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Sample records for german federal environmental

  1. Information by the German Federal Government. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The information by the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010 includes five chapters. (I) Natural radiation exposure: radiation sources, contributions from cosmic radiation, contaminated construction materials, food and drinking water, and radon, evaluation of the different components of natural radiation exposure. (II) Civilization caused radiation exposure: nuclear power plants, research centers, nuclear fuel processing plants, other nuclear facilities (interim storage facilities, repositories); summarizing evaluation for nuclear facilities; environmental radioactivity due to mining; radioactive materials in research, technology and households; industrial and mining residues; fall-out as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear weapon testing. (III) Occupational radiation exposure: civil radiation sources, natural radiation sources, special events. (IV) Medical radiation exposure; X-ray diagnostics; nuclear medicine; radiotherapy using ionizing radiation; radiotherapy using open radioactive materials; evaluation of radiotherapy. (V) Non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields; optical radiation; certification of solaria.

  2. Risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food--comments by the German Federal Environmental Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Andreas; Neumeier, Günther; Rappolder, Marianne; Konietzka, Rainer

    2007-04-01

    tolerable intake for 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The SCF stated that on a body weight basis, the dioxin intake of breast-fed infants has been estimated to be one to two orders of magnitude higher than the average adult intake. Recent German data suggest that the body burden of formerly breast-fed children aged 9-11 is still about 30% higher than those of their formula-fed age-mates. As breast-feeding has measurable benefits for neurological and immunological development, formula feeding cannot be recommended as an alternative to lower dioxin intake. So the only remaining way to lower the dioxin uptake is to drastically reduce the background exposure of the general population. It is acknowledged that any recommendation of a precise number for a TDI is flawed by uncertainties and the possibility of different weight being given to the studies of relevance. The determination of the TDI has influence on all regulatory limit values that are based on the TDI value. A higher TDI lowers the level of protection for humans. It is proposed by the German Federal Environmental Agency that the TDI should be reassessed in a process transparent to the public and on the basis of all relevant endpoints from animal experiments and human epidemiology, including the assessment of cancer risks.

  3. Annual report 1999 of the air pollution monitoring network of the German Federal Environmental Agency; Jahresbericht 1999 aus dem Messnetz des Umweltbundesamtes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilke, S.; Uhse, K. [comps.

    2000-12-01

    In this annual report the results of the air pollution monitoring network of the German Federal Environmental Agency (FEA) are presented for the year 1999. The network consists of 23 stations (9 stations with personnel and 14 automatically working container stations) which are situated in rural areas. As the data set was thoroughly quality controlled reliable statements on trends can be made. (orig.) [German] Im vorliegenden Jahresbericht werden die Ergebnisse aus dem Messnetz des Umweltbundesamtes fuer das Jahr 1999 vorgestellt, interpretiert und mit den Messungen aus frueheren Jahren verglichen. Das UBA-Messnetz besteht heute aus insgesamt 23 in laendlichen Regionen gelegenen Stationen, wovon 9 Messstellen personell besetzt und 14 automatisch arbeitende Containerstationen sind. Die Datensaetze sind in sich homogen, d.h. es wurden im Verlauf der Jahre keine gravierenden Veraenderungen an den Messbedingungen vorgenommen, weder bei der Probenahme noch bei der Analytik. Die Daten wurden einer eingehenden Qualitaetspruefung unterzogen, sowohl intern als auch bei internationalen Ringvergleichen der Analysenverfahren. (orig.)

  4. Information by the German Federal Government. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010; Unterrichtung durch die Bundesregierung. Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The information by the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010 includes five chapters. (I) Natural radiation exposure: radiation sources, contributions from cosmic radiation, contaminated construction materials, food and drinking water, and radon, evaluation of the different components of natural radiation exposure. (II) Civilization caused radiation exposure: nuclear power plants, research centers, nuclear fuel processing plants, other nuclear facilities (interim storage facilities, repositories); summarizing evaluation for nuclear facilities; environmental radioactivity due to mining; radioactive materials in research, technology and households; industrial and mining residues; fall-out as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear weapon testing. (III) Occupational radiation exposure: civil radiation sources, natural radiation sources, special events. (IV) Medical radiation exposure; X-ray diagnostics; nuclear medicine; radiotherapy using ionizing radiation; radiotherapy using open radioactive materials; evaluation of radiotherapy. (V) Non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields; optical radiation; certification of solaria.

  5. Federal environmental inspections handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This Federal Environmental Inspection Handbook has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). It is designed to provide DOE personnel with an easily accessible compilation of the environmental inspection requirements under Federal environmental statutes which may impact DOE operations and activities. DOE personnel are reminded that this Handbook is intended to be used in concert with, and not as a substitute for, the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Federal Register (FR), and other applicable regulatory documents

  6. German and Russian Adolescents' Environmental Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szagun, Gisela; Pavlov, Vladimir I.

    German (n=610) and Russian (n=610) adolescents in 3 age groups, 12, 15, and 18 years, were given a questionnaire assessing their feelings towards environmental destruction, their readiness for pro-environmental action, and their ethical attitude toward nature. In both nationalities anxiety, sadness, and anger about environmental destruction were…

  7. Abridged version of the AWMF guideline for the medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure: S2K Guideline of the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (GHUP) in collaboration with the German Association of Allergists (AeDA), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the German Society for Occupational and Environmental Medicine (DGAUM), the German Society for Hospital Hygiene (DGKH), the German Society for Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine (DGP), the German Mycological Society (DMykG), the Society for Pediatric Allergology and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the German Federal Association of Pediatric Pneumology (BAPP), and the Austrian Society for Medical Mycology (ÖGMM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Heinzow, Birger; Aurbach, Ute; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bufe, Albrecht; Buzina, Walter; Cornely, Oliver A; Engelhart, Steffen; Fischer, Guido; Gabrio, Thomas; Heinz, Werner; Herr, Caroline E W; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Köberle, Martin; Lichtnecker, Herbert; Lob-Corzilius, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Mülleneisen, Norbert; Nowak, Dennis; Rabe, Uta; Raulf, Monika; Seidl, Hans Peter; Steiß, Jens-Oliver; Szewszyk, Regine; Thomas, Peter; Valtanen, Kerttu; Hurraß, Julia

    2017-01-01

    reactions. Whether or not toxin formation occurs in individual cases is determined by environmental and growth conditions, above all the substrate. In the case of indoor moisture/mould damage, everyone can be affected by odour effects and/or mood disorders. However, this is not a health hazard. Predisposing factors for odour effects can include genetic and hormonal influences, imprinting, context and adaptation effects. Predisposing factors for mood disorders may include environmental concerns, anxiety, condition, and attribution, as well as various diseases. Risk groups to be protected particularly with regard to an infection risk are persons on immunosuppression according to the classification of the German Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention ( Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention, KRINKO ) at the Robert Koch- Institute (RKI) and persons with cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis); with regard to an allergic risk, persons with cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis) and patients with bronchial asthma should be protected. The rational diagnostics include the medical history, physical examination, and conventional allergy diagnostics including provocation tests if necessary; sometimes cellular test systems are indicated. In the case of mould infections the reader is referred to the AWMF guideline "Diagnosis and Therapy of Invasive Aspergillus Infections". With regard to mycotoxins, there are currently no useful and validated test procedures for clinical diagnostics. From a preventive medicine standpoint it is important that indoor mould infestation in relevant dimension cannot be tolerated for precautionary reasons. With regard to evaluating the extent of damage and selecting a remedial procedure, the reader is referred to the revised version of the mould guideline issued by the German Federal Environment Agency ( Umweltbundesamt, UBA ).

  8. Autopsy issues in German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole.

  9. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  10. Holdings of the Federal German Government in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the direct and more important indirect holdings of the Federal German Government and its special assets ERP, Compensation Fund, Federal Mail and Federal Railway. Part A provides a total survey of the number of government holdings. For the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets the shares in nominal capital and registered foundation capital, number of employees and dividend on profits are presented. In Parts B to M, the narrative parts, the most important holdings are reported on more in detail (sphere of activities, economic development, composition of the corporate bodies). The listing order does not reflect any order of importance. The following part N contains alphabetic indexes. Indexes I and II list all the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets irrespective of the nominal capital volume and share of holdings. In index III, are listed only companies with corporate activites and a nominal capital of at least 100.000 German Marks of which the Federal Government and/or its special assets hold directly or indirectly at least 25 percent. Holdings of these undertakings of which the Federal Government does not have majority ownership, and which are not dependent on it under the regulations governing shareholdings either, are not considered. (orig.) [de

  11. German-Egyptian seminar on environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.; Nentwich, D.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial development and scientific advancement have opened new frontiers of interest and challenges. Anthropogenic activities are increasingly upsetting the natural environmental balance and are at the same time shifting from local impact to global importance. Science is confronted with the challenge to answer the question of what are the consequences of anthropogenic changes to the environment and to help politics formulate countermeasures for the sake of a sustainable future. Protect results achieved within the Egyptian-German cooperation were presented to the scientific community and to the interested public and discussions on future lines of actions took place. (orig./KW)

  12. The oceanography programme of the Federal German Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The oceanography programme of the Federal German Government has the following general aims: 1. To lay the foundation for better understanding of the role of the ocean as a climate factor and repercussions on the ocean from climate change as a basis for future preventive and protective action. 2. Identification of natural and anthropogenous factors of stress to the coastal seas, the coastal regions and the open ocean, research into their dynamics and impact, and development of bases, methods and concepts for describing and evaluating the condition of the coastal seas, coastal regions and open ocean and for projecting and/or remedying relative changes. 3. Development of methods and techniques for climate and environment-related research into and monitoring of the oceans and for careful exploitation of living and non-living resources. (orig.) [de

  13. Guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases: S2k Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the Society for Pediatric Allergy and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the Austrian Society for Allergy and Immunology (ÖGAI), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society of Oto- Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DGHNO-KHC), the German Society of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ), the Society for Pediatric Pneumology (GPP), the German Respiratory Society (DGP), the German Association of ENT Surgeons (BV-HNO), the Professional Federation of Paediatricians and Youth Doctors (BVKJ), the Federal Association of Pulmonologists (BDP) and the German Dermatologists Association (BVDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, Oliver; Bachert, Claus; Bufe, Albrecht; Buhl, Roland; Ebner, Christof; Eng, Peter; Friedrichs, Frank; Fuchs, Thomas; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hartwig-Bade, Doris; Hering, Thomas; Huttegger, Isidor; Jung, Kirsten; Klimek, Ludger; Kopp, Matthias Volkmar; Merk, Hans; Rabe, Uta; Saloga, Joachim; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Schuster, Antje; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Sitter, Helmut; Umpfenbach, Ulrich; Wedi, Bettina; Wöhrl, Stefan; Worm, Margitta; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Kaul, Susanne; Schwalfenberg, Anja

    , Ebner C, Eng P, Friedrichs F, Fuchs T, Hamelmann E, Hartwig-Bade D, Hering T, Huttegger I, Jung K, Klimek L, Kopp MV, Merk H, Rabe U, Saloga J, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Schuster A, Schwerk N, Sitter H, Umpfenbach U, Wedi B, Wöhrl S, Worm M, Kleine-Tebbe J. Guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases - S2k Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the Society for Pediatric Allergy and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the Austrian Society for Allergy and Immunology (ÖGAI), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DGHNO-KHC), the German Society of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ), the Society for Pediatric Pneumology (GPP), the German Respiratory Society (DGP), the German Association of ENT Surgeons (BV-HNO), the Professional Federation of Paediatricians and Youth Doctors (BVKJ), the Federal Association of Pulmonologists (BDP) and the German Dermatologists Association (BVDD). Allergo J Int 2014;23:282-319.

  14. Retrieval and the development of German federalism in the postwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Mayor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The path to understanding the nature of the German federal state is the analysis of its historical development. The process of establishing the federal structure of the German territory is long and quite complex , due to complex factors of social , legal and political nature. Federal relations on German soil in a given historical period is a reflection of political realities and lessons of the previous state . This paper considers the problem of revival of federal structures in the context of the new German state. Author determined arguments in favor of the federal structure of the state at the time. Established a task that had set the parents creators of the Weimar constitution. It is noted that much attention has been given implementation mechanisms controlling the balance of power and authority , not the vertical distribution of competencies. The features of the functioning of West German federalism. This paper analyzes the main structural problems and dysfunctions in the system of German federalism, which found its expression in the post­war period ; considered federal principles in Eastern Germany, who were in the tension field of centralist ideological trends in the postwar period. The author points out that the revival of German federalism influenced by factors such as domestic and foreign policy issues and concludes on the need for transformation of the federal system.

  15. The development of the breeder reactor program of the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunschild, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This article recapitulates the stages of the program which is in hand in the German Federal Republic concerning breeder reactors with fast neutrons. In particular, it describes in detail the causes for the delays in the construction of the demonstration reactor SRN 300 (Kalkar) for which the commissioning has now been fixed for 1987. It emphasizes the importance of the collaboration which exists in Europe for the establishment of the projects and the construction of fast neutron power stations, including the SNR 2 reactor; the construction of the latter could begin in the German Federal Republic at the end of the Eighties [fr

  16. Federal environmental assessment panel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.A.; King, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Government of Canada inaugurated an environmental assessment process in 1973. Since that time, the Department of Natural Resources, or its predecessor, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources, and industrial clients of the Department, have been major participants in the process. In 1995, the authors interviewed representatives of a number of client industries and selected individuals, to ask their opinion of the public hearing part of the environmental assessment process, with the objective of identifying shortcomings and proposing improvements. Respondents criticized the hearings as costly, time-wasting, bureaucratic, and uncertain in cost, time, and outcome. A number of observations on noted areas of shortcoming are presented in this paper, with suggestions for improvement

  17. Environmental federalism and US climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental disputes involving states over the proper state and federal roles have grown in number and magnitude over the last several years, with many disputes engaging dozens of states. States with competing views are fully engaged in the ongoing debate over climate change, a textbook case for testing the contours of environmental federalism. The issue has all the necessary components: transboundary environmental impacts; competing state economic and environmental interests; state self-interest; disagreement on first principles including what is the proper role of the states; and a somewhat ill-defined federal role. With those qualities, one would expect the federal government to step in and regulate. Instead, the federal government has declined to regulate, inviting a national discourse on whether and how to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As of Spring 2004, twenty-eight states have launched or are planning initiatives, some of which will directly regulate sources of GHG emissions. As these programs take root, pressure will build for a greater federal role. This paper will advance the position that even with this building momentum, the federal government is not likely to emulate state programs that mandate CO 2 emission reductions. In the face of high national cost, uncertain environmental benefits, and a history of federal non-regulatory action, federal regulation at this time appears to be a remote possibility. State efforts to address global climate change add value to the debate, but they do not create the cocoon of consensus the federal government seeks before launching mandatory programs of this magnitude. The more likely scenario is that the federal government will continue on its present course, funding research and development, investing in energy efficient technologies, and supporting voluntary measures. Under this scenario, states and the private sector would continue to function as the 'laboratories' to develop new ideas to improve energy

  18. German Federal spendings on nuclear energy in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The portfolio of the BMFT (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) covers under the competence of the Federal Government all activities in the field of nuclear science and engineering for peaceful uses of nuclear energy, reactor safety research, and research on non-nuclear energy sources and technology. The draft budget for 1989 shows a total expenditure of DM 7.65 billions in the section 30, portfolio of the BMFT. This is about 1.2% more than in the draft budget of 1988. Broken down into programmes, DM 1.853 billions are earmarked for energy research and technology (1988: DM 1.854 billions), of these DM 398.5 millions for the promotion of non-nuclear energy research and technology. (orig./UA) [de

  19. The diffusion of Local Agenda 21 in Germany: Comparing the German federal states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, K.; Koll, C.; Schophaus, M.

    2007-01-01

    The diffusion of Local Agenda 21 (LA21) appears to have run its course, even in Germany. Starting from Germany's changing international position from laggard to latecomer, this article focuses on a comparison of the German federal states (Lnder) because the percentage of local authorities with LA21

  20. Energy policy for the 15th German Federal Parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, R.

    2003-01-01

    Social Democratic energy policy in this and the past parliamentary terms pursues the objective of modernization in the interest of higher efficiency and protection of the climate. For Germany as the main energy exchange in Europe and a country leading in the generation and consumption of energy and in technical know-how, the development of a long-term national energy concept is a requirement of political reason. In energy law, EU conditions must be taken into account. The relationship between deregulation and regulation will have to be considered in the light of past experience. Planning reliability is needed for the German hard coal mining industry. The financial promotion of renewable energies and of cogeneration schemes must be advanced even further. The agreement on opting out of the use of nuclear power has been concluded after decades of conflict. Nuclear energy research, especially fusion research with is immense financial requirements, is being reviewed critically, expect for the part serving for repository and safety research. Research and development need new accents. This implies the need to resume work on traditional power plant technology, which has received less attention in recent years. In general, also the European and international dimensions to all these problems must be taken into account as well, as Germany is part of global structures when it comes to designing a sustainable energy policy. (orig.) [de

  1. The politics of federal environmental education policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Richard Craig

    Both environmental governance1 and education governance 2 occupy contested territory in contemporary US political discourse. Environmental education (EE) policy has emerged at this intersection and taken on aspects of both controversies. Central to debates surrounding environmental education are still unresolved issues concerning the role of the federal government in education, the role of education in citizen-making, and the role of the public in environmental governance. As a case study of the politics of environmental education policy, I explore these issues as they relate to the National Environmental Education Act of 1990,3 attempts at its reauthorization, its continued appropriations, and its current state of policy stasis. The political controversy over the federal role in environmental education is an appropriate case study of environmental education politics insofar as it reflects the different positions held by actor groups with regard to the definition, efficacy, and legitimacy of environmental education. At the core of these debates, as we will see, is a definitional crisis---that is, there is no common understanding across the relevant actor groups as to what environmental education is, or should be. I suggest here that this definitional issue can be best understood as having technical, ideological, and structural components4---all of which are mutually reinforcing and thus perpetuate the stasis in federal environmental education policy. 1I rely on Durant, Fiorino and O'leary's definition of environmental governance in Environmental Governance Reconsidered ; "In the term environmental governance, we refer to the increasingly collaborative nature of [environmental and natural resource] policy formulation and implementation. In this vein, a wide array of third parties (for example, actors in the profit sector, the nonprofit sector, and civic society), in addition to government agencies, comprise non hierarchical networks of actors wielding a variety of

  2. Drinking Water Uranium and Potential Health Effects in the German Federal State of Bavaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Andre; Benfer, Mira

    2017-08-18

    Mainly due to its nephrotoxic and osteotoxic potential, uranium (U) increasingly finds itself in the spotlight of environmental and health-related research. Germany decided on a binding U guideline value in drinking water of 10 µg/L, valid since 2011. It is yet widely unknown if and how public health was affected by elevated U concentrations before that. In this ecological study we summarized available drinking water U data for the German federal state of Bavaria (703 analyses in total for 553 different municipalities) at county level (for 76 out of 96 Bavarian counties, representing about 83% of Bavaria's and about 13% of Germany's total population) in terms of mean and maximum U concentration. Bavaria is known to regionally exhibit mainly geogenically elevated groundwater U with a maximum value of 40 µg/L in the database used here. Public health data were obtained from federal statistical authorities at county resolution. These included incidence rates of diagnosed diseases suspected to be potentially associated with chronic U uptake, e.g., diseases of the skeleton, the liver or the thyroid as well as tumor and genito-urinary diseases. The datasets were analyzed for interrelations and mutual spatial occurrence using statistical approaches and GIS as well as odds ratios and relative risks calculations. Weak but significant positive associations between maximum U concentrations and aggregated ICD-10 diagnose groups for growths/tumors as well as liver diseases were observed, elevated incidence rates of thyroid diseases seem to occur where mean drinking water U concentrations exceed 2 µg/L. Here, we discuss obtained results and their implications for potential impacts of hydrochemistry on public health in southeast Germany.

  3. German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV)--first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Becker, Kerstin; Conrad, André; Lüdecke, Anja; Riedel, Stefan; Seiwert, Margarete; Schulz, Christine; Szewzyk, Regine

    2007-10-01

    German Environmental Surveys (GerESs) are large scale population studies which have been carried out on adults in 1985/86, 1990/92 and 1998 and on children aged 6-14 years in 1990/92. GerES IV is the first survey focussing exclusively on children [Becker, K., Schulz, C., Babisch, W., Dürkop, J., Roskamp, E., Seiwert, M., Szewzyk, R., Ullrich, D., Seifert, B., 2005. German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) 2003-2006. Pullut. Atmos. 188, 475-479]. GerES IV included a representative sample of 1790 children aged 3-14 of the participants of the National Health Interview and Examination Survey on Children and Adolescents. The primary goal of GerES IV is not only to analyse and document the extent, distribution and determinants of German children's exposure to environmental pollutants but to discover links between environmental exposure and health. Results will help develop preventive measures and advance further research. They might provide the basis for environmental and public health policy decisions. Precondition to achieve this task is a description of the data on exposures and the data on health outcomes. This work is currently performed at the Federal Environment Agency. First results show a remarkable decrease of the blood lead level of German children aged 6-14 years from 32.3 microg/l in 1990/92 (GerES II) to 16.3 microg/l in GerES IV which is the lowest mean lead concentration determined in German studies so far. None of the children had a value exceeding 100 microg/l. In GerES IV, the following health-related issues will be primarily examined: the relationship between sensitisation against mould spores and the occurrence of mould in households, irritation of eyes and respiratory system caused by formaldehyde, other aldehydes, or total volatile organic compounds (TVOC); the impact of non-occupational noise on hearing loss, stress and sleep disturbances, and the connection between contact allergies, nickel and scents. 9.5% of the children showed a

  4. Environmental policy. Resolution of the German Federal Government concerning the Air Pollution Abatement Programme of the Federal Republic of Germany based on the fourth report of the Interdepartmental Working Group on Carbon Dioxide Reduction (IMA `CO{sub 2} Reduction`); Umweltpolitik. Beschluss der Bundesregierung zum Klimaschutzprogramm der Bundesrepublik Deutschland auf der Basis des Vierten Berichts der Interministeriellen Arbeitsgruppe ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion`` (IMA ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion``)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Air pollution abatement is a key issue in German environmental policy. This was stressed again in the 4th report of the Interdepartmental Working Group on Carbon Dioxide Reduction (IMA `CO{sub 2}-Reduktion`), in which the Federal Government confirmed its goal of a 25% reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 2005 as referred to 1990. This report contains the government decision, the formulatio of the task assigned to the IMA, and the 4th report of the IMA. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Klimavorsorge ist ein Schwerpunkt der deutschen Umweltpolitik. Dies hat das Bundeskabinett mit der Verabschiedung des 4. Berichts der Interministeriellen Arbeitsgruppe (IMA) ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion`` nachdruecklich unterstrichen. Mit diesem Beschluss bekraeftigt die Bundesregierung erneut ihr Ziel, die CO{sub 2} Emissionen bis 2005 um 25 % gegenueber 1990 zu senken. Der vorliegende Bericht enthaelt den Beschluss, der Bundesregierung, den Auftrag der Bundesregierung an die Interministerielle Arbeitsgruppe (IMA) und den 4. Bericht der IMA ``CO{sub 2}-Reduktion``. (orig./SR)

  5. Federal Environmental Agency. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackemann, H.; Rehring, R.

    1995-01-01

    The switches for the future course of the Umweltbundesamt were shifted by the reorganization that took place in September 1994. It has made the agency one of the most modern ones in Europe, also with organizational regards. The new organizational structure has model character for the federal and land authorities in the area of environmental protection. In the old form of organization according to media, which is still mainly to be found in environmental laws, water, air, waste, etc. were dealt with separately; the new department ''Methods and Products'' is organized according to industrial sectors. It permits in the future to make better use of integral environmental protection strategies by combining the environmental problems caused by an industrial sector, from emissions into air and water to waste, in one administrative unit. Purposely in opposition to this technical department is a watchdog department whose function it is to formulate quality targets and quality demands. The executive tasks of the agency are combined in a further department. (DG) [de

  6. The 2015 Annual Meeting of SETAC German Language Branch in Zurich (7-10 September, 2015): ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry-from research to application

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Inge; Aldrich, Annette; Becker, Benjamin; Becker, Dennis; Brinkmann, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael; Caspers, Norbert; Campiche, Sophie; Chèvre, Nathalie; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Escher, Beate I.; Fischer, Fabian; Giebner, Sabrina; Heye, Katharina; Hollert, Henner

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, ...

  7. The German federal election of 2009: The challenge of participatory cultures in political campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Jungherr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, political actors have to act in online communication environments. There they meet overlapping networked publics with different levels of participatory cultures and varying expectations of participation in the (remaking and co-production of political content. This challenges political actors used to a top-down approach to communication. Meanwhile, online users are increasingly politically involved as legislatures all over the world become more active in regulating communication environments online. These new political actors often share participatory practices and have high levels of new media skills. Now they are challenged to adapt these bottom-up participatory cultures to the traditional political environment. This paper examines these adaption processes by examining three examples from the campaign for the German federal election of 2009. These examples include the attempt of Germany's conservative party (CDU to encourage their supporters to adapt participatory practices, the German Social Democrats' (SPD top-down production and distribution of online content that mimicked the look and feel of user-generated content, and the bottom-up emergence of political flash mobs.

  8. Behaviour patterns preceding a railway suicide: explorative study of German Federal Police officers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaschek, Karoline; Baumert, Jens; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2011-08-04

    Constant high-level numbers of railway suicides indicate that prevention strategies against railway suicides are urgently needed. The main question of the present study was whether pre-crash railway suicide behaviour can be identified, using German Federal Police officers experience with suicidal events in railway related environments. To collect information on pre-crash railway suicide behaviour, a questionnaire was used and made available on the German Federal Police intranet. A total of 202 subjects (mean age: 41 years, sex: 84.9% male) were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to predict the prevention of suicide (first model) or demand for counselling (second model) as outcomes. Sex, age, years of service, number of experienced suicides, suicides personally observed, information on suicides obtained from witnesses and finally either counselling/debriefing (first model) or whether officers had prevented a suicide (second model) were used as predictors. A considerable proportion of police officers reported behavioural patterns preceding a suicide. Half of them observed the dropping or leaving behind of personal belongings or the avoidance of eye contact, more than a third erratic gesture, mimic or movement. Erratic communication patterns and general confusion were each reported by about one quarter. One fifth indicated the influence of alcohol. Less frequently observed behaviour was aimlessly wandering (14.3%) and out of the ordinary clothing (4%). About one third of all railway suicide victims committed suicide in stations. Of those, 70% had chosen an eminent spot. The multivariate logistic regression model using prevented suicides as the outcome identified the number of suicides experienced, counselling/debriefing and having personally observed a suicide as variables with significant impact. The model using counselling/debriefing as the outcome identified age and having prevented a suicide as variables with a

  9. Political online information searching before the 2013 German federal election: Confirmation bias, source credibility, and attitude impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, S.; Mothes, C.; Johnson, B.K.; Westerwick, A.; Donsbach, W.

    2015-01-01

    Before the 2013 German federal election, 121 participants completed a 2-session online study (which paralleled a U.S. study before the 2012 presidential election). They browsed online search results pertaining to 4 political issues while selective exposure was unobtrusively measured. In a 4×2×2

  10. Behaviour patterns preceding a railway suicide: Explorative study of German Federal Police officers' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladwig Karl-Heinz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constant high-level numbers of railway suicides indicate that prevention strategies against railway suicides are urgently needed. The main question of the present study was whether pre-crash railway suicide behaviour can be identified, using German Federal Police officers experience with suicidal events in railway related environments. Methods To collect information on pre-crash railway suicide behaviour, a questionnaire was used and made available on the German Federal Police intranet. A total of 202 subjects (mean age: 41 years, sex: 84.9% male were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to predict the prevention of suicide (first model or demand for counselling (second model as outcomes. Sex, age, years of service, number of experienced suicides, suicides personally observed, information on suicides obtained from witnesses and finally either counselling/debriefing (first model or whether officers had prevented a suicide (second model were used as predictors. Results A considerable proportion of police officers reported behavioural patterns preceding a suicide. Half of them observed the dropping or leaving behind of personal belongings or the avoidance of eye contact, more than a third erratic gesture, mimic or movement. Erratic communication patterns and general confusion were each reported by about one quarter. One fifth indicated the influence of alcohol. Less frequently observed behaviour was aimlessly wandering (14.3% and out of the ordinary clothing (4%. About one third of all railway suicide victims committed suicide in stations. Of those, 70% had chosen an eminent spot. The multivariate logistic regression model using prevented suicides as the outcome identified the number of suicides experienced, counselling/debriefing and having personally observed a suicide as variables with significant impact. The model using counselling/debriefing as the outcome identified age and

  11. Environmental impacts of Chernobyl reactor accident in German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The radiation monitoring results published in this SAAS report correspond with the introductory paper to the compilation of data measured in the German Democratic Republic in the period May to September 1986, which was submitted to the IAEA in October 1986. The conclusion to be drawn from these results is that it was at no time necessary to restrict food consumption or to change nutritional habits in order to avoid detrimental health effects [fr

  12. Health research 2000. Programme of the Federal German Government. Overview of projects '94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkelmann, P.

    1995-01-01

    The health research programme of the Federal German Government has existed since 1978. Its implementation has been reported on at regular intervals by project status reports. The last report appeared in 1991. This research promotion pursues the following aims: to enhance preventive health care, to elucidate the causes of diseases and find effective treatments, to develop further an efficient, financially acceptable health care system. The book has three main parts, in accordance with the three main research areas: Intersectorial reseach, health care and preventive health care, fighting of diseases. Within these three sectors, the main research activities carried out in 1994 are described. Each research activity is introduced with a brief text on its aims and state of progress; this is followed by a description of the projects carried out. The projects that were on-going in 1994 are outlined in concise form; finalized projects within each main research activity are shown in tabulated form with their most important characteristics. The annex contains some bibliographic items and addresses. (orig./VHE) [de

  13. The climate end energy policy of the German Federal Government. Contribution to the French-German dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bausch, Camilla; Duwe, Matthias; Goerlach, Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    The German energy turnaround is at the heart of its climate and energy policy, but also determines Germany's attitude in international negotiations. Apart from the necessary revision of the Renewable Energy Act, the new coalition that took power in December 2013 will probably continue the previous climate and energy policy. The main changes are of a structural nature, and relate to a new distribution of competences between the Economy and Environment Ministries, which are, furthermore, for the first time headed by members of the same political party. At the EU level, Berlin could recover, thanks to a unified approach, its ability to influence climate and energy policies, and thus facilitate an agreement on the 2030 climate and energy package. Besides, for its own interests, Germany needs Europe to have high ambitions in so far as its national goals would be less difficult and costly to attain if they form part of an overall European approach. The personal engagement of the chancellor would certainly be an important variable in the negotiations, since Germany will chair the G7 in 2015. Similarly, in view of France hosting the United Nations climate summit (COP 21) in Paris in the same year, enhanced Franco-German cooperation would be in the interest of both countries and generate a strong political dynamic. (authors)

  14. The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV): Reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of German children

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, André; Seiwert, Margarete; Hünken, Andreas; Quarcoo, David; Schlaud, Martin; Groneberg, David

    2012-01-01

    Children's time-location patterns are important determinants of environmental exposure and other health-relevant factors. Building on data of the German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV), our study aimed at deriving reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of 3–14-year-old German children. We also investigated if GerES IV data are appropriate for evaluating associations with children's health determinants by linking them to data of the National Health Interview...

  15. Environmental policy in the 9th German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (1980-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This presentation of environmental policy constitutes the continuation of copies No. 49 and No. 72 of the 'Materialien' [Materials] (Environmental policy in the 7th German Bundestag or environmental policy in the 8. German Bundestag and in the Bundesrat, resp. - 1976 to 1980). References to factual terms espec. indications of speech references, apply to the register annexed to 'Verhandlungen des Deutschen Bundestages und des Bundesrates' (Deliberations of the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat) for the 9th period of office on which the 'Materialie' is based. Among other things, the 'Materialie' comprises: General fundamentals and primaples, aspects of structural policy, scientific and technical/technological fundamentals, organizational fundamentals, international and intergovernmental co-operation, air-borne emission abatement, waste management, chemical substances released to environment, nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Organic tin compounds, alkylphenols and bisphenol A in marine and limnetic specimen from the German federal environmental specimen bank. Methodological developments as well as actual and retrospective monitoring; Organische Zinnverbindungen, Alkylphenole und Bisphenol A in marinen und limnischen Biota der Umweltprobenbank. Methodische Entwicklungen sowie aktuelles und retrospektives Monitoring. Teilberichte 1 - 3: Organische Zinnverbindungen. Alkylphenole und Alkylphenolethoxylate. Biosphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedel, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umweltchemie und Oekotoxikologie, Schmallenberg (Germany); Lepper, P.; Sohn, H.; Steinhanses, J.; Boehmer, W.; Wenzel, A.; Bruckert, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the context of this research project analytic methods for the quantitative determination of tinorganic compounds (tributyl tin, TBT; dibutyl tin, DBT, monobutyl tin, MBT; triphenyl tin, TPhT), alkylphenols (4-nonylphenol, 4NP; 4-tert.-octylphenol, 4tOP) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (4-nonylphenol monoethoxylate, 4NP1EO; 4-tert.-octylphenol monoethoxylate, 4tOP1EO) as well as bisphenol A (BPhA) in different biological matrices were adapted and optimised. The methods were documented in form of standard operating procedures (SOP). Following these methods samples from the German federal environmental specimen bank were investigated. Brown algae, (bay) mussels, eel pouts, sea gull eggs from the marine ecological systems of the North Sea and Baltic Sea and zebra mussels and bream muscles from fresh water ecological systems (Elbe, Mulde, Saale, Rhine, Saar, Bornhoeveder lake district) of different years were analysed. Tin-organic compounds: TBT and TPhT were detected as major contaminants (max. 385 and 86 {mu}g Sn/kg of matrix, respectively). The maximum values for DBT and MBT were 14 and 9 {mu}g Sn/kg, respectively. The highest values detected for DPhT were 13 {mu}g Sn/kg. The most highly loaded samples were bream muscles and zebra mussels from the river Elbe. Alkylphenols: The contents of 4NP and 4NP1EO mostly were in both, the marine and the fresh water, ecological systems above the contents of 4tOP and 4tOP1EO. In the marine samples the mussels were higher loaded than the other matrices. The contents in the samples from fresh water ecological systems were clearly higher than those of the samples from the marine ecological systems. The highest concentration for 4NP1EO with 324 {mu}g/kg fresh weight was measured in bream muscles from the Saar near Guedingen. Bisphenol A: The content of BPhA in the examined samples generally was low. The analyses resulted in concentrations of 1-2.5 {mu}g BPhA/kg in zebra mussel; only in zebra mussels from the river Saar near Rehlingen

  17. The conflicts between labor and environmentalism in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, H.

    1985-01-01

    This report is the German-language short version of a book by the same author titled 'The Conflicts between Labor and Environmentalism in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States' published by Gower, Aldershot, England and St. Martin's Press, New York in the summer 1985. It discusses the evolution of the relationship between organized labor and environmentalism in both countries since the mid-1960s. Five explanations for this relationship are examined: (1) The perceptions of the interdependencies between employment and environmental protection by both groups, (2) the demographic and socio-economic composition of both groups, (3) internal will-formation and decision-making, (4) the overall institutional and political frameworks, and (5) the historical and ideological backgrounds of both groups. (orig.) [de

  18. Does More Federal Environmental Funding Increase or Decrease States' Efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benjamin Y.; Whitford, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the flow of federal grants-in-aid from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the states. We simultaneously model two dependent variables (the flow of EPA funds, and state environmental and natural resource budgets) to identify the independent roles of state political institutions, political preferences, economic and…

  19. Current environmental situation in the new Federal States. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Koller, U.; Assmann, G.

    1992-01-01

    'Information on Environment' organised the first part of a seminar for jounalists on the present environmental situation in the now federal states in Berlin on the 3rd and 4th of December. More than 50 participants from radios, TV, daily and special press attended this ninth event of 'Information on Environment' in Berlin. Leading scientists from research institutes of the former GDR, the Federal Environmental Agency and the GSF-research centre for environment and heath gave papers on the predominant environmental problems in the new federal states. This first part deals with water pollution, waste water treatment, drinking water supply, environmental problems of lignite mining, radiation pollution in the Erzgebirge; forest damage research and special armament wastes and waste problems in general. (orig.) [de

  20. Two spruce shoot candidate reference materials from the German environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, F.; Bagschik, U.; Burow, M.; Froning, M.; Mohl, C.; Ostapczuk, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schladot, J.D.; Stoeppler, M.; Waidmann, E.; Byrne, A.R.; Zeisler, R.

    1994-01-01

    Two new materials are introduced that might serve as useful aids for the harmonisation of analytical results. Spruce shoots, cryogenically homogenized and characterized for 50 elements from two sampling sites of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) are presented as possible third generation reference materials that might also act as calibrating materials in speciation analysis. (author)

  1. Coal resources in environmentally-sensitive lands under federal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William D.; Tully, John K.; Moser, Edward N.; Dee, David P.; Bryant, Karen; Schall, Richard; Allan, Harold A.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents estimates of coal-bearing acreage and coal tonnage in environmentally-sensitive areas. The analysis was conducted to provide data for rulemaking by the Federal Office of Surface Mining (Watson and others, 1995). The rulemaking clarifies conditions under which coal can be mined in environmentally-sensitive areas. The area of the U.S. is about 2.3 billion acres. Contained within that acreage are certain environmentally-sensitive and unique areas (including parks, forests, and various other Federal land preserves). These areas are afforded special protection under Federal and State law. Altogether these protected areas occupy about 400 million acres. This report assesses coal acreage and coal tonnage in these protected Federal land preserves. Results are presented in the form of 8 map-displays prepared using GIS methods at a national scale. Tables and charts that accompany each map provide estimates of the total acreage in Federal land preserve units that overlap or fall within coal fields, coal-bearing acreage in each unit, and coal tonnage in each unit. Summary charts, compiled from the maps, indicate that about 8% of the Nation's coal reserves are located within environmentally-sensitive Federal land preserves.

  2. German and international energy and environmental policies in 1992 - a wasted year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The settlement of important energy- and environmental-policy issues hoped for in 1992 has not been reached, and 'wait and see' has become the ruling attitude in matters of energy economy. The investments planned for eastern Germany are stagnating, and the German-German integration suffers from political uncertainties in addition to its market risks. The utilities have been left without the necessary reliable long-term data. Disillusionment also prevails in the European integration process and at the international level. (orig.) [de

  3. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation; Maritimes Umweltstrafrecht. Voelkerrechtliche Grundlagen und deutsches Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-07-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  4. [Introduction of the DRG system in Germany: problems and perspectives from the point of view of the German Hospital Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael

    2002-08-01

    The medical self-governing bodies at state level have been legally commissioned to develop a DRG-based reimbursement system in Germany till January 1, 2003, the general political and economic conditions being outlined in a DRG law regulating the introduction of a DRG-based case payment system (Fallpauschalengesetz). From the point of view of the German Hospital Federation, though, caution is advised as many of these general conditions cannot easily be implemented into the reality of German hospital practice. For example, the time frame set for introducing DRGs in Germany seems to be near record levels and is bound to cause qualitative cutbacks on the introduction of the new DRG system meant to improve the quality of care. Current hospital planning will be turned inside out. Also, the interfaces between the hospital sector on the one hand and other areas of care on the other will be put to a real test of endurance.

  5. Risk assessment of Bundeswehr (German Federal Armed Forces) permethrin-impregnated battle dress uniforms (BDU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Klaus E; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Fischer, Horst; Faulde, Michael; Mross, Klaus G; Letzel, Stephan; Rossbach, Bernd

    2008-03-01

    In an age when vector-borne diseases are emerging worldwide, personal protective measures are essential for shielding soldiers and other exposed persons from arthropod attack. The development of permethrin-impregnated clothing has been one recent advance in protecting persons at-risk. However, to date risk assessment has not been performed related to wearing permethrin-impregnated clothing over longer time periods. Therefore, this paper describes relevant toxicological aspects of permethrin and estimates the extent of dermal permethrin uptake by soldiers wearing impregnated uniforms by determining urine metabolites of permethrin. The exposure monitoring conducted in wearers of untreated uniforms did not show any signs of increased permethrin uptake and was similar to that of the general population in Germany. By contrast, studies involving the soldiers wearing permethrin-impregnated uniforms identified far higher internal exposure, the amounts of urine metabolites clearly above the reference value for the background exposure of the German population at large. Comparing the median excretion values, an approximately 200 times higher exposure can be assumed. The excretion levels of the subject with the maximum amount of metabolites correspond to an internal exposure of around 5-6microg/kg body weight and day thereby considering that biomonitoring could not take all urine metabolites and other elimination routes into account. Based on an oral absorption rate of 50%, the internal dose of 5-6microg/kg body weight and day would correspond to an oral uptake of permethrin which is around 20% of the ADI value of 50microg/kg body weight and day. In addition, based on these data and using a dermal absorption rate of 2% the permethrin dose reaching the skin was estimated to be 250microg/kg body weight and day. Considering a standard body weight and the area covered by the uniform, an exposure level of about 1.25microg permethrin/cm(2) skin and day can be calculated. Clinical

  6. Climate protection targets in the German federal states; Klimaschutzziele in den deutschen Bundeslaendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, Anna

    2011-07-15

    With respect to the embankment of the climatic change, the Federal Republic of Germany has set itself to reduce their annual greenhouse gas emissions by 40 % till to the year 2020 in comparison to 1990. Also, the most federal states want to contribute to the climate protection and therefore have adopted appropriate reduction targets. The main aim of the contribution under consideration is to make the climate protection goals of the federal states comparable with each other and with the 40 % target of the federal government. Therefore, the author first of all reports on the options for action of the federal states in the climate protection. Then the methods are presented with which the federal states balance their greenhouse gas emissions. The goals adopted by the federal states to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are not sufficient to meet the climate target of the federal government.

  7. European Court of Justice finds more possibilities for legal remedy of German environmental associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-01-01

    In its ruling of March 12, 2011, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) states that the limitation of legal remedies under German law applying to environmental associations seeking to claim violations of provisions protecting third parties is not in line with EU law. Under EU law, environmental associations may, because of potentially considerable environmental impacts, claim violation of substantive as well as procedural provisions by litigation even if the provision stemming from Union law and seeking to protect the environment 'protects only the interests of the public, not the interests of individuals.' The ECJ had to express an opinion on the reference by the Muenster Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of March 5, 2009 about the question whether German transposition in the Environmental Legal Remedy Act of 2006 is in keeping with Article 10a of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive of 1985 as amended on March 26, 2003. The point was whether the project in question could give rise to considerable impairment of flora and fauna habitats in the vicinity of the site of a nuclear power plant in the meaning of the EU Habitat Directive. In summary, the ECJ finds that the provisions of the Environmental Legal Remedy Act are not in compliance with EU law. The concise decision by the ECJ relates to areas of fundamental importance in societal and government politics. As laid down in the 2003 Environmental Impact Assessment Directive, the right to bring action of environmental associations is asserted first. Transposition of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive of 2003 in the Environmental Legal Remedy Act of 2006 had been the subject of several rulings of higher courts of administration and of critical scholarly debates about the legal remedies of environmental associations, expressing concern about the German transposition being in conformity with EU law. As far as German atomic energy law is concerned, it remains to be seen whether environmental

  8. Environmentalism and nuclear power: Anglo-German comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer-Christiansen, Sonja

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with impacts of emission reduction targets on fuel policy for electricity, and vice versa. It does so by comparing policy responses in two different institutional contexts. Supportive links were created, in Germany, between the reduction of acid emissions from power stations and the protection of nuclear power. This higher cost option was justified to an 'aware' public on environmental grounds. Politically this required a tacit alliance between coal-based and nuclear industries realising that the well-being of both depended on public support, the common challenge being fossil fuel suppliers in world markets. Cooperation with the State was therefore desirable and, in Germany, available. The British story is very different and not without irony. Similarities between the energy politics of acid rain and the global warming/climate change debate are explored. It is concluded that institutions and linkages between them matter very much. (author)

  9. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  10. Is the German Federal Constitutional Court off course? Some thoughts on the control intensity of administrative case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerkner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The article comes to the overall conclusion that the efforts of the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) to make the protection of basic rights more effective by largely restricting the discretionary powers of the administration, as justified as this may be from the point of view of general constitutional law, ultimately leads to legal uncertainties for both legal practitioners and persons seeking legal remedies. It is not only that court proceedings will be delayed by the increased necessity to consult outside experts, but also the practising administrative judges themselves will only slowly be able to adjust to the new situation. It remains to be seen whether the Federal Administrative Court (Bundesverwaltungsgericht) will be able to finally provide for the necessary clarity in the foreseeable future. (orig.) [de

  11. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  12. Environment and environmental policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meroth, P.; Moltke, K. von.

    1987-01-01

    The subject 'environment' is a central problem of all human societies, which has increased to such an extent with progressive industrialisation that today it has a similar significance to the sectors 'safety' and 'economy'. In this respect it is an international topic - and this as far as environmental resources such as air and water and, correspondingly also environmental pollution, know no national boundaries. International interdependence becomes here the fateful question of all humanity. The work attempts to inform about the environmental situation, which is difficult to fathom, and the discussion in the Federal Republic of Germany in such a way that the mutual problems also become debatable internationally. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. German enterprises and the changes in energy economics due to increased concerns regarding environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Gregor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a first year doctoral research regarding the current state of knowledge in environmental sustainability, energy economics and their impact on European enterprises. As the current changes and modifications of the German energy economics system are observed by people all around the globe, the current paper analyzes what has been said until now in the scientific literature on character of the new strategy for energy consumption and production in Germany and its impact on environmental and social sustainability. With the help of two questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2013 and 2014 through the German DIHK1, German enterprises were surveyed in order to: identify potential differences and similarities between the two periods, identify the effects of the energy transition on companies’ profitability, and analyze these effects and compare the results in terms of potential trend developments. The research findings confirmed that changes in the energy system affect not only the environmental sustainability only, but also the economy, in some cases even independent of the stage in which the changing system of the economy presently is.

  14. Members of the German Federal Parliament Research Committee visiting ALICE experiment on Wednesday, 15th November.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    From left to right Mr Georg Jürgens, Counsellor at the German Mission in Geneva; MdB Klaus Hagemann, SPD; MdB Cornelia Pieper, FDP, Stellvertretende Ausschussvorsitzende, Delegationsleiterin; MdB Dr. Petra Sitte, DIE LINKE; MdB Ilse Aigner, CDU/CSU; MdB Carsten Müller, CDU/CSU; Mr Andreas Meyer, Leiter Ausschusssekretariat; MdB Jörg Tauss, SPD.

  15. The German lignite industry. Historical development, resources, technology, economic structures and environmental impact. Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    Lignite has a key role to play in the transformation of the energy system due to its specific structural features in terms of industry, company history, policy, economics, the environment and regional structures. Understanding these structural features of the German lignite industry is an important requirement for classifying the significance of the lignite industry up to now and for the redesigning of this industrial sector. From these environmental, economic and regulatory structural characteristics, which are interwoven in a variety of ways, the incentives arise for the mining and power plant operators to react to energy price signals or energy policy steering. The aim of this research study is to define these structural features, to compile comprehensively the basic data and information that is not always transparently available, to understand the interactions, to enable the navigation of issues that are partly very complex, and to classify into the long-term developments that are especially important for political and social processes. In 2016 approx. 12 percent of German primary energy consumption was met using lignite. At the same time, lignite has the highest carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the fossil fuels; it currently accounts for approx. 19 percent of Germany's total greenhouse gas emissions as well as approx. 46 percent of the total CO2 emissions of the electricity sector. As a result of the mining of lignite and its conversion into electricity, substantial adverse impacts beyond the entry of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere arise for other environmental media. These impacts include half of Germany's mercury emissions, approx. a third of its sulfur dioxide emissions and approx. a tenth of its nitrogen oxide emissions. Lignite mining in open-cast mines takes up a substantial amount of landscape and soil and requires huge interventions in the water balance. Relatively high costs arise for the recultivation and rehabilitation

  16. Environmental restoration plans and activities in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldyrev, V.; Komarov, A.; Kuzin, R.; Shatalov, V.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the status of environmental restoration of uranium-contaminated sites and the methods to reduce radionuclides concentration in the solid and liquid wastes as well as their utilization potential. Attention is given to the waste utilization in agriculture and civil engineering construction. With this in view, the paper deals with waste water purification and applicable standards for natural radionuclides content in solid waste for utilization in construction activities. All works are carried out in accordance with the Special Complex Programme for environmental restoration of contaminated uranium mining and milling sites caused by the activities of the industries engaged in nuclear materials production for the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation. The Programme is an integral part of the Federal Programme ''Conversion of Russian Defense Industries in 1993-2000''. (author)

  17. Regional environmental tax reform in a fiscal federalism setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CIASCHINI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing attention to climate changes have led national Governments to design environmental tax policies able to face environmental problems and their associated economic consequences as a negative change of GDP. The environmental taxation in particular is considered a powerful instrument of pollution control. More important, it provides public revenue that can be recycled both at State level and Local level in order to attain the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the regional double dividend. In this respect, we use a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model with imperfect labour market, to assess the regional effects of an environmental fiscal reform designed with the aim of reducing the CO2 emissions in a fiscal federalism setting. In particular, we introduce a local green tax on commodities output with a progressive structure. The tax burden depends on the commodity polluting power and the tax revenue is collected by the Local Government. According to the fiscal federalism principles the Central Government reduces the transfers to the Local Government by the same amount of the tax revenue and compensates the transfer reduction with a cut in Households income tax. The application is done on a bi-regional Social Accounting Matrix for Italy and the results highlights the distributional effects of the reform on macroeconomic variables into the bi-regional income circular flow.

  18. Supplying the Federal German Republic with mineral raw materials in the light of current political developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sames, W.; Wellmer, F.W. (Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Bonn-Duisdorf (Germany, F.R.))

    1980-08-01

    The article is the first in a series of contributions which will provide an in-depth study of raw materials policy and the economics of raw materials as viewed from the Federal Republic of Germany. The supply situation of the Federal Republic of Germany is sketched for the major mineral raw materials. Subjects: Raw materials availability and supply risks; developing countries making increased efforts to refine raw materials; raw materials reserves in the USSR and USA; the leading position of the USSR as a raw materials producer; low dependence of the Federal Republic of Germany on COMECON countries for raw materials; dependence on industrialized nations; securing of raw materials supplies by bilateral agreements; assistance with raw materials development and production in the ACP states (a group of African, Caribbeau and Pacific countries).

  19. German Federal Ministry for Research and Technology: 1990 expenditures on energy research and national research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The draft departmental budget No. 30 covering the portfolio of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology (BMFT) within the 1990 federal budget features total expenditures of DM 7855.2 million (as against 7645.4 million in the previous year). DM 112 (119) million has been earmarked for the funding of reactor development. In addition DM 105 (104) million has been planned for reactor safety and general technical safety, DM 2.5 (2.5) million for funding nuclear fuel supply (including uranium enrichment). The sums earmarked for nuclear spent fuel and waste management R and D are DM 43 (55.9) million; for investments, DM 26 (38.1) million, and risk sharing in the nuclear field by the Federal Government, DM 20 (20) million. This adds up to DM 308.5 million, which is 14.2% less than the 1989 target figure of DM 359.5 million. (orig.) [de

  20. What about equal treatment of foreign borderers in German environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, T.; Kilian, M.

    1981-01-01

    Until now, basic regulations concerning the participation of borderers in environmental procedures have only be laid down in draft papers, proposals and expert recommendations of the United Nations, the Council of Europe and the European Communities. Binding obligations to let them participate according to international law have not been in force to date, and so has none on a supranational level either. German administrative authorities must take the interests of the neighbouring border population into account in making decisions relevant to the environment, which might affect a foreign territory. This obligation results from Art. 15 of the Basic Law ('prointernational law constitution') and the general customary law relating to international law communicated thereby. In view of a lacking standard of customary law, a right to participate in environmental proceedings which can be legally enforced will not follow from this national obligation for the individual foreign borderer. It is true that a 'prointernational law' interpretation of standards governing German administrative law is possible from a legal point of view. According to their nature, the standards of the individual environmental laws protecting neighbours are strictly oriented towards domestic application. In case of future participation of foreign borderers to be regulated by contracts, special importance will have to be attached to the principle of reciprocity because of the existing ban on the discrimination of natives. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Qualitative Measurement of Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Among Federal Employees in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) program is mandated by Executive Order 13101 to green the federal government. This was a study to determine federal attitudes.

  2. 75 FR 50751 - Federal Advisory Committee; Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... development projects requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funds in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program...

  3. Situation Reports--Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data pertaining to population and family planning in seventeen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia. Information is…

  4. Non-prescription dispensing of emergency oral contraceptives: Recommendations from the German Federal Chamber of Pharmacists [Bundesapothekerkammer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency hormonal contraceptives (EHC are contraceptives used to prevent unintended pregnancy following unprotected sexual intercourse (USI or contraceptive failure. The EHCs available without a prescription include medicines containing levonorgestrel (LNG in more than 80 countries and, recently, based on an EU-switch ellaOne®, which contains ulipristal acetate (UPA. EHCs work by stopping or delaying ovulation. Those containing LNG can be used up to 72 hours after USI or contraceptive failure, while UPA can be used up to 120 hours. In the context of the UPA implementation process, Germany switched LNG to non-prescription status as well. Objectives: To develop recommendations, a protocol, and a continuing education program for pharmacists to assure quality when giving advice and dispensing EHCs in community pharmacies without a medical prescription. Methods: The recommendations were developed by an iterative process of drafting, recognizing, and discussing comments and proposals for amendments as well a seeking agreement with a number of stakeholders such as the Federal Ministry of Health (BMG, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM, Federal Chamber of Physicians (BÄK, Drug Commission of German Physicians (AkdÄ, professional organizations/associations of gynaecologists, pharmaceutical OTC-industry as well as government-controlled, private, and church-based organizations and centres providing advice on sex education and family planning. Results: The recommendations were eventually endorsed by the BMG in consultation with the BfArM. Conclusions: The recommendations were made public, published in the professional journal and used in an uncounted number of continuing education programs based on the curriculum and provided by the State Chambers of Pharmacists.

  5. “Sustainability State” in the Making? Institutionalization of Sustainability in German Federal Policy Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Heinrichs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades after the Rio-conference on environment and development in 1992, sustainable development remains a big challenge. Politics and administration, especially in democratic societies, have a specific responsibility in coordinating sustainable development. In order to fulfill this role, the regulative idea of sustainability needs to be integrated into decision-making in politics and administration at all levels, from local to global. Taking this into account, we have analyzed the institutionalization of sustainability as a crosscutting and long-term challenge at the federal level in Germany. Based on a theoretical-conceptual framework deriving from democracy, bureaucracy and political steering/governance theory, we have employed qualitative methods to understand, in depth, how sustainability is integrated into political-administrative practice. In the present paper, we present key results and show that sustainability is not a routine practice at the federal level in Germany. We will conclude by giving an outlook on the structural and procedural options and argue for the need to develop a “sustainability state”.

  6. Annual report 1992 of the German Federal Food Research Institute, BFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The 1992 annual report of the BFE explains the tasks and responsibilities of the institution, its organisational structure and manpower, as well as the main research activities or scientific activities performed in cooperation with other institutions. From the wide range of research activities, food irradiation and environmental radioactivity in food are heading the list of tasks performed. (MG) [de

  7. Life extension of German nuclear power plants only with the consent of the Federal Council? The importance and extent of the need for consent to an amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    In its coalition agreement of October 26, 2009, the new German federal government plans ''to extend the service life of German nuclear power plants while, at the same time, complying with the strict German and international safety standards.'' This has triggered a debate not only about (nuclear) energy, as in the past election campaign in the summer of 2009, but also about the constitutional law issue whether an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act resulting in longer operating life of nuclear power plants required the consent of the Federal Council (the ''Bundesrat,'' the second chamber of parliament). After the election to the state parliament in North Rhine-Westphalia on May 9, 2010, majority in the Federal Council changed. As a consequence, no consent to an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act must be expected. In view of the large number of recent statements about constitutional law in opinions for various federal and ministerial accounts as well as firms and associations, the outline by R. Scholz in the May issue of atw 2010 will be followed in this issue by the key points of examination of the need for consent, under aspects of constitutional law, and an attempt will be made to explain the evaluations underlying the generation of a legal concept about these items. The decision by the German Federal Constitutional Court of May 4, 2010, published on June 11, 2010, plays a major role in this respect because it established clarity in some important aspects of a legal subject matter in the field of state admini-stration on behalf of the federation, albeit in the field of air traffic law, not nuclear law. However, the structures of the norms in the German Basic Law (Art. 87c and Art. 87d, para.2) to be applied are almost identical. The energy policy and energy economy aspects of a plant life extension are considered along with the option of an appeal to the Federal Constitutional Court against any plant life extension. Finally, the key findings are summarized briefly

  8. Effect of monitoring strategies and reference data of the German Environmental Specimen Banking Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, M.; Bartel, M.; Klein, R.; Nentwich, K.; Quack, M.; Teubner, D.; Wagner, G.

    2005-01-01

    The constitution of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) has started in 1985, subsequent to a successful pilot study concerning the feasibility. Since that time, a multitude of technological and methodical standards have been developed, which allow for a high quality of the storage-samples and of the specimen characterization. While the storage-samples are kept for retrospective analysis, by now, already comprehensive data on the material-developing in the environment are available due to a real time monitoring of selected environmental chemicals over a period of up to twenty years. Thus, spatial and temporal trends can be described. Since the state of knowledge on critical tissue concentrations in the sublethal range is extremely low at present, it is however not possible to accomplish a direct assessment of relevancy of the substance concentrations. Hence, within the scope of the German ESB Program, the following strategies on assessment of relevancy are observed: use of biomarkers, histopathological examinations, biometric specimen characterization, use of ecological indicator groups, and development of a reference system with analytical and biometric data. Thus, for example endocrine effects in male breams in the river Saar, which correlate directly to operational discharges from municipal sewage plants, could be detected. By histopathological examinations, fibrotic and necrotic tissue adaptations on the gonads had been ascertained cumulatively, which unambiguously imply a restricted fertility of the male breams. In the river Rhine, an improved growth along the timeline could be described on the basis of biometric characterization of breams, which is regarded as rate for the reaction to all structural and material changes in the water body. Presently, with the development of a reference system based on the data collected in the scope of the Environmental Specimen Bank, a basis for the assessment of monitoring results with accumulation indicators is

  9. 42 CFR 137.286 - Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies when they assume these Federal environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.286 Do Self-Governance... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in...

  10. A new approach to standardize multicenter studies: mobile lab technology for the German Environmental Specimen Bank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Lermen

    Full Text Available Technical progress has simplified tasks in lab diagnosis and improved quality of test results. Errors occurring during the pre-analytical phase have more negative impact on the quality of test results than errors encountered during the total analytical process. Different infrastructures of sampling sites can highly influence the quality of samples and therewith of analytical results. Annually the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB collects, characterizes, and stores blood, plasma, and urine samples of 120-150 volunteers each on four different sampling sites in Germany. Overarching goal is to investigate the exposure to environmental pollutants of non-occupational exposed young adults combining human biomonitoring with questionnaire data. We investigated the requirements of the study and the possibility to realize a highly standardized sampling procedure on a mobile platform in order to increase the required quality of the pre-analytical phase. The results lead to the development of a mobile epidemiologic laboratory (epiLab in the project "Labor der Zukunft" (future's lab technology. This laboratory includes a 14.7 m(2 reception area to record medical history and exposure-relevant behavior, a 21.1 m(2 examination room to record dental fillings and for blood withdrawal, a 15.5 m(2 biological safety level 2 laboratory to process and analyze samples on site including a 2.8 m(2 personnel lock and a 3.6 m2 cryofacility to immediately freeze samples. Frozen samples can be transferred to their final destination within the vehicle without breaking the cold chain. To our knowledge, we herewith describe for the first time the implementation of a biological safety laboratory (BSL 2 lab and an epidemiologic unit on a single mobile platform. Since 2013 we have been collecting up to 15.000 individual human samples annually under highly standardized conditions using the mobile laboratory. Characterized and free of alterations they are kept ready for

  11. The 2015 Annual Meeting of SETAC German Language Branch in Zurich (7-10 September, 2015): Ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry-from research to application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Inge; Aldrich, Annette; Becker, Benjamin; Becker, Dennis; Brinkmann, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael; Caspers, Norbert; Campiche, Sophie; Chèvre, Nathalie; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Escher, Beate I; Fischer, Fabian; Giebner, Sabrina; Heye, Katharina; Hollert, Henner; Junghans, Marion; Kienle, Cornelia; Knauer, Katja; Korkaric, Muris; Märkl, Veronika; Muncke, Jane; Oehlmann, Jörg; Reifferscheid, Georg; Rensch, Daniel; Schäffer, Andreas; Schiwy, Sabrina; Schwarz, Simon; Segner, Helmut; Simon, Eszter; Triebskorn, Rita; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Wintgens, Thomas; Zennegg, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, and Mesocosm GmbH (Germany). Over 200 delegates from academia, public agencies and private industry of Germany, Switzerland and Austria attended and discussed the current state of science and its application presented in 75 talks and 83 posters. In addition, three invited keynote speakers provided new insights into scientific knowledge 'brokering', and-as it was the International Year of Soil-the important role of healthy soil ecosystems. Awards were presented to young scientists for best oral and poster presentations, and for best 2014 master and doctoral theses. Program and abstracts of the meeting (mostly in German) are provided as Additional file 1.

  12. Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy, Environmental, and Economic Resource Guide for Federal Facility Managers and Designers; Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.

    2001-05-16

    Greening Federal Facilities, Second Edition, is a nuts-and-bolts resource guide compiled to increase energy and resource efficiency, cut waste, and improve the performance of Federal buildings and facilities. The guide highlights practical actions that facility managers, design and construction staff, procurement officials, and facility planners can take to save energy and money, improve the comfort and productivity of employees, and benefit the environment. It supports a national effort to promote energy and environmental efficiency in the nation's 500,000 Federal buildings and facilities. Topics covered include current Federal regulations; environmental and energy decision-making; site and landscape issues; building design; energy systems; water and wastewater; materials; waste management, and recycling; indoor environmental quality; and managing buildings.

  13. The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV): reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of German children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, André; Seiwert, Margarete; Hünken, Andreas; Quarcoo, David; Schlaud, Martin; Groneberg, David

    2013-01-01

    Children's time-location patterns are important determinants of environmental exposure and other health-relevant factors. Building on data of the German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV), our study aimed at deriving reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of 3-14-year-old German children. We also investigated if GerES IV data are appropriate for evaluating associations with children's health determinants by linking them to data of the National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Parents reported on the time their children usually spend at home, in other indoor environments, and outdoors. This information was characterized by statistical parameters, which were also calculated for different strata concerning socio-demography and the residential environment. Consequently, group differences were evaluated by t-tests and univariate ANOVA. Reference distributions were fitted to the time-location data by a Maximum Likelihood approach to make them also useable in probabilistic exposure modeling. Finally, associations between data on the children's physical activity as well as body weight and their outdoor time were investigated by bivariate correlation analysis and cross tabulation. On daily average, German children spend 15 h and 31 min at home, 4 h and 46 min in other indoor environments, and 3 h and 43 min outdoors. Time spent at home and outdoors decreases with age while time spent in other indoor environments increases. Differences in time-location patterns were also observed for the socio-economic status (SES) and immigration status. E.g., children with a high SES spend 24 min less outdoors than low SES children. Immigrants spend on daily average 20 min more at home and 15 min less outdoors than non-immigrant children. Outdoor time was associated with parameters of the residential environment like the building development. Children living in 1- or 2-family houses spend more time outdoors than

  14. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. CERN's Directors General present and future, C. Llewellyn Smith and L. Maiani with Ministerialdirigent Dr Hans C. Eschelbacher of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) during the inauguration of the "Germany at CERN 1998"

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    CERN's Directors General present and future, C. Llewellyn Smith and L. Maiani with Ministerialdirigent Dr Hans C. Eschelbacher of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) during the inauguration of the "Germany at CERN 1998"

  16. 48 CFR 970.5223-6 - Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. 970.5223-6 Section 970.5223-6... FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY, AND TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT (OCT 2010) Since this contract involves... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating...

  17. 75 FR 23252 - Federal Advisory Committee; Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... projects requesting Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funds in excess of $1M... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program...

  18. 14 CFR 1216.321 - Environmental effects abroad of major Federal actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Other Requirements § 1216.321 Environmental effects abroad of major Federal actions. (a) In accordance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects abroad of major...

  19. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Updating for the year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeder, Lea; Burger, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany (Updating for the year 2016) includes the following issues: Why the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions is necessary; subventions and related processes; international initiatives for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions, routes for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions.

  20. Agreements concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany under international law in the field of environmental protection. Source index in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. As of June 1, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1992-01-01

    This compilation contains all agreements under international law in the field of environmental protection, the FRG has joined and that have been published and/or announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. The summary is of September 15, 1987. The classification is made according to the subjects: waste management law, pollution is made according to the date of treaty/agreement. For easier access, there are a chronological index, an index of the contracting states and an index of the places of contract. In the annex the relevant treaties with the German Democratic Republic are indicated. (orig.) [de

  1. Agreements concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany under international law in the field of environmental protection. Annex: Treaties with the GDR. (Source index in the Federal Law Gazette, part II). (As of September 15, 1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1987-01-01

    This compilation contains all agreements under international law in the field of environmental protection, the FRG has joined and that have been published and/or announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. The summary is of September 15, 1987. The classification is made according to the subjects: waste management law, pollution abatement law, nuclear law and energy and mining law and within these according to the date of treaty/agreement. For easier access, there are a chronological index, an index of the contracting states and an index of the places of contract. In the annex the relevant treaties with the German Democratic Republic are indicated. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Environmental Hazard Identification Technique Developing of Territorial Administrations Strategy as Exemplified in Siberian Federal District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Garmishev, V. V.; Lugovtsova, N. Yu

    2016-04-01

    This work, on the example of the Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation, presents a method for determining mass airbursts of combustion gaseous eco-toxicants, as a technique for assessing the contributory environmental load on the atmosphere. Potential environmental hazards are analyzed by mass of contaminated airbursts. A comparison of specific gross toxicants’ emissions in territorial entities of the Russian Federation is made.

  3. The siting and environmental change of a high medieval monastery in central German highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Christian; Tintrup, Angela; Baumhauer, Roland

    2017-04-01

    The geology of central German highlands is dominated by Triassic sandstones of the Bunter sandstone unit (German: Buntsandstein). These rocks commonly lack of minerals and they are unsuitable for beneficial agriculture. Early settlers in the Spessart highlands in central Germany therefore preferred patches of Pleistocene loess accumulation for the siting of their residences. The occurrence and distribution of this preferred loess-sites at high medieval times is of high interest and still under discussion. The investigated monastery site of Elisabethenzell was founded, developed and abandoned during a short medieval period and in an exposed and delimited area. The investigation of its environmental history and landscape offers insights to the careful decision of the former settlers. Both, historical maps and the data from laser altimetry were assessed in order to compile a comprehensive overview of the monasteries situation. In addition, pedologic, sedimentologic and geomorphologic prospections were conducted and all data was assessed using a geographic information system (GIS). At selected sites ramming core probes, and sections helped to determine specific soil and sediment characteristics. The results show subsoils of mineral-poor sandstones and Pleistocene periglacial layers with a thickness of up to 4-6 meters. The constructional elements of the monastery take advantage of the shape of the Pleistocene landforms, which was observed together with a local melioration of the mostly acidic Cambisols. This is provided by the delimited occurrence of loamy loesses in relictic Luvisols. The meliorated soils coincide with a better availability of water, which is due to the local geomorphology and higher clay contents in underlying Miocene and Pliocene sediments. As a consequence, medieval agriculture and gardening is likely and the landforms reveal preferable areas offering a confined gradation as well as evidence for the prevention of soil erosion. A prospection of soil

  4. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.75 - Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? 102-80.75 Section 102-80.75 Public... Management Assessment of Environmental Issues § 102-80.75 Who assesses environmental issues in Federal construction and lease construction projects? Federal agencies must assess required environmental issues...

  6. The #BTW17 Twitter Dataset–Recorded Tweets of the Federal Election Campaigns of 2017 for the 19th German Bundestag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nane Kratzke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The German Bundestag elections are the most important elections in Germany. This dataset comprises Twitter interactions related to German politicians of the most important political parties over several months in the (pre-phase of the German federal election campaigns in 2017. The Twitter accounts of more than 360 politicians were followed for four months. The collected data comprise a sample of approximately 10 GB of Twitter raw data, and they cover more than 120,000 active Twitter users and more than 1,200,000 recorded tweets. Even without sophisticated data analysis techniques, it was possible to deduce a likely political party proximity for more than half of these accounts simply by looking at the re-tweet behavior. This might be of interest for innovative data-driven party campaign strategists in the future. Furthermore, it is observable, that, in Germany, supporters and politicians of populist parties make use of Twitter much more intensively and aggressively than supporters of other parties. Furthermore, established left-wing parties seem to be more active on Twitter than established conservative parties. The dataset can be used to study how political parties, their followers and supporters make use of social media channels in political election campaigns and what kind of content is shared.

  7. An Analysis of the Problems of Developing Environmental Education in Brazilian Federal Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Cristina A. R.; Filho, Walter Leal; Hale, William H. G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the problems encountered in developing environmental education in federally protected areas in Brazil. Suggests that the development of environmental education in those protected areas has several limitations including financial resources, lack of training, material resources, and lack of policy on environmental education. (Author/CCM)

  8. German Federal Constitutional Court decision of May 22, 1990. On the right of the Federal Government to issue instructions in the field of commission administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Constitutional Court discusses questions relating to the distribution of competence in the field of commission administration pursuant to Article 85 of the Basic Law ('Grundgesetz') in connection with a specific licensing procedure under atomic law (Kalkar). Under Art. 85 of the Basic Law executive competence is assigned irrevocably to the individual State, whereas substantive competence is always only assigned to the State insofar as it is not claimed by Federal Government. The decision further reviews questions of: Legal injury through federal instruction pursuant to Article 85 (3) of the Basic Law; a claimable right to the substantively lawful execution of the authority to instruct or even a right to sue for an injunction in the case of an infringement of the Constitution or of a basic right and associated boundary questions; the nedessity of clarity of instructions; and the obligation of Federal Government to act in a manner conducive to the promotion of the interests of the Federation as such. The Court also made it clear that the limits to the influence of the state on the rights of the individual derived from the principle of the Rule of Law do not apply to questions concerning competence in the Federation-State relationship. [Reference: Federal Constitutional Court 2 BvG 1/88, decision of May 22, 1990]. (RST) [de

  9. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in German restaurants, pubs and discotheques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Gabriele; Heitmann, Dieter; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Schierl, Rudolf; Diemer, Juergen; Koerner, Wolfgang; Fromme, Hermann

    2008-05-01

    In contrast to other countries, there is an on-going debate but still no smoke-free legislation in Germany. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in hospitality venues is assumed to be high, but air quality data are lacking. Therefore, the aim of our study was to perform a comprehensive exposure assessment by analysing the indoor air concentration of toxic or carcinogenic ETS compounds in restaurants, pubs, and discotheques. Active sampling of indoor air was conducted for 4 h during the main visiting hours in 28 hospitality venues. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes/ketones, and cadmium were analysed. In addition, particle mass concentration was assessed with two different methods and particle number concentration (PNC) was determined. Median nicotine levels were 15 microg/m(3) in restaurants, 31 microg/m(3) in pubs, and 193 microg/m(3) in discotheques. Across these three sampling site categories median levels of 3-ethenylpyridine ranged from 3 to 24 microg/m(3), median levels of benzene from 8 to 20 microg/m(3), median levels of cadmium from 3 to 10 ng/m(3), and median levels of the sum of 16 PAH according to US-EPA from 215 to 375 ng/m(3), respectively. Median PM(2.5) mass concentration assessed gravimetrically varied between 178 and 808 microg/m(3) and PNC between 120,000 and 210,000 particles per cm(3) in restaurants, pubs, and discotheques. The majority of the particles had a size of 0.01-0.5 microm. Concentrations of ETS compounds were always highest in discotheques. The strong correlation between ETS-specific markers (nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine) and PM(2.5), PAH, VOC, aldehydes/ketones, and cadmium indicated ETS as main source of these toxic or carcinogenic substances. In conclusion, indoor air concentrations of ETS constituents were high in German hospitality venues and represented a substantial health threat. Effective measures to protect patrons and staff from ETS exposure are necessary from a

  10. Inauguration of the Moscow-based office of GRS/IPSN-RISKAUDIT by the Federal German Minister of the Environment, Mr. Klaus Toepfer, and the Minister of Industry, Mr. Dominique Strauss-Kahn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The German and the French Government as well as the EC are taking particular interest in cooperative activities with the Russian Federation in the field of reactor safety enhancement and protection of the environment. The existing cooperation is expected to be intensified by the establishment of a common office in Moscow. The organisation, tasks and financing scheme of the RISKAUDIT office are explained in the languages German, Russian and French. (HP) [de

  11. Uranium production and environmental restoration at Priargunsky Centre (Russian Federation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatalov, V.V.; Boitsov, A.V.; Nikolsky, A.L.; Chernigov, V.G.; Ovseichuk, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The state enterprise 'Priargunsky Mining and Chemical Production Association' (PPGHO) is the only active uranium production centre in Russia in last decade. Mining has been operated since 1968 by two open pits and four underground mines. It is based on resources of 19 volcanic-type deposits of Streltsovsk U-ore region situated at the area of 150 km 2 . Milling and processing has been carried out since 1974 at the local hydrometallurgical plant. Since the mid 1980s, limited amount of uranium is produced by heap and block leaching methods. High level of total production marks PPGHO as one of the outstanding uranium production centers worldwide. Significant amount of solid, liquid and gas wastes have been generated for more than 30 years. The principal environmental contamination comes from waste rock piles, mine water and tailing ponds. Liquid waste seepage through tailing pond bed can essentially contaminate underground waters. The principal environmental remediation activities are: waste rock dumps and open pits rehabilitation; waste rock utilization for industrial needs; heap and block leaching mining development, strengthening dam bodies and construction intercepting wells below the tailing pond dam, hydrogeological monitoring, upgrade of mine water treatment unit. Waste is being managed by the environmental service team of PPGHO. Environmental restoration activities, including rehabilitation of the territories and waste utilization, are implemented gradually in line with decommissioning of enterprise's particular facilities. (author)

  12. Mike O’Callaghan Federal Medical Center Campus Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    intrusions into imaginary surfaces in accordance with UFC 3-260-01 para 1.2.2, 1.9, attachment 6 and CFAR Part 77. Nevada Department of Transportation...Environmental Protection Aviation Safety Review and compliance per UFC 3-260- 01 para 1.2.2, 1.9, attachment 6 and CFAR Part 77 USAF and FAA

  13. 28 CFR 91.68 - Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., (6) Federal Water Pollution Control Act, (7) Endangered Species Act, (8) Wild and Scenic Rivers Act... OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for... applicable, to the environmental impact analysis requirements of the following statutes, their implementing...

  14. Environmental aspects of hydraulic fracturing - Main results and recommendations from two studies on behalf of the German Environment Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischbaum, Bernd; Bertram, Andreas; Böttcher, Christian; Iyimen-Schwarz, Züleyha; Rechenberg, Jörg; Dannwolf, Uwe; Meiners, Georg

    2016-04-01

    The German Environment Agency (UBA) accompanies the debate on fracking for years. Two major reports on risks and environmental impacts regarding the exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas, in particular shale gas have been published. On the basis of these studies as well as on scientific evidence UBA considers ecological barriers as a sustainable means to minimize the risks to environment and human health. 1) Recent studies show that the contamination of shallow aquifers by rise of fluids through natural faults or artificially created fractures is extremely unlikely. However, activities on the surface and lack of wellbore integrity pose threats and substantial risks for the quality of shallow aquifers. 2) The need for thorough groundwater monitoring is fully accepted, yet its range and design is subject to discussion. 3) Formerly, analysis and mass balances of flowback and produced water have been insufficient, thus there is a lack of exact information on proportions of frac-fluids, flowback and formation water respectively, as well as data on possible reaction products. 4) Currently, neither on national nor on European level best reference techniques (BREF) for the treatment and disposal of flowback and produced water are available. 5) In addition, land consumption, emission of greenhouse gases, and induced seismicity are major issues. UBA recommends amongst others the implementation of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) for fracking activities, the prohibition of fracking in water protection areas as well as their catchments, and the disclosure of all frac-fluid chemicals within a national chemical registry. To achieve these objectives the German Environment Agency suggests a step-by-step approach. The paper will present the main results from the studies and the recommendations of the German Environment Agency regarding hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas exploitation.

  15. A Big Social Media Data Study of the 2017 German Federal Election Based on Social Set Analysis of Political Party Facebook Pages with SoSeVi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    We present a big social media data study that comprises of 1 million individuals who interact with Facebook pages of the seven major political parties CDU, CSU, SPD, FDP, Greens, Die Linke and AfD during the 2017 German federal election. Our study uses the Social Set Analysis (SSA) approach, which....... We explore a significant gender-based difference between female and male interactions with political party Facebook pages. Furthermore, we perform a multi-faceted analysis of social media interactions using gender detection, user segmentation and retention analysis, and visualize our findings....... In conclusion, we discuss the analytical approach of social set analysis and conclude with a discussion of the benefits of set theoretical approaches based on the social philosophical approach of associational sociology....

  16. U.S.-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP: International Research Cooperation to Develop and Evaluate Tools and Techniques for Revitalization of Potentially Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. German Bilateral Working Group originated in 1990 in order to share and transfer information, ideas, tools and techniques regarding environmental research. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the German Federal Mini...

  17. Materials research symposium 1988 of the Federal German Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT). Proceedings and posters. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In the context of concentrating the research activities on key areas of technology, the West German Ministry of Research and Technology started the materials research program in 1985. Long-term and risky questions of modern materials research were and are being tackled, using the instrument of combined project work, i.e.: the partnership of industry and scientific institutions. Three years after the start of the program, the technological state in West Germany in the field of new materials is to be documented and balanced by the 'Symposium on Materials Research'. Results of basic research to application orientated material developments are introduced by survey and detailed articles. The following subjects are dealt with in the first two volumes: 1. Functional polymers; 2. Structural polymers; 3. Metal materials; 4. Ceramics. 22 articles are listed separately in the 'ENERGY' databank. (orig./MM) [de

  18. 23rd May 2008 - CERN Director-General R. Aymar with German Federal Minister of Education and Research A. Schavan, CERN Director-General Designate R. Heuer, Swiss Federal Councillor M. Calmy-Rey and CERN Deputy Director-General and Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    23rd May 2008 - CERN Director-General R. Aymar with German Federal Minister of Education and Research A. Schavan, CERN Director-General Designate R. Heuer, Swiss Federal Councillor M. Calmy-Rey and CERN Deputy Director-General and Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen.

  19. 42 CFR 137.300 - Since Federal environmental responsibilities are new responsibilities, which may be assumed by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Since Federal environmental responsibilities are... additional funds available to Self-Governance Tribes to carry out these formerly inherently Federal... Nepa Process § 137.300 Since Federal environmental responsibilities are new responsibilities, which may...

  20. Environmental policy of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malunat, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The history of the policy for environmental protection in Germany is characterized by a particularly fast rate of evolution over the roughly 25 years of its existence to a state of maturity for which all other fundamental political goals and principles of our society - such as democracy, supremacy of law, social welfare - have taken much more time to develop. Compared to this rapid development in theory, the situation of the environment has changed but little, and considering our current knowledge, revealing the interdependency of global ecological processes, there is danger of development to the worse. The United Nations have been signalising the beginning of a new approach towards the environment based on the principle of global responsibility. But the narrow lane of ''sustainable development'' will lead to success only if the great majority of people are prepared to take on personal responsibility. (orig.) [de

  1. The Brazilian Audit Tribunal's role in improving the federal environmental licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Luiz Henrique; Magrini, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the role played by the Brazilian Audit Tribunal (Tribunal de Contas da Uniao - TCU) in the external auditing of environmental management in Brazil, highlighting the findings of an operational audit conducted in 2007 of the federal environmental licensing process. Initially, it records the constitutional and legal framework of Brazilian environmental licensing, describing the powers and duties granted to federal, state and municipal institutions. In addition, it presents the responsibilities of the TCU in the environmental area, comparing these with those of other Supreme Audit Institutions (SAI) that are members of the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI). It also describes the work carried out in the operational audit of the Brazilian environmental licensing process and its main conclusions and recommendations. Finally, it draws a parallel between the findings and recommendations made in Brazil with those of academic studies and audits conducted in other countries.

  2. Selected performance indicators of the German environmental industry and environmental climate in an international comparison. Production, external trade, environmental research and patents; Ausgewaehlte Indikatoren zur Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich. Produktion, Aussenhandel, Umweltforschung und Patente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schasse, Ulrich; Gehrke, Birgit [Niedersaechsisches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany); Ostertag, Katrin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The environmental technology is one of the most important growth markets worldwide. In the light of the unique environmental political challenges predictions refer to an expansionary trend towards market development - especially in the international context, with particular emphasis on the climate protection. The companies of the German environmental industry increasingly operate in global markets. A major share of that growth has been developed there. Temporarily, only the foreign market offered expansion opportunities. Even if the companies are not active on the export markets, the companies in the domestic market compete with their international export markets. Insofar, the question of the international competitiveness of the environmental industry is a key issue.

  3. Environmental impact statements: an analysis of six years' experience by seventy federal agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    This report assesses federal implementation of the environmental impact statement requirement of the National Environmental Policy Act. The report asks how well the requirement fulfills its purpose of helping government officials reach informed decisions. It considers whether the content and quality of impact statements are adequate; whether complaints about delay from EIS procedures are justified; what purposes may be served by preparing impact statements on broad government programs or groups of projects; whether EIS review by state as well as federal agencies is working well or is in need of improvement; and whether public involvement in the whole process is satisfactory. It also examines some other special questions arising from the EIS requirement

  4. Situation Report--Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti (French Polynesia), Tonga, Turkey, and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 21 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti, Tonga, Turkey, and United…

  5. The use of monitoring data in EU chemicals management--experiences and considerations from the German environmental specimen bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschorreck, Jan; Heiss, Christiane; Wellmitz, Jörg; Fliedner, Annette; Rüdel, Heinz

    2015-02-01

    Since the 1970s, environmental specimen banks (ESB) have emerged in many countries. Their highly standardised sampling and archiving strategies make them a valuable tool in tracing time trends and spatial distributions of chemicals in ecosystem compartments. The present article intends to highlight the potential of ESBs for regulatory agencies in the European Union (EU). The arguments are supported by examples of retrospective monitoring studies conducted under the programme of the German ESB. These studies have evaluated the success of regulatory and industry provisions for substances of concern (i.e. PCB, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorinated compounds, alkylphenol compounds, organotin compounds, triclosan/methyl-triclosan, musk fragrances). Time trend studies revealed for example that levels of organotin compounds in marine biota from German coastal waters decreased significantly after the EU had decided on a total ban of organotin-based antifoulings in 2003. Similarly, concentrations of commercially relevant congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers decreased in herring gull eggs from the North Sea only after an EU-wide ban in 2004. The data presented demonstrate the usefulness of ESB samples for (retrospective) time trend monitoring and underline the benefit of a more intensive cooperation between chemicals management and specimen banking.

  6. Non-Federal participation in AC Intertie: Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the appendices for the Non-Federal Participation in AC Intertie Final Environmental Impact Statement. It contains all the supporting materials, documents and data for the EIS in nine appendices: A. Life-of-facilities capacity ownership proposal; B. Long-term Intertie access policy; C. Glossary; D. Biological assessment and supporting materials; E. Environmental impacts of generic resource types; F. Technical information on analysis methods and results; G. Affected environment supporting documentation; H. Public involvement activities; and I. Bibliography

  7. Potential health risk of allergenic pollen with climate change associated spreading capacity: Ragweed and olive sensitization in two German federal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflich, Conny; Balakirski, Galina; Hajdu, Zuzanna; Baron, Jens Malte; Kaiser, Lorraine; Czaja, Katharina; Merk, Hans F; Gerdsen, Sarah; Strassen, Ulrich; Bas, Murat; Bier, Henning; Dott, Wolfgang; Mücke, Hans-Guido; Straff, Wolfgang; Chaker, Adam; Röseler, Stefani

    2016-05-01

    Global climate changes may influence the geographical spread of allergenic plants thus causing new allergen challenges. Allergy patients from two German federal states were compared for their status quo sensitization to ragweed, an establishing allergen, olive, a non-established allergen, and the native allergens birch, mugwort, and ash. Between 2011 and 2013, 476 adult allergy patients per region were recruited. Patients completed a questionnaire, participated in a medical interview, and underwent skin prick testing and blood withdrawal for analysis of specific IgE to allergen components (ISAC technology). Data on regional pollen load from 2006 to 2011 were acquired from the German Pollen Information Service Foundation. Prick test reactivity to ragweed and ash, respectively, was lower in Bavaria than in NRW (ragweed: p=0.001, aOR=0.54; ash: p=0.001, aOR=0.59), whereas prick test reactivity to olive was higher (p=0.000, aOR=3.09). Prick test reactivity to birch and mugwort, respectively, did not significantly differ. 1% (1/127) of patients with prick test reactivity to ragweed showed sIgE to Amb a 1, and 65% (86/132) of olive-but-not-ash reactive patients showed sIgE to Ole e 1 (NRW: 67%, Bavaria: 65%; p=0.823, OR=0.91). Regional differences in sensitization pattern were neither explainable by cross-reactivity to pollen pan-allergens nor non-exposure variables nor by reported plant population or pollen data. Spread of ragweed and particularly olive may result in prompt occurrence of allergic symptoms. Early identification of invasive allergens due to climate change does need time and spatial close meshed measurement of respective indicator allergens and sensitization pattern. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  8. 40 CFR 1502.4 - Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements. 1502.4 Section 1502.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON..., could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Statements shall be prepared on such...

  9. Exploring National Environmental Policy Act processes across federal land management agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    Broad discretion is granted at all levels throughout federal land management agencies regarding compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). We explored the diversity of procedures employed in NEPA processes across four agencies, the USDA Forest Service, The USDI National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  10. Environmental Education: Concepts and Approaches for Degree of Students of the Federal University Fluminense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Marcondes de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern society and its way of life resulted in an environmental crisis, and environmental education emerges as one of the tools to contribute to build a new model of society. As proposed in the National Curriculum Parameters (PCN, the environment is a crosscutting theme and, therefore, Environmental Education must be present in all learning spaces. This work intends to make a critical assessment of the perceptions and theoretical concepts and practices of environmental education by undergraduate students in Biology, Physical Education, Physics, Geography, History, Literature, Mathematics, Pedagogy and Chemistry Education from Fluminense Federal University. The responses of these students to a semi-open questionnaire were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In the statements, naturalistic and anthropocentric views predominated. A contextualized view of the environment was more evident in the courses of Biology and Geography, which were considered to produce the most suitable professionals as environmental educators. Students from other courses feel very distant from environmental issues.The analyzed students showed ignorance, fragmentation and lack of discussion on environmental education. Thus, it is necessary to insert lectures on environmental education in all the undergraduate courses of Fluminense Federal University.

  11. Third statutory ordinance for assignment of competence for environmental radioactivity measuring and evaluation under the German Preventive Radiation Protection Act (StrSchVG). As of 16 October 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The German Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Radiation Protection Office) is assigned the competence to perform the necessary activities for measurement and large-area monitoring of ambient gamma dose rates on behalf of the Federal Government in compliance with the German Preventive Radiation Protection Act (StrSchVG). (orig./CB) [de

  12. Two decades of German energy and environmental politics: Guidelines, principles and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duengen, H.

    1993-01-01

    After presenting some general guidelines that determined environmental and energy politics the article describes the principles and instruments of energy and environmental politics separately. The focus is again on historical aspects. Finally the article books at the joint future of both areas. (UA) [de

  13. Environmental Education in Three German-Speaking Countries: Tensions and Challenges for Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikel, Jutta; Reid, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we explore a series of issues and tensions raised by the papers in this Special Issue of "Environmental Education Research." This papers focus on developments in environmental education and ESD research in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In order to provide an alternative framework for contextualising and understanding…

  14. Non-Federal Participation in AC Intertie : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1: Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering action in two areas: (1) non-Federal access to the AC Intertie, and, (2) BPA Intertie marketing. BPA`s preferred alternative for non-Federal access is the Capacity Ownership alternative combined with the Increased Assured Delivery -- Access for Non-Scheduling Utilities alternative; the preferred alternative for BPA Intertie marketing is the Federal Marketing and Joint Ventures alternative. BPA considered these two areas previously in its Intertie Development and Use EIS of April 1988. The EIS resulted in BPA decisions to participate in the construction of the Third AC Intertie, to allow non-Federal access to BPA`s share of the Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest (PNW-PSW) Intertie (AC and DC lines) pursuant to a Long-Term Intertie Access Policy (LTIAP), and to pursue BPA`s export marketing alternative. The decision on allowing direct financial non-Federal participation in the Third AC line was deferred to a later, separate process, examined here. Also, BPA`s export marketing objectives must now be examined in view of changed operations of Columbia River hydro facilities for improved fish survival.

  15. Harnessing federal environmental expertise and focusing it on streamlining characterization and remediation at DOE's Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, J.K.; Kane, D.A.; McGarry, T.A.

    1993-03-01

    At the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) Hanford Site, environmental restoration is conducted under a Tri-Party Federal Facility Agreement between DOE-RL, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). One result of a dispute resolution was the requirement to conduct an independent review of the policies, procedures, processes, and work practices associated with remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) activity at Hanford with a goal of reducing it to 30 months. Sixteen experienced and respected federal Environmental Restoration Program/Project Managers were brought to Hanford for a two-week intensive review of the program. This paper outlines the reasons for this tactic, the mechanics of funding the process, and the benefits of this unique approach

  16. The current state of external quality control surveys in the German Federal Republic in the field of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.; Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of quality control surveys (QSC) are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in the field of hormone assays: 1) The distribution of two lyophilized sera at regular intervals, in which the participants have to determine 7 or 8 different hormones. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether the results of the participants are 'correct' or contain systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. 2) The distribution of approximately 20 deep-frozen sera (including a standard curve in hormone-free serum) in which the participant has to assay a single hormone. These 20 sera-QCS are performed only at long intervals for a given hormone. The statistical analysis of the rate of the radioactive counts of the QCS-sera and those of the participants' standard curves allows - together with a methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for deviating results. (orig.) [de

  17. Governmental structure of the Russian Federation with respect to environmental and energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, R.V.; Reistroffer, E.L. (Environmental Planning Group, Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL (United States)); Edgar, D.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)

    1992-09-01

    An investigation was conducted by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., to provide an overview of the structure of government environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. The investigation was undertaken to provide a baseline of information to the US Department of Energy (DOE), so that technologies applicable to DOE environmental restoration and monitoring programs can be identified, tested, and transferred. Data for the report were collected through a network of Russian and American sources knowledgeable about environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. Sources of information included both US and Russian government personnel, nongovernmental organizations, private consultants, and experts from the academic and scientific communities. The peculiarities of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) remain prevalent in the structure of the Newly Independent States, especially in Russia. The legacy of communism is visible in all aspects of society, most particularly in the extreme environmental degradation that has resulted from careless central planning and policies of forced industrialization. Reforms initiated under Mikhail Gorbachev during the period of Perestroika were aimed at shifting power from the party to the respective government organs. In 1992 the Commonwealth of Independent States was created, joining 11 of the 15 republics into a loose federation. The investigation undertaken by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., focused on the executive organs of the present Russian government in an effort to define key ministries with environmental and energy responsibilities. The structure of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources (Minpriroda) and the Ministry of Atomic Power (Minatom) are presented. The Academy of Sciences and other ministries that have relevance to the transfer of technologies are discussed, as well as research institutions in which technologies appropriate to DOE programs are likely to reside.

  18. 77 FR 3775 - Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for Proposed Federal Building Kansas City, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for Proposed Federal Building Kansas City... environmental assessment (EA), that analyzes the environmental impacts of constructing and operating a proposed... the draft EA, including the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action...

  19. The effect of the German and British environmental taxation reforms. A simple assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolucci, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    This article implements a simple econometric approach to assess the effect of the environmental tax reforms introduced in Germany and the UK. Despite the very simple econometric approach adopted in this paper, in the case of the energy demand, our results do not differ markedly from those obtained from complicated multi-sectoral econometric models. In the case of the labour demand, our results differ from the estimates obtained from econometric models where the employment level is not directly influenced by the energy price. On the other hand, our results are more similar to those obtained from models where the level of employment is directly influenced by the energy price. Confirming the findings of Bosquet [2000. Environmental tax reform: does it work? A survey of the empirical evidence. Ecological Economics 34, 19-32] and OECD [2004. Environment and Employment: An Assessment Working Party on National Environmental Policy OECD, Paris], we conclude that environmental tax reforms can deliver substantial reductions in energy consumption while having small effects on the level of employment, effect which can be positive, depending on the size of the reduction in the labour costs and the value of cross-price elasticities. (author)

  20. Possibilities of using the German Federal States' permanent soil monitoring program for the monitoring of potential effects of genetically modified organisms (GMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschki, Andreas; Jänsch, Stephan; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Römbke, Jörg; Züghart, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    In the Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMO) into the environment, a monitoring of potential risks is prescribed after their deliberate release or placing on the market. Experience and data of already existing monitoring networks should be included. The present paper summarizes the major findings of a project funded by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Nutzungsmöglichkeiten der Boden-Dauerbeobachtung der Länder für das Monitoring der Umweltwirkungen gentechnisch veränderter Pflanzen. BfN Skripten, Bonn-Bad Godesberg 369, 2014). The full report in german language can be accessed on http://www.bfn.de and is available as Additional file 1. The aim of the project was to check if it is possible to use the German permanent soil monitoring program (PSM) for the monitoring of GMO. Soil organism communities are highly diverse and relevant with respect to the sustainability of soil functions. They are exposed to GMO material directly by feeding or indirectly through food chain interactions. Other impacts are possible due to their close association to soil particles. The PSM program can be considered as representative with regard to different soil types and ecoregions in Germany, but not for all habitat types relevant for soil organisms. Nevertheless, it is suitable as a basic grid for monitoring the potential effects of GMO on soil invertebrates. PSM sites should be used to derive reference values, i.e. range of abundance and presence of different relevant species of soil organisms. Based on these references, it is possible to derive threshold values to define the limit of acceptable change or impact. Therefore, a minimum set of sites and minimum set of standardized methods are needed, i.e. characterization of each site, sampling of selected soil organism groups, adequate adaptation of methods for the purpose of monitoring of potential effects of GMO. Finally, and probably most demanding, it is needed to develop

  1. 'Penetrated system' or 'normal' state? An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The 'maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a 'normal' state

  2. Penetrated system' or normal' state An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a normal' state.

  3. Environmental assessment of biowaste management in the Danish-German border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang

    of the project was a recommendation to waste management companies through life cycle assessment and experimental work at a biological treatment plant. A major part of the PhD study was collecting data on all aspects of the waste management chain. Waste generation through to collection, transportation, treatment...... in the environmental performance of the two different regions, with the Danish region performing better in most impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the energy systems was investigated, showing that a large influence on the results was the surrounding energy system. Besides comparing the two regions......’ current performances to each other, they were compared to four future scenarios featuring increased source separation and different biological treatments. In this case the life cycle assessment was used as a planning tool for a future waste management system where environmental hotspots could...

  4. Retrospective monitoring of triclosan and methyl-triclosan in fish. Results from the German Environmental Specimen Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, W.; Ruedel, H.; Wenzel, A. [Fraunhofer IME, Schmallenberg (Germany); Schroeter-Kermani, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    During the last years there were several reports on the appearance of the biocides triclosan (TCS; 5- chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol; CAS No. 3380-34-5) and chlorophene (CP; 4-Chloro-2- (phenylmethyl)phenol; CAS No. 120-32-1) in the environment. TCS is used in numerous personal care products like toothpaste and soaps, but also in textiles and shoes. The current annual consumption in Germany is estimated to be 40 t (0.5 g per capita and year). During use large amounts of TCS and CP are disposed into waste water. Modern waste water treatment plants (WWTP) eliminate approximately 95 % of TCS, mainly by biodegradation and adsorption to sludge. It was observed that during waste water treatment methyl-triclosan (MTCS; 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)anisole; CAS No. 4640-01-1) is formed, probably due to microbial methylation. In a WWTP effluent up to 1 % MTCS in relation to TCS was detected. The environmental half-life of TCS is assumed to be low, mainly because it is susceptible to photodegradation at environmental pH levels while MTCS is stable under these conditions. The logPow values of 4.7 for TCS and 5.2 for MTCS (estimated with KowWin Vers. 1,67, respectively) indicate potential for bioaccumulation. Based in order to investigate the exposure of aquatic organisms towards CP, TCS and MTCS in Germany a retrospective monitoring of breams (Abramis brama) from representative rivers was initiated. Samples from the period 1994 to 2003 were taken from the archive of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) to evaluate temporal changes and regional differences of the occurrence of the target compounds.

  5. Rapid determination of nine parabens and seven other environmental phenols in urine samples of German children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rebecca K; Angerer, Jürgen; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-11-01

    We developed a fast, selective and sensitive on-line LC/LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of nine parabens and seven environmental phenols in urine. Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives. Bisphenol A, triclosan, triclocarban, 2-phenylphenol, and benzophenones are used inter alia in disinfectants, sunscreens and in polymers. Some of these substances are suspected endocrine disruptors. Limits of quantification and analytical quality criteria fully met the needs for determining exposure levels occurring in the general population. We analyzed 157 spot urine samples from the general German population (59 females, 39 males and 59 children). For the parabens, we found methyl, ethyl and n-propyl paraben with high detection rates (77-98%), followed by n-butyl (36%), iso-butyl (17%), iso-propyl (3%) and benzyl paraben (3%). We detected no pentyl and heptyl paraben. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 24.5 μg/L; 95th percentile 379 μg/L) followed by ethyl (1.4 μg/L; 35.2 μg/L) and n-propyl paraben (1.2 μg/L; 68.1 μg/L). Other environmental phenols with high detection rates were BPA (95%), triclosan (45%) and benzophenone 1 and 3 (26%). For most of the parabens/environmental phenols we found higher urinary levels in females than in males or children, probably due to differences in (personal care) product use. However, high levels (in the mg/L range) were also observed in children. Exposure to the above substances is occurring worldwide. Differences between countries do seem to exist and might be caused by different product compositions or different use habits. Human metabolism data is urgently needed to extrapolate from urinary biomarker levels to doses actually taken up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Status of existing federal environmental risk-based standards applicable to Department of Energy operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyard, G.R.

    1991-09-01

    When conducting its environmental restoration, waste management, and decontamination and decommissioning activities, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must comply with a myriad of regulatory procedures and environmental standards. This paper assesses the status of existing federal risk-based standards that may be applied to chemical and radioactive substances on DOE sites. Gaps and inconsistencies among the existing standards and the technical issues associated with the application of those standards are identified. Finally, the implications of the gaps, inconsistencies, and technical issues on DOE operations are discussed, and approaches to resolving the gaps, inconsistencies, and technical issues are identified. 6 refs

  7. TEWI - Total Equivalent Warming Impact. The environmental and climatic impact of the German refrigeration industry 1989/2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, H.

    1993-01-01

    Development of concepts and new technologies will have to pay more heed to the ecological balance of a product than in the past. The Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Office) suggests to divide an ecological balance into a balance of facts, a balance of impact and include a balance sheet valuation. As there are no valid socio-political valuation criteria they suggest to use partial criteria as for instance the climate-relevant air pollution for the valuation of the refrigeration industry. This article attempts to forecast existing and foreseeable developments of the refrigeration industry under this particular aspect. (BWI) [de

  8. Inclusion of the Environmental Practices in Audits Performed at the Federal Institution of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Campagnin Luiz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether an environmental audit has been conducted at a Federal Institution of Education. The specific objectives are to: i verify the environmental controls held at the institution, ii investigate the environmental audits within the institution; and, iii prepare a list containing the main environmental factors that could be monitored by the institution. The research has a descriptive purpose; the procedures we used are bibliographic, document review, and case study. The research instrument is documentary research or primary sources to approach the problem in the qualitative way. The study sample is a federal institution of professional and technological education, and temporal analysis includes the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. Based upon the annual plan for internal audit activities, and on the annual report of the internal audit activities, we found that the institution has not conducted any environmental audits in the investigated period. The result was that, in relation to internal control, there is the obligation for the adoption of a Plan of Sustainable Logistics (PSL and its publicity on the institutional web page. We found the absence of the PSL at the institution, making it impossible to assert that the institution conducts internal environmental controls. We observed only a self-assessment in the institutional management report, in which one of its topics included information on sustainable procurement, awareness campaigns, and waste separation. Within the absence of the environmental controls and audits, we prepared a list containing the main factors that can be seen on environmental audits in the public educational institutions.

  9. Bottom-up risk regulation? How nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps challenge federal and state environmental agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Maria C; Griffin, Martin P A; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the "Next Industrial Revolution." At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many "end-of-pipe" issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies' potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management.

  10. Developments in environmental and engineering law in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandner, T.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed and clear compilation for the period 1.1.1990-31.1.1991 covers the following topics: Environmental and engineering law in the German unification process; superordinate developments in the EG and in Germany, in particular: Draft Federal Environmental Code, Civil Environmental Liability Act, EIA, German Federal Environmental Foundation; technological safety; climate protection - international agreements, EC law, developments in Germany; air and noise pollution control law; atomic and radiation protection law - point of departure, legislation, individual questions: Federal supervision, nuclear disposal and recycling. Moreover: Environmental concerns in regional planning; the law of nature conservation, water protection, waste management, hazardous materials, genetic engineering and soil protection. (HSCH) [de

  11. Contrasts between the environmental restoration challenges posed by uranium mining and milling in the United States and the former German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.; Chernoff, A.R.; Mager, D.; Goldammer, W.

    1993-01-01

    The former Soviet Union demands for uranium feed materials were primarily met by the East German Republic. A small area 200 km long and 50 km wide in the provinces of Saxony and Thuringia provided more than half of the uranium concentrate processed by the Soviet Union, and used for nuclear weapons development and power generation. With the majority of the ore processed in Germany of an average lower grade than a number of deposits found around the world, the mining and milling resulted in an enormous scale of surface disturbance and quantities of mill tailings concentrated in a relatively small densely populated geographical area. As a result of the re-unification of the two Germanies, all uranium extraction and processing activities were suddenly brought to a halt for economic reasons. The former soviet-East German corporation responsible for the uranium concentrate production was changed into a German state-operated company tasked with the facility decommissioning and environmental restoration. Code-named WISMUT (the German word for Bismuth) during the cold war, this organization was literally changed overnight from a self-sufficient, autonomously operating and state controlled effort into a public works, environmentally conscious corporation

  12. Environmental Noise Annoyance and Mental Health in Adults: Findings from the Cross-Sectional German Health Update (GEDA Study 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hammersen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The health implications of environmental noise, especially cardiovascular effects, have been studied intensively. Research on associations between noise and mental health, however, has shown contradictory results. The present study examined associations between individual levels of noise annoyance due to noise from various sources in the living environment and mental health of adults in Germany. It evaluated whether these associations persisted after adjusting for potential covariates. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional “German Health Update” study 2012 (GEDA 2012, a national health interview survey among adults in Germany conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 19,294. Noise annoyance questions referred to overall noise and that from road traffic, neighbours, and air traffic. Mental health was measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Bivariate analysis showed associations between high levels of noise annoyance and impaired mental health for all noise sources except air traffic. After adjusting for covariates (sociodemographic factors, chronic disease, and social support, both men and women who reported high overall noise annoyance showed more than doubled odds of impaired mental health compared to those who were not annoyed. The odds of impaired mental health in the highest noise annoyance category from road traffic and neighbours were also significantly increased. These findings indicate that high noise annoyance is associated with impaired mental health and that this association can vary with the source of environmental noise. Further research on covariates of this association is necessary. Particularly, longitudinal data are required to establish the direction of associations and to address questions of causality.

  13. Environmental Noise Annoyance and Mental Health in Adults: Findings from the Cross-Sectional German Health Update (GEDA) Study 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersen, Friederike; Niemann, Hildegard; Hoebel, Jens

    2016-09-26

    The health implications of environmental noise, especially cardiovascular effects, have been studied intensively. Research on associations between noise and mental health, however, has shown contradictory results. The present study examined associations between individual levels of noise annoyance due to noise from various sources in the living environment and mental health of adults in Germany. It evaluated whether these associations persisted after adjusting for potential covariates. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional "German Health Update" study 2012 (GEDA 2012), a national health interview survey among adults in Germany conducted by the Robert Koch Institute ( n = 19,294). Noise annoyance questions referred to overall noise and that from road traffic, neighbours, and air traffic. Mental health was measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Bivariate analysis showed associations between high levels of noise annoyance and impaired mental health for all noise sources except air traffic. After adjusting for covariates (sociodemographic factors, chronic disease, and social support), both men and women who reported high overall noise annoyance showed more than doubled odds of impaired mental health compared to those who were not annoyed. The odds of impaired mental health in the highest noise annoyance category from road traffic and neighbours were also significantly increased. These findings indicate that high noise annoyance is associated with impaired mental health and that this association can vary with the source of environmental noise. Further research on covariates of this association is necessary. Particularly, longitudinal data are required to establish the direction of associations and to address questions of causality.

  14. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ahdieh, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bentley, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  15. Environmental justice: Implications for siting of Federal Radioactive Waste Management Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, J.B.; Poles, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental justice is a term that has developed as a result of our need to address whether some of the environmental decisions we have made -- and others we will make -- are fair. The idea of environmental justice has been actively pursued by the Clinton Administration, and this consideration has resulted in Executive Order 12898, which was signed by President Clinton on February 11, 1994. The Executive Order calls for adverse impacts of Federal actions on minority or low-income populations to be identified before decisions implementing those actions are made. Numerous studies show that noxious facilities, such as incinerators and landfills, have been constructed in minority or low-income communities. And since the Department has not yet decided on sites for high-level waste storage or disposal facilities, it will have to take the new Executive Order into consideration as another piece in the complicated quilt of requirements that cover facility siting. An interesting twist to this is the fact that twenty Native American Indian Tribes expressed interest in voluntarily hosting a high-level radioactive waste management facility for temporary storage. They made these expressions on their own initiative, and several Tribes continue to pursue the idea of negotiations with either the Federal Government or private entities to locate a temporary storage site on Tribal land. The Executive Order goes beyond simply studying the effect of siting a facility and addresses in spirit a criticism that the Federal Government has been guilty of open-quotes environmental racismclose quotes in its siting policies -- that it has intentionally picked minority or low-income communities for waste management facilities. What Department of Energy staff and others may have considered foregone conclusions in terms of interim storage facility siting and transportation options will have to be reevaluated for compatibility with provisions of the new Executive Order

  16. Geogenic heavy metal concentrations in German soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindel, R.; Fleige, H.

    1990-01-01

    In the area of the German Federal Republic, 6,300 soil samples of 526 soil profiles were examined for the concentrations of lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, mercury, antimony, arsenic and lithium. The soil profiles were selected so that the prevailing loose and solid rock floors of the German Federal Republic were represented. The analysis data of these samples formed the basis for the calculation of average geogenic heavy metal concentrations in the soils of the German Federal Republic. (orig.) [de

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MANAGEMENT IN THE NORTH CAUCASIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Musayev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to assess the environmental problems in the North Caucasus Federal District of the Russian Federation. Methods. An analysis of the literature and own research at a high anthropogenic pressure on agricultural land through the development of more stringent criteria for assessing the already degraded areas. Results. In the Stavropol region, Andropov district is in the most catastrophic state: of eight ratings five have the highest (fifth catastrophic degree degree of degradation; two the first (low and one rating has the second (middle. On the territory of Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, the highest degree of degradation of agricultural land is assigned to rocky ground, where it has a catastrophic rate of 9.76 points. For agricultural workers on steppe plains, the priority is to fight against deflation, as there is also a high degradation level 6.67 (above catastrophic. Conclusion. It was established that in the North Caucasus Federal District the system of rational use of land should be of environmental and resource-conserving nature and provide for the preservation of the soil, limiting the impact on flora and fauna, geological formations, and other components of the environment.

  18. The German lignite industry. Historical development, resources, technology, economic structures and environmental impact. Study; Die deutsche Braunkohlenwirtschaft. Historische Entwicklungen, Ressourcen, Technik, wirtschaftliche Strukturen und Umweltauswirkungen. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-05-15

    Lignite has a key role to play in the transformation of the energy system due to its specific structural features in terms of industry, company history, policy, economics, the environment and regional structures. Understanding these structural features of the German lignite industry is an important requirement for classifying the significance of the lignite industry up to now and for the redesigning of this industrial sector. From these environmental, economic and regulatory structural characteristics, which are interwoven in a variety of ways, the incentives arise for the mining and power plant operators to react to energy price signals or energy policy steering. The aim of this research study is to define these structural features, to compile comprehensively the basic data and information that is not always transparently available, to understand the interactions, to enable the navigation of issues that are partly very complex, and to classify into the long-term developments that are especially important for political and social processes. In 2016 approx. 12 percent of German primary energy consumption was met using lignite. At the same time, lignite has the highest carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the fossil fuels; it currently accounts for approx. 19 percent of Germany's total greenhouse gas emissions as well as approx. 46 percent of the total CO2 emissions of the electricity sector. As a result of the mining of lignite and its conversion into electricity, substantial adverse impacts beyond the entry of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere arise for other environmental media. These impacts include half of Germany's mercury emissions, approx. a third of its sulfur dioxide emissions and approx. a tenth of its nitrogen oxide emissions. Lignite mining in open-cast mines takes up a substantial amount of landscape and soil and requires huge interventions in the water balance. Relatively high costs arise for the recultivation and rehabilitation

  19. Evolution of the system of environmental taxes and charges in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Shuvalova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the development of the system of taxes and fees on natural resources in the Russian Federation from 1991 to 2017. The authors note that within the period under review, the system of natural resource taxation has undergone significant changes related to the political and economic transformational processes in the Russian Federation. The last few years of modernization of the domestic economy have required a review of the attitude towards rental income, nature management and the environment as a whole. The last fact is confirmed by the fact that the current year is declared the year of ecology in our country. The aim of the study is to summarize information on the structural elements of the system of environmental taxes, fees and payments in the Russian Federation. The main focus of the authors’ attention is directed to mechanisms for regulating the consumption of natural resources by both natural and legal persons, as well as the need to restore natural potential after consumption within the framework of financial and production activities of economic entities in the Russian Federation. The main analytical materials of the study were the Russian legal framework and accompanying regulatory by-laws in the field of taxation, official explanations of the relevant authorities, accompanying analytical and statistical materials, publications of scientific and periodicals. In order to increase the objectivity of the conclusions, the following methods were used: the method of scientific abstraction, analysis, synthesis, comparison, modeling, grouping of data. In addition, an analysis of the scientific literature, the legal framework was applied. The result of the study was the identification of two basic categories of payments. Environmental taxes (mineral extraction tax, water tax, land tax, transport tax and environmental charges (collection for use of wildlife and aquatic biological resources. One-time and regular

  20. On German Unity 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 3 October 1990 the division of Germany into two states came to an end. The. German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany and in doing so ceased to exist. This epoch-making event took place peacefully and in agreement with all Germany's friends, allies and European neighbours.

  1. Environmental situation in Austria. Seventh state of the environment report of the federal minister of environment to the national assembly of the Austrian parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Banko, G.; Baumann, R.

    2004-01-01

    With the presentation of the seventh state of the Environment Report, the Umweltbundesamt - Austrian Environment Agency - fulfils its legal obligation of submitting detailed information on the state of the environment in Austria, thus providing the National Assembly of the Austrian Parliament as well as the Federal Government with an objective basis of data and information. It covers the period under review of 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2003 (unless stated otherwise) and is organized in 6 chapters: 1.- Sustainable development; 2.- Man and environment; 3.- Environmental impacts (agriculture, forest management and hunting, water resource management, energy industry, spatial planning, transport, the handling of chemicals, the application of pesticides and biocidal products, the application of genetically modified organisms, industry, waste management, contaminated sites, and noise); 4.- Environmental media (water, air, soil); 5.- Fauna, flora, habitats (biodiversity, nature protection, national parks in Austria, forest, agricultural habitats, Alpine regions) and 6.- Special chapters (greenhouse emissions and climate change, floods). In order to facilitate orientation, chapters 2-5 has been structured as follows: The 'Introduction' gives an overview of the conditions relevant for Austria as well as the current situation - if applicable also in comparison with other countries, the subchapter 'Environmental policy targets' lists the goals relevant for the respective topic specified in or to be derived from national or EU-wide laws, regulations, ordinances, plans or strategies; 'Situation and Trends' describes the current situation as well as future trends as far as they are detectable; the subchapter 'Summary Assessment and Outlook' compares the status quo with the trends contained in the 'Environmental policy targets'; the subchapter 'Recommendations' contains, from a point of view of precautionary environmental protection, recommendations of measures to guarantee

  2. World environmental policy. Conceptual approaches of German political science in response to the challenges of Global Change; Weltumweltpolitik - Global Change als Herausforderung fuer die deutsche Politikwissenschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Dingwerth, K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes, first, the international community of social scientists working on global change, and elaborates on possible contributions to this community by German political scientists. Second, the paper examines three new conceptual approaches to analysing global change, namely the Syndromes of Global Change approach, Earth System Analysis, and Sustainability Science. The paper then elaborates on a number of ways in which German political science could respond to the academic and political challenges posed by global change. It concludes by emphasizing the need for a new approach, focusing on 'world environmental policy analysis' that would bridge traditional (environmental) policy analysis, international relations research, and comparative politics. (orig.) [German] Der Aufsatz beschreibt die Wissenschaftslandschaft der internationalen sozialwissenschaftlichen Global-Change-Forschung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf moegliche Beitraege der deutschen Politologie. Mit den 'Syndromen des Globalen Wandels', der 'Erdsystemanalyse' und der 'Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft' werden drei neuere konzeptionelle Innovationen vorgestellt, mit denen der Herausforderung des Globalen Wandels begegnet werden soll. Anschliessend werden Wege skizziert, wie die Politikwissenschaft auf die neuen gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Probleme des Globalen Wandels reagieren koennte. Eine Schlussfolgerung ist ein Plaedoyer fuer die Entwicklung einer eigenstaendigen Weltumweltpolitik-Analyse an der Schnittstelle von traditioneller Policy-Analyse, Internationalen Beziehungen/Aussenpolitik sowie Komparatistik. (orig./CB)

  3. Revised and new reference values for environmental pollutants in urine or blood of children in Germany derived from the German environmental survey on children 2003-2006 (GerES IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christine; Angerer, Jürgen; Ewers, Ulrich; Heudorf, Ursel; Wilhelm, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Based on the representative data collection of the German Environmental Survey on Children 2003-2006 (GerES IV) the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency has updated the reference values for a comprehensive number of environmental pollutants in blood and urine of children in Germany. Reference values are statistically derived values that indicate the upper margin of background exposure to a given pollutant in a given population at a given time. They can be used as criteria to classify the measured values of individuals or population groups as being "elevated" or "not elevated". Since environmental conditions are changing, reference values are continuously checked and updated if new information becomes available. Therefore, the previously derived reference values for metabolites of pyrethroids (cis-, trans-Cl(2)Ca and 3-PBA: 1, 2, and 2microg/l), of PAH (1-hydroxypyrene: 0.5microg/l), for arsenic in urine (15microg/l), and for PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180 in whole blood (0.3, 0.4, 0.3microg/l) and for DDE (western Germany) in whole blood (0.7microg/l) were confirmed. The following reference values were lowered: lead in blood from 50 to 35microg/l, cadmium in urine from 0.5 to 0.2microg/l, mercury in whole blood from 1.0 to 0.8microg/l, mercury in urine from 0.7 to 0.4microg/l, beta-HCH in whole blood from 0.3 to 0.1microg/l, HCB in whole blood from 0.3 to 0.2microg/l, and DMP in urine from 135 to 75microg/l, and DMTP in urine from 160 to 100microg/l. Based on the extended data set of the GerES IV, the reference value for the sum of PCB 138+153+180 in whole blood of children aged 7 to 14 was raised from 0.9 to 1.0microg/l. The reference value for DEP in urine of children aged 3 to 14 was raised from 16 to 30microg/l. New reference values in urine of children aged 3 to 14 living in Germany were derived for antimony (0.3microg/l), nickel (4.5microg/l), thallium (0.6microg/l), uranium (0.04microg/l), metabolites of organophosphorous

  4. Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-07-01

    Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients' needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL's Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs

  5. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  6. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 A bout the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies , which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  7. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  8. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Economy. Updating for the year 2010; Umweltschaedliche Subventionen in Deutschland. Wirtschaft. Aktualisierte Ausgabe 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    In the background paper under consideration, the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the following topics: (a) The most important environmentally harmful subsidies; (b) State of the art and development of environmentally harmful subsidies at a glance; (c) Environmentally oriented controlling of subsidies: The 'environmental check' for subsidies.

  9. Report of the Federal Government to the German Bundestag, concerning environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in the year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The effective dose from natural radiation sources, which in contrast to the genetically significant dose also includes the dose to the lungs due to radon, was 2.4 mSv on the average, with a mean deviation of roughly 1 mSv. Medical applications of radioactive substances and ionizing radiation contributed approximately 1.5 mSv effective dose, but due to unavoidable uncertainties in statistics, these values may vary by up to 50%. The radiation dose to the population due to the Chernobyl accident decreased in 1991 to 1% of the natural radiation exposure (2.4 mSv). The radiation dose due to radon concentration in buildings contributed about 50% of the natural radiation exposure. The nuclear installations contribution to the effective dose to the population in 1991 was less than 1% of the anthropogeneous radiation exposure, which for the most part stems from medical applications of ionizing radiation, particularly biomedical radiography. The contribution of occupational radiation exposure to this dose category still remained below 1%. (orig.) [de

  10. Risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food. Comments by the German Federal Environmental Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, A.; Neumeier, G.; Rappolder, M.; Konietzka, R. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Potential health effects of dioxins are an important issue of concern to both politicians and the public. As all humans are exposed to measurable levels of dioxins and related substances, the determination of the tolerated daily intake is a very significant decision. Moreover the revision of this value is not only of academic interest but may also directly influence limit values guiding risk reduction measures, target levels such as those for tolerated residues in food. Council Regulation (EC) No 2375/2001 (setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in food) states in 11: ''Target levels indicate the levels to be achieved in order to ultimately bring human exposure for the majority of the population down to the TWI set by the Scientific Committee''. These target values will be set before 31 December 2004. Thus the level of the TDI may indirectly influence entire sectors of industry in some member countries such as the fish industry of some Nordic States or the feed industry throughout the European Union. Recommendations of a daily intake should involve a very low likelihood of a risk for humans. In particular some prerequisites have to be fulfilled: The proposed TDI has to protect all subpopulations. In the case of dioxin this is of high importance as the exposure of infants through breast feeding may exceed the exposure of adults by one or two orders of magnitude. The degree of uncertainty should be indicated at every step of the risk assessment as requested by the Communication from the Commission on the Precautionary Principle ''Where possible, a report should be made which indicates the assessment of the existing knowledge and the available information, providing the views of the scientists on the reliability of the assessment as well as on the remaining uncertainties. If necessary, it should also contain the identification of topics for further scientific research'' Uncertainty of the models applied should be characterised carefully and assumptions made should be checked for their plausibility. Epidemiological findings should complement the risk assessment based on animal experiments.

  11. Introduction to the integrated environmental management: a case study at the federal office of brazilian research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria Cecilia Cavalcante da, E-mail: msilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The globalization process establishment has been a major impulse for profound transformations as to environmental issues in the social, political and economic scenario of both industrialized and developing countries. Within this scope, the concern with climate changes, global warming, biodiversity, population growth and public health have promoted the dissemination of environmental values and the induction to a community participative culture. Notwithstanding, a growing demand by the society related to the environment and social issues has been evidenced, converging the environmental theme to a holistic approach and, also, to the life quality concern. Therefore, private and public organizations have given more attention to issues involving their internal and external clients and/or users, in view of their products or services and social aspects, including those covering their workers and collaborators health and safety: with this overall purpose, an Integrated Management System (IMS) for Quality, Environment, Health and Safety was created. This management policy has been, commonly, employed in the private sector, even though a small, but yet expressive part of it refers to the public area. In face of this scenario, it may be foreseen that the motivations for adopting such management tool and the methods used for this goal may differ, according to the economic context. Under this point of view, this work had the target of analyzing, qualitatively, the process of setting the IMS in a federal. Eventually, a targeted result was to identify advantages and disadvantages for a public institution. (author)

  12. Introduction to the integrated environmental management: a case study at the federal office of brazilian research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maria Cecilia Cavalcante da

    2013-01-01

    The globalization process establishment has been a major impulse for profound transformations as to environmental issues in the social, political and economic scenario of both industrialized and developing countries. Within this scope, the concern with climate changes, global warming, biodiversity, population growth and public health have promoted the dissemination of environmental values and the induction to a community participative culture. Notwithstanding, a growing demand by the society related to the environment and social issues has been evidenced, converging the environmental theme to a holistic approach and, also, to the life quality concern. Therefore, private and public organizations have given more attention to issues involving their internal and external clients and/or users, in view of their products or services and social aspects, including those covering their workers and collaborators health and safety: with this overall purpose, an Integrated Management System (IMS) for Quality, Environment, Health and Safety was created. This management policy has been, commonly, employed in the private sector, even though a small, but yet expressive part of it refers to the public area. In face of this scenario, it may be foreseen that the motivations for adopting such management tool and the methods used for this goal may differ, according to the economic context. Under this point of view, this work had the target of analyzing, qualitatively, the process of setting the IMS in a federal. Eventually, a targeted result was to identify advantages and disadvantages for a public institution. (author)

  13. Loneliness as Related to Various Personality and Environmental Measures: Research with the German Adaptation of the UCLA Loneliness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Ekkehard; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Administered University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale, Freiburg Personality Inventory, and other questions to 247 West German college students. Loneliness was found to be correlated with several personality subscales (psychosomatic complaints, depression, and neuroticism; negative correlation with social skills, self-esteem,…

  14. High-Speed Maglev Trains; German Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This document is a translation of technology-specific safety requirements developed : for the German Transrapid Maglev technology. These requirements were developed by a : working group composed of representatives of German Federal Railways (DB), Tes...

  15. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.285 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction...

  16. Safety climate in the federal fire management community: Influences of organizational, environmental, group, and individual characteristics (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Baldauf McBride; Anne E. Black

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organizational, environmental, group and individual characteristics on five components of safety climate in the US federal fire management community (HRO Practices, Leadership, Group Culture, Learning Orientation and Mission Clarity). Multiple analyses of variance revealed that all types of characteristics had a significant effect on...

  17. Safety climate in the US federal wildland fire management community: influences of organizational, environmental, group, and individual characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Brooke Baldauf. McBride

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational, environmental, group and individual characteristics on five components of safety climate (High Reliability Organising Practices, Leadership, Group Culture, Learning Orientation and Mission Clarity) in the US federal wildland fire management community. Of particular interest were differences between perceptions based on...

  18. Fourth report by the Federal German Government to the Bundestag on measures for the protection of the ozone layer; 4. Bericht der Bundesregierung an den Deutschen Bundestag ueber Massnahmen zum Schutz der Ozonschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report, which relates the situation as of July 1997, again confirms the internationally leading role of the Federal German Republic in the phase-out of CFCs. No country has realised a more comprehensive concept for the phase-out of substances that deplete the ozone layer. Combining statutory and voluntary measures has proved a path-breaking approach. One of the most important driving forces in the CFC phase-out were the restrictions of use imposed by the Ordinance on the Prohibition of CFCs and Halon. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Dieser Bericht - mit Stand vom Juli 1997 - bestaetigt erneut die internationale Fuehrungsrolle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beim FCKW-Ausstieg. In keinem anderen Staaat wurde ein umfassenderes Konzept zum Ausstieg aus den ozonabbauenden Stoffen realisiert. Als wegweisend hat sich dabei die Verknuepfung ordnungsrechtlicher und freiwilliger Massnahem erwiesen. Insbesondere von den Verwendungsbeschraenkungen der FCKW-Halon-Verbots-Verordnung gingen wichtige Impulse beim FCKW-Ausstieg aus. (orig./SR)

  19. Reactor safety in industrial nuclear power plants. Developments in a political and technical environment as it prevails in the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufs, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The present book describes the development of reactor safety in German light-water nuclear power plants from the beginnings with its multifarious links to model solutions seen in other countries, national and international research projects and accidents in conventional and nuclear power plants. It contains detailed, richly illustrated articles on specific safety techniques such as rupture safety of the pressurised envelope, safeguarding of emergency cooling in the event of accidents involving coolant loss, control technology and protection of the surroundings through containment. The results of national and international risk studies are discussed. It is shown how efforts on the part of industry, government and science to enhance safety resources and improve safety culture have been driven by a civic environment in which the use of nuclear energy has become a central issue of political debate. The book is written in readily comprehensible language and offers a wealth of material for further study.

  20. Environmental justice and U.S. Forest Service hazardous fuels reduction: A spatial method for impact assessment of federal resource management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D.O. Adams; Susan Charnley

    2018-01-01

    Natural resource managers of federal lands in the USA are often tasked with various forms of social and economic impact analysis. Federal agencies in the USA also have a mandate to analyze the potential environmental justice consequences of their activities. Relatively little is known about the environmental justice impacts of natural resource management in rural areas...

  1. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany. Updating for the year 2016; Umweltschaedliche Subventionen in Deutschland. Aktualisierte Ausgabe 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeder, Lea; Burger, Andreas

    2016-12-15

    The contribution on environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany (Updating for the year 2016) includes the following issues: Why the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions is necessary; subventions and related processes; international initiatives for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions, routes for the reduction of environmentally harmful subventions.

  2. German Environmental Survey of Children (GerES IV) - environmental module of KiGGS. Pt. 1. Design and research programme; Kinder-Umwelt-Survey - das Umweltmodul im KiGGS. Teil 1. Konzeption und Untersuchungsprogramm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, C.; Babisch, W. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Becker, K. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (DE)] (and others)

    2004-11-15

    The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) is the environment-oriented module of the National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) which is being performed nationwide in Germany. Form 2003 to 2006, a random subsample of 1800 children aged 3-14 years is being studied with regard to their body burden and health impairments linked to housing conditions and the personal environment- and health-relevant behaviour. The basic study programme includes the analysis of blood, urine, tap water and house dust as well as the application of an extensive questionnaire. The data gained from this population sample, which is representative for Germany's children, are the basis for deriving reference values to characterise the background exposure of children aged 3-14 years. Trends over time can be detected and the success of environmental policies verified by comparing the data with those of the German Environmental Survey 1990/92 (GerES II), also conducted in close cooperation with the National Health Survey, which included children aged 6-14 years. By linking the data from the Environmental and the Health Surveys, health-relevant environmental exposures can be detected and different scientific hypotheses can be tested. The main subjects that are being dealt with using subcollectives of GerES IV are ''VOC and eye and nasopharynx irritation'', ''indoor allergens and allergic diseases of the respiratory system'', ''chromium, nickel, fragrances and contact allergens'', and ''noise, hearing capacity and stress hormones''. (orig.)

  3. Legal regulations of subsoil use and environmental protection in the Khanti-Mansiisk Autonomous Okrug of the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebotarev, G.; Gladun, E. F. [Tyumen State University, (Russian Federation)

    2001-06-30

    Factors involved in the development of legislation to define the legal basis for subsoil-use regulation and environmental protection in the Khanti-Mansiisk Autonomous Okrug, a constituent part of the Russian Federation, is described. A parallel is drawn between these efforts and the protection afforded in Canada, and especially in the Province of Alberta, to subsoil use, with particular praise reserved for the involvement of indigenous people in formulating the Canadian legislation. The process in Canada was aided by the much clearer definition of the powers of the different levels of governments. In the opinion of the authors a more precise delimitation of the of the authority of government agencies of the Russian Federation, its subjects and local government agencies is essential before effective environmental protection legislation can be developed. The Canadian experience is cited as a good example of how these changes could be implemented in Russia. 11 end notes.

  4. [The federal politics of basic sanitation and the initiatives of participation, mobilization, social control, health and environmental education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisés, Márcia; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Monteiro, Sandra Conceição Ferreira

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to accomplish a critical analysis of two governmental important programs in health and environmental education - Health Education and Social Mobilization Program (PESMS) and Environmental Education and Sanitation Social Mobilization Program (PEAMSS), aiming at stimulate participative educational actions and social mobilization in sanitation projects. The methodology was based on reading and analysis of documents and observation in Workshops, Meetings, Seminars, Conventions, Congresses and Interviews. The authors describe the process of Program creation - PESMS and PEAMSS. They promoted a reflection and thought about Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education. They also made considerations about the difficulties, facilities, advances and challenges in the implantation and implementation of PESMS and PEAMSS in the fundament for the realization of the public services of basic sanitation. They conclude that the creation of conditions by means of initiatives of Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education become necessary for the development of Federal Policies of Basic Sanitation.

  5. Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement. Quarterly report for the Environmental Restoration Program. Volume 4, July 1995--September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This quarterly progress report satisfies requirements for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program that are specified in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The reporting period covered herein is July through September 1995 (fourth quarter of FY 1995). Sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide respectively the milestones scheduled for completion during the reporting period and a list of documents that have been proposed for transmittal during the following quarter but have not been approved as FY 1995 commitments

  6. 78 FR 36298 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Federal Way Transit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ...The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and the Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Authority (Sound Transit) are planning to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Sound Transit's proposed Federal Way Transit Extension (FWTE) project. The FWTE project would allow Sound Transit to improve public transit service between the cities of SeaTac and Federal Way in King County, Washington. The FWTE project would also respond to a growing number of transportation and community needs identified in the agency's regional transit system plan, Sound Transit 2 (ST2). The EIS will be prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Washington's State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). This Notice of Intent initiates formal scoping for the EIS, invites interested parties to participate in the EIS process, provides information about the purpose and need for the proposed transit project, includes the general set of alternatives being considered for evaluation in the EIS, and identifies potential environmental effects to be considered. This notice invites public comments on the scope of the EIS and announces the public scoping meetings to receive comments. Alternatives being considered for evaluation include a No-Build alternative and various build alternatives to develop light rail in the FWTE corridor. The light rail alternatives were developed through an early scoping process, and an alternatives analysis study. Early scoping notification for the alternatives analysis phase was announced in the Federal Register on October 16, 2012. Results of the early scoping process, the alternatives analysis findings, and other background technical reports are available on the project Web site.

  7. [Utilization of Rehabilitation after Disk Surgery - A Cross-Sectoral Analysis of Claims Data from Statutory Health Insurance and German Federal Pension Fund].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenmaier, Julia; Ritter, Sabrina; Jankowiak, Silke; Kaluscha, Rainer; Krischak, Gert

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify relevant factors that influence utilization and interim period between hospitalization and postoperative rehabilitation after disk surgery. Logistic regression was performed for utilization of an early postoperative rehabilitation and for an interim period, when patients were going to a rehabilitation facility (directly after hospitalization or after a period at home) on claims data from statutory pension insurance and statutory health insurance. Increased utilization of postoperative rehabilitation was found in older and German patients. Moreover, adiposity and additional physiotherapy in hospital increased the utilization of postoperative rehabilitation, while blood transfusion during hospitalization was an inhibiting factor.Female gender, older age and additional physiotherapy in hospital decreased the probability for an interim period between hospitalization and postoperative rehabilitation. However, the probability for an interim period increased from 2005 to 2010. Utilization and interim period between hospitalization and postoperative rehabilitation meet patient's needs and seem adequate. Nevertheless, there are indications for under-utilization of certain patient groups (foreign citizens, unemployed persons, male patients). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. 75 FR 22754 - Federal Advisory Committee; Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Chief of Engineers Environmental... environmental issues facing the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The Secretary of the Army may act upon the Board's... may submit written statements to the Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board's membership...

  9. Proceedings of the 7th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steininger, Walter [Karisruhe Inst. of Technology (Germany); Bollingerfehr, Willhelm [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    The 7th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Washington, DC on September 7-9, 2016. Over fifty participants representing governmental agencies, internationally recognized salt research groups, universities, and private companies helped advance the technical basis for salt disposal of radioactive waste. Representatives from several United States federal agencies were able to attend, including the Department of Energy´s Office of Environmental Management and Office of Nuclear Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. A similar representation from the German ministries showcased the covenant established in a Memorandum of Understanding executed between the United States and Germany in 2011. The US/German workshops´ results and activities also contribute significantly to the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club repository research agenda.

  10. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-Federal participation in AC Intertie: Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering action in two areas: (1) non-Federal access to the AC Intertie, and, (2) BPA Intertie marketing. BPA's preferred alternative for non-Federal access is the Capacity Ownership alternative combined with the Increased Assured Delivery -- Access for Non-Scheduling Utilities alternative; the preferred alternative for BPA Intertie marketing is the Federal Marketing and Joint Ventures alternative. BPA considered these two areas previously in its Intertie Development and Use EIS of April 1988. The EIS resulted in BPA decisions to participate in the construction of the Third AC Intertie, to allow non-Federal access to BPA's share of the Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest (PNW-PSW) Intertie (AC and DC lines) pursuant to a Long-Term Intertie Access Policy (LTIAP), and to pursue BPA's export marketing alternative. The decision on allowing direct financial non-Federal participation in the Third AC line was deferred to a later, separate process, examined here. Also, BPA's export marketing objectives must now be examined in view of changed operations of Columbia River hydro facilities for improved fish survival

  12. [Adaptation to climate change-associated health risks as a task of environmental health protection. Analysis of a nationwide investigation by the Federal Environment Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandarr, J; Reckert, H; Mücke, H-G

    2014-10-01

    The German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (DAS, 2008) identified 'human health' as an important sector with a need for adaptation. In line with the DAS, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) and the Robert Koch Institute jointly elaborated guidelines for decision makers and stakeholders. Building on these, in 2013/2014, UBA has conducted a nationwide survey, collecting data on completed, ongoing and planned adaptation measures. UBA also analysed 32 adaptation strategies of the Federal States. Selected best practice examples of potential health-related prevention and adaptation measures concerning heat stress, UV radiation exposure and the spread of Ambrosia artemisiifolia are presented in this article. The data collection with more than 330 activities can be found on the website of the German National Environment and Health Action Plan (APUG; www.apug.de , in German only). In the course of this project, the APUG website was also significantly extended with comprehensive information and overviews on health risks of climate change, hence creating a central platform for this particular topic.

  13. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  14. Environmental protection : federal incentives could help promote land use that protects air and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-31

    The U. S. General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to examine how (1) state and local transportation and air and water quality officials consider impacts of land use on the environment and (2) federal agencies can help these officials assess land us...

  15. 3 CFR 13514 - Executive Order 13514 of October 5, 2009. Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and prevent pollution; leverage agency acquisitions to foster markets for sustainable technologies and...) promote pollution prevention and eliminate waste by: (i) minimizing the generation of waste and pollutants... shuttle bus and vehicle transportation routes supported by multiple Federal agencies, and use of...

  16. The political setting of the environmentalist movement in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, H.J.; Kessel, H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper, aimed at the non-German public, gives a short impression of the political dimensions of the environmental movement in the Federal Republic of Germany. It shows that the former environmental protection groups have developed into new political parties which were successful in the last elections at the state level. Special emphasis is placed on the interrelations between the environmental movement and the peace movement. (orig.) [de

  17. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  18. 76 FR 40368 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Environmentally Sound Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Environmentally Sound Products AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General... submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning environmentally sound products. DATES...

  19. Environmentally harmful subventions in the Federal Republic of Germany; Umweltschaedliche Subventionen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Holger; Burger, Andreas; Thiele, Karen

    2008-07-01

    The quality of environmental goods such as climate, water, ground or air has a high value in the population. This also is reflected in the public and private expenditures for environmental protection. The state intervenes with subventions in the economical production process and in the individual decisions of the household consumer. The present practice of subvention does not promote a sustainable development to a large extent neither from ecological view nor from economic view. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the most important environmental harmful subventions within the ranges energy supply and energy utilization, traffic, building industry and housing, agriculture. Moreover an environmentally referred controlling of subvention is described in order to dismantle systematically environmentally harmful subventions and to a sustainable policy of subvention.

  20. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF URBAN ENVIRONMENT OF SETTLEMENTS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Alekseevich Sumerkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many millenia have passed since the appearance of cities, and, as cities form a specific type of social-spatial organization of population, they feature a great number of environmental problems. Only a few of those problems were solved successfully: centralized water supply and drainage system; centralized disposal of liquid and solid household waste. Mass production of automotive transportation solved the problem of pollution of the city streets with draft, package, and mount animals, while introducing other hazardous factors. This article features a summary of scientific research on environmental safety of urban environment in the largest settlements of the Russian Federation under conditions of declared stable development of society (self reproduction of natural environment in the last 15 years. It stresses the necessity for more integrated approach to assessment of environmental safety not only in the Russian Federation, but in all countries due to the fact that influence of human activities on natural environment is increasing, and more active measures should be taken in order to create comfortable living environment in the urban areas.

  1. Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement for the Environmental Restoration Program. Volume 1, Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement Quarterly Report for the Environmental Restoration Program was prepared to satisfy requirements for progress reporting on Environmental Restoration Program (ER) activities as specified in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The reporting period covered in this document is October through December 1995. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04 (Activity Data Sheet 8304). Publication of this document meets two FFA milestones. The FFA Quarterly Report meets an FFA milestone defined as 30 days following the end of the applicable reporting period. Appendix A of this report meets the FFA milestone for the Annual Removal Action Report for the period FYs 1991--95. This document provides information about ER Program activities conducted on the Oak Ridge Reservation under the FFA. Specifically, it includes information on milestones scheduled for completion during the reporting period, as well as scheduled for completion during the next reporting period (quarter); accomplishments of the ER Program; concerns related to program work; and scheduled activities for the next quarter. It also provides a listing of the identity and assigned tasks of contractors performing ER Program work under the FFA.

  2. Environmental emission of multiresistant Escherichia coli carrying the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 from German swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Sebastian; Falgenhauer, Linda; Semmler, Torsten; Imirzalioglu, Can; Chakraborty, Trinad; Roesler, Uwe; Roschanski, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    Pigs have been the focus of the worldwide spread of colistin resistance. However, there is little information on the transmission of mcr-1 -containing bacteria into the environment of pig farms. We therefore rescreened environmental Escherichia coli isolates from the surrounding farm areas of three previously mcr-1 -positive swine herds in Germany. Thirty-five mixed bacterial cultures obtained from boot swabs, flies, dog faeces and manure from three pig farms in Germany in 2011-12 were non-selectively recultivated and the presence of the mcr-1 gene was checked by real-time PCR. After separation, single E. coli colonies were subsequently isolated and the presence of mcr-1 was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. In addition, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance screening and WGS followed by phylogenetic analysis and resistance genotyping as well as plasmid typing were performed. Seven mcr-1 -positive E. coli strains originating from environmental boot swabs, dog faeces, stable flies and manure were found. The isolates belonged to five different STs (ST10, ST1011, ST1140, ST5281 and ST342) and harboured extensive additional resistance genes. Comparative plasmid analysis predominantly located mcr-1 on IncX4 plasmids, which are strongly related to a recently described plasmid of human clinical origin (pICBEC72Hmcr). WGS-based analysis of the environmental E. coli isolates of farm surroundings showed clear links to mcr-1 -harbouring E. coli recovered from pig production in Europe as well as from human clinical isolates worldwide, presenting another piece of the puzzle, which further complicates the rapidly evolving epidemiology of plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant E. coli strains. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Examination of the low frequency limit for helicopter noise data in the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool and Integrated Noise Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aircraft noise modeling tools Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDTc) and Integrated Noise Model (INM) do not currently consider noise below 50 Hz in their computations. This paper describes a preliminary ...

  4. Nuclear know-how strengthens the competiveness of German industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The plenary speakers from politics and industry appealed to the public not to jeopardize the competitiveness of German industry; Germany had to remain one of the leading indusrialized countries. If nuclear power were given up in Germany, this would have negative impacts on the standard of living, on social security, employment, and on environmental policy. Opting out of nuclear power was tantamount to a decline, stated the German Federal Minister of Economics. The papers presented at the plenary sessions covered the current situation of nuclear power in Germany; the possible acceptance of nuclear technology as a result of advanced technical developments; the status and perspectives of nuclear installations for the nuclear fuel cycle in Germany; the possibilities and limits of reactor safety research. Excerpts from these presentations are covered in a report. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Daily intake and hazard index of parabens based upon 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rebecca K; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, exposure to parabens has become more of a concern because of evidence of ubiquitous exposure in the general population, combined with evidence of their potency as endocrine disruptors. New human metabolism data from oral exposure experiments enable us to back calculate daily paraben intakes from urinary paraben levels. We report daily intakes (DIs) for six parabens based on 660 24 h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank collected between 1995 and 2012. Median DI values ranged between 1.1 μg/kg bw/day for iso-butyl paraben and 47.5 μg/kg bw/day for methyl paraben. The calculated DIs were compared with acceptable levels of exposure to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) that indicate that acceptable exposure is exceeded for values of >1. Approximately 5% of our study population exceeded this threshold for individual paraben exposure. The hazard index (HI) that takes into account the cumulative risk of adverse estrogenic effects was 1.3 at the 95th percentile and 4.4 at maximum intakes, mainly driven by n-propyl paraben exposure. HI values of >1 indicate some level of concern. However, we have to point out that we applied most conservative assumptions in the HQ/HI calculations. Also, major exposure reduction measures were enacted in the European Union after 2012.

  6. The Federal Energy Technology Center annual site environmental report for calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-31

    A comprehensive Directives Program aimed at environmental, safety, and health requirements and risks was initiated in 1997 and will be completed in late 1999 or early 2000. The primary objective of the program is to identify or develop a set of standards that, when implemented, provides reasonable assurance that the health and safety of the workers, public, and the environment will be protected during the performance of the work. In conjunction with the Directives Program, the use of the voluntary environmental management system, ISO 14000, was evaluated. This includes the only environmental management standard to which an entity can be registered. Plans are to consider the specifications and guidance from this standard in the identification of an effective environmental management system for the merged FETC sites. A performance measurement system continued to be maintained during 1998 to assist in evaluating how effectively activities at FETC meet mission-critical goals and how well missions and strategies are connected in the DOE strategic plan. This system also provides data to assist in gauging performance against the DOE critical success factors, that is, performance against technical objectives. Various environmental milestones can be tracked to completion, thus giving the FETC measures by which to gauge the site's goals of remaining in regulatory compliance and achieving best-in-class environmental performance.

  7. Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement quarterly report for the Environmental Restoration Program, Volume 1, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly progress report satisfies requirements for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program which are specified in the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The reporting period covered is October through December 1992(first quarter of FY 1993). Sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide respectively the milestones scheduled for completion during the reporting period and a list of documents that have been proposed for transmittal during the following quarter but have not been formally approved as FY 1993 commitments. This first section is followed by: significant accomplishments; technical status at Y-12 operable units, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge K-25 site, Clinch River, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and technical oversight and technical programs; and response action contractor assignments

  8. Testing Language, Testing Ethnicity? Policies and Practices Surrounding the Ethnic German "Aussiedler"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupbach, Doris

    2009-01-01

    "Aussiedler" are ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries who are granted the right to resettle in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) if they can provide evidence of German ancestry, attachment to the German language and culture, and ongoing assertion of German ethnicity. This article outlines…

  9. 30 years of monitoring environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The individual sections of the report describe the development of monitoring functions and of the contamination of the atmosphere and the biosphere by radioactive substances. After environmental radioactivity due to the fallout of nuclear explosions reached a peak level in 1963, its contribution to radiation exposure today is insignificant in comparison with natural radioactivity. Moreover, monitoring by authorities of the emissions and the environmental impact of nuclear installations has been extended during the past 20 years in such a way that the existing network of measuring stations takes full account of the increased number of nuclear installations. The monitoring results show that nuclear installations do not make any considerable contribution to environmental radioactivity. (orig./PW) [de

  10. Negotiating community engagement and science in the federal environmental public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Peter C

    2009-06-01

    In this case study, I use ethnographic data to explore how community engagement and science are deployed at the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, with the goal of formulating an understanding of the personalized meanings of science-community relations for key environmental public health experts. In focus is the cultural discourse circulating in the agency that exposes the real concerns, beliefs, and attitudes of these scientists and experts vis-&-vis their community engagement experiences. Finally, I propose that critical attention to the place of power relations, knowledge politics, and environmental justice are fundamental to studies of toxic contamination where commitments to community engagement and quality science are joined to form a positive research goal and where attempts are made to improve the conditions of quality environmental public health service.

  11. Evaluation of the environmental costs in the fields power and traffic. Recommendations of the Federal Environmental Agency; Schaetzung der Umweltkosten in den Bereichen Energie und Verkehr. Empfehlungen des Umweltbundesamtes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The scientific evidence for the estimation of environmental costs was steadily improved in the recent years. The Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) summarizes the scientific progress in this field by means of the methods convention. Environmental costs are macro-economically very important. Emissions of greenhouse gases, air pollutants and noise pollution, land use and the consumption of scarce resources result in high costs for health and environment. Estimates of environmental costs point out the negative impacts of a neglected environmental protection and substantiate the necessity to pursue the ambitious environmental targets. Environmental costs are also suitable for the assessment of measures and instruments of the environmental protection. Municipalities, businesses and households also can use estimates of environmental costs - especially for environment-related investment decisions.

  12. [Peculiarities of regulation of legal relations in the field of environmental and hygiene safety of the population in The Russian Federation at the present stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, A O; Eremin, G B; Lomtev, A Iu

    2012-01-01

    The results of the comparative legal analysis of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of environmental security have been presented, theoretical and legal basis for the subsequent development of recommendations for the development and harmonization of legislation in the field of providing environmental security and environmental protection has been defined. The formation of ecological civil law and conceptual questions of territory development guaranteeing ecological safety have been considered. Objects of the study were international treaties, Constitution of Russian Federation, Law on Environmental Protection, Land Code and other laws containing positions concerning ecological safety and environmental protection. Identified as a result of the present study the contradictions in the area of law allow to develop and submit proposals for the improvement of legal regulation in the field of environmental and hygienic safety.

  13. Linking public health, housing, and indoor environmental policy: successes and challenges at local and federal agencies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David E; Kelly, Tom; Sobolewski, John

    2007-06-01

    We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of "shared commons" and the "polluter pays" is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers, weatherization, and other healthy housing improvements in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is highlighted. The U.S. experience shows that policymakers should adopt a prevention-oriented, comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach at all levels of government to prevent unhealthy buildings, houses, and communities.

  14. Environmental conception and education for teachers of the Federal School of Agrotechology in Vitória, Santo Antão-PE

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Aparecida Cajueiro Gonçalves; Tatiana Marcela de Oliveira Bezerra

    2007-01-01

    The rapid environmental modifications resulting from the uncontrolled advance of different human activities constitute a constant threat to biodiversity and may be related to the level of understanding and perception of society in face of the environmental problem. Thus, the present study aimed to identify perceptions of the terms “environment” and “environmental education” by teachers of the Federal School of Agrotechology in Vitória, Santo Antão, as well as knowledge about their environment...

  15. A Methadology for Near-Real-Time Access to Environmental Data through Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Rajasekar, A.; Moore, R. W.; Vernon, F.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of near-real-time data can be critical for response to rapid changes including violent storms, tsunamis and earthquakes. While climate changes relatively slowly, compared to a tsunami, the increasing variance in weather over time and warming must also be considered in terms of civil impacts. A simple example is the decreasing resilience of coastal communities to severe weather as sea level increases. The integration of these data for modeling and response activities in near-real-time must be pursued to make data collection practical. We present an approach to data and metadata integration that has occurred over the past 10-20 years in Earth and Ocean sciences that provide a model for the future. The NSF Data Federation Consortium (DFC) is working to integrate data and metadata from a number of fields using iRODS (Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System). iRODS is open source software for building distributed data collections. In particular, the SCION (SCIence Observatory Network) funded by the NSF provides Python-based software for data and metadata access from a variety of near-real-time data sets relevant to climate studies including weather and hazards from other observational systems. As an example, we are working on the integration of data on shore and offshore in southern California using resources from the High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (HPWREN) and the Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS). National and International integration of near-real-time earthquake data through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) and the International Federation of Digital Seismic Networks (FDSN) provide a well-integrated data and metadata system for both research and civil uses. ObsPy, written in Python, has proved to be a highly successful methodology for accessing global data from thousands of stations with well-developed metadata. The persistence of the data and metadata, in turn, provides

  16. Effectiveness of low emission zones: large scale analysis of changes in environmental NO2, NO and NOx concentrations in 17 German cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Morfeld

    Full Text Available Low Emission Zones (LEZs are areas where the most polluting vehicles are restricted from entering. The effectiveness of LEZs to lower ambient exposures is under debate. This study focused on LEZs that restricted cars of Euro 1 standard without appropriate retrofitting systems from entering and estimated LEZ effects on NO2, NO, and NOx ( = NO2+NO.Continuous half-hour and diffuse sampler 4-week average NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations measured inside and outside LEZs in 17 German cities of 6 federal states (2005-2009 were analysed as matched quadruplets (two pairs of simultaneously measured index values inside LEZ and reference values outside LEZ, one pair measured before and one after introducing LEZs with time differences that equal multiples of 364 days by multiple linear and log-linear fixed-effects regression modelling (covariables: e.g., wind velocity, amount of precipitation, height of inversion base, school holidays, truck-free periods. Additionally, the continuous half-hour data was collapsed into 4-week averages and pooled with the diffuse sampler data to perform joint analysis.More than 3,000,000 quadruplets of continuous measurements (half-hour averages were identified at 38 index and 45 reference stations. Pooling with diffuse sampler data from 15 index and 10 reference stations lead to more than 4,000 quadruplets for joint analyses of 4-week averages. Mean LEZ effects on NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations (reductions were estimated to be at most -2 µg/m(3 (or -4%. The 4-week averages of NO2 concentrations at index stations after LEZ introduction were 55 µg/m(3 (median and mean values or 82 µg/m(3 (95th percentile.This is the first study investigating comprehensively the effectiveness of LEZs to reduce NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations controlling for most relevant potential confounders. Our analyses indicate that there is a statistically significant, but rather small reduction of NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations associated with LEZs.

  17. Status report on environmental radioactivity monitoring in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, H.; Huber, O.

    1976-09-01

    The status report on environmental radioactivity monitoring presented here is based on the data collected by the light control stations in 1975. The duties of the control stations, the measuring stations assigned to them and their measuring programs, analyses, and methods of measurement are documented in detail. The increasing development of nuclear energy in the FRG brings about new duties of monitoring the environmental radioactivity; especially from the new radiation protection regulation and the regulatory guide 'Measures for Monitoring the Environment of Nuclear Power Stations with Light-Water-Cooled Reactor', issued by the 'Laenderausschuss fuer Atomkernenergie' (Land committee for nuclear energy) already in 1974, a number of additional requirements for the control and measuring stations can be derived. The aim of this report is to allow a judgement on how the network of measuring stations, established during the nuclear weapons' tests in the fifties and sixties, is equipped in operative and personnel respect and to what extend the methods of analysis and measurement used by them meet the new requirements. In principle, it may be stated, in addition, new standardized methods of measurement have to be introduced and applied in routine work in order to adapt the immission monitoring to the new dose limits for the environsment of nuclear installation. (orig.) [de

  18. Uranium production and environmental restoration at the Priargunsky Centre, Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boitsov, A.V.; Nikolsky, A.L.; Chernigov, V.G.; Ovseichuk, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    State JSK 'Priargunsky Mining-Chemical Production Association' (PPGHO) has been the only active uranium production centre in Russia during the last decade. Mining has operated since 1968, and derives from resources in 19 volcanic-type deposits of Streltsovsk U-ore region, which covers an area of 150 km 2 . The average U grade is about 0.2%. Ten deposits have been brought into production: eight by underground mines and two by open pits. Milling and processing has been carried out since 1974 at the local hydrometallurgical plant by sulphuric acid leaching with subsequent recovery by a sorption-extraction ion exchange scheme. The high level of total production (over 100,000 mtU through 2000) marks it as one of the outstanding uranium production districts worldwide. Significant amounts of wastes have been accumulated. The main sources of the environmental contamination are: 30 piles of waste rocks and sub-grade ores, mine waters, milling and sulphuric acid plant tailings. The following activities are performed to decrease the negative impact on the environment: rehabilitation of waste rock dumps and open pits utilization of waste rock for industrial needs, heap and in situ leach mining of low-grade ores, construction of dams and intercepting wells below the tailings, hydrogeological monitoring and waste water treatment plant modernization. Environmental activities, including rehabilitation of the impacted territories and also waste utilization will be realized after final closure takes place. (author)

  19. Environmental justice and biodiversity. More environmental justice by means of urban biodiversity, new ways in the urban development and environmental education; Umweltgerechtigkeit and Biodiversitaet. Mehr Umweltgerechtigkeit durch urbane Biodiversitaet, neue Wege in der Stadtentwicklung und Umweltbildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Tobias

    2011-11-15

    For many years, the German Environmental Relief (Radolfzell, Federal Republic of Germany) is endeavored in a greater awareness of the issue environmental justice and the associated implications in the public debate, especially at the local level. Particular attention is paid to the correlations between environmental justice and protection of biodiversity. Under this aspect, the brochure under consideration describes projects of the competition 'Federal Capital of Biodiversity' in the fields 'Biodiversity, urban development and environmental justice' and 'Environmental education and environmental justice'.

  20. A German Perspective on Security Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect German citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.

  1. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND FACTORS AT THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE HOUSING AND UTILITIES SECTOR IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Safronova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical marketing regional research on supply and demand factors of housing and communal services (HCS revealed determinants of customer loyalty and satisfaction with the service level and factors influencing on willingness to purchase additional services. Specific features of housing and utilities sector (HUS as a social significant industry determine requirements to models reflecting reciprocal influence of indices of satisfaction, loyalty and economic indices of operation. The article presents definition of requirements along with development of techniques for modeling influence of satisfaction and loyalty on consumer behaviour of clients. The authors demonstrate trustworthy statistical results of correlative interrelationship of different factors. There have been designed regression models for taking management solutions by executives of management company housing and communal services at the development environmental responsibility. The causes that lead and hamper development of socially oriented services in different regions of the Russian Federation have been identified.

  2. Environmental impact of nuclear industry and power generation in the Russian Federation: assessment of contribution to general damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrov, V.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was assess the contribution of nuclear industry and power generation to environmental pollution in the Russian Federation. The general aim is to provide rationale for the sound strategy and priorities in addressing issues related to technogenous environmental pollution at the national and regional governance levels. Estimates were derived from data found in reviews published by federal environmental protection authorities. The impact of major sectors of economy to contamination of the environment was estimated through analyzing the amount of chemical and radioactive releases, as well as parameters of air, water, soil and forest contamination for economic regions and provinces where major nuclear plants are located. Pollutant maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for natural environment media (ambient air, natural water, soil) as adopted in RF were taken as evaluation criteria. A relative pollution index taking account of the gross product value in the given sector of economy was proposed for the purposes of economic assessment. According to reported data nuclear power and industry plants make no adverse effect on the ambient air quality in impact areas. Emissions of industrial gases and pollutants, and fossil-fuel combustion (dust and soot, NO 2 , CO etc.) remain the main sources of dangerous (exceeding MPC) chemical air pollution in each province concerned. The leading industries contributing a principal load to air pollution are: automobile transport, metallurgy, etc. Specific pollution indexes were calculated for several major sectors: φ=P/(MPC)·M m 3 /Rb, where P is gross pollutant emission, g/year; MPC - as above, g/m 3 ; M is value of annual production, Rb/year. Values of φ for these sectors are given in table form. Water quality in most natural fresh water resources fails to meet the standards, the most widespread pollutants being represented by oil products, phenols, etc. Major sources of water pollution are: industrial

  3. Federal Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Regulations and Reporting Requirements: a Practical Approach to What the Medical Toxicologist Needs to Know, Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Michael D.; Dell’Aglio, Damon M.; Nickle, Richard; Hornsby-Myers, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Toxicologists are often called upon to assist in environmental, industrial, occupational and public health assessments. Accordingly, medical toxicologists may find it prudent to be aware of applicable federal toxicological regulations and reporting requirements and of the roles of relevant federal agencies. These regulations are numerous, complex, and have evolved and expanded over time, making it difficult for toxicologists to sustain a current knowledge base. This article reviews the pertin...

  4. Federal Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Regulations and Reporting Requirements: A Practical Approach to What the Medical Toxicologist Needs to Know, Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Michael D.; Dell’Aglio, Damon M.; Nickle, Richard; Hornsby-Myers, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Toxicologists are often called upon to assist in environmental, industrial, occupational and public health assessments. Accordingly, medical toxicologists may find it prudent to be aware of applicable federal toxicological regulations and reporting requirements and of the roles of relevant federal agencies. These regulations are numerous, complex, and have evolved and expanded over time, making it difficult for toxicologists to sustain a current knowledge base. This article reviews the pertin...

  5. Structure of the German electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The German integrated association is a union of those electric power supply utilities in the Federal Republic of Germany which cooperate in the integrated operation of 220 kV and 380 kV. The German integrated association (DVG) was founded in 1948. Its main task is to create the technical, operational and legal conditions for the cooperation in the national and international integrated system. The inclusion of the new Federal States has been practiced for the first time with the 320 MW power station in Offleben. (DG) [de

  6. The German Chernobyl project: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents results and lessons learned by one of the so far largest assessments of a post-accidental situation. Funded by the Federal Republic of Germany the German Chernobyl Project investigated in the years 1991-1993 the radiological situation in contaminated regions of the Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine. Measurements included a mass screening of the population in order to determine the Cesium body burdens of 250,000+ individuals in more than 240 settlements as well as the evaluation of external doses in selected settlements with soil contaminations varying from less than 74 kBq/m 2 to about 3700 kBq/m 2 including some, where decontamination measures had previously been taken. Also in many settlements environmental monitoring was undertaken. For most individuals doses did not exceed the international annual limits set for the general population. Open and comprehensive communication of results was favourably accepted by the public. In a few settlements the radiological situation has been followed up till to date. (author)

  7. US-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP: AN INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION IN REVITALIZING CONTAMINATED LAND IN PROCEEDINGS OF CABERNET 2005: THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGING URBAN LAND, APRIL 13-15, 2005, BELFAST IRELAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) entered into a Bilateral partnership in 1990 to study each country's efforts in developing and demonstrating innovative tools, techniques and approaches in areas relate...

  8. Criminal law in the system of legal instruments under environmental law. Shown by examples of German and U.S. American clean air policy; Das Strafrecht im System umweltrechtlicher Instrumentarien. Am Beispiel deutscher und US-amerikanischer Luftreinhaltepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, B.M. von

    1995-12-31

    The authoress presents an analysis of the entire range of governmental instruments and measures and their systematic interlacement, as available under the German or the U.S. American law for protection of the environment. This analysis is the basis for the subsequent study aiming at clarifying the legitimacy and the required design of laws and regulations defining crimes and sanctions or penalties in the system of environmental law. The authoress derives a characterisation of legislative intent and mode of application of environmental criminal law which differs from that of the ``classic`` criminal law. Pursuing from this characterisation of legal instruments and methods, and from the framework of governmental action and related alternatives available under U.S. legislation, the authoress explains a number of appoaches recommended for reform and amendment of the current German system of environmental criminal law, which hitherto has shown low efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Autorin nimmt eine Analyse der Gesamtheit staatlicher Massnahmen und ihrer systematischen Beziehungen im deutschen und US-amerikanischen Umweltrecht vor. Diese Analyse bildet die Grundlage der zentralen Frage der Untersuchung nach der Legitimitaet und notwendigen Struktur umweltstrafrechtlicher Normen. Dabei kommt die Autorin zu einer vom klassischen Kernstrafrecht abweichenden Funktionsbestimmung des Umweltstrafrechts. Ausgehend von dieser Positionsbestimmung des Strafrechts und den in den USA vorgefundenen Handlungsalternativen entwickelt die Autorin eine Reihe von Reformvorschlaegen als Antwort auf die derzeitige Ineffizienz der des deutschen Umweltstrafrechts. (orig.)

  9. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  10. Rubella (German Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth / For Parents / Rubella (German Measles) ... Call the Doctor Print en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  11. International treaties. United Nations, mutual assistance pacts, human rights, sea-, air- and space law, environmental law, peace law, German reunification, conventions of war. As of March 1, 1991. 5. rev. ed. Voelkerrechtliche Vertraege. Vereinte Nationen, Beistandspakte, Menschenrechte, See-, Luft- und Weltraumrecht, Umweltrecht, Kriegsverhuetungsrecht, Deutsche Einheit, Kriegsrecht. Stand 1. Maerz 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randelzhofer, A. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The 5th edition of this book dating from 1 March 1991 takes into account German unification; the previous treaties and legal documents are out of date in this regard. The book is divided into: international organizations; mutual assistance, friendship and partnership treaties; diplomacy, international treaties; human rights; international sea, air and space law; environmental law; settlement of disputes, measures for peace, disarmament; German unification; conventions of war. (HSCH).

  12. H.R. 3065: This Act may be cited as the Federal Nuclear Facilities Environmental Response Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, August 1, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 3065 is a bill to create a Federal nuclear facility environmental response fund, to create and Office of Environmental Management and Remedial Action, to require the Secretary of Energy and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to cooperate with affected States and Indian tribes, to provide for research and development to address environmental problems at Federal nuclear facilities, and for other purposes. The basic purpose of the act is to provide and adequate, long-term source of funding for environmental restoration, decontamination, decommissioning, and management of Federal nuclear facilities and sites

  13. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  14. Experience and results of MELCOR application for German PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenkalb, M.

    1999-01-01

    An introduction into severe accident research work performed at GRS with regard to the use of the MELCOR code is given in Chapter One of the paper. Experience in applying MELCOR 1.8.3 for German PWRs and results of MELCOR calculations done within the project 'Accident management - Mitigation' for German LWRs are presented in Chapter Two. This 3-year project was finished February 1998. It was funded by the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety - BMU. In Chapter Three, a short overview of a training course on 'Phenomenology of Severe Accidents in PWR-Plants' is given. Mainly due to the interest from German NPPs GRS developed this special training session in 1996. Since 1996 it has been held several times for operators, shift personnel and the management board of two different German NPPs and for lecture of the German NPP training centre in Essen. In Chapter Four, results of the application of MELCOR 1.8.4 for German PWRs are presented. This work is done within a new project on 'Accident Management - Mitigation' for German LWRs. It was started in March 1998 and is again funded by the German Federal Ministry BMU. An objective of this project is to perform further MELCOR calculations, to be used within a PSA level 2 study for a German PWR, which is done at GRS in parallel. The experience of using MELCOR for German PWRs are summarised in Chapter Five. (author)

  15. Investigations into adverse effects on soil organisms at the concentration level of trigger values according to German Federal Soil Protection Act; Ermittlung der Wirkungen auf Bodenorganismen (Lebensraumfunktion) im Bereich der Pruefwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerdel, W.; Dreher, P.; Hund, K.; Ruedel, H.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of the research project was to achieve clarification on whether the trigger values according to the Federal Soil Protection Act, which originally had been established for the protection of human health, are also suitable to ensure the protection of ecological soil functions, e.g. habitat functions for soil organisms. For this purpose ecotoxicological tests were carried out with soils for which contaminations were adjusted to the trigger values (recreation areas or fields and kitchen garden). Investigations were conducted with arsenic, cadmium and benzo(a)pyren. The contamination of the soils with the contaminants was achieved by preparing samples containing mixtures of two uncontaminated soils of different characteristics with strongly contaminated soil samples. The contaminated soil samples were obtained from sites characterized by showing only one major contaminant. The test organisms selected for the ecotoxicological tests cover different trophic levels: microorganisms (original population), nitrification, basal respiration, substrate-induced respiration; nematodes (added organisms), reproduction rate; earthworms (added organisms), reproduction rate; plants, germ inhibition and biomass production. For cadmium and arsenic comparable test results for contaminated and control soils were obtained in the concentration range of the trigger values for recreation areas or fields and kitchen with repect to the experiments with plants, nematodes and microorganisms. In sandy soils the habitat function for earthworms may be affected. Due to the high portion of contaminated soil in the soil mixtures with benzo(a)pyren the interpretation of the test results is in some cases uncertain. A further check considering effects to the microflora and Eisenia fetida would be desirable. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens bestand darin, festzustellen, ob die im wesentlichen auf der Grundlage des Schutzes der menschlichen Gesundheit abgeleiteten Pruefwerte

  16. Environmental aspects of sulphuric acid in situ leach uranium mining in the permafrost zone (Vitim District, Russian Federation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazlullin, M.I.; Boitsov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Currently in situ leaching pilot tests are in progress at the Khiagda deposit, Vitim District, Russian Federation. The deposit is of the sandstone basal channel type, or paleovalley type in the Russian classification. It contains about 15 000 mt U at an ore grade averaging 0.05% U. Mineralization occurs in permeable unconsolidated Neogene fluvial sediments located below the permafrost which extends to 100 m deep. The basement rock is Paleozoic granite. Neogene-Quaternary basalts overlap the ore hosting sediments. The thickness of the ore host horizon varies from a few meters to 120 m. The depth of mineralization averages 170 m. Ore bodies are of lens and strataform shape. The following types of underground waters have been identified: groundwaters of the near surface or active layer, the aquifer in the Neogene volcanics, the ore host aquifer of the Neogene permeable sediments and fault related waters. The permeability in the ore bearing horizon varies from 0.1 to 20 m/day (averages 2 to 3 m/day). The waters of the productive aquifer are not suitable for industrial nor potable water supply due to their initial chemical composition. The ore host horizons occur between two impermeable horizons, which confine leaching solutions. Using sulphuric acid solutions as leaching reagent decreases the pH and increases Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of the groundwaters within the leaching area due to concentration of sulphate-ion and other dissolved components. Principal components contaminating the underground waters are sulphates of aluminium, manganese, nickel and chrome. Their content during leaching significantly exceeds initial values. The available information on residual acid migration with the ground water shows that the concentration of contaminants significantly decreases away from the leaching contour. This occurs due to precipitation of contaminants during migration of the underground water from ISL sites. The external contour of the contamination aureole is defined

  17. Mobility questionnaire of the Federal Environmental Agency 2009. Updating and modification of the mobility questionnaire taken in 2006; Mobilitaetsumfrage des Umweltbundesamtes 2009. Aktualisierung und Modifizierung der Mobilitaetsumfrage aus dem Jahr 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johaenning, Katja [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Stadtbauwesen und Stadtverkehr

    2010-05-15

    The efficient, environmentally compatible and safe handling of the operational procedure and associated traffic is very important for the Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany). In order to reduce the environmental effects of the traffic, the Federal Environmental Agency formed a mobility management in the year 2006 as a part of the environmental management. Thus, co-workers are to be informed about different aspects of the mobility management. Additionally, proposals for the reduction of environmental effects due to the traffic are to be compiled. In the spring of 2009, the Federal Environmental Agency planned a renewed execution of the mobility inquiry. By means of a questionnaire, the effectiveness of the past measures should be analyzed. Thus, the adjustment of the operational mobility concept can be adapted to the actual objectives.

  18. Applicability of federal and state environmental requirements to selected DOE field installations and recommendations for development of generic compliance guidance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This final report identifies and describes federal and state environmental requirements applicable to selected Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear field installations, establishes priorities for the requirements, determines the need for development of additional compliance guidance, and recommends development of compliance guidance for specific priority requirements. Compliance guidance developed as part of the study is summarized. The applicability of environmental requirements to 12 DOE field installations was reviewed. Five installations were examined under Task 4. They are: Nevada Test Site; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Seven other installations were reviewed under Task 2 and included: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Hanford; Savannah River Plant; Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Pantex Plant; Rocky Flats Plant; and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This report combines results of the two tasks. The objective of the study was to identify the set of environmental requirements which are applicable to DOE field installations, track changes in the requirements, and prepare compliance guidance for important requirements and important regulatory developments as necessary. A cumulative calendar update for July 1982 represents the current status of applicable requirements. Environmental profiles of each facility, along with ambient monitoring results, are presented. Applicable federal requirements are identified. The specific applicability of federal and state requirements is detailed for each installation. Compliance guidance available from various agencies is described. Each requirement described is ranked by priority, and recommendations are made for development of additional guidance

  19. Russian-German research and academic cooperation in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriyev Vasily

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the stages of development of international research cooperation in the framework of research and education projects focusing on the study of marine and polar territories of the Russian Federation and the Federative Republic of Germany. The largest and most stable projects are the establishment of the Russian-German laboratory of polar and marine research named after the Russian polar explorer of German origin, Otto Schmidt, — OSL — on the premises of AARI, the Russian-German education project — the Applied polar and marine studies master's programme (POMOR — implemented by the Russian and German partners at Saint Petersburg State University, and the Laptev Sea system research programme bringing together around 20 Russian and German organisations.

  20. Focal points 2010. Mobility with future - correct investment today. Environmental protection - investment restraint for agriculture? Engine for the climate policy: emission trading; Schwerpunkte 2010. Mobilitaet mit Zukunft - heute richtig investieren. Umweltschutz - Investitionshemmnis fuer die Landwirtschaft? Motor fuer die Klimapolitik: Der Emissionshandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittershagen, Martin; Mavromati, Fotini (comps.)

    2010-04-14

    The publication of the German Federal environmental agency on the focal points 2010 covers the following topics: impetus for an ecological-economic policy; mobility with future -best investment for today: more environmentally compatible investments in traffic infrastructure, better technology - more efficiency, missing charging of environmental cost induces wrong stimuli; environmental protection - investment restraints for agriculture? Engine for climate policy: emission trading; the Federal environmental agency: bridge between science and politics, the Federal environmental agency for mankind and environment; data and facts; publications of the employees.

  1. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: A review of requirements for biological information in federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Biological information concerning Yucca Mountain collected since 1980 is evaluated to determine if it is sufficient to satisfy the requirements of the various federal, state, and local laws and regulations that pertain to environmental protection or to development of waste repositories. The pertinent requirements of each law are summarized, missing information is identified, and recommendations are made for studies to fill these gaps. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Diagnostic of ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin using two methods of rapid environmental assessment, Federal District, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Joveli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid environmental assessments have been used to describe the quality and semi-quantitative attributes of the ecosystems along an environmental gradient using visual observations and few measurements. The aim of this study was to identify and measure anthropogenic impacts on ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin, Federal District, Central Brazil, and to propose its environmental zoning. This study was performed using two methods based on rapid environmental assessment: a rapid river assessment protocol, to evaluate in an integrated form the features of a lotic system section according to the conservation or degradation condition of the fluvial environment; and the Leopold matrix, to identify and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts. The environmental zoning of this sub-basin detected three areas: preserved, transition and urban areas. The environmental assessment revealed, the preserved area had lotic stretches with natural features under low magnitude of impacts, except on burned areas. In the transition area, there was a predominance of lotic stretches with altered features, due to agriculture and livestock activities of intermediate level of impacts. Finally, the urban area had altered and impacted lotic stretches of higher magnitude due to anthropogenic impacts. Thus, this study revealed large differences among the areas detected by environmental zoning, according to the methods used. These methods were considered complementary in relation to environmental diagnostic of the ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin.

  3. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  4. Análise de fatores ambientais em marcenarias no Distrito Federal Analysis of environmental factors in joinery in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Fiedler

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada em marcenarias localizadas no Distrito Federal cujo objetivo foi analisar a exposição dos trabalhadores de marcenarias aos fatores ambientais como conforto térmico e iluminância, e fornecer subsídios para uma organização ou reorganização ergonômica do trabalho, visando à melhoria da saúde, segurança, bem-estar, conforto, satisfação, qualidade e produtividade do trabalho. As máquinas escolhidas para a análise foram serra circular esquadrejadeira, tupia, desempenadeira, furadeira horizontal e lixadeira de cinta. Os dados foram coletados ao longo da jornada de trabalho pelas medições do Índice de Bulbo Úmido e Termômetro de Globo (Índice de Bulbo Úmido e Termômetro de Globo e de iluminância do ambiente de trabalho. Realizaram-se análises de variâncias para verificar se houve diferenças significativas entre os valores coletados. Os resultados indicaram que o IBUTG médio encontrado nas empresas foi de 21,4 °C, o que permite um trabalho contínuo durante as 8 h da jornada, segundo a NR 15. Alguns postos de trabalho apresentaram deficiências com relação à iluminância, segundo a NBR 5413/92, tupia (467 LUX e furadeira horizontal (390 LUX na empresa 2, serra circular esquadrejadeira (179 LUX e lixadeira de cinta (172 LUX na empresa 3 e tupia (339 LUX na empresa 4.This research was carried out in four joineries located in the Federal District of Brazil, with the objective to analyze the exposition of the workers of joineries to the ambient factors - thermal comfort and illumination and to supply subsidies for an organization or ergonomic reorganization of the work, aiming the improvement of the health, security, well-being, comfort, satisfaction, quality and productivity of the work. The machines chosen for the analysis had been the buzz saw of stand, tupia, float, horizontal wimble and sander of brace. The data were collected along the working period, through climatic measurements of the

  5. The New German Acquisition Process and Its Effects on Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-26

    Deutsche Verbindungsstelle des Rüstungsbereiches USA/ Kanada Federal Republic of Germany Liaison Office for Defense Materiel USA/Canada The new German...s) and Address(es) Deutsche Verbindungsstelle des Rüstungsbereiches USA/ Kanada Federal Republic of Germany Liaison Office for Defense Materiel USA

  6. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use ...

  7. Contamination and incorporation due to emission of ionizing radiation from radar equipment of the German Federal Armed Forces. A reply to the report of the staff working group Dr. Sommer, presented 21st June 2001. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, K.

    2001-01-01

    The document refers to an issue of public debate in Germany, induced by the disclosure of inappropriate occupational safety measures at radar equipment of the German Army and Air Force. In this reply to the official report of investigation, the author gives his own expert opinion, discussing health risks in connection with radar equipment in general, and the specific military radar installations in particular. The author explains his approach to assessing the occupational radiation dose to military personnel and the resulting health risks and effects in that particular case. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Climate policy conception of the Federal Environmental Agency. Necessary position of points 2009; Konzeption des Umweltbundesamtes zur Klimapolitik. Notwendige Weichenstellungen 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoche, Guido; Luenenbuerger, Benjamin; Hain, Benno; Mueschen, Klaus

    2009-10-15

    The report on the climate policy concept of the Federal Environmental Agency covers the following issues: Climatic change and the consequences: climatic change until today, future climatic change, consequences in Germany, effects on environment, society and industry. Goals of climate policy: maximum global warming of 2 deg C, reversal of global greenhouse gas emissions until 2020, sustainable development and adaptation strategies. Adaptation: international adaptation, national and regional instruments, adaptation concerning public health, environmental protection, including biodiversity in agriculture and forestry, economics. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions: international treaty beyond 2013, reduced emissions in industrial and developing countries, national goals, climate protection instruments, reduction within electricity, heat and traffic, reduction of fluorine containing gases in agriculture, economical cost and benefit considerations, effects on economic growth and employment. Synergies and conflicts between climate policy and other environmental goals: climate protection, public health and ecosystems, biomass conversion and sustainable agriculture, climate and resources protection, development of a sustainable energy supply.

  9. Safety-technical, environmental and waste-management relating aspects of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuten, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    The article describes on which peculiarities of the nuclear-technical development security techniques in the Federal Republic of Germany are based on. The principle of carrying out all measures in accordance with the latest level of science and techniques was the reason for each nuclear-technical plant being a prototype. Also the controlling of the waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany is characterized by peculiarities. The concept of waste management and the level of the plannings are reported on. (UA) [de

  10. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P. Fry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  11. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  12. German neutron scattering conference. Programme and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.

  13. Psychiatric care in the German prison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.

  14. German neutron scattering conference. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.

  15. Impacts of proposed RCRA regulations and other related federal environmental regulations on Fossil Fuel-Fired Facilities: Final report, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    In order to fulfill its responsibilities, DOE contracted with Engineering-Science to perform a multi-phase engineering and economics study to evaluate the impact of the proposed RCRA regulations and other related federal environmental regulations on coal-fired utilities. This Interim Phase I report presents the findings of the impacts of proposed RCRA and related federal regulations on the utility sector fossil fuel-fired facilities. Subsequent phases involve parallel engineering studies on the industrial sector as well as economic evaluations. The framework of this study was based on the development and analysis (engineering and economic) of four regulatory scenarios for the disposal of fly ash, bottom ash and FGD sludge from the utility industry.

  16. Guideline for the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions: S2K-Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) and the German Dermatological Society (DDG) in collaboration with the Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the German Society for Pediatric Allergology and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the Austrian Society for Allergology and Immunology (ÖGAI), the German Academy of Allergology and Environmental Medicine (DAAU), the German Center for Documentation of Severe Skin Reactions and the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Products (BfArM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Przybilla, Bernhard; Aberer, Werner; Bircher, Andreas J; Brehler, Randolf; Dickel, Heinrich; Fuchs, Thomas; Jakob, Thilo; Lange, Lars; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Mockenhaupt, Maja; Ott, Hagen; Pfaar, Oliver; Ring, Johannes; Sachs, Bernhardt; Sitter, Helmut; Trautmann, Axel; Treudler, Regina; Wedi, Bettina; Worm, Margitta; Wurpts, Gerda; Zuberbier, Torsten; Merk, Hans F

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions are unpredictable adverse drug reactions. They manifest either within 1-6 h following drug intake (immediate reactions) with mild to life-threatening symptoms of anaphylaxis, or several hours to days later (delayed reactions), primarily as exanthematous eruptions. It is not always possible to detect involvement of the immune system (allergy). Waiving diagnostic tests can result in severe reactions on renewed exposure on the one hand, and to unjustified treatment restrictions on the other. With this guideline, experts from various specialist societies and institutions have formulated recommendations and an algorithm for the diagnosis of allergies. The key principles of diagnosing allergic/hypersensitivity drug reactions are presented. Where possible, the objective is to perform allergy diagnostics within 4 weeks-6 months following the reaction. A clinical classification of symptoms based on the morphology and time course of the reaction is required in order to plan a diagnostic work-up. In the case of typical symptoms of a drug hypersensitivity reaction and unequivocal findings from validated skin and/or laboratory tests, a reaction can be attributed to a trigger with sufficient confidence. However, skin and laboratory tests are often negative or insufficiently reliable. In such cases, controlled provocation testing is required to clarify drug reactions. This method is reliable and safe when attention is paid to indications and contraindications and performed under appropriate medical supervision. The results of the overall assessment are discussed with the patient and documented in an "allergy passport" in order to ensure targeted avoidance in the future and allow the use of alternative drugs where possible.

  17. Becoming German: Integration, Citizenship and Territorialization of Germanness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    transforms Germanness into more of a lived experience of the territorially grounded, emplaced German society, opening up more space to migrants to become-German. In the conclusion, I consider how this potential opening up of Germanness continues to be threatened by concomitant developments, including...

  18. Right Face: Understanding German Political Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-16

    technology for printing an" aistr-buting informaticn and propaganda, including motion pictures , they Created a mass political awareness which broke past...1951 Lower Saxony Land.ag vote, the Party was banned by the Federal Constitutional Court in 1952,:for its direct link with the The German Rights...Westphalia NO National primarily in forbidden Offensive Bavaria & Saxony , December 1992 most members from FAP NB National Bloc neo-Nazi splinter forbidden

  19. LaissezFair: A Case for Greening the Business German Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonglewski, Margaret; Helm, Anna

    2013-01-01

    An effective way to teach about sustainability and environmentally conscious practices in German language, literature, and culture programs is within the context of a business German course. In this article we first situate educational sustainability in the US, leading into an examination of why the context of German business can be particularly…

  20. The energetic concept in the administration building of the Federal Environmental Agency in Dessau. Technical innovation for a sustainable operation; Das energetische Konzept im Dienstgebaeude des Umweltbundesamtes in Dessau. Technische Innovationen fuer einen nachhaltigen Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The new office building of the Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) was implemented as a pilot project for environmentally sustainable construction with high-energy targets. In order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels significantly, the building should have a very low power consumption and enable a sustainable operation. A mostly compact form of the building and a highly insulated building envelope are a first prerequisite.

  1. Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement: Quarterly report for the Environmental Restoration Program. Volume 2, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report provides information about ER Program activities conducted on the Oak Ridge Reservation under the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Specifically, it includes information on milestones scheduled for completion during the reporting period as well as scheduled for completion during the next reporting period (quarter), accomplishments of the ER Program, concerns related to program work, and scheduled activities for the next quarter. It also provides a listing of the identity and assigned tasks of contractors performing ER Program work under the FFA.

  2. German-Chinese wedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, Joern

    2010-07-01

    German wind power technology is widely regarded as being ahead of its competitors worldwide. Combine this technology with production in China and a renowned designer and you should get a competitive product. (orig.)

  3. Germanic Verb Particle Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2017-01-01

    This paper has two closely related goals. The more "global" one is to present an overview of the variation conceming verb particles across the Germanic languages (see e.g. den Dikken 1995; Haiden 2005; Mclntyre 2007 and many others), and the more "local" one is to use some of this variation data...... to argue for Yiddish being an SOV-language like German and Dutch rather than an SVO-language like English and the Scandinavian languages....

  4. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  5. Preliminary environmental assessments of disposal of rock mined during excavation of a federal repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    Since the environmental impact of mined rock handling will be dependent not only upon the nature of the material and the way in which it might be disposed but also upon the features of the disposal site area and surroundings, it was necessary to select ''reference environmental locii'' within the regions of geological interest to typify the environmental setting into which the rock would be placed. Reference locii (locations) were developed for consideration of the environmental implications of mined rock from: bedded rock salt from the Salina region, bedded rock salt from the Permian region, dome rock salt from the Gulf Interior region, Pierre shale from the Argillaceous region, granite from the crystalline rock region, volcanic basalt rock from the crystalline ash region, and carbonate rock from the limestone region. Each of these reference locii was examined with respect to those demographic, geographic, physical and ecological attributes which might be impacted by various mined rock disposal alternatives. Alternatives considered included: onsite surface storage, industrial or commercial use, offsite disposal, and environmental blending. Potential impact assessment consists of a qualitative look at the environmental implications of various alternatives for handling the mined rock, given baseline characteristics of an area typified by those represented by the ''reference locus''

  6. German radionuclide exports and imports 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Protection of imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples and sealed emitters above 1850 GBq show a slight decline by 11.8%, on the basis of activity, in imports and a somewhat higher rise by 21.6% in exports in 1990. Imports returned to the level of 1988 after having experienced an extraordinary rise in 1989. Exports were slightly better than in the previous year, but still considerably below the average of the past five years. (orig.) [de

  7. Co-ordination of federal and provincial environmental assessment processes for the Point Lepreau Generating Station Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, C.; Thompson, P.D.; Barnes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Modification of the Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Point Lepreau Generating Station is required to accommodate waste generated during and after an 18-month maintenance outage during which the station would be Refurbished. The modification of the facility triggered both federal and provincial environmental assessment requirements, and these assessments were conducted in a 'coordinated' and cooperative fashion. In this project, the coordinated approach worked well, and provided some significant advantages to the proponent, the public and the regulators. However, there are opportunities for further improvement in future projects, and this paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of this 'co-ordinated' approach. As part of this exploration, there is a discussion of administrative and regulatory changes that the province is considering for the environmental assessment process, and a discussion of the need for a formal 'harmonization' agreement. (author)

  8. South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project : Adopted Portions of a 1987 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-07-01

    The South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project that world produce 6.55 average megawatts of firm energy per year and would be sited in the Snohomish River Basin, Washington, was evaluated by the Federal Energy Regulatory commission (FERC) along with six other proposed projects for environmental effects and economic feasibility Based on its economic analysis and environmental evaluation of the project, the FERC staff found that the South Fork Tolt River Project would be economically feasible and would result in insignificant Impacts if sedimentation issues could be resolved. Upon review, the BPA is adopting portions of the 1987 FERC FEIS that concern the South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project and updating specific sections in an Attachment.

  9. Punishability of transfrontier environmental offences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1989-01-01

    National environmental Acts include a great number of areas and this applies even more if there is an international component. It is not only the German international criminal law but also questions of general criminal law dogmatic and the relationship between environmental criminal law and administrative law that must be taken into account. In order to prevent inadmissible interferences with another country's sovereign rights it is necessary to harmonize the international environmental law and the international environmental criminal law. Aspects of the international civil law and the administrative law have to be considered as well. The book concludes that even abstract offences that carry the potential of endangerment also qualify as statutorily proscribed harm. The German environmental criminal law is therefore applicable even if the offence cause only a domestic danger. An action which is permissible under another country's administrative law is not punishable under some few regulations. In all other cases it is punishable unless the foreign country's Sovereign Act is recognised. This applies if the Federal Republic of Germany has to tolerate harm under international environmental law. Claims under international law to refrain from transformer pollution can often be much more extensive than commonly assumed. (orig.) [de

  10. Evaluation of measuring data of small photovoltaic power systems within the framework of the German Federal-State 1000 Roofs PV programme. Final report; 1000-Daecher Mess- und Auswerteprogramm. Auswertung der Messdaten von photovoltaischen Kleinanlagen im Rahmen des Bund-Laender-1000 Daecher-Photovoltaik-Programms. Wissenschaftlicher Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, V.U. [comp.; Erge, T.; Kiefer, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Becker, H. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland e.V., Duesseldorf (Germany); Decker, B.; Grochowski, J. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH (ISFH), Hannover (Germany); Heilscher, G. [Ist EnergieCom GmbH, Augsburg (Germany); Riess, H. [WIP Energie und Umwelt, Muenchen (Germany); Rindelhardt, U. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    1998-10-16

    Within the framework of the German Federal-State 1000 Roofs Photovoltaic Programme monthly measuring data and verbal comments on the PV system operation (reports on failures and defects) have been collected, stored in a databank and evaluated for the period 1991 to 1997 for a differing number of PV systems. In addition to this came along data of initially 100, then 40 intensively measured systems. The results of the measuring data evaluation as well as the results of further accompanying research projects to the Federal-State 1000 Roofs Photovoltaic Programme (e.g. low energy yield analysis, on-site inspections and measuring of nominal powers) are summarised. Starting from the gained results, conclusions and recommendations are given for the design, installation and operation for future grid-connected PV-systems. Also it is pointed to the remaining need for optimisation and R and D. Additional part of the report are the Annual Journal (published in a large print run) and the comprehensive final reports of the involved institutions (listed in Appendix 2). (orig.)

  11. From Mining to Post-Mining: The Sustainable Development Strategy of the German Hard Coal Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, J.; Efremenkov, A. B.; Khoreshok, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    By the end of the 1950s, the German coal mining industry produced 150 million tons of hard coal per year in 170 collieries with 600,000 employees. At that time, 70% of the primary energy demand of the Federal Republic of Germany was covered by domestic coal. Since the advance of oil, later of natural gas, in the world energy market and with the growth of world coal trade, domestic coal stood under a long-term restructuring pressure. This decision required a new strategy for the coal mining industry. Now German coal mining will be strictly finalized and will be prepared for the post-mining era. Within a sustainability strategy the long-term impacts of mining activities before and after the mine closures concerning the environmental, economic and social dimensions will be analyzed systematically and forward-looking.

  12. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  13. German for physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  14. Rationality and contradictions in the competition for concessions. A (second) contribution to the Joint Practical Guide of the German Federal Cartel Office and Federal Network Agency for the allocation of electricity and gas concession tolerated and to change the concessionaire of 21 May 2015; Rationalitaet und Widersprueche im Wettbewerb um Konzessionen. Ein (zweiter) Beitrag zum Gemeinsamen Leitfaden von Bundeskartellamt und Bundesnetzagentur zur Vergabe von Strom- und Gaskonzessionsvertraegen und zum Wechsel des Konzessionsnehmers vom 21. Mai 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, David; Templin, Wolf [Boos Hummel und Wegerich Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    This article follows to an essay in the ZNER of 2011 (S. 121 et seq.) for the first Joint Practical Guide of the Federal Network Agency (BNetzA) and Federal Cartel Office (FCO) from the year 2010, in which the authors had attested authorities a good ''step towards to more competition ''. In the essay is examined and shown that the Joint practical guide from the year 2010 this target could meet and what effect the now in its second edition newly revised guidelines on competition to distribution networks may have. The revision of the guidelines will be given to municipalities further action assistance to the hand, but - with few exceptions - only reproduces the jurisprudence of the staked legal framework. One proposed solution for the more diverse existing problems remains undone, whereas new problem areas are put up in several places. Nevertheless, the will of the authorities is to recognize, to avoid legal problems in the concession process and net acquisitions from the outset. [German] Dieser Beitrag knuepft an einen Aufsatz in der ZNER 2011 (S. 121 ff.) zum ersten Gemeinsamen Leitfaden von Bundesnetzagentur (BNetzA) und Bundeskartellamt (BKartA) aus dem Jahre 2010 an, in dem die Autoren den Behoerden einen richtigen ''Schritt hin zu mehr Wettbewerb'' attestiert hatten. In der Abhandlung wird untersucht und dargestellt, ob der Gemeinsame Leitfaden aus dem Jahr 2010 diesem Ziel gerecht werden konnte und welche Auswirkungen der nunmehr in der zweiten Auflage neu ueberarbeitete Leitfaden auf den Wettbewerb um Verteilnetze haben kann. Die Ueberarbeitung des Leitfadens wird den Kommunen eine weitere Handlungshilfe an die Hand gegeben, die aber - bis auf wenige Ausnahmen - den durch die Rechtsprechung abgesteckten Rechtsrahmen nur wiedergibt. Ein Loesungsvorschlag fuer die noch vielfaeltig bestehenden Probleme unterbleibt, wohingegen an mehreren Stellen neue Problemfelder aufgemacht werden. Gleichwohl ist der Wille der Behoerden

  15. Assessment of fracking for shale gas production from the viewpoints of energy policy and environmental policy. Opinion of the German Advisory Council on the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Mechthild; Taeuber, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The proponents of shale gas production in Europe hope that the effects it has occasioned in the USA, namely falling prices and growing competitiveness, will also come about in Germany. However a decrease in gas prices is not to be expected, given Germany's comparatively modest shale gas reserves; these are even only enough to have a slightly moderating effect on the country's decline in domestic natural gas production. While it is true that the improved climate footprint of the USA is attributable to the increasing substitution of natural gas for coal, this is of little benefit to the global climate, since the coal does not remain in the ground but, as a result of the decline in domestic demand, is successfully exported as a cheap energy resource, leading to higher CO 2 emissions elsewhere. For the purposes of the energy turnaround shale gas production is dispensable because it is not available short-term and gas demand will decrease over the medium term. Shale gas production is associated with a real risk of groundwater contamination or an inadvertent release of climatically harmful gases; however these are probably controllable with the aid of continued research as well as stringent environmental regulations and monitoring. Other consequences such as soil sealing and the loss of natural and recreational space cannot be avoided, however. Here the costs and benefit of shale gas production will have to be weighed against each other with great care. There are still major gaps in available knowledge on its environmental effects; these should be closed through representative pilot projects prior to commercial production.

  16. Energy transition in federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Thorsten; Kahl, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The conference transcript assemble the presentations of the 10th Wuerzburg discussions for environmental energy law. The contributions discuss the political development objectives of the Federal Government and Federal States as well as the coordination tasks between the different political levels, inter alia, of constitutional and European law perspective. [de

  17. Open-Framework Germanates and Nickel Germanates : Synthesis and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shiliang

    2012-01-01

    Microporous materials have a wide range of important applications in separation, gas adsorption, ion-exchange and catalysis. Open-framework germanates are a family of microporous compounds and are of particular interest. This thesis focuses on the synthesis and characterization of new open-framework germanates as well as introducing the transition-metal nickel into germanate structures. One new microporous germanosilicate, SU-78 and four new open-framework germanates, SU-74, SU-75, SU-69 and ...

  18. An assessment of the health and environmental situation in the mining community Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdwall, H.; Rising, A.; Hjalmar, A.; Lindholm, I.; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H.

    1995-12-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the uranium activities as such have not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 15 tabs

  19. An assessment of the health and environmental situation in the mining community Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehdwall, H.; Rising, A.; Hjalmar, A.; Lindholm, I.; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H.

    1995-12-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the uranium activities as such have not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 15 tabs.

  20. Federal Holidays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Federal law (5 U.S.C. 6103) establishes the following public holidays for Federal employees. Please note that most Federal employees work on a Monday through Friday...

  1. Re-examining the provisions for climate protection. Tightrope walk of the Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The federal government assigns priority to a concept of small steps in climate protection. At the Environmental Summit in Berlin in the Spring of 1995, Federal Chancellor Helmut Kohl promised a 25% decrease of German carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions between 1990 and 2005. Even though considerable progress has been made in this country since the early nineties, the CO 2 reduction level envisaged for political reasons remains threatened. Compared to 1990 as the base line year, CO 2 emissions in the Federal Republic by the middle of this decade have been reduced by more than 130 million tons, i.e. 13%. However, this decrease is due to the drastic decline in particularly CO 2 -intensive production processes in the new German federal states. In Eastern Germany, especially the use of lignite, with its relatively high carbon dioxide fractions, has been reduced. A number of aspects need to be taken into account. The reductions promised in voluntary agreements for cooperation between industry and the federal government are an important step in the right direction. Energy taxes based on emissions should be introduced only on the basis of a calculable schedule, in small steps and, if possible, in an internationally harmonized approach in order to protect long-term investments. In this way, longer-term incentives could be offered in the interest of environmentally benign innovations and investments already at the stage of industrial planning. Should nuclear power, which produces no CO 2 emissions, be abandoned on political grounds, the national costs of such a switch would be likely to reach amounts in the double or three-digit billions. The operation of German nuclear power plants at present allows some 150 million tons of CO 2 to be avoided annually. If new reactors could be built in the future without any political obstacles, additional CO 2 savings potentials could be mobilized. (orig./DG)

  2. Federal environmental standards of potential importance to operations and activities at US Department of Energy sites. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.M.; Bilyard, G.R.; Davidson, S.A.; Jonas, R.J.; Joseph, J.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is now engaged in a program of environmental restoration nationwide across its 45 sites. It is also bringing its facilities into compliance with environmental regulations, decontaminating and decommissioning unwanted facilities, and constructing new waste management facilities. One of the most difficult questions that DOE must face in successfully remediating its inactive waste sites, decontaminating and decommissioning its inactive facilities, and operating its waste management facilities is: ``What criteria and standards should be met?`` Acceptable standards or procedures for determining standards will assist DOE in its conduct of ongoing waste management and pending cleanup activities by helping to ensure that those activities are conducted in compliance with applicable laws and regulations and are accepted by the regulatory community and the public. This document reports on the second of three baseline activities that are being conducted as prerequisites to either the development of quantitative standards that could be used by DOE, or consistent procedures for developing such standards. The first and third baseline activities are also briefly discussed in conjunction with the second of the three activities.

  3. Leukemia in the proximity of a German boiling water nuclear reactor: Evidence of population exposure by chromosome studies and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannheim, B.; Heimers, A.; Oberheitmann, B.; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.; Schroeder, H.; Ziggel, H.

    1997-01-01

    The detection of an exceptional elevation of leukemia in children appearing 5 years after the start-up of the nuclear power plant Kruemmel in 1983, accompanied by a significant increase of leukemia cases in adults gave rise for investigations of radiation exposures of the population living near to the plant. The rate of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 7 parents of leukemia children and 14 other inhabitants in the proximity of the plant was significantly elevated and showed ongoing exposures over the years of operation. This finding gives rise to the hypothesis that chronic leakages by the reactor had occurred. This assumption is supported by the identification of artificial radioactivity in air, rain water, soil, and vegetation registered by the regular environmental monitoring programme of the nuclear power plant. Calculations of the corresponding source terms show that the originating emissions must have been well above authorized annual limits. The bone marrow dose is supposed to be originated mainly by incorporating of bone-seeking β- and α-emitters. (author)

  4. German Foreign and Security Policy: Determinants of German Military Engagement in Africa Since 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    niemand tobt [Peace Work 2.0: Gauck rocks German self-assurances— And nobody storms],” Die Zeit, February 6, 2014, http://pdf.zeit.de/2014/07/gauck- rede ...3 Ursula von der Leyen, Rede der Bundesministerin der Verteidigung anlässlich der 50. Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz [Speech by...auslandseinsaetze/9386838.html. 4 Frank Walter Steinmeier, Rede des Außenministers anlässlich der 50. Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz [Speech by federal

  5. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment program (RIIA). Environmental impacts and issues of the EIA MID-MID scenario: Federal Region I (New England)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainard, J.; Munson, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The impacts described here for 1985 and 1990 are based on a national energy projection which assumes medium energy demand and fuel supply through 1990 but does not incorporate the policies of the National Energy Act (NEA). This scenario, referred to as the Projection Series C or the TRENDLONG MID-MID scenario, is one of six possible energy futures developed by the DOE Energy Information Administration for the Department's 1977 Annual Report to Congress. It was chosen as representative of the official DOE national energy projections when this project was initiated, prior to the passage of the National Energy Act. Since the RIIA program is part of an ongoing review of the regional impact of energy policies, the next phase will examine the National Energy Act (NEA) and initiatives suggested by the President's second National Energy Plan. However, since coal utilization increases under the NEA, in general, impacts identified in the TRENDLONG Series C Scenario should provide a framework for the discussion of impacts by NEA. The environmental impacts discussed in this volume are for Federal Region I (Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut). However, there are nine companion volumes, one for each of the other Federal Regions

  6. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Elisa, E-mail: Elisa.Andresen@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Opitz, Judith, E-mail: Daniela.Opitz@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Thomas, George, E-mail: George.Thomas@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: Ha-Jo.Staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dienemann, Holger, E-mail: Holger.Dienemann@smul.sachsen.de [Saxon State Company for Environment and Agriculture, Business Domain 5 (Laboratory), Department 53, Bitterfelder Str. 25, D-04849 Bad Düben (Germany); Jenemann, Kerstin, E-mail: Kerstin.Jenemann@smul.sachsen.de [Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Abteilung Wasser, Boden, Wertstoffe, Zur Wetterwarte 11, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: Bryan.Dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: Hendrik.Kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far.

  7. Health and environmental effects of oil and gas technologies: Research needs. A report to the Federal Interagency Committee on the health and environmental effects of energy technologies. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses health and environmental issues associated with oil and gas technologies as they are currently perceived - both those that exist and those that are expected to emerge over the next two decades. The various sections of this report contain discussions of specific problem areas and relevant new research activities which should be pursued. This is not an exhaustive investigation of all problem areas, but the report explores a wide range of issues to provide a comprehensive picture of existing uncertainties, trends, and other factors that should serve as the focus of future research. The problem areas of major concern include: effects of drilling fluids, offshore accidents, refineries and worker health, soil biota and petroleum spills, indoor air pollution, information transfer, and unconventional resources. These are highlighted in the Executive Summary because they pose serious threats to human health and the environment, and because of the sparsity of accumulated knowledge related to their definition

  8. German Jewish Intellectuals and the German Occupation of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wyrwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In August 1914 the majority of German Jews expressed their patriotic approval of the war and their loyalty to the German state. They identified with Germany, and a large number signed up voluntarily for military service at the front. The Jewish population in Germany affirmed the war not least because it was directed against Russia, the harshest adversary of the Jews. This paper concentrates on the first acts of war conducted by the German military forces during the German occupation of Belgium; it examines whether and in what way German-Jewish Intellectuals perceived Germany’s violation of Belgian neutrality and the new feature of war as a war against a civilian population. The first part examines autobiographical sources to reconstruct the experiences and the perception of German Jewish soldiers, German military rabbis, and other German Jewish witnesses to the war. The second part then analyzes the coverage of German Jewish newspapers regarding the warfare against Belgium; and, finally, the third and last part scrutinizes the commentaries of German Jewish intellectuals and socialist Jews [Jewish socialists?] regarding the German war against Belgium.

  9. Depleted uranium in Serbia and Montenegro. Post-conflict environmental assessment in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on the environmental impacts of depleted uranium (DU) is a direct follow-up to last year's report, Depleted Uranium in Kosovo - A Post-Conflict Assessment (2001), and once more brings additional scientific information on DU. This second phase has now been carried out in Serbia and Montenegro, starting with a field mission in October 2001 to collect samples, followed by laboratory work during the winter and the early spring. Our new study provides additional information and reveals important new discoveries on the environmental behaviour of DU. We learn that still, more than two years after the end of the conflict, particles of DU dust can be detected from soil samples and from sensitive bioindicators like lichen. However, as the levels were extremely low, it was only through the use of state-of-the-art laboratory analyses that detection could be achieved. Based on our findings, UNEP can confirm that contamination at the targeted sites is widespread, though no significant level of radioactivity can be measured. Furthermore, during this assessment the UNEP team used modern air sampling techniques and detected airborne DU particles at two sites. While all levels detected are still below international safety limits, these results add valuable new information to the scientific body of knowledge concerning the behaviour of DU and have important implications for site decontamination and construction works. During the mission to Serbia and Montenegro, a serious health concern potentially related to DU was presented to UNEP. This information was forwarded to WHO, as the competent United Nations agency on health issues. The original claim and the formal WHO response are included in this report. Based on our findings, our recommendations remain the same as those we outlined in the previous Kosovo DU study. Future monitoring is clearly needed, as well as awareness-raising for the local population. Clean-up and

  10. The German Antarctic Receiving Station GARS O'Higgins: Remote sensing as core for a broader range of activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppner, Kathrin; Diedrich, Erhard; Klügel, Thomas; Metzig, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Since 1991 the German Antarctic Station GARS O'Higgins is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in cooperation with the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). The station is located about 30 km west of the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula in the direct vicinity of the Chilean Antarctic Base General Bernardo O'Higgins. The most important scientific instrument of the station is the 9-m antenna system which is used for the reception of satellite data, telecommanding of satellites and also for geodetic radiotelescope measurements. The antenna has been designed for use in extreme Antarctic conditions. With this antenna system a wide range of Earth observation data of European and German satellite missions (ERS-1/-2, TerraSAR-X, TanDEM-X) are recorded since 1991. These data provide important insights into the climate and environmental changes at the Antarctic Peninsula since 20 years now. Since the beginning of 2010 the station is operational and manned year-around in a 7/24 schedule. Future plans envisage a development towards an observatory for environmentally relevant research. That means that the portfolio of the station will be expanded including the development of the infrastructure, in particular the construction and operation of new scientific instruments that will be focused on long-term measurements. The paper presents an introduction to the GARS O'Higgins station, the current state and future plans.

  11. The Concept of Human Dignity in German and Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the concept of human dignity in German and Kenyan constitutional law. We base our analysis on decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, in particular its take on life imprisonment and its 2006 decision concerning the shooting of hijacked airplanes, and on a close reading of the Constitution of Kenya.

  12. Qualification of ship doctors: a German approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenstuecker, Klaus H; Neidhardt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    While a steady growth of cruise tourism since the 1970s created an increasing demand for ship doctors medical postgraduate specialty training did not sufficiently reflect the scope of skills and knowledge required from a physician being left to himself at sea. The German Maritime Health Association therefore tasked a working group with analysing the situation and coming up with suggestions for an adequate postgraduate training for ship doctors. The working group consisted of 19 experts with various backgrounds in maritime medicine. A literature review was done on cruise ship epidemiology as well as an assessment of tasks and environmental factors influencing medical care on board of cruise ships. Necessary knowledge and skills were derived and compared with those imparted by standard German medical education. Mandatory knowledge and skills were identified as well as elements of standard medical education contributing to these goals. Those aspects that would or could not be adequately covered by German standard education were catalogued and summarised in a course curriculum. In 2013 after approval by its board of directors the German Maritime Health Association published a qualification and training recommendation addressing colleagues planning to muster as ship doctors.

  13. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  14. Teletandem language learning in a technological context of education: interactions between Brazilian and German students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelene Vaz da SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents data from a computer-mediated communication study conducted between a group of Brazilian university students - from Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Goiás, Campus Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil - who wanted to learn English, and a group of German university students - from the University of Worms, in Germany - who wanted to learn Portuguese. The cross-cultural bilingual communication was conducted in the second semester of 2010 and involved discussions on environmental issues. Adopting a qualitative perspective in the analysis, the data were derived from conversation sessions through a webconferencing software known as Openmeetings and through e-mails and some written activities developed by the students. All these were analyzed by means of sociocultural theory. Among the conclusions we reached, we observed that the participants used the software features to help them in their language learning process, discussed issues related to environmental science, as well as topics related to their personal and academic life. Regarding the languages used, the participants used English during the teletandem sessions as an anchoring language to assist their partners in learning English itself and Portuguese, as well as introduced the German language in the interaction sessions.

  15. The Litvinenko polonium-210 case - German experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Gerald; Kroeger, Emily A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together the measurement results taken and the lessons learned by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection during the polonium-210 incident in Hamburg in late 2006. The incident was pivotal in confirming the importance of the defence against nuclear hazards in Germany and for highlighting the role of communication in the success of a deployment. The background of the case is reviewed and an overview of the German defence against nuclear hazards is given. The various measurement tasks, both at the scene and in the laboratory, and their results are summarized along with the communication challenges experienced. The main conclusions are that the traces of polonium-210 found at the sites were of little radiological consequence and the German defence against nuclear hazards in Germany delivered an excellent and measured response to the incident. However, communication challenges still exist and communication with the public and the emergency responders has to be given high priority during future deployments in order to ensure their success. (author)

  16. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinly, D. III

    2005-09-01

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  17. Environmental planning and the siting of nuclear facilities: the integration of water, air, coastal, and comprehensive planning into the nuclear siting process. Improving regulatory effectiveness in federal/state siting actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, J.B.; Epting, J.T.; Blumm, M.C.; Ackerman, S.; Laist, D.W.

    1977-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act, the Coastal Zone Management Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Clean Air Act Amendments, and the Housing and Urban 701 Comprehensive Planning Assistance Program are discussed in relation to the planning and siting of nuclear facilities

  18. How old are Germanic lambs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    2017-01-01

    Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto......-Germanic, and speaks for Gothic and Gutnish preserving the original Proto-Germanic meaning of the etymon. These semantics provide a missing link for connecting Pro-to-Germanic *lambiz- with PIE *h₁él-n-/*h₁l-ón- ‘red deer’....

  19. German nuclear fuel exports and imports 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Safety of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials in 1990 show a major rise by 46.3% in imports and a pronounced drop by 44.3% in exports, compared to the levels in the previous year. Source material for the purposes of the statistics refers only to uranium concentrate. Quantitatively, the biggest import items are source materials, depleted uranium, and uranium enriched 3% to 10%. Exports of unirradiated material quantitatively comprise mainly depleted uranium, source materials, and uranium enriched up to 10%. (orig.) [de

  20. German nuclear fuel exports and imports 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Safety of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials in 1991 show a major drop by 33.8% in imports and a pronounced rise by 191.5% in exports, compared to the levels in the previous year. Source material for the purposes of these statistics refers only to uranium concentrate. Quantitatively, the biggest import items are source materials, depleted uranium, and uranium enriched up to 3%. Exports of unirradiated material quantitatively comprise mainly depleted uranium, source material, and uranium enriched up to 10%. (orig.) [de

  1. The Ability of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center to Collect and Disseminate Environmental Measurements during Radiological Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marianno, Craig; Essex, James

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is the United States response organization for radiological emergencies. The FRMAC is structured as an operations center and employs the combined resources of several federal agencies to respond to any disaster resulting in the release of radioactivity. The mission of the FRMAC is to support state and local authorities in the gathering of environmental data using an array of survey equipment ranging from alpha probes, beta/gamma probes, and high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectroscopy to the gathering of physical samples. Once collected, the data are projected on maps to assist public officials make protective action decisions. In addition to the accumulation of data, it is the legal obligation of the FRMAC to keep archival records of all data points and their actions. During an event, it is conceivable that hundreds to thousands of sample points will be recorded over a relatively short time. It is in the interest of the federal government and public that the information collected be put to the best use as fast as possible. Toward this end, the Remote Sensing Laboratory, working under the direction of the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, is investigating the use of several technologies that will accelerate data flow from field teams to the FRMAC and, finally, distribution of data to decision makers and the public. Not only can finished data products be viewed through the internet, but the actual collection of data via 'real-time' telemetry can be viewed using this same method. Data from the field will be transferred directly to the FRMAC using the MCPD (multi-path communication device). This base station receives the survey information from the field teams via Bluetooth and instantly investigates the best communication pathway to transfer data to the FRMAC. Possible paths include standalone radio, commercial cellular networks (GPRS and CDMA) and satellite

  2. Facility Environmental Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the Web site of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) facility Environmental Management System (EMS)....

  3. The German drought monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  4. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  5. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  6. The German Humpback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Ploeen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies find a monotonic positive relationship between a firm’s internationalization and its foreign exchange hedging. We argue that high levels of internationalization can reduce the need for foreign exchange hedging through diversification (e.g. sales to several markets) and operational...... hedging (matching of cash flows and operational flexibility). We employ multivariate regression analysis and find an inverse U-shape relationship (“humpback”) for large listed non-financial German firms. Foreign exchange hedging activity peaks when half of sales (or long-term assets) is outside Europe. We...

  7. The German energy policy: between national requirements and community exigencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the strategic and economic stakes that are associated with the security of energy supplies, the German federal government has made of this question one of the priorities of its european presidency. In this note, the author observes a radical change in the German energy policy with the future phaseout of nuclear energy and the perspectives of Russian gas supply. The author also reviews the challenges of the elaboration of a European energy policy, with certain member States refusing to transfer their sovereignty in the energy domain, and the large split between national requirements and community exigencies in this field

  8. The German Debate on Tactical Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    This report analyses the debate in Germany about tactical nuclear weapons deployments in Europe. It is mainly based on interviews conducted with senior officials from the German Federal Foreign Ministry, the Federal Ministry of Defence, senior members of Parliament as well as experts from research institutes and think-tanks. The interviews focused on the more recent past in the German debate as well as the future of tactical nuclear weapon deployments in Germany and Europe. The report concludes that while a change of Germany's position on tactical nuclear weapons is unlikely to change in the short-term, several developments will make it unlikely that the continued involvement of Germany in NATO nuclear sharing will have to be debated in the medium term. Should the next Parliamentary elections, which will take place in 2009 at the latest, result in a Social Democrat-led government, a push for a reduction of Germany's involvement in NATO nuclear sharing appears possible. A conservative-led government is likely to maintain the nuclear status quo within NATO

  9. Is the German energy transition sustainable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeker, Etienne; Godot, Clelia

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, Germany began a radical energy policy, or 'Energiewende', with the aim of completely abandoning nuclear power by 2022 and then achieving an 80-95% reduction in the country's greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. By this date, the country will therefore have to be producing its electricity almost completely without the use of gas, oil and coal, having replaced 80% of these sources with renewable energies. Germany is a rich country with one of the most competitive industries in the world. Its environmental commitments have been clearly stated and Energiewende, which is widely discussed throughout the country, has so far seen strong support from the population, despite the expected increases in the price of electricity which, however, is already almost twice as expensive as in France. Germany therefore seems to hold the winning cards required to successfully implement its energy transition. However, many difficulties need to be overcome if this energy policy is to succeed, such as the development of the national power grid, the cost and financing of the necessary investments, improved electricity storage techniques, the acceptability of the planned increases in the price of electricity or the financial difficulties experienced by solar panel manufacturers as a result of the sharp reduction in subsidies and competition from Asia. In addition, recent political dissent within the government regarding the measures implemented to achieve its stated goal has slowed down the federal decision-making process on this matter. Finally, Germany's decision is not without consequences for its European neighbours. It is upsetting and weakening the supply and demand balance of the European energy system and putting some operators in a difficult position. The eyes of all energy world observers are therefore riveted on the changes taking place in Germany, because they will have significant consequences for the entire European Union, and even beyond. Contents: - The ambitious goal

  10. Die Deutschen in Wisconsin (Germans in Wisconsin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…

  11. The need for and the safety of the German spent fuel reprocessing plant at Wackersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel elements from LWR-type reactors is a technically mature and marketable process. The German spent fuel reprocessing plant under construction at Wackersdorf is expected to bring in foreign exchange savings in the Federal household amounting to several hundred millions of DM a year, thus contributing in the long run to the energy political independence of the F.R.G. At the same time, reduced exploitation of resources for uranium production will cut back the effects on the natural environment. Reprocessing technology last not least meets an obligation set by law, namely to recycle the radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel utilisation in a way avoiding harm to the environment. The alternative waste management option, i.e. direct ultimate disposal of spent fuels, does not offer significant advantages over the reprocessing concept in terms of safety, environmental protection, or economics. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Bernard, A.; Stiller-Winkler, R.; Hahn, R.; Manojlovic, N.

    1985-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed to assess whether environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly contaminated by cadmium, lead and other heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population the authors selected 65- and 66-year-old women (n = 286) who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average cadmium levels in blood (CdB) and urine (CdU) revealed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg greater than Duisburg greater than Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. However, with respect to the urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins (beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein), albuminuria, total proteinuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia and some other biological findings, no significant differences between the study populations were noted. Similarly, the prevalence of clinically-confirmed hypertension as well as the relative frequency of hypertensive subjects (systolic greater than or equal to 160 and/or diastolic greater than or equal to 95 mm Hg) did not differ significantly among the three study groups. There was no exposure-response relationship between CdU and tubular proteinuria in the range of the CdU-levels found (0.1 to 5.2 micrograms/g creatinine). However, albuminuria tended to be increased at CdU levels greater than 2 micrograms/g creatinine.

  13. Basic criteria and application examples of German utility PLIM concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgarz, G.; Metzner, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    As a consequence of the consensus negotiations between the present Federal German Government and the German utilities the new Atomic Energy Law was set into force in April 2002. The main issues are: 1. Phase out of NPP-operation after a maximum lifetime of 32 years without any claims for compensation. 2. Termination of spent fuel reprocessing and switching over to direct final storage. Stop of spent fuel casks shipment in 2005. 3. Intermediate storage facilities are to be provided on each power plant site. 4. The promotion clause for nuclear energy is cancelled, the construction of new NPP's is prohibited. 5. The NPP safety status has to be kept on a high level standard. A periodic safety assessment must be performed 'according to the state of the art' based on up-to-date codes and standards in a 10-year interval. As a consequence, the future German policies and strategies are based on this law

  14. Federal Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sheila; Tawil, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The federal government pays for a wide range of goods and services that are expected to be useful some years in the future. Those purchases, called investment, fall into three categories: physical capital, research and development (R&D), and education and training. There are several economic rationales for federal investment. It can provide…

  15. Environmental Information Systems. Integrative data management - Examples from the environmental monitoring; Umweltinformationssysteme. Integratives Datenmanagement - Beispiele aus der Umweltbeobachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knetsch, Gerlinde; Jessen, Karin (comps.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany). Fachgebiet IV 2.1 Informationssysteme Chemikaliensicherheit

    2010-02-15

    Within the workshop ''Environmental databases / Environmental Information Systems'' of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) at 4th to 5th May, 2009, in Hof (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The German Environmental Specimen Base in the Internet (Maria Ruether); (2) REACH IT tools and workflows for the European implementation of chemicals (Gerlinde Knetsch); (3) Design of a European portal for soil information in the scope of the eContentplus project GS soil as a component for SEIS based on the PortaIU {sup registered} technology (Martin Klenke, Stefanie Konstantinidis, Fred Kruse); (4) Introduction of SOS services for the exchange and presentation of numeric data in PortalU {sup registered} (Carsten Heidmann, Wassili Kazakos, Martin Klenke, Siegbert Kunz); (5) Internet portals of waste management in Schleswig-Holstein (Friedhelm Hosenfeld, Wolfgang Thiel, Johannes Bublitz); (6) FIS waters - an international specialized and information technological cooperation (Wolfgang Ballin).

  16. 76 FR 25401 - Petition Under Section 302 on Access to the German Bar Aptitude Examination; Decision Not To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ..., Commerce and Navigation Between the United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany (the FCN... U.S. and French law as a foreign legal consultant in Germany. The petition states that under German...

  17. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  18. German assistance for the dismantling of nuclear submarines in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinsdorf, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    On October 9, 2003, the German Ministry of Economics and Labor signed an agreement with the Russian Federation's former Ministry of Atomic Energy for support in eliminating the nuclear weapons that the Russian Federation has pledged to reduce through the dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines. This treaty, which is binding under international law, implements the Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction as agreed to at the G8 Summit in Kananaskis in 2002. The core element of the German-Russian project is the creation of a long-term interim storage facility for 120 nuclear submarine reactor compartments near Murmansk in northwestern Russia and the preparation of the reactor compartments for interim storage. This technically demanding project, which began not without some problems, has developed in a positive manner since the end of 2003. The provisions in the treaty and its supplementary documents, which were internationally publicized, have generally proven to be successful. (orig.)

  19. Federal response to the environmental assessment report of the NRCB-CEAA joint review panel on the Little Bow project/Highwood diversion plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, a joint review panel released a report on a dam and diversion project proposed by Alberta Public Works, Supply and Services. This document is the response to that report addressing its recommendations to the federal government and other recommendations or statements pertinent to federal areas of jurisdiction and interest. It begins with background on the proposed project, then presents the report's recommendations or statements along with the federal responses with regard to the following issue areas: Regulatory approval; navigable waters and the public right of navigation; fish and fish habitat; wetlands and wildlife; and Aboriginal concerns

  20. Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon...

  1. German nuclear law day 2004 - a conference report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Topical issues of nuclear law constituted the main subjects discussed at the 2004 German Nuclear Law Day organized in Berlin on November 11 to 12, 2004. The agenda included actual issues potentially arising from the topics final storage of nuclear waste, financing a new site search for a repository, and supervision of nuclear installations. Experts from the administration of justice, the federal and state governments, law offices, universities, and the industry discussed the matters in 14 lectures. (orig.)

  2. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described.…

  3. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2017-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grades...... that, in late Proto-Germanic, became predictable from the phonotactic structure of the root....

  4. Danish-German Submarine Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sender, Johannes F.; Lucas, Edward R.

    Germany has invited the Royal Danish Navy to participate in training missions and exercises on board German submarines. This brief examines the benefits and challenges of this proposed cooperation for both Denmark and NATO more broadly.......Germany has invited the Royal Danish Navy to participate in training missions and exercises on board German submarines. This brief examines the benefits and challenges of this proposed cooperation for both Denmark and NATO more broadly....

  5. Coursebook of German: Gender Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova

    2015-01-01

    The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the ...

  6. The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Bruchhausen, Walter; Hein, Wolfgang; Knipper, Michael; Korte, Rolf; Razum, Oliver; Tinnemann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recognising global health as a rapidly emerging policy field, the German federal government recently released a national concept note for global health politics (July 10, 2013). As the German government could have a significant impact on health globally by making a coherent, evidence-informed, and long-term commitment in this field, we offer an initial appraisal of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for development recognised in this document. We conclude that the national concept i...

  7. From "Moderniser" to "Traditionalist": Oskar Lafontaine and German Social Democracy in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Dostal, Jörg Michael

    2000-01-01

    Oskar Lafontaine’s resignation as finance minister of the Federal Republic, as chairman of the German Social Democratic Party (SPD), and as member of the German parliament on 11 March 1999 was widely perceived as a dramatic episode in the debate about the future direction of social democracy in Europe. Directly after the resignation of the second most important politician of the ruling SPD-Green Party coalition, his decision was explained on four accounts. First, the relationship between Lafo...

  8. Intelligibility of Standard German and Low German to Speakers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.S.; Kürschner, Sebastian; van Bezooijen, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the intelligibility of spoken Low German and Standard German for speakers of Dutch. Two aspects are considered. First, the relative potential for intelligibility of the Low German variety of Bremen and the High German variety of Modern Standard German for speakers of Dutch is

  9. Focal points of environmental policy at the beginning of the Eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This speech was held by the Federal Home Secretary Baum in front of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Umweltfragen (AGU) on 3rd February 1981. He said that environmental policy must be determined even more by the principle of providence in this decade; the main issue is the orientation towards the future in German economic, social, and welfare policy. Vehicles and environment, vehicle noise, advantageous conditions in competition for environmentally-minded and energy conserving vehicles, nuclear energy etc., and international pollution protection are considered focal points of future environmental policy. According to his opinion, the consumption situation and compatibility tests as to environmental conditions are necessary. Increasing pollution protection ought to be promoted by special financing programmes and model projects of the Federal Government. (HSCH) [de

  10. German contributions to the CMS computing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheurer, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS computing model anticipates various hierarchically linked tier centres to counter the challenges provided by the enormous amounts of data which will be collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN. During the past years, various computing exercises were performed to test the readiness of the computing infrastructure, the Grid middleware and the experiment's software for the startup of the LHC which took place in September 2008. In Germany, several tier sites are set up to allow for an efficient and reliable way to simulate possible physics processes as well as to reprocess, analyse and interpret the numerous stored collision events of the experiment. It will be shown that the German computing sites played an important role during the experiment's preparation phase and during data-taking of CMS and, therefore, scientific groups in Germany will be ready to compete for discoveries in this new era of particle physics. This presentation focuses on the German Tier-1 centre GridKa, located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the German CMS Tier-2 federation DESY/RWTH with installations at the University of Aachen and the research centre DESY. In addition, various local computing resources in Aachen, Hamburg and Karlsruhe are briefly introduced as well. It will be shown that an excellent cooperation between the different German institutions and physicists led to well established computing sites which cover all parts of the CMS computing model. Therefore, the following topics are discussed and the achieved goals and the gained knowledge are depicted: data management and distribution among the different tier sites, Grid-based Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 as well as Grid-based and locally submitted inhomogeneous user analyses at the Tier-3s. Another important task is to ensure a proper and reliable operation 24 hours a day, especially during the time of data-taking. For this purpose, the meta-monitoring tool 'HappyFace', which was

  11. Environmental protection and procedural law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutschler, U.

    1978-01-01

    For the power industry which is 'independent of licensing', the Ule/Laubinger statement as well as its discussion on the 52th German legal experts' day are of considerable importance. It is therefore absolutely necessary to critically investigate the statements of this expert's opinion and the considerations on which they are based. This investigation is limited to those licensing procedures which in the terminology of experts, are 'similar to the plan approval procedure'. This applies mainly to the procedures according to paragraph 4 ff of the Federal Act on the Protection Against Nuisances and paragraph 7 of the Atomic Energy Law: Preliminaries publication of documents, inspection of files, public hearing, taking of evidence, persons with special responsibilities, administrative proceedings, actions by associations. The deficiencies in the execution of environmental procedural law is briefly mentioned. The notes in the article refer only to air pollution. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Status report on the implementation of the integrated energy and climate protection programme of the German government; Statusbericht zur Umsetzung des Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramms der Bundesregierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissler, Diana; Wachsmann, Ulrike

    2011-04-15

    The German government has committed itself to a 40 percent reduction of climate-relevant gases by 2020, as compared to 1990. In 2007, the government presented an integrated energy and climate protection programme (IEKP) with a catalogue of measures to achieve this goal. The IEKP was to be revised from 2010 by monitoring every two years. If the monitoring were to show that the CO2 reduction goal could not be achieved by the measures taken, suggestions will be made on how to improve CO2 reduction technologies. This study, carried out on behalf of the Federal Minister of Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety, presents a data base for this monitoring. It is based on work carried out by the Federal Environmental Office, the BMU, and other institutions. (orig.)

  13. Renewables within the German Electricity System - Experiences and Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaltschmitt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades renewable sources of energy as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel energy have gained more and more importance within the German electricity system. Their share has increased from less than 4 % to roughly one third of the gross electricity production in the last 25 years. Against this background, the goal of this paper is to present briefly the current status of the use of renewables within the German electricity system, to assess selected developments taking place during this development process as well as to identify given challenges and needs as well as necessary actions to pave the road for a further use of renewable sources of energy within the German electricity provision system. The political driver for the latter is the overarching goal to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions which has been confirmed within the Paris agreement signed by the end of 2015.

  14. 1992 yearbook of environmental and technology-related law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 and sixth edition of this yearbook contains papers on environmental and technology-related law in the European Communities and the Federal Republic of Germany including among other things information on the latest jurisdiction by the European Court of Justice; insurability of environmental damage; scientific aspects of limit values. There are also treatises on non-German and comparative as well as international environmental and technology- related law which deal among other things with atomic and immission protection law and on harmonization and codification from a general point of view. Finally, some papers report on developments of national and European environmental and technology-related law. Three of the fifteen contributions have been abstracted separately. (HSCH) [de

  15. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, Jörg G; Flessa, Steffen

    2013-10-10

    Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an offensive and competitive stance are quite

  16. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  17. Agri-Environmental Schemes and Grassland Biodiversity: Another Side of the Coin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, Angela

    2010-01-01

    arguments in favour of AES subsidies is that they will promote environmentally-friendly land use, which in turn will lead to biodiversity conservation. However, the results of this paper reveal that production-oriented AES only focused on organic land use, irrespective of biodiversity levels. Nature......In this paper, the Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES) of the European Union are evaluated on the basis of county-level data for the German Federal States Thuringia and Bavaria. The purpose is to disentangle the effects of AES on farming practice from their effects on biodiversity. One of the major...

  18. The regulated energy economy versus the free energy market - The West German experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesen, K.; Schwarz, H.O.

    1989-09-01

    The overall good performance of the West German energy industry in terms of energy policy objectives such as security of supplies, competitiveness, efficient use of energy and environmental protection, is attributable to an energy policy based on the principles of the market economy and steady application of these same principles. Today, though, a debate, at times controversial, on whether more market influence or more government intervention is required is underway in West Germany; in view of the successes of energy policy and the balance struck between free enterprise and the government in the past, this debate has met with little understanding in some quarters. It is generally agreed, though, that the quality of the challenges energy policy and the energy industry in West Germany will confront in the future will remain essentially unchanged. West German energy policy will have to deal with: reestablishing a consensus on coal and nuclear power policy; achieving a high standard of environmental protection in the European Communities, and strengthening the position of the energy industry as efforts are made to get moves underway to create a single European market for energy underway. No fundamental change in the course of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany is needed to solve current energy policy issues or to preserve the underlying goals of this policy. An energy policy which continues to give priority where possible to market mechanisms as a means of adjustment and provides energy suppliers and users with a stable and reliable framework in which to operate, offers the best promise for meeting the challenges of the future. (author). 2 figs

  19. PingFederate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PingFederate Server provides Identity Federation and Single Sign On Capabilities. Federated identity management (or identity federation) enables enterprises to...

  20. Creeping Federalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that make taxharmonization difficult to impose. Other types of harmonization have a less clear-cut costbenefitanalysis. A federal commercial code that is uniform across member states reducestransaction and information costs, compared to leaving important code issues to memberstates; further, many states may...

  1. Environmental assessment in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. In this report, the scope, objectives, and approach of this EA are presented.

  2. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Prencipe, Loretta [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Todaro, Richard M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Cuyler, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eide, Elizabeth [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  3. Holocaust und exil im gymnasialen Deutschunterricht: Ein Blick auf ein deutsches Curriculum (Holocaust and Exile in the German Class in the Gymnasium: A Look at the German Curriculum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajak, Clauss Peter

    1999-01-01

    The processing of Germany's Nazi past with the help of exile and holocaust literature has already been an important component of the teaching of literature in the schools of the Federal Republic of Germany for some time. This article analyzes an exemplary German curriculum for the Baden-Wuerttemberg gymnasium level. (DMK)

  4. Anglo-german – a colloquial language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Teodora BIRIŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years more and more words from English entered in German language, which ledto the formation of a colloquial language called "Denglisch" from "Deutsch - German" and"Englisch - English". Denglisch differs from the Anglicisms through the fact that here are observedsyntactic and morphological rules of the German language, which proves the power of Germangrammar.In the article below we follow the areas where the colloquial language is used morefrequently and how it is used by German speakers. Denglisch is fought by the German linguists,who recommended the use of English words, only if there is not a similar term in German.

  5. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    Certain complex verbs in Dutch, German, and Swiss German do not undergo verb movement. The suggestion to be made in this article is that these ‘‘immobile'' verbs have to fulfill both the requirements imposed on complex verbs of the V° type (=verbs with non-separable prefixes) and the requirements...... imposed on complex verbs of the V* type (=verbs with separable prefixes). This results in such verbs being morphologically unexceptional, i.e., having a full set of forms but syntactically peculiar (‘‘immobile''), i.e., they can only occur in their base position. Any movement is incompatible with either...... frequent type with only one prefix-like part (e.g., German bauchreden/Dutch buikspreken ‘to ventriloquize'). This analysis will try to account not only for the data discussed in Haider (1993) and Koopman (1995) but also for the following: - why immobile verbs include verbs with only one prefix-like part...

  6. Status and distribution of the lynx in the German Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kaczensky

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lynx (Lynx lynx had been eradicated in the German Alps by the middle of the 19th century. Since the early 1970s there have been several attempts to initiate the re-introduction of lynx into the German Alps, but none of the projects could be carried out because of the still very controversial attitudes towards the species, and because of competition between institutions. Natural re-colonization of the German Alps by lynx can be expected sooner or later from Switzerland or Austria. Although lynx are already present in some parts of Germany outside the Alps, neither an organized monitoring system nor compensation regulations for losses of livestock exist. For a successful comeback of lynx into Germany, including the German Alps, more efforts than a year-round protection by the federal hunting law is needed. Initiative management actions and intensive public education are necessary to obtain and secure public acceptance of the lynx.

  7. Decree no. 2005-18 from January 5, 2005, providing publication of the framework-agreement for a multilateral environmental program in the nuclear domain in the Russian Federations, made at Stockholm on May 21, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This decree announces the official participation of France in a multilateral program of environmental cooperation with the Russian Federations for the management of spent fuels and nuclear wastes in Russia. The agreement of cooperation is attached to the decree. It defines the conditions of this cooperation, the creation of an organization committee, the multilateral financing, the specific commitments and legal procedures, the tax exemption of the assistance works, the control of the book-keeping, the intellectual property aspects, the personnel status, the settlement of disputes, the assignment of markets, the changes and amendments to the agreement, its ratification, duration, withdrawal and termination. (J.S.)

  8. Fiscal Federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2013-01-01

    China's central–local relations have been marked by perpetual changes amidst economic restructuring. Fiscal decentralization on the expenditure side has been paralleled by centralization on the revenue side, accompanied by political centralization. Hence, our understanding of China's fiscal...... relations is not without controversy. This paper aims to make a theoretical contribution to the ongoing debate on ‘fiscal federalism’ by addressing crucial questions regarding China's central–local fiscal relations: first, to what extent do Chinese central–local fiscal relations conform to fiscal federalism...... in the Western literature? Second, are there any problems with existing principles of fiscal federalism and, if so, how to refine them? Third, how are refined principles relevant to the Chinese case and what policies should the Chinese government pursue in the future? Based on an in-depth and critical review...

  9. Federal databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.; Welles, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Accident statistics on all modes of transportation are available as risk assessment analytical tools through several federal agencies. This paper reports on the examination of the accident databases by personal contact with the federal staff responsible for administration of the database programs. This activity, sponsored by the Department of Energy through Sandia National Laboratories, is an overview of the national accident data on highway, rail, air, and marine shipping. For each mode, the definition or reporting requirements of an accident are determined and the method of entering the accident data into the database is established. Availability of the database to others, ease of access, costs, and who to contact were prime questions to each of the database program managers. Additionally, how the agency uses the accident data was of major interest

  10. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF RUSSIAN-GERMAN RELATIONS IN 2000-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Олеговна Пучинская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective collaboration between the Russian Federation and Germany at the beginning of the 21st century would be impossible without mutually beneficial economic cooperation of the two countries. The analysis of basic stages in the economic relations, achievements and problems are considered by the author to be important for lining-up an all-round picture of the Russian-German relations in the period under review. The main purpose of this article is the consideration and analysis of the economic aspects in the Russian foreign policy towards Germany. The problem considered in the article is of current importance, because in 2000-2013 the economic collaboration of Russia and the German Federal Republic was brought to a high level, but at the same time some considerable potential of cooperation was not fulfilled. With regard to complementarity of the Russian and German economies and their centuries-old experience of collaboration and mutual financial interest, it is possible to suppose that the economic sphere in particular would be a basis of optimization of the Russian-German relations in the long term. In such a way, this article deals with the basic directions of the Russian-German economic cooperation in 2000-2013.The contractual legal base of financial relations is examined with the purpose to reveal strengths and weaknesses as well as perspective possibilities of the optimization in the Russian-German relations in the future.

  11. The Danish Press during the German Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...

  12. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  13. 77 FR 14507 - Revision to Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Revision to Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and..., ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting''. SUMMARY: On October 5, 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order (EO) 13514, ``Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance'' (74 FR...

  14. 75 FR 63823 - Final Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting...''), entitled ``Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance.'' 74 FR 52117, Oct. 8... emissions associated with agency operations. This Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and...

  15. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  16. Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Correia Da Silva, L.

    2004-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows than UK and US firms.However, on a published profits basis, the pattern is reversed.Company law provisions and accounting policies account for these conflicting results.A partial adjustment model is used to estimate the implicit target

  17. German urologists under national socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischel, Matthis

    2014-08-01

    The first full-time professorship for urology at a German university was established in 1937 and in 1942, a rare teaching qualification (Habilitation) for urology was granted, both at the prestigious Berlin University. At the same time, nearly a third of all physicians who worked in the field of urology were classified as "non-Aryan" according to Nazi race laws and were forced out of their profession and their homeland. Many of them committed suicide or, if they refused to flee, were murdered in concentration camps. German urologists also contributed to compulsory sterilization of men according to the "law for the prevention of hereditarily diseased offspring" between 1934 and 1945. Historical sources on the history of urology in Nazi Germany were reviewed and analyzed. These include textbooks and medical journals from the 1930s and 1940s, as well as files from different state and university archives. For urologists, the changing political environment in Germany after 1933 offered possibilities to assert their personal and professional interests. Unfortunately, in many cases, moral principles were thrown overboard, and physicians advanced their own careers and the specialty of urology at the expense of their patients and their Jewish colleagues. Under national socialism, German urologists backed Nazi health and race policies and in exchange gained further professionalization for their specialty, including university positions and increased independence from surgery. Only in recent years has this chapter of German urology's past become a topic of debate among members of the professional society.

  18. Anglo-german – a colloquial language?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Teodora BIRIŞ

    2011-01-01

    In the last years more and more words from English entered in German language, which ledto the formation of a colloquial language called "Denglisch" from "Deutsch - German" and"Englisch - English". Denglisch differs from the Anglicisms through the fact that here are observedsyntactic and morphological rules of the German language, which proves the power of Germangrammar.In the article below we follow the areas where the colloquial language is used morefrequently and how it is used by German s...

  19. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    direct result of the successful German submarine operations in the North Atlantic during 1939–1942. The first German .... The presence of Japanese and German warships in the Southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans was ..... sailed at great speed from the equator in order to arrive off Cape Town for the commencement of the.

  20. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  1. Environmental Protection in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's efforts to protect human health and the environment of federally recognized Indian tribes by supporting implementation of federal environmental laws consistent with the federal trust responsibility, and the government-to-government relationship.

  2. Safety Regulations in organizations and enterprises under supervision of Federal environmental, industrial and nuclear supervision service of Russia (Rostechnadzor), Central Region. Short overview of sites which potentially are dangerous for terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasselblat, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Federal environmental, industrial and nuclear supervision service of Russia carries out inspections over safety of atomic energy sites on the territory of Russian Federation, which are used for peaceful purposes. Currently under control of Supervision Service on the whole territory of Russia 2000 (2179) (1.) organizations (enterprises), business entities in the field of atomic energy use (industry, medicine, scientific research, agriculture, geological survey, education and etc.) using in their activity radionuclide sources. Approximately 6000 (5955) territorially separated or technologically independent radiation-dangerous sites are counted in their structure, which are dealing with radionuclides. The total number of sealed radionuclide sources is more than 1000 pieces. More than thousands radiation-dangerous entities are dealing with unsealed radionuclide sources and radioactive wastes. At such scales of activity, when evident dynamic of source movement is observed, it is very important for regulatory authority to update information on source location, condition, safe use and security, as well as physical protection and prevention of its use in terrorist purposes. In its structure industrial and nuclear supervision service of Russia has 7 big subdivisions (according to directions regulation in the field of atomic energy use) - inter regional territory administrations on control over nuclear and radiation safety, ensuring control over whole territory of Russian Federation, each in within its border of Federal region of Russian Federation. Central inter regional territory administration on control over nuclear and radiation safety is the biggest according to its personnel and number of controlled sites by territorial subdivision of Federal environmental, industrial and nuclear supervision service of Russia (in the field of atomic energy use, according to Federal Law dated 21.11.1995, №170-Federal Low On atomic energy use) and carries out its activity

  3. Colonization of the German part of the river Rhine by the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 (Pelecypoda, Corbiculidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1991-01-01

    The freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774), new to the aquatic fauna of the Federal Republic of Germany, is recorded for the first time on four localities in the German part of the River Rhine.

  4. "We call it Springbok-German!": language contact in the German communities in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Varieties of German are spoken all over the world, some of which have been maintained for prolonged periods of time. As a result, these transplanted varieties often show traces of the ongoing language contact as specific to their particular context. This thesis explores one such transplanted German language variety – Springbok- German – as spoken by a small subset of German Lutherans in South Africa. Specifically, this study takes as its focus eight rural German communities acr...

  5. Dictionary of surfactants English/German and German/English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.

  6. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration environmental impact statement for Interstate Route 66, 1.3 mile section from Glebe Road to Lee Highway, Arlington County, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Highways has undertaken a comprehensive environmental study of a nine-mile section of Interstate Route I-66. This precedent setting study is the Department's attempt to make this a model highway to the nation's capital. The...

  7. [German Urological Associations under National Socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischel, M; Moll, F; Fangerau, H

    2011-09-01

    The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (German Urological Association), established in 1907, was a German-Austrian medical society in which Jewish physicians held important positions. When the Nazis seized power in 1933, the Austrian Hans Rubritius was president of the society. The non-German presidency and the exclusion of Jewish colleagues from the professional society and medical practice led to a halt of the society's activities. At the same time in the mid 1930s, German urologists founded the Gesellschaft Reichsdeutscher Urologen (Association of Reichs-German Urologists) whose members aligned themselves with Nazi health policies and in turn received professional and personal benefits.

  8. Word order in the Germanic languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois......, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian, English.Here we will only consider the languages that are currently spoken in geographical Europe. Thus Afrikaans, which is spoken in South Africa, and the extinct languages Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian, and Runic will not be taken into account (but see e.g. König & van der...

  9. Center for Environmental Health Sciences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary research objective of the Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS) at the University of Montana is to advance knowledge of environmental impacts...

  10. The Potential and Reality of New Refugees Entering German Higher Education: The Case of Berlin Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitwieser, Bernhard; Brueck, Lukas; Moody, Rachel; Taylor, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    By the close of 2015, roughly 890,000 new refugees had arrived in Germany, more than half fleeing the ongoing Syrian Civil War. While Germany had been accustomed to heavy migration streams since the end of the Second World War, the speed of the refugee influx was unexpected. Federal, state, and municipal governments and German civil society,…

  11. [History of the Association of German Veterinary Officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raack, C; Lessing, R

    2000-12-01

    This article gives a review over the beginning, the aims and the centres of gravidity of the association, which was founded on the 4th of January 1919 with the designation "German Veterinary Officers Association". The priority of its aims was the representation of the professional and commercial interests of the members before the background of the disarmament of the German Army, which was inforced by the victor nations. The federation supported the responsible veterinary officers of the Ministry of the "Reichswehr" in the matter of planing a new structure of the veterinary service of the "Reichswehr" in a very effective manner. In addition numerous members were represented in the sphere of commercial interests and public assistance. In 1936 the general meeting decided to dissolve the association, because there existed the danger, that the national socialistic leadership could forbid the membership of the active veterinary officers. In 1952 the federation was founded again and received the designation "Association of former Veterinary Officers and Members of the Veterinary Troops and their Survivors". One primary aim of the federation was the search of missing and killed members of the veterinary service of the "Wehrmacht". Further aims were the cultivation of comradship, the information and representation in the sphere of publical assistance of former professional veterinary officers and their survivors. Also the documentation of the history of the former army veterinary service was a task. In 1966 the veterinary officers of the "Bundeswehr" and the reservists received the possibility to become a member by a changing the statutes. At the same time the association was renamed in "Association of German Veterinary Officers". After temporary rising of the number of members it sank continuously at the end of the eighties. Because of the sinking of the rates of subscription, the general meeting decided on 12th May 2000 to dissolve the association.

  12. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  13. German industrial policy: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Vitols, Sigurt

    1996-01-01

    Despite intense study as an attractive model for adjustment to slower worldwide growth and increasing competition from low-wage producers, the sources of German institutional comparative advantage remain controversial, particularly with regard to the role of the national state. This paper argues that the national state plays a key -- though mainly indirect -- role in supporting the modernization of industry. On the one hand, the national regulation of labor markets has discouraged price compe...

  14. BP floats on top of the German oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    An excerpt from the background report of the Deutsche BP AG summarizing the situation in 1979 shows the developments on the German energy market in the year 1979. The report discusses the shift in the proportions of energy generated from the various energy sources as well the causes and consequences of the mineral oil shortage on the world market, especially the reactions of the Federal Government, the petroleum companies, and the consumers. The outlook on the near future points out that world-wide petroleum supply still remains uncertain and that more serious efforts have to be made in order to put an end to wasting mineral oil.

  15. Forasteiros na floresta subtropical: notas para uma história ambiental da colonização alemã no Rio Grande do Sul Foreigners in the subtropical forest: notes on an environmental history of the German colonisation in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bublitz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da colonização alemã no Rio Grande do Sul do século XIX, a partir da perspectiva da história ambiental, dando atenção especial às relações estabelecidas entre os colonos e a floresta subtropical. O texto analisa o que sentiram os imigrantes em seus primeiros contatos com a fauna e a flora regionais e discute o "desmatamento civilizador" empreendido nas antigas colônias, demonstrando as relações predatórias estabelecidas na nova terra e o impacto ambiental desse processo.The topic of this article is the German colonization in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in the 19th century from the perspective of environmental history and with special attention to what the settlers felt when they first got into touch with subtropical forest. The reader finds a discussion about the deforestation on behalf of civilization and the environmental impact of this process.

  16. Suspended Draft: Effects on the Composition and Quality of the Military Workforce in the German Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Afghanistan’s border areas displays the shift in modern warfare perfectly. According to the public policy think tank “New America Foundation,” during the 400...of German residents (~82 million), excluding diplomats, foreign military and homeless persons. (German Federal Office of Statistics, 2013, p. 475...excluding only homeless nonregistered people and citizens living abroad. GESIS interviewers collect the data in person via computer assisted personal

  17. Agro-environmental policies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohberg, K.; Weingarten

    1997-01-01

    Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

  18. Breeders: operational experience with fast power reactors in five states - more intensive German-French breeder cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1978-01-01

    In the past year contracts have been signed and implemented for German-French cooperation in LMFBR development and commercialization. - The first German nuclear power station with a sodium cooled fast reactor, KNK II in Karlsruhe, is going into operation. - Construction of the prototype SNR 300 at Kalkar (Lower Rhine) is slowing down awaiting a decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court. - On the international level, remarkable experience in the operation of fast power reactors has accumulated. - Possible fuel cycle alternatives are being evaluated by an international committee. (orig.) [de

  19. Uncertainties in Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides. An Uncertainty Analysis for Risk Coefficients Reported in Federal Guidance Report No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, David [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Nelson, Christopher [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2007-01-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (FGR 13) provides risk coefficients for estimation of the risk of cancer due to low-level exposure to each of more than 800 radionuclides. Uncertainties in risk coefficients were quantified in FGR 13 for 33 cases (exposure to each of 11 radionuclides by each of three exposure pathways) on the basis of sensitivity analyses in which various combinations of plausible biokinetic, dosimetric, and radiation risk models were used to generate alternative risk coefficients. The present report updates the uncertainty analysis in FGR 13 for the cases of inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides and expands the analysis to all radionuclides addressed in that report. The analysis indicates that most risk coefficients for inhalation or ingestion of radionuclides are determined within a factor of 5 or less by current information. That is, application of alternate plausible biokinetic and dosimetric models and radiation risk models (based on the linear, no-threshold hypothesis with an adjustment for the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor) is unlikely to change these coefficients by more than a factor of 5. In this analysis the assessed uncertainty in the radiation risk model was found to be the main determinant of the uncertainty category for most risk coefficients, but conclusions concerning the relative contributions of risk and dose models to the total uncertainty in a risk coefficient may depend strongly on the method of assessing uncertainties in the risk model.

  20. Profitability of Management Systems on German Fenlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rebhann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fens are organic sites that require drainage for agricultural use. Lowering the groundwater level leads to trade-offs between economic benefits and environmental impacts (i.e., CO2 and nutrient emissions. To identify management options that are both environmentally and economically sustainable, a propaedeutic systematic analysis of the costs, income and profit of different land use and management systems on fenlands is necessary. This study provides an overview of the profitability, labor demand and comparative advantages of feasible management systems on German fenlands. Twenty management practices in four land use systems are analyzed. The results indicate that most management systems are profitable only with subsidies and payments for ecosystem services. In addition to sales revenue, these payments are indispensable to promote peat-saving agricultural practices on fenlands. Regarding the labor aspect, intensive management systems caused an increase in working hours per hectare, which may positively affect employment in rural areas. The calculations obtained in this study can be used as a basis for estimations of greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation costs when management systems are associated with GHG emission values.

  1. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority tha...

  2. Rossijsko-germanskoe nauchnoe i obrazovatel'noe sotrudnichestvo v Arktike [Russian-German research and academic cooperation in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriyev Vasily

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the stages of development of international research cooperation in the framework of research and education projects focusing on the study of marine and polar territories of the Russian Federation and the Federative Republic of Germany. The largest and most stable projects are the establishment of the Russian-German laboratory of polar and marine research named after the Russian polar explorer of German origin, Otto Schmidt, — OSL — on the premises of AARI, the Russian-German education project — the Applied polar and marine studies master's programme (POMOR — implemented by the Russian and German partners at Saint Petersburg State University, and the Laptev Sea system research programme bringing together around 20 Russian and German organisations.

  3. Fiscal Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central budget of a country collects only a fraction of the total fiscal revenues and executes only o fraction of the national public expenditures, the rest of the revenues and expenditures becoming the responsability of subnational governments. The economist Charles Tiebout developed a theoretical model which although makes an imperfect description of the reality, shows that people’s mobility is being influenced by tax rates and the amount of state/local expenditures. Thus, he suggests that the degree of responsibility that can be appointed to the local budgets should subscribe to the tax – benefits ratio, the extend of the positive externalities and the scale economies of public goods. Also, the issue of revenues distribution among communities is being raised, being identified three kinds of grants used by the public authorities: matching grants, block grants and conditional block grants. In the concept of fiscal federalism there can be found a limited analogy between national public finance theory and international public finance theory, with the international taxation as the pivotal element.

  4. Hospital Policy and Productivity - Evidence from German States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmann, Alexander; Roesel, Felix

    2017-12-01

    Total factor productivity (TFP) growth allows for additional healthcare services under restricted resources. We examine whether hospital policy can stimulate hospital TFP growth. We exploit variation across German federal states in the period 1993-2013. State governments decide on hospital capacity planning (number of hospitals, departments, and beds), ownership, medical students, and hospital investment funding. We show that TFP growth in German hospital care reflects quality improvements rather than increases in output volumes. Second-stage regression results indicate that reducing the length of stay is generally a proper way to foster TFP growth. The effects of other hospital policies depend on the reimbursement scheme: Under activity-based (German Diagnosis-related Group) hospital funding, scope-related policies (privatization and specialization) come with TFP growth. Under fixed daily rate funding, scale matters to TFP (hospital size and occupancy rates). Differences in capitalization in East and West Germany allow to show that deepening capital may enhance TFP growth if capital is scarce. We also show that there is less scope for hospital policies after large-scale restructurings of the hospital sector. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  6. Environmental Modeling Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Modeling Center provides the computational tools to perform geostatistical analysis, to model ground water and atmospheric releases for comparison...

  7. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: Overview of the French-German initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesold, H.; Friederichs, H.G.; Pretzsch, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Dept. International Programmes, Berlin (Germany); Deville-Cavelin, G.; Lhomme, V.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dept. International Relations, 92 - Clamart (France); Bazyka, D.; Chabanyuk, V.; Seleznev, A. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    - Purpose: The main purpose of the French-German Initiative is to assist in the collection and validation of the existing data in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia for developing a reliable and objective basis useful for the planning of counter-measures, for information of the public, and for future work. - Coordination: GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit), supported in programme 3 by SBI (Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen) and IRSN (Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire) are coordinating the projects on the Western side. The CC (Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology) as Eastern coordinator is also the beneficiary. German Support by Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU), Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke (VDEW) e.V.; French Support by Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire (IRSN), Electricite de France (EdF). - Programmes: Three scientific and technical co-operation programmes are financed with a total budget of about 6 million Euro within the frame work of the French- German Initiative: Programme 1: SARCOPHAGUS: Safety of the Chernobyl 'Sarcophagus', Programme 2: RADIOECOLOGY: Study of the radioecological consequences of the accident,Programme 3: HEALTH: Study of health effects. - Background: At the IAEA conference in Vienna in April 1996 - 10 years after the Chernobyl accident - the French and German Environment Ministers jointly announced their co-operation initiative with the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia over scientific programmes concerning the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster. Numerous scientific studies have been conducted in the affected republics of the former USSR with and without the participation of international organisations, but largely with insufficient real co-ordination. For some of the studies, results have never been publicly documented. There are still incoherent or even contradictory reports on the

  8. The French-German common safety approach for future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Chevet, P.F.

    1995-01-01

    A common safety approach has been defined for future electronuclear plants in the framework of the French-German European Pressurised water Reactor (EPR) project. Improvements in the domain of containment are required in future reactors conception to prevent any risk of core fusion under high and low pressure. Another objective is to reduce significantly the radioactive releases due to other accidents in order to reduce spatial and temporal environmental and human protection procedures. Protection against external aggressions (plane fall, explosions, earthquakes,..), prevention of pipe rupture in the primary circuits, limitation of hydrogen production in the case of water-zirconium complete reaction, cooling of the reactor in the case of core fusion, and radiologic consequences of accidents are the main points discussed by the French-German safety authorities to define the common safety standards of the EPR project. (J.S.)

  9. Gyama Bugibugi (German gunpowder) : a history of German presence in Nawuriland, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntewusu, SA

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses general political and economic issues in Nawuriland during and after German colonialism. The paper argues that the legacies of German colonialism are still largely seen and felt in Nawuriland especially in plantation projects, land and chieftaincy.

  10. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-20

    The information of the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015 covers the following issues: selected topics of radiation protection, natural radiation exposure; civilizing (artificial) radiation exposure: nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, uranium mine recultivation, radioactive materials in industry and households, fallout from nuclear weapon testing and reactor accidents; occupational radiation exposure: exposed personnel in nuclear facilities, aviation personnel, radiation accidents; medical radiation exposure: nuclear medical diagnostics and therapy; non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields, UV radiation, optical radiation.

  11. Databases in the fields of toxicology, occupational and environmental health at DIMDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrich, E.

    1993-01-01

    DIMDI, the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information, is a governmental institute and affiliated to the Federal Ministry for Health. It was founded in 1969 in Cologne. At present DIMDI hosts about seventy international and national bibliographic and factual databases in the field of biosciences, such as medicine, public health, pharmacology, toxicology, occupational and environmental health, nutrition, biology, psychology, sociology, sports, and agricultural sciences. The most important databases with toxicological and ecotoxicological information, which contain data useful for managers of chemical and nucelar power plants are the factual databases HSDB, ECDIN, SIGEDA, RTECS, and CCRIS, and the bibliographic databases TOXALL, ENVIROLINE, SCISEARCH, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and BIOSIS PREVIEWS. (orig.)

  12. German Librarianship and Munich Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.

  13. 63rd German radiological congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The book of abstracts contains abstracts of 171 papers read at the German Radiological Congress in Berlin as well as abstracts of two papers not read for lack of time. Further, there are 31 brief descriptions of the scientific exhibition. Subjects: Diagnosis of gall bladder diseases and inflammatory diseases of the large intestine; hyperthermia and irradiation in tumour therapy; nuclear methods in the diagnosis of growing and displacing processes, skeletal diseases, thromboses, embolisms, gastrointestinal and liver affections; new techniques and methods, diagnostics of the spinal tract; radiooncology; carcinoma of the ovaries; diagnostics and therapy of tumours of the lungs; computerized tomography; angiography; ultrasonic diagnosis. (MG) [de

  14. German versus Nordic Board Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    changes and developments in business practice, the article argues that board practices in the two systems effectively blur the structural distinction, and that board organization is converging in practice. It thereby contributes to the broader debates on functionality and comparative corporate law......Board structure is an important component of the individual governance of firms, and the appropriateness of the various models is one of the most debated issues in corporate governance today. A comparison of the Nordic and German approaches to the structure of corporate boards reveals stark...

  15. German family policy at the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    . Simulation makes those reforms comparable over time and across countries. Results show that the profile of the German scheme is changing from "general family" towards "dual-earner" support. Furthermore, the recent reforms make the German scheme converge towards the Swedish leave scheme. The recent reforms....... Microsimulation helps to overcome these problems. It compares policy options - actual reforms or reform plans - simultaneously and provides a comparable measure: the disposable income of model families. This article uses a type-case approach to investigate recent reforms of the German parental leave benefit...... introduce a new concept of fairness and a focus on gender equality to German family policies....

  16. The German competence network on nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Fritz, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The present German energy policy is based on the phase-out of nuclear electricity generation, which means that the last of the currently operating eighteen German nuclear power plants will run until about 2022. While the plants will be shut down one after the other, decommissioning will start together with interim storage of the radioactive waste. The safe waste disposal in a final repository is planned to start around 2030 and may take another two decades, i.e., in Germany nuclear competence is further needed, at least until the mid of this century. Against this background, a high-ranking commission under the direction of the Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology evaluated the publicly funded nuclear safety related research and development (R and D) activities in Germany. One of the recommendations made by the commission was the foundation of a Competence Network on Nuclear Technology for an optimum coordination of the remaining nuclear activities including aspects of future human resources in this area. This Network was established in March 2000 with the following member institutions: Research Centre Juelich, Research Centre Karlsruhe, Research Centre Rossendorf and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) in Munich and their neighbouring Technical Universities. The strategic objectives of the Competence Network include: Trend investigations on job development and on university education capacities in the nuclear technology sector; Enhanced cooperation of the Research Centres with universities in the nuclear field and support of international education initiatives (e.g. ENEN, WNU); Coordination and bundling of the activities in publicly funded reactor safety and waste management R and D programmes; Support of qualified young scientists and engineers (pre-doctoral students) - also by third-party funds; Participation in and collaboration with international projects and activities for advancements of international nuclear safety

  17. SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Sánchez Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of

  18. Residual risks of the 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-01-01

    The 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, which was adopted by the German federal parliament on June 30 and entered into force on August 6, 2011, must be judged in the light of its genesis. Federal Chancellor Merkel, in her government declaration of June 9, 2011, had mentioned topics such as residual risk, safety standards, and risk assumptions, on which the federal government, in the week after the event of March 11, 2011, had commissioned the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RSK) to conduct a comprehensive safety review of all German nuclear power plants, and appointed an Ethics Committee to write an opinion on safe energy supply. On the basis of quickly drafted reports, the federal cabinet, without any international harmonization (EU, IEA), adopted a draft opt out law on June 6, 2011. How should the declarations by the Federal Chancellor on June 9, 2011 be classified in terms of atomic energy law? In her words, it all revolved around the residual risk. The debate, which has been shifted to the realm of constitutional law, is open to considerations and steps to attack the new opt out law on grounds of material unconstitutionality (violation of the property guarantee under Sec. 14 or the principle of equality under Art.3 of the Basic Law). As far as final storage is concerned, the amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act announced still for this year, also for transposition of the EURATOM Directive of July 19, 2011 about nuclear waste management, the ''re-assessment of the residual risk'' is not likely to play a role. All these events are reminiscent of a sentence by former Federal Chancellor Schmidt: ''The history of the NATO dual-track decision remains a textbook case showing that even in a democracy emotions using ethical arguments, mixed with demagogy, can become strong enough to cast aside balanced reason.'' There is also a distinction by Max Weber between ''ethics of ideology'' and ''ethics of responsibility''. (orig.)

  19. The participation of the German Länder in the EU decision-making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Panara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sketches out the main features of the German system of regional participation in the EU decision-making process with the aim of identifying the key strengths and weaknesses of that system. The author will be examining whether the model currently in place allows for a sufficiently rapid and effective response to the EU decision-making process, and whether there is a sufficiently balanced representation of regional and federal interests at the EU level. The article will also contain a proposal as to how the German model of regional participation in the EU decision-making process could be further improved.

  20. German Grocery Discounters: Dynamics and Regional Impact. the Case of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grocery discount stores have long dominated developments in the German food retail sector, and they continue to grow. This paper discusses the reasons for this long-term success based on internal decision-making parameters such as price, adjustment of product range, choice of location, and size of new stores. The result is significant customer acceptance, but also adverse developments viewed critically in various governance constellations. The paper is based on expert interviews and a comprehensive collection of data on grocery discount stores and supermarkets in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein

  1. Deployment of German Electronic Citizen Cards in Banking: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büger, Matthias

    The German federal government plans to issue an electronic citizen card (eID) in 2009, replacing the current identity card (Personalausweis). Since the eID should be good for identification in E-government as well as E-business applications, it is aimed to be used in the banking environment. One application would be opening a bank account in the internet. If this was possible, the process would be much easier than today. However, German law still requires a physical ID card. We will discuss the opportunities and the challenges of possible usage of eID in banking.

  2. Evaluation of proposed German safety criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsell, A.W.

    1980-05-01

    This work reviews proposed safety criteria prepared by the German Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) for future licensing of gas-cooled high-temperature reactor (HTR) concepts in the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparison is made with US General Design Criteria (GDCs) in 10CFR50 Appendix A and with German light water reactor (LWR) criteria. Implications for the HTR design relative to the US design and safety approach are indicated. Both inherent characteristics and design features of the steam cycle, gas turbine, and process heat concepts are taken into account as well as generic design options such as a pebble bed or prismatic core

  3. Environmental research and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry for Research and Technology, the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen' (AGF) presented in 1972 an information brochure called 'Activities in the field of environmental research and environmental protection', closely associated with the environmental programme of the Federal government (1971). The information brochure reports on those activities of the working group's members which are closely, or less closely, connected with questions concerning environmental research and protection, however, investments for the protection of the individual facilities in internal operation are excluded. The AGF programme 'Environmental research and environmental protection' comprises contributions, brought up to date, of member companies. From the 'AGF programme survey 1974' it contains 'Environmental research' as well as aspects of nuclear development with environmental relevance. Technologies not harmful to the environment developed by the research facilities are only mentioned very briefly. (orig.) [de

  4. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology researchThe Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  5. Compliance of the Savannah River Plant P-Reactor cooling system with environmental regulations. Demonstrations in accordance with Sections 316(a) and (b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.

    1985-12-01

    This document presents demonstrations under Sections 316(a) and (b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 for the P-Reactor cooling system at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The demonstrations were mandated when the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the SRP was renewed and the compliance point for meeting South Carolina Class B water quality criteria in the P-Reactor cooling system was moved from below Par Pond to the reactor cooling water outfall, No. P-109. Extensive operating, environmental, and biological data, covering most of the current P-Reactor cooling system history from 1958 to the present are discussed. No significant adverse effects were attributed to the thermal effluent discharged to Par Pond or the pumping of cooling water from Par Pond to P Reactor. It was conluded that Par Pond, the principal reservoir in the cooling system for P Reactor, contains balanced indigenous biological communities that meet all criteria commonly used in defining such communities. Par Pond compares favorably with all types of reservoirs in South Carolina and with cooling lakes and reservoirs throughout the southeast in terms of balanced communities of phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, and other vertebrate wildlife. The report provides the basis for negotiations between the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) to identify a mixing zone which would relocate the present compliance point for Class B water quality criteria for the P-Reactor cooling system

  6. Practical dictionary of environment, nature conservation and land use. English-German; Praxis-Woerterbuch Umwelt, Naturschutz und Landnutzungen. Deutsch-Englisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, C.P. (ed.) [Stiftung Europaeisches Naturerbe (Euronatur), Ludwigsburg (Germany); Schreiner, J. [Alfred Toepfer Akademie fuer Naturschutz, Schneverdingen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    More than 30,000 English and 30,000 German terms from these subject fields: agriculture, air pollution abatement, biotope conservation, climate protection, ecology, environmental administration, environmental eduction, environmental engineering, environmental ethics, environmental information, environmental policy, environmental research, fishery, forestry, hunting, landscape management, landscape planning, preventive health care, radiation protection, recycling, regional planning, settlement development, soil conservation, water management, waste, wildlife conservation. (orig.) [German] Mehr als 30 000 deutsche und 30 000 englische Stichworte aus den Themenbereichen: Abfall, Artenschutz, Biotopschutz, Bodenschutz, Fischerei, Forstwirtschaft, Gesundheitsvorsorge, Gewaesserschutz, Jagd, Klimaschutz, Landschaftspflege, Landschaftsplanung, Landwirtschaft, Luftreinhaltung, Oekologie, Raumordnung, Siedlungsentwicklung, Strahlenschutz, Umweltbildung, Umweltethik, Umweltforschung, Umweltinformation, Umweltpolitik, Umwelttechnik, Umweltverwaltung, Wasserwirtschaft, Wiederverwertung. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear Experts Complete IAEA Follow-up Review of German Regulatory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    improving its regulatory activities at federal and at state level. The IRRS team observed that this high-level clarification of duties has led to improved cooperation between the Federal and Leander regulators, a noteworthy and positive change since the 2008 IRRS mission. A number of the findings identified in the 2008 report have been effectively addressed and therefore can be considered closed. However, further important steps need to be made to address recommendations and suggestion that are still open. In addition, the IRRS team noted the following strengths and improvements, examples include: The UM BW demonstrated commitment to continuous improvement as evidenced by its responsiveness to the recommendations and suggestions from the 2008 IRRS mission; The BMU has implemented a comprehensive IT knowledge management approach to support the activities of the regulatory body and its stakeholders. The availability of this up-to-date online information to all involved parties has contributed to mutual trust and shared understanding among all stakeholders; and The prompt and coordinated incident response activities of the BMU and UM BW to the Fukushima accident are commendable. The environmental radiation monitoring programme and the communication to the public and interested parties were carried out in an exemplary manner. Gustavo Caruso, the IRRS Team Coordinator said, ''Important changes have been made in the German regulatory system which resulted in the redefinition of responsibilities and roles among the federal and the states regulatory bodies and this is also contributing to a better understanding and cooperation among them.'' The mission should lead to increased governmental support for regulatory activities with a consequential strengthening of the nuclear safety regulation in the country. The IRRS team also made recommendations and suggestions to further strengthen the German regulatory system. Examples include: BMU should ensure its ability to carry out work in

  8. [German language physician rating sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, D; Reimann, S

    2012-08-01

    In physician rating sites (PRS), patients are able to share their experiences and indicate their satisfaction in qualitative and quantitative form. This information should support other patients in the search for a suitable physician and can serve as a form of anonymous feedback for physicians. Medical association representatives are often concerned that such reviews primarily aim at defamation. Furthermore, there are various aspects of medical work that cannot be adequately evaluated solely through the patients. In the United States of America, the majority of such previous reviews were shown to be positive. It has yet to be examined in the German and English speaking regions where distinct criteria presently allow patients to express their satisfaction through PRS. Based on the systematic review of patient satisfaction questionnaires, a set of criteria was created that represents the dimensions of patient satisfaction. German and English language physician rating sites were systematically researched using the Internet search machines "Google" and "Yahoo". The identified PRS were then evaluated with the help of the aforementioned set of criteria. In order to survey the tendency of the amount and content of reviews, a stratified sample of members of the Panel Doctor's Association in Hamburg and Thuringia was generated. A total of 298 randomly selected physicians were searched for in 6 German-language PRS regarding potential reviews. Some of the key features of the relation-ship between physicians and patients, such as medical competence, information, and consultation, were surveyed by more than three-fourths of the German-speaking PRS; however, other features such as communication were only sampled by one. As opposed to formal points of view, office facilities and organisation were assessed by all PRS. General reviews on treatment success and satisfaction were displayed in more than half of the reviews. Between 75% and 98% of physicians from the random sampling

  9. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Federal Green Challenge (FGC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Federal Green Challenge (FGC) is a national effort under EPA's Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Program, challenging EPA and other federal agencies...

  10. FY2010 Federal Government Greenhouse Gas Inventory by Agency

    Data.gov (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President — The comprehensive Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory for the Federal Government accounts for emissions associated with Federal operations in FY 2010. Attached...

  11. Green Power Partnership Top 10 Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page highlights federal agency efforts in procuring green power.

  12. 2001-2002 Federal Energy Saver Showcases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-07-01

    This book recognizes Federal Energy Saver Showcase winners from both 2001 and 2002. These Federal facilities have been awarded for implementing a variety of significant energy and water efficiency improvement projects. These projects, which employ a wide variety of technologies and products, represent savings in both dollars and environmental impact.

  13. German Schools Abroad: Hotspots of Elite Multilingualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…

  14. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  15. Language History for Teaching and Learning German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…

  16. DIMA – Annotation guidelines for German intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kügler, Frank; Smolibocki, Bernadett; Arnold, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents newly developed guidelines for prosodic annotation of German as a consensus system agreed upon by German intonologists. The DIMA system is rooted in the framework of autosegmental-metrical phonology. One important goal of the consensus is to make exchanging data between groups...

  17. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  18. German Rap Music in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)

  19. The Teaching of German Literature in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippley, LaVern J.

    The present-day status of language instruction at St. Olaf College is viewed in the perspective of past requirements at the college. Reasons for student interest in German, the most popular modern language, focus on the influence of family ties with speakers of Norwegian. A discussion of methods of teaching German literature in translation is…

  20. The Role of German in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  1. The Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published

  2. The Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published earnings as

  3. Teaching a Course in the German Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Klaus

    1978-01-01

    Describes a course in German film offered by the Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures at the University of Illinois. A sample syllabus is given, which includes a list of the films and textbooks used, as well as a selective listing of films available in the United States. (CFM)

  4. When do German Firms Change their Dividends?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia Da Silva, L.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the dividend policy of German firms is more flexible than the one of their Anglo-American counterparts.This paper analyses the decision to change the dividend for a panel of 221 German firms from 1984 to 1994.The choice of the period of study is motivated by the fact

  5. Swiss Themes in Three "Pluricentric" German Language Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    Examines three current textbooks for German as a foreign language with regard to their coverage of Switzerland as a German-speaking nation. Concludes by suggesting that pluricentric German language textbooks for beginners are rare. (Author/VWL)

  6. Environmental policy. 2000 environmental expert opinion of the Council of Experimental Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The reorientation of energy policy is a key issue. The Council of Environmental Experts considers the further use of atomic energy to be irresponsible and recommends a new orientation. Recommendations are made on ecology-centered taxation. Critical comments are made in the context of conservation of nature, where many species of plants and animals still continue to be endangered. The conservation programme of the Federal government, which also comprises a system of large, interconnected biotopes on 10% of Germany's total surface, is approved, and the potential contribution of sustainable agricultural and forestry policy is discussed in a separate chapter. Further subjects discussed are recycling and waste management, protection of water and soil, air pollution abatement, health protection and genetic engineering. The environmental aspects of Eastern European states becoming EC members are gone into in particular. The network of Europen Environmental Councils, for which the German Council of Environmental Experts currently acts as a coordinator, makes intensive efforts to improve environmental counselling in these states [de

  7. Site Environmental Report for 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauer, Ronald O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baskin, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Ned [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fox, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Harvey, Zachary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jelinski, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thorson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehle, Petra [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Suying [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The annual Site Environmental Report documents Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s performance in reducing its environmental impacts, progress toward cleaning up groundwater contamination, and compliance with applicable Department of Energy, federal, state, and local environmental regulations.

  8. Energy policy and environmental policy of the Czech Republic. Vol. 1: Eastern enlargement of the EU; Energie- und Umweltpolitik der Tschechischen Republik. Bd. 1: Osterweiterung der Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, H.G. [Arbeitsgruppe Friedensforschung und Europaeische Sicherheitspolitik (AFES), Mosbach (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    This report has been prepared as part of a bilateral German-Czech project on ''Energy and Environment in the Czech Republic'' that has been financed by the German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature protection and Nuclear Safety. The project is focused on strengthening the cooperation between Germany and the Czech Republic in the field of energy and environment as well as on assisting the Czech Republic in its EU accession process. The project was launched by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) and is managed by Gertec GmbH, an engineering company in Essen. Additional subcontractors and cooperating organisations included both German and Czech partners: ITUT, e.V., Leipzig, AFES-PRESS, Mosbach, the Czech Energy Agency - CEA Prague, SEVEn, the Energy Efficiency Center, o.p.s., Prague, the German-Czech Chamber of Commerce in Prague, the Euroregion Nisa, Liberec, and KSUE, o.p.s., Litvinov. The goal of this report is to provide brief but focused information for the German and Czech business community, for investors and decision makers both on the current situation and the development in 1990s in the area of energy and environment in the Czech Republic. This report consists of an Executive Summary, a detailed survey in part I with a detailed description of the energy sector and environment and in part II three regional studies focusing on North Bohemia, North Moravia, and Prague. These are supplemented by six appendices. As part of this project two additional studies were prepared by AFES-PRESS that focus - from a social science perspective - on the accession process of the Czech Republic: Enlargement of the European Union - Energy and Environment Policy of the Czech Republic (Volume 1), Liberalisation of the Energy Market for Electricity and Gas in the European Union: a Survey and Implications for the Czech Republic (Volume 3) More information on the whole project, the conducted studies and project partners can be found on internet www

  9. The German Economy and U.S.-German Economic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Investment Flows ($ billions)...................................................... 14 Contacts Author Contact Information...of Germany: Adapting to Europeanisation and Globalisation ,” In Germany’s Gathering Crisis: The 2005 Federal Election and the Grand Coalition, eds...European approaches to fixing the banking sector, to join in coordinated cooperative spending programs, and to deal with the Central European financial

  10. 76 FR 3695 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Simkins, Senior Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration...

  11. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent--revised... CONTACT: Brian Hasselbach, Right of Way and Environmental Programs Manager, Federal Highway Administration...

  12. 75 FR 53371 - Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY... CONTACT: Ms. Cathy Kendall, AICP, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, 545 John Knox...

  13. 76 FR 21790 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 66 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 66 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent... and Environmental Team Leader, Federal Highway Administration, Post Office Box 10249, Richmond...

  14. The international economic position of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strube, J.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of a clear increase in the domestic demands the German industry has been investing about 175 billion marks abroad during the past decade. These investments abroad have not necessarily been undermining the economic status of the Federal Republic of Germany but can rather be explained by the importance of the market proximity to foreign locations. In the first place, the German industry's foreign investments reveal the efficiency and competiveness of the companies which have been succeeding in establishing themselves on the markets in Europe and outside of Europe and in qualifying the domestic industry for the world market. (orig.) [de

  15. German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groeters, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    "German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges" examines the institutional education of German General Staff Officers, as experienced by the author, and offers a "Conceptual Competency...

  16. The Role of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, With Emphasis on the Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board - 12482

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santistevan, Menice B. [Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board, 1660 Old Pecos Trail, Suite B, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is comprised of eight Citizens' Advisory Boards, chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) by the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the EM SSAB is to provide the DOE with recommendations regarding Environmental Management issues from legacy waste produced at major sites across the DOE Complex. The Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board (NNMCAB) is the site specific advisory board to the DOE on issues of environmental monitoring, remediation, waste management and long-term stewardship at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The other boards are located at: Hanford, Idaho, Nevada, Paducah, Portsmouth, Oak Ridge and Savannah River. Using broad citizen outreach and input, the SSAB provides an official mechanism for the citizenry at each of these sites to monitor current activities affecting the region and also to have input into the prioritization of future activities. 'The mission of the EM SSAB is to more directly involve stakeholders in EM Planning and decision-making processes for the nuclear weapons complex cleanup. DOE has various means of involving the public in its planning and decision-making processes; the EM SSAB is only one component of EM's public participation program, and is not intended to be an exclusive means of public participation. It is the policy of DOE and EM to conduct it programs in an open and responsive manner, thereby encouraging and providing the opportunity for public participation in its planning and decision-making processes. EM SSAB members are appointed to a two year term and may serve up to three terms. During this time, members are able to hear many presentation from subject matter experts, attend several site tours at their site and across the DOE complex and are able to express their concerns and give input to the prioritization of clean up at each

  17. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Federal Facility RCRA Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Federal facilities are properties owned by the federal government. This data layer provides access to Federal facilities that are Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  18. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Federal facilities that are also Superfund sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Federal facilities are properties owned by the federal government. This data layer provides access to Federal facilities that are Superfund sites as part of the CIMC...

  19. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum 2003-2005. Second revised version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinly, D. III

    2006-04-01

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  20. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum: 2003-2005. Second revised version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinly, D. III

    2006-04-01

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  1. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  2. Investigation for integration of the German Public Health Service in catastrophe and disaster prevention programs in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, E.; Koenig, S.; Himmelseher, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research project aimed at investigating the integration of the GPHS into the plans for civil defence and protection as well as catastrophe prevention of the Federal Republic of Germany. Following a comprehensive analysis of the current situation, potential proposals for an improved integrative approach will be presented. In view of the lack of topics relevant for medical care in disaster medicine in educational curricula and training programs for medical students and postgraduate board programs for public health physicians, a working group of the Civil Protection Board of the German Federal Ministry of the Interior already complained in their 'Report on execution of legal rules for protection and rescue of human life as well as restitution of public health after disaster' in 1999, that the integration of the GPHS into catastrophe and disaster prevention programs has insufficiently been solved. On a point-by-point approach, our project analysed the following issues: - Legislative acts for integration of the German Public Health Service into medical care in catastrophes and disasters to protect the civilian population of Germany and their implementation and execution. - Administrative rules and directives on state and district levels that show relationship to integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management and their implementation and execution. - Education and postgraduate training options for physicians and non-physician employees of the German Public health Service to prepare for medical care in catastrophes and disasters. - State of knowledge and experience of the German Public Health Service personnel in emergency and disaster medicine. - Evaluation of the German administrative catastrophe prevention authorities with regard to their integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management. - Development of a concept to remedy the

  3. Assisted reproductive techniques and risk of exstrophy-epispadias complex: a German case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwink, Nadine; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Hirsch, Karin; Reifferscheid, Peter; Schmiedeke, Eberhard; Schmidt, Dominik; Reckin, Sabrina; Obermayr, Florian; Boemers, Thomas M; Stein, Raimund; Reutter, Heiko; Rösch, Wolfgang H; Brenner, Hermann; Ebert, Anne-Karoline

    2013-04-01

    We assessed the risk of exstrophy-epispadias complex in children conceived by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Data from the German Network for Congenital Uro-REctal malformations were compared to nationwide data from the German In Vitro Fertilization Register and the German Federal Statistical Office. Odds ratios (95% CI) were determined to quantify associations using logistic regression. A total of 123 patients with exstrophy-epispadias complex born in Germany between 1997 and 2011 were recruited through participating departments of pediatric urology and pediatric surgery throughout the country as well as the German self-help organizations Blasenekstrophie/Epispadie e.V. and Kloakenekstrophie. All German live births (10,069,986) between 1997 and 2010 comprised the controls. Overall, 12 subjects (10%) and 129,982 controls (1%) were conceived by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Conception by assisted reproductive technique was associated with a more than eightfold increased risk of exstrophy-epispadias complex compared to spontaneous conception (OR 8.3, 95% CI 4.6-15.0, p assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are associated with a markedly increased risk of having a child born with exstrophy-epispadias complex. However, it remains unclear whether this finding may be due to assisted reproduction per se and/or underlying infertility/subfertility etiology or parent characteristics. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of dilution factors for German wastewater treatment plant effluents in receiving streams to the fixed dilution factor from chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Moritz; von der Ohe, Peter C; Voß, Katharina; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2017-11-15

    Incomplete removal during wastewater treatment leads to frequent detection of compounds such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products in municipal effluents. A fixed standard dilution factor of 10 for effluents entering receiving water bodies is used during the exposure assessment of several chemical risk assessments. However, the dilution potential of German receiving waters under low flow conditions is largely unknown and information is sparse for other European countries. We calculated dilution factors for two datasets differing in spatial extent and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) size: a national dataset comprising 1225 large WWTPs in Central and Northern Germany and a federal dataset for 678 WWTPs of a single state in Southwest Germany. We found that the fixed factor approach overestimates the dilution potential of 60% and 40% of receiving waters in the national and the federal dataset, with median dilution factors of 5 and 14.5, respectively. Under mean flow conditions, 8% of calculated dilution factors were below 10, with a median dilution factor of 106. We also calculated regional dilution factors that accounted for effluent inputs from upstream WWTPs. For the national and the federal dataset, 70% and 60% of calculated regional dilution factors fell below 10 under mean low flow conditions, respectively. Decrease of regional dilution potential in small receiving streams was mainly driven by the next WWTP upstream with a 2.5 fold drop of median regional dilution factors. Our results show that using the standard dilution factor of 10 would result in the underestimation of environmental concentrations for authorised chemicals by a factor of 3-5 for about 10% of WWTPs, especially during low flow conditions. Consequently, measured environmental concentrations might exceed predicted environmental concentrations and ecological risks posed by effluents could be much higher, suggesting that a revision of current risk assessment practices may be required

  5. German causative events with placement verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Knop Sabine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have described the semantic uses of German posture verbs, but only few have dealt with German placement verbs. The present study wants to make up for this gap. Starting from a collection of examples from the core corpora of the Digitales Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (DWDS and some former studies on posture verbs, it first describes the variety of the most common German placement verbs stellen (‘to put upright’, legen (‘to lay down’, setzen (‘to set’ and stecken (‘to stick’.

  6. ESTUDO DE NEUTRALIZAÇÃO DOS GASES DE EFEITO ESTUFA DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO TOCANTINS - REITORIA E CAMPUS UNIVERSITÁRIO DE PALMAS: UMA FORMA DE MITIGAÇÃO AMBIENTAL STUDY OF GREENHOUSE GASES OFFSETS OF THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TOCANTINS STATE, BRAZIL – ACADEMIC SENATE AND CAMPUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PALMAS: A WAY OF ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Robson Rocha dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to establish an inventory of the Federal University of Tocantins’Greenhouse Gases (GHGs emissions derived from controlled sources and administrative activities conducted in 2009 by the Rectory and the University Campus of Palmas, in order to calculate the number of Savanna’s native trees to be planted in the region of the county of Palmas-TO to neutralize GHG emissions reported in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e. Utilizing the Specifications of the Brazilian Program GHG (Greenhouse Gas Protocol for this purpose associated with the calculus methodologies of GHG emissions published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC for the completion of the inventory, as well as using the Good Practice Guide for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF published by the IPCC forneutralization of CO2e calculus. The inventory result showed that the listed units emitted around 218tCO2e and for its neutralization, it would be necessary to plant approximately 1.702 trees for sequestering all CO2e over a period of 20 years. The methodologies used for the composition of the GHG inventory came up as excellent tools for determining the emission profile. Despite the uncertainties about the carbon fixation rate, it can be used to calculate the neutralization of GHG as a way of environmental mitigation.

  7. German animal welfare act in breach with Directive 2010/63/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela; Maisack, Christoph; Wagner, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The German Federal Administrative Court recently announced an order (finalized on January 20, 2014) on the neurobiological experiments on primate brains of Prof. Kreiter at the University of Bremen. With this order, a preceding court decision by the Higher Administrative Court of Bremen was established as final and absolute and the last glimmer of hope to end the suffering of the primates in Bremen was extinguished. The court decision had claimed the experiments to be ethically justified. The Federal Administrative Court upheld the court decision and issued the order on the grounds that due to the phrasing of both the former and the current German Animal Welfare Act, authorities had no entitlement to assess the ethical justification of an experiment, but were obliged to approve an application if all formalities were complied with. The impact the order will have on the authorization of animal experiments and testing in Germany caused an outrage in the animal welfare community.

  8. Directory of Federal Contacts on Environmental Protection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    TITLE/ NAME SYMBOL EXT AREA OF COGNIZANCE Dr. H. von Gierke BB 3602 Noise Criteria and Standards Dr. C. W. Nixon BBA 3607 Noise Effects and Comrmun...VOGT, J. F ...... ............ 31 STONE, P. L .... ............ ... 32 von GIERKE , H ..... ........... 60 STONE, T. 8 ............... ... 26 STONELAKL...MED 3142 4244 Head, Occupational Medicine CDR R. V. Peterson MED 31412 4384 Head, Disease Vector Control (Pesticide/Herbicide Toxicology) LCDR W. P

  9. Environmental radioactivity of the Russian Federation territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    General characteristics of the contaminated areas at the territory of Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is presented. Greatest areas of 137 Cs contamination (1-5 Ci/km 2 ) were revealed in Russia as compared with Belarus Ukraine and Moldova Russian territory was studied less than that of other republics affected due to the Chernobyl accident. Ratio of regions of Russia by 137 Cs contamination degree was considered. 3 tabs

  10. 75 FR 29744 - Federal Pell Grant, Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, Federal Supplemental Educational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ..., section 601 of the College Cost Reduction and Access Act of 2007 (CCRAA, Pub. L. 110-84) amended sections.... Education Savings and Asset Protection Allowance. This allowance protects a portion of net worth (assets... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Federal Pell Grant, Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, Federal...

  11. Federal Student Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For those needing a loan to attend college, think federal aid first. Federal student loans usually offer borrowers lower interest rates and have more flexible repayment terms and options than private student loans. This brief report answers the following questions about federal aid: (1) What is a federal student loan?; (2) What is a private…

  12. Energy Needs and Environmental Demand - Seen from a Banker's Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietmeyer, Hans

    1998-01-01

    This presentation was given by the president of the Deutschen Bundesbank, who is also Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the German Federal Environmental Foundation. He said that the current low oil price had contributed to slow down the worldwide rise in prices at the various levels. The development in Japan is very important for Asia as a whole. Early stabilization of the economic and financial situation in Russia is very important for the world economy. The situation may be difficult in Southeast Asia and in the former Soviet states. But in other areas the world economy is doing well. The crisis countries must put their financial sectors in order, which involves financial restructuring and the creation of viable supervision systems and market economy conditions. Climate and environmental considerations must be borne in mind in the future progress of national and international energy policy. In the long run, more energy must come from renewable energy sources and the total energy consumption must go down. Many petroleum groups and energy suppliers are already investing substantial sums in solar energy. The German Government is sponsoring renewable energy sources by a number of programmes. Energy conservation is the simplest and cheapest way of protecting the climate and conserving resources. The idea that all energy should be renewable is a pipe dream of the future

  13. TANDEM - French-German cooperation for local energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchard, Claire; Garreau, Enora; Maurer, Christiane; Schilken, Peter; Keilmann, Jenny-Claire; Janssen, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous implementation of the German 'Energiewende' and the French 'Transition energetique' prompted both country's governments to sign various cooperation agreements. As both 'Energiewende' and 'Transition energetique' put a strong focus on decentralization of energy supply, establishing close inter-communal cooperation is particularly promising. The project TANDEM, which is jointly led by Klima-Buendnis and Energy Cities - both local authority networks - and co-funded by Germany's Federal Environment Agency (UBA) and the French Energy Agency ADEME provides French and German local authorities with a unique opportunity to exchange experiences and create partnerships for climate protection having the following objectives: - Creating broad mutual understanding for the respective situation, challenges and framework in energy and climate policy; - Encourage exchanges with regard to obstacles and success factors concerning the realization of ambitious energy- and climate-goals and promoting mutual transfer of know-how; - Stimulating close collaboration between local authorities from both countries while involving and supporting local stakeholders and citizens; - Implementing initial stages of cooperation projects during the lifetime of the TANDEM project and creating a foundation for long-term cooperation; - Raise awareness for demands, requirements and concerns of local authorities on a national and European level in order to strengthen their influence and enlarge their scope of action. In this document, the authors briefly present the French, German and European contexts and the organization of both countries regarding energy transition. Then, a parallel is made between the national energy-climate plans of both countries ('Klimaschutzkonzepte' and 'Plans Climat-Energie Territoriaux') to identify the similarities and differences in order to learn from each other and to be able to create

  14. German-Brazilian nuclear deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs

  15. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  16. German approach to VLLW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecking, D.

    1997-01-01

    Waste generated in German nuclear facilities is exhaustively and selectively manage through a system adapted to the waste's characteristics. The management of the waste ensures that the impact on the workers, population and the environment is acceptable. This is done through a detailed documentation and quality assurance program which applies not only to radioactive waste but also to cleanable material used within a licensed practice. In Germany the producer is responsible for the waste generated in a licensed facility and is therefore responsible for the correct disposal, which depends on the waste's characteristics. Since the waste producer requires a license for all activities involving radioactive substances, the atomic authority is continuously informed and can therefore monitor the producer for compliance with the regulations. The use and disposal of all material in a licensed practice is documented and can therefore be traced by the authorities. Clearance is seen in Germany as the best way of managing non-radioactive material in a licensed practice. Germany has developed clearance procedures which guarantee that after clearance the radiological impact is negligible. (author)

  17. The German power supply situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, K.

    2005-01-01

    The first key statement of this paper runs like this: The situation of power supply in Germany basically is good. However, two qualifications should be added: The current situation is still good. Power outages as a consequence of power plant failures of the kind experienced in other countries must not be expected to occur in Germany. German utilities work hard to offer this assurance also for the future. This is where politics comes in with the need to guarantee reliable framework conditions. After deregulation of the electricity market, reregulation resulting from government interventions is becoming potentially more and more problematic. Energy issues remain at the top of the political agenda, e.g. with the amendment to the Power Economy Act. This is a matter involving a variety of questions and projects on the part of legislators which require delicate handling because, in addition to the prices to be paid by consumers, they also involve as the most important factor the continuity of supply. Nuclear power today covers a major part of our baseload supply, in addition to lignite and hard coal which are used mainly in the medium-load range. Supported by the findings of recent studies, such as the dena Study, the Prognos and EWI Energy Report, the problem is how to replace this share reliably, in a way protecting the climate and economically viable, in line with the political conditions stipulating residual electricity outputs of nuclear power plants. Other countries can be seen to pursue different policies in using nuclear power. (orig.)

  18. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative 'Nanotechnologie erobert Maerkte' (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society

  19. NPPCI - topics in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegenbein, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes research and development activities in the field of computerized operator support systems, self-powered detectors, boiling diagnostic and loose part detection systems in the German Democratic Republic

  20. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  1. A German format for pupils’ training

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Every year CERN welcomes thousands of pupils from schools worldwide for a half-day visit to the Laboratory. However, since 2011 about ten selected students from Germany have been given the opportunity to experience CERN in much greater depth. They are fully sponsored by the German Ministry of Education and supported by an organising structure at TU Dresden - the Dresden University of Technology - led by Michael Kobel. It’s an investment that's paying off in Germany.   The German teachers who participated in the “Netzwerk Teilchenwelt” project, at CERN last week. “Netzwerk Teilchenwelt” is a project that involves 23 German universities, the DESY Laboratory, several schools and, of course, CERN. Launched in 2010 with a contribution from the German Ministry for Science and Research of about 1 million euros over three years, the project has so far involved over 4,000 students and 500 teachers. “Thanks to this project, both pupils...

  2. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  3. West German nuclear politics: a study of international cooperative behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation of the motivations behind West German policies and behavior in the area of nuclear politics. It examines and attempts to explain this behavior using a taxonomy built around the factors of vulnerability, power, domestic support, and autonomy. These are called international cooperative behavior factors. Chapters I and II develop the taxonomy and define the factors in terms of the Federal Republic. Chapter III covers the period up through the functioning of the Nuclear Planning Group, while Chapter IV analyzes NATO's December 1979 modernization decision. The presentation is less chronological and more selective: it focuses on the four international cooperative behavior factors as explanatory concepts. Chapter V examines the utility of the taxonomy. It concludes that the factors of autonomy, domestic support and vulnerability appear to be key in understanding and predicting West German nuclear behavior. The chapter then studies the potential applicability of the taxonomy to other nations or issues. It concludes that the factors are very nation-specific, but they do in fact provide a useful classification and explanatory scheme

  4. Normal at last? German Strategic Culture and the Holocaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    We hope for or fear of a more ’normal’ German state behaviour within foreign and security policy – understood as a type of behaviour that is more focussed and based on power and power politics, like the one many other great powers have been prone to historically – is premature and generally......’ of the Federal Republic of Germany and has so far limited and delayed all attempts to develop a more active Germany within foreign and security policy. us, Germany may be on its way to becoming a more active great power, but it is at a slow pace, and it is still far from ‘normal’....... role in Europe – most notably when it comes to security issues. e reason is that German strategic culture is still highly in uenced by the collective remembrance of the Holocaust and the lessons Germany has drawn from it. us, the Holocaust nation discourse is still the central ’unwritten constitution...

  5. Detection and interpretation of seismoacoustic events at German infrasound stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Christoph; Koch, Karl; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Three infrasound arrays with collocated or nearby installed seismometers are operated by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) as the German National Data Center (NDC) for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Infrasound generated by seismoacoustic events is routinely detected at these infrasound arrays, but air-to-ground coupled acoustic waves occasionally show up in seismometer recordings as well. Different natural and artificial sources like meteoroids as well as industrial and mining activity generate infrasonic signatures that are simultaneously detected at microbarometers and seismometers. Furthermore, many near-surface sources like earthquakes and explosions generate both seismic and infrasonic waves that can be detected successively with both technologies. The combined interpretation of seismic and acoustic signatures provides additional information about the origin time and location of remote infrasound events or about the characterization of seismic events distinguishing man-made and natural origins. Furthermore, seismoacoustic studies help to improve the modelling of infrasound propagation and ducting in the atmosphere and allow quantifying the portion of energy coupled into ground and into air by seismoacoustic sources. An overview of different seismoacoustic sources and their detection by German infrasound stations as well as some conclusions on the benefit of a combined seismoacoustic analysis are presented within this study.

  6. The German Sea Rescue Service (SAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The German Sea Rescue Service (GSRS) history, organisation and operations are presented. The institution was founded in 1865 to provide sea rescue services for the German coasts in the North Sea and in the Baltic Sea. Its fleet counts 61 vessels based in 54 stations of the service. In 2001, the rescue crafts were called for assistance 2428 times and 207 lives were saved. The service is supported by voluntary donations.

  7. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  8. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural......, but represents a separate attitudinal meaning dimension. Moreover, the findings support that both prenuclear and nuclear fundamental frequency (F0) patterns must be taken into account in the analysis of tune meaning....

  9. The German hydrogen and fuel cell community. Successes and failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canzler, Weert; Marz, Lutz [Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fuer Sozialforschung gGmbH (WZB), Berlin (Germany); Galich, Ante [Luxembourg Univ. (Luxembourg). Faculty of Languages and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the German Federal Government made the consequential decision to change its energy program. This not only as a result of the decision to shut down the existing nuclear power plants within the next few years, but also due to vital challenges like climate change and security of energy supply. The shift in the energy-technology paradigm from fossil fuel technologies to regenerative energies constitutes a major technical process but also new economic and social constellations. This paper focuses on hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in Germany. The institutional set up in this field is analysed and the new organizational actors are identified who have actively lobbied towards a political consensus. However, the experts in this field could not attain the required leadership in the public discourse on these technologies. It seems that an attractive guiding vision of a post-fossil energy future and a broad acceptance in daily use would have been major prerequisites for such leadership. (orig.)

  10. Actual legal questions and problems of the free access to information, especially in the environmental protection; Aktuelle Rechtsfragen und Probleme des freien Informationszugangs, insbesondere im Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Meinhard (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the 26th Trier colloquium on the law governing environmental protection and technology at 5th to 7th September, 2010 in Trier (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The environmental law in the light of federalism and Europeanization (Hans-Juergen Papier); (2) Information rights in the EU (Astrid Epiney); (3) Environmental policy by freedom of information (Friedrich Schoch); (4) The legal framework for the opening of the access to information as well as the appearance of accessible information under special consideration of the environmental information Directive 2003/4/EG and its implementation in the German Law (Joern Axel Kaemmerer); (5) The utilization of electronic media: REACh data bases, publication of authorizing procedures in the Internet and geo data mediation such as google maps (Indra Spiecker); (6) Protection position of companies in the right of access to information. The protection of business secrets and commercial confidentialities as well as application dossiers in the European and German law (Matthias Rossi); (7) Limited protection of business secrets and commercial confidentialities as a part of genetic engineering legal approval procedures (Hartwig Stiebler); (8) The NRW pipeline cadastre (Alexander Schink); (9) Legal protection by European and national courts under consideration of the European Ombudsman in his function in securing the access of information (Sabine Schlacke).

  11. 24 CFR 58.14 - Interaction with State, Federal and non-Federal entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interaction with State, Federal and non-Federal entities. 58.14 Section 58.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES General Policy: Responsibilities of Responsible Entities § 58.14 Interaction with...

  12. 40 CFR 725.40 - Notice in the Federal Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice in the Federal Register. 725.40 Section 725.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES....40 Notice in the Federal Register. (a) Filing of Federal Register notice. After EPA receives a MCAN...

  13. What matters 2010. Annual report of the Federal Environment Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-27

    The annual report under consideration of the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the following themes: (1) Future mobility - Today's best investment; (2) Environmental protection - A barrier to investment for agriculture ?; (3) Emissions trading - The engine of climate policy ?; (4) The Federal Environment Agency (Departmental research, credo, organisation, data and facts, publications).

  14. Achievements in nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messer, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    At present, nuclear power plants are supplying approx.30% of the electric energy generated in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). There are 19 power reactors in operation with a total installed capacity of approx.17 GW (gross). In 1984 their average capacity factor was 82.6%. For many years, German power reactors have ranked rather high in the world list of nuclear power plant performance. There are many reasons for this, which may be grouped into two fields: 1) design, manufacture, and construction, and 2) operation management. There is an area other than nuclear power plant technology and management where German utilities and nuclear industry have achieved a good performance: the nuclear fuel cycle. Today, the German uranium companies are producing more natural uranium than is needed for our nuclear power plants. Major progress in uranium enrichment technology was achieved by developing the URENCO gas centrifuge with essential German participation. The high availability and good economics of German nuclear power plants are also due to an advanced fuel assembly design. As to the back-end of the fuel cycle, the political situation has not been favorable for a timely realization of the installations needed. However, considerable progress has been made in developing an advanced reprocessing technology

  15. Lessons from American-German nuclear power plant construction. Quality, safety and costs of an attempt to integrate American and German nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchwald, K.

    1979-05-01

    The 1300 MW nuclear power plant at Muelheim-Kaerlich has been under construction since the beginning of 1975. It is being equipped with a pressurised water reactor which has been adapted to the German client's requirements and German licensing practice, based on a license held by Babcock and Wilcox USA (B and W). The problems which have arisen in making this adaptation are the result of different requirements in the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany which make it very difficult to integrate the two technologies. Full integration will almost certainly be impossible, but integration to the widest possible extent is important because it might mean both greater safety and reduced costs. In this article it is intended to show where the problems of integration lie and how they might perhaps be overcome. (author)

  16. 30 CFR 931.30 - State-Federal cooperative agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... analysis of the enviromental impacts of the proposal and alternatives to the proposal, prepared in... agency receives a petition that could impact adjacent Federal or non-Federal lands, the agency receiving... determine the need for an Environmental Assessment or an Environmental Impact Statement. 4. Publish notices...

  17. 75 FR 31834 - Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Adoption of Environmental Impact...), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Adoption and Recirculation of Final Environmental Impact... Impact Statement (EIS) issued by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) in 2004 for the construction of...

  18. Gender in Italian-German Bilinguals: A Comparison with German L2 Learners of Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…

  19. Dictionary for veterinary science and biosciences. German-English/English-German. With trilingual appendix: Latin terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, R.

    1988-01-01

    This dictionary has been compiled as a result of many years experience of translating German texts in the biological sciences, particularly veterinary medicine. The author's aim is to supplement the standard German-English general dictionaries with technical terms to in the fields of anatomy, microbiology, physiology, parasitology, pathology, pharmacology, toxicology and zootechny, with special reference to domestic animals and their diseases. (orig.) [de

  20. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  1. New directions in federal energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel embargo of 1973, followed by the oil disruption of 1979 heightened national security concerns over the availability and price of foreign oil to sustain all sectors of the U.S. economy. As a result of our growing dependence on foreign oil and diminishing resources at home, the Federal government has worked since 1974 to identify and implement a variety of measures to reduce energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations. Federal energy expenditures peaked at almost $14 billion in 1982 but has now been reduced to approximately $10 billion a year. However, much more needs to be done. Since the 1973 oil embargo, a series of legislative initiatives and Presidential authorities established the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) and then expanded it to address a broad range of energy-related issues affecting the Federal sector. Administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, FEMP coordinates the design and implementation of energy-saving programs for Federal buildings and operations. This includes working with other Federal agencies through interagency committees to interpret and implement Federal policy, to provide technical assistance to other Federal agencies, and to collect and report Federal energy consumption data to Congress. In addition, with the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, concerns over global climate change and a range of man-made and natural pollutants, environmental issues now play a critical role in our nation's energy policy. As a major consumer of energy, the Federal sector can serve as an important model for other sectors of the economy as a result of some of the innovative and cost-effective measures planned or currently underway. My talk today will focus on the Federal government's plans to ensure the energy efficient design and operation of Federal facilities, with an emphasis on life-cycle cost analyses

  2. Measurement and analysis of environmental exposure factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86. 1. environmental survey. Vol. 3c. Indoor situation in homes: Indoor air. Description of VOC in the indoor air of the Federal Republic of Germany; Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86. 1. Umwelt-Survey. Bd. 3c. Wohn-Innenraum: Raumluft. Deskription fluechtiger organischer Verbindungen in der Raumluft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Chutsch, M.; Henke, M.; Huber, M.; Kliem, C.; Leiske, M.; Mailahn, M.; Schulz, C.; Schwarz, E.; Seifert, B.; Ullrich, D.

    1992-05-01

    This volume is based upon the data of the research project ``Environment and Health - Measurement and Analysis of Environmental Exposure Factors in the Federal Republic of Germany 1985/86`` (1st Environment Survey). These data were established for a representative sample of n=2731 cases selected by age, sex, and community size. It constitutes part C of the third report volume and contains the description of the concentrations of a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in indoor air from households of the general population of the Federal Republic of Germany (sub-sample). Function and objectives of this third part of evaluated data are to give, as far as possible, a precise assessment of the exposure to VOC in households among the general population of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1985/86. This is to gie interested persons an orientation and a classifying survey of laboratory results to be evaluatd. In this sense, the estimated distributions of the measured concentrations are presented for the entire population as well as for the below menioned subpopulations classified by outdoor temperatures, community size, type of region, number of persons in industrial jobs in the urban/rural area, building density, year of construction of the house, floor area of home, type of heating, type of fuel, number of persons in household, children (below 14 years) in household, smokers in household, age of floor covering, age of wall coating, age of furniture, new painting/wall-paper/furniture in recent months, presence of chipboard on walls/floor, furniture from chipboard (in the case of formaldehyde only), use of insecticides, room fresheners/deodorants in toilet and of cleansing agents/disinfectants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Berichtsband basiert auf den Daten der Studie ``Messung und Analyse von Umweltbelastungsfaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985/86 - Umwelt und Gesundheit`` (1. Umwelt-Survey), der eine nach Alter, Geschlecht und

  3. Example of establishing the recycling of scrap metal as a waste management option within German regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenstein, Matthias; Delfs, Johannes; Karschnick, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The German Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz, AtG) specifies the German nuclear licensing and supervising regulations. On that basis the German federal states are responsible for licensing and supervising of nuclear power plants (NPPs) located in that state. The Ministry of Energy, Agriculture, the Environment and Rural Areas (MELUR) is the authority responsible for the state Schleswig-Holstein, in which the NPPs Brokdorf, Brunsbuettel, Kruemmel and the research reactor HZG are located. In the licensing and supervisory procedures the authority may consult authorized experts. In addition to the AtG, the German Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlenschutzverordnung, StrlSchV) specifies regulations for clearance according to the 10 μSv-concept. The clearance of metal by recycling / melting is one option within the regulations of the StrlSchV. For a clearance an additional license given by the MELUR is necessary. In that license and the application documents as well as in the supervisory procedures very specific regulations are implemented. This includes regulations for clearance at third parties in foreign countries. In this talk a short introduction to the German regulations focussed on clearance according to the 10 μSv-concept will be given. The specific regulations in the license of clearance will be presented and also the application documents for NPPs in Schleswig-Holstein will be discussed. Furthermore it will be illustrated on what terms the MELUR decided to agree upon the recycling of scrap metal with the aim of clearance according to Radiation Protection 89 in foreign countries along with the German regulatory framework. (authors)

  4. [Rationing in German health care with particular consideration of oncology: view points of German stakeholders--a qualitative interview study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, J; Gönner, C; Vollmann, J; Rauprich, O

    2015-01-01

    Germany is at the beginning of a discussion about possible rationing in the health-care system. Cancer treatment, which is often cost-intensive but not always cost-effective, is frequently considered as a field for rationing. Against this background, we conducted semi-structured, guideline-based interviews with different stakeholders of the German health-care system and analysed them with the help of grounded theory techniques. The goal of the study was to collect the experiences and opinions of members of the German Medical Review Board of the Statutory Health Insurance Funds (MDK), leading officials in central administrations of the German health-care sector and health politicians (members of the Parliamentary Committee for Health of the Federal German Parliament, the Bundestag) regarding cost-considerations in treatment decisions in health care with a special focus on oncology. (1) Cost-considerations have a limited role in the daily routine of the interviewed experts; (2) the interviewed personnel of the MDK were open to discuss rationing, while the group of leading officials was ambivalent and the health politicians rejected rationing and its discussion altogether; (3) the awareness of the opportunity costs of medical services varied with the profession of the interviewee: the members of the MDK saw opportunity costs primarily within the field of medicine, the leading officials noted the opportunity costs for other social services, and the health policy makers interpreted opportunity costs under fiscal budgetary aspects; (4) according to the interviewees, decisions on rationing require a legal basis, which should be based on a broad public discussion and an interdisciplinary debate among experts; (5) defining criteria for rationing was regarded as being outside of the professional competence of the interviewees; however, a preference with regard to the criterion of cost-effectiveness became apparent. The results of this study indicate that the strongest

  5. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  6. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? - A study on language-motor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Daniela Katharina; Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children.

  7. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? – A study on language-motor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children. PMID:29538404

  8. The German-Tanzanian Tendaguru Expedition 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-D. Heinrich

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The celebrated fossil locality of Tendaguru (Tanzania, East Africa has been well known for its unique Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages since the early decades of the 20th century. Recently, within the scope of the German-Tanzanian Tendaguru project, an expedition returned to Tendaguru with the aim of collecting microvertebrates, micro- and macroinvertebrates, plant fossils and new sedimentological and stratigraphical data. Applying a multidisciplinary research approach, the data collected were used to address various controversial issues regarding the Tendaguru Beds. These include their exact age, depositional environments and reconstructions of the palaeoecosystems in which the dinosaurs lived. Field work resulted in a new standard section for the Tendaguru Beds. Preliminary biostratigraphic results, based on ammonites, charophytes and palynomorphs, support a Late Kimmeridgian age for the Nerinea Bed, an early Tithonian age for the Trigonia smeei Bed, and an Early Cretaceous (possibly Valanginian to Hauterivian age for the Trigonia schwarzi Bed. Facies analysis of the Tendaguru Beds indicates environments ranging from storm- and tide-influenced, siliciclastic coastal barrier systems, ooid sand bar complexes and backbarrier tidal flats to sabkha-like coastal plains with brackish lakes and pools. Sedimentological indicators of palaeoclimate and palynological data point to a subtropical to tropical climate with pronounced dry seasons. In concert with sedimentological data, quantitative palaeoecological analysis of macroinvertebrates helped to finetune understanding of environmental factors such as substrate conditions, salinity, sedimentation rate and water depth. Along with abundant microvertebrate remains and fragments of fusain and cuticles, these new data have considerably improved our knowledge of the fauna and flora found in the Tendaguru Beds, and provide a solid basis for developing a better understanding of the Late Jurassic and Early

  9. The trend and precept of present nuclear energy policy in German

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    In German, the coalition political power of SPD and Gruene decided the present nuclear policy on 20th October 1998. It consisted of three steps: the first step is amendment of the present Atomic Energy Law, the second step the consensus conference with the power industry for one year and the third step is enactment of law to decrease nuclear power with compensation. The first consensus conference opened 26th January 1999. The content was that the stop of reprocessing did not decide the limit and the atomic power plants were operated until obtaining consensus. Then, Muller Secretary of Commerce and the power industry carried out unofficial meeting and decided the following: limit of operating atomic power plants is 35 years (until 2024), reprocessing can be done until 2004 and the undertakers do not request compensation to the governmental agencies. However the environmental secretary and Gruene objected to them. 570 of German scientists and technologists published memorandum for discussing the present conditions of German and the earth. England and France opposite limit of reprocessing spent fuel. A joint concern between Siemens (German) and Framatome (France) is going to establish. The point under discussion about present power policy is selection of energy. There are many problems in German. (S.Y.)

  10. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  11. Involving private persons and corporations in the planning process according to paragraph 9b German nuclear law - practicability and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, J.; Roesel, H.

    1978-01-01

    The 4th Amendment to the German Nuclear Law has procured the legal base for the disposal of radioactive waste in the German Federal Republic. The Nuclear Law states that the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig is responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste. The PTB can be assisted in its responsibilities by persons and institutions of private character. Involving private persons and corporations in the licensing process figures a legal problem, and there has been a seminar in the PTB discussing such problems. The present contribution gives a brief summary of the opinions stated by the various legal experts taking part in this seminar. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Assessing the impact of non-point loading on river systems: A joint German-Canada study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, P.A.; Culp, J.M.; Wrona, F.J. [National Hydrology Research Inst., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Dreyer, U.; Rupp, H.; Meissner, R.; Guhr, H.

    1995-12-31

    Understanding the ecological effects of non-point sources of nutrient and contaminant loadings has become increasingly important in the management of riverine ecosystems, particularly since successes in controlling effluent emissions have resulted in the reduction of point-source loadings to rivers in industrialized nations. The federal governments of Canada and Germany recognize the need to evaluate the impact of non-point loading, particularly agricultural, on river systems since nutrients and agricultural contaminants can directly affect ecosystem structure and processes. Moreover, in Germany, the government`s target of achieving equal environmental conditions throughout its unified territory by the year 2000 has provided impetus to develop cost-effective methods for determining the effect of agricultural activity on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study is to combine biological, chemical and hydrological approaches for assessing non-point source loadings to rivers in Canada and the former German Democratic Republic, and to make recommendations for the design of future monitoring programs. Studies were recently initiated on small tributaries of the Elbe River, Germany, and the Athabasca River, Canada, to quantify non-point nutrient loading, identify reaches of nitrogen or phosphorus limitation, and evaluate changes in benthic algal and invertebrate communities in relation to land-use practices. Once methods have been established and validated, the project will be scaled up to large river catchment areas. This study also assesses several rapid bioassessment techniques for monitoring riverine ecosystems impacted by non-point loadings.

  13. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  14. Impacts of the EC integration on the German power supply. Final report; Auswirkungen der EU-Integration auf die deutsche Energieversorgung. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M.; Kempfert, C.; Kohlhaas, M. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany). Abteilung Energie, Verkehr, Umwelt; Engerer, H.; Hirschhausen, C. von; Zechmann, G. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany). Abteilung Weltwirtschaft; Kalashnikov, V.

    2006-07-15

    With the incorporation of countries in Eastern Europe into the European Community, a further growing together of power industries of those countries involved is initiated. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the impacts of the EC integration on the German power supply. The new and future Eastern European member states of the European Community do not have natural advantages in comparison to the Federal Republic of Germany with respect to the power supply. The differences in the labour costs are greater than the differences in the energy costs. Therefore, adaptation problems due to the extension of the European Community to the East predominantly are to be expected with labour intensive production. Adaptation processes released by the entry into the European community contribute to a dismantling of the cost differences between the old and new member countries. Cost differences in the production of petroleum products in refineries and of electrical power in power stations are harmonized on a long-term basis by harmonization of the environmental protection requirements. The continuing national competencies particularly in the energy policy and the different use of individual energy resources and energy engineering will prevent a complete adaptation of the energy costs. The overall economic effects of the energy-industrial integration of the new and future Eastern European member countries will be low for the Federal Republic of Germany.

  15. Enteric methane emissions from German dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammgen, U; Rosemann, C; Haenel, H D

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the German agricultural emission inventory used a model for the assessment of methane emissions from enteric fermentation that combined an estimate of the energy and feed requirements as a function of performance parameters and diet composition, with the constant methane conversion rate......, as stated by IPCC. A methane emission model was selected here that is based on German feed data. It was combined with the hitherto applied model describing energy requirements. The emission rates thus calculated deviate from those previously obtained. In the new model, the methane conversion rate is back......-calculated from emission rates and gross energy intake rates. For German conditions of animal performance and diet composition, the national means of methane conversion rates range between 71 kJ MJ(-1) and 61 kJ MJ(-1) for low and high performances (4700 kg animal(-1) a(-1) in 1990 to 7200 kg animal(-1) a(-1...

  16. The German risk study. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.

    1980-01-01

    A severe nuclear power plant accident can be followed by a considerable release of radioactive effluents into the atmosphere. Due to atmospheric dispersion, areas of different sizes can be contaminated. The corresponding doses can cause early illnesses, early fatalities, latent effects and genetic effects. They are accompanied by economic effects. Within the consequence model of the German Risk Study, early and late fatalities and genetically significant doses are calculated. The calculations are based on real data or phenomena such as the population around 19, present or future German sites, or 115 real weather sequences, as well as on models such as an atmospheric dispersion model, a dose model, a model of protective actions or a health effects model. Within this lecture, the consequence model applied in the German Risk Study will be discussed in detail and the results will be presented. (orig./RW)

  17. A Comprehensive Approach to Post-Conflict Reconstruction: German Experience in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Olegovich Trunov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of a larger research project on complex linkages between security and development implemented by the Center for Security and Development Studies at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, this paper examines the complex dilemmas of pursuing comprehensive approach to post-conflict reconstruction with an example of Federal Republic of Germany’s experience with the Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs in Afghanistan after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. The first section depicts the background of deployment of the PRTs on Afghan territory. The second section compares the U.S., British and German models of PRTs and assesses the role of those teams as vehicles of close civil-military, interagency coordination. The third and the fourth sections identify respectively characteristic features of the German PRTs’ activities in Kunduz and Badakhshan provinces and the main obstacles that hindered the achievement of key objectives. The conclusion contains a concise assessment of effectiveness and efficiency of PRTs as a mechanism of addressing complex challenges of post-conflict reconstruction and transition to peaceful development. It also postulates that the PRT model, regardless of some objective difficulties faced by various German agencies, may be very relevant in the future in fulfilling a revised agenda of the German foreign and defense policies in the XXI century.

  18. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ulbricht, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Alexander Ferrauti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to test: 1 whether the relative age effect (RAE was prevalent in young (U12-U18 German male tennis players; 2 the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3 whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811, all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB (n = 120.851, players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165, regional (n = 381 and national (n = 57 squads (11-17 years old, as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%, regional (38.1% and national (42.1% players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

  19. [Prevalence and utilisation of health promotion in German enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, D; Schnabel, P-E

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of health promotion in German enterprises, differentiated by size, sector, and the companies' business situations. Representative data were analysed from the survey of working conditions in Germany (n=20,000) that was conducted by the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) and the Federal Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA). Thirty-eight percent of interviewed employees confirmed that health promotion activities had been carried out in their company during the last two years. The prevalence varied significantly, depending on the company's size, sector, and business situation. In cases of implementation, a higher percentage of employees participated in micro and small companies than in medium-sized or large companies. With respect to the implementation of health promotion, more advice and support are needed, particularly in micro and small enterprises. There is still a need for health promotion activities which meet the special needs of micro and small enterprises. Furthermore there is still a need to invest in an infrastructure which allows their adequate supply. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  20. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-01-01

    The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; a...

  1. War, suffering and modern German history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Randall

    2011-01-01

    This introduction proceeds in five steps. First, it briefly considers the etymology of the term "suffering," as well as the way in which scholars from different disciplines have approached it conceptually and empirically. Second, drawing on the contributions to this issue, it raises general themes emerging from the study of the Thirty Years, Franco-Prussian and First World Wars, with particular attention to gender, the disabled, and Jewish-German veterans. Finally, it considers the most politically contested field of German suffering - the Second World War - and reflects on how that suffering can be narrated and understood without running into the intellectual dead ends of either self-pity or collective guilt.

  2. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  3. German energy policy in deregulated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    2000-01-01

    The author argues in favor of a more fact-oriented German energy policy: Firstly, German energy policy must accept the new European framework of a market economy. This means that German utilities must no longer be burdened with the implementation of political objectives. The German power industry needs a level playing field for competition on a European scale. Consequently, also the European partner countries should not limit themselves to the minimum conditions of the Single Market Directive in opening their markets. Secondly, German energy policy must develop new forms of cooperation with the power industry so as to maintain domestic employment and the addition of value despite considerably stronger competitive pressure. Also the conflicting targets of sustainability, continuity of supply, and economic viability must not only be discussed, but must be turned into productive approaches. Thirdly, this means that there must be no inadmissible solution in matters nuclear. If the German power industry is to remain strong, in the interest of domestic jobs and opportunities for the future, it must not lose any more domestic market share to other European companies. Fourthly, we need a new energy policy which takes cognizance of the results of market development in a more rational, less emotional way. In this respect, it should be limited henceforth to supporting renewable energies and technologies so as to enhance energy efficiency in line with market requirements. Fifthly, German energy policy must not commit the mistake of enforcing deregulation and, at the same time, exempting large segments of the market from competition. Thus, the planned expansion of renewable energies, and the increase in cogeneration to more than thirty percent of the German electricty generation, by way of quotas and revenues for electricity from these sources fed into the public grid, are incompatible with competition in Europe. The electricity tax within the framework of the eco tax, the

  4. Vowel Epenthesis in Early Germanic Runic Inscriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Damsma, Levi; Versloot, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    A number of runic inscriptions from the entire Germanic area from between A.D. 200 and 800 exhibit non-etymological, epenthetic vowels, such as worahto for *worhto ‘did’. An analysis of all (likely) instances of epen­thesis in early Ger­manic languages shows that epenthesis developed only in clusters involv­ing /r/, /l/ or /n/. Epenthesis was an optional feature of nearly every early Germanic dialect, being most abundantly attested in southern Sweden. There is no statis­ti­cally sig­nif­icant...

  5. Kant and Heidegger on Environmental Ethics: A Comparative Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immanuel Kant is a German modern philosopher. His contribution to philosophy is that he reconciled rationalism and empiricism. However, Kant believes that human beings are the cause of environmental hazards and not animals directly. Martin Heidegger is a German contemporary philosopher. He is called “the ...

  6. Children's Environmental Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conducted in-house, with our federal partners like NIH’s National Institute of Environmental Health Services (NIEHS), and by external researchers through a research grants program administered through the agency’s Office of Research & Development.

  7. Environmental Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Test Facility (ETF) provides non-isolated shock testing for stand-alone equipment and full size cabinets under MIL-S-901D specifications. The ETF...

  8. Environmental Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site on Environmental Management Systems (EMS) provides information and resources related to EMS for small businesses and private industry, as well as local, state and federal agencies, including all the EPA offices and laboratories.

  9. Migrant nurses from Vietnam – First experiences in the German long-term care sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Verena; Braeseke, Grit

    2016-11-01

    Background: In 2012 a pilot project «recruiting qualified employees for the elderly care sector» commissioned by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy (BMWi) with Vietnam was initiated. 150 Vietnamese candidates with degrees in nursing were recruited and participated in a German language course in Hanoi for six months (level A2). 100 project participants then arrived in Germany in September 2013 and started a (shortened) 2-year training in elderly care at locations in four federal states. The aim was for the Vietnamese to work in German nursing homes for at least three years after completion of the training. The project was implemented by the GIZ Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit and evaluated by the IEGUS Institute for European Healthcare Research and Social Economy from January 2013 to March 2016. Aim: The aim was to explore the possibilities for training of young people from emerging markets to become geriatric nurses in Germany. The results have been used as a foundation for recommendations for companies within the social care sector. Method: The formative and summative evaluation was based on personal interviews, telephone and written questionnaires, consultations and observations. The contribution presents results of the interviews and questionnaires. All relevant stakeholders had been included: The Vietnamese, the nursing and language schools, the nursing providers and mentors. Results: This article summarizes the results of the project evaluation. It gives a first insight into the experiences made from a professional, cultural as well as linguistic point of view.

  10. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas.

  11. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas

  12. The perception of the fehmarnbelt connection among german stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Sandrina; Jespersen, Per Homann

    This report gives an overview of the planned improvements of the German hinterland infrastructure connected to the fixed Fehmarn Belt Link (FBL), as well as the views of the key German stake holders towards the FBL....

  13. Fertility Decisions in the FRG and GDR: An Analysis with Data from the German Fertility and Family Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare family policies and fertility patterns in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR and the German Federal Republic (FRG. Among other aspects, both societies particularly differed in the integration of women into the labor market. By contrasting the fertility development in these two societies, this paper aims to illuminate how women's education and employment relates to fertility decisions in societal contexts that support (in the case of the GDR and hamper (in the case of the FRG the compatibility between work and family life. Data for this analysis comes from the German Fertility and Family Survey (of the year 1992. We provide descriptive statistics for all birth parities, but we limit the multivariate event history analysis to first births only.

  14. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  15. The bomb as option. Motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanel, Tilmann

    2015-01-01

    The book on the motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963 discusses the following issues: History of the German reactor development during the time of the National Socialism and World War II, reactor research abroad (examples Sweden and Switzerland), protagonists and motivation (politics, science, economy, army), the development of a nuclear infrastructure, results and consequences of the German nuclear policy until 1963.

  16. German Delphi report on the development of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Adopting the Japanese strategy and approach, the German Delphi study has come out with a detailed analysis of 16 important subject fields of science and technology (as, e.g., energy, ecology, astronautics, environmental engineering, nuclear physics, elementary particle physics) and has taken this database reflecting the expert knowledge in Germany as a source for adventuring in a consensusoriented forecast of future development trends. The study was intended to offer a platform for debate about the results and data published, and to forster the dialogue between science, industry and politics and to thus initiate a process eventually ending in the definition of goals and concepts reconciling the sometimes diverging interests of the various fields of science or technology. (HP) [de

  17. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  18. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  19. German Unification: Security Implications for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    we are having problems.󈧟 49 Possible future options for NATO will be addressed in Chapter VII. Eurooe. after 40 years of stutter starts, has been...Jarvis. a Berliner. is a school teacher who has vivid childhood memories of tne World War II bombings of Berlin. -’Christoph Bertram. "The German

  20. German energy market 2016; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland

    2017-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt gegeben, der auch in diesem Jahr eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun- und Steinkohle, Elektrizitaet sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine aktuelle Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen schliesst den Beitrag ab.