. Reference to the manufacturer showed all crystals to be similarly contaminated. It is speculated that this active isotope arises from cosmic proton activation of associated lead in the ore from which the bismuth is extracted. Although not confirmed rigorously it has been shown that bismuth extracted from ore with a low lead content does not contain Bi207. Scintillators have been manufactured from uncontaminated material and reductions in the background signal of more than an order of magnitude have been achieved. This reduction will be of immediate benefit for monitoring nickel foils (fast flux monitors) activated in zero-energy reactors and should also permit the exploitation of other low probability reactions previously not thought to be feasible. (author)

  13. Main results of the german risk study, phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Work on the German Risk Study is under contract of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. The reference plant for the analysis is the Biblis nuclear power plant, Unit B, a KWU pressurized water reactor of the 1300 MWel class. The plant is in operation since 1976. First results on Phase A of the study have been published in 1979. Investigations on Phase B have been foreseen to endeepen the analysis. The principal purpose of these investigations is to improve and to optimize the plant's safety features on a more realistic basis. Main objectives of Phase B are: - Completeness of accident event tree analysis taking into account further accident initiating events. - Identification and analyses of accident management measures which are adequate to minimize accidental risk. - improvement of the analysis on an as far as possible realistic basis, thereby taking into account recent results of safety research. The paper deals with the most important results of the plant analyses (level 1 and level 2) which have been performed within the scope of Phases B of the study

  14. Explanatory models of addictive behaviour among native German, Russian-German, and Turkish youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, the public system of addiction treatment is used less by migrants with addictive disorders than by their non-migrant counterparts. To date, the literature has focused primarily on language, sociocultural factors, and residence status when discussing access barriers to this part of the health care system. However, little attention has been paid to cultural differences in explanatory models of addictive behaviour. This is surprising when we consider the important role played by popular knowledge in a population's perceptions of and responses to illnesses, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. In the present study, we examined explanatory models of addictive behaviour and of mental disorders in 124 native German und Russian-German youth and compared these models to those observed in an earlier study of 144 German and Turkish youth. We employed the free listing technique German and to compile the terms that participating subjects used to describe addictive behaviour. Subsequently, we examined how a subset of our study population assigned these terms to the respective disorders by means of the pile sort method. Although the explanatory models used by the German and Russian-German youth in our study were surprisingly similar, those employed by Turkish youth did not make any fundamental distinction between illegal and legal drugs (e.g. alcohol and nicotine). German and Russian-German youth regarded eating disorders as "embarrassing" or "disgraceful", but Turkish youth did not. Unlike our German and Russian-German subjects, the Turkish youth did not classify eating disorders as being addictive in nature. Moreover, medical concepts crucial to a proper understanding of dependence disorders (e.g. the term "physical dependence") were characterised by almost half of our Turkish subjects as useless in describing addictions. These findings show that it is impossible to translate medical or everyday concepts of disease and treatment properly into a different

  15. German words: still used by Japanese obstetrics and gynecology doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Shigeki

    2018-03-01

    German used to be frequently employed in Japanese obstetric and gynecologic (OBGYN) practice; however, it is now less frequently used. Description and analysis of this situation may shed some light on the change of OBGYN practice and education in Japan, which may at least partly hold true to counties other than Japan. Three eras were classified according to the relationship between German and Japanese OBGYN, with each era characterized. Frequently used German words in Japanese OBGYN practice were described as examples. German words have become less frequently used with each successive generation. Even though English may suffice in practical OBGYN practice, German usage will still be passed on to these new generations.

  16. Fifty years of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring by the German Meteorological Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    At a commemorative event at the Langen Training and Congress Center on 8 and 9 June 2005 it was brought to the attention of the audience that the German Meteorological Service has been charged with the sovereign task of monitoring atmospheric radioactivity since 8 August 1955. The purpose of this commission at the time was to measure traces of radioactivity in the atmosphere and precipitation and make forecasts on the movement of radioactive air masses. This was motivated by the above-ground nuclear tests carried out by the USA and the Soviet Union and the resulting measurable increase in atmospheric radioactivity levels. Equipped as it was with the necessary infrastructure the German Meteorological Service offered to take on this monitoring task. The importance of being able to assess the meteorological situation and provide data on radioactivity levels in the atmosphere and precipitation became apparent in 1986 after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl. When the Law on Preventive Radiation Protection was enacted in 1986 it was therefore only logical for the German Meteorological Service's commission to monitor atmospheric radioactivity levels to be renewed

  17. Experience and results of MELCOR application for German PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenkalb, M.

    1999-01-01

    An introduction into severe accident research work performed at GRS with regard to the use of the MELCOR code is given in Chapter One of the paper. Experience in applying MELCOR 1.8.3 for German PWRs and results of MELCOR calculations done within the project 'Accident management - Mitigation' for German LWRs are presented in Chapter Two. This 3-year project was finished February 1998. It was funded by the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety - BMU. In Chapter Three, a short overview of a training course on 'Phenomenology of Severe Accidents in PWR-Plants' is given. Mainly due to the interest from German NPPs GRS developed this special training session in 1996. Since 1996 it has been held several times for operators, shift personnel and the management board of two different German NPPs and for lecture of the German NPP training centre in Essen. In Chapter Four, results of the application of MELCOR 1.8.4 for German PWRs are presented. This work is done within a new project on 'Accident Management - Mitigation' for German LWRs. It was started in March 1998 and is again funded by the German Federal Ministry BMU. An objective of this project is to perform further MELCOR calculations, to be used within a PSA level 2 study for a German PWR, which is done at GRS in parallel. The experience of using MELCOR for German PWRs are summarised in Chapter Five. (author)

  18. Raw materials for reflector graphite (for reactors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmi, G.; Mindermann, D.

    1992-01-01

    The manufacturing concept for the core components of German high temperature reactor (HTR) types of graphite was previously entirely directed to the use of German tar coke (St coke). As the plants for producing this material no longer complied technically with the current environmental protection requirements, one had to assume that they would soon be shut down. To prevent bottlenecks in the erection of future HTR plants, alternative cokes produced by modern processes by Japanese manufacturers were checked for their suitability for the manufacture of reactor graphite. This report describes the investigations carried out on these materials from the safe delayed coking process. The project work, apart from analysis of the main data of the candidate coke considered, included the processing of the raw materials into directly and secondarily extruded graphite rods on the laboratory scale, including characterisation. As the results show, the material data achieved with the previous raw material can be reproduced with Japanese St coke. The tar coke LPC-A from the Nippon Steel Chemical Co., Ltd was decided on as the new standard coke for manufacturing reflector graphite. (orig.) With 15 tabs., 2 figs [de

  19. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kimitaka; Fukuie, Ken; Iijima, Tooru; Shimpo, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    In an FBR type reactor for exchanging fuels by pulling up reactor core upper mechanisms, a connection mechanism is disposed for connecting the top of the reactor core and the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms. In addition, a cylindrical body is disposed surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, and a support member is disposed to the cylindrical body for supporting an intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms. Then, the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is connected to the top of the reactor core. Same displacements are caused to both of them upon occurrence of earthquakes and, as a result, it is possible to eliminate mutual horizontal displacement between a control rod guide hole of the reactor core upper mechanisms and a control rod insertion hole of the reactor core. In addition, since the intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms is supported by the support member disposed to the cylindrical body surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, deformation caused to the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is reduced, so that the mutual horizontal displacement with respect to the control rod insertion hole of the reactor core can be reduced. As a result, performance of control rod insertion upon occurrence of the earthquakes is improved, so that reactor shutdown is conducted more reliably to improve reactor safety. (N.H.)

  20. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Department of reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risoe during 1979 are described. The work is presented in five chapters: Reactor Engineering, Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Heat Transfer and Hydraulics, The DR 1 Reactor, and Non-Nuclear Activities. A list of the staff and of publications is included. (author)

  2. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities

  3. Reactor safety method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachon, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature

  4. The dual face of reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, L.

    1981-01-01

    Reactor safety is nowadays treated theoretically by a probabilistic approach. This means that events which may lead to accidents are considered as random events, and probability calculus is employed to predict potential damage. However, it has been found in practice that there are also failures in no way connected with chance, i.e., the so-called deterministic ones. This lends a dual face to reactor safety, a probabilistic and a deterministic one. In this contribution, the author resumes studies he had once initiated under the heading of Deterministic and Probabilistic Theses on Reactor Safety. He examines the present state of reactor safety under the aspect of deterministic and probabilistic failures and the significance of active and passive safety systems, estimating whether and to what extent earlier proposals have been incorporated in present technology. The two most prominent studies dealing with the risk of nuclear power plants, the American Rasmussen Study, WASH 1400, and the German Risk Study, were calculated by the most recent probabilistic methods. The causes of deterministic failures can be traced back to deterministic errors. There are errors in planning, in design, in fabrication, errors caused by maloperation, premature aging, sabotage and war. Since they are due to certain causes, it is possible in principle to discover and control them already by mental experiments. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Physics of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This course gives an introduction to Nuclear Reactor Physics. The first chapter explains the most important parameters and concepts in nuclear reactor physics such as fission, cross sections and the effective multiplication factor. Further on, in the second chapter, the flux distributions in a stationary reactor are derived from the diffusion equation. Reactor kinetics, reactor control and reactor dynamics (feedback effects) are described in the following three chapters. The course concludes with a short description of the different types of existing and future reactors. (author)

  6. The European Fast Breeder Reactor project (EFR). Should Germany withdraw from the project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Fed. Min. of Research and Technology has discontinued its financial aid to industry for the development of fast breeder reactor technology at the end of 1991, and a termination of the EFR project is in sight. There is, however, no need for the German government to withdraw from the EFR agreement concluded in 1984. (orig.) [de

  7. Reactor core and initially loaded reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo.

    1989-01-01

    In BWR type reactors, improvement for the reactor shutdown margin is an important characteristic condition togehter with power distribution flattening . However, in the reactor core at high burnup degree, the reactor shutdown margin is different depending on the radial position of the reactor core. That is , the reactor shutdown margin is smaller in the outer peripheral region than in the central region of the reactor core. In view of the above, the reactor core is divided radially into a central region and as outer region. The amount of fissionable material of first fuel assemblies newly loaded in the outer region is made less than the amount of the fissionable material of second fuel assemblies newly loaded in the central region, to thereby improve the reactor shutdown margin in the outer region. Further, the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower portion of the first fuel assemblies is made smaller than the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower region of the second fuel assemblies, to thereby obtain a sufficient thermal margin in the central region. (K.M.)

  8. Different zooplankton structures in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P.; Brockmann, U.

    1993-06-01

    In August 1982, a net of 48 stations with altogether 208 samples was investigated in the eastern German Bight with respect to temperature, salinity, as well as the amount and species composition of the mesozooplankton (>80 μm). The data were arranged into different structures by means of a cluster analysis. Four different clusters were found: (a) a “Wadden sea water” with few holoplankton organisms but a higher amount of spionid larvae; (b) a “German Bight water” with a maximum occurrence of turbellaria ( Alaurina composita) and medium concentrations of copepods; (c) a mixing area between these two water masses with highest amounts of Oikopleura dioica, Temora longicornis, Acartia sp., mussel larvae and larvae of the spionid worms; (d) a “North Sea water” mass with highest concentrations of Pseudocalanus elongatus, Paracalanus parvus und Oithona similis. The differences in the concentrations of the species mentioned between the four clusters were significant on the 0.1%-level.

  9. Methane in German hard coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, P.N.; Den Drijver, J.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide, hard coal mining is being carried out at ever increasing depth, and has, therefore, to cope with correspondingly increasing methane emissions are caused by coal mining. Beside carbon dioxide, chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides, methane is one of the most significant 'greenhouse' gases. It is mainly through the release of such trace gases that the greenhouse effect is brought about. Reducing methane emissions is therefore an important problem to be solved by the coal mining industry. This paper begins by highlighting some of the fundamental principles of methane in hard coal mining. The methane problem in German hard coal mining and the industry's efforts to reduce methane emissions are presented. The future development in German hard coal mining is illustrated by an example which shows how large methane volumes can be managed, while still maintaining high outputs at increasing depth. (author). 7 tabs., 10 figs., 20 refs

  10. Making sense of the German Wikipedia community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Frank Jørgensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings from a qualitative study of the German Wikipedia community, focusing on how people engaged with Wikipedia make sense of norms, collaborative practices and means of regulation within the community. The study highlights the strong focus on the quality of the end-product (the encyclopedia in the German community, stressing that article quality is seen as more important than the wiki-process as such. As the community has grown, an increasing number of rules and mechanisms have been deployed to resolve various issues and conflicts, however the interviewees do not perceive Wikipedia as being bureaucratic, but rather describe it as a “rule-governed anarchy”. The findings suggest that people contribute for a variety of reasons, yet point to reactions from and interactions with fellow Wikipedians as one of the strongest motivational drivers for participation.

  11. 14th German nuclear law symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgi, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear law is still relevant and topical. The nuclear power phase-out in response to the nuclear accident of Fukushima and the turnaround in German energy policy raise new legal issues. In several lectures of practioners and scientists the 14th German Nuclear Law Symposium examined questions regarding the retrofitting of nuclear power plants, their decommissioning and disposal, the current developements in the European nuclear and radiation protection law and the search for a final nuclear waste repository. The nuclear law provides examples for central challenges of administrative law, such as the independence of authorities and the protection of third parties. The discussions between the almost 150 participants are documented in several reports.

  12. Psychological training of German science astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzey, D; Schiewe, A

    1992-07-01

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  13. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

  14. Nuclear reactors. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiron, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the 'nuclear reactors' volume of the Engineers Techniques collection. It gives a general presentation of the different articles of the volume which deal with: the physical basis (neutron physics and ionizing radiations-matter interactions, neutron moderation and diffusion), the basic concepts and functioning of nuclear reactors (possible fuel-moderator-coolant-structure combinations, research and materials testing reactors, reactors theory and neutron characteristics, neutron calculations for reactor cores, thermo-hydraulics, fluid-structure interactions and thermomechanical behaviour of fuels in PWRs and fast breeder reactors, thermal and mechanical effects on reactors structure), the industrial reactors (light water, pressurized water, boiling water, graphite moderated, fast breeder, high temperature and heavy water reactors), and the technology of PWRs (conceiving and building rules, nuclear parks and safety, reactor components and site selection). (J.S.)

  15. Thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutomi, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Moroo; Sawai, Yuichi; Chiba, Akio; Suzuki, Yasutaka.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon composited with reinforcing metals is used for a divertor cooling substrate having an effect as a cooling tube to provide a silicon base composite material having increased electric resistance and toughness. The blending ratio of reinforcing materials in the form of granules, whiskers or long fibers is controlled in order to control heat conductivity, electric resistivity and mechanical performances. The divertor cooling substrate comprising the silicon base composite material is integrated with a plasma facing material. The production method therefor includes ordinary metal matrix composite forming methods such as powder metallurgy, melting penetration method, high pressure solidification casting method, centrifugal casting method and vacuum casting method. Since the cooling plate is constituted with the light metal and highly electric resistant metal base composite material, sharing force due to eddy current can be reduced, and radiation exposure can be minimized. Accordingly, a cooling structure for a thermonuclear reactor effective for the improvement of environmental problems caused by waste disposal can be attained. (N.H.)

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irion, L.; Tautz, J.; Ulrych, G.

    1976-01-01

    This additional patent complements the arrangement of non-return valves to prevent loss of cooling water on fracture of external tubes in the main coolant circuit (according to PS 24 24 427.7) by ensuring that the easily movable valves only operate in case of a fault, but do not flutter in operation, because the direction of flow is not the same at each location where they are installed. The remedy for this undesirable effect consists of allocating 1 non-return valve unit with 5 to 10 valves to each (of several) ducts for the cooling water intake. These units are installed in the annular space between the reactor vessel and the pressure vessel below the inlet of the ducts. Due to flow guidance surfaces in the same space, the incoming cooling water is deflected downwards and as the guiding surfaces are closed at the sides, must pass parallel to the valves of the non-return valve unit. On fracture of the external cooling water inlet pipe concerned, all valves of this unit close due to reversal of flow on the outlet side. (TK) [de

  17. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to auxiliary means of cooling the nuclear fuel clusters used in light or heavy water cooled nuclear reactors. One method is to provide one or more spray cooling tubes. From holes in the side walls of those tubes coolant water may be sprayed laterally into the cluster against the rods. The flow of main coolant may thus be supplemented or even replaced by the auxiliary coolant. A difficulty, however, is that only those fuel rods close to a spray cooling tube can readily be reached by the auxiliary coolant. In the arrangement described, where the fuel rods are spaced apart by transverse grids, at least one of the interspaces between the grids is provided with an axially extending auxiliary coolant conduit having lateral holes through which an auxiliary coolant is sprayed into the cluster. A deflector is provided that extends from a transverse grid into a position in front of the holes and deflects auxiliary coolant on to parts of the fuel rods otherwise inaccessible to the auxiliary coolant. The construction of the deflector is described. (U.K.)

  18. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  19. Alexithymia in the German general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Matthias; Popp, Kerstin; Schaefer, Ralf; Sitte, Wolfgang; Schneider, Christine; Hardt, Jochen; Decker, Oliver; Braehler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    The Toronto-Alexithymia-Scale (TAS-20) is used worldwide as a valid measurement of alexithymia. Until now, population-based standardization and cut-off values of the German TAS-20 version have not been available. This study provides these by means of a representative German sample and by investigating the factorial structure of the TAS-20. Data were generated from a representative random sample of the German general population (1,859 subjects aged between 20 and 69). The TAS-20 sum score was normally distributed. The mean value was 49.5 (SD=9.3) in men and 48.2 (SD=9.2) in women. Divorce, single and low social status were associated with enhanced sum scores. Ten percent of the population exceeded the TAS-20 sum score threshold of >or=61. The 66th percentile reached 53 for men and 52 for women. Factor analysis identified three factors that match the scales of the English original version. An additional fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") was extracted. Total explanation of variance by these four factors was 52.27%. The sum score of the German TAS-20 version is suited for the standardized measure of alexithymia. For selecting alexithymic individuals in experimental studies, the cut-off >or=61 is possibly too restrictive. Therefore, we propose the 66th percentile for the identification of high alexithymics. The TAS-20 sum score is associated with important socio-demographic variables. The factorial structure is reliable; the fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") provides differentiation of content and allows for enhanced explanation of variance.

  20. Nuclear energy and German foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, K.

    1979-01-01

    The author shows that the present foreign-policy situation with regard to the nuclear-energy complex is due to political and energy-policy origins. He is further of the opinion that the expansion of nuclear energy - in spite of internal political difficulties - will continue in the long term. Hence breeders and reconditioning will become realities. For German foreign policy this means that it must also carry responsibilities on a global scale in this respect. (orig.) [de

  1. Right Face: Understanding German Political Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-16

    years passed, invested Germancarliamentary life , and politics in general, with ar increasing amount of friction and frustra-ton. The new German state...Wranslated by William C. Kirby, Cambridge: .arvaro ° Uiversity Press, 1981. George F. Kennan, The Decline of Bismarck’s European Order, .7anco-Russian...continental Empire, free from the economic pressure of Britain, America, and France. The costs of the war in human life and resources fed procressively more

  2. Remarks on the german regulation of crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Tröger, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Crowdfunding is a buzzword that signifies a sub-set in the new forms of finance facilitated by advances in information technology usually categorized as fintech. Concerns for financial stability, investor and consumer protection, or the prevention of money laundering or funding of terrorism hinge incrementally on including the new techniques to initiate financing relationships adequately in the regulatory framework. This paper analyzes the German regulation of crowdinvesting and finds that it...

  3. [German nurses during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  4. Control rooms in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper explains and illustrates the dissimilarity in design and equipment of control rooms in German NPPs, as well as a historical survey of the general principles and approaches applied in the evolution of control room technology, including backfitting activities. Experience obtained from daily operation as well training at the simulators is taken as a basis to formulate fundamental requirements for modification or novel design approaches. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Ileocecocolic volvulus in a German shepherd dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javard, Romain; Specchi, Swan; Benamou, Jérôme; Lapointe, Catherine; Deffontaines, Jean-Baptiste; Planté, Jérôme; d’Anjou, Marc-André

    2014-01-01

    This report describes an ileocecocolic volvulus in a German shepherd dog with risk factors of previous abdominal surgeries and concurrent chronic enteropathy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) with multiplanar reformatting was more sensitive than abdominal radiographs or ultrasound to obtain a diagnosis, because of the presence of a “whirl-sign” on CT. A combination of colopexy and cecopexy was succesfully used to treat the patient’s condition. PMID:25392556

  6. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reactor coolant channel is described that is suitable for sub-cooled reactors as in pressurised water reactors as well as for bulk boiling, as in boiling water reactors and steam generating nuclear reactors. The arrangement aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel elements and the coolant. Full constructional details are given. See also other similar patents by the author. (U.K.)

  7. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author gives a survey of 'fast breeder reactors'. In detail the process of breeding, the reasons for the development of fast breeders, the possible breeder reactors, the design criteria, fuels, cladding, coolant, and safety aspects are reported on. Design data of some experimental reactors already in operation are summarized in stabular form. 300 MWe Prototype-Reactors SNR-300 and PFR are explained in detail and data of KWU helium-cooled fast breeder reactors are given. (HR) [de

  8. Interaction of oxygen vacancies in yttrium germanates

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Forming a good Ge/dielectric interface is important to improve the electron mobility of a Ge metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor. A thin yttrium germanate capping layer can improve the properties of the Ge/GeO 2 system. We employ electronic structure calculations to investigate the effect of oxygen vacancies in yttrium-doped GeO 2 and the yttrium germanates Y 2Ge 2O 7 and Y 2GeO 5. The calculated densities of states indicate that dangling bonds from oxygen vacancies introduce in-gap states, but the system remains insulating. However, yttrium-doped GeO 2 becomes metallic under oxygen deficiency. Y-doped GeO 2, Y 2Ge 2O 7 and Y 2GeO 5 are calculated to be oxygen substoichiometric under low Fermi energy conditions. The use of yttrium germanates is proposed as a way to effectively passivate the Ge/dielectric interface. This journal is © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  9. The Litvinenko polonium-210 case - German experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Gerald; Kroeger, Emily A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together the measurement results taken and the lessons learned by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection during the polonium-210 incident in Hamburg in late 2006. The incident was pivotal in confirming the importance of the defence against nuclear hazards in Germany and for highlighting the role of communication in the success of a deployment. The background of the case is reviewed and an overview of the German defence against nuclear hazards is given. The various measurement tasks, both at the scene and in the laboratory, and their results are summarized along with the communication challenges experienced. The main conclusions are that the traces of polonium-210 found at the sites were of little radiological consequence and the German defence against nuclear hazards in Germany delivered an excellent and measured response to the incident. However, communication challenges still exist and communication with the public and the emergency responders has to be given high priority during future deployments in order to ensure their success. (author)

  10. German energy market 2017; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland; World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2018-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply as specified in the energy concept of the Federal Government towards the increased use of renewable energies with simultaneous increase of energy efficiency still determines the market development. In the present case, a current overview of the German energy market 2017 is given, which provides a concentrated compilation of the key figures of the energy industry. As in previous years, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also deals in detail with the development of the individual energy sources oil, natural gas, brown and hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends are explained on the international markets and inland. An overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2017 concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt nach wie vor die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt 2017 gegeben, der eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun und Steinkohle, Kernenergie sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen von 1990 bis 2017 schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  11. The new German radiation protection ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, W.; Weimer, G.

    2003-01-01

    According to European law, the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) published by the European Council in 1996 and the Council Directive on health protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure had to be transferred into national law within due time. In 2001 the new Ordinance for the Implementation of the Euratom Guidelines on Radiation Protection] was published, which replaces the old Radiation Protection Ordinance. The new German Ordinance adapts the European Directive to German law, covering the general principles but even giving more details in many fields of radiation protection. The BSS scope certainly is much broader than the prescriptions important for the field of radiation protection in nuclear power plants. According to the scope of this workshop on occupational exposure in nuclear power plants - and as the BSS most probably will be quite familiar to all of you - after a short general overview on relevant contents of the German Ordinance, this presentation will focus on the main issues important in the operation of NPP and especially on some areas which may give rise to necessary changes caused by the new Ordinance. (A.L.B.)

  12. Residual risks of the 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-01-01

    The 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, which was adopted by the German federal parliament on June 30 and entered into force on August 6, 2011, must be judged in the light of its genesis. Federal Chancellor Merkel, in her government declaration of June 9, 2011, had mentioned topics such as residual risk, safety standards, and risk assumptions, on which the federal government, in the week after the event of March 11, 2011, had commissioned the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RSK) to conduct a comprehensive safety review of all German nuclear power plants, and appointed an Ethics Committee to write an opinion on safe energy supply. On the basis of quickly drafted reports, the federal cabinet, without any international harmonization (EU, IEA), adopted a draft opt out law on June 6, 2011. How should the declarations by the Federal Chancellor on June 9, 2011 be classified in terms of atomic energy law? In her words, it all revolved around the residual risk. The debate, which has been shifted to the realm of constitutional law, is open to considerations and steps to attack the new opt out law on grounds of material unconstitutionality (violation of the property guarantee under Sec. 14 or the principle of equality under Art.3 of the Basic Law). As far as final storage is concerned, the amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act announced still for this year, also for transposition of the EURATOM Directive of July 19, 2011 about nuclear waste management, the ''re-assessment of the residual risk'' is not likely to play a role. All these events are reminiscent of a sentence by former Federal Chancellor Schmidt: ''The history of the NATO dual-track decision remains a textbook case showing that even in a democracy emotions using ethical arguments, mixed with demagogy, can become strong enough to cast aside balanced reason.'' There is also a distinction by Max Weber between ''ethics of ideology'' and ''ethics of responsibility''. (orig.)

  13. EPR: The reactor generation for the 21st century. SFEN-KTG congress 'The EPR Project'', Strasbourg, 13-14 Nov. 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The foundation of the subsidiary in 1989, Nuclear Power International (NPI), brought together as partners the two formerly competing companies Siemens/KWU and Framatome who now are planning the novel reactor type within the framework of the joint EPR project. The project goal is to develop a novel French-German PWR reactor type for power generation, named European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). The article summarizes the main results of papers and discussions of the congress. (orig./UA) [de

  14. German Atomic Energy Act turns fifty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The German Atomic Energy Act entered into force on January 1, 1960. It turns fifty at the beginning of 2010. Is this a reason to celebrate or rather the opposite? Lawyers, in principle, can view old pieces of legislation from 2 perspectives: On the one hand, aged laws are treated in a spirit of veneration and are celebrated as proven. On the other hand, an anniversary of this kind can be a welcome reason for demands to abolish or, at least, fundamentally renew that law. Over the past half century, the German Atomic Energy Act went through stormy and varied phases both of a legal and a political character. Its 50 th anniversary is likely to spark off very conflicting evaluations as well. A review of legal history shows that the German or, rather, the Federal German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) was not a first-of-its-kind piece of legislation but stemmed from the 1957 EURATOM Treaty, in a way representing a latecomer of that treaty. The Atomic Energy Act experienced a number of important developments throughout its history: - In 1975, compulsory licensing of fuel element factories was introduced. - The back end of the fuel cycle, especially final storage, were incorporated in the Atomic Energy Act comprehensively first in 1976. - In 1985, legislators decided in favor of unlimited nuclear liability. - In 1994 and 1998, only some innovations in special items were introduced under the headings of environmental impact assessment and suitability for repository storage because the controversy about nuclear power did not permit a fundamental alignment towards a more comprehensive modern safety law. - The decision to opt out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in 2002 drew the final line so far of decisions about directions of nuclear law in a major amendment. In parallel, the decisions by the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court in the late 1970s and, above all, the 1980s provided important assistance which has remained valid to this day. What is

  15. Reactor Physics Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2007-01-01

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  16. Key differences in the fabrication of US and German TRISO-coated particle fuel, and their implications on fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, D.A.; Buongiorno, J.; Maki, J.T.; Miller, G.K.; Hobbins, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the irradiation performance of TRISO-coated gas reactor particle fuel in Germany has been superior to that in the US. German fuel generally displayed in-pile gas release values that were three orders of magnitude lower than US fuel. Thus, we have critically examined the TRISO-coated fuel fabrication processes in the US and German and the associated irradiation database with a goal of understanding why the German fuel behaves acceptably, why the US fuel has not faired as well, and what process/production parameters impart the reliable performance to this fuel form. The postirradiation examination results are also reviewed to identify failure mechanisms that may be the cause of the poorer US irradiation performance. This comparison will help determine the roles that particle fuel process/product attributes and irradiation conditions (burnup, fast neutron fluence, temperature, degree of acceleration, power per particle) have on the behavior of the fuel during irradiation and provide a more quantitative linkage between acceptable processing parameters, as-fabricated fuel properties and subsequent in-reactor performance. (author)

  17. Learning from the Germans? History and Memory in German and European Discourses of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Beattie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available History and memory appear to be increasingly important to discussions of European values and identity, as exemplified by references to ‘bitter experiences’ and ‘divided pasts’ in the draft EU constitution. The article takes recent suggestions that Europe could learn from German experiences of confronting multiple difficult pasts as its starting point, and considers critically what lessons those German experiences might in fact hold for ‘Europe’. It explores similarities and differences in the two integration contexts and their dominant approaches to, and assumptions about history and public memory. Specifically, it considers debates about the east-west division of the Cold War and about the place of communism and nazism in public memory. Contrary to common assumptions, the article argues that German experiences are not necessarily worth of European emulation.

  18. Crystal chemistry of germanates: Characteristic structural features of Li,Ge-germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyushin, G.D.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    Crystallochemical classification of eleven compounds from the Li-germanate family is suggested. Depending on the set of the primary building units (PBU) (M-octahedra of the composition [GeO 6 ] and T-tetrahedra of the composition [GeO 4 ]) and the type of their 'condensation', these germanates are divided into three crystallochemical groups: framework MT-structures (four phases), condensed MT-structures (two phases), and tetrahedral T-condensed structures (five phases). The structural characteristics of the framework Li,Ge-germanates are considered, i.e., their symmetry, crystallographically independent sets of the primary building units, framework architecture, and the types of chains and layers of the (Ge,O)-radicals

  19. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments for and against the fast breeder reactor are debated. The case for the fast reactor is that the world energy demand will increase due to increasing population over the next forty years and that the damage to the global environment from burning fossil fuels which contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear fission is the only large scale energy source which can achieve a cut in the use of carbon based fuels although energy conservation and renewable sources will also be important. Fast reactors produce more energy from uranium than other types of (thermal) reactors such as AGRs and PWRs. Fast reactors would be important from about 2020 onwards especially as by then many thermal reactors will need to be replaced. Fast reactors are also safer than normal reactors. The arguments against fast reactors are largely economic. The cost, especially the capital cost is very high. The viability of the technology is also questioned. (UK)

  20. Plant specific safety inspection of German nuclear power plants taking into account the Fukushima-I (Japan) events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The German Parliament requested (17 March 2011) a comprehensive inspection of German nuclear power plants. For this purpose independent expert commissions should perform a new risk analysis of all German NPPS and nuclear installations with respect to the lessons learned from the Fukushima (Japan) events and other extraordinary damage scenarios. The Reactor safety commission (RSK) was assigned by the German Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz to develop a catalogue of requirements for this safety inspection. The contribution summarizes the required inspection volume (status 30.03.2011) including the following events: natural events like earth quakes, floods, weather-based consequences and possible superposition. Additionally the following assumptions have to be considered: event independent postulated common failures or systematic faults, station blackout larger than 2 hours, long-term failure of the auxiliary cooling water supply; aggravating boundary conditions for the performance of emergency measures (non-availability of power supply), hydrogen generation and detonation hazard, restricted personnel availability, non-accessibility due to high radiation levels, impeded technical support from outside. (orig.)