WorldWideScience

Sample records for german experience suggests

  1. Suggestions for an adequate risk communication - experiences based on German epidemiological studies on childhood cancer and neighbourhood to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaatsch, P.

    2006-01-01

    From the example of the German studies on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power plants general principles for adequate risk communication could be derived. It is particularly important to explain the complexity of the issue to the public in an adequate way, when dealing with topics of such an emotionally loaded nature. Some rules are required, when explaining the nature of risk to the layman, the press, politicians, or scientists from other fields. The main principle is to create a basis of trustfulness, whereupon results can be presented. In this contribution we derive general and proven specific recommendations for adequate risk communication on the basis of experiences made at the German Childhood Cancer Registry. (orig.)

  2. A Suggested Curriculum Outline for German in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutterbuck, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines a four-year program of German study aiming to give students a basic ability in spoken and written German, knowledge of German culture, and preparation for advanced German study. Study topics and textbooks are included. (CHK)

  3. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - German

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  4. German and French experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture author presents experience in-service inspection programme of primary circuit components at home and abroad, implementation into WWER (world methodology and equipment) as well as system qualification. Objectives European network for inspection qualification (ENIQ) are presented

  5. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  6. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova; Sergey Nikolaevich Kirillov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations...

  7. Apitherapy: Usage and Experience in German Beekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hellner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the practice of apitherapy - using bee products such as honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom to prevent or treat illness and promote healing - among German beekeepers and to evaluate their experiences with these therapies. A questionnaire incorporating two instruments on beekeepers’ physical and mental health and working practice was included in three German beekeeping journals and readers were asked to complete it. The instrument included questions on the use of apitherapy. Simple descriptive methods, bivariate correlation, cross-tabulation and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Altogether 1059 completed questionnaires were received. The beekeepers reported the most effective and favorable therapeutic effects with honey, followed by propolis, pollen and royal jelly. The factors associated with successful experiences were: age, number of hives tended, health consciousness, positive experiences with one product and self-administration of treatment. Beekeepers were asked for which condition they would employ propolis and pollen. They reported that they used propolis most frequently to treat colds, wounds and burns, sore throats, gum disorders and also as a general prophylactic, while pollen was most commonly used as a general prophylactic and, less frequently, in treating prostate diseases. No adverse experiences were reported. The potential benefit of bee products is supported by the positive experiences of a large group of beekeepers who use some of these products to treat a wide range of conditions. The indications and treatments given here may be important in selecting bee products and designing future trials.

  8. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  9. Experience and results of MELCOR application for German PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenkalb, M.

    1999-01-01

    An introduction into severe accident research work performed at GRS with regard to the use of the MELCOR code is given in Chapter One of the paper. Experience in applying MELCOR 1.8.3 for German PWRs and results of MELCOR calculations done within the project 'Accident management - Mitigation' for German LWRs are presented in Chapter Two. This 3-year project was finished February 1998. It was funded by the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety - BMU. In Chapter Three, a short overview of a training course on 'Phenomenology of Severe Accidents in PWR-Plants' is given. Mainly due to the interest from German NPPs GRS developed this special training session in 1996. Since 1996 it has been held several times for operators, shift personnel and the management board of two different German NPPs and for lecture of the German NPP training centre in Essen. In Chapter Four, results of the application of MELCOR 1.8.4 for German PWRs are presented. This work is done within a new project on 'Accident Management - Mitigation' for German LWRs. It was started in March 1998 and is again funded by the German Federal Ministry BMU. An objective of this project is to perform further MELCOR calculations, to be used within a PSA level 2 study for a German PWR, which is done at GRS in parallel. The experience of using MELCOR for German PWRs are summarised in Chapter Five. (author)

  10. Evaluation of German and international operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueck, Reinhard; Verstegen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The systematic analysis of safety-relevant events in nuclear power plants and their causes is a key driver for the further development of nuclear safety. The findings obtained from the evaluation of operating experience in this respect form the basis for both technical and organisational improvements in the plants as well as for adaptations of technical rules and standards. In its role as Technical Safety Organisation advising the German federal government, Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) has been concerned with the detection and analysis of failure mechanisms that underlie events in nuclear power plants at home and abroad since its foundation in 1977. This article provides an overview of the different objectives which are pursued in this context by order of or funded by the Federal Environment Ministry. Here, the focus is on the evaluation of reportable events for the preparation of so-called Information Notices and generic reports as well as for the acquisition of data that can be used for in-depth probabilistic analyses.

  11. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  12. The Litvinenko polonium-210 case - German experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Gerald; Kroeger, Emily A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together the measurement results taken and the lessons learned by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection during the polonium-210 incident in Hamburg in late 2006. The incident was pivotal in confirming the importance of the defence against nuclear hazards in Germany and for highlighting the role of communication in the success of a deployment. The background of the case is reviewed and an overview of the German defence against nuclear hazards is given. The various measurement tasks, both at the scene and in the laboratory, and their results are summarized along with the communication challenges experienced. The main conclusions are that the traces of polonium-210 found at the sites were of little radiological consequence and the German defence against nuclear hazards in Germany delivered an excellent and measured response to the incident. However, communication challenges still exist and communication with the public and the emergency responders has to be given high priority during future deployments in order to ensure their success. (author)

  13. Essential Cultural Information and Suggestions for Teaching It in German Business Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerulaitis, Renate

    A course in German for business on the college level must engage in cross-cultural training as well as teach specialized vocabulary and conversational German for international business dealings. Materials and methods for such a course are described. Some generally untapped sources for material on corporate culture that are suited for use in the…

  14. How to avoid liability litigation in courts – Suggestions from a German example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebermeister, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical art is difficult, its results can not always be predicted. After looking at TV, patients know more or think they know more about medicine. They tend to assume faulty diagnostics or treatment by their physician, if the good result promised by the news-media or by the doctor himself has not been obtained. The resulting litigation in court is time-consuming, causes a lot of paperwork and frequently leads to negative publicity for the doctor in the local news-media. Therefore, in 1975, the German Medical Associations in the different federal areas have founded expert committees to help solve this problem. These avoid negative publicity, heavy expenses and law-suits. Presidents of these committees are high-level judges – mostly retired – with experience in the field. They are masters of the procedure, choose the experts and formulate the final draft. This structure invalidates the understandable suspicion that physicians will protect each other or – as we say in Germany: “A crow will not hurt the eye of another one”. The system is now well accepted by liability insurances, lawyers and patients.

  15. The Litvinenko 210polonium case. German experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, Emily Alice

    2009-01-01

    The high scientific standards of the BfS were necessary in order to characterize and evaluate the low activities of 210 Po found during the deployment in Hamburg. The evaluation of the measurements enabled the BfS to offer effective radiation protection advice and to assist the police investigation. The majority of the 210 Po traces were found in places that had been in skin contact with Kovtun, leading to the conclusion that Kovtun had most probably incorporated 210 Po before his visit to Hamburg in October 2006. As yet, no formal charges have been brought by the German authorities against Kovtun and the costs of the operation remain under discussion. Strategies to improve the internal and external deployment communication of the ZUB are being developed and implemented to deal with both the real and the perceived threats that occur during such an incident. Open communication from the onset of a deployment is essential, both between the institutions involved and between deployment leaders and the press. This will save precious time and resources, lower anxiety in the public and emergency workers and could, in a culture of trust where radiation protection advice is listened to and followed, ultimately save lives. (orig.)

  16. [Speculation and experience in German romantic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, L

    1993-01-01

    This paper analizes the role attributed to experiment and theory in the philosophical natural writings of Schiller and also how this doctrine was received by some of the leading doctors of the time. The aim of this analysis is to prove that the phisopher's followers did not despise observation, a belief held until not long ago, and to situate the experience within the framework of the doctrine of science rooted in "Naturphilosophie", and, even further, in Kantian thought.

  17. Waste from dismantling the German experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    Since the 1970s, Germany has successfully conducted decomissioning projects on 16 prototype or commercial reactors, thereby gaining experience in the management of the associated waste, as explains Boris Brendebach, Chief Expert for Decommissioning at GRS' Radiation and Environmental Protection Division. (orig.)

  18. Some suggestions based on the instrumentation installation experience at RAPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, M.R.; Singh, S.; Jain, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Suggestions regarding installation of reactor instrumentation have been made based on the instrumentation installation experience at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant. It has been mentioned that the instrumentation installation work has to proceed simultaneously with that of the heavy equipment and piping errection work, to meet the commissioning target dates. (S.K.K.)

  19. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  20. Differential effects of school experiences on active citizenship among German and Turkish-origin students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter

    2016-12-14

    While research suggests that schools can foster active citizenship among youth, studies have not tested whether ethnic minority youth may benefit differently from school experiences than ethnic majority youth. In this study of 219 students (138 German majority and 81 Turkish-origin minority; M age  = 18.26; 55% females), we examined the association between different experiences at school and 4 indicators of youth active citizenship, controlling for various socio-demographic characteristics. Although value of social studies was associated with three out of four active citizenship indicators among both ethnic groups, the effects of the other school-related variables on active citizenship were moderated by ethnicity. Specifically, indicators of classroom climate, such as open classroom climate and classroom community, were only associated with greater active citizenship among Turkish-minority youth, while participatory factors, such as engagement in school decisions, were only associated with active citizenship among native German youth. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents’ Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80–90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child’s and the parent’s view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents’ experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents’ suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2–16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people’s lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child’s suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  2. HIGHER CHOREOGRAPHIC EDUCATION: THE EXPERIENCE OF GERMAN-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Tkachenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current state of higher choreographic education and features of professional training of choreographers in the German-speaking countries, in particular Austria, Germany and Switzerland were analyzed. It is found that most of the German-speaking countries are Germany, Austria and Switzerland, which became the object of study. The considered the structure of higher choreographic education in the German-speaking countries. Universities, higher dance schools and higher art schools are functioning in Germany. Universities and academies are functioning in Austria and Switzerland. The institutions of theatre sciences, faculty of pedagogy and psychology, departments of performing arts are the structural units of the universities. The institutions of higher education have both private and state ownership. It is found out that the main areas for which training is future choreographers in the German-speaking countries there is a "Dance", "Dance pedagogy", "Modern dance", "Science of dance", "Choreography". German-speaking countries recognized by the training of specialists in the specialty choreography of Modern dance that has no analogues in Ukraine. The term of study is four (bachelor and two (master years. Higher choreographic education in these countries has a different approach and aims at mastering a separate specialty that provides future dance instructors completely and thoroughly master the basic knowledge and skills in this specialty. Specific conditions and rules of admission to the higher educational institutions of German-speaking countries.

  3. Experiences with interpretation and application of the German Atomic Energy Act for the German research reactors in Geesthacht FRG-1 and FRG-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1980-01-01

    The German research reactors FRG-1 and FRG-2 have passed different types of licensing procedures in the past years. It is reported about the experiences we have got in the interpretation and application of section 7 of the German Atomic Energy Act. Following these experiences an estimation is done for the licensing procedure for the reduction of the uranium enrichment. (orig.) [de

  4. Renewables within the German Electricity System - Experiences and Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaltschmitt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades renewable sources of energy as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel energy have gained more and more importance within the German electricity system. Their share has increased from less than 4 % to roughly one third of the gross electricity production in the last 25 years. Against this background, the goal of this paper is to present briefly the current status of the use of renewables within the German electricity system, to assess selected developments taking place during this development process as well as to identify given challenges and needs as well as necessary actions to pave the road for a further use of renewable sources of energy within the German electricity provision system. The political driver for the latter is the overarching goal to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions which has been confirmed within the Paris agreement signed by the end of 2015.

  5. Earthquake experience suggests new approach to seismic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, R.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in seismic qualification of nuclear power plants as reviewed at the 4th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference in Vancouver, September 1983, is discussed. The lack of experience of earthquakes in existing nuclear plants can be compensated by the growing experience of actual earthquake effects in conventional power plants and similar installations. A survey of the effects on four power stations, with a total of twenty generating units, in the area strongly shaken by the San Fernando earthquake in California in 1971 is reported. The Canadian approach to seismic qualification, international criteria, Canadian/Korean experience, safety related equipment, the Tadotsu test facility and seismic tests are discussed. (U.K.)

  6. The Effects of Repeated Experience on Children's Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of suggestive questions on 3- to 5-year-olds' and 6- to 8-year-olds' recall of the final occurrence of repeated event. Found that relative to reports of children experiencing single occurrence, reports about fixed items of repeated events were less contaminated by false suggestions. Children's age and delay of interview were…

  7. Lusatia and the coal conundrum: The lived experience of the German Energiewende

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, Tom; Müller, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The German Energiewende, or energy transition, is an ambitious suite of policy measures which aim to decarbonize the German economy and achieve an almost complete transition to an energy system based on renewable energy by mid-century. This article contends that the energy transition is also a social process. We develop a provisional local ethnography of the Energiewende, an account of the lived experience of this social process from the perspective of villagers in Atterwasch, Kerkwitz and Grabko, in the region of Lusatia in Eastern Germany. Their experiences are particularly salient, since their villages are facing demolition to make way for the expansion of the nearby Jänschwalde coal mine. The villagers’ struggle to defend their homes highlights a fundamental contradiction in the energy transition, sometimes referred to as the “coal conundrum”. The contest over the future of coal in Lusatia can be seen as a struggle to control key cultural ‘scripts’ or narratives, of home, belonging, ecological modernization, climate change, and democratic deficit. Our research suggests that any resolution of the coal conundrum, and effective implementation of the Energiewende, must be informed by an understanding of these scripts, and how they underpin the motivations and mentalities of different social actors. - Highlights: • The German energy transition is a social process as well as a set of policy measures. • Lusatia, in Eastern Germany, is a social laboratory of the Energiewende. • The contestation of coal in Lusatia is a struggle to control cultural ‘scripts'. • Home and belonging, ecological modernization, and climate change are key scripts. • More “energy democracy” would bolster the legitimacy of the energy transition.

  8. The German experience with grid-connected PV-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erge, T.; Hoffmann, V.U.; Kiefer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaics experienced increasing attention in Germany in recent years and are expected to face a major boost at the beginning of the new millennium. Highlights like the German 100,000-Roofs-Solar-Programme, PV programmes at schools financed by utilities and governments (e.g. 'SONNEonline' by PreussenElektra, 'Sonne in der Schule' by BMWi and 'Sonne in der Schule' by Bayernwerk) and large centralised installations of MW size ('Neue Messe Munchen' by Bayernwerk and 'Energiepark Mont-Cenis' by state Nordrhein-Westfalen, Stadtwerke Herne and European Union) count for the potential of grid-connected PV. Today in Germany a typical grid-connected PV installation of 1 kW nominal power produces average annual energy yields of 700 kWh (dependent on location and system components) and shows a high operating availability. The price per kWh from PV installations is still significantly higher than the price for conventional energy, but new funding schemes and cost models (like the large increase of feed-in tariff in Germany due to the Act on Granting Priority to Renewable Energy Sources in 2000) give optimism about the future. (Author)

  9. Improving Intercultural Education at Chinese Institutions from German Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihe

    2015-01-01

    In this reflection paper, Lihe Huang describes his experience studying abroad in Germany as a visiting scholar. Through the well-designed introductory seminar and study tour arranged by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, which provided the grant for Huang's research on foreign languages teaching and intercultural education in Germany, he…

  10. German experience in managing stormwater with green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper identifies and describes experience with ‘green’ stormwater management practices in Germany. It provides the context in which developments took place and extracts lessons learned to inform efforts of other countries in confronting urban stormwater challenges. Our findi...

  11. Vibrational experiments at the HDR [Heissdampfreaktor] German/US cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Malcher, L.; Costello, J.F.

    1987-04-01

    As part of an overall effort on the validation of seismic calculational methods, the US NRC/RES is collaborating with the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, FRG, in the vibrational/earthquake experiments conducted at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG. In the most recent experiments (SHAG), high level excitations were produced in the HDR by means of an eccentric-mass coastdown shaker capable of developing 1000 tons of force. The purpose of the experiments was to investigate full-scale structural response, soil-structure interaction, and piping and equipment response. Data obtained in the tests serve to evaluate analysis methods. In the SHAG experiments, loadings of the HDR soil-structure system approached incipient failure levels as evidenced by high peak accelerations and displacements, local damage, nonlinear behavior, soil subsidence, and wall strains which exceeded estimated limit values. Also, the performance of different pipe hanger configurations for the VKL piping system was compared in these tests under high excitation levels. The support configurations ranged from very rigid systems (strut/snubbers) to very flexible configurations (spring and constant force supports). Pretest and post-test analyses for the building/soil and piping response were performed and are being validated with the test data

  12. Operating experiences with passive systems and components in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqua, M.

    1996-01-01

    Operating experience with passive systems and components is limited to the equipment installed in existing NPPs. In German power plants, this experience is available for equipment of the IAEA categories A, C and D. The presentation is focused on typical examples out of these three categories. An overview is given on the number of reported events and typical failure modes. Selected failures are discussed in detail. 1 ref., 6 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Operating experiences with passive systems and components in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqua, M [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Operating experience with passive systems and components is limited to the equipment installed in existing NPPs. In German power plants, this experience is available for equipment of the IAEA categories A, C and D. The presentation is focused on typical examples out of these three categories. An overview is given on the number of reported events and typical failure modes. Selected failures are discussed in detail. 1 ref., 6 figs, 7 tabs.

  14. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Lesbian womens' access to healthcare, experiences with and expectations towards GPs in German primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Oliver; Löltgen, Karina; Becker, Annette

    2016-11-21

    Lesbian women have higher rates of physical and psychiatric disorders associated with experiences of discrimination, homophobia and difficulties with coming out. Therefore, easy access to specialized healthcare in an open atmosphere is needed. We aimed to describe women's access to and experiences with healthcare in Germany, and to assess the responsibility of the general practitioner (GP) compared to other specialities providing primary health care. A questionnaire study was conducted via internet and paper-based sampling. Using current literature, we designed a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic data, sexual orientation, access to care and reasons for encounter, disclosure of sexual orientation, experience with the German health system (discrimination, homophobia), and psychological burden. Depression was assessed using the depression screening from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). We obtained responses from 766 lesbian women. Although 89% had a primary care physician, only 40% had revealed their sexual orientation to their doctor. The main medical contacts were GPs (66%), gynaecologists (10%) or psychiatrists (6%). Twenty-three percent claimed they were unable to find a primary care physician. Another 12.4% had experienced discrimination. Younger lesbian women with higher education levels and who were less likely to be out to other physicians were more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to their primary care physician. GPs play an important role in healthcare for lesbian women, even in a non-gatekeeping healthcare system like Germany. Study participants suggested improvements regarding gender neutral language, flyers on homosexuality in waiting areas, involvement of partners, training of physicians, directories of homosexual physicians and labelling as a lesbian-friendly practice. GPs should create an open atmosphere and acquire the respective knowledge to provide adequate treatment. Caring for marginal groups should be incorporated

  16. A Comprehensive Approach to Post-Conflict Reconstruction: German Experience in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Olegovich Trunov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of a larger research project on complex linkages between security and development implemented by the Center for Security and Development Studies at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, this paper examines the complex dilemmas of pursuing comprehensive approach to post-conflict reconstruction with an example of Federal Republic of Germany’s experience with the Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs in Afghanistan after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. The first section depicts the background of deployment of the PRTs on Afghan territory. The second section compares the U.S., British and German models of PRTs and assesses the role of those teams as vehicles of close civil-military, interagency coordination. The third and the fourth sections identify respectively characteristic features of the German PRTs’ activities in Kunduz and Badakhshan provinces and the main obstacles that hindered the achievement of key objectives. The conclusion contains a concise assessment of effectiveness and efficiency of PRTs as a mechanism of addressing complex challenges of post-conflict reconstruction and transition to peaceful development. It also postulates that the PRT model, regardless of some objective difficulties faced by various German agencies, may be very relevant in the future in fulfilling a revised agenda of the German foreign and defense policies in the XXI century.

  17. [Questionnaire on dissociative symptoms. German adaptation, reliability and validity of the American Dissociative Experience Scale (DES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberger, H J; Spitzer, C; Stieglitz, R D; Kuhn, G; Magdeburg, N; Bernstein-Carlson, E

    1998-06-01

    The "Fragebogen zu dissoziativen Symptomen (FDS)" represents the authorised German translation and adaptation of the "Dissociative Experience Scale" (DES; Bernstein and Putnam 1986). The original scale comprises 28 items covering dissociative experiences with regard to memory, identity, awareness and cognition according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV. For the German version, 16 items were added to cover dissociative phenomena according to ICD-10, mainly pseudoneurological conversion symptoms. Reliability and validity of the German version were studied in a total sample of 813 persons and were compared to the results of the original version. Test-retest reliability of the FDS was rtt = 0.88 and Cronbach's consistency coefficient was alpha = 0.93, which is comparable to the results of the DES. The instrument differentiates between different samples (healthy control subjects, students, unselected neurological and psychiatric inpatients, neurological and psychiatric patients with a dissociative disorder and schizophrenics). The FDS is an easily applicable, reliable and valid measure to quantify dissociative experiences.

  18. My Teaching Experience With Navajo College Students, Writing Anxiety, Contrastive Rhetoric, and Some Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes factors that might be associated with Navajo college students’ writing anxiety. Oral tradition, reading, syntax, and past experience are the factors discussed. Suggestions based on previous literature and personal experience are provided.

  19. Debt Shifting and Thin-Capitalization Rules – German Experience and Alternative Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruf Martin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the general design of thin-capitalization rules and summarizes the economic effects of such rules as identified in theoretical models. We review empirical studies providing evidence on the experience with (German thin-capitalization rules as well as on the adjustment of German multinationals to foreign thin-capitalization rules. Special emphasis is given to the development in Germany, because Germany went a long way in limiting interest deductibility by enacting a drastic change in its thin-capitalization rules in 2008, and because superb German data on multinational finance allows for testing several aspects consistently. We then discuss the experience of the Nordic countries with thin-capitalization rules. Briefly reviewing potential alternatives as well, we believe that the arm’s-length principle is administratively too costly and impracticable, whereas we argue that controlled-foreign-company rules might be another promising avenue for limiting internal debt shifting. Fundamental tax reforms towards a system with either "allowance for corporate equity" (ACE or a "comprehensive business income tax" (CBIT should also eliminate any thin-capitalization incentive.

  20. Guidelines Regarding §16 of the German Transplantation Act - Initial Experiences with Structured Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Dos Santos, Daniel; Arnhold, Gordon; Mildenberger, Peter; Düber, Christoph; Kloeckner, Roman

    2017-12-01

    the German Transplantation Act - Initial Experiences with Structured Reporting. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 1145 - 1151. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. German taxi drivers' experiences and expressions of driving anger: Are the driving anger scale and the driving anger expression inventory valid measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Stefan; Oehl, Michael; Seigies, Kristin

    2017-11-17

    The objective of this article was 2-fold: firstly, we wanted to examine whether the original Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the original Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) apply to German professional taxi drivers because these scales have previously been given to professional and particularly to nonprofessional drivers in different countries. Secondly, we wanted to examine possible differences in driving anger experience and expression between professional German taxi drivers and nonprofessional German drivers. We applied German versions of the DAS, the DAX, and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) to a sample of 138 professional German taxi drivers. We then compared their ratings to the ratings of a sample of 1,136 nonprofessional German drivers (Oehl and Brandenburg n.d. ). Regarding our first objective, confirmatory factor analysis shows that the model fit of the DAS is better for nonprofessional drivers than for professional drivers. The DAX applies neither to professional nor to nonprofessional German drivers properly. Consequently, we suggest modified shorter versions of both scales for professional drivers. The STAXI applies to both professional and nonprofessional drivers. With respect to our second objective, we show that professional drivers experience significantly less driving anger than nonprofessional drivers, but they express more driving anger. We conclude that the STAXI can be applied to professional German taxi drivers. In contrast, for the DAS and the DAX we found particular shorter versions for professional taxi drivers. Especially for the DAX, most statements were too strong for German drivers to agree to. They do not show behaviors related to driving anger expression as they are described in the DAX. These problems with the original American DAX items are in line with several other studies in different countries. Future investigations should examine whether (professional) drivers from further countries express their anger

  2. Breeders: operational experience with fast power reactors in five states - more intensive German-French breeder cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1978-01-01

    In the past year contracts have been signed and implemented for German-French cooperation in LMFBR development and commercialization. - The first German nuclear power station with a sodium cooled fast reactor, KNK II in Karlsruhe, is going into operation. - Construction of the prototype SNR 300 at Kalkar (Lower Rhine) is slowing down awaiting a decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court. - On the international level, remarkable experience in the operation of fast power reactors has accumulated. - Possible fuel cycle alternatives are being evaluated by an international committee. (orig.) [de

  3. UKAEA calculations for German National Problem 7 - blind predictions of the REBEKA-6 clad ballooning experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, D.W.; Haste, T.J.

    1983-08-01

    The REBEKA-6 clad ballooning experiment has been chosen as the basis of a CSNI Open International Standard Problem (ISP14). The test, which was carried out at KfK, Karlsruhe in March 1983, has also been adopted as a Blind German National Problem (DSP7) and this exercise has been extended to include interested organisations outside the FDR. The UKAEA has completed a set of calculations with the intention of contributing to DSP7 but has not formally submitted these because of reservations regarding the problem specification. This memorandum provides a record of the calculations and summarises the difficulties encountered. (author)

  4. Malaria and World War II: German malaria experiments 1939-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, W U; Vondra, H

    2000-06-01

    The epidemiological and pharmacological fight against malaria and German malaria research during the Nazi dictatorship were completely under the spell of war. The Oberkommando des Heeres (German supreme command of the army) suffered the bitter experience of unexpected high losses caused by malaria especially at the Greek front (Metaxes line) but also in southern Russia and in the Ukraine. Hastily raised anti-malaria units tried to teach soldiers how to use the synthetic malaria drugs (Plasmochine, Atebrine) properly. Overdoses of these drugs were numerous during the first half of the war whereas in the second half it soon became clear that it would not be possible to support the army due to insufficient quantities of plasmochine and atebrine. During both running fights and troop withdrawals at all southern and southeastern fronts there was hardly any malaria prophylaxis or treatment. After war and captivity many soldiers returned home to endure heavy malaria attacks. In German industrial (Bayer, IG-Farben) and military malaria laboratories of the Heeres-Sanitäts-Akademie (Army Medical Academy) the situation was characterised by a hasty search for proper dosages of anti-malaria drugs, adequate mechanical and chemical prophylaxis (Petroleum, DDT, and other insecticides) as well as an anti-malaria vaccine. Most importantly, large scale research for proper atebrine and plasmochine dosages was conducted in German concentration camps and mental homes. In Dachau Professor Claus Schilling tested synthetic malaria drugs and injected helpless prisoners with high and sometimes lethal doses. Since the 1920s he had been furiously looking for an anti-malaria vaccine in Italian mental homes and from 1939 he continued his experiments in Dachau. Similar experiments were also performed in Buchenwald and in a psychiatric clinic in Thuringia, where Professor Gerhard Rose tested malaria drugs with mentally ill Russian prisoners of war. Schilling was put to death for his criminal

  5. German experience in recycling of ferrous metallic residues from nuclear decommissioning by melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, U.; Kluth, Th.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the delay of commissioning of final depositories for nuclear waste on the one hand and the increasing amount of steel scrap resulting from operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities on the other hand, recycling of ferrous metal scrap to packagings made of ductile cast iron becomes more and more economical. A pool of know-how from waste managers, radiation protection experts, metallurgists and foundry experts and their teamwork is required to run this recycling path successfully. Siempelkamp provides this combination of experience by operating a melting facility for slightly radioactive contaminated scrap as well as a foundry for manufacturing of ductile cast iron products for the nuclear industry, both licensed by the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. In 1989, the CARLA plant (Centrale Anlage zum Rezyklieren von leichtradioaktiven Abfollen) started operation. A medium frequency induction furnace with a capacity of 3,2 t is core of the plant. Tools for dismantling and cutting components to chargeable sizes are available. From the total of 23000 t of melted scrap, 12000 t have been recycled to the manufacturing of containers for transport and storage of medium- and high active waste and for shielding plates. Manufacture of the castings takes place in the Siempelkamp foundry located at the same site. 8000 t of melted scrap could be released for industrial recycling. Scrap metal which does not meet the metallurgical specification for cast iron, is converted into iron granules. Up to now more than 2000 t of iron granules have been recycled as additive for heavy concrete containers. This production is in cooperation with an external partner. With regard to the German situation, the cost for recycling is only half compared to high pressure compaction, long-term interim storage and final disposal. The advantage of recycling is approx. 90 % less volume compared to the volume resulting from other disposal paths. It can be concluded that the German

  6. Experience in commissioning and scientific support of nuclear power plant operation in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.; Endler, A.; Loth, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    In the German Democratic Republic two nuclear power plants equipped with four pressurized-water WWER-440-type reactors were commissioned in the years 1973-1979 and have since been in routine operation. The nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the GDR were constructed on the basis of projects developed and tested in the Soviet Union. Their main equipment was also supplied by the USSR. Under the technical supervision of USSR scientific institutions and design organizations, the construction, commissioning and operation of NPPs had to be prepared and organized by the design organizations, scientific institutions and the prospective user in the German Democratic Republic. To this effect, and to ensure nuclear safety, availability and maximum exploitation of nuclear fuel, it was necessary to develop national scientific capacities. The organizations of the USSR supply basic and supplementary documents prescribing the required extent of investigations to prove that the equipment and systems will meet the projected and operational conditions from loading to commercial operation. Concrete test programmes for commissioning and operational instructions are elaborated by national organizations. Pre-operational and initial startup tests are performed by the personnel of the plant, of enterprises and scientific institutions under the technical supervision of the design organizations of the USSR and the German Democratic Republic. Proceeding from experience gained for more than 15 years in the scientific support of commissioning and operation, the required training and disciplines of personnel are reported. The tasks to be met by the various disciplines are described. Furthermore, information is given on the main stages of commissioning and on a number of results. Finally, selected results of work in connection with operational assistance are reported

  7. Safety significance of component ageing, exemplary for MOV, based on French and German operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlent, O. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Michel, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    An outline is given of how IPSN and GRS assess the effects of physical ageing on the safety of French and German Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) on the basis of the available knowledge and how investigations are carried out. The presentation is focused exemplary on a preliminary study illustrating approaches for the evaluation of the ageing behaviour of active components, the motor-operated valves (MOV). The results so far seems to demonstrate that the developed methodological approaches are suitable to obtain qualitative evidence with regard to the ageing behaviour of technical facilities such as MOV. The evaluation of the operating experience with French 900 MWe plants seems to reveal, for MOV of one system, a trend similar to some international findings about ageing-related events with increasing operating time; this trend will have to be confirmed. For the German NPPs so far, there appears to be no significant increase of ageing-related events concerning MOV as the plants get older. Future work on ageing scheduled at IPSN and GRS includes further cooperation on this issue, too; a deep analysis is necessary to explain the reasons of such apparent differences before any conclusion. (authors)

  8. Safety significance of component ageing, exemplary for MOV, based on French and German operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlent, O.

    2001-01-01

    An outline is given of how IPSN and GRS assess the effects of physical ageing on the safety of French and German Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) on the basis of the available knowledge and how investigations are carried out. The presentation is focused exemplary on a preliminary study illustrating approaches for the evaluation of the ageing behaviour of active components, the motor-operated valves (MOV). The results so far seems to demonstrate that the developed methodological approaches are suitable to obtain qualitative evidence with regard to the ageing behaviour of technical facilities such as MOV. The evaluation of the operating experience with French 900 MWe plants seems to reveal, for MOV of one system, a trend similar to some international findings about ageing-related events with increasing operating time; this trend will have to be confirmed. For the German NPPs so far, there appears to be no significant increase of ageing-related events concerning MOV as the plants get older. Future work on ageing scheduled at IPSN and GRS includes further cooperation on this issue, too; a deep analysis is necessary to explain the reasons of such apparent differences before any conclusion. (authors)

  9. Suggestibility, Social Support, and Memory for a Novel Experience in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, J.A.; Wallin, A.R.; Papini, S.; Lench, H.; Scullin, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined 5- and 6-year-olds' suggestibility and interviewer demeanor as joint predictors of their memory for a novel experience. Session 1 consisted of children taking part in a novel laboratory event. Session 2 took place after approximately a 1-week delay and consisted of children completing both a memory test concerning what happened…

  10. Does the Nature of the Experience Influence Suggestibility? A Study of Children's Event Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Camilla; Mega, Carolina; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments examined effects of event modality on young children's memory and suggestibility. Findings indicated that 5-year-olds were more accurate than 3-year-olds and those participating in the event were more accurate than those either observing or listening to a narrative. Assessment method, level of event learning, delay to testing, and…

  11. Experience with vibration monitoring in German PWRs Obrigheim, Grohnde, Brokdorf and Emsland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, D.; Runkel, J.

    1996-01-01

    Without any interference to the normal operation of a nuclear power plant useful informations about the vibrational behaviour and the operation conditions in the primary circuit can be obtained by noise analysis of the signals of the standard reactor instrumentation. The purpose is to detect incipient changes of mechanical and operating conditions in order to enable early failure detection and preventive maintenance. This contributes not only to the safety but also to higher availability and economic efficiency of the plant. Routine measurements and noise analysis of the signals of the reactor and primary loop instrumentation are performed in all German nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactor. This paper deals with experiences of vibration monitoring by use of noise analysis ion four utilities. The typical vibration behaviour of reactor components of the different PWRs is compared and the particular vibration behaviour of a core support flow distribution stool, of a steam generator and a main circulation pump shaft is discussed. (authors)

  12. Alize 3 - first critical experiment for the franco-german high flux reactor - calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharmer, K.

    1969-01-01

    The results of experiments in the light water cooled D 2 O reflected critical assembly ALIZE III have been compared to calculations. A diffusion model was used with 3 fast and epithermal groups and two overlapping thermal groups, which leads to good agreement of calculated and measured power maps, even in the case of strong variations of the neutron spectrum in the core. The difference of calculated and measured k eff was smaller than 0.5 per cent δk/k. Calculations of void and structure material coefficients of the reactivity of 'black' rods in the reflector, of spectrum variations (Cd-ratio, Pu-U-ratio) and to the delayed photoneutron fraction in the D 2 O reflector were made. Measurements of the influence of beam tubes on reactivity and flux distribution in the reflector were interpreted with regard to an optimum beam tube arrangement for the Franco- German High Flux Reactor. (author) [fr

  13. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  14. Raman scattering and modulated-DSC experiments on Potassium Germanate glasses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Novita, D.; Boolchand, P.

    2006-03-01

    We have synthesized titled glasses in the 0 modulated-DSC (MDSC) experiments. Raman lineshapes observed in the present work are quite similar to those reported by Henderson and Wang ^1. Preliminary MDSC experiments reveal glass transition temperatures, Tg(x), starting from a value of 570 C at x = 0, to decrease to 508 C near x = 0.06, and to increase thereafter almost linearly to 552 C as x increases to 0.15. On the other hand, the non-reversing enthalpy associated with Tg provides evidence of a global minimum in the 0.08 0.10 as Floppy, while those in the reversibility window as representing the Intermediate Phase^2. The space filling nature of the Intermediate Phase is, independently, corroborated by trends in molar volumes which show a broad global minimum in the 9-11% range. Identification of the three elastic phases provides a physical basis to understand the origin of the Germanate anomaly, and the electrical conductivity threshold when glasses become mechanically floppy. *Supported by NSF grant DMR 04-56472. ^1 G.S.Henderson and H.M.Wang, Eur. J. Mineral. 14, 733 (2002). ^2 P.Boolchand, G.Lucovsky, J.C. Phillips and M.F.Thorpe, Phil. Mag 85,3823 (2005).

  15. Gender differences in recognition of toy faces suggest a contribution of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kaitlin F; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-12-01

    When there is a gender effect, women perform better then men in face recognition tasks. Prior work has not documented a male advantage on a face recognition task, suggesting that women may outperform men at face recognition generally either due to evolutionary reasons or the influence of social roles. Here, we question the idea that women excel at all face recognition and provide a proof of concept based on a face category for which men outperform women. We developed a test of face learning to measures individual differences with face categories for which men and women may differ in experience, using the faces of Barbie dolls and of Transformers. The results show a crossover interaction between subject gender and category, where men outperform women with Transformers' faces. We demonstrate that men can outperform women with some categories of faces, suggesting that explanations for a general face recognition advantage for women are in fact not needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic impacts from the promotion of renewable energy technologies. The German experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frondel, Manuel; Ritter, Nolan; Schmidt, Christoph M.; Vance, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The allure of an environmentally benign, abundant, and cost-effective energy source has led an increasing number of industrialized countries to back public financing of renewable energies. Germany's experience with renewable energy promotion is often cited as a model to be replicated elsewhere, being based on a combination of far-reaching energy and environmental laws that stretch back nearly two decades. This paper critically reviews the centerpiece of this effort, the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), focusing on its costs and the associated implications for job creation and climate protection. We argue that German renewable energy policy, and in particular the adopted feed-in tariff scheme, has failed to harness the market incentives needed to ensure a viable and cost-effective introduction of renewable energies into the country's energy portfolio. To the contrary, the government's support mechanisms have in many respects subverted these incentives, resulting in massive expenditures that show little long-term promise for stimulating the economy, protecting the environment, or increasing energy security. (author)

  17. Bilingual Experience in the Hungarian and German Immigrant Communities of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the interaction of languages are gaining importance in today’s world, characterized by accelerated migration and increasing cultural exchange. Unlike most research in this field, which concentrate on one embedded language against a matrix language, this fieldwork-based study examines the linguistic life in two immigrant populations, Hungarian and German, against the background of English. The primary focus of this article is the description of the bilingual and bicultural experience of the two groups. The discussion of language and identity will take a central place in the paper, and diglossia, bilingualism, loyalty, and language as social behavior will also be touched upon (section 4. This is complemented by a socio-historical portrayal of these speech communities of San Francisco, set forth in the preceding section 3. Section 5 provides an outline of the informant sets, spanning three generations in each linguistic cohort, and illustrates the subjects’ attitude towards maintenance. The final, sixth section offers qualitative and quantitative comparative statements about the results of linguistic interference and the ongoing attrition process, thus contributing to our understanding of contact linguistic mechanisms, and shedding light on specific grammatical and lexical features that are most prone to attritional forces.

  18. Money Matters and Money Talks: German Children’s Experiences with and Perspectives on Their Own Money

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Anja

    2013-01-01

    The following thesis rectifies the often assumed notion that children are economic innocents and portrays the full complexity of children’s economic lives. It traces the experiences of 17 German 6 to 8 year old children with their own money and explores their perspectives on their money relations. Empirical data is derived from semi-structured individual interviews and focus-group discussions with children, children’s drawings as well as semi-structured interviews with the parents of these ch...

  19. German travelers' preferences for travel vaccines assessed by a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Christine; Curran, Desmond; Anastassopoulou, Anastassia; De Moerlooze, Laurence

    2018-02-08

    Many travelers to regions with endemic infectious diseases do not follow health authorities' recommendations regarding vaccination against vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, before traveling. The determinants of individual travelers' decisions to vaccinate before traveling are largely unknown. This study aimed to provide this information using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) administered to four types of German travelers: (1) business travelers; (2) travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR); (3) leisure travelers; and (4) backpackers. A DCE survey was developed, pretested and administered online. It included a series of choice questions in which respondents chose between two hypothetical vaccines, each characterized by four disease attributes with varying levels describing the of risk, health impact, curability and transmissibility of the disease they would prevent (described with four disease attributes with varying levels of risk, health impact, curability and transmissibility), and varying levels of four vaccine attributes (duration of protection, number of doses required, time required for vaccination, and vaccine cost). A random-parameters logit model was used to estimate the importance weights each traveler type placed on the various attribute levels. These weights were used to calculate mean monetary equivalents (MMEs) of changes in each attribute (holding all others constant) and of hypothetical disease-vaccine combinations. All traveler types' choices indicated that they attached the greatest importance to the risk and health impact of disease and to the vaccine cost whereas the other disease and vaccine attributes were less important for their decisions about travel vaccines. An option of not choosing any of the vaccine-pairs presented was rarely selected indicating that travelers' generally prefer to be vaccinated rather than not. The MMEs of changes in vaccine attributes indicated a very high variability between the individual travelers

  20. Uncovering young children's emerging identities related to their literacy experiences: Suggestions to strengthen language education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen, Melanie Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explored how young children’s identities emerged from their drawings and accounts of their favourite stories as we argue the importance of understanding children in the context of school and language education. Sixty-six (n=66 children of two urban schools in Pretoria, South Africa were asked to write about and draw their favourite story. The participants were between the ages of six and seven years. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory and Chen’s theory of the construction of identity in a social context were used as conceptual framework. This conceptual framework could be linked to the findings which suggested that the children related their drawings and versions of their favourite stories to their interpretations of their life worlds. The prominent themes from the data could be associated with the self, the family, familiar objects and known animals. Their literacy experiences and the socio-cultural influences on the children’s construction of their identities were apparent in their work. We argue that teachers need to better understand how children understand themselves in relation to the world around them when making decisions about effective language education.

  1. Accidents on board merchant ships. Suggestions based on Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoleone, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This statistical study was performed to find out the occurrence of accidents on board ships assisted by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) during the years 2010-2015, with the aim of providing suggestions in accident prevention, based on such a wide experience. The case histories of CIRM in the years 2010-2015 were examined. The total number of accidents per year was calculated and compared as a percentage with the total number of cases assisted by CIRM per year. The incidence of accidents on board in these years ranged between 14.4% and 18.4% of total cases assisted per year, which is constantly increasing. The most common injuries on board among cases treated by CIRM were contusions and wounds. Also burns and eye injuries were significantly represented. Multiple injuries and head injuries were found to be the most frequent cause of death on board due to an accident. More information on the occurrence and type of accidents and on the body injured areas should represent the basis for developing strategies and campaigns for their prevention.

  2. Liberalisation and Market Opening Versus Energy Policy and Regulation Proposals: the German Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieners, J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the German electricity market became fully liberalised for competition. Prices for all consumer groups recorded a considerable drop. Service centres accepted measures for cost reduction, new strategies resulted in mergers. However, in view of economic efficiency, the German Government set life surroundings as the primary task. With new electricity market regulation numerous grants were introduced into renewable energy sources as well as the combined production of heat and electricity, which had a destabilising effect on all price savings on the part of the competition.(author)

  3. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Isabel; McGugin, Rankin W; Richler, Jennifer J; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Van Gulick, Ana E

    2014-07-03

    Some research finds that face recognition is largely independent from the recognition of other objects; a specialized and innate ability to recognize faces could therefore have little or nothing to do with our ability to recognize objects. We propose a new framework in which recognition performance for any category is the product of domain-general ability and category-specific experience. In Experiment 1, we show that the overlap between face and object recognition depends on experience with objects. In 256 subjects we measured face recognition, object recognition for eight categories, and self-reported experience with these categories. Experience predicted neither face recognition nor object recognition but moderated their relationship: Face recognition performance is increasingly similar to object recognition performance with increasing object experience. If a subject has a lot of experience with objects and is found to perform poorly, they also prove to have a low ability with faces. In a follow-up survey, we explored the dimensions of experience with objects that may have contributed to self-reported experience in Experiment 1. Different dimensions of experience appear to be more salient for different categories, with general self-reports of expertise reflecting judgments of verbal knowledge about a category more than judgments of visual performance. The complexity of experience and current limitations in its measurement support the importance of aggregating across multiple categories. Our findings imply that both face and object recognition are supported by a common, domain-general ability expressed through experience with a category and best measured when accounting for experience. © 2014 ARVO.

  4. Quantification of the reliability of personnel actions from the evaluation of actual German operational experience. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preischl, W.; Fassmann, W.

    2013-07-01

    The results and their uncertainty bounds of PSA studies are considerably impacted by the assessment of human reliability. But the amount of available, generic data is not sufficient to evaluate all human actions considered in a modern PSA study adequately. Further the data are not sufficiently validated and rely as well as the proposed uncertainty bounds on expert judgement. This research project as well as the preceding project /GRS 10/ validated data recommended by the German PSA Guidelines and enlarged the amount of available data. The findings may contribute to an update of the German PSA Guidelines. In a first step of the project information about reportable events in German nuclear power plants with observed human errors (event reports, expert statements, technical documents, interviews and plant walk downs with subject matter experts from the plants) were analysed. The investigation resulted in 67 samples describing personal activities, performance conditions, the number of observed errors and the number of action performance. In a second step a new methodology was developed and applied in a pilot plant. The objective was to identify undoubtedly error free safety relevant actions, their performance conditions, and frequency as well as to prove and demonstrate that probabilistic data can be derived from that operational experience (OE). The application in the pilot plant resulted in 18 ''error free'' samples characterizing human reliability. All available samples were evaluated by use of the method of Bayes. That commonly accepted methodology was applied in order to derive probabilistic data based on samples taken from operational experience. A thorough analysis of the obtained results shows that both data sources (OE reportable events, OE with undoubtedly error free action performance) provide data with comparable quality and validity. At the end of the research project the following products are available. - Methods to select samples

  5. [Screening for major dissociative disorders with the FDS, the German version of the Dissociative Experience Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, Frauke; Gast, Ursula; Emrich, Hinderk M

    2006-06-01

    The prevalence of major dissociative disorders (dissociative identity disorder, DID and similar forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, DDNOS) in clinical samples is about 5 %. Despite their frequency, major dissociative disorders are often overseen for a long time. Screening-scales have proved to be effective to support clinical diagnosis. The aim of this study was to test, whether the Fragebogen für dissoziative Symptome (FDS), the German version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), differentiates between patients with dissociative disorders, non-dissociative disorders and non-clinical controls. Additionally, an optimal FDS-cutoff for a more detailed differential-diagnostic evaluation of the dissociative symptomatology should be identified. 150 participants with DID (group DID: n = 44), DDNOS (DDNOS: n = 22), posttraumatic disorders (TRAUMA: n = 20), other non-dissociative disorders (non-TRAUMA: n = 34) and non-clinical controls (KG: n = 30) completed the FDS. In the five diagnostic groups, mean values were calculated and compared for the FDS, DES and FDS-20. Via receiver-operating-curves the cutoff-scores, which differentiated best between participants with and without major dissociative disorders, were identified. FDS, DES and FDS-20 differentiate significantly between patients with and without major dissociative disorders. For all scales, there were significant differences between the diagnostic groups, with mean-scores decreasing continuously from the groups DID to DDNOS and TRAUMA. Between the groups non-TRAUMA and KG tendencies were found in the predicted direction. The optimal cutoff-scores to differentiate between participants with and without major dissociative disorders were 13 (FDS/FDS-20) and 15 (DES). Using these cutoff-scores, at least 90 % of the patients with major dissociative disorders could be identified correctly (sensitivity). The specifity of the scales was 0.89 to 0.90. Screening for major dissociative disorders

  6. Members of the German Federal Parliament Research Committee visiting ALICE experiment on Wednesday, 15th November.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    From left to right Mr Georg Jürgens, Counsellor at the German Mission in Geneva; MdB Klaus Hagemann, SPD; MdB Cornelia Pieper, FDP, Stellvertretende Ausschussvorsitzende, Delegationsleiterin; MdB Dr. Petra Sitte, DIE LINKE; MdB Ilse Aigner, CDU/CSU; MdB Carsten Müller, CDU/CSU; Mr Andreas Meyer, Leiter Ausschusssekretariat; MdB Jörg Tauss, SPD.

  7. Success in the Academic Labour Market for Economics - The German Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Heining, Jörg; Jerger, Jürgen; Lingens, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Based on CV information of tenured professors and post-doc researchers in the field of economics at German universities we construct a unique data set. This data set contains detailed information on the career path and on personal characteristics of individuals. Using this data we analyse the determinants of success in the academic labour market. Our notion of success is the (conditional) probability of becoming tenured, i.e. the hazard rate. Estimating a Cox (1972) regressi...

  8. 78 FR 73518 - Notice Inviting Suggestions for New Experiments for the Experimental Sites Initiative; Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... postsecondary educational institutions participating in one or more of eight on- going experiments. Information... program accountability. Institutions and others, including businesses, philanthropies, and State agencies... Federal Regulations is available via the Federal Digital System at: www.gpo.gov/fdsys . At this site you...

  9. Experiments with duckweed-moth systems suggest global warming may reduce rather than promote herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van Tj.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Nes, van E.H.

    2006-01-01

    1. Wilf & Labandeira (1999)suggested that increased temperatures because of global warming will cause an increase in herbivory by insects. This conclusion was based on the supposed effect of temperature on herbivores but did not consider an effect of temperature on plant growth. 2. We studied

  10. Monitoring of scrap loads at Gorzia border checkpoints: A thirty months experience and some suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabretto, M.

    1999-01-01

    The following topics are highlighted: personnel training, assistance from foreign scrap suppliers, and computerized database. It is suggested that when selecting personnel for this job, major attention should be paid to their attitudes; the personnel should be given very good training, teaching them also how to make controls manually; expert physicist' support should be available within a very short time; each monitoring checkpoint should have its local electronic database; periodical exchange and updating of information should be practised on the standardization of methods of detection, of levels of attention and alarm, of statistics among the people in charge of EU and non-EU countries. (P.A.)

  11. Gender differences in recognition of toy faces suggest a contribution of experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Kaitlin F.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    When there is a gender effect, women perform better then men in face recognition tasks. Prior work has not documented a male advantage on a face recognition task, suggesting that women may outperform men at face recognition generally either due to evolutionary reasons or the influence of social roles. Here, we question the idea that women excel at all face recognition and provide a proof of concept based on a face category for which men outperform women. We developed a test of face learning t...

  12. Magnetization rotation or generation of incoherent spin waves? Suggestions for a spin-transfer effect experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazaliy, Y. B.; Jones, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    ''Spin-transfer'' torque is created when electric current is passed through metallic ferromagnets and may have interesting applications in spintronics. So far it was experimentally studied in ''collinear'' geometries, where it is difficult to predict whether magnetization will coherently rotate or spin-waves will be generated. Here we propose an easy modification of existing experiment in which the spin-polarization of incoming current will no longer be collinear with magnetization and recalculate the switching behavior of the device. We expect that a better agreement with the magnetization rotation theory will be achieved. That can be an important step in reconciling alternative points of view on the effect of spin-transfer torque

  13. [Long-term effects of traumatic experiences on somatic and psychic complaints of German World War Two refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C J; Struwe, J; Lemke, M R

    2006-01-01

    The effects of expulsion from German territories following World War Two have not been studied systematically, and little is known about long-term effects of this potentially traumatic experience. Via mail, 600 refugees from former German territories due to World War Two were asked to complete questionnaires about biographic data, somatic and psychic health (SCL-90-R questionnaire), and specific aspects related to traumatic experiences (post-traumatic stress disorder questionnaire). Of those contacted, 25% participated in the investigation. Of them, 9.8% fulfilled diagnostic criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder according to DSM IV. Only 1.8% of an age-matched control group met these criteria. Analysis of the SCL-90-R questionnaire showed higher scores for former refugees in somatic and psychic complaints than the control group. We show that expulsion following war may lead to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and somatic and psychic complaints after more than 50 years. Our investigation supports the necessity of adequate care for subjects expelled from their home countries and the psychologically traumatised.

  14. Network access charges, vertical integration, and property rights structure - experiences from the German electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growitsch, C.; Wein, T.

    2005-01-01

    After the deregulation of the German electricity markets in 1998, the German government opted for a regulatory regime called negotiated third party access, which would be subject to ex-post control by the federal cartel office. Network access charges for new competitors are based on contractual arrangements between energy producers and industrial consumers. As the electricity networks are incontestable natural monopolies, the local and regional network operators are able to set (monopolistic) charges at their own discretion, restricted only by the possible interference of the federal cartel office (Bundeskartellamt). In this paper we analyze if there is evidence for varying charging behaviour depending on the supplier's economic independence (structure of property rights) or its level of vertical integration. For this purpose, we hypothesise that incorporated and vertically integrated suppliers set different charges than independent utility companies. Multivariate estimations show a relation between network access charges and the network operator's economic independence as well as level of vertical integration: on the low voltage level for an estimated annual consumption of 1700 kW/h, vertically integrated firms set-in accordance with our hypothesis-significantly lower access charges than vertically separated suppliers, whereas incorporated network operators charge significantly higher charges compared to independent suppliers. These results could not have been confirmed for other consumptions or voltage levels. (author)

  15. Barriers and solutions for expansion of electricity grids—the German experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, Armin

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of synchronization in the expansion of renewable energies and the modernization of the electricity grid infrastructure. Main barriers to grid development are the insufficient regulatory framework, an inefficient allocation of planning and authorization competences and a lack of public acceptance of new grids. As response to these barriers, Germany has implemented a fundamental reform of the planning and authorization of high voltage power lines. We analyze the new regime as to what extent it is able to eliminate existing barriers to grid expansion and thus can serve as model for other countries. We find that the establishment of a single authority competent for planning, authorization and regulation may abolish existing lack of coordination. Also, the implementation of early participation on basis of various consultations phases has been proved to be very successful in the establishment of the first grid development plan. Stricter administrative time-limits and sanctions are likely to have an accelerating effect. And an increased openness to new technologies on basis of pilot project gives grid operators more flexibility in grid development. Recently, the European Commission adopted the German approach in its policy guidelines for other EU members. - Highlights: • Assessment of barriers to electricity grid infrastructure. • Needs for better, simplified and uniform regulatory framework. • German reform of planning and authorization procedure

  16. Caudal dysgenesis and sirenomelia-single centre experience suggests common pathogenic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thottungal, Anjana D; Charles, Adrian K; Dickinson, Jan E; Bower, Carol

    2010-10-01

    Abnormally formed lower limbs with varying degrees of fusion are the major feature of sirenomelia whereas maldeveloped lower limbs without fusion are found in association with caudal dysgenesis (CD). The relationship between these two entities has been a topic of debate for many years. The presence of a single umbilical artery originating from the abdominal aorta was considered a major feature distinguishing sirenomelia from CD. Based on this finding, the vascular steal theory was put forward as the causative mechanism of sirenomelia. CD and sirenomelia were considered to be two entirely different entities with distinct pathogenic mechanisms. However, it is now clear that a single umbilical artery can be found in some patients of CD and normal umbilical arteries in some patients of sirenomelia. The hypothesis of primary deficiency of caudal mesoderm caused by early developmental disruption suggests that sirenomelia and CD are two ends of a spectrum of maldevelopment of caudal mesoderm. In this paper we report on the clinical and pathological features of 16 patients of CD and 9 patients of sirenomelia from our institution and review the literature. This series of cases is notable for the significant association with neural tube defects, refining the renal and urogenital pathology associated with these conditions, and supporting the concept of a continuum of the disease spectrum. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Experience from implementing international standards in national emergency response planning national adjustments and suggestions for improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naadland Holo, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A process has been going on for some time in Norway to establish a harmonized background for emergency response planning for any kind of nuclear or radiological accident. The national emergency preparedness organisation with the crisis committee for nuclear accident, consisting of representatives from civil defence, defence, police-, health-, and food control authorities, has the authority to implement countermeasures to protect health, environment and national interests in case of an accident or in case of nuclear terrorism. However, in an early phase, the response plans need to be fully harmonized to ensure that every operational level knows their responsibility and the responsibilities of others. Our intention is to implement the IAEA standard 'preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency'. We believe this will simplify national and international communication and also simplify the crisis management if an accident occurs. In revising the national plans, and also the planning basis at regional and local level, as well as the planning basis for response to accidents at national nuclear facilities and in connection with arrival of nuclear submarines in Norwegian harbours, we have seen the need to make national adjustments to the international standards. In addition to the standard, there exist several other processes and routines for reporting different kinds of incidents. We have seen a need to coordinate this internally at the competent authority to simplify the routines. This paper will focus on the challenges we have met, our national solutions and some suggestions for simplification. National adjustments to the international standard. - Firstly, the threat categorization needs to be adjusted. First of all, we do not have nuclear power plants in Norway. In the aftermath of 11 September 2001 we also have focused more an the potential for nuclear terrorism. Nuclear terrorism is unlikely but puts up some new requirements in the

  18. Experiences in radioisotope production in the German Democratic Republic with special reference to radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been carried out in the German Democratic Republic for 30 years. Based on a 10 MW research reactor, a cyclotron and certain irradiation facilities at units of national nuclear power stations, a widespread assortment of radioisotopes is produced with emphasis to radiopharmaceuticals as the main materials. Domestic production covers the national demand in these products where the production is technologically feasible under our conditions. A complete supply of the users in the country (more than 7000 licences) is accomplished by an intense co-operation with neighbouring countries, including mutual assistance in reactor shut down periods and supply with special radioactive materials and products. International co-operation within the framework of the IAEA takes place, mainly as scientific and technological assistance to many developing countries. (author)

  19. The regulated energy economy versus the free energy market - The West German experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesen, K.; Schwarz, H.O.

    1989-09-01

    The overall good performance of the West German energy industry in terms of energy policy objectives such as security of supplies, competitiveness, efficient use of energy and environmental protection, is attributable to an energy policy based on the principles of the market economy and steady application of these same principles. Today, though, a debate, at times controversial, on whether more market influence or more government intervention is required is underway in West Germany; in view of the successes of energy policy and the balance struck between free enterprise and the government in the past, this debate has met with little understanding in some quarters. It is generally agreed, though, that the quality of the challenges energy policy and the energy industry in West Germany will confront in the future will remain essentially unchanged. West German energy policy will have to deal with: reestablishing a consensus on coal and nuclear power policy; achieving a high standard of environmental protection in the European Communities, and strengthening the position of the energy industry as efforts are made to get moves underway to create a single European market for energy underway. No fundamental change in the course of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany is needed to solve current energy policy issues or to preserve the underlying goals of this policy. An energy policy which continues to give priority where possible to market mechanisms as a means of adjustment and provides energy suppliers and users with a stable and reliable framework in which to operate, offers the best promise for meeting the challenges of the future. (author). 2 figs

  20. Gained experiences concerning the treatment of radioactive metal scrap from German NPP'S in Studsvik - Gained experience concerning the treatment of radioactive metal scrap from German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerwinter, Boris; Buckanie, Niemma

    2014-01-01

    The company Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen/Germany (GNS), operates on behalf of the utilities E.ON, RWE, EnBW and VENE since the nineteen-nineties - amongst its other duties - on the waste management of metal scrap which originates from German nuclear power plants. The main objective within this responsibility is to maximize the value of recyclable fractions for re-use while minimizing the resulting radioactive waste. To achieve the aforementioned objective, melting of metallic scrap proved to be an outstanding choice. The use of this technique combined with all accompanying processes and regulations is accepted by the competent authorities and independent experts as a qualified treatment method over the entire time period. The motivation of this paper is to reflect on the experiences gained concerning the planning, implementation and results, acquired by GNS by using the Studsvik service. The focus will be on characteristics within processing of such campaigns. (authors)

  1. German Command’s Guidelines on Training of Wehrmacht’s Military Units at Soviet-German Front Based on the Front-line Experience in 1941-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendrikov Evgeniy Aleksandrovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available he article analyzes the guidelines of the training division of the General Staff of German land forces on improving the fighting techniques of Wehrmacht’s military units on the basis of the front-line experience gained in armed hostilities with the Red Army in 1941-1942. The study of archives allowed the author to reveal drawbacks and shortcomings of Wehrmacht’s military units training in the period preceding the second major German advance in Summer of 1942. In particular, the following drawbacks were revealed: incatious movement through monitored terrains, insufficient camouflage security, lack of proper skills in overhead shooting, poor field engineering of the infantry, poor land navigation, defeat of tank attacks and finally, tank combating at close range. The article also contains the characteristics of profound and thorough training of German command for the summer campaign of 1942, which covered all major issues such as the actions of reconnaissance forces, the organization of officers and non-commissioned officers’ training, close combat instructions, training of infantry’s field engineering, night training, making reports etc. At the end of the article the author comes to the conclusion that despite the intensified training and correction of previous mistakes, German command failed to achieve radical turning point in the war, which ended in the total defeat of fascist Germany.

  2. [Attitudes and experiences regarding physician assisted suicide : A survey among members of the German Association for Palliative Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Maximiliane; Jaspers, Birgit; Radbruch, Lukas; Nauck, Friedemann

    2017-01-01

    The need to regulate physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and organizations offering assisted suicide has been controversially debated in Germany. Before the German parliament voted on various drafts in November 2015, the German Association for Palliative Medicine surveyed its members on their attitudes and experiences regarding PAS. Items for the survey were derived from the literature and consented in a focus group. 2005-2015 - PubMed: PAS [Title/Abstract] UND survey (all countries), grey literature. We invited 5152 members of the DGP to participate in the online/paper survey. Descriptive quantitative and content analytic qualitative analysis of data using SPSS and MaxQDA. We obtained 1811 valid data sets (response rate 36.9%). 33.7% of the participants were male, 43.6% were female, and 0.4% identifed as other. Physicians accounted for 48.5% of the respondents, 17.8% nurses, other professions 14.3%, and about 20% of the data was missing socio-demographic information. More than 90% agreed that "wishes for PAS may be ambivalent" and "are rather a wish to end an unbearable situation". Of the 833 participating physicians, 56% refused participating in PAS and 74.2% had been asked to perform PAS. PAS was actually performed by 3%. Of all participating members, 56% approved of a legal ban of organizations offering assisted suicide. More than 60% of all professions agreed that PAS is not a part of palliative care. The respondents show a broad spectrum of attitudes, only partly supporting statements of relevant bodies, such as DGP. Because many are confronted with the issue, PAS is relevant to professionals in palliative care.

  3. Practical experience in spent fuel management for German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althaus, D.; Luehrmann, A.; Seepolt, R.; Springer, K.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the practical experience in spent fuel management gained in the past by using the traditional route of reprocessing and, since the amendment to the Atomic Law in 1994, by using also direct disposal via interim storage. (author)

  4. Studying Abroad as a Sorting Criterion in the Recruitment Process: A Field Experiment among German Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Knut

    2017-01-01

    As the experience of studying abroad can signal general and transnational human capital, it is considered to be increasingly important for professional careers, particularly in the context of economies' internationalization. However, studies using graduate surveys face problems of self-selection and studies on employers' opinions face problems of…

  5. Swedish-German actinide migration experiment at ÄSPÖ hard rock laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzler, B.; Vejmelka, P.; Römer, J.; Fanghänel, E.; Jansson, M.; Eriksen, T. E.; Wikberg, P.

    2003-03-01

    Within the scope of a bilateral cooperation between Svensk Kärnbränslehantering (SKB) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung (FZK-INE), an actinide migration experiment is currently being performed at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden. This paper covers laboratory and in situ investigations on actinide migration in single-fractured granite core samples. For the in situ experiment, the CHEMLAB 2 probe developed by SKB was used. The experimental setup as well as the breakthrough of inert tracers and of the actinides Am, Np and Pu are presented. The breakthrough curves of inert tracers were analyzed to determine hydraulic properties of the fractured samples. Postmortem analyses of the solid samples were performed to characterize the flow path and the sorbed actinides. After cutting the cores, the abraded material was analyzed with respect to sorbed actinides. The slices were scanned optically to visualize the flow path. Effective volumes and inner surface areas were measured. In the experiments, only breakthrough of Np(V) was observed. In each experiment, the recovery of Np(V) was ≤40%. Breakthrough of Am(III) and Pu(IV) as well as of Np(IV) was not observed.

  6. Traumatic Experiences, Revictimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in German Inpatients Treated for Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Johanna; Lincoln, Tania M; Lüdecke, Daniel; Bong, Sönke; Schulte, Bernd; Verthein, Uwe; Schäfer, Ingo

    2018-03-21

    Traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prevalent in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and affect its course and outcome. Prior prevalence reports are limited by the inclusion of individuals with additional substance use disorders (SUDs), a focus on childhood events only and the use of self-ratings only. To examine the prevalence of traumatic experiences, revictimization and PTSD in inpatients treated for alcohol dependence without other SUD, emphasizing interpersonal violence across the whole lifespan. For this cross-sectional study alcohol-dependent patients without additional SUD (N = 230, 73% male, mean age 43 years) were recruited in an inpatient detoxification unit and were administered the Structured Trauma Interview, the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Data analysis comprised descriptive statistics and appropriate significance tests. 36.2% reported severe childhood physical or sexual abuse and 45.6% reported at least one of these types of abuse in adulthood. The lifetime rate of interpersonal violence was 61.1%. The prevalence of current PTSD was 13.2%. Women with a history of childhood abuse were about seven times as likely to be victimized in adulthood as women without these experiences, while in men revictimization was not significant. Even in patients with alcohol dependence without additional SUD experiences of interpersonal violence and PTSD are frequent. In order to adequately respond to the needs of this population, trauma and PTSD should routinely be assessed in alcohol-dependence treatment and considered in treatment planning if necessary.

  7. Event-Marketing as Innovative Marketing Communications: Reviewing the German Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlfeil, Markus; Whelan, Susan

    2005-01-01

    As a result of significant changes in their marketing environments and in consumer behaviour, marketers are confronted with the decreasing effectiveness of their classic marketing communications (Kroeber-Riel 1984) and, consequently, in need of new ways to position their brands in consumers’ minds. Because nothing is more convincing than personal experiences (Nickel 1998), event-marketing creates new brand-related realities by staging marketing-events with which consumers interact. This would...

  8. Sensed presence and mystical experiences are predicted by suggestibility, not by the application of transcranial weak complex magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Pehr; Fredrikson, Mats; Unge, Patrik; Hagenfeldt, Andrea; Valind, Sven; Larhammar, Dan; Larsson, Marcus

    2005-04-29

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with weak (micro Tesla) complex waveform fields have been claimed to evoke the sensed presence of a sentient being in up to 80% in the general population. These findings have had a questionable neurophysiological foundation as the fields are approximately six orders of magnitude weaker than ordinary TMS fields. Also, no independent replication has been reported. To replicate and extend previous findings, we performed a double-blind experiment (N=89), with a sham-field control group. Personality characteristics indicating suggestibility (absorption, signs of abnormal temporal lobe activity, and a "new age"-lifestyle orientation) were used as predictors. Sensed presence, mystical, and other somatosensory experiences previously reported from the magnetic field stimulation were outcome measures. We found no evidence for any effects of the magnetic fields, neither in the entire group, nor in individuals high in suggestibility. Because the personality characteristics significantly predicted outcomes, suggestibility may account for previously reported effects. Our results strongly question the earlier claims of experiential effects of weak magnetic fields.

  9. Junior physicians' workplace experiences in clinical fields in German-speaking Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Abel, Thomas; Buddeberg, Claus

    2005-01-08

    To date, there have been several prospective cohort studies investigating the workplace experiences of junior physicians, but with limited focus on gender issues. The objective of the present study is to explore the workplace experiences of first-year residents according to gender, type of training hospital, and clinical field. Data reported are from the second assessment of the longitudinal Swiss physicians' career development study, begun in 2001. In 2003, 497 residents (54.7% females, 45.3% males) assessed their workplace conditions, social support at work, and effort-reward imbalance. There are few, but relevant, gender related differences in workplace experiences, with female physicians experiencing less mentoring and higher over-commitment, yet more positive social relationships at work. In a multivariate model, significant differences in some workplace variables with regard to type of training hospital and/or clinical field are found: workplace conditions are rated worse in type "A" hospitals (university and cantonal hospitals) than in type "B"/"C"/"D" hospitals (regional hospitals and highly specialised units), and in surgical fields than in internal medicine. In "A" hospitals mentoring is assessed as better, but positive social relationships as worse. Both scales are rated worse in surgical fields than in internal medicine. The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is rated significantly higher (unfavourable) in "A" hospitals than in "B"/"C"/"D" hospitals, regardless of gender and clinical field. Significantly more subjects with an ERI quotient above 1 (which is unfavourable) work in "A" hospitals, and in surgical fields regardless of hospital type. Of the total sample, 81 subjects (16.3%), 41 males and 40 females, show an ERI quotient above 1. The greater the workload, the worse the rating of workplace conditions, effort-reward imbalance, and over-commitment. Institutional determinants are crucial factors for the workplace experiences and first career steps of

  10. Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: the Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2015-06-01

    Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been lacking. Research has infrequently considered students' interest in agricultural content areas as well as influencing factors on students' agricultural interests. In this study, a factorial design of agricultural interests was developed combining five agricultural content areas and four components of individual interest. The instrument was validated with German fifth and sixth graders ( N = 1,085) using a variance decomposition confirmatory factor analysis model. The results demonstrated a second-order factor of general agricultural interest, with animal husbandry, arable farming, vegetable and fruit cropping, primary food processing, and agricultural engineering as discrete content areas of agricultural interest. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that prior knowledge, garden experience, and disgust sensitivity are predictors of general agricultural interest. In addition, gender influenced interest in four of the five agricultural content areas. Implications are directed at researchers, teachers, and environmental educators concerning how to trigger and develop pupils' agricultural interests.

  11. A Website to Improve Asthma Care by Suggesting Patient Questions for Physicians: Qualitative Analysis of User Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciamanna, Christopher N; Blanch, Danielle C; Mui, Sarah; Lawless, Heather; Manocchia, Michael; Rosen, Rochelle K; Pietropaoli, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Background Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in the United Sates, yet despite the existence of national guidelines, nearly three fourths of patients with asthma do not have adequate control and clinical adherence to guidelines is low. While there are many reasons for this, physician inertia with respect to treatment change is partly to blame. Research suggests that patients who ask for specific tests and treatments are more likely to receive them. Objectives This study investigated the impact and experience of using an interactive patient website designed to give patients individual feedback about their condition and to suggest tailored questions for patients to ask their physician. The website was designed to be used prior to a physician visit, to increase the likelihood that patients would receive recommended tests and treatments. Methods A total of 37 adult patients with asthma participated in semi-structured telephone interviews aimed at eliciting information about their experiences with the website. Transcripts were coded using qualitative data analysis techniques and software. Themes were developed from subsets of codes generated through the analysis. In addition, 26 physicians were surveyed regarding their impressions of the website. Results Opportunities exist for improving website feedback, although the majority of both patient and physician respondents held favorable opinions about the site. Two major themes emerged regarding patients’ experiences with the website. First, many patients who used the website had a positive shift in their attitudes regarding interactions with their physicians. Second, use of the website prompted patients to become more actively involved in their asthma care. No patient reported any negative experiences as a result of using the website. Physicians rated the website positively. Conclusions Patients perceived that the interactive website intervention improved communication and interaction with their

  12. Seclusion and restraint in psychiatry: patients' experiences and practical suggestions on how to improve practices and use alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, Raija; Joffe, Grigori; Putkonen, Hanna; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Hane, Kimmo; Holi, Matti; Välimäki, Maritta

    2012-01-01

    This study explored psychiatric inpatients' experiences of, and their suggestions for, improvement of seclusion/restraint, and alternatives to their use in Finland. The data were collected by focused interviews (n= 30) and were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Patients' perspectives received insufficient attention during seclusion/restraint processes. Improvements (e.g., humane treatment) and alternatives (e.g., empathetic patient-staff interaction) to seclusion/restraint, as suggested by the patients, focused on essential parts of nursing practice but have not been largely adopted. Patients' basic needs have to be met, and patient-staff interaction has to also continue during seclusion/restraint. Providing patients with meaningful activities, planning beforehand, documenting the patients' wishes, and making patient-staff agreements reduce the need for restrictions and offer alternatives for seclusion/restraint. Service users must be involved in all practical development. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prevalence and gender patterns of mental health problems in German youth with experience of violence: the KiGGS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating

  14. Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation with ABO-Incompatible Grafts: A German Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin D. Goralczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult living donor liver transplantations (ALDLTs across the ABO blood group barrier have been reported in Asia, North Americas, and Europe, but not yet in Germany. Several strategies have been established to overcome the detrimental effects that are attached with such a disparity between donor and host, but no gold standard has yet emerged. Here, we present the first experiences with three ABO-incompatible adult living donor liver transplantations in Germany applying different immunosuppressive strategies. Four patient-donor couples were considered for ABO-incompatible ALDLT. In these patients, resident ABO blood group antibodies (isoagglutinins were depleted by plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption and replenishment was inhibited by splenectomy and/or B-cell-targeted immunosuppression. Despite different treatments ALDLT could safely be performed in three patients and all patients had good initial graft function without signs for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR. Two patients had long-term graft survival with stable graft function. We thus propose the feasibility of ABO-incompatible ALDLT with these protocols and advocate further expansion of ABO incompatible ALDLT in multicenter trials to improve efficacy and safety.

  15. Does ‘local’ matter in restaurant choice? Results of a discrete choice experiment targeting German and Italian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Contini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer preferences about locally grown foods have been studied principally as they concern meals consumed in the home, while knowledge about consumptions outside the home is still fragmented. Studying the relationship between local foods and out of the home consumptions instead proves particularly interesting, considering the growth of eating out habits. In this scenario, our paper intends to verify whether using products of local origin in restaurants can represent an element capable of influencing consumer preferences positively. The analysis was developed by means of a choice experiment between alternatives that differ in certification of origin, process certification, price and the main characteristics of the restaurant. The survey was conducted on a representative sample of Italian (500 and German (500 consumers. Applying Latent Class Modelling has enabled us to segment the market and profile the segments. Profiling was performed considering the socio-demographic characteristics, the choice motivations not expressly inserted in the choice experiment and the Schwartz value system. The results show not only a marked heterogeneity of preferences but also a consistent consumer segment willing to pay a relevant premium price for meals made from a prevalence of products certified as being of local origin. This segment, labelled ‘locavores’, appears across both countries, despite differing gastronomic traditions. Locavores are mainly young people who prioritise self-enhancement, stimulation and conservation in the sense of respect for traditions and being members of their communities. The ‘Discussions and conclusions’ section handles the principal implications from the viewpoint of the decisions of restaurant owners, as well as from that of farmers.

  16. Learning from the Germans? History and Memory in German and European Discourses of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Beattie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available History and memory appear to be increasingly important to discussions of European values and identity, as exemplified by references to ‘bitter experiences’ and ‘divided pasts’ in the draft EU constitution. The article takes recent suggestions that Europe could learn from German experiences of confronting multiple difficult pasts as its starting point, and considers critically what lessons those German experiences might in fact hold for ‘Europe’. It explores similarities and differences in the two integration contexts and their dominant approaches to, and assumptions about history and public memory. Specifically, it considers debates about the east-west division of the Cold War and about the place of communism and nazism in public memory. Contrary to common assumptions, the article argues that German experiences are not necessarily worth of European emulation.

  17. Mobbing call experiment suggests the enhancement of forest bird movement by tree cover in urban landscapes across seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Shimazaki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local scale movement behavior is an important basis to predict large-scale bird movements in heterogeneous landscapes. Here we conducted playback experiments using mobbing calls to estimate the probability that forest birds would cross a 50-m urban area during three seasons (breeding, dispersal, and wintering seasons with varying amounts of tree cover, building area, and electric wire density. We examined the responses of four forest resident species: Marsh Tit (Poecile palustris, Varied Tit (Sittiparus varius, Japanese Tit (P. minor, and Eurasian Nuthatch (Sitta europaea in central Hokkaido, northern Japan. We carried out and analyzed 250 playback experiments that attracted 618 individuals. Our results showed that tree cover increased the crossing probability of three species other than Varied Tit. Building area and electric wire density had no detectable effect on crossing probability for four species. Seasonal difference in the crossing probability was found only for Varied Tit, and the probability was the highest in the breeding season. These results suggest that the positive effect of tree cover on the crossing probability would be consistent across seasons. We therefore conclude that planting trees would be an effective way to promote forest bird movement within an urban landscape.

  18. Analysis of farmers' willingness to participate in pasture grazing programs: Results from a discrete choice experiment with German dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danne, M; Musshoff, O

    2017-09-01

    Over the last decades, the usage of pasture for grazing of dairy cows has decreased considerably. Pasture grazing programs initiated by dairy companies try to counteract this trend. The present paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in such grazing programs. A special aim was to quantify the price premiums farmers require for program participation and to identify determinants influencing the premium level. The empirical analysis is based on a discrete choice experiment with 293 German dairy farmers. Models are estimated in terms of willingness to accept. It was found that farmers have no substantial preference for whether the pasture grazing program is financed by the food industry, a governmental scheme, or the dairy company. However, an extension of the annual or daily grazing period results in a decreasing willingness of farmers to participate in a pasture grazing program. In addition, farmers decline the option of a feeding standard prescribing the use of only green fodder when offered an alternative program that merely reduces the amount of concentrated feed or maize silage in the diet. Farmers' with an aversion toward program participation have a significant higher price demand for fulfilling the program requirements. Furthermore, the required price premiums increase with growing milk yields and a greater number of cows kept on the farm. However, if the availability of pasture is high, farmers are more likely to participate. The estimated price premiums and factors influencing farmers' willingness to participate found by this study should be considered by dairies and policymakers to gain insights into the design of possible pasture grazing programs from the perspective of farmers. Thereby, paying price premiums to farmers may increase the attractiveness of pasture grazing, which could finally result in an extended usage of pasture grazing. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The German experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, W.

    1978-01-01

    An account is presented of the opposition in Germany to atomic power (AP). A short history is given of the anti-AP movement and demonstrations. The political effects of AP, the erosion of civil liberties and the development of the atomic state are discussed. (U.K.)

  20. German Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

  1. German Orientalism

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Olin

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...

  2. Introducing radiology report checklists among residents: adherence rates when suggesting versus requiring their use and early experience in improving accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Daniel K; Lin, Eaton; Silberzweig, James E; Kagetsu, Nolan J

    2014-03-01

    To retrospectively compare resident adherence to checklist-style structured reporting for maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) from the emergency department (when required vs. suggested between two programs). To compare radiology resident reporting accuracy before and after introduction of the structured report and assess its ability to decrease the rate of undetected pathology. We introduced a reporting checklist for maxillofacial CT into our dictation software without specific training, requiring it at one program and suggesting it at another. We quantified usage among residents and compared reporting accuracy, before and after counting and categorizing faculty addenda. There was no significant change in resident accuracy in the first few months, with residents acting as their own controls (directly comparing performance with and without the checklist). Adherence to the checklist at program A (where it originated and was required) was 85% of reports compared to 9% of reports at program B (where it was suggested). When using program B as a secondary control, there was no significant difference in resident accuracy with or without using the checklist (comparing different residents using the checklist to those not using the checklist). Our results suggest that there is no automatic value of checklists for improving radiology resident reporting accuracy. They also suggest the importance of focused training, checklist flexibility, and a period of adjustment to a new reporting style. Mandatory checklists were readily adopted by residents but not when simply suggested. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Twenty years of experience in spent fuel shipment from German nuclear power plants - a view of the competent authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasten, Ch.; Mueller, U.; Alter, U.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of the transport of spent fuel in and from Germany during the last 20 years is presented. The spent fuel is now transported from the German nuclear power facilities to the reprocessing plants in France and the United Kingdom. In the past, there were also shipments to the former reprocessing plant WAK Karlsruhe (Germany), to the long-term storage facility CLAB (Sweden) and also from the former German Democratic Republic to the USSR. The transport of the spent fuel is carried out in specially built flasks requiring an extensive quality assurance programme. Due to the heavy weight of these packages, the shipments are mostly carried out by rail, but also by road and sea. An overview is given of the following matters: (i) quantities of spent fuel transport, (ii) organisation of transport (iii) licensing matters, and (iv) reported incidents. In addition, an analysis is included of the radiation exposure for normal conditions of transport, especially of the transport workers. Difficulties and hindrances during transport are also reported. (author)

  4. The representation of patient experience and satisfaction in physician rating sites. A criteria-based analysis of English- and German-language sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strech Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on patient experience and satisfaction with individual physicians could play an important role for performance measures, improved health care and health literacy. Physician rating sites (PRSs bear the potential to be a widely available source for this kind of information. However, patient experience and satisfaction are complex constructs operationalized by multiple dimensions. The way in which PRSs allow users to express and rate patient experience and satisfaction could likely influence the image of doctors in society and the self-understanding of both doctors and patients. This study examines the extent to which PRSs currently represent the constructs of patient experience and satisfaction. Methods First, a systematic review of research instruments for measuring patient experience and satisfaction was conducted. The content of these instruments was analyzed qualitatively to create a comprehensive set of dimensions for patient experience and patient satisfaction. Second, PRSs were searched for systematically in English-language and German-language search engines of Google and Yahoo. Finally, we classified every structured question asked by the different PRS using the set of dimensions of patient experience and satisfaction. Results The qualitative content analysis of the measurement instruments produced 13 dimensions of patient experience and satisfaction. We identified a total of 21 PRSs. No PRSs represented all 13 dimensions of patient satisfaction and experience with its structured questions. The 3 most trafficked English-language PRS represent between 5 and 6 dimensions and the 3 most trafficked German language PRSs between 8 and 11 dimensions The dimensions for patient experience and satisfaction most frequently represented in PRSs included diversely operationalized ones such as professional competence and doctor-patient relationship/support. However, other less complex but nevertheless important dimensions

  5. BMFT-CEA-US-DOE Exchange on KNK II-Rapsodie-EBR II operating experience, German contributions for the second expert meeting at Idaho Falls, USA, October 27 and 28, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The meeting at Idaho Falls was the follow-up meeting of the first expert meeting on EBR II- Rapsodie- KNK II operating experience, which took place at the Karlsruhe Research Center in March 1980. The present report compiles the ten German papers presented at the Idaho Falls meeting, discussing various aspects of experience gained by the operation of KNK II

  6. Taiwan experience suggests that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary in southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The high frequency of RhD (D) antigen among Taiwanese persons (99.67%) often imposes unnecessary risks of under-transfusion on D- patients awaiting D- blood. Also because of the rare occurrence of anti-D among Taiwanese persons, routine pretransfusion D typing has been discontinued in the Mackay Memorial Hospital since 1988. This report is the retrospective evaluation of the outcome of abolishing RhD typing for Taiwanese. More than 10 years of alloantibody data at Mackay Memorial Hospital Blood Bank were reviewed. The cases with anti-D were further used to analyze the potency of D antigen and to observe whether there were differences in the incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine D typing among Taiwanese individuals. The incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine pretransfusion D typing has remained unchanged. The immunogenicity of D and "Mi(a)" in Taiwanese persons is found to be similar. In terms of opportunity for immunization, however, the "Mi(a)" antigen (phenotype frequency 7.3% in Taiwanese persons) has become the most important blood group antigen in Taiwan. The results strongly support the exclusion of D typing from routine compatibility testing for individuals of Taiwanese origin. Because the low incidence of D- and relatively high incidence of "Mi(a)"+ phenotypes are common findings throughout southeast Asia, and because a population genetic study revealed that the Taiwanese people are genetically related to southern Asian populations, it is suggested that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary among southeast Asian populations.

  7. Preliminary results of ERTS-investigations by W-German investigations. [multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and hydrogeology of Argentina Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlfeld, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.

  8. Teaching German-Americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolzmann, Don Heinrich

    1976-01-01

    A university course entitled "The German-Americans" attempted to study and evaluate German culture in the U. S. Lecture topics and term paper theses are listed and a selected annotated bibliography of German-American culture is included. (CHK)

  9. Effects of Lifetime Unemployment Experience and Job Insecurity on Two-Year Risk of Physician-Diagnosed Incident Depression in the German Working Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wege, Natalia; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian

    2017-08-11

    Unemployment and job insecurity have been reported to be associated with a higher risk of depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of lifetime unemployment experience and job insecurity on the incidence of depression in an unselected working population in Germany. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) study were used, as was a final sample of those currently employed, with complete data at baseline (2009) and follow-up (2011) restricted to those free of depression in 2009 ( n = 7073). Poisson regression analysis was applied to test the prospective associations between unemployment, job insecurity, and a two-year incident of depression. Results showed that the experience of unemployment and perceived job insecurity were significantly associated with a higher risk of depression during the two-year follow-up (risk ratios 1.64; 95% confidence intervals (1.16, 2.31) and risk ratios 1.48; 95% confidence intervals (1.13, 1.92), respectively). Notably, the strongest risk was observed among participants with insecure jobs and past long-term unemployment (risk ratios 2.15; 95% confidence intervals (1.32; 3.52)). In conclusion, even during employment, the experience of lifetime unemployment led to a higher risk of depression. The combination of previous unemployment experience and anticipated job insecurity increased the risk of developing depression. Results support health promotion with special emphasis on unemployment and precarious working conditions.

  10. Frequency of victimization experiences and well-being among online, offline and combined victims on social online network sites of German children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eGlüer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,906 German children and adolescents (grades 5 to 10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1 with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS. Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without, somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others. In total, 1,362 (71.4% children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one social online network, and 377 students (28.8% reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%, whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone.

  11. Frequency of Victimization Experiences and Well-Being Among Online, Offline, and Combined Victims on Social Online Network Sites of German Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,890 German children and adolescents (grades 5-10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1) with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS). Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without), somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others). In total, 1,362 (72.1%) children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one SNS, and 377 students (28.8%) reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%), whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined) was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone.

  12. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  13. Significant Influences on Nature Experiences: A Comparative Study of Southern German and Northern Spanish Pupils Aged 14-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the current situation of nature experiences among adolescents is of critical importance for the protection of nature. The participants of this study are 14-15 year-old pupils from Bavaria (Southern Germany) and Asturias (Northern Spain). In particular, the author was interested in a) the level of outdoor experiences of each…

  14. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  15. The Simbox Experiment with Arabidopsis Thaliana Cell Cultures: Hardware-Tests and First Resutls from the German-Chinese satellite Mission Shenzhou 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Svenja; Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Ruediger

    2013-02-01

    The Simbox experiment was the first joint German-Chinese space project. In this context Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures were exposed to microgravity for a 17-day period. To carry out a successful space mission, diverse hardware tests were performed in advance. Due to the limited oxygen supply inside the hardware units, cells were fixed after 5 days under microgravity conditions. As a control, samples were exposed in an on-board 1g reference centrifuge. To investigate the space effect, a ground-based study was performed with the same hardware and identical experimental procedures. As we were able to obtain high quality RNA from the RNAlater quenched samples, we used the Affymetrix Arabidopsis genome array for a transcriptome analysis. Our experiment aimed at the identification of plant genes that were differentially expressed after long-term exposure to microgravity. Pair-wise comparison of flight samples with 1g controls revealed the largest differences between space 1g and ground 1g controls.

  16. German genes and Turkish traits: ethnicity, infertility, and reproductive politics in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Lisa K

    2009-07-01

    This ethnographic study uses the lens of ethnic difference to examine the experience of infertility and the cultural politics of belonging in modern Germany. The data are derived from participant observation and interviews conducted with forty-one ethnic Germans and thirty-three German Turks undergoing biomedical treatment for infertility at a fertility clinic in Berlin (1998-2000). Through their illness narratives, men and women symbolically link their loss of biological parenthood to losses in other life arenas, such as gender identity, social status and cultural acceptance. Results reveal that while both German Turks and ethnic Germans experience disruption and social suffering from their inability to conform to procreative norms, German Turkish sufferers exhibit higher levels of distress, which directly relates to their dual stigma as outsiders in both German Turkish culture and mainstream German culture. The findings suggest that the tensions surrounding individual reproductive practices are reflective of larger national tensions regarding the constitution of the body politic in an increasingly multicultural Germany.

  17. Operating Experience of Digital, Software-based Components Used in I and C and Electrical Systems in German NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Stefanie; Lochthofen, Andre; Quester, Claudia; Arians, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many components in instrumentation and control (I and C) and electrical systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs) were replaced by digital, software-based components. Due to the more complex structure, software-based I and C and electrical components show the potential for new failure mechanisms and an increasing number of failure possibilities, including the potential for common cause failures. An evaluation of the operating experience of digital, software-based components may help to determine new failure modes of these components. In this paper, we give an overview over the results of the evaluation of the operating experience of digital, software-based components used in I and C and electrical systems in NPPs in Germany. (authors)

  18. The Cycle of Violence: Examining Attitudes Toward and Experiences of Corporal Punishment in a Representative German Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Fegert, Jörg M; Rodens, Klaus P; Brähler, Elmar; Lührs Da Silva, Claudia; Plener, Paul L

    2017-09-01

    The use of corporal punishment (CP) is controversial despite the negative consequences of its use that have been documented. Consequences include the use of CP by those who experienced CP themselves, described in the theory of the cycle of violence. There are little data on the cycle of violence, especially on those who break it and in representative samples. This study examines the cycle of violence in a representative sample by analyzing experiences of and attitudes toward CP. Attitudes toward, and own experiences of, CP by their parents were assessed in a sample of 2,519 individuals (female 54.6%, age range = 14-99 years, M = 48.9 years). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify subgroups of participants who support and oppose CP. Breaking the cycle, defined as having experienced CP and opposing CP, was examined. Factors associated with positive and negative attitudes toward CP were identified using group comparisons and binary logistic regression. The majority of the sample opposed CP (56%), whereas one third supported less severe forms of CP and 8.2% also supported severe CP. Those supporting CP reported having experienced CP by their parents more often. Of those who had experienced CP, 47% were identified as breaking the cycle. Female gender, younger age, not being divorced, and being married and living together, as well as a higher level of education were associated with breaking the cycle. Even though CP was legally banned in Germany, a relatively high proportion still reports positive attitudes toward and experiences of CP. The ban of CP by the federal government seems to be an effective measure to change attitudes on a societal level as rates were lower in comparison with earlier studies. Future studies should examine interactions between different types of CP, attitudes toward its use, and additional mediating factors.

  19. Developing cross-sectoral quality assurance for cataract surgery in the statutory quality assurance program of the German health care system: Experiences and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramesfeld, Anke; Pauletzki, Jürgen; Behrenz, Lars; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Willms, Gerald; Broge, Björn

    2015-08-01

    Since 2001, statutory external quality assurance (QA) for hospital care has been in place in the German health system. In 2009, the decision was taken to expand it to cross-sectoral procedures. This novel and unprecedented form of national QA aims at (1) making the quality procedures comparable that are provided both in inpatient and outpatient care, (2) following-up outcomes of hospital care after patients' discharge and (3) measuring the quality of complex treatment chains across interfaces. As a pioneer procedure a QA procedure in cataract surgery QA was developed. Using this as an example, challenges of cross-sectoral QA are highlighted. These challenges relate, in particular, to three technical problems: triggering cases for documentation, following-up patients' after hospital discharge, and the burden of documentation in outpatient care. These problems resulted finally in the haltering of the development of the QA procedure. However, the experiences gained with this first development of cross-sectoral QA inspired the reorientation and further development of the field in Germany. Future cross-sectoral QA will rigorously aim at keeping burden of documentation small. It will draw data for QA mainly at three sources: routine data, patient surveys and peer reviews using indicators. Policy implications of this reorientation are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure and experience of the state system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC) in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, W.

    1989-01-01

    The legislative basis, structure, functions, records and experience of the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSAC) in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) are reviewed. The GDR's nuclear activities are characterized by research establishments and power reactors and by the absence of industrial bulk handling facilities such as fuel fabrication, reprocessing and enrichment plants. As a consequence both the national and the international safeguards approach can be based on the principles of item accountability which does not require the establishment of an elaborate measurement system. Right from the beginning the safeguards implemented were of the NPT type as the GDR was among the early parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The national rules and procedures of safeguards were thus established in harmony with the international requirements and have closely followed their development. The SSAC in the GDR is part of the comprehensive set-up of protective measures against the potential hazards in the use of nuclear energy under the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection which has established a number of inspectorates, among them the inspection group for nuclear material control -the Nuclear Material Inspectorate. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. When do German Firms Change their Dividends?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia Da Silva, L.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the dividend policy of German firms is more flexible than the one of their Anglo-American counterparts.This paper analyses the decision to change the dividend for a panel of 221 German firms from 1984 to 1994.The choice of the period of study is motivated by the fact

  2. New German abortion law agreed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit.

  3. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  4. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  5. Psychosocial working conditions and well-being among immigrant and German low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Annekatrin

    2011-04-01

    Despite a steady increase of immigrant workers in Germany in the past decades, occupational health research has only peripherally addressed psychosocial working conditions and immigrant worker well-being. This study has two aims: (1) to investigate differences in psychosocial stressors and resources between immigrant and German low-wage workers, and (2) to examine group differences in their association with well-being using a structural equation modeling multiple group analysis approach. Eighty-nine immigrant and 146 German postmen of a German mail service company were surveyed. Results reveal more stressors in the social work environment for the immigrant workers than for their German coworkers but similar levels of task-related stressors in both groups. Stressors are more strongly associated with psychological distress among the German workers. In terms of resources, job control serves as a resource only among German workers, whereas supervisor and coworker support are more important for immigrant workers. These differences suggest that cultural factors, previous work experiences, and expectations influence the worker's experience of psychosocial working conditions and have a direct impact on worker health.

  6. Dictionary for veterinary science and biosciences. German-English/English-German. With trilingual appendix: Latin terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, R.

    1988-01-01

    This dictionary has been compiled as a result of many years experience of translating German texts in the biological sciences, particularly veterinary medicine. The author's aim is to supplement the standard German-English general dictionaries with technical terms to in the fields of anatomy, microbiology, physiology, parasitology, pathology, pharmacology, toxicology and zootechny, with special reference to domestic animals and their diseases. (orig.) [de

  7. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  8. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany: Experience of applicants with the review of requests for opinion of the Ethics Committees - results of a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ, Hagen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The review of requests for a positive opinion of the ethics committees (application procedure as a requirement to start a clinical trial in Germany has been completely redesigned with the transposition of EU Directive 2001/20/EC in the 12th Amendment of the German Medicines Act in August 2004. The experience of applicants (sponsors, legal representatives of sponsors in the EU and persons or organizations authorized by the sponsors to make the application, respectively in terms of interactions with the ethics committees in Germany has been positive overall, especially with respect to ethics committee adherence to the statutory timelines applicable for review of requests. However, inconsistencies between ethics committees exist in terms of the form and content of the requirements for application documents and their evaluation.With the objective of further improving both the quality of applications and the evaluation of those applications by ethics committees, a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA was conducted from January to April 2008. Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective ethics committee in charge of the coordinating principal investigator (coordinating ethics committee, the type and frequency of formal and content-related objections to applications according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP Regulation were systematically documented, and qualitative and quantitative analyses performed. 21 out of 44 members of the VFA participated in the survey. 288 applications for Phase I–IV studies submitted between January and December 2007 to 40 ethics committees were evaluated.This survey shows that about one in six applications is incomplete and has formal and/or content objections, respectively, especially those that pertain to documents demonstrating the qualification of the investigator and/or suitability of the facilities. These objections are attributable to

  9. Quantification of the reliability of personnel actions from the evaluation of actual German operational experience. Final report; Quantifizierung der Zuverlaessigkeit von Personalhandlungen durch Auswertung der aktuellen deutschen Betriebserfahrung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preischl, W.; Fassmann, W.

    2013-07-15

    The results and their uncertainty bounds of PSA studies are considerably impacted by the assessment of human reliability. But the amount of available, generic data is not sufficient to evaluate all human actions considered in a modern PSA study adequately. Further the data are not sufficiently validated and rely as well as the proposed uncertainty bounds on expert judgement. This research project as well as the preceding project /GRS 10/ validated data recommended by the German PSA Guidelines and enlarged the amount of available data. The findings may contribute to an update of the German PSA Guidelines. In a first step of the project information about reportable events in German nuclear power plants with observed human errors (event reports, expert statements, technical documents, interviews and plant walk downs with subject matter experts from the plants) were analysed. The investigation resulted in 67 samples describing personal activities, performance conditions, the number of observed errors and the number of action performance. In a second step a new methodology was developed and applied in a pilot plant. The objective was to identify undoubtedly error free safety relevant actions, their performance conditions, and frequency as well as to prove and demonstrate that probabilistic data can be derived from that operational experience (OE). The application in the pilot plant resulted in 18 ''error free'' samples characterizing human reliability. All available samples were evaluated by use of the method of Bayes. That commonly accepted methodology was applied in order to derive probabilistic data based on samples taken from operational experience. A thorough analysis of the obtained results shows that both data sources (OE reportable events, OE with undoubtedly error free action performance) provide data with comparable quality and validity. At the end of the research project the following products are available. - Methods to select samples

  10. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Prosodic Cues to Syntactic Disambiguation in German and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham; Jackson, Carrie N.; Gardner, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether late-learning English-German second language (L2) learners and late-learning German-English L2 learners use prosodic cues to disambiguate temporarily ambiguous first language and L2 sentences during speech production. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that English-German L2 learners and German-English L2 learners used a…

  11. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  12. Klimaschutz in China. Summary of experience from the existing environmental law relating to climate change and suggestions for China's climate change legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Mingde [China Univ. of Political Science and Law, Peking (China). Climate Change and Natural Resources Law Center

    2014-07-01

    , more than ten climate change convention documents, more than forty laws, more than eighty administrative regulations and more than one hundred and seventy rules. This study examines Chinese laws and policies on climate change, and evaluates their legal effect. This essay summarizes as follows from two aspects: existing experience of laws and policies and successful institutions, and suggestions for future climate change legislation.

  13. Klimaschutz in China. Summary of experience from the existing environmental law relating to climate change and suggestions for China's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Mingde

    2014-01-01

    ten climate change convention documents, more than forty laws, more than eighty administrative regulations and more than one hundred and seventy rules. This study examines Chinese laws and policies on climate change, and evaluates their legal effect. This essay summarizes as follows from two aspects: existing experience of laws and policies and successful institutions, and suggestions for future climate change legislation.

  14. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  15. [Sample German LAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  16. A German format for pupils’ training

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Every year CERN welcomes thousands of pupils from schools worldwide for a half-day visit to the Laboratory. However, since 2011 about ten selected students from Germany have been given the opportunity to experience CERN in much greater depth. They are fully sponsored by the German Ministry of Education and supported by an organising structure at TU Dresden - the Dresden University of Technology - led by Michael Kobel. It’s an investment that's paying off in Germany.   The German teachers who participated in the “Netzwerk Teilchenwelt” project, at CERN last week. “Netzwerk Teilchenwelt” is a project that involves 23 German universities, the DESY Laboratory, several schools and, of course, CERN. Launched in 2010 with a contribution from the German Ministry for Science and Research of about 1 million euros over three years, the project has so far involved over 4,000 students and 500 teachers. “Thanks to this project, both pupils...

  17. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? – A study on language-motor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children. PMID:29538404

  18. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? - A study on language-motor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Daniela Katharina; Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children.

  19. Word order in the Germanic languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Anders; Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The Germanic branch of Indo-European consists of three main groups (Ruhlen 1987: 327):- East Germanic: Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian (all extinct);- North Germanic (or: Scandinavian): Runic (extinct), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese;- West Germanic: German, Yiddish, Luxembourgeois, ...

  20. [Registries as a tool for optimizing safety of endoprostheses. Experiences from other countries and the setup of the German arthroplasty register].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenpflug, Joachim; Liebs, Thoralf R

    2014-12-01

    There has previously been no structured long-term documentation of the results of hip and knee prosthesis operations in Germany. This article presents the objectives, structure and data flow of the newly established German arthroplasty registry (EPRD). The EPRD is run as a subdivision of the German Society for Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und orthopädische Chirurgie, DGOOC). It is dedicated to scientific principles and guarantees independency and immediate feedback to surgeons. The cooperation between insurance funds, hospitals, industry and scientific society is the key to success. Additional data acquisition and bureaucratic formalities are limited to a minimum and in particular there is no use of paper. Involving the health insurance funds provides access to relevant routine data. The implant documentation is facilitated by means of an implant library and barcode scanning in the operating room. The EPRD documents the survival of implants including the reasons for revision. Although the highest level of patient data protection is guaranteed, individual patients can be identified in case of implant recalls.

  1. Assessment of accident risks from german nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The German risk study are presented. The main objectives can be summed up as follows: (a) An assessment of the societal risk due to accidents in nuclear power plants with reference to German conditions; (b) To get experience in the field of risk analysis and to provide a basis for estimation of uncertainties; (c) To provide guidance for future activities in the German Reactor Safety Research Program. Finally several conclusions reached by this study are discussed. (author)

  2. Alize 3 - first critical experiment for the franco-german high flux reactor - calculations; Alize 3 - premiere experience critique pour le reacteur a haut flux franco-allemand. Calculs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharmer, K [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The results of experiments in the light water cooled D{sub 2}O reflected critical assembly ALIZE III have been compared to calculations. A diffusion model was used with 3 fast and epithermal groups and two overlapping thermal groups, which leads to good agreement of calculated and measured power maps, even in the case of strong variations of the neutron spectrum in the core. The difference of calculated and measured k{sub eff} was smaller than 0.5 per cent {delta}k/k. Calculations of void and structure material coefficients of the reactivity of 'black' rods in the reflector, of spectrum variations (Cd-ratio, Pu-U-ratio) and to the delayed photoneutron fraction in the D{sub 2}O reflector were made. Measurements of the influence of beam tubes on reactivity and flux distribution in the reflector were interpreted with regard to an optimum beam tube arrangement for the Franco- German High Flux Reactor. (author) [French] Les resultats des experiences faites dans la maquette critique ALIZE III, refrigeree a l'eau legere et reflechie par l'eau lourde, ont ete compares aux calculs. On a utilise un modele de la theorie de diffusion a trois groupes rapides et epithermiques et deux groupes thermiques qui se recouvrent. Ce modele a permis de calculer la distribution de puissance dans le coeur en bon accord avec les mesures, meme dans le cas d'une forte variation du spectre des neutrons dans le coeur. L'erreur entre k{sub eff} calcule et mesure etait inferieure a 0,5 pour cent {delta}k/k. Le coefficient de vide et des materiaux de structure, la reactivite des barres 'noires', les variations du spectre (rapport Cd, rapport Pu/U) et la fraction des photo-neutrons retardes sont egalement calcules. Les mesures de reactivite et de perturbation de flux dans le reflecteur, dues aux canaux, ont ete interpretees du point de vue d'un arrangement optimum des canaux pour le Reacteur a Haut Flux Franco-Allemand. (auteur)

  3. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  4. Steam generators. English-German, German-English. Dampferzeuger. Englisch-Deutsch, Deutsch-Englisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, H D

    1986-01-01

    This pocket dictionary contains the most important technical terms relating to steam generators both in English-German and German-English. Part of the terms go with additional definitions or explanations. Furthermore numerous examples are presented to explain the underlying rules for the formation of word combinations. In addition, entries include a number of general terms, as experience shows that suitable equivalents for use in technical texts are often needed precisely by the specialist. (HAG).

  5. Practical experience with biodegradable biomass waste bags in several different German composting plants; Praxiserfahrungen zum Abbau kompostierbarer Bioabfallsaecke auf verschiedenen Kompostierungsanlagen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziermann, Andreas; Schmidt, Bettina [C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V., Straubing (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The study intended to find out how fast biodegradable biomass waste bags are degraded in practical conditions in composting and fermentation plants. The plants differ with regard to the processes employed; further, rotting times may be much shorter in practice than the twelve weeks requested by DIN EN 13432 and DIN EN 14995. For the study, plant types were selected that are practically relevant for biomass waste utilisation in Germany. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, herauszufinden, wie schnell kompostierbare Bioabfallsaecke unter Praxisbedingungen in verschiedenen Kompost- und Vergaerungsanlagentypen abgebaut werden. Zum einen bestehen teilweise grosse verfahrenstechnische Unterschiede zwischen den Anlagentypen, zum anderen sind die Rottezeiten in der Praxis zum Teil wesentlich kuerzer, als die in der DIN EN 13432 und DIN EN 14995 geforderten zwoelf Wochen. Fuer die Studie wurden Anlagentypen ausgewaehlt, die fuer die Verwertung von Bioabfaellen in Deutschland praxisrelevant sind. (orig.)

  6. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penslar, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  7. Attitudes Concerning Postmortem Organ Donation: A Multicenter Survey in Various German Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Constantin E; Böhringer, Daniel; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Seitz, Berthold; Schmidt, Hartmut

    2015-10-13

    The aim of this study was to characterize postmortem organ donation attitudes in various German cohorts. Employees of 2 German cities and 2 German university hospitals, employees of a German automobile enterprise, and members of a German Medical Society were administered a questionnaire about postmortem organ and tissue donation attitudes. Demographic data and general attitudes were questioned and focused on: I) willingness to donate organs, II) holding a donor card, and III) having discussed the topic with the family. Of 5291 participants, 65.2% reported favoring postmortem organ donation. Missing negative experiences, the idea that donation is helpful, a non-medical professional environment, excellent general health, gender, agreement with the brain-death paradigm, and age significantly influenced the participants' attitudes. Participants were more likely to possess donor cards and had discussed more often with family members if they agreed with the brain-death paradigm and considered donation to be helpful. Males and older participants were the most likely to neglect donor cards, and Catholics, Protestants, and participants with poor health were the least likely to donate organs. Interest in receiving more information was expressed by 38.1% and 50.6% of participants refusing donation of all or of specific organs, respectively, and suggested the internet (60.0%) and family doctors (35.0%) as preferred sources of information. Public campaigns in Germany should focus on males and older people as regards donor cards, and females, younger, and religiously affiliated persons as regards the general willingness to donate organs postmortem.

  8. German energy market 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Weltenergierat, Berlin

    2017-01-01

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [de

  9. German financial media's responsiveness to Deutsche Bank's cultural change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauß, N.

    2015-01-01

    Based on first-order and second-order agenda building theory, this study analyzes the responsiveness of German financial media to frames of the "cultural change" proclaimed in the banking industry, exemplified by Deutsche Bank. Findings suggest a difference between the two major German financial

  10. The Use of Film in Teaching German Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figge, Richard C.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the possibilities of teaching German culture through the medium of the fictional film are suggested. Brief descriptions are provided of German films found useful in communicating some aspect or problem of twentieth-century culture. A select bibliography of works containing extensive analyses and interpretations is provided. (SW)

  11. Benchmarking of urinary tract infection rates: experiences from the intensive care unit component of the German national nosocomial infections surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmeier, P; Behnke, M; Schwab, F; Geffers, C

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether surveillance of symptomatic catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) in intensive care units (ICUs) leads to reduced CAUTI rates. Data from the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS: Krankenhaus Infektions Surveillance Systems) from three starter periods were used for the analysis (1997-2000, 2001/2002, 2003 or later). For each period data from the first and third years of participation were compared. Pooled CAUTI rates were calculated by month of participation and a linear regression model was adapted. A total of 547 ICUs provided data to the KISS ICU component from January 1997 to June 2008. According to the study protocol 1966 symptomatic CAUTI cases from 267 ICUs were included in the analysis. When comparing the symptomatic CAUTI rates in the third and first years, the overall relative risk was 0.86 (0.77-0.96). A much smaller surveillance effect for CAUTI was observed compared with similar data for ventilator-associated pneumonia and primary bloodstream infections. A lack of awareness by many intensivists for CAUTI compared with the other two infection types may be responsible. Reducing symptomatic CAUTI is also possible however and including CAUTI in the overall ICU surveillance activities does not create a significant additional workload. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. German Idealism Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of essays provides an exemplary overwiew of the diversity and relevance of current scholarship on German Idealism. The importance of German Idealism for contemporary philosophy has recieved growing attention and acknowledgment throughout competing fields of contemporary philosophy...... scholarly debates beyond merely antiquarian perspectives. This renaissance has been a major factor of current efforts to bridge the gap between so-called "nalytic" and so-called "continental" philosophy. The volume provides a selection of readings that contributes to systematic treatments of philosophical...

  13. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  14. German Cinema as a Vehicle for Teaching Culture, Literature and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Annelise M.

    The use of German film in four instructional contexts, based on experiences in developing a university course, is discussed. One use is as part of a German culture course taught in German, emphasizing the role of film as a cultural statement of its time, intended to be either a social criticism or a propaganda tool. A second use is integration of…

  15. Retraining in Business German through the Goethe Institute in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gudrun; Schutte, Lilith

    A college language instructor recounts his experience in a retraining program in business German at the West Germany's Goethe Institute. Twenty-eight individuals from the United States and from five European countries participated in a program that offered (1) a 14-day immersion into business-related German, (2) establishment of German business…

  16. German precursor study: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Frey, W.; von Linden, J.; Reichart, G.

    1985-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the GRS by contract of the Federal Minister of Interior. The purpose of the study is to show how the application of system-analytic tools and especially of probabilistic methods on the Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and on other operating experience can support a deeper understanding of the safety-related importance of the events reported in reactor operation, the identification of possible weak points, and further conclusions to be drawn from the events. Additionally, the study aimed at a comparison of its results for the severe core damage frequency with those of the German Risk Study as far as this is possible and useful. The German Precursor Study is a plant-specific study. The reference plant is Biblis NPP with its very similar Units A and B, whereby the latter was also the reference plant for the German Risk Study

  17. Intercenter validation of a knowledge based model for automated planning of volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer. The experience of the German RapidPlan Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Schubert

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of a model-based optimisation process for volumetric modulated arc therapy applied to prostate cancer in a multicentric cooperative group. The RapidPlan (RP knowledge-based engine was tested for the planning of Volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc on prostate cancer patients. The study was conducted in the frame of the German RapidPlan Consortium (GRC.43 patients from one institute of the GRC were used to build and train a RP model. This was further shared with all members of the GRC plus an external site from a different country to increase the heterogeneity of the patient's sampling. An in silico multicentric validation of the model was performed at planning level by comparing RP against reference plans optimized according to institutional procedures. A total of 60 patients from 7 institutes were used.On average, the automated RP based plans resulted fully consistent with the manually optimised set with a modest tendency to improvement in the medium-to-high dose region. A per-site stratification allowed to identify different patterns of performance of the model with some organs at risk resulting better spared with the manual or with the automated approach but in all cases the RP data fulfilled the clinical acceptability requirements. Discrepancies in the performance were due to different contouring protocols or to different emphasis put in the optimization of the manual cases.The multicentric validation demonstrated that it was possible to satisfactorily optimize with the knowledge based model patients from all participating centres. In the presence of possibly significant differences in the contouring protocols, the automated plans, though acceptable and fulfilling the benchmark goals, might benefit from further fine tuning of the constraints. The study demonstrates that, at least for the case of prostate cancer patients, it is possibile to share models among different clinical institutes in a cooperative

  18. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  19. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  20. On German Unity 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    German Democratic Republic (GDR) acceded to the Federal Republic of .... living and the shortage of foreign exchange forced the government of the .... manded a great deal of empathy and care above and beyond the normal call of duty. ... The periods of service completed by conscripts in the NPA were set off against the.

  1. Storytelling and German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  2. The implications of the German Risk Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Koeberlein, K.

    1980-01-01

    The methods and results of the German Risk Study published in 1979 are summarized and its implications for reactor safety are discussed. It has led to suggestions that risk analysis should be more widely used for nuclear and other technological systems. It has also identified the need for specific system modifications and confirmed trends in safety research. (author)

  3. 'German Angst' vs 'Danish Easy Going'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    national lines. Whereas insecurity and its related fear and anxiety played a huge role in the German interviews (‘German Angst’), the Danish freelancers attached less importance to the topic of insecurity and showed almost no sign of related anxiety (‘Danish Easy-going’). Some reasons for this can be found...... in the different social security backgrounds and welfare state programmes of the two countries, but these differences cannot explain the very different ways of talking about and dealing with the topic. Therefore, I suggest that the differences can be understood in the context of trust as a multi...

  4. Music to Teach German By.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Leo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how music can be intergrated with regular lesson plans to teach German vocabulary, grammar, and history and to give insights into German culture. Also included are sources for basic background information, a list of recordings of the German music, and notes on selecting and presenting it in the language class. (SED)

  5. Teaching Controversal Topics in Contemporary German Culture through Hip-Hop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the rich cultural resources embedded with German hip-hop music and its potential impact on the foreign language classroom. In particular, this article suggests methods and materials for integrating German hip-hop music in the discussion of recent controversial cultural events and attitudes in German after the "Wende."

  6. Genesis and Evolution of the Romance-Germanic Language Border in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Durme, Luc

    2002-01-01

    Discusses various language border theories for the Belgian-Northern French area, and summarizes the results of 40 years of research into the development of the Romance-Germanic language border at large. Suggests that a late Roman Latin-Germanic opposition has functioned as a direct predisposition for the early medieval Romance-Germanic language…

  7. 'Combating' tropical diseases in the German colonial press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sílvio Marcus de Souza

    2013-03-01

    This article shows how much certain German language newspapers were a vehicule for reporting to the lay public on 'combating' tropical diseases. Through the press, immigrants and their descendents in Brazil were informed not only about the diseases which afflicted German colonists in Africa, but also about measures concerning sanitation, prophylaxis and experiments with tropical medicine, etc. Based on hemerographic sources, it shows how successful the overseas German communities were in sharing their experiences regarding health in tropical and/or sub-tropical regions.

  8. Epidemic microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis in very-low-birth weight infants: experience of the German Neonatal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Christoph; Faust, Kirstin; Avenarius, Stefan; Bohnhorst, Bettina; Emeis, Michael; Gebauer, Corinna; Groneck, Peter; Heitmann, Friedhelm; Hoehn, Thomas; Hubert, Mechthild; Kribs, Angela; Küster, Helmut; Laux, Reinhard; Mögel, Michael; Müller, Dirk; Olbertz, Dirk; Roll, Claudia; Siegel, Jens; Stein, Anja; Vochem, Matthias; Weller, Ursula; von der Wense, Axel; Wieg, Christian; Wintgens, Jürgen; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Simon, Arne; Herting, Egbert; Göpel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated blood culture-proven sepsis episodes occurring in microclusters in very-low-birth-weight infants born in the German Neonatal Network (GNN) during 2009-2010. Thirty-seven centers participated in GNN; 23 centers enrolled ≥50 VLBW infants in the study period. Data quality was approved by on-site monitoring. Microclusters of sepsis were defined as occurrence of at least two blood-culture proven sepsis events in different patients of one center within 3 months with the same bacterial species. For microcluster analysis, we selected sepsis episodes with typically cross-transmitted bacteria of high clinical significance including gram-negative rods and Enterococcus spp. In our cohort, 12/2110 (0.6%) infants were documented with an early-onset sepsis and 235 late-onset sepsis episodes (≥72 h of age) occurred in 203/2110 (9.6%) VLBW infants. In 182/235 (77.4%) late-onset sepsis episodes gram-positive bacteria were documented, while coagulase negative staphylococci were found to be the most predominant pathogens (48.5%, 95%CI: 42.01-55.01). Candida spp. and gram-negative bacilli caused 10/235 (4.3%, 95%CI: 1.68% -6.83%) and 43/235 (18.5%) late-onset sepsis episodes, respectively. Eleven microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis were detected in 7 hospitals involving a total 26 infants. 16/26 cluster patients suffered from Klebsiella spp. sepsis. The median time interval between the first patient's Klebsiella spp. sepsis and cluster cases was 14.1 days (interquartile range: 1-27 days). First patients in the cluster, their linked cases and sporadic sepsis events did not show significant differences in short term outcome parameters. Microclusters of infection are an important phenomenon for late-onset sepsis. Most gram-negative cluster infections occur within 30 days after the first patient was diagnosed and Klebsiella spp. play a major role. It is essential to monitor epidemic microclusters of sepsis in surveillance networks to adapt clinical practice

  9. Cross-linguistic vowel variation in trilingual speakers of Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jörg; Heeringa, Wilbert J; Schoormann, Heike E

    2017-08-01

    The present study compares the acoustic realization of Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German vowels by trilingual speakers in the Saterland. The Saterland is a rural municipality in northwestern Germany. It offers the unique opportunity to study trilingualism with languages that differ both by their vowel inventories and by external factors, such as their social status and the autonomy of their speech communities. The objective of the study was to examine whether the trilingual speakers differ in their acoustic realizations of vowel categories shared by the three languages and whether those differences can be interpreted as effects of either the differences in the vowel systems or of external factors. Monophthongs produced in a /hVt/ frame revealed that High German vowels show the most divergent realizations in terms of vowel duration and formant frequencies, whereas Saterland Frisian and Low German vowels show small differences. These findings suggest that vowels of different languages are likely to share the same phonological space when the speech communities largely overlap, as is the case with Saterland Frisian and Low German, but may resist convergence if at least one language is shared with a larger, monolingual speech community, as is the case with High German.

  10. Activation of the maternal caregiving system by childhood fever--a qualitative study of the experiences made by mothers with a German or a Turkish background in the care of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thorsten; Pfeifer, Miriam; Soenmez, Aynur; Kalitzkus, Vera; Wilm, Stefan; Schnepp, Wilfried

    2013-03-18

    Childhood fever represents a frequent cause to consult a primary care physician. "Fever phobia" describes a fearful and irrational view of fever shared by many parents with different cultural backgrounds. The study aims to explain the experiences of mothers of children having a fever and to analyze the role of the mothers' cultural background with regard to their experiences by comparing the accounts of mothers with a German with those from a Turkish background. Disease and context specific knowledge about the influence of culture can be important for effective counselling. We applied a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews with 11 mothers with a Turkish and 9 with a German background living in Germany. The interviews were conducted at the participants' homes from May to October 2008. Data was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Grounded Theory was used as a framing methodology including open, axial and selective coding. Analysis was performed in a group with members of different professional and cultural backgrounds. Mothers experienced their child's fever not merely as elevated temperature but as a potentially dangerous event. A deeply rooted urge to protect the child from harm was central to all participants' experience. The caregiving system model offers a good theoretical foundation to explain the findings as it incorporates the unique relational quality of care giving mothers to their children. The cultural background represents an important context variable influencing the explanatory models and strategies of dealing with fever. The identified culturally influenced concepts sometimes match and sometimes conflict with medical knowledge. By applying the caregiving system model which is a part of attachment theory (Bowlby) maternal actions can be understood as an understandable attempt to protect the child from harm. The mothers' decisions what to do when a child has a fever can be culturally influenced. This may lead either to a frequent use of

  11. Activation of the maternal caregiving system by childhood fever – a qualitative study of the experiences made by mothers with a German or a Turkish background in the care of their children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood fever represents a frequent cause to consult a primary care physician. “Fever phobia” describes a fearful and irrational view of fever shared by many parents with different cultural backgrounds. The study aims to explain the experiences of mothers of children having a fever and to analyze the role of the mothers’ cultural background with regard to their experiences by comparing the accounts of mothers with a German with those from a Turkish background. Disease and context specific knowledge about the influence of culture can be important for effective counselling. Methods We applied a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews with 11 mothers with a Turkish and 9 with a German background living in Germany. The interviews were conducted at the participants´ homes from May to October 2008. Data was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Grounded Theory was used as a framing methodology including open, axial and selective coding. Analysis was performed in a group with members of different professional and cultural backgrounds. Results Mothers experienced their child’s fever not merely as elevated temperature but as a potentially dangerous event. A deeply rooted urge to protect the child from harm was central to all participants’ experience. The caregiving system model offers a good theoretical foundation to explain the findings as it incorporates the unique relational quality of care giving mothers to their children. The cultural background represents an important context variable influencing the explanatory models and strategies of dealing with fever. The identified culturally influenced concepts sometimes match and sometimes conflict with medical knowledge. Conclusion By applying the caregiving system model which is a part of attachment theory (Bowlby) maternal actions can be understood as an understandable attempt to protect the child from harm. The mothers´ decisions what to do when a child has a fever can be culturally

  12. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  13. [Reaction time tests in Leipzig, Paris and Würzburg. The Franco-German history of a psychological experiment, 1890-1910].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroy, Jacqueline; Schmidgen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This article diiscusses from a comparative perspective the complex history of the reaction experiment with the Hipp chronoscope, one of the central experiments of late 19th-century psychology. It focuses on Wilhelm Wundt's (1832-1920) Institute for Experimental Psychology in Leipzig and on the Paris Laboratory for Physiological Psychology at the Sorbonne, which was initially directed by Henry Beaunis (1830-1921), but soon came to be dominated by the research activities of Alfred Binet (1857-1911). When the Paris psychologists founded their Laboratory in 1889, they took the Leipzig Institute as their model. In the early 1890s they adopted the reaction time experiment that had been central to Wundt's psychology. Shortly after, they modified this experiment according to their own specific interests. For Binet, it no longer served as a method for identifying the elementary components of "general" consciousness (as in Wundt), but for classifying "individual" personalities. The methodological and technological changes that Binet introduced into the experimental practice of psychology had no immediate impact on the research work in Leipzig. However, they influenced the "Wurzburg School" of psychology under Wundt's former assistant, Oswald Külpe (1862-1915). This illustrates that the comparative history of transfers of "experimental systems" (Rheinberger) across national borders is not simply a history of mere transports. Rather, it is a history of transferences that sometimes includes surprising "re-transferences".

  14. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  15. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  16. Markets for electric power. International experience and its applicability to German conditions. Maerkte fuer Strom. Internationale Erfahrungen und Uebertragbarkeit auf Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopfer, T; Schulz, W

    1993-01-01

    The electricity supply in all countries has traditionally been organised in enclosed supply areas (regional monopoly). During the worldwide trend of privatisation and deregulation, a process towards competitivity in the power supply of many countries has been started. In England and Norway, market fragmentation has been created in the power industry. Future markets are emerging. These developments have influenced considerations on creating an internal market for energy in Europe. The study illustrates the experiences of reform in other countries (e.g. England, Norway, USA) and discusses opportunities for competitiveness reforms in Germany and Europe. (orig.)

  17. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  18. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  19. Collective commitment for local bio energy projects. Motives and experiences of the initiators: An interview study of German renewable energy projects; Kollektives Engagement fuer kommunale Bioenergieprojekte. Motive und Erfahrungen der Initiatoren: Eine Interviewstudie deutschlandweiter erneuerbarer Energieprojekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehatschek, Anja

    2009-07-01

    With the help of a sustainable power production, local bio energy projects connect ecological, economic and social solutions for the climate protection and the environment protection, for the support of the agriculture and forestry as well as for living together in the rural area. Past investigations concern primarily consider the collective commitment and the effects of such projects on the population. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration is occupied with the acting of the initiators of the bio energy projects during the management of their tasks: Which conditions and motives of the initiators affect the conversion process? Under which conditions do the initiators arrive their goal? Which cognitive abilities, strategies of motivation and experiences particularly are important? For the qualitative investigation of these questions, five initiators of German local bio energy projects were interviewed. The results of these interviews are presented by means of paradigm models. It could be shown that both the person of the initiator and the relation of the person to the environment crucially contribute to the conversion of local bio energy projects.

  20. EGFR immunohistochemistry as biomarker for antibody-based therapy of squamous NSCLC - Experience from the first ring trial of the German Quality Assurance Initiative for Pathology (QuIP®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Iver; Dietel, Manfred; Geilenkeuser, Wolf J; Mireskandari, Masoud; Weichert, Wilko; Steiger, Katja; Scheel, Andreas H; Büttner, Reinhard; Schirmacher, Peter; Warth, Arne; Lasitschka, Felix; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Kirchner, Thomas; Reu, Simone; Kreipe, Hans; Länger, Florian; Tiemann, Markus; Schulte, Christoph; Jöhrens, Korinna

    2017-12-01

    EGFR and its downstream signaling pathway are important targets for cancer therapy. Recently, the monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody Necitumumab in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin was approved (EMA/14106/2016) for first-line treatment of squamous non-small cell carcinoma (SqNSCLC). Eligibility was restricted to cases with positive EGFR expression. In this context, a ring trial of the Quality Assurance Initiative for Pathology (QuIP ® ) was launched to prepare the German pathology community for a reliable and reproducible, immunohistochemically based biomarker test. The trial was set up by a three-step approach. Two lead institutes were nominated to organize the trial process and to select appropriate cancer samples. These were first tested by the H-score (range 0-300) to identify positive and negative cases. Seven additional pathology institutes with experience in EGFR immunohistochemistry each tested the selected panel of identical cases (internal ring trial) to confirm the suitability of samples and scoring criteria. Then the open ring trial for all institutes of pathology in German speaking countries was announced. For the internal trial 8 EGFR-positive and 2 negative lung sqNSCLC samples were selected. A cut-off value of cell membranous staining in≥1% of tumor cells was introduced to define a case as EGFR negative or positive. Two points were attainable per correctly assessed sample leading to a maximum of 20 points,≥18 points were required for a successful participation. All 7 panel institute passed this barrier, 5 with the maximum of 20 points and two with one error (18 points) being related to one case with incorrect interpretation of cytoplasmic versus membranous staining and one case with an H-score of 2 as being considered EGFR positive. A second cut-off value (H-score≥3) was therefore introduced. In the open ring trial, 34 institutions participated of which 28 were successful according to the above criteria. The trial revealed a high

  1. Control rooms in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper explains and illustrates the dissimilarity in design and equipment of control rooms in German NPPs, as well as a historical survey of the general principles and approaches applied in the evolution of control room technology, including backfitting activities. Experience obtained from daily operation as well training at the simulators is taken as a basis to formulate fundamental requirements for modification or novel design approaches. (orig./CB) [de

  2. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  3. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  4. Crystal chemistry of germanates: Characteristic structural features of Li,Ge-germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyushin, G.D.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    Crystallochemical classification of eleven compounds from the Li-germanate family is suggested. Depending on the set of the primary building units (PBU) (M-octahedra of the composition [GeO 6 ] and T-tetrahedra of the composition [GeO 4 ]) and the type of their 'condensation', these germanates are divided into three crystallochemical groups: framework MT-structures (four phases), condensed MT-structures (two phases), and tetrahedral T-condensed structures (five phases). The structural characteristics of the framework Li,Ge-germanates are considered, i.e., their symmetry, crystallographically independent sets of the primary building units, framework architecture, and the types of chains and layers of the (Ge,O)-radicals

  5. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  6. Quality of life in patients with recurrent breast cancer after second breast-conserving therapy in comparison with mastectomy: the German experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrian, Svenja; Steffens, Katharina; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Laakmann, Elena; Bergelt, Corinna; Witzel, Isabell

    2017-06-01

    Although some studies suggest that breast-conserving therapy (BCT) shows better psychosocial outcomes than mastectomy in patients with primary breast cancer, little is known about the outcomes of these surgical options in recurrent breast cancer. We investigated differences in overall survival and re-recurrence rates as well as psychosocial outcomes among patients who underwent BCT or mastectomy after the diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer in a single-center setting. 124 of 186 eligible patients who underwent surgical treatment for breast cancer recurrence completed the questionnaires on quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 and -BR23), fear of progression (PA-F-KF), anxiety and depression (HADS), and body image (BIS). Women after breast-conserving surgery (n = 46) showed significantly better outcomes than women after mastectomy (n = 61) with respect to body image (P quality of life were partnership (OR 2.46), higher monthly family income (OR 3.54), and higher professional qualification (OR 4.3) in our group of patients. Our results indicate that patients treated with breast-conserving therapy after recurrent breast cancer perceive lower impairments in body image and several aspects of quality of life than patients treated with mastectomy.

  7. Meaning in life experience at the end of life: validation of the Hindi version of the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation and a cross-cultural comparison between Indian and German palliative care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudla, Dorothea; Kujur, Julius; Tigga, Sumanti; Tirkey, Prakash; Rai, Punita; Fegg, Martin Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The experience of Meaning in Life (MiL) is a major protective factor against feelings of hopelessness and wishes for hastened death in palliative care (PC) patients. However, most instruments for MiL assessment have been developed only in Western countries so far. Little is known about MiL experience in Asian PC patients. This study aimed to provide a Hindi version of the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMiLE), test its feasibility and validity in Indian PC patients, and compare the results with previous studies in Germany. Indian PC patients in a hospice for the destitute were eligible to participate in this cross-sectional study. In the SMiLE instrument, respondents individually listed MiL-giving areas before rating their satisfaction with and importance of these areas. Overall indices of satisfaction (IoS, range 0-100), weighting (IoW, range 0-100), and weighted satisfaction (IoWS, range 0-100) were calculated. A Hindi forward-backward translation of the SMiLE was made. Two hundred fifty-eight Indian PC patients took part in the study (response rate 93.5%). Convergent validity of the SMiLE was found with the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief version (r = 0.17; P = 0.008) and the Idler Index of Religiosity (public religiousness: r = 0.25, P < 0.001 and private religiousness: r = 0.29, P < 0.001). Indian PC patients' IoW was 65.8 ± 22.1, IoS 68.6 ± 17.4, and IoWS 70.2 ± 17.0. In multivariate analyses of covariance, they differed significantly from German PC patients only in IoW (IoW: 84.8 ± 11.5, P < 0.001; IoS: 70.2 ± 19.7; IoWS: 72.0 ± 19.4). Compared with Germans, Indians more often listed spirituality (P < 0.001) and social commitment (P < 0.001) and less often social relations (P = 0.008). Preliminary results indicate good feasibility and validity of the Hindi version of the SMiLE. MiL experience also seems to be a coping resource for Indian PC patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice

  8. German atomic low meeting 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    2005-01-01

    The conference report on the German atomic law meeting 2004 contains 14 contributions on the German atomic legislation within four parts: Damage precaution in the operational phase; Legal general requirements for the final disposal - considerations ''de lege lata'' and ''de lege ferenda''. Financing of the site searching by a statutory company (''Verbandsmodell''). Atomic supervision authority - federal executive administration or federal self administration?

  9. Backlash against American psychology: an indigenous reconstruction of the history of German critical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research.

  10. Becoming German: Integration, Citizenship and Territorialization of Germanness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    understandings of integration and Germanness, this paper highlights the neglected aspect of the ascendance of Integrationspolitik since the turn of the century: namely how it superseded previous regime of completely bifurcated migration policy for "foreigners" on the one hand, and so-called "settlers" of German......, seen ever more as residing within its state territory rather than some diffuse cultural-linguistic space. Moving our understanding of Germanness beyond the "ethnic nationhood model" (Faist 2008), I argue thus that, in conjunction with the new citizenship law, the emergence of Integrationspolitik...

  11. Reciprocal influence? Investigating implicit frames in press releases and financial newspaper coverage during the German banking crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauß, N.; Vliegenthart, R.

    This study investigates the interrelation of implicit frames in press releases by the two largest German banks (Deutsche Bank, Commerzbank) and the German financial media from 2007 until 2013. Findings suggest that an increase in the salience of certain frames in press releases by German banks

  12. Making sense of the German Wikipedia community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Frank Jørgensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings from a qualitative study of the German Wikipedia community, focusing on how people engaged with Wikipedia make sense of norms, collaborative practices and means of regulation within the community. The study highlights the strong focus on the quality of the end-product (the encyclopedia in the German community, stressing that article quality is seen as more important than the wiki-process as such. As the community has grown, an increasing number of rules and mechanisms have been deployed to resolve various issues and conflicts, however the interviewees do not perceive Wikipedia as being bureaucratic, but rather describe it as a “rule-governed anarchy”. The findings suggest that people contribute for a variety of reasons, yet point to reactions from and interactions with fellow Wikipedians as one of the strongest motivational drivers for participation.

  13. Experience with transients in German NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindauer, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines reactor accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany based on the formal reporting system for licensee event reports (LERs) and a special investigation on all unplanned power variations in 3 PWRs. The significant transients experienced by BWR type reactors are analyzed. The main goal is to find weak points which caused the transient or influenced its course in an unfavorable way in order to improve the affected plant and others. The complete survey of all transients, with normally little or no safety relevance, allows statistical evaluations and the analysis of trends. It is concluded that significant transients were mainly experienced at older plants, whereas plants of an advanced design produced very few significant transients. The most frequent human errors which lead to transients are failure search in electronic systems and errors during design and commissioning

  14. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.

    1984-01-01

    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  15. Self-consumption. German experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This document presents, first, the definition and context of self-consumption (photovoltaic and cogeneration), then its profitability (regulation and financial incentive), next, the direct consumption by third parties, and finally, the opportunities and technical challenges

  16. How old are Germanic lambs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D.

    2017-01-01

    Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto-Germanic, an......Gothic and Gutnish lamb with the meaning ‘sheep’ sets these two languages apart from the rest of Germanic, and is the most common piece of evidence used to claim they share a close connection. Yet the same meaning is found in the descendants of Proto-Fennic *lambaz, a loan from Proto...

  17. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  18. Coolability of the melt in the reactor tank. A compilation and evaluation of the state of the art and suggestions for experiments in the area; Smaeltans kylbarhet i reaktortanken. En sammanstaellning och vaerdering av kunskapslaeget och foerslag till experiment inom omraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Ferenc [ES-konsult Energi och Saekerhet AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    This study is limited to experiments about phenomena and mechanisms that affect the coolability of core debris in the reactor tank that may delay the tank rupture. The goal of the study is to get an overview of the phenomena that are important for the in-vessel coolability, and to evaluate the need for new experiments. Both theoretical and experimental projects are suggested.

  19. The German model of capitalism and the persistence of outward foreign direct investment: evidence from German manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin T Bohl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of critique on the German model of capitalism in general, and German public policy in particular as to the ability to successfully adjust to rapid change and exogenous shocks in wake of economic globalisation, this paper investigates the degree of shock persistence in foreign direct investment (FDI of ten German manufacturing industries for the period 1976 to 2003. Theory on exports and non-FDI investment suggests that FDI should exhibit a considerable degree of shock persistence because they are subject to high sunk costs because of high entry and exit costs associated with the high level of asset specificity that is normally connected to FDI. Persistence in foreign direct investment time series data is established by applying various unit root tests. The results are robust to the potential presence of structural breaks in the data. The empirical analysis shows that German outward FDI in mature manufacturing industries, with one exception, exhibits a high degree of shock persistence. The results suggest, at least for mature German industries, that the sunk costs view on shock persistency is confirmed for outward FDI. The results furnish evidence for a tentative assessment of the relationship between German public policy and FDI strategies of multinational firms.

  20. German-Brazilian nuclear deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs

  1. Coursebook of German: Gender Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova

    2015-01-01

    The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the ...

  2. Interviewing German scientists on climate change. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungar, S. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Toronto Univ., Scarborough (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This study is based on in-depth interviews with 25 German scientists at the Coastal Research Institute of the GKSS-Forschungszentrum. It takes as its context the differential rhetoric and planning on climate change found in Germany and North America. The interviews try to throw light on the early German decision to address climate change, and to assess the current attitudes, beliefs and experiences of these German scientists. The results reveal a degree of complacency among these scientists, including a sense that Germany is not particularly threatened by climate change and has the capacity to adapt to it. The scientists are critical of inaction among the German population, but themselves uphold a ''light version'' of the precautionary principle. They have great difficulty translating the idea of climate change into popular metaphors that can be grasped by children. They strongly reject any link between German leadership on the issue as a result of a sense of guilt about the German past. (orig.)

  3. Intelligibility of Standard German and Low German to Speakers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.S.; Kürschner, Sebastian; van Bezooijen, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the intelligibility of spoken Low German and Standard German for speakers of Dutch. Two aspects are considered. First, the relative potential for intelligibility of the Low German variety of Bremen and the High German variety of Modern Standard German for speakers of Dutch is

  4. Globalisation and Its Impact on Competitiveness: the Case of the British and German Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Christel Lane; Jocelyn Probert

    2003-01-01

    This paper assesses the degree of financial and economic globalisation of British and German pharmaceutical companies during 1990 and 2001 and explores the changing balance between globalisation and national embeddedness. It tries to explain both the much lower degree of globalisation of German as compared to British companies in 1990, as well as their catching up at the beginning of the 21st century. The paper suggests that the lesser degree of globalisation of German firms during most of th...

  5. Deuterium incorporation experiments from (3R)- and (3S)-[3-2H]leucine into characteristic isoprenoidal lipid-core of halophilic archaea suggests the involvement of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Noriaki; Tanoue, Ryo

    2017-11-01

    The stereochemical reaction course for the two C-3 hydrogens of leucine to produce a characteristic isoprenoidal lipid in halophilic archaea was observed using incubation experiments with whole cell Halobacterium salinarum. Deuterium-labeled (3R)- and (3S)-[3- 2 H]leucine were freshly prepared as substrates from 2,3-epoxy-4-methyl-1-pentanol. Incorporation of deuterium from (3S)-[3- 2 H]leucine and loss of deuterium from (3R)-[3- 2 H]leucine in the lipid-core of H. salinarum was observed. Taken together with the results of our previous report, involving the incubation of chiral-labeled [5- 2 H]leucine, these results strongly suggested an involvement of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase in leucine conversion to isoprenoid lipid in halophilic archaea. The stereochemical course of the reaction (anti-elimination) might have been the same as that previously reported for mammalian enzyme reactions. Thus, these results suggested that branched amino acids were metabolized to mevalonate in archaea in a manner similar to other organisms.

  6. The importance of regional availability of health care for old age survival - Findings from German reunification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Tobias C.; Vaupel, James W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article investigates the importance of regional health care availability for old age survival. Using German reunification as a natural experiment, we show that spatial variation in health care in East Germany considerably influenced the convergence of East German life expectancy...... toward West German levels. METHOD: We apply cause-deleted life tables and continuous mortality decomposition for the years 1982-2007 to show how reductions in circulatory mortality among the elderly affected the East German catch-up in life expectancy. RESULTS: Improvements in remaining life expectancy...

  7. German risk study, phase B: Results of the event tree and fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the most important results of the level 1 analysis performed in Phase B of the German Risk Study and with the insights it provided. The question is raised, to what extent the results of risk analyses can be verified against available operating experience. In this respect the results of the German Risk Study will be compared with the estimates of the German Precursor Study. Finally, the results of the German investigations are briefly compared with the results of recent U.S. risk analyses. (orig.)

  8. East German medical aid to Nicaragua: the politics of solidarity between biomedicine and primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowy, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1989 the government of the German Democratic Republic provided health assistance to Sandinista Nicaragua. After initial relief aid, the Sandinista embrace of a primary health care-based health system made East German health support difficult. The non-convertible currency, the repressive quality of the East German leadership, and the lack of experience with primary health care processes all limited its potential to provide support. After 1985, when implementation of this system stalled, East German health assistance was revitalized with the donation of the Hospital Carlos Marx. Providing medical services to three hundred thousand people, it combined elements of a strictly East German institution, using German personnel and equipment, with some integration into local systems.

  9. East German medical aid to Nicaragua: the politics of solidarity between biomedicine and primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Borowy

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1979 and 1989 the government of the German Democratic Republic provided health assistance to Sandinista Nicaragua. After initial relief aid, the Sandinista embrace of a primary health care-based health system made East German health support difficult. The non-convertible currency, the repressive quality of the East German leadership, and the lack of experience with primary health care processes all limited its potential to provide support. After 1985, when implementation of this system stalled, East German health assistance was revitalized with the donation of the Hospital Carlos Marx. Providing medical services to three hundred thousand people, it combined elements of a strictly East German institution, using German personnel and equipment, with some integration into local systems.

  10. Swiss and German Ministers make a joint visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday, 23 May the German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan, and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, paid a joint visit to CERN. German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, with Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer and Jos Engelen. The Swiss and German ministers in front of the ATLAS experiment, accompanied by Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Jos Engelen and Peter Jenni. Director-General Robert Aymar gave the ministers a short introduction to CERN, which was followed by the signing of the Guest Book. Both ministers took the opportunity to go to Point 1 to visit the ATLAS experiment, guided by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and also the LHC tunnel.

  11. Control beliefs and health locus of control in Ugandan, German and migrated sub-Saharan African HIV infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milz, Ruth U; Husstedt, Ingo-W; Reichelt, Doris; Evers, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the influence of control beliefs on antiretroviral drug adherence in patients who migrated from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in health locus of control and control beliefs between HIV infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa with and without a lifetime experience of migration. A sample of 62 HIV infected consecutive patients referred to the HIV clinics at the University Hospital of Münster (Germany) and at the Rubaga Hospital Kampala (Uganda) were enrolled into this study. We compared three groups of patients: sub-Saharan African migrants, German patients, and local Ugandan patients. We used the German health and illness related control beliefs questionnaire (KKG), the Competence and control beliefs questionnaire (FKK), and the Powe Fatalism Inventory-HIV/AIDS-Version (PFI-HIV/AIDS-Version) and translated these scales into English and Luganda. In addition, the patients' sociodemographic, acculturation, clinical, and immunological data were registered. Significant results were shown in HIV related external locus of control between migrated sub-Saharan African and local Ugandan patients compared to German patients. General control beliefs showed no significant differences. In the PFI-HIV-Version, there was a significant difference between migrated sub-Saharan African and Ugandan patients compared to German patients. Our data suggest that the experience of migration does not influence the locus of control. Compared to German HIV patients, African patients in general showed a significantly higher external health locus of control which might have implications for drug adherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recoding Strategies of German Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treutlein, Anke; Schöler, Hermann; Landerl, Karin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether German learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) acquire additional recoding strategies that they do not need for recoding in the consistent German orthography. Based on the psycholinguistic grain size theory (Ziegler & Goswami, 2005) we expected students with little experience in EFL to use the same…

  13. A Comparative Study on Storytelling Perceptions of Chinese, Vietnamese, American, and German Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kate; Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel; Rank, Astrid; Wang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    The study compared the perceptions of adults from four countries about storytelling. Americans (N = 153), Germans (N = 163), Chinese (N = 324), and Vietnamese (N = 356) completed a survey. Americans' scores on measures of storytelling experiences were the highest overall. Americans and Germans reported having significantly more childhood…

  14. The Expertise in Working with Pedagogically Neglected Adolescents on the Example of German Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylypyk, Katherine N.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the attitudes of German scientists towards the levels and identification methods of pedagogical neglect. The experience of German scientists in self-development and skills' development of academic staff to conduct relationship with pedagogically neglected adolescents was studied for the first time. The aim of the study is to…

  15. What Can Chinese and German Children Tell Us about Their Learning and Play in Kindergarten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Hong Kong and German children's perceptions of play and learning and their relationships. Forty-eight children (24 German and 24 Chinese) playing and learning in the classroom were observed and videotaped for five consecutive days. They were interviewed 3 times about their kindergarten experiences by using free- and…

  16. Socio-cultural proximity, daily life and shopping tourism in the Dutch–German border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szytniewski, Bianca B.; Spierings, Bas; van der Velde, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses feelings of socio-cultural proximity and distance with a specific focus on the tourist experience in cross-border shopping and everyday life practices in border regions. We examined shopping practices of Dutch border crossers who visit the German town Kleve in the Dutch–German

  17. German contributions to the CMS computing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheurer, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS computing model anticipates various hierarchically linked tier centres to counter the challenges provided by the enormous amounts of data which will be collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN. During the past years, various computing exercises were performed to test the readiness of the computing infrastructure, the Grid middleware and the experiment's software for the startup of the LHC which took place in September 2008. In Germany, several tier sites are set up to allow for an efficient and reliable way to simulate possible physics processes as well as to reprocess, analyse and interpret the numerous stored collision events of the experiment. It will be shown that the German computing sites played an important role during the experiment's preparation phase and during data-taking of CMS and, therefore, scientific groups in Germany will be ready to compete for discoveries in this new era of particle physics. This presentation focuses on the German Tier-1 centre GridKa, located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the German CMS Tier-2 federation DESY/RWTH with installations at the University of Aachen and the research centre DESY. In addition, various local computing resources in Aachen, Hamburg and Karlsruhe are briefly introduced as well. It will be shown that an excellent cooperation between the different German institutions and physicists led to well established computing sites which cover all parts of the CMS computing model. Therefore, the following topics are discussed and the achieved goals and the gained knowledge are depicted: data management and distribution among the different tier sites, Grid-based Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 as well as Grid-based and locally submitted inhomogeneous user analyses at the Tier-3s. Another important task is to ensure a proper and reliable operation 24 hours a day, especially during the time of data-taking. For this purpose, the meta-monitoring tool 'HappyFace', which was

  18. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  20. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    the V° requirements or the V* requirements. Haider (1993, p. 62) and Koopman (1995), who also discuss such immobile verbs, only account for verbs with two prefix-like parts (e.g., German uraufführen ‘to perform (a play) for the first time' or Dutch herinvoeren ‘to reintroduce'), not for the more...... frequent type with only one prefix-like part (e.g., German bauchreden/Dutch buikspreken ‘to ventriloquize'). This analysis will try to account not only for the data discussed in Haider (1993) and Koopman (1995) but also for the following: - why immobile verbs include verbs with only one prefix-like part...... are immobile, - why such verbs are not found in Germanic VO-languages such as English and Scandinavian....

  1. The Legacy of Nazism and the History Curriculum in the East German Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Gregory P.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the Marxist-Leninist curriculum assumptions about history instruction in East German schools on the legacy of Nazism. Suggests that questions raised to legitimize history instruction for East German students are relevant for students in capitalist countries. Discusses Hitler's rise to power, Soviet contributions to defeat fascism,…

  2. Image of Europe from Abroad: The Pleasures and Pitfalls of Teaching German Cinema in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Jennifer Marston

    2006-01-01

    This article describes strategies specific to teaching German film courses at American universities, particularly how to capture the interest of students who have not studied film previously and have little understanding of German culture, history, or the language. I suggest starting with discussions on the interrelatedness of "foreign…

  3. What does germane load mean? An empirical contribution to the cognitive load theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debue, Nicolas; van de Leemput, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    While over the last decades, much attention has been paid to the mental workload in the field of human computer interactions, there is still a lack of consensus concerning the factors that generate it as well as the measurement methods that could reflect workload variations. Based on the multifactorial Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), our study aims to provide some food for thought about the subjective and objective measurement that can be used to disentangle the intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load. The purpose is to provide insight into the way cognitive load can explain how users' cognitive resources are allocated in the use of hypermedia, such as an online newspaper. A two-phase experiment has been conducted on the information retention from online news stories. Phase 1 (92 participants) examined the influence of multimedia content on performance as well as the relationships between cognitive loads and cognitive absorption. In Phase 2 (36 participants), eye-tracking data were collected in order to provide reliable and objective measures. Results confirmed that performance in information retention was impacted by the presence of multimedia content such as animations and pictures. The higher number of fixations on these animations suggests that users' attention could have been attracted by them. Results showed the expected opposite relationships between germane and extraneous load, a positive association between germane load and cognitive absorption and a non-linear association between intrinsic and germane load. The trends based on eye-tracking data analysis provide some interesting findings about the relationship between longer fixations, shorter saccades and cognitive load. Some issues are raised about the respective contribution of mean pupil diameter and Index of Cognitive Activity.

  4. Role of grammatical gender and semantics in German word production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigliocco, G.; Vinson, D.P.; Indefrey, P.; Levelt, W.J.M.; Hellwig, F.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic substitution errors (e.g., saying "arm" when "leg" is intended) are among the most common types of errors occurring during spontaneous speech. It has been shown that grammatical gender of German target nouns is preserved in the errors ( E. Marx, 1999). In 3 experiments, the authors explored

  5. Role of Grammatical Gender and Semantics in German Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P.; Indefrey, Peter; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Hellwig, Frauke

    2004-01-01

    Semantic substitution errors (e.g., saying "arm" when "leg" is intended) are among the most common types of errors occurring during spontaneous speech. It has been shown that grammatical gender of German target nouns is preserved in the errors (E. Mane, 1999). In 3 experiments, the authors explored different accounts of the grammatical gender…

  6. The Impact of Orthographic Consistency on German Spoken Word Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to find out whether sound-to-spelling consistency has an impact on German spoken word processing, and whether such an impact is different at different stages of reading development. Four groups of readers (school children in the second, third and fifth grades, and university students)…

  7. Discussions across Borders: A German-American Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiser, Pamela A.; Fuchs, Doris; Engelkamp, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on our experiences in a German-American partnership in internationalizing the curriculum. In a globalized world, engaging other cultures and identities as well as understanding global issues and events from other perspectives are important qualifications that allow students to gain different insights in political science. Yet,…

  8. Importance of core/concrete interactions for German risk investigations and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, J.; Hicken, E.F.; Friederichs, H.G.; Schroedl, E.

    1987-01-01

    The relevance of Molten Core Concrete Interactions (MCCI) for risk oriented investigations of German LWR-plants is evaluated. The problems of MCCI have been intensely investigated since the mid seventies in connection with the German Risk Study, Phase A and B on PWR plants of German design. Many examinations of both theoretical and experimental nature have led to the development of computer codes like WECHSL. The basis for verification is the internationally well accepted BETA experiment. Code WECHSL and the knowledge gained from the BETA experiment have been applied for the final investigations in German Risk Study, Phase B. Knowledge gained will be illustrated and its importance MCCI for German LWR-concepts will be shown

  9. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  10. LHCb brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. LHCb will study a phenomenon which could partly explain why the Universe is all matter and practically no antimatter.

  11. ALICE brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  12. LHCb brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. LHCb will study a phenomenon which could partly explain why the Universe is all matter and practically no antimatter.

  13. The effect of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic suggestibility, and goal intentions on adherence to medical instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Claudia; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving; Meo, Maria; Santandrea, Maura

    2008-04-01

    The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a significant interaction between suggestibility and the effects of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion enhanced adherence among high suggestible participants but lowered it among low suggestibles.

  14. Influences of Discriminatory Incidents on Immigrants’ Attitudes Toward German Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Döring

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a quantitative survey (N = 301 to evaluate the impact discriminatory incidents have on the attitudes of immigrants towards the majority society in Germany.The findings show that there is a strong relationship between experiences of discrimination and a hostile or alienated attitude towards German society. As an attempt to explain this generalization from single incidents to the macro relation between immigrants and autochthonous Germans in general a theory of framing, taken from developments in the field of rational choice theory, is applied. The reasoning is that a generalizing and rather hostile framing in terms of the attitude towards Germans can minimize psychic, emotional and social costs resulting from acts of discrimination.

  15. The Danish Press during the German Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...

  16. Classical Music at a German Inner-City School: The German Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra Bremen at Comprehensive School Bremen East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Musiol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The German Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra Bremen, a world famous orchestra for classical music, and the Comprehensive School Bremen East, a school in a deprived area, in North American terms an inner-city school, are cooperating since 2007. A three-year follow-up evaluation study was conducted to find out, if projects facilitated by the presence of the orchestra have a positive impact on the self-reported well-being and the grades of students. Results showed that involvement in the projects distinctly benefited boys: They experience a better class climate and a higher satisfaction with school as well as improved German grades.

  17. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  18. Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Correia Da Silva, L.

    2004-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows than UK and US firms.However, on a published profits basis, the pattern is reversed.Company law provisions and accounting policies account for these conflicting results.A partial adjustment model is used to estimate the implicit target

  19. The German radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Klaus; Neider, Rudolf

    1977-01-01

    The German Standards Institute (DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung, Berlin) is engaged in health physics standards development in the following committees. The Nuclear Standards Committee (NKe), which deals mainly with nuclear science and technology, the fuel cycle, and radiation protection techniques. The Radiology Standards Committee (FNR), whose responsibilities are traditionally the principles of radiation protection and dosimetry, applied medical dosimetry, and medical health physics. The German Electrotechnical Commission (DKE), which is concerned mostly with instrumentation standards. The Material Testing Committee (FNM), which is responsible for radiation protection in nonmedical radiography. The current body of over one hundred standards and draft standards was established to supplement the Federal German radiation protection legislation, because voluntary standards can deal in more detail with the specific practical problems. The number of standards is steadily expanding due to the vigorous efforts of about thirty working groups, consisting of essentially all leading German experts of this field. Work is supported by the industry and the Federal Government. A review of the present status and future plans, and of the international aspects with regard to European and world (ISO, etc.) standards will be presented

  20. Headstart German Program. Cultural Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This module provides cultural information that will be helpful to military personnel in understanding some aspects of the German way of life. The topics covered in the booklet are: housing, postal services, forms of address, courtesies, getting around, driving, hotels, restaurants, beer and wine, recreation, entertainment, health spas, shopping,…

  1. Moderne Sprache im Deutschunterricht (Modern Language in German Instruction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggimann, Ernst

    1965-01-01

    Several techniques are presented which were used to enliven secondary-school German instruction in Switzerland and to increase student interest and motivation. Classes listened to haiku, discussed the elements of the form, and then wrote their own haiku on suggested topics. A quasi-musical choral speaking performance was developed on poetry of…

  2. Cash Holdings and Leverage of German Listed Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marc Steffen; Killi, Andreas Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    We examine cash holdings and leverage levels of German listed (non-financial and non-utility) firms. We document a secular increase in cash ratios over the last twenty years (1992–2011), reducing the net debt book leverage ratio for the average sample firm close to zero. Using prediction models...... firms are associated with measures of uncertainty faced by firms. Our results suggest that German firms have increased (reduced) their cash (net debt leverage) levels over time in order to adopt more precautionary financial policies....

  3. Online sexual solicitation by adults and peers - Results from a population based German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenarova, Halina; Schulz, Anja; Schuhmann, Petya; Osterheider, Michael; Neutze, Janina

    2018-02-01

    Prevalence of Internet use among adolescents is high, but little is known about the online sexual activities of German adolescents. This study aimed to describe the 12-month prevalence of German adolescents' online sexual experiences with a focus on Online Sexual Solicitation (OSS, subjectively negative online sexual experiences with a peer or any sexual online experience, positive or negative, with an adult). A sample of male and female adolescents aged 14-17 (N=2238) was recruited using online survey panel. The sample was representative for gender and education. Subjects completed an online survey reporting their online sexual activities (i.e., sexual conversation, exchanging pictures, and cybersex) with peers (14-17y.) and/or adults (≥18y.). Findings illustrated that 51.3% (n=1148) of adolescents had experienced online sexual activity, which mostly involved peers (n=969; 84.4%). In contrast, 23.2% (n=519) of the adolescents experienced OSS with 2.6% (n=57) reporting subjectively negative online sexual interactions with peers and 22.2% (n=490) reporting online sexual interactions with adults, of which 10.4% (n=51) were perceived as negative. The findings suggest that adolescents frequently engage in sexual interactions on the Internet with only a relatively small number perceiving such contacts as exploitative. In addition, females and adolescents with incomplete family situation, foreign nationality, higher education, homo- or bisexual orientation, and those without perceived social support reported OSS significantly more often. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Excessive Profits of German Defense Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    its business unit Thyssen Krupp Marine Systems, is a German defense contractor. (2) Tognom AG Tognum AG owned the MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH before... Friedrichshafen provided engines for many ships of the German Navy and for German battle tanks, such as the Leopard I and Leopard II. MTU refers to the

  5. [German influences on Romanian medical terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Răcilă, R G; Răileanu, Irena; Rusu, V

    2008-01-01

    The medical terminology plays a key part both in the study of medicine as well as in its practice. Moreover, understanding the medical terms is important not only for the doctor but also for the patients who want to learn more about their condition. For these reasons we believe that the study of medical terminology is one of great interest. The aim of our paper was to evaluate the German linguistic and medical influences on the evolution of the Romanian medical terminology. Since the Romanian-German cultural contacts date back to the 12th century we had reasons to believe that the number of German medical words in Romanian would be significant. To our surprise, the Romanian language has very few German words and even less medical terms of German origin. However, when we searched the list of diseases coined after famous medical personalities, we found out that 26 % of them bore the names of German doctors and scientists. Taken together this proves that the German medical school played an important role on the evolution of Romanian medicine despite the fact that the Romanian vocabulary was slightly influenced by the German language. We explain this fact on the structural differences between the Romanian and German languages, which make it hard for German loans to be integrated in the Romanian lexis. In conclusion we state that the German influence on the Romanian medical terminology is weak despite the important contribution of the German medical school to the development of medical education and healthcare in Romania. Key

  6. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2017-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grades...

  7. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  8. Silent Film in the German Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, David

    In addition to using films in the German classroom to introduce students to German culture and history, it is important to show and study the film as film. This procedure emphasizes the importance of the film as a part of creative arts in Germany and demands student participation in observation and discussion. Many German silent films are…

  9. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lexical gaps and morphological decomposition: Evidence from German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Swetlana; Lahiri, Aditi

    2018-04-26

    On the evidence of four lexical-decision tasks in German, we examine speakers' sensitivity to internal morphological composition and abstract morphological rules during the processing of derived words, real and novel. In a lexical-decision task with delayed priming, speakers were presented with two-step derived nouns such as Heilung "healing" derived from the adjective heil "intact" via the verb heilen "to heal." These were compared with two sets of derived novel words, one with and the other without an intermediate verb; for example, *Spitzung "sharpening" from spitz "sharp" via spitzen "sharpen" (Experiment 1) and *Hübschung "beautifying" from hübsch "pretty" via *hübschen "beautify" (Experiment 2). The question was whether there would be a difference between the two types of novel words. Both sets were morphologically viable in terms of combinatory possibilities. Results indicated that extant and novel complex words activated their respective base forms; that is, Heilung, *Spitzung, *Hübschung all primed heil, spitz, hübsch. Both sets of novel words were then combined in a third (delayed priming) experiment, where again they primed their bases, but were nevertheless significantly different from each other. Items with real words in the intermediate position (*Spitzung) showed stronger priming effects. Controls that were only related in form or semantics did not prime; neither did structurally unviable pseudowords show priming. A final experiment (Experiment 4), comparing the two types of novel words (*Spitzung vs. *Hübschung) in a simple lexical-decision task, also revealed significant differences across these sets, suggesting that the lexical status of the intermediate derivation affects the processing of novel forms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A 10-Year Experience of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of Linezolid in a Hospital-wide Population of Patients Receiving Conventional Dosing: Is there Enough Evidence for Suggesting TDM in the Majority of Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea, Federico; Cojutti, Pier Giorgio; Baraldo, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to assess our 10-year experience of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of linezolid in a large patient population to establish whether conventional dosing may result in adequate drug exposure in the majority of patients. Patients included in this study underwent TDM of linezolid trough concentration (C min ) during treatment with conventional doses of 600 mg every 12 hr in the period between January 2007 and June 2016. The desired range of C min was set between 2 and 7 mg/L (underexposure, C min   7 mg/L). Multivariate logistic regression analysis investigated variables potentially correlated with linezolid C min . One thousand and forty-nine patients had 2484 linezolid C min assessed during treatment with conventional doses. Median (IQR) linezolid C min was 5.08 mg/L (2.78-8.52 mg/L). Linezolid C min was within the desired range in 50.8% of cases (1262/2484). Overexposure (n = 821; 33%) occurred much more frequently than underexposure (n = 401; 16.2%) and was severe (>20 mg/L) in 3.9% of cases (98/2484). Linezolid overexposure was significantly associated with CrCL C -G estimates ≤40 mL/min. (OR 1.463; 95% CI 1.124-1.904, p = 0.005). Linezolid underexposure was significantly associated with CrCL C -G estimates >100 mL/min. (OR 3.046; 95% CI 2.234-4.152, p Linezolid C min was not correlated linearly with CrCL C -G (R 2  = 0.061). Variability in renal function explained only partially the very wide interindividual linezolid C min variability. Our study suggests that TDM could represent a valuable approach in optimizing linezolid exposure in the majority of patients. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  12. Folktale and Folklore--Useful Cultural Tools for Teachers of German. ERIC Focus Reports on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gerhard H.

    German-American cultural contrasts and contrasts between different German regions are illustrated through reference to fairy tales, folk heroes, regional jokes and anecdotes. Examples of legendary figures, fairy tales, and jokes are provided with suggestions on their use to illuminate the German culture and subcultures. The footnotes provide…

  13. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  14. "We call it Springbok-German!": language contact in the German communities in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Varieties of German are spoken all over the world, some of which have been maintained for prolonged periods of time. As a result, these transplanted varieties often show traces of the ongoing language contact as specific to their particular context. This thesis explores one such transplanted German language variety – Springbok- German – as spoken by a small subset of German Lutherans in South Africa. Specifically, this study takes as its focus eight rural German communities acr...

  15. The German Economy and U.S.-German Economic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Should the SPD and The Left overcome existing differences, the grouping could represent a leftward shift in German politics. Alliance ’90 / The...and replaced it with less generous social assistance benefits already available to poor individuals, regardless of employment history . These changes...director at Volkswagen . 48Hans-Werner Sinn, Can Germany Be Saved?, p. 108. 49 Alister Miskimmon and Walter E. Paterson, “Conclusion: coping with the

  16. Motivations of German Hospice Volunteers: How Do They Compare to Nonhospice Volunteers and US Hospice Volunteers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R

    2016-03-01

    We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. German Value Set for the EQ-5D-5L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kristina; Graf von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a value set for EQ-5D-5L based on the societal preferences of the German population. As the first country to do so, the study design used the improved EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol 2.0 developed by the EuroQol Group, including a feedback module as internal validation and a quality control process that was missing in the first wave of EQ-5D-5L valuation studies. A representative sample of the general German population (n = 1158) was interviewed using a composite time trade-off and a discrete choice experiment under close quality control. Econometric modeling was used to estimate values for all 3125 possible health states described by EQ-5D-5L. The value set was based on a hybrid model including all available information from the composite time trade-off and discrete choice experiment valuations without any exclusions due to data issues. The final German value set was constructed from a combination of a conditional logit model for the discrete choice experiment data and a censored at -1 Tobit model for the composite time trade-off data, correcting for heteroskedasticity. The value set had logically consistent parameter estimates (p German version of EQ-5D-5L representing the preferences of the German population. The study successfully employed for the first time worldwide the improved protocol 2.0. The value set enables the use of the EQ-5D-5L instrument in economic evaluations and in clinical studies.

  18. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  19. German Phase B [risk study] highlights the role of [reactor] accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Phase B of the German probabilistic risk assessment study, now scheduled for publication this month, suggests that reactor accident management measures can prevent or mitigate about 90 per cent of event sequences. (author)

  20. THE INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF GERMAN-BRAZILIAN COMMUNITIES (PICADAS: THE COMMONS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Relly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of German immigration to Brazil knows just a little about the structures that animated social life in Germany before the process of immigration. Therefore, the americanização of the German-Brazilian settlers is considered solely from the perspective of the host society, creating a gap that needs to be filled in order to understand another dimension of German immigration, the European side and influence over it. In this sense, it is possible to perceive that generally the social origins of German-Brazilian settlers is linked to a village context experience, especially those who came from Western and Southwestern Germany. Historically these villages were social organizations able to control natural and economic resources under their jurisdictions with a great political and economic autonomy. The so called commons were a feature of the German agrarian history, and its institutions of participatory, mutual, protectionist, communal management had the effect to generate social capital, one social attribute that supported the formation of the German-Brazilian communities in Southern Brazil. Thus, the German-Brazilian communities were forged under a solid institutional tradition and under a substrate of social capital, facilitating the emergence of autonomous and cooperative behaviors that resulted on the communitarian structures and on the associativism phenomenon. The method was the analytical descriptive based on research in primary sources in Brazilian and German Archives.

  1. Electricity market liberalisation - the German model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the experience gained as a result of the opening of the German electricity market - not only from the national but also from European and international points of view. The history of electricity market liberalisation in Germany is described and the market's structure is compared with that of Switzerland. Both the advantages and disadvantages that have been brought about by liberalisation are discussed as well as the role of state regulation. Certain problem areas still to be tackled are discussed, such those in the areas of cartels, possibilities of supplier-change and tariffs. Also, liberalisation in the context of the European Union's efforts in this area are discussed, especially with respect to the consideration of differing structures in the various member countries of the Union

  2. Long memory in German energy price indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos P. [Lisbon Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Economia e Gestao; Caporale, Guglielmo Maria [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). Centre for Empirical Finance; Gil-Alana, Luis A. [Navarra Univ., Pamplona (Spain). Faculty of Economics and Business Administration

    2012-09-15

    This study examines the long-memory properties of German energy price indices (specifically, import and export prices, as well as producer and consumer prices) for hard coal, lignite, mineral oil and natural gas adopting a fractional integration modelling framework. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 2000 to August 2011. The results suggest nonstationary long memory in the series (with orders of integration equal to or higher than 1) when breaks are not allowed for. However, endogenous break tests indicate a single break in all series except for producer prices for lignite for which two breaks are detected. When such breaks are taken into account, and with autocorrelated disturbances, evidence of mean reversion is found in practically all cases.

  3. SPOKEN BAHASA INDONESIA BY GERMAN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Sudipa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the spoken ability for German students using Bahasa Indonesia (BI. They have studied it for six weeks in IBSN Program at Udayana University, Bali-Indonesia. The data was collected at the time the students sat for the mid-term oral test and was further analyzed with reference to the standard usage of BI. The result suggests that most students managed to express several concepts related to (1 LOCATION; (2 TIME; (3 TRANSPORT; (4 PURPOSE; (5 TRANSACTION; (6 IMPRESSION; (7 REASON; (8 FOOD AND BEVERAGE, and (9 NUMBER AND PERSON. The only problem few students might encounter is due to the influence from their own language system called interference, especially in word order.

  4. Work, Experience and Adult Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    A presentation and discussion of the theories of work, experience and adult education developed by the German philosopher and sociologist Oskar Negt.......A presentation and discussion of the theories of work, experience and adult education developed by the German philosopher and sociologist Oskar Negt....

  5. Dictionary for veterinary science and biosciences. German-English/English-German. With trilingual appendix: Latin terms. Woerterbuch fuer Veterinaermedizin und Biowissenschaften. Deutsch-Englisch/Englisch-Deutsch. Mit einem dreisprachigen Anhang: Lateinische Begriffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, R

    1988-01-01

    This dictionary has been compiled as a result of many years of experience of translating German texts in the biological sciences, particularly veterinary medicine. The author's aim is to supplement the standard German-English general dictionaries with technical terms in the fields of anatomy, microbiology, physiology, parasitology, pathology, pharmacology, toxicology and zootechnique, with special reference to domestic animals and their diseases.

  6. Fast breeder reactors: can we learn from experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1981-01-01

    An economic analysis of FBRs, in particular the long-term benefits to be expected, with reference to the experience of the West German fast breeder reactor programme suggests ways of bringing more realism into governmental decisions on the development of new reactor types. It is suggested that if reactor manufacturers and utilities financed commercial-size demonstration plants from their own funds, then the government would get more realistic advice. (U.K.)

  7. German Migrant Teachers in Australia: Insights into the Largest Cohort of Non-English Speaking Background Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this paper investigates the situation of German migrant teachers in Australia. Although German born teachers represent the largest group of non-English speaking background teachers in Australia, there is no study of the circumstances and experiences of these teachers in Australia. This study aims to fill this gap. It…

  8. Operational Art and the German 1918 Offensives

    OpenAIRE

    Zabecki, D T

    2009-01-01

    At the tactical level of war the Germans are widely regarded as having had the most innovative and proficient army of World War I. Likewise, many historians would agree that the Germans suffered from serious, if not fatal, shortcomings at the strategic level of war. It is at the middle level of warfare, the operational level, that the Germans seem to be the most difficult to evaluate. Although the operational was only fully accepted in the 1980s by many Western militaries as...

  9. Out of the German parliament into the German Museum?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieb, E.

    1989-01-01

    It is currently discussed whether the German Bundestag can deal with the interdepartmental problems of technology assessment with the Commissions of Inquiry on the one hand and whether it has adequate instruments available with the department-related standing Bundestag committees in order to deal with technology assessment. In its report the Commission of Inquiry for Technology Assessment of the past legislative period came to the conclusion that the US parliamentary advisory model which has been realized with OTA could, of course, not be transferred to the situation of the German Bundestag without hesitation, but that the Bundestag should also have a permanent scientific department staff with a sufficient number of personnel and material. The congress was to offer the possibility to discuss the problems of technology assessment with regard to this up-to-date background with experts and members of parliament of the various commissions of inquiry and commissions of the Bundestag which were summoned in order to judge essential technologies and also to solve the problem of the institutionalization of technology assessment. (orig./DG) [de

  10. Coursebook of German: Gender Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Valeryevna Filippova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article regards Aspekte 1 coursebook of German as a foreign language in the context of the gender policy initiated at the end of the last century by sociolinguists and by the representatives of the so called feminist criticism of the German language. This policy has been carried out up to date, and, according to many sociological and linguistic research, it is aimed at destructing gender stereotypes in teaching and reference materials. The use of this policy is conditioned by the fact that there is a problem of women discrimination in the textbooks, which provide classical gender stereotypes, where, in spite of modern social changes, women are still overrepresented in the private domain and underrepresented in the public sphere. Apart from that, gender stereotypes and gender asymmetry are embedded in the language, where the woman is often not referred to directly while the man is used in the generalizing meaning of "human". The gender asymmetry is reflected in the idioms as well. Nevertheless the analysis of modern coursebooks reveals both some changes in the presentation of women and men's occupations and in the language due to the usage of so-called "gender neutral" forms. The objective of our research lies in the linguistic analysis of the usage of the "gender neutral" forms as well as in the coursebooks on phraseology in order to find out gender asymmetries. In addition, the author focuses on gender stereotypes, men and women's behavioral patterns in different domains of life, and positive changes in the image of men and women represented in the Aspekte German coursebook.

  11. German Policy Towards Muslim Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila R. Sadykova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The past two-three decades can be characterized by the period of global migration and sharp jump of migratory streams is connected with globalization and with the economic factor, generating labor movement behind resources from Third World countries to the countries with deficiency of labor. The desire to receive comfort life becomes the major reason, and the migrant makes the decision being guided by private interest more often instead of external factors. Western Europe became one of the most important center of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war, laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Globalization of migratory streams, penetration of foreign culture groups into structure of accepting society and prevalence of multicultural, multiethnic societies are important characteristics of a modern era. Western Europe became one of the most important centers of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period, the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Special relevance the problem of reception of immigrants, in particular from the Muslim countries, got for the former colonial powers, in particular Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands. Germany also faced this problem; migrants workers from other countries were required for the post-war restoration. Now Germany still is one of the main centers of an attraction of migrants, and concentration of them in this country annually increases. Despite the steps taken by the German government on elimination of Muslim isolation in the German society, its efforts did not bear fruits so far. The majority of Muslims live their life and are still torn off from high life of the country. A possible threat of destruction of the German community appeared when the various ethnic groups

  12. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  13. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  14. German risk study of PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, first the status of German Risk Study is presented briefly. Specific reference is made to the investigations in Phase B of the study and related programs. Significant elements involved in the risk assessment for NPPs, mainly in the field of system and structural reliability analyses are mentioned. In particular, important outcomes and limiting facts in the process of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to evaluate the safety standard and above all the influence of individual components or subsystems on core melt frequency are discussed. (orig.)

  15. 63rd German radiological congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The book of abstracts contains abstracts of 171 papers read at the German Radiological Congress in Berlin as well as abstracts of two papers not read for lack of time. Further, there are 31 brief descriptions of the scientific exhibition. Subjects: Diagnosis of gall bladder diseases and inflammatory diseases of the large intestine; hyperthermia and irradiation in tumour therapy; nuclear methods in the diagnosis of growing and displacing processes, skeletal diseases, thromboses, embolisms, gastrointestinal and liver affections; new techniques and methods, diagnostics of the spinal tract; radiooncology; carcinoma of the ovaries; diagnostics and therapy of tumours of the lungs; computerized tomography; angiography; ultrasonic diagnosis. (MG) [de

  16. German Librarianship and Munich Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.

  17. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  18. What does germane load mean? An empirical contribution to the cognitive load theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eDebue

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While over the last decades, much attention has been paid to the mental workload in the field of human computer interactions, there is still a lack of consensus concerning the factors that generate it as well as the measurement methods that could reflect workload variations. Based on the multifactorial Cognitive Load Theory, our study aims to provide some food for thought about the subjective and objective measurement that can be used to disentangle the intrinsic, extraneous and germane load. The purpose is to provide insight into the way cognitive load can explain how users’ cognitive resources are allocated in the use of hypermedia, such as an online newspaper. A two-phase experiment has been conducted on the information retention from online news stories. Phase 1 (92 participants examined the influence of multimedia content on performance as well as the relationships between cognitive loads and cognitive absorption. In Phase 2 (36 participants, eye-tracking data were collected in order to provide reliable and objective measures. Results confirmed that performance in information retention was impacted by the presence of multimedia content such as animations and pictures. The higher number of fixations on these animations suggests that users’ attention could have been attracted by them. Results showed the expected opposite relationships between Germane and Extraneous Load, a positive association between GL and cognitive absorption and a nonlinear association between Intrinsic and Germane Load. The trends based on eye-tracking data analysis provide some interesting findings about the relationships between longer fixations, shorter saccades and cognitive load. Some issues are raised about the respective contribution of mean pupil diameter and Index of Cognitive Activity.

  19. A German catastrophe? German historians and the Allied bombings, 1945-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Benda-Beckmann, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    As one of the major symbols of German suffering, the Allied bombing war left a strong imprint on German society. To a much wider extent than is often claimed, the Allied bombings became part of German debates on the Second World War. In both the GDR as well as the Federal Republic before and after

  20. The International Heat Pipe Experiment. [international cooperation zero g experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, R.; Ollendorf, S.; Harwell, W.

    1976-01-01

    The aims of the experiment are outlined. Flight experiments included in this program were provided by NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, ESA (European Space Agency), the German Ministry of Technology, Hughes Aircraft Company and NASA, Ames Research Center.

  1. French pollution and German lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that the German energy transition is based on a complete shutting down of nuclear power stations to replace them by renewable energy sources on the one hand, and by coal (lignite, i.e. the dirtiest coal) and gas on the other hand to compensate the intermittency of the former ones, this article notices that pollution peaks occurred in France when an eastern of north-eastern wind was blowing, and not in case of western wind. The author then wanders whether this pollution comes from Germany, and more particularly from the releases of lignite-fuelled power stations. Then, the author comments the high level of pollution associated with coal extraction and exploitation in Germany, causing thousands of deaths and resulting in lung diseases or cancers, myocardial infractions. The author then makes a parallel between, on the one hand, the ignorance of this German pollution and, on the other hand, evacuation measures around Fukushima for a radioactivity which the author considers as less dangerous in terms of life expectancy

  2. Zur Darstellung von Synchronie und Diachronie des Vokalismus im Deutschen (On the Synchronic and Diachronic Representation of Vocalization in German)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Peter

    1974-01-01

    A combination matrix could be very useful to illustrate the synchronic and diachronic representation of German diphthongs. Examples are provided. It is further suggested that such a matrix could be utilized for phonological research in the areas of historical linguistics, sociolinguistics and dialectology. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  3. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  4. Experience of German Red Cross blood donor services with nucleic acid testing: results of screening more than 30 million blood donations for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourfar, Michael K; Jork, Christine; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Weber-Schehl, Marijke; Brixner, Veronika; Busch, Michael P; Geusendam, Geert; Gubbe, Knut; Mahnhardt, Christina; Mayr-Wohlfart, Uschi; Pichl, Lutz; Roth, W Kurt; Schmidt, Michael; Seifried, Erhard; Wright, David J

    2008-08-01

    The risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections is predominantly attributable to donations given during the early stage of infection when diagnostic tests may fail. In 1997, nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-testing was introduced at the German Red Cross (GRC) blood donor services to reduce this diagnostic window period (WP). A total of 31,524,571 blood donations collected from 1997 through 2005 were screened by minipool NAT, predominantly with pool sizes of 96 donations. These donations cover approximately 80 percent of all the blood collected in Germany during that period. Based on these data, the WP risk in the GRC blood donor population was estimated by using a state-of-the-art mathematic model. During the observation period, 23 HCV, 7 HIV-1, and 43 HBV NAT-only-positive donations were detected. On the basis of these data and estimated pre-NAT infectious WPs, the residual risk per unit transfused was estimated at 1 in 10.88 million for HCV (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.51-19.72 million), 1 in 4.30 million for HIV-1 (95% CI, 2.39-21.37 million), and 1 in 360,000 for HBV (95% CI, 0.19-3.36 million). Based on observed cases of breakthrough infections, the risk of transfusion-related infections may be even lower. The risk of a blood recipient becoming infected with HCV, HIV-1, or HBV has reached an extremely low level. Introduction of individual donation testing for HCV and HIV-1 would have a marginal effect on interception of WP donations.

  5. Sustainable Civil-Society Engagement: Potentials of a Transnational Civil Society in French-German, Polish-German, and Czech-German Border Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Boehnke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on representative survey data, the present study examines potentials for the sustainable development of a transnational civil society in French-German, Polish-German, and Czech-German border regions. The theoretical framework is a social capital approach in the tradition of Putnam. Transnational engagement is seen as a key element for the development of a border-crossing civil society. For the analysis, existing forms of social capital were classified according to their bridging and bonding functions and the potentials of local and transnational activities are described. Furthermore, using multilevel analysis, the predictive power of different variables like individual dispositions and specific contexts of the regions on cross-border activities are examined. Descriptively, the expected lower level of local civil-society engagement, in general, and also with regard to the transnational activities was found for post-socialist border regions. It is shown that, first and foremost, existing experience in civil-society engagement in the local context is a high-impact predictor for both transnational activities and an interest in such activities. Other variables like feelings of a historical burden or the economic situation of the region are less important.

  6. The Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published

  7. The Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published earnings as

  8. German Schools Abroad: Hotspots of Elite Multilingualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…

  9. Massive job cuts threaten East German science

    CERN Multimedia

    Hamer, M

    1990-01-01

    German reunification could result in thousands of scientists losing their jobs. At the end of this year the East German state budget for science will run out. Scientists in the East are keen to find Western support to protect their research (1 page).

  10. Lexical Reading in Dysfluent Readers of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Melanie; Moll, Kristina; Jones, Manon W.; Banfi, Chiara; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Landerl, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Dyslexia in consistent orthographies like German is characterized by dysfluent reading, which is often assumed to result from failure to build up an orthographic lexicon and overreliance on decoding. However, earlier evidence indicates effects of lexical processing at least in some German dyslexic readers. We investigated variations in reading…

  11. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  12. DIMA – Annotation guidelines for German intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kügler, Frank; Smolibocki, Bernadett; Arnold, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents newly developed guidelines for prosodic annotation of German as a consensus system agreed upon by German intonologists. The DIMA system is rooted in the framework of autosegmental-metrical phonology. One important goal of the consensus is to make exchanging data between groups...

  13. Teaching German Culture: An Alternative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Maruta L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a college course on German culture in which the criterion for the inclusion of any topic in the syllabus is its mention--preferably recurrent--in the German press. Additional emphasis is placed upon the historical background of the current events. Classes are a combination of films, lectures, discussions, and student reports. (SED)

  14. Suggestibility, Dissociation and Positive Schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Barkus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Partimos de una muestra de 94 participantes, seleccionados de la muestra de referencia de 1206 personas que ya habían participado en un estudio que valoraba la estructura factorial del Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE. Estas 94 personas fueron asignadas en grupos diferenciados en términos de bajo, moderado o altos niveles de esquizotipia positiva. Todos completaron también la Escala de Experiencias Disociativas (DES y el Inventario de Sugestionabilidad (IOS. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el aumento de los niveles informados de las experiencias disociativas y mayor sugestionabilidad, ambos, de forma independiente, predicen puntuaciones más altas de la esquizotipia positiva, pero la sugestión parece ser un predictor más potente que la disociación.

  15. Results of German support programme to implement the UN FCCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liptow, H. [GTZ, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of German efforts in support of implementing the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Following the Rio conference, the task of supporting outreach efforts was given to the GTZ since that is its general function, and within the context of German Technical Co-operation (TC), a program was implemented. Their initial effort was directed at helping implement inventory studies in target countries, including studies of options for reducing emissions. Once a level of information and factual knowledge was in place, they presented the type of technical support which Germany could offer in meeting the needs envisioned to achieve reduced emissions, in the form of technical co-operation. Experiences are discussed for the cases of a number of different participating countries.

  16. Application of LOD Technology in German Libraries and Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] Linked Open Data (LOD has been widely used in large industries, as well as non-profit organizations and government organizations. Libraries and archives are ones of the early adopters of LOD technology. Libraries and archives promote the development of LOD. Germany is one of the developed countries in the libraries and archives industry, and there are many successful cases about the application of LOD in the libraries and archives. [Method/process] This paper analyzed the successful application of LOD technology in German libraries and archives by using the methods of document investigation, network survey and content analysis. [Result/conclusion] These cases reveal in the traditional field of computer science the relationship among research topics related to libraries and archives such as artificial intelligence, database and knowledge discovery. Summing up the characteristics and experience of German practice can provide more reference value for the development of relevant practice in China.

  17. German versus Nordic Board Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Board structure is an important component of the individual governance of firms, and the appropriateness of the various models is one of the most debated issues in corporate governance today. A comparison of the Nordic and German approaches to the structure of corporate boards reveals stark...... conceptual differences, as emphasized by the 2014 Lekvall Report on the Nordic Corporate Governance Model. This article provides a conceptual comparison between the two approaches to board structure and confirms the fundamental divergence between both models. However, relying on a number of recent legal...... changes and developments in business practice, the article argues that board practices in the two systems effectively blur the structural distinction, and that board organization is converging in practice. It thereby contributes to the broader debates on functionality and comparative corporate law...

  18. German standard problem No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, R.

    1980-02-01

    The German Standard Problem Nr. 2 (primary circuits) is meant to check whether the presently available computing programs dealing with ECCS problems are suitable to reflect with sufficient accuracy reload and flooding processes. Changing from conventional calculation methods to the ''best-estimate'' method requires for possibility of exact comparison, as is the case here because of experimental results from the primary circuit test plant. The test plant of KWU Erlangen with primary circuit modeups on a 1:134 scale with exact level indications allows comparative testing where emergency cooling water is loaded into the system filled with saturated steam over cold lanes, or rather over the annulus modeup. The report on hand goes into detail about calculations, anticipated results and their comparison to experimental results. (orig./RW) [de

  19. German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groeters, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    "German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges" examines the institutional education of German General Staff Officers, as experienced by the author, and offers a "Conceptual Competency...

  20. The use of radioactive materials in German schools. Obstacles and chances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlbruch, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    The basics for the understanding of radioactivity and radioprotection are set in the secondary school. Therefore the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association already is trying to support the appropriate teaching of relevant topics in school for a long time. Unfortunately experiments with radioactive material are hampered in Germany by complex and confusing legislation. In this contribution the framework is described which is given by the German legislation for the use of radioactive sources in secondary schools. Additionally proposals for different simple experiments with radioactivity are presented which can be easily implemented in teaching and alternative methods are introduced like e.g. virtual experiments.

  1. Neural correlates of semantic and syntactic processes in the comprehension of case marked pronouns: Evidence from German and Dutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer Anke

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that both semantic and syntactic information play a role in pronoun resolution in sentences. However, it is unclear what the relative contribution of these sources of information is for the establishment of a coreferential relationship between the pronoun and the antecedent in combination with a local structural case constraint on the pronoun (i.e. case assignment of a pronoun under preposition governing. In a prepositional phrase in German and Dutch, it is the preposition that assigns case to the pronoun. Furthermore, in these languages different overtly case-marked pronouns are used to refer to male and female persons. Thus, one can manipulate biological/syntactic gender features separately from case marking features. The major aim of this study was to determine what the influence of gender information in combination with a local structural case constraint is on the processing of a personal pronoun in a sentence. Event-related brain potential (ERP experiments were performed in German and in Dutch. In a word by word sentence reading study in German and Dutch, gender congruency between the antecedent and the pronoun was manipulated and/or case assignment by the preposition was violated while ERPs of young native speakers were recorded. Results The German and the Dutch ERP data showed an enlarged negativity broadly distributed starting approximately 350 ms after onset of the pronoun followed by a late positivity for gender violations. For syntactic incongruencies without gender violations only a positivity was present. The Dutch data showed an earlier onset of the positivity in comparison to German. Conclusion Finding negativities and positivities for conditions with a gender violation indicates that pronoun resolution with gender incongruency between the pronoun and the antecedent suffers from semantic as well as syntactic integration problems. The presence of a positivity for the syntactically incongruent

  2. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Mobbing Experiences of Instructors: Causes, Results, and Solution Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Cevat; Konakli, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible mobbing problems in universities, their causes and results, and to attract attention to precautions that can be taken. Phenomenology as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the study. Sample group of the study was selected through the criteria sampling method and eight instructors…

  4. Understanding the Experiences of Women in Jazz: A Suggested Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has long been recognized as a male-dominated field, with females traditionally having only limited acceptance, often in the roles of singer and pianist. Researchers have explored sources of the gender imbalance in the field of jazz and jazz education, but there is no theory or framework to organize such findings. This directed content…

  5. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  6. The Effect of Blog Use on Self-Regulatory Learning of Prospective German Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan Yucel, Mukadder

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of blog use on self-regulatory learning of prospective German language teachers. The study is semi-experimental. Pretest-posttest, experiment control model was used. Blog activities were conducted as extensive beyond classroom activities only for the experiment group. As the data collection tool…

  7. The Strategic Challenge of Capacity for German Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomauske, Bruno; Moloney, Barry; Charlier, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Experience of decommissioning across the world has allowed the nuclear industry to develop and enhance most of the technologies required for safe and efficient dismantling of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). One strategic challenge confronting the industry now is how to scale up implementation to address the burgeoning demand for dismantling of full size NPPs during the period 2016-2040. The German decommissioning programme will provide early evidence of whether the European industry can rise to this strategic challenge. It is widely reported in the media that German utilities will spend some Euro 30-40 Bn decommissioning NPPs during the next 25 years. In total, 22 NPPs will progress through the typical three stage programme encompassing post operations, dismantling and site clearance, with a peak occurring in the 2020's. Politically, immediate dismantling is strongly preferred as the strategy for the NPPs, so there will be a surge in decommissioning expenditure starting as soon as 2017. A critical issue is whether the German nuclear industry has sufficient capacity to deliver the programme, and where utilities may seek participation by other European companies. Innovation may be required, perhaps at a non-technical level. The circumstances of the German market require a thorough understanding. While the market is apparently open and receptive to international participation, three factors make it hard for foreign companies to penetrate. The political and regulatory environment is tough and for many foreign companies difficult to understand quickly. Utilities are mostly pursuing self-perform decommissioning strategies to preserve employment for their skilled workforce, limiting scope for some contractors. Finally, an innovative and highly experienced German nuclear industry can present formidable competition. Yet, this industry does not possess all the capacity needed for the utilities' programmes. Risks for new entrants can

  8. German energy market 2014; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Energie fuer Deutschland'

    2015-03-15

    In 2014 the German government's primary goal of engaging German power suppliers to step up their production of renewable energy while speeding up energy efficiency improvement measures continued to dominate the debate. The present article provides an updated overview of the German energy market. Following on from last year's edition it gives a condensed synopsis of key indicators of the energy economy. Besides summarising general facts about the energy mix it goes into detail about the following individual energy resources: crude oil, natural gas, brown coal, hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. It also explains current price trends in both the international and domestic markets.

  9. Comparison between Dutch and German buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lony, R.J.M.; Molenaar, D.J.; Rietkerk, J.; Schuiling, D.J.B.W.; Zeiler, W. [TU/e, Univ. of Technology Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brunk, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    German buildings are often seen as an example to Dutch architects and Dutch building services consultants. Goal of this article is to examine and to understand differences between the Dutch and German top office buildings. Objective is to examine to which extent these buildings were designed intelligently. An Intelligent Building is one that provides a productive cost effective environment through the optimisation of six basic elements; site, skin, systems, structures, services, space plan and staff and the interrelationship between them. Based on these six aspects the comparison is made between Dutch and German buildings. (orig.)

  10. German causative events with placement verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Knop Sabine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have described the semantic uses of German posture verbs, but only few have dealt with German placement verbs. The present study wants to make up for this gap. Starting from a collection of examples from the core corpora of the Digitales Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (DWDS and some former studies on posture verbs, it first describes the variety of the most common German placement verbs stellen (‘to put upright’, legen (‘to lay down’, setzen (‘to set’ and stecken (‘to stick’.

  11. The German REACH Congress 2016: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihlen, Antonia; Jepsen, Dirk; Broschinski, Lutz; Luch, Andreas; Schulte, Agnes

    2018-03-01

    In October 2016, the German REACH Congress was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. Here, the associated improvement made in the fields of consumer protection and the progress in and experiences gained from the implementation of the authorisation procedure were discussed. Several speakers from EU institutions, German authorities, industry, and civil society organisations were invited to present their views. There was a shared consensus that REACH contributes to the advancement of consumer protection against chemical risks, mainly because more and higher quality information on substance-related hazards and potential exposures becomes available. In addition, risk management measures, particularly regarding restrictions on uses, scale down consumer exposures to chemicals. Opportunities for improvements identified at the congress include the quality of registration dossiers and the management of and communication on substances of very high concern (SVHC) that may be present in consumer articles. Although regarded as being in an early implementation phase, the authorisation process was generally found to be operational and progressing well. Criticism was expressed with regard to the consistency of authorisation decisions and the costs and uncertainties related to authorisation applications. Consumer protection legislation consists of several legal provisions which are interlinked. The congress participants agreed that REACH is an important element of this legal framework as it enhances and complements other legal provisions.

  12. Jehovah's Witness patients within the German medical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Blood transfusions belong to standard and commonly utilised biomedical procedures. Jehovah's Witnesses' transfusion refusals are often referred to in bioethical and medical textbooks. Members of this globally active religious organisation do not, however, challenge biomedical diagnosis and treatment as such. A result of both their trust in and their interpretation of the Bible, they question only this medical treatment. In spite of the global presence of this religious community and its uniformly practised teachings, including those pertaining to blood, experiences and choices of Jehovah's Witness patients have been understudied. Drawing on a nine-month fieldwork with Jehovah's Witnesses and physicians in Germany (mainly in Berlin) between 2010 and 2012, the paper addresses treatment choices made by Witness patients and their relationship with physicians. In light of the long tradition of 'medical heterodoxy' established in German culture and society, Germany constitutes an ideal point of departure for such a study. By utilising the concept of 'medical landscape' it is argued that Jehovah's Witnesses in my field site find themselves at the intersection of different medical landscapes: in the 'immediate' surroundings of the German healthcare system that is open to different 'treatment modalities', and that of the United States, which favours biomedicine. The paper also argues that Jehovah's Witnesses' position towards blood transfusions can further be used as a lens to shed light on the German (bio)medical landscape itself.

  13. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  14. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  15. USA: German in the Changing Landscape of Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlock, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies recent indicators of the state of German Studies in the United States with special attention to postsecondary enrollments in German. It additionally reviews challenges to the postsecondary teaching of German as they manifest themselves both locally and nationally, including the positioning of German Studies in the life of…

  16. Genetic drift. Overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-03-01

    An overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine brings together a group of subjects discussed separately elsewhere. Topics considered include German medicine before and during the Nazi era, such as advanced concepts in epidemiology, preventive medicine, public health policy, screening programs, occupational health laws, compensation for certain medical conditions, and two remarkable guidelines for informed consent for medical procedures; also considered are the Nuremberg Code; American models for early Nazi programs, including compulsory sterilization, abusive medical experiments on prison inmates, and discrimination against black people; two ironies in US and Nazi laws; social Darwinism and racial hygiene; complicity of Nazi physicians, including the acts of sterilization, human experimentation, and genocide; Nazi persecution of Jewish physicians; eponyms of unethical German physicians with particular emphasis on Reiter, Hallervorden, and Pernkopf; eponyms of famous physicians who were Nazi victims, including Pick and van Creveld; and finally, a recommendation for convening an international committee of physicians and ethicists to deal with five issues: (a) to propose alternative names for eponyms of physicians who exhibited complicity during the Nazi era; (b) to honor the eponyms and stories of physicians who were victims of Nazi atrocities and genocide; (c) to apply vigorous pressure to those German and Austrian Institutes that have not yet undertaken investigations to determine if the bodies of Nazi victims remain in their collections; (d) to recommend holding annual commemorations in medical schools and research institutes worldwide to remember and to reflect on the victims of compromised medical practice, particularly, but not exclusively, during the Nazi era because atrocities and acts of genocide have occurred elsewhere; and (e) to examine the influence of any political ideology that compromises the practice of medicine. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  17. NPPCI - topics in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegenbein, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes research and development activities in the field of computerized operator support systems, self-powered detectors, boiling diagnostic and loose part detection systems in the German Democratic Republic

  18. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  19. Approaching German Culture: A Tentative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Royal; Woloshin, David

    1974-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the five universal problems of cultural orientation: 1) human nature, 2) social relations, 3) man and nature, 4) time, 5) space, as they are reflected in German and American culture. (PP)

  20. German approach to VLLW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecking, D.

    1997-01-01

    Waste generated in German nuclear facilities is exhaustively and selectively manage through a system adapted to the waste's characteristics. The management of the waste ensures that the impact on the workers, population and the environment is acceptable. This is done through a detailed documentation and quality assurance program which applies not only to radioactive waste but also to cleanable material used within a licensed practice. In Germany the producer is responsible for the waste generated in a licensed facility and is therefore responsible for the correct disposal, which depends on the waste's characteristics. Since the waste producer requires a license for all activities involving radioactive substances, the atomic authority is continuously informed and can therefore monitor the producer for compliance with the regulations. The use and disposal of all material in a licensed practice is documented and can therefore be traced by the authorities. Clearance is seen in Germany as the best way of managing non-radioactive material in a licensed practice. Germany has developed clearance procedures which guarantee that after clearance the radiological impact is negligible. (author)

  1. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  2. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative 'Nanotechnologie erobert Maerkte' (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society

  3. Franco-German nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leny, J.C.; Huettl, A.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear energy is the number one power source in the European Union. However, the first generation units would be replaced from the year 2010 onwards. In this prospect, Siemens and Framatome have drawn together in designing and commercializing a common product initially destined for the export market which has become the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project. The two companies have floated with equal participation the NPI (Nuclear Power International) sub-company to manage this project. The French and German utilities participate to the financing of the project, at present at the basic stage, and the safety authorities of both countries have carried out a joint evaluation of EPR safety. With a 1500 Mwe capacity, EPR will be equipped with advanced safety systems more performing than the existing systems. Conceivers want to maintain the economic competitiveness of EPR with respect to coal power plants. EPR will take over the oldest power plants by producing a safer and cheaper energy to provide for the needs of the developed countries and then of the developing countries with no risk for the environment. An enormous effort of communication must be carried out to reduce the public anxiety and to calm down the nuclear debate and show up its merits, in particular in Europe, where its contribution is vital. (J.S.)

  4. The German reactor safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1980-01-01

    The most important results of the German risk study of a nuclear power plant equipped with a pressurized water reactor were published in August 1979. The main volume of the study with the approach used and the results elaborated has been available for reference since late 1979. Eight technical volumes contain detailed descriptions and documentations of the investigations carried out. The reference facility used as a basis for the technical plant studies was unit B of the Biblis Nuclear Power Station, a KWU PWR of 3750 MW thermal power. This contribution provides more detailed explanations of the methods and the results of the risk study illustrated by examples. The description refers to accident categories and categories of radioactivity releases, probabilities of specific sequences of accident events, and the damage associated with core meltdown accidents as a function of various types of failure. For purposes of evaluation and application of the results the limits in the basic assumptions of the study are referred to. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Early German plans for southern observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  6. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  7. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural......, but represents a separate attitudinal meaning dimension. Moreover, the findings support that both prenuclear and nuclear fundamental frequency (F0) patterns must be taken into account in the analysis of tune meaning....

  8. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  9. German Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    depressed and less integrated into their new societies.29 Germany’s Turkish population exemplifies this integration deficit. Of Germany’s 4.3 million...the German Chancellor in a YouTube video, for example), the German press tends to abandon their earlier self-restraint and freely publishes the...Germany’s most well-known Salafist preachers. In addition to being mentored by Pierre Vogel, Cuspert appeared in YouTube recordings at Islam

  10. A German Perspective on Security Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect German citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.

  11. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF RUSSIAN-GERMAN RELATIONS IN 2000-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Олеговна Пучинская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective collaboration between the Russian Federation and Germany at the beginning of the 21st century would be impossible without mutually beneficial economic cooperation of the two countries. The analysis of basic stages in the economic relations, achievements and problems are considered by the author to be important for lining-up an all-round picture of the Russian-German relations in the period under review. The main purpose of this article is the consideration and analysis of the economic aspects in the Russian foreign policy towards Germany. The problem considered in the article is of current importance, because in 2000-2013 the economic collaboration of Russia and the German Federal Republic was brought to a high level, but at the same time some considerable potential of cooperation was not fulfilled. With regard to complementarity of the Russian and German economies and their centuries-old experience of collaboration and mutual financial interest, it is possible to suppose that the economic sphere in particular would be a basis of optimization of the Russian-German relations in the long term. In such a way, this article deals with the basic directions of the Russian-German economic cooperation in 2000-2013.The contractual legal base of financial relations is examined with the purpose to reveal strengths and weaknesses as well as perspective possibilities of the optimization in the Russian-German relations in the future.

  12. [German Prevention Programs for Eating Disorders - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Mara; Adametz, Luise; Richter, Felicitas; Strauß, Bernhard; Berger, Uwe

    2018-02-13

    In the past years a considerable amount of primary and secondary prevention programs for eating disorders was developed in German speaking countries. However, up to now there has been no systematic review of contents and evaluation studies. The main objective of the present systematic review is to identify and outline German prevention programs for eating disorders. This should facilitate the selection of appropriate and effective interventions for medical experts, other professionals and teachers. A systematic literature research was conducted and 22 German-language primary and secondary prevention programs were identified. Half of them were evaluated. The programs were conducted either in school, on the internet or in a group setting. The findings show that throughout almost all programs a reduction in weight and shape concerns and drive for thinness as well as an increase of (body) self-esteem could be observed in either the total sample or the high-risk sample. However, programs were inconsistently effective in reducing disordered eating behavior in the target population. All studies were effective in reducing at least one risk factor. Overall, higher effect sizes were found for secondary prevention programs than for primary prevention programs. Lastly, limitations of the studies and suggestions for future prevention efforts are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. RISK MANAGEMENT OF GERMAN FRUIT PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annkatrin PORSCH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Horticultural farms in Germany face substantial business risks. However, fruit farms often struggle to implement appropriate risk management processes, and the risk management literature widely has ignored this farm type. The aim of the study was to improve the assessment of risks by farmers and the choice of suitable risk management instruments. Therefore, a risk management process based on subjective probabilities and suitable for small and medium-sized farms was developed, considering the specific needs of family run businesses. An online survey was conducted to achieve a comprehensive view of the risk perception and risk management practices of German fruit producers. Price and production risks are the most relevant risk categories for fruit farmers. However, among single risk sources, those in the people risk category were seen as the most important. Results show significant interactions among risk categories and a significant correlation between loss experience and the rating of risk categories. The assumption that risk averse farmers generally rate risks higher than risk neutral or risk seeking farmers cannot be confirmed. Diversification seems to be the most important risk management instrument for many fruit producers, especially diversification of marketing channels, farm income, and production activities. Further research should focus on the apparent inconsistency between the satisfaction with instruments reported by farmers and the actual implementation of many of them (e.g., hail insurance and anti-hail net. Furthermore, there is a need for research, to develop decision models considering the interactions of risks and risk management instruments, loss experience and risk seeking attitudes.

  14. Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented German by Native German Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…

  15. Word Order and Voice Influence the Timing of Verb Planning in German Sentence Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sauppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.

  16. Word Order and Voice Influence the Timing of Verb Planning in German Sentence Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.

  17. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  18. Exploring the association between social capital and depressive symptoms: results of a survey in German information and communication technology companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julia; Ernstmann, Nicole; Nitzsche, Anika; Driller, Elke; Kowalski, Christoph; Lehner, Birgit; Stieler-Lorenz, Brigitte; Friepörtner, Katharina; Schmidt, Anna; Pfaff, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between social capital at work and depressive symptoms in employees. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected through an online survey with the full population of employees from six companies in the German information and communication technology sector (response rate: 58.4%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results of data from a total of 328 employees suggest that, after controlling for sociodemographic factors, health awareness, and job strain, lower levels of perceived social capital at work are associated with the experience of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.64-0.90). Our findings suggest that characteristics of high social capital at work, such as an established environment of trust and a sense of common values and convictions, could be an essential resource for preventing depressive disorders.

  19. The German scientific balloon and sounding rocket projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalh, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains information on the sounding rocket projects: experiment preparation for spacelab (astronomy), aeronomy, magnetosphere, and material science. Except for material science the scientific balloon projects are performed in the some scientific fields, but with a strong emphasis on astronomical research. It is tried to provide by means of tables a survey as complete as possible of the projects for the time since the last symposium in Elmau and of the plans for the future until 1981. The scientific balloon and sounding rocket projects form a small succesful part of the German space research programme. (author)

  20. Historical Survey: German Research on Hydrogen Peroxide/Alcohol Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmeter, John E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Discussion of HP/fuel explosives in the scientific literature dates back to at least 1927. A paper was published that year in a German journal entitled On Hydrogen Peroxide Explosives [Bamberger and Nussbaum 1927]. The paper dealt with HP/cotton/Vaseline formulations, specifically HP89/cotton/Vaseline (76/15/9) and (70/8.5/12.5). The authors performed experiments with charge masses of 250-750 g and charge diameters of 35-45 mm. This short paper provides brief discussion on the observed qualitative effects of detonations but does not report detonation velocities.

  1. "German Culture is where I am": Thomas Mann in Exile

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Koopmann

    1982-01-01

    Thomas Mann in exile reacted like many writers expelled from Germany: totally irritated he tried to defend his own identity by claiming that he was still the leading representative of Germany. But about 1938 a process of dissociation from Germany started which led to sharp remarks on Germany in his The Beloved Returns , to his conviction that German culture was where he lived and to the acknowledgement of America as his new home. Traces of his experience of exile, and a late answer on his se...

  2. DDR-Landeskundliches im Deutschunterricht (East German Culture in the German Lesson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazel, Gerhard

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates with concrete examples from the texts of a German class for advanced learners how aspects of East German culture can be realized in vocabulary, in lectures, and in the development of listening comprehension and speaking skills. Texts are appended. (DJD)

  3. Self-rated treatment outcomes in medical rehabilitation among German and non-German nationals residing in Germany: an exploratory cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzoska, P; Sauzet, O; Yilmaz-Aslan, Y; Widera, T; Razum, O

    2016-03-28

    In many European countries, foreign nationals experience, on average, less favorable treatment outcomes in rehabilitative care than the respective majority population. In Germany, this for example is reflected in a lower occupational performance and a higher risk of disability retirement after rehabilitation as analyses of routine data show. However, little is known about the perspective of health care users. The aim of the present study was to compare self-rated treatment outcomes between German and non-German nationals undergoing in-patient medical rehabilitation in Germany. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional representative rehabilitation patient survey of 239,811 patients from 642 clinics in Germany who completed about 3 weeks of in-patient rehabilitative treatment. The self-rating of the treatment outcome was based on a dichotomized Likert scale consisting of three items. A multilevel logistic regression analysis adjusted for various demographic, socio-economic, health and other covariates was conducted to examine differences in the self-rated treatment outcome between German and non-German nationals. Of the 239,811 respondents 0.9% were nationals from Turkey, 0.8% had a nationality from a former Yugoslavian country, 0.9% held a nationality from the South European countries Portugal, Spain, Italy or Greece and 1.9% were nationals from other countries. Non-German nationals reported a less favorable self-rated outcome than Germans. Adjusted odds ratios [OR] for reporting a less favorable treatment outcome were 1.24 (95%-confidence interval [95%-CI]: 1.12-1.37) for nationals from the South European countries Portugal/Spain/Italy/Greece, 1.62 (95%-CI: 1.45-1.80) for Turkish nationals and 1.68 (95%-CI: 1.52-1.85) for nationals from Former Yugoslavia. Knowledge on health outcomes from the patients' point of view is important for the provision of patient-centered health care. Our study showed that non-German nationals report less favorable outcomes of

  4. An analysis of post-vocalic /s-ʃ/ neutralization in Augsburg German: evidence for a gradient sound change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique eBukmaier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is concerned with a sound change in progress by which a post-vocalic, pre-consonantal /s-ʃ/ contrast in the standard variety of German (SG in words such as west/wäscht (/vɛst/~/vɛʃt/, west/washes is influencing the Augsburg German (AG variety in which they have been hitherto neutralized as /veʃt/. Two of the main issues to be considered are whether the change is necessarily categorical; and the extent to which the change affects both speech production and perception equally. For the production experiment, younger and older AG and SG speakers merged syllables of hypothetical town names to create a blend at the potential neutralization site. These results showed a trend for a progressively greater /s-ʃ/ differentiation in the order older AG, younger AG, and SG speakers. For the perception experiment, forced-choice responses were obtained from the same subjects who had participated in the production experiment to a 16-step /s-ʃ/ continuum that was embedded into two contexts: /mɪst-mɪʃt/ in which /s-ʃ/ are neutralized in AG and /vəˈmɪsə/-/vəˈmɪʃə/ in which they are not. The results from both experiments are indicative of a sound change in progress such that the neutralization is being undone under the influence of SG, but in such a way that there is a gradual shift between categories. The closer approximation of the groups on perception suggests that the sound change may be more advanced on this modality than in production. Overall, the findings are consistent with the idea that phonological contrasts are experience-based, i.e. a continuous function of the extent to which a subject is exposed to, and makes use of, the distinction and are thus compatible with exemplar models of speech.

  5. Ausgerechnet "Rumpelstilzchen?" Grimms Marchen im DaF-Unterricht (Really Rumpelstilskin? Grimm's Fairy Tales in German as a Foreign Language Instruction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Suggests the use of fairy tales in German foreign language instruction at the intermediate level. This suggestion is established using features of the Grimm genre and clarified using concrete examples. (Author/DMK)

  6. Mortality of German travellers on passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Herzog, Jan; Püschel, Klaus; Harth, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, more and more Germans decided to spend their holidays on a passenger vessel. This study examined the frequencies and causes of deaths of German travellers aboard passenger vessels of all flags. The shipboard deaths of all German travellers within the time period from 1998 to 2008 were counted using the German civil central register in Berlin. The available documentation in this register provides information on frequencies, circumstances and causes of deaths on ships. In the above-mentioned period of time, the total cohort of German travellers on cruise ships is estimated to be 5.97 million persons. During the 11-year examination period, 135 shipboard deaths of German passengers [102 males (75.6%) and 33 females (24.4%)] were recorded. Out of these travellers, 110 died on cruise ships. When considering only the passengers on cruise ships (without those on ferries) an average crude mortality rate of 1.8 per 100,000 German passengers was calculated. The crude mortality rate of shipboard death for males and females was 2.5 and 0.8 per 100,000 German passengers with a mean age of 71.2 years [standard deviation (SD) 16.0 years] and 73.3 years (SD 16.0 years), respectively. Significantly, more deceased travellers older than 70 years were observed on traditional cruise ships and resort vessels than on passenger ferries (P = 0.001). The causes of death were documented in 85 cases (63.0%). Out of these documented deaths, 82 (96.5%) cases were regarded to be natural causes (particularly circulatory diseases) and 3 (3.5%) as unnatural causes (twice drowning and once an accidental fall). In spite of the large proportion of unknown causes of death, this study argues for a high significance of internal causes of deaths among German passengers. Thus, ship's doctors-particularly those on traditional cruise ships-should be well experienced in internal and geriatric medicines. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  7. Worker policing in the German wasp Vespula germanica

    OpenAIRE

    Wim Bonckaert; Kristel Vuerinckx; Johan Billen; Rob L. Hammond; Laurent Keller; Tom Wenseleers

    2008-01-01

    In some ants, bees, and wasps, workers kill or "police" male eggs laid by other workers in order to maintain the reproductive primacy of the queen. Kin selection theory predicts that multiple mating by the queen is one factor that can selectively favor worker policing. This is because when the queen is mated to multiple males, workers are more closely related to the queen's sons than to the sons of other workers. Earlier work has suggested that reproductive patterns in the German wasp Vespula...

  8. Physicians Experience with and Expectations of the Safety and Tolerability of WHO-Step III Opioids for Chronic (Low Back Pain: Post Hoc Analysis of Data from a German Cross-Sectional Physician Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Ueberall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe physicians’ daily life experience with WHO-step III opioids in the treatment of chronic (low back pain (CLBP. Methods. Post hoc analysis of data from a cross-sectional online survey with 4.283 Germany physicians. Results. With a reported median use in 17% of affected patients, WHO-step III opioids play a minor role in treatment of CLBP in daily practice associated with a broad spectrum of positive and negative effects. If prescribed, potent opioids were reported to show clinically relevant effects (such as ≥50% pain relief in approximately 3 of 4 patients (median 72%. Analgesic effects reported are frequently related with adverse events (AEs. Only 20% of patients were reported to remain free of any AE. Most frequently reported AE was constipation (50%, also graded highest for AE-related daily life restrictions (median 46%. Specific AE countermeasures were reported to be necessary in approximately half of patients (median 45%; nevertheless AE-related premature discontinuation rates reported were high (median 22%. Fentanyl/morphine were the most/least prevalently prescribed potent opioids mentioned (median 20 versus 8%. Conclusion. Overall, use of WHO-step III opioids for CLBP is low. AEs, especially constipation, are commonly reported and interfere significantly with analgesic effects in daily practice. Nevertheless, beneficial effects outweigh related AEs in most patients with CLBP.

  9. Psychiatric care in the German prison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.

  10. German neutron scattering conference. Programme and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.

  11. German neutron scattering conference. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.

  12. Joint German/French S4-Analytical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miemczyk, H.

    1979-03-01

    A joint German/French program was initiated to investigate in detail the behaviour of artificially defected fuel pins in a sodium loop of the SILOE reactor at Grenoble/France. Three irradiation experiments have been conducted in SILOE on representative SNR-type fuel pins (mixed oxide, low density, stainless steel cladding, external diameter 6 mm). The first experiment, S2, had been an unirradiated pin with a large interstitial defect (machined slit of 30x1 mm). The two following pins, S4 and S3, have been pre-irradiated in RAPSODIE (365 efpd, 10.6 % burnup). The main results of the S4-experiment are described and evaluated in the present report. They concern the following important aspects: sodium-uranate/plutonate formation and its kinetics, fuel loss, fission product release and fuel behaviour

  13. Enteric methane emissions from German dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammgen, U; Rosemann, C; Haenel, H D

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the German agricultural emission inventory used a model for the assessment of methane emissions from enteric fermentation that combined an estimate of the energy and feed requirements as a function of performance parameters and diet composition, with the constant methane conversion rate......, as stated by IPCC. A methane emission model was selected here that is based on German feed data. It was combined with the hitherto applied model describing energy requirements. The emission rates thus calculated deviate from those previously obtained. In the new model, the methane conversion rate is back......-calculated from emission rates and gross energy intake rates. For German conditions of animal performance and diet composition, the national means of methane conversion rates range between 71 kJ MJ(-1) and 61 kJ MJ(-1) for low and high performances (4700 kg animal(-1) a(-1) in 1990 to 7200 kg animal(-1) a(-1...

  14. The German risk study. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.

    1980-01-01

    A severe nuclear power plant accident can be followed by a considerable release of radioactive effluents into the atmosphere. Due to atmospheric dispersion, areas of different sizes can be contaminated. The corresponding doses can cause early illnesses, early fatalities, latent effects and genetic effects. They are accompanied by economic effects. Within the consequence model of the German Risk Study, early and late fatalities and genetically significant doses are calculated. The calculations are based on real data or phenomena such as the population around 19, present or future German sites, or 115 real weather sequences, as well as on models such as an atmospheric dispersion model, a dose model, a model of protective actions or a health effects model. Within this lecture, the consequence model applied in the German Risk Study will be discussed in detail and the results will be presented. (orig./RW)

  15. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  16. The German version of the Material Values Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Smits, Dirk J M; Claes, Laurence; Gefeller, Olaf; Hinz, Andreas; de Zwaan, Martina

    2013-01-01

    The Material Values Scale is an instrument to assess beliefs about the importance to own material things. This instrument originally consists of the three subscales: 'centrality', 'success', and 'happiness'. The present study investigated the psychometric properties of the German version of the MVS (G-MVS). A population-based sample of 2,295 adult Germans completed the questionnaire in order to investigate the factorial structure. To test construct validity, additional samples were gathered among patients with compulsive buying (N=52) and medical students (N=347) who also answered the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8). In the German population-based sample we could not confirm the 3-factor model but rather suggest a 2-factor solution with a first collapsed factor 'centrality/success', and the second factor 'happiness'. Patients with compulsive buying showed the highest scores on the G-MVS. While G-MVS scores among compulsive buyers and medical students were significantly related to compulsive buying scores, the correlation between the G-MVS and the depression measure appeared substantially lower. We did not find any gender differences regarding materialism, neither in the population-based sample nor in the students' or compulsive buyers' samples. However, age was negatively related to G-MVS scores. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest a 2-factor model of the G-MVS. Overall, the results indicate the use of the G-MVS as a brief, psychometrically sound, and potentially valid measure for the assessment of material values.

  17. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  18. Suggestions for an updated fusion power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1976-02-01

    This document contains suggestions for a revised CTR Program strategy which should allow us to achieve equivalent goals while operating within the above constraints. The revised program is designed around three major facilities. The first is an upgrading of the present TFTR facility which will provide a demonstration of the generation of tens of megawatts electric equivalent originally envisioned for the 1985 EPR. The second device is the TTAP which will allow the integration and optimization of the plasma physics results obtained from the next generation of plasma physics experiments. The improvement in tokamak reactor operation resulting from this optimization of fusion plasma performance will enable an EPR to be designed which will produce several hundred megawatts of electric power by 1990. This will move the fusion program much closer to its goal of commercial fusion power by the turn of the century. In addition to this function the TTAP will serve as a prototype of the 1990 EPR system, thus making more certain the successful operation of this device. The third element of this revised program is an intense radiation damage facility which will provide the radiation damage information necessary for the EPR and subsequent fusion reactor facilities. The sum total of experience gained from reacting plasma experiments on TFTR, reactor grade plasma optimization and technological prototyping on TTAP, and end of life radiation damage results from the intense neutron facility will solve all of the presently foreseen problems associated with a tokamak fusion power reactor except those associated with the external nuclear systems. These external system problems such as tritium breeding and optimal power recovery can be developed in parallel on the 1990 EPR

  19. Structure of the German electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The German integrated association is a union of those electric power supply utilities in the Federal Republic of Germany which cooperate in the integrated operation of 220 kV and 380 kV. The German integrated association (DVG) was founded in 1948. Its main task is to create the technical, operational and legal conditions for the cooperation in the national and international integrated system. The inclusion of the new Federal States has been practiced for the first time with the 320 MW power station in Offleben. (DG) [de

  20. Level 2 PRA for a German BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassen, F.; Rapp, W.; Tietsch, W.; Roess, P.

    2007-01-01

    A concept for a Level 2 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (L2 PRA) for a German Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) has been developed taking into account the role of L2 PRA within the German regulatory landscape. According to this concept, a plant specific evaluation of the severe accident phenomenology as well as analyses of the accident progression for the severe accident scenarios has been performed. Furthermore a plant specific MELCOR 1.8.6 model has been developed and special MELCOR source term calculations have been performed for the different release paths. This paper will present examples from the different areas described above. (author)

  1. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  2. German family policy at the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies of welfare reforms encounter two problems. First, the counterfactual problem is that in the real world schemes and their reforms do not coexist simultaneously and are hard to compare. Second, the contextual problem derives from the absence of comparable measures for change. Mi...... introduce a new concept of fairness and a focus on gender equality to German family policies........ Microsimulation helps to overcome these problems. It compares policy options - actual reforms or reform plans - simultaneously and provides a comparable measure: the disposable income of model families. This article uses a type-case approach to investigate recent reforms of the German parental leave benefit...

  3. German energy policy in deregulated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    2000-01-01

    The author argues in favor of a more fact-oriented German energy policy: Firstly, German energy policy must accept the new European framework of a market economy. This means that German utilities must no longer be burdened with the implementation of political objectives. The German power industry needs a level playing field for competition on a European scale. Consequently, also the European partner countries should not limit themselves to the minimum conditions of the Single Market Directive in opening their markets. Secondly, German energy policy must develop new forms of cooperation with the power industry so as to maintain domestic employment and the addition of value despite considerably stronger competitive pressure. Also the conflicting targets of sustainability, continuity of supply, and economic viability must not only be discussed, but must be turned into productive approaches. Thirdly, this means that there must be no inadmissible solution in matters nuclear. If the German power industry is to remain strong, in the interest of domestic jobs and opportunities for the future, it must not lose any more domestic market share to other European companies. Fourthly, we need a new energy policy which takes cognizance of the results of market development in a more rational, less emotional way. In this respect, it should be limited henceforth to supporting renewable energies and technologies so as to enhance energy efficiency in line with market requirements. Fifthly, German energy policy must not commit the mistake of enforcing deregulation and, at the same time, exempting large segments of the market from competition. Thus, the planned expansion of renewable energies, and the increase in cogeneration to more than thirty percent of the German electricty generation, by way of quotas and revenues for electricity from these sources fed into the public grid, are incompatible with competition in Europe. The electricity tax within the framework of the eco tax, the

  4. German and Ukrainian Phonological Isomorphs. Typology: Germanic and Slavic Languages. German-Ukraine-Slavic Contrasting Correspondence Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The works of many scholars on Germanic and Slavic Languages do not really try to contrast the two biggest Indo-European language families, but analyse them seperately, as any close comparison seem to be unconvincible. In many works, we find some parts that usually would deal with loan words/borrowings/barbarisms. And, yet, we noticed that there…

  5. Chemistry of water and steam in power plants and related technologies. Glossary of terms and definitions English - German; German - English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H.P.; Teutenberg, U.

    2006-07-01

    This new edition of a technical dictionary is an evaluation of the technical terms found in the domestic and foreign literature and in information brochures of specialist firms, directives, guidelines, standards, etc. This dictionary contains more than 3,000 terms mainly with definitions with respect to the chemistry of water and steam in power plants along with the related types of water (untreated water, feedwater and boiler water, make-up water, waste water) and the water treatment processes (ion exchange, membrane process, etc.), water conditioning and chemical analysis, internal cleaning of steam generating plants (e.g. flushing, boiling-out, pre-operational and operational acid cleaning, steam blowing) as well as fundamentals of water chemistry. The technical knowledge of the authors, Heinz-Peter Schmitz, FDBR, with more than 25 years professional experience as translator/official in charge of documentation and Ulrich Teutenberg, Babcock/Hitachi with more than 30 years professional experience as senior consultant for water chemistry and commissioning is reflected in this dictionary. Part 1 contains the English-German version, Part 2 the German-English version. (orig.)

  6. Effects of Language Background on Gaze Behavior: A Crosslinguistic Comparison Between Korean and German Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Florian; Lee, Donghoon; Ansorge, Ulrich; Choi, Soonja

    2017-01-01

    Languages differ in how they categorize spatial relations: While German differentiates between containment (in) and support (auf) with distinct spatial words—(a) den Kuli IN die Kappe stecken (”put pen in cap”); (b) die Kappe AUF den Kuli stecken (”put cap on pen”)—Korean uses a single spatial word (kkita) collapsing (a) and (b) into one semantic category, particularly when the spatial enclosure is tight-fit. Korean uses a different word (i.e., netha) for loose-fits (e.g., apple in bowl). We tested whether these differences influence the attention of the speaker. In a crosslinguistic study, we compared native German speakers with native Korean speakers. Participants rated the similarity of two successive video clips of several scenes where two objects were joined or nested (either in a tight or loose manner). The rating data show that Korean speakers base their rating of similarity more on tight- versus loose-fit, whereas German speakers base their rating more on containment versus support (in vs. auf). Throughout the experiment, we also measured the participants’ eye movements. Korean speakers looked equally long at the moving Figure object and at the stationary Ground object, whereas German speakers were more biased to look at the Ground object. Additionally, Korean speakers also looked more at the region where the two objects touched than did German speakers. We discuss our data in the light of crosslinguistic semantics and the extent of their influence on spatial cognition and perception. PMID:29362644

  7. Aesthetics of Modernism in the Prose of German Female Writers at the Turn of GDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamila Kyrylova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article offers the analysis of the aesthetics of modernism in the prose of German female writers at the turn of GDR. Texts of H. Königsdorf, M. Maron and B. Burmeister have a high grade of the modernist aesthetics in order to overcome the crisis cultural-historical period at the turn of GDR and also as a mode to resist against doctrines of socrealizm in the conditions of the strict regulation of art and its ideologization of the state. The fact of active using of modernist aesthetics becomes an interesting unknown case in the modern history of German female literature. Purpose of the study is to search a strong intertextual connection between novels different chronological periods in order to find out important factors and changes of national German history by means of literary contextualization female experience of dictatorship, to make links with the most important historical-literary features in the beginning of 20th century, establish reasons for return of modernist aesthetics, to prove interrelationships between turning stages of German female literature in the 20th century. The complex analysis consists of the modern methods and ideas of German studies: Gender Studies and historical-cultural analysis (W. Emmerich, S. Schaffratch. The benefits of this study let discover dynamism of national events and literary process, its projection in the newest female literature of women after 1989.

  8. High-Speed Maglev Trains; German Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This document is a translation of technology-specific safety requirements developed : for the German Transrapid Maglev technology. These requirements were developed by a : working group composed of representatives of German Federal Railways (DB), Tes...

  9. China as A Growing Strategic Market for German Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun

    2011-01-01

    @@ German Companies view China as a more strategically important market, despite their concerns over China's regulatory environment, according to a re-port from the German Chamber of Commerce in China.

  10. TANDEM - French-German cooperation for local energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchard, Claire; Garreau, Enora; Maurer, Christiane; Schilken, Peter; Keilmann, Jenny-Claire; Janssen, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous implementation of the German 'Energiewende' and the French 'Transition energetique' prompted both country's governments to sign various cooperation agreements. As both 'Energiewende' and 'Transition energetique' put a strong focus on decentralization of energy supply, establishing close inter-communal cooperation is particularly promising. The project TANDEM, which is jointly led by Klima-Buendnis and Energy Cities - both local authority networks - and co-funded by Germany's Federal Environment Agency (UBA) and the French Energy Agency ADEME provides French and German local authorities with a unique opportunity to exchange experiences and create partnerships for climate protection having the following objectives: - Creating broad mutual understanding for the respective situation, challenges and framework in energy and climate policy; - Encourage exchanges with regard to obstacles and success factors concerning the realization of ambitious energy- and climate-goals and promoting mutual transfer of know-how; - Stimulating close collaboration between local authorities from both countries while involving and supporting local stakeholders and citizens; - Implementing initial stages of cooperation projects during the lifetime of the TANDEM project and creating a foundation for long-term cooperation; - Raise awareness for demands, requirements and concerns of local authorities on a national and European level in order to strengthen their influence and enlarge their scope of action. In this document, the authors briefly present the French, German and European contexts and the organization of both countries regarding energy transition. Then, a parallel is made between the national energy-climate plans of both countries ('Klimaschutzkonzepte' and 'Plans Climat-Energie Territoriaux') to identify the similarities and differences in order to learn from each other and to be able to create cooperations between both policy mechanisms

  11. "German Culture is where I am": Thomas Mann in Exile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Koopmann

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Mann in exile reacted like many writers expelled from Germany: totally irritated he tried to defend his own identity by claiming that he was still the leading representative of Germany. But about 1938 a process of dissociation from Germany started which led to sharp remarks on Germany in his The Beloved Returns , to his conviction that German culture was where he lived and to the acknowledgement of America as his new home. Traces of his experience of exile, and a late answer on his separation from Germany in 1933, however, are to be found even in his incompleted novel Felix Krull which seems to have turned the disgusting experience of exile into friendly mythological light.

  12. The perception of the fehmarnbelt connection among german stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Sandrina; Jespersen, Per Homann

    This report gives an overview of the planned improvements of the German hinterland infrastructure connected to the fixed Fehmarn Belt Link (FBL), as well as the views of the key German stake holders towards the FBL.......This report gives an overview of the planned improvements of the German hinterland infrastructure connected to the fixed Fehmarn Belt Link (FBL), as well as the views of the key German stake holders towards the FBL....

  13. Maize synfuel for E. German market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-31

    Bijenkorf Starch Company (ZBB) in the Netherlands plans to produce 30 million litre/year of alcohol gasoline additive for the East German market. Start up is scheduled for 1983 with costs around $33 million. Production costs are estimated at 95 Dutch cents/litre.

  14. Phocine Distemper in German Seals, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlsein, Peter; Beineke, Andreas; Haas, Ludwig; Greiser-Wilke, Irene; Siebert, Ursula; Fonfara, Sonja; Harder, Timm; Stede, Michael; Gruber, Achim.D.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 21,700 seals died during a morbillivirus epidemic in northwestern Europe in 2002. Phocine distemper virus 1 was isolated from seals in German waters. The sequence of the P gene showed 97% identity with the Dutch virus isolated in 1988. There was 100% identity with the Dutch isolate from 2002 and a single nucleotide mismatch with the Danish isolate. PMID:15200869

  15. Dictionary of chemistry. English/German

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenske, G.

    1992-01-01

    This English/German dictionary covers more than 100.000 terms from chemistry, chemical engineering and related fields. It also contains molecular formulas, as well as numerous synonyms and areas of application. IUPAC terminology is emphasized, and outdated or rare terminology is indicated. (MM) [de

  16. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  17. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    Scientia Militaria vol 44, no 1, 2016, pp 168-189. doi: 10.5787/44-1-1166 ..... report the presence of a body of German submarines moving south towards Cape Town. Despite ...... London: Arms and Armour Press, 1989, 100–101; Keegan op.

  18. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  19. On the German Language in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brian A.

    Sociolinguistic patterns among German immigrants to the United States of America are examined in this paper. Earlier studies in this area, including Wolfgang Viereck's work published in "Orbis" in 1967 and 1968, are examined. Through an analysis of the immigration patterns of the citizens of Glarus, Switzerland, in 1845 to New Glarus,…

  20. Recent Developments in German Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Manjon, M.C.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2004-01-01

    We contrast the features of the German corporate governance system with those of other systems and discuss the recent regulatory initiatives.For example, the rules on insider trading and anti-trust have been strengthened.The Restructuring Act has been revised to prevent minority shareholders from

  1. German energy market 2016; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland

    2017-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt gegeben, der auch in diesem Jahr eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun- und Steinkohle, Elektrizitaet sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine aktuelle Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  2. Latitudinal Variation of Germane in Jovian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Wang et al (2016) presented a chemical-dynamical model for Jupiter's atmosphere that predicted abundances of Germane and other disequilibrium species as a function of latitude, under the assumption that only vertical transport is relevant and no horizontal advection occurs. The model disagrees with the latitudinal distributions derived from high-resolution spectral data acquired from the CRIRES instrument at the VLT as described in Giles et al. 2017. Wang et al. 2016 predicts a maximum molar abundance of Germane at (0.7±0.2) ppb with depletion at higher latitudes, while Giles et al. 2017 predicts a constant molar abundance of Germane at 0.58 ppb with no depletion. We explore an empirical horizontal term for the diffusive transport coefficient as a function of latitude, which does not produce a satisfactory result unless highly arbitrary variations of the vertical eddy mixing term as a function of latitude are imposed. We therefore also explore a horizontal wind from the equator that produces a constant latitudinal profile by transporting Germane-rich gas to the poles, effectively producing a Hadley cell. References: Giles, R. S., Fletcher, L. N., & Irwin, P. G. (2017). Latitudinal variability in Jupiter's tropospheric disequilibrium species: GeH 4, AsH 3 and PH 3. Icarus, 289, 254-269. Wang, D., Lunine, J.I., Mousis, O., 2016. Modeling the disequilibrium species for Jupiter and Saturn: implications for Juno and Saturn entry probe. Icarus 276, 21-38.

  3. Review of the German Reactor Safety Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1980-01-01

    The accident risks in German nuclear power plants are reviewed. Parameters influencing the extent and consequences of an accident are differentiated. Risks of normal operation, war, and sabotage have not been considered. Measures taken by the operating shaft in the course of an accident are taken into account. The knowledge thus gained can be applied in the planning of emergency measures. (DG) [de

  4. German and Russian Adolescents' Environmental Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szagun, Gisela; Pavlov, Vladimir I.

    German (n=610) and Russian (n=610) adolescents in 3 age groups, 12, 15, and 18 years, were given a questionnaire assessing their feelings towards environmental destruction, their readiness for pro-environmental action, and their ethical attitude toward nature. In both nationalities anxiety, sadness, and anger about environmental destruction were…

  5. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  6. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  7. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilbach, Judith

    2014-01-01

    abstractThe trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it

  8. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keilbach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it maintained at the same time ideological boundaries.

  9. The Advanced German Course: A Multidimensional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutcavage, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Describes an advanced language course that focuses on modern German culture and society, and emphasizes advanced reading, grammar, conversation, and composition. This framework can be enhanced by regular incorporation of audio and video technology into the program as a means of heightening students' awareness of language and topical issues.…

  10. German Cultural Packets 13 and 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlanta Public Schools, GA.

    These German culture packets are designed to accompany A-LM Level II and include a statement of the rationale behind the unit, the objectives of the packet, the activities themselves, and a brief evaluation by the student. The activities involve the use of the basic text, the student workbook, corresponding tapes, and fellow students as partners…

  11. Introduction to German Culture: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Describes a course, taught in English, entitled "Introduction to German Culture," which was designed to meet the needs of students who have visited or plan to visit Germany and want to take a course in its contemporary culture, politics, and social problems. (SED)

  12. Suicidal ideation in German primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiborg, J.F.; Gieseler, D.; Lowe, B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine suicidal ideation in a sample of German primary care patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study and included 1455 primary care patients who visited 1 of 41 general practitioners (GPs) working at 19 different sites. Suicidal ideation and psychopathology were

  13. Organization of the German nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Corporate ownership within the German nuclear industry has evolved constantly during the last decade, and recent acquisitions and mergers, reunification of the country, as well as preparation for a unified European power market, have led to many significant changes during the past two years. The country's nuclear industry continues to struggle under an increasingly anti-nuclear political environment, yet nuclear power provided more than one-third of Germany's total electricity generation in 1991. As in many countries, particularly in western Europe, many German companies involved in different facets of the nuclear industry are interrelated. Usually as a means of horizontal or vertical integration, the country's nuclear utilities own, directly or indirectly, shares in uranium mining projects; conversion, enrichment, and fabrication companies; or other utilities' nuclear power plants. The utilities own partial interests in companies in supporting industries as well, including transportation firms, waste management companies, uranium broker/traders, and nuclear equipment manufacturers. While the majority of the companies owned are German, numerous investments are made in non-German firms also

  14. Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part I, German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 1" focus on the development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The contents of this guide focus on: (1) course description, (2) broad goals and performance objectives,…

  15. Lernen Wir Deutsch!: Part 2, German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 2" focus on development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The grammar of the course includes the study of nouns, pronouns, and verbs. Possessive determiners are…

  16. Public Management Reform without Managers: The Case of German Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintrop, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of principals in light of public management reforms taking place in the German educational system and in reference to the empirical patterns uncovered by the papers contained in the Special Issue. Policy makers have created new expectations and new technologies that seem to suggest to…

  17. Notes on disaligning ‘yes but’ initiated utterances in German and Danish conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Asmuß, Birte

    2005-01-01

    The article investigates ‘yes but’ initiated utterances in German and Danish conversations. The investigated utterances perform rejecting and disagreeing actions and they occur after suggestions, assessments and assertion with a clear action preference for acceptance and agreement. It is found th...

  18. Norms of German adolescents for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Burkhard; Geiger, Emilia; Prade, Tanja; Vogel, Sarah; Piesbergen, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) has not been explicitly tested on an adolescent population. In this study, the German version of the HGSHS:A was administered to 99 German adolescents aged 15 to 19. In contrast to other studies, the gender distribution was relatively balanced: 57% female and 43% male. Results were comparable to 14 earlier studies with regard to distribution, mean, and standard deviation. Some peculiarities in contrast to the 14 previous studies are pointed out. It is concluded that the HGSHS:A can be used as a valid and reliable instrument to measure hypnotic suggestibility in adolescent samples.

  19. Math Anxiety Questionnaire: Similar Latent Structure in Brazilian and German School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Wood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety is a relatively frequent phenomenon often related to low mathematics achievement and dyscalculia. In the present study, the German and the Brazilian versions of the Mathematics Anxiety Questionnaire (MAQ were examined. The two-dimensional structure originally reported for the German MAQ, that includes both affective and cognitive components of math anxiety was reproduced in the Brazilian version. Moreover, mathematics anxiety also was found to increase with age in both populations and was particularly associated with basic numeric competencies and more complex arithmetics. The present results suggest that mathematics anxiety as measured by the MAQ presents the same internal structure in culturally very different populations.

  20. VERBAL SUGGESTION TACTICS IN THE PROCESS OF VALUE RELATION FORMATION TO THE PAST IN THE GERMAN MASS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikolaevna Rebrina

    2016-06-01

    Practical implications. The findings contribute to the further study of the voluntative function of language and persuasiveness, can perform exemplary and recommendatory functions for institutions of the public communication system.

  1. Comparative population genetics of the German shepherd dog in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Coutts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern breeding practices strive to achieve distinctive phenotypic uniformity in breeds of dogs, but these strategies are associated with the inevitable loss of genetic diversity. Thus, in parallel with the morphological variation displayed by breeds, purebred dogs commonly express genetic defects as a result of the inbreeding associated with artificial selection and the reduction of selection against disease phenotypes. Microsatellite marker analyses of 15 polymorphic canine loci were used to investigate measures of genetic diversity and population differentiation within and between German-bred and South African-bred German shepherd dogs. These data were quantified by comparison with typically outbred mongrel or crossbred dogs. Both the imported and locally-bred German shepherd dogs exhibited similar levels of genetic diversity. The breed is characterised by only a moderate loss of genetic diversity relative to outbred dogs, despite originating from a single founding sire and experiencing extensive levels of inbreeding throughout the history of the breed. Non-significant population differentiation between the ancestral German and derived South African populations indicates sufficient contemporary gene flow between these populations, suggesting that migration resulting from the importation of breeding stock has mitigated the effects of random genetic drift and a population bottleneck caused by the original founder event in South Africa. Significant differentiation between the combined German shepherd dog population and the outbred dogs illustrates the effects of selection and genetic drift on the breed since its establishment just over 100 years ago.

  2. The German Generations and Gender Survey: Some Critical Reflections on the Validity of Fertility Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kreyenfeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper validates the fertility histories of the German Generations and Gender Survey (GGS. Focusing on the cohorts 1930-69 of West German women, the total number of children, the parity distribution and the parity progression ratios are compared to external sources. One major result from this validation is that the German GGS understates the fertility for the older cohorts and overstates it for the younger ones. We presume that two mechanisms are responsible for this pattern in the German GGS: On the one hand, children who have left parental home are underreported in the retrospective fertility histories. On the other hand, women with small children are easier to reach by the interviewer. These two mechanisms taken together produce too low numbers of children for the older and too high ones for the younger cohorts. Extending the validation to marital histories has revealed a similar bias. Our general conclusion from this investigation is that the German GGS may not be used for statistical analyses of cohort fertility and marriage trends. For subsequent surveys, we suggest integrating simple control questions in questionnaires with complex retrospective fertility and union histories.

  3. How Truncating Are 'Truncating Languages'? Evidence from Russian and German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathcke, Tamara V

    Russian and German have pr eviously been described as 'truncating', or cutting off target frequencies of the phrase-final pitch trajectories when the time available for voicing is compromised. However, supporting evidence is rare and limited to only a few pitch categories. This paper reports a production study conducted to document pitch adjustments to linguistic materials, in which the amount of voicing available for the realization of a pitch pattern varies from relatively long to extremely short. Productions of nuclear H+L*, H* and L*+H pitch accents followed by a low boundary tone were investigated in the two languages. The results of the study show that speakers of both 'truncating languages' do not utilize truncation exclusively when accommodating to different segmental environments. On the contrary, they employ several strategies - among them is truncation but also compression and temporal re-alignment - to produce the target pitch categories under increasing time pressure. Given that speakers can systematically apply all three adjustment strategies to produce some pitch patterns (H* L% in German and Russian) while not using truncation in others (H+L* L% particularly in Russian), we question the effectiveness of the typological classification of these two languages as 'truncating'. Moreover, the phonetic detail of truncation varies considerably, both across and within the two languages, indicating that truncation cannot be easily modeled as a unified phenomenon. The results further suggest that the phrase-final pitch adjustments are sensitive to the phonological composition of the tonal string and the status of a particular tonal event (associated vs. boundary tone), and do not apply to falling vs. rising pitch contours across the board, as previously put forward for German. Implications for the intonational phonology and prosodic typology are addressed in the discussion. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. [The Rockefeller Foundation and its efforts toward a reorientation of German medicine and public health in the 1950s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiermacher, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation invested substantial funds into promoting the development of public health as a discipline and a re-orientation of medical training in West Germany to support the democratization of German society. Not limiting itself to the simple provision of literature, the Foundation pursued a two-pronged strategy. Firstly, the Foundation organized a program for German university physicians and public health officers to visit various universities and teaching hospitals in the USA and Canada. A second aim was to establish training institutes for postgraduate physicians. However, rather than simply imposing the US model, the Foundation intended to adapt it to the German context, in the form of a postgraduate course for physicians that integrated practical experience with a university setting. My research to date shows that the Foundation's activities did not meet with much enthusiasm from German medical professionals. Intellectual, cultural, cognitive and political differences impaired constructive collaboration between the Foundation's staff and local practitioners and academics.

  5. Improving Critical Thinking and Authenticity in Testing Business German

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Maxim, Hiram

    1998-01-01

    in Business German, the Priifung Wirtschaftsdmtsch Intmnational [International Business German Examination] (PWD) and the Zertijikat I)mtschfur den Bmuf [German Cer- tificate for Professional Purposes] (ZDfB), test only students' information retrieval skills and fail to assess their critical thinking...

  6. Christian mission agencies and the question of slavery in German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to the imperial designs of their government, with little commitment to improving the wellbeing of Cameroonians. Little wonder colonial and missionization exploitation which is inseparable from the modern understanding of slavery was at its highest during the German era. Keywords: German Cameroon, German missions, ...

  7. The German Program and International Education: A Comprehensive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConeghy, Patrick M.

    1990-01-01

    Argues for a comprehensive approach toward teaching German as a second language in response to students' needs to acquire a global perspective. Rather than stressing only syntax, grammar, and vocabulary, German language education should also attempt to teach sensitivity to, knowledge of, and insight into German culture. (JL)

  8. German experience in recycling of contaminated scrap by melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, U.

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of radioactively contaminated scrap to products for further application in the nuclear cycle is Germany as an economic alternative. It has been shown that recycling within the nuclear industry reduces the collective dose as well as the number of individuals who receive doses. In the future when decommissioning of NPP will increase, a high amount of slightly radioactive steel scrap has to be managed safely. Recycling will play an important role to keep as much of these materials within the nuclear cycle as economically possible. Siempelkamp supplies a broad range of products made of recycled material from the nuclear industry. Containers made of nodular cast iron for transport and storage of radwaste as well as containers made of concrete with iron granules additive to increase the density up to 4 g/cm 3 , are offered. Interim and final disposal volume, having consequences on costs, can be reduced when recycling is applied for slightly contaminated metallic scrap

  9. Utility experience in reactor noise analysis in German LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, A.; Weingarten, J.; Wach, D.

    1988-01-01

    Reactor noise analysis has a long history in Fed. Rep. of Germany. Since the early 60ies it was directed to early fault, malfunction and anomaly detection in nuclear power plants. When successful diagnoses showed the high potential and benefits including economic and safety aspects, also the utilities began to have a vivid concern in application of the developed methods and systems. The know-how transfer from specialized teams to the onsite personnel as well as the development of more ''intelligent'' online systems are important present and future tasks for further improvement of their efficiency. The diagnostic group of GRS is active in both fields and has close cooperation with several utilities to achieve these objectives. Modern signal processing equipment and access to a comprehensive knowledge base stored in data banks are provided by the data analysis center of GRS. The available capabilities are described and examples of analysis results within the cooperation utilities/GRS are given. (author)

  10. Wind energy, birds and chiropters. German experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of wind power in Germany during the last 12 years and its environmental impacts: environmental protection laws, expertises and sites characterization, recommendations for developers, R and D and its financing, research programs and their consequences on the abatement of bird and chiropter impacts

  11. German diabetes management programs improve quality of care and curb costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Stephanie; Drabik, Anna; Büscher, Guido; Graf, Christian; Ullrich, Walter; Gerber, Andreas; Lauterbach, Karl W; Lüngen, Markus

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a large-scale analysis of a nationwide disease management program in Germany for patients with diabetes mellitus. The German program differs markedly from "classic" disease management in the United States. Although it combines important hallmarks of vendor-based disease management and the Chronic Care Model, the German program is based in primary care practices and carried out by physicians, and it draws on their personal relationships with patients to promote adherence to treatment goals and self-management. After four years of follow-up, overall mortality for patients and drug and hospital costs were all significantly lower for patients who participated in the program compared to other insured patients with similar health profiles who were not in the program. These results suggest that the German disease management program is a successful strategy for improving chronic illness care.

  12. Emissions trading and innovation in the German electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin

    2010-07-01

    One major objective of the introduction of emissions trading in the European Union was to promote innovation towards mitigating climate change. Focusing on the German electricity industry, the extent to which this objective has been achieved up to now and how the design of the trading scheme could be improved towards achieving the intended objective shall be analyzed in this thesis. These questions are tackled in the thesis from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. The theoretical analysis was largely based on neoclassical environmental economics by using an algebraic model which allowed for comparison of the relevant companies' profits under various configurations of the analyzed design options. The empirical analysis was grounded on two surveys of the electricity industry - one before the start of emissions trading, the other after two and a half years of experience - which enabled identification of the concrete changes in the companies' perceptions and attitudes towards innovation due to the introduction of emissions trading. The analysis reveals some indications that the instrument has basically functioned as originally intended although it has certainly not yet developed its full potential in terms of promoting innovation towards a more climate friendly electricity system. From an environmental innovation perspective the following improvements are essential: (1) Closure provisions should be abolished as soon as possible because they basically extend the lifetime of old installations and thus rather delay innovation. (2) Fuel-specific allocation to new entrants should also be abandoned since it eliminates - at least partly - the incentives to shift investments towards technologies which use more carbon friendly fuels such as natural gas or biomass. (3) Introducing full auctioning for the electricity industry would remedy both of the above-mentioned weaknesses and at the same time eliminate the windfall profit generated by free allocation of allowances

  13. Emissions trading and innovation in the German electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin

    2010-07-01

    One major objective of the introduction of emissions trading in the European Union was to promote innovation towards mitigating climate change. Focusing on the German electricity industry, the extent to which this objective has been achieved up to now and how the design of the trading scheme could be improved towards achieving the intended objective shall be analyzed in this thesis. These questions are tackled in the thesis from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. The theoretical analysis was largely based on neoclassical environmental economics by using an algebraic model which allowed for comparison of the relevant companies' profits under various configurations of the analyzed design options. The empirical analysis was grounded on two surveys of the electricity industry - one before the start of emissions trading, the other after two and a half years of experience - which enabled identification of the concrete changes in the companies' perceptions and attitudes towards innovation due to the introduction of emissions trading. The analysis reveals some indications that the instrument has basically functioned as originally intended although it has certainly not yet developed its full potential in terms of promoting innovation towards a more climate friendly electricity system. From an environmental innovation perspective the following improvements are essential: (1) Closure provisions should be abolished as soon as possible because they basically extend the lifetime of old installations and thus rather delay innovation. (2) Fuel-specific allocation to new entrants should also be abandoned since it eliminates - at least partly - the incentives to shift investments towards technologies which use more carbon friendly fuels such as natural gas or biomass. (3) Introducing full auctioning for the electricity industry would remedy both of the above-mentioned weaknesses and at the same time eliminate the windfall profit generated by free allocation of

  14. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  15. Communication in Health Professions: A European consensus on inter- and multi-professional learning objectives in German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Cadja; Kiessling, Claudia; Härtl, Anja; Haak, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Communication is object of increasing attention in the health professions. Teaching communication competencies should already begin in undergraduate education or pre-registration training. The aim of this project was to translate the Health Professions Core Communication Curriculum (HPCCC), an English catalogue of learning objectives, into German to make its content widely accessible in the German-speaking countries. This catalogue lists 61 educational objectives and was agreed on by 121 international communication experts. A European reference framework for inter- and multi-professional curriculum development for communication in the health professions in German-speaking countries should be provided. The German version of the HPCCC was drafted by six academics and went through multiple revisions until consensus was reached. The learning objectives were paired with appropriate teaching and assessment tools drawn from the database of the teaching Committee of the European Association for Communication Health Care (tEACH). The HPCCC learning objectives are now available in German and can be applied for curriculum planning and development in the different German-speaking health professions, the educational objectives can also be used for inter-professional purposes. Examples for teaching methods and assessment tools are given for using and implementing the objectives. The German version of the HPCCC with learning objectives for communication in health professions can contribute significantly to inter- and multi-professional curriculum development in the health care professions in the German-speaking countries. Examples for teaching methods and assessment tools from the materials compiled by tEACH supplement the curricular content and provide suggestions for practical implementation of the learning objectives in teaching and assessment. The relevance of the German HPCCC to the processes of curriculum development for the various health professions and inter

  16. Biliary atresia: lessons learned from the voluntary German registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, J; Kuebler, J F; Leute, P J; Turowski, C; Becker, T; Pfister, E-D; Ure, B; Petersen, C

    2011-03-01

    Aim of the study was to carry out a 5-year survey of German patients with biliary atresia (BA) and to launch a discussion regarding the feasibility of voluntary registries in unregulated healthcare systems. A retrospective analysis of German BA patients born between 2001 and 2005, based on data collected from the voluntary European Biliary Atresia Registry (EBAR), was carried out and supplemented by data from all BA patients who underwent liver transplantation at the only 4 pediatric transplantation centers (pLTx) in Germany which are so far not registered at EBAR. Survival rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared by Cox regression to determine the predictive value of age at surgery and the influence of the center size (fewer or more than 5 patients/study period) on overall survival and survival with native liver. A critical review of the 148 German EBAR charts revealed that 11 patients (7.4%) had no biliary atresia. The remaining 137 patients from EBAR together with 46 BA patients who underwent LTx without prior registration at EBAR were evaluated with a median follow-up of 39 months (range: 25-85 months). 29 hospitals performed a total of 159 Kasai procedures, but only 7 centers treated 5 or more patients (116 patients, range: 5-68), and 22 hospitals performed less than 5 KP (43 patients, range: 1-4). Primary LTx was performed in 21 patients (11.5%) and 3 patients died without surgical intervention. 16 patients were lost to follow-up (8.7%). Overall survival after 2 years was 83.3% (139 patients), including 105 patients (63%) who had undergone LTx and 34 patients (20.3%) with native liver. 28 patients died (16.7%), 8 after LTx (5.8%). The experience of the center was the only factor with a significant predictive value for jaundice-free survival with native liver (p=0.001). 25% of all German BA patients were not registered at EBAR, and 29 clinics were involved in the surgical management of BA patients. Therefore a new approach consisting of

  17. Radiation problems expected for the German spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, K.

    1981-01-01

    The German project for the construction of a Spallation Neutron Source with high proton beam power (5.5 MW) will have to cope with a number of radiation problems. The present report describes these problems and proposes solutions for keeping exposures for the staff and release of activity and radiation into the environment as low as reasonably achievable. It is shown that the strict requirements of the German radiation protection regulations can be met. The main problem will be the exposure of maintenance personnel to remanent gamma radiation, as is the case at existing proton accelerators. Closed ventilation and cooling systems will reduce the release of (mainly short-lived) activity to acceptable levels. Shielding requirements for different sections are discussed, and it is demonstrated by calculations and extrapolations from experiments that fence-post doses well below 150 mrem/y can be obtained at distances of the order of 100 metres from the principal source points. The radiation protection system proposed for the Spallation Neutron Source is discussed, in particular the needs for monitor systems and a central radiation protection data base and alarm system. (orig.)

  18. Treating ADHD With Suggestion: Neurofeedback and Placebo Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Robert T; Veissière, Samuel; Olson, Jay A; Raz, Amir

    2018-06-01

    We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD. Non-deceptive suggestion-based treatments, especially those drawing on accessories from neuroscience, may offer a safe complement and potential alternative to current standard of care for individuals with ADHD.

  19. Clusters e redes de cooperação de pequenas e médias empresas: observatório europeu, caso alemão e contribuições ao caso brasileiro Clusters and cooperation networks of small and medium-sized companies: analysis of european and German experiences and contributions to the brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Cecílio Gerolamo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os recentes estudos sobre clusters e redes de cooperação de pequenas e médias empresas na Europa, realizados pela Comissão Européia, bem como a descrição da atual estratégia de desenvolvimento de redes de competência na Alemanha (Kompetenznetze Deutschland, abordando especificamente o caso da região de Berlim e Brandemburgo. O objetivo principal é, por meio das análises dos programas europeus de desenvolvimento de clusters e redes de cooperação entre pequenas e médias empresas, verificar possibilidades de adaptação para a realidade brasileira no que se refere a arranjos produtivos locais e parques tecnológicos. Em linhas gerais, pequenas e médias empresas pertencentes a clusters na Europa têm demonstrado desempenho acima da média quando comparadas às demais empresas de seus respectivos setores. O aumento da competitividade de clusters e o crescimento econômico regional estão fortemente associados ao investimento em inovação. Esse é o caso da Alemanha que incentiva o desenvolvimento de inovação por meio de suas redes de competência. A região Berlim-Brandemburgo retrata o exemplo de uma estratégia coerente de desenvolvimento local. Pode-se dizer que possíveis alternativas para o Brasil seriam o apoio mais direto do poder público, foco em inovação e definição de processos para gerenciamento das redes de cooperação.This paper presents studies on clusters and cooperation networks of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs developed by the European Commission, as well as a description of the current German strategy for developing competence networks (Kompetenznetze Deutschland, focusing specifically on the case of the regions of Berlin and Brandenburg. The main goal of this work is to analyze the experience of the European and German initiatives and to verify the possibilities of adapting such initiatives to the context of local productive systems and technology parks in Brazil. In

  20. German mires - Utilisation and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderfeld, H.

    1996-01-01

    Mires in Germany are mainly used for agriculture. Peat mining is important regionally, but forest utilisation less so. Twenty years ago in the former West Germany, the first steps from peatland utilisation to peatland protection were taken. Bog protection programmes were developed first. Nowadays research directed to fen protection has begun, prompted by the decreasing importance of agriculture in Central Europe and an increasing environmental awareness. The situation regarding mire protection in Germany is presented for each Federal State individually. A rough estimate suggests 45 000 ha of protected bogs and 25 000 ha of protected fens. These areas include natural and semi-natural mires as well as rewetted mires. (30 refs.)

  1. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events.

  2. Explanatory models of addictive behaviour among native German, Russian-German, and Turkish youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, the public system of addiction treatment is used less by migrants with addictive disorders than by their non-migrant counterparts. To date, the literature has focused primarily on language, sociocultural factors, and residence status when discussing access barriers to this part of the health care system. However, little attention has been paid to cultural differences in explanatory models of addictive behaviour. This is surprising when we consider the important role played by popular knowledge in a population's perceptions of and responses to illnesses, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. In the present study, we examined explanatory models of addictive behaviour and of mental disorders in 124 native German und Russian-German youth and compared these models to those observed in an earlier study of 144 German and Turkish youth. We employed the free listing technique German and to compile the terms that participating subjects used to describe addictive behaviour. Subsequently, we examined how a subset of our study population assigned these terms to the respective disorders by means of the pile sort method. Although the explanatory models used by the German and Russian-German youth in our study were surprisingly similar, those employed by Turkish youth did not make any fundamental distinction between illegal and legal drugs (e.g. alcohol and nicotine). German and Russian-German youth regarded eating disorders as "embarrassing" or "disgraceful", but Turkish youth did not. Unlike our German and Russian-German subjects, the Turkish youth did not classify eating disorders as being addictive in nature. Moreover, medical concepts crucial to a proper understanding of dependence disorders (e.g. the term "physical dependence") were characterised by almost half of our Turkish subjects as useless in describing addictions. These findings show that it is impossible to translate medical or everyday concepts of disease and treatment properly into a different

  3. German words: still used by Japanese obstetrics and gynecology doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Shigeki

    2018-03-01

    German used to be frequently employed in Japanese obstetric and gynecologic (OBGYN) practice; however, it is now less frequently used. Description and analysis of this situation may shed some light on the change of OBGYN practice and education in Japan, which may at least partly hold true to counties other than Japan. Three eras were classified according to the relationship between German and Japanese OBGYN, with each era characterized. Frequently used German words in Japanese OBGYN practice were described as examples. German words have become less frequently used with each successive generation. Even though English may suffice in practical OBGYN practice, German usage will still be passed on to these new generations.

  4. Higher prices, higher quality? Evidence from German nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Annika; Hottenrott, Hanna

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prices and quality of 7400 German nursing homes. We use a cross section of public quality reports for all German nursing homes, which had been evaluated between 2010 and 2013 by external institutions. Our analysis is based on multivariate regressions in a two stage least squares framework, where we instrument prices to explain their effect on quality controlling for income, nursing home density, demographics, labour market characteristics, and infrastructure at the regional level. Descriptive analysis shows that prices and quality do not only vary across nursing homes, but also across counties and federal states and that quality and prices correlate positively. Second, the econometric analysis, which accounts for the endogenous relation between negotiated price and reported quality, shows that quality indeed positively depends on prices. In addition, more places in nursing homes per people in need are correlated with both lower prices and higher quality. Finally, unobserved factors at the federal state level capture some of the variation of reported quality across nursing homes. Our results suggest that higher prices increase quality. Furthermore, since reported quality and prices vary substantially across federal states, we conclude that the quality and prices of long-term care facilities may well be compared within federal states but not across. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The design of the data acquisition system for a very large bismuth germanate calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, J.; Isaila, M.; Piroue, P.; Stickland, D.; Sumner, R.

    1984-02-01

    LEPC, the Large Electron Positron Collider being built at CERN, will be ready for experiments in 1988. A large array of bismuth germanate crystals will be part of one of the first experiments to be installed. Particles (including photons) resulting from the collisions will be identified and measured in the surrounding detector. At the center of this composite detector is a tracking device to observe the trajectories of all particles. Beyond this is the bismuth germanate array; it will measure the energy of electrons and photons from a few MeV to 100 GeV. This is surrounded by the hadron calorimeter. The bismuth germanate calorimeter will consist of about 12,000 individual bismuth germanate crystals. Each crystal will have an independent readout system. This system uses silicon photodiodes, each with its own ADC, to measure the scintillation light from each crystal. The ADC is implemented in software in a single chip microcomputer, using a modification of successive approximation, which produces a very wide dynamic range. The microcomputer also provides data buffering and several other housekeeping functions. The initial design of the readout system, presented in this paper, evolved from an attempt to minimize the size requirements and the number of cables needed, and to meet the dynamic range requirement in a practical way.

  6. The design of the data acquisition system for a very large bismuth germanate calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, J.; Isaila, M.; Piroue, P.; Stickland, D.; Sumner, R.

    1984-01-01

    LEPC, the Large Electron Positron Collider being built at CERN, will be ready for experiments in 1988. A large array of bismuth germanate crystals will be part of one of the first experiments to be installed. Particles (including photons) resulting from the collisions will be identified and measured in the surrounding detector. At the center of this composite detector is a tracking device to observe the trajectories of all particles. Beyond this is the bismuth germanate array; it will measure the energy of electrons and photons from a few MeV to 100 GeV. This is surrounded by the hadron calorimeter. The bismuth germanate calorimeter will consist of about 12,000 individual bismuth germanate crystals. Each crystal will have an independent readout system. This system uses silicon photodiodes, each with its own ADC, to measure the scintillation light from each crystal. The ADC is implemented in software in a single chip microcomputer, using a modification of successive approximation, which produces a very wide dynamic range. The microcomputer also provides data buffering and several other housekeeping functions. The initial design of the readout system, presented in this paper, evolved from an attempt to minimize the size requirements and the number of cables needed, and to meet the dynamic range requirement in a practical way

  7. Effects of Discrete Emotions on Young Children's Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Linda J.; Burgess, Stewart L.; Laney, Cara

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of sadness, anger, and happiness on 4- to 6-year-old children's memory and suggestibility concerning story events. In Experiment 1, children were presented with 3 interactive stories on a video monitor. The stories included protagonists who wanted to give the child a prize. After each story, the child…

  8. Different zooplankton structures in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P.; Brockmann, U.

    1993-06-01

    In August 1982, a net of 48 stations with altogether 208 samples was investigated in the eastern German Bight with respect to temperature, salinity, as well as the amount and species composition of the mesozooplankton (>80 μm). The data were arranged into different structures by means of a cluster analysis. Four different clusters were found: (a) a “Wadden sea water” with few holoplankton organisms but a higher amount of spionid larvae; (b) a “German Bight water” with a maximum occurrence of turbellaria ( Alaurina composita) and medium concentrations of copepods; (c) a mixing area between these two water masses with highest amounts of Oikopleura dioica, Temora longicornis, Acartia sp., mussel larvae and larvae of the spionid worms; (d) a “North Sea water” mass with highest concentrations of Pseudocalanus elongatus, Paracalanus parvus und Oithona similis. The differences in the concentrations of the species mentioned between the four clusters were significant on the 0.1%-level.

  9. Methane in German hard coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, P.N.; Den Drijver, J.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide, hard coal mining is being carried out at ever increasing depth, and has, therefore, to cope with correspondingly increasing methane emissions are caused by coal mining. Beside carbon dioxide, chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides, methane is one of the most significant 'greenhouse' gases. It is mainly through the release of such trace gases that the greenhouse effect is brought about. Reducing methane emissions is therefore an important problem to be solved by the coal mining industry. This paper begins by highlighting some of the fundamental principles of methane in hard coal mining. The methane problem in German hard coal mining and the industry's efforts to reduce methane emissions are presented. The future development in German hard coal mining is illustrated by an example which shows how large methane volumes can be managed, while still maintaining high outputs at increasing depth. (author). 7 tabs., 10 figs., 20 refs

  10. 14th German nuclear law symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgi, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear law is still relevant and topical. The nuclear power phase-out in response to the nuclear accident of Fukushima and the turnaround in German energy policy raise new legal issues. In several lectures of practioners and scientists the 14th German Nuclear Law Symposium examined questions regarding the retrofitting of nuclear power plants, their decommissioning and disposal, the current developements in the European nuclear and radiation protection law and the search for a final nuclear waste repository. The nuclear law provides examples for central challenges of administrative law, such as the independence of authorities and the protection of third parties. The discussions between the almost 150 participants are documented in several reports.

  11. Psychological training of German science astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzey, D; Schiewe, A

    1992-07-01

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  12. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

  13. Zinc injection in German PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, K.

    2004-01-01

    Operating experience acquired at PWR NNPs shows that zinc injection at low concentrations of 5 ppb is a very effective source term reduction measure. This method does not lead to any operating restrictions or other negative effects on plant systems and components. The nuclear industry has been very successful in reducing radiation exposures within the past two decades. Annual exposures could be significantly decreased and are now at a level of around 1 man-Sv per plant and year. This great success can mainly be attributed to the general commitment of plant operators to maintaining radiation exposures of workers in the controlled access area as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA principle). The ALARA principle, of course, also implies evaluation of the economic benefit of radiation protection measures. Radiation source term reduction has drawn increasing attention of plant operators in recent years. For the new PWRs cobalt-based alloys in the primary system have successively been eliminated already at the design and construction phase within the last decade. Use of wear-resistant cobalt-free substitute materials in combination with the general use of advanced alloys for the steam generator tubing of PWRs resulted in low values for the two most common sources of plant radiation fields, namely 58 Co and 60 Co. Investigations showed that the beneficial effect of zinc can be related to its high affinity for mixed spinel oxide phases, resulting in the following two basic effects: -Zinc is incorporated preferentially into the oxide layer on primary system surfaces and thus reduces pickup of 58 Co and 60 Co and - Zinc can displace cobalt isotopes from existing oxide layers. In German PWRs with Incoloy 800 steam generator tubing material (Ni-content -32%), the observed reductions correspond to a decrease in dose rates of around 10 to 15% per year and thus follow, as predicted, the half-life time of 60 Co. Overall reductions in high radiation areas are now in the range of

  14. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  15. Alexithymia in the German general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Matthias; Popp, Kerstin; Schaefer, Ralf; Sitte, Wolfgang; Schneider, Christine; Hardt, Jochen; Decker, Oliver; Braehler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    The Toronto-Alexithymia-Scale (TAS-20) is used worldwide as a valid measurement of alexithymia. Until now, population-based standardization and cut-off values of the German TAS-20 version have not been available. This study provides these by means of a representative German sample and by investigating the factorial structure of the TAS-20. Data were generated from a representative random sample of the German general population (1,859 subjects aged between 20 and 69). The TAS-20 sum score was normally distributed. The mean value was 49.5 (SD=9.3) in men and 48.2 (SD=9.2) in women. Divorce, single and low social status were associated with enhanced sum scores. Ten percent of the population exceeded the TAS-20 sum score threshold of >or=61. The 66th percentile reached 53 for men and 52 for women. Factor analysis identified three factors that match the scales of the English original version. An additional fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") was extracted. Total explanation of variance by these four factors was 52.27%. The sum score of the German TAS-20 version is suited for the standardized measure of alexithymia. For selecting alexithymic individuals in experimental studies, the cut-off >or=61 is possibly too restrictive. Therefore, we propose the 66th percentile for the identification of high alexithymics. The TAS-20 sum score is associated with important socio-demographic variables. The factorial structure is reliable; the fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") provides differentiation of content and allows for enhanced explanation of variance.

  16. Nuclear energy and German foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, K.

    1979-01-01

    The author shows that the present foreign-policy situation with regard to the nuclear-energy complex is due to political and energy-policy origins. He is further of the opinion that the expansion of nuclear energy - in spite of internal political difficulties - will continue in the long term. Hence breeders and reconditioning will become realities. For German foreign policy this means that it must also carry responsibilities on a global scale in this respect. (orig.) [de

  17. Right Face: Understanding German Political Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-16

    years passed, invested Germancarliamentary life , and politics in general, with ar increasing amount of friction and frustra-ton. The new German state...Wranslated by William C. Kirby, Cambridge: .arvaro ° Uiversity Press, 1981. George F. Kennan, The Decline of Bismarck’s European Order, .7anco-Russian...continental Empire, free from the economic pressure of Britain, America, and France. The costs of the war in human life and resources fed procressively more

  18. Remarks on the german regulation of crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Tröger, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Crowdfunding is a buzzword that signifies a sub-set in the new forms of finance facilitated by advances in information technology usually categorized as fintech. Concerns for financial stability, investor and consumer protection, or the prevention of money laundering or funding of terrorism hinge incrementally on including the new techniques to initiate financing relationships adequately in the regulatory framework. This paper analyzes the German regulation of crowdinvesting and finds that it...

  19. [German nurses during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  20. Ileocecocolic volvulus in a German shepherd dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javard, Romain; Specchi, Swan; Benamou, Jérôme; Lapointe, Catherine; Deffontaines, Jean-Baptiste; Planté, Jérôme; d’Anjou, Marc-André

    2014-01-01

    This report describes an ileocecocolic volvulus in a German shepherd dog with risk factors of previous abdominal surgeries and concurrent chronic enteropathy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) with multiplanar reformatting was more sensitive than abdominal radiographs or ultrasound to obtain a diagnosis, because of the presence of a “whirl-sign” on CT. A combination of colopexy and cecopexy was succesfully used to treat the patient’s condition. PMID:25392556

  1. Interaction of oxygen vacancies in yttrium germanates

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Forming a good Ge/dielectric interface is important to improve the electron mobility of a Ge metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor. A thin yttrium germanate capping layer can improve the properties of the Ge/GeO 2 system. We employ electronic structure calculations to investigate the effect of oxygen vacancies in yttrium-doped GeO 2 and the yttrium germanates Y 2Ge 2O 7 and Y 2GeO 5. The calculated densities of states indicate that dangling bonds from oxygen vacancies introduce in-gap states, but the system remains insulating. However, yttrium-doped GeO 2 becomes metallic under oxygen deficiency. Y-doped GeO 2, Y 2Ge 2O 7 and Y 2GeO 5 are calculated to be oxygen substoichiometric under low Fermi energy conditions. The use of yttrium germanates is proposed as a way to effectively passivate the Ge/dielectric interface. This journal is © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  2. German energy market 2017; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland; World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2018-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply as specified in the energy concept of the Federal Government towards the increased use of renewable energies with simultaneous increase of energy efficiency still determines the market development. In the present case, a current overview of the German energy market 2017 is given, which provides a concentrated compilation of the key figures of the energy industry. As in previous years, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also deals in detail with the development of the individual energy sources oil, natural gas, brown and hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends are explained on the international markets and inland. An overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2017 concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt nach wie vor die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt 2017 gegeben, der eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun und Steinkohle, Kernenergie sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen von 1990 bis 2017 schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  3. The new German radiation protection ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, W.; Weimer, G.

    2003-01-01

    According to European law, the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) published by the European Council in 1996 and the Council Directive on health protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure had to be transferred into national law within due time. In 2001 the new Ordinance for the Implementation of the Euratom Guidelines on Radiation Protection] was published, which replaces the old Radiation Protection Ordinance. The new German Ordinance adapts the European Directive to German law, covering the general principles but even giving more details in many fields of radiation protection. The BSS scope certainly is much broader than the prescriptions important for the field of radiation protection in nuclear power plants. According to the scope of this workshop on occupational exposure in nuclear power plants - and as the BSS most probably will be quite familiar to all of you - after a short general overview on relevant contents of the German Ordinance, this presentation will focus on the main issues important in the operation of NPP and especially on some areas which may give rise to necessary changes caused by the new Ordinance. (A.L.B.)

  4. The risk of coronary heart disease of seafarers on vessels sailing under a German flag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Jensen, Hans-Joachim; Latza, Ute; Baur, Xaver

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among seafarers on German-flagged vessels and to assess the association of shipboard job duration at sea with the risk of CHD. During the legally required medical fitness test for nautical service, 161 seafarers in Hamburg participated in a cross-sectional study which included an interview, blood sampling, and blood pressure measurements (response 84.9%). The predicted 10-year risk of an acute coronary event of the examined German seafarers aged 35 to 64 years (n = 46) was assessed in comparison with a sample of male German employees of the same age working ashore (PROCAM study). The number of independent CHD risk factors (according to the PROCAM study) was compared in the groups with 'shorter' and 'longer' median shipboard job duration at sea (15.0 years). The examined German seafarers had a similar age-standardized predicted 10-year CHD risk as the German reference population. Nearly all independent CHD risk factors were significantly more frequent in seamen with job duration at sea of ≥ 15 years than in those with 〈 15 years. After adjusting for age, the number of CHD risk factors was associated with job duration (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.02-1.14] per year). Seafarers on German-flagged ships have to attend a medical fitness test for nautical service every 2 years. Thus, it can be assumed that seafarers present a healthier population than employees ashore. In this study, however, CHD risk of seafarers was similar to that of the reference population. This may indicate that working onboard implies a high coronary risk. Furthermore, the study results suggest a tendency of increased risk of CHD among seafarers with longer job duration at sea.

  5. Measuring customer preferences in the German statutory health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendzialek, Jonas B; Simic, Dusan; Stock, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates consumer preferences in the German statutory health insurance market. It further aims to test whether preferences differ by age and health status. Evidence is provided by a discrete choice experiment conducted in 2014 using the six most important attributes in sickness fund competition and ten random generated choice sets per participant. Price is found to be the most important attribute followed by additional benefits, managed care programmes, and distance to nearest branch. Other positive attributes of sickness funds are found to balance out a higher price, which would allow a sickness fund to position itself as high quality. However, significant differences in preferences were found between age and health status group. In particular, compromised health is associated with higher preference for illness-related additional benefits and less distance to the lowest branch, but lower preference for a lower price. Based on these differences, a distinct sickness fund offer could be constructed that would allow passive risk selection.

  6. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  7. Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: Criticism and Suggestions*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: A reminder of general problems in the formation of terminology, as illustrated by theGerman Äquivalence (Eng. equivalence and äquivalent (Eng. equivalent, is followed by a critical discussionof the concept of equivalence in contrastive lexicology. It is shown that especially the conceptof partial equivalence is contradictory in its different manifestations. Consequently attemptsare made to give a more precise indication of the concept of equivalence in the metalexicography,with regard to the domain of the nominal lexicon. The problems of especially the metalexicographicconcept of partial equivalence as well as that of divergence are fundamentally expounded.In conclusion the direction is indicated to find more appropriate metalexicographic versions of theconcept of equivalence.

    Keywords: EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENT, PARTIAL EQUIVALENCE,CONGRUENCE, DIVERGENCE, CONVERGENCE, POLYDIVERGENCE, SYNTAGM-EQUIVALENCE,ZERO EQUIVALENCE, CORRESPONDENCE

    Abstrakt: Äquivalenz in der zweisprachigen Lexikographie: Kritik und Vorschläge.Nachdem an allgemeine Probleme der Begriffsbildung am Beispiel von dt. Äquivalenzund dt. äquivalent erinnert wurde, wird zunächst auf Äquivalenzbegriffe in der kontrastiven Lexikologiekritisch eingegangen. Es wird gezeigt, dass insbesondere der Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenzin seinen verschiedenen Ausprägungen widersprüchlich ist. Sodann werden Präzisierungenzu den Äquivalenzbegriffen in der Metalexikographie versucht, die sich auf den Bereich der Nennlexikbeziehen. Insbesondere der metalexikographische Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenz sowie derder Divergenz werden grundsätzlich problematisiert. In welche Richtung man gehen kann, umangemessenere metalexikographische Fassungen des Äquivalenzbegriffs zu finden, wird abschließendangedeutet.

    Stichwörter: ÄQUIVALENZ, LEXIKOGRAPHISCHES ÄQUIVALENT, PARTIELLE ÄQUIVALENZ,KONGRUENZ, DIVERGENZ, KONVERGENZ, POLYDIVERGENZ

  8. Investigation for integration of the German Public Health Service in catastrophe and disaster prevention programs in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, E.; Koenig, S.; Himmelseher, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research project aimed at investigating the integration of the GPHS into the plans for civil defence and protection as well as catastrophe prevention of the Federal Republic of Germany. Following a comprehensive analysis of the current situation, potential proposals for an improved integrative approach will be presented. In view of the lack of topics relevant for medical care in disaster medicine in educational curricula and training programs for medical students and postgraduate board programs for public health physicians, a working group of the Civil Protection Board of the German Federal Ministry of the Interior already complained in their 'Report on execution of legal rules for protection and rescue of human life as well as restitution of public health after disaster' in 1999, that the integration of the GPHS into catastrophe and disaster prevention programs has insufficiently been solved. On a point-by-point approach, our project analysed the following issues: - Legislative acts for integration of the German Public Health Service into medical care in catastrophes and disasters to protect the civilian population of Germany and their implementation and execution. - Administrative rules and directives on state and district levels that show relationship to integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management and their implementation and execution. - Education and postgraduate training options for physicians and non-physician employees of the German Public health Service to prepare for medical care in catastrophes and disasters. - State of knowledge and experience of the German Public Health Service personnel in emergency and disaster medicine. - Evaluation of the German administrative catastrophe prevention authorities with regard to their integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management. - Development of a concept to remedy the

  9. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  10. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  11. German Atomic Energy Act turns fifty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The German Atomic Energy Act entered into force on January 1, 1960. It turns fifty at the beginning of 2010. Is this a reason to celebrate or rather the opposite? Lawyers, in principle, can view old pieces of legislation from 2 perspectives: On the one hand, aged laws are treated in a spirit of veneration and are celebrated as proven. On the other hand, an anniversary of this kind can be a welcome reason for demands to abolish or, at least, fundamentally renew that law. Over the past half century, the German Atomic Energy Act went through stormy and varied phases both of a legal and a political character. Its 50 th anniversary is likely to spark off very conflicting evaluations as well. A review of legal history shows that the German or, rather, the Federal German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) was not a first-of-its-kind piece of legislation but stemmed from the 1957 EURATOM Treaty, in a way representing a latecomer of that treaty. The Atomic Energy Act experienced a number of important developments throughout its history: - In 1975, compulsory licensing of fuel element factories was introduced. - The back end of the fuel cycle, especially final storage, were incorporated in the Atomic Energy Act comprehensively first in 1976. - In 1985, legislators decided in favor of unlimited nuclear liability. - In 1994 and 1998, only some innovations in special items were introduced under the headings of environmental impact assessment and suitability for repository storage because the controversy about nuclear power did not permit a fundamental alignment towards a more comprehensive modern safety law. - The decision to opt out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in 2002 drew the final line so far of decisions about directions of nuclear law in a major amendment. In parallel, the decisions by the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court in the late 1970s and, above all, the 1980s provided important assistance which has remained valid to this day. What is

  12. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  13. Proactive and Retroactive Effects of Negative Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan S.; Brown, Christine M.; Mosbacher, Joy L.; Dryden, W. Erich

    2006-01-01

    The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false…

  14. The Amenity Value of Climate to German Households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehdanz, K.; Maddison, D.

    2004-03-01

    This study uses the hedonic approach to measure the amenity value of climate in Germany. Unlike in earlier research separate hedonic wage and house price regressions are estimated for relatively small geographic areas and formal tests undertaken to determine whether the coefficients describing the impact of climate variables are homogenous across these areas. Evidence suggests that German households are compensated for climate amenities mainly through hedonic housing markets. Given that climate is largely unproductive to industry and few industries spend more on land than labour this is consistent with what theory would predict. Throughout Germany house prices are higher in areas with higher January temperatures, lower July temperatures and lower January precipitation. In East Germany wages are higher in areas with higher January precipitation. The full implicit price of climate variables however is very uncertain

  15. Curriculum design and German student exchange for Sino-German Bachelor program majored in optoelectronics engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jihong; Fuhrmann, Thomas; Xu, Boqing; Schreiner, Rupert; Jia, Hongzhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ning; Seebauer, Gudrun; Zhu, Jiyan

    2017-08-01

    Different higher education backgrounds in China and Germany led to challenges in the curriculum design at the beginning of our cooperative bachelor program in Optoelectronics Engineering. We see challenges in different subject requirements from both sides and in the German language requirements for Chinese students. The curriculum was optimized according to the ASIIN criteria, which makes it acceptable and understandable by both countries. German students are integrated into the Chinese class and get the same lectures like their Chinese colleagues. Intercultural and curriculum challenges are successfully solved. The results are summarized to provide an example for other similar international programs.

  16. The German energy audit program for firms. A cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleiter, T.; Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Str. 48, 76139, Karlsruhe (Germany); Gruber, E. [Institute for Resource Efficiency and Energy Strategies IREES GmbH, Schoenfeldstr. 8, 76131, Karlsruhe (Germany); Worrell, E. [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In 2008, a program was established in Germany to provide grants for energy audits in small- and medium-sized enterprises. It aims to overcome barriers to energy efficiency, like the lack of information or a lack of capacity, and is intended to increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. We evaluate the program's impact in terms of energy savings, CO2 mitigation, and cost-effectiveness. We find that firms adopt 1.7-2.9 energy efficiency measures, which they would not have adopted without the program. Taking a firm's perspective, the program shows a net present value ranging from -0.4 to 6 euro/MWh saved, which very likely implies a net benefit. For the government, each ton of CO2 mitigated costs between 1.8 and 4.1 euro. Each euro of public expenditure on audit grants led to 17-33 euro of private investment. The cost-effectiveness of the program for firms and the low share of public expenditure underline its value for the German energy efficiency policy mix and suggest that it should be expanded in Germany. Further, the good experiences with the program in Germany should encourage countries which have not yet established an audit program to do so.

  17. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  18. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  19. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  20. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  1. Comparison of irradiated and hydrogen implanted German RPV steels using PAS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecko, Stanislav, E-mail: stanislav.pecko@stuba.sk; Sojak, Stanislav; Slugeň, Vladimír

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • German RPV steels were originally studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy. • Neutron irradiated and hydrogen ion implanted specimens were studied. • Both irradiation ways caused to increase of defect size. • We determined that the defect size was higher in implanted specimens. - Abstract: Radiation degradation of nuclear materials can be experimentally simulated via ion implantation. In our case, German reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels were studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). This spectroscopic method is a really effective tool for the evaluation of microstructural changes and for the analysis of degradation of reactor steels due to irradiation. German commercial reactor pressure vessel steels, originally from CARISMA program, were used in our study. The German experimental reactor VAK was selected as the proper irradiation facility in the 1980s. A specimen in as-received state and 2 different irradiated cuts from the same material were measured by PALS and size of defects with their intensity was indentified. Afterwards there was prepared an experiment with concern in simulation of neutron irradiation by hydrogen ion implantation on a linear accelerator with energy of 100 keV. Results are concerning on comparison between defects caused by neutron irradiation and hydrogen implantation. The size and intensity of defects reached a similar level as in the specimens irradiated in the nuclear reactor due to hydrogen ions implantation.

  2. The German East-West Mortality Difference: Two Crossovers Driven by Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Tobias; van Raalte, Alyson; Grigoriev, Pavel; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-06-01

    Before the fall of the Berlin Wall, mortality was considerably higher in the former East Germany than in West Germany. The gap narrowed rapidly after German reunification. The convergence was particularly strong for women, to the point that Eastern women aged 50-69 now have lower mortality despite lower incomes and worse overall living conditions. Prior research has shown that lower smoking rates among East German female cohorts born in the 1940s and 1950s were a major contributor to this crossover. However, after 1990, smoking behavior changed dramatically, with higher smoking intensity observed among women in the eastern part of Germany. We forecast the impact of this changing smoking behavior on East-West mortality differences and find that the higher smoking rates among younger East German cohorts will reverse their contemporary mortality advantage. Mortality forecasting methods that do not account for smoking would, perhaps misleadingly, forecast a growing mortality advantage for East German women. Experience from other countries shows that smoking can be effectively reduced by strict anti-smoking policies. Instead, East Germany is becoming an example warning of the consequences of weakening anti-smoking policies and changing behavioral norms.

  3. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama

    Full Text Available Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion.

  4. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  5. A German colony in Jutland: the evidence of Christian names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggert, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Denmark lost the war in 1848-50 against the German States, and Danish nationalism had arisen throughout the country. For this reason the descendants of the German immigrants had a need culturally or politically to show their Danish identity through the names about 20 years before the language......In 1760, invited by king Frederik V, immigrants came to Denmark from the southern parts of Germany. Uninhabited moorlands in Jutland needed to be cultivated and the German immigrants were offered a number of inducements to settle in Viborg County. Many of the German immigrants settled in a single...... parish, Frederik’s Parish. Here the German language was used for services in the parish church until 1856. Thereafter German and Danish services alternated, and from 1870 the church language was solely Danish. This investigation shows that in 1801, after about 40 years in Denmark, the immigrants...

  6. Five years of partnership programme between German and East European nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, P.

    1995-01-01

    In a jointly adopted communique in August 1992 the regulations governing the partnerships were laid down. The following principles are given priority: bilateral exchange of operating experience on the basis of equal partnership; the knowledge gained from the exchange of experience is used to improve the operation and safety of the respective partner plant; the partnership programme is free from commercial interests and does not include transfer of funds. Since the establishment of the first partnership relations (Biblis) with an east european nuclear power plant (Balakowo) late in April 1990, a total of 126 reciprocal visits was paid, 82 of which to German nuclear power plants. The balance of the efforts made by German nuclear power plant operators to integrate east european nuclear plant operators can be considered positive. (orig./HP) [de

  7. GERMANISMS IN THE NORTH ČAKAVIAN DIALECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Turk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Germanisms in some local idioms of the North Čakavian dialect. Phonological, morphological and word-formation variants of Germanisms are identified. Special attention is paid to the semantic fields and to the spatial, temporal, functional and stylistic stratification of the Germanisms, and to the degree to which they are recognized and used by speakers who belong to different generations.

  8. On the contrast between Germanic and Romance negated quantifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Cirillo

    2009-01-01

    Universal quantifiers can be stranded in the manner described by Sportiche (1988), Giusti (1990) and Shlonsky (1991) in both the Romance and Germanic languages, but a negated universal quantifier can only be stranded in the Germanic languages. The goal of this paper is to show that this contrast between the Romance and the Germanic languages can be explained if one adapts the theory of sentential negation in Zeijlstra (2004) to constituent (quantifier) negation. According to Zeijlstra’s theor...

  9. Optical Properties of Tm(3+) Ions in Alkali Germanate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2006-01-01

    Tm-doped alkali germanate glass is investigated for use as a laser material. Spectroscopic investigations of bulk Tm-doped germanate glass are reported for the absorption, emission and luminescence decay. Tm:germanate shows promise as a fiber laser when pumped with 0.792 m diodes because of low phonon energies. Spectroscopic analysis indicates low nonradiative quenching and pulsed laser performance studies confirm this prediction by showing a quantum efficiency of 1.69.

  10. Sibling Rivalry in Educational Attainment: The German Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; Thomas Bauer

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies exploring sibling rivalry in the allocation of household resources in the U.S. produce conflicting results. We contribute to this discussion by addressing the role of sibling rivalry in educational attainment in Germany. Using the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) we are able to distinguish how the effects of sibling rivalry vary by cultural affiliation, i.e., among families of West German, East German and foreign origin. We also point out and correct for a reference group pro...

  11. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  12. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  13. Pyrethroid resistance and cross-resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Appel, A G; Moar, W J; Liu, N

    2001-11-01

    A German cockroach (Blatella germanica (L)) strain, Apyr-R, was collected from Opelika, Alabama after control failures with pyrethroid insecticides. Levels of resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin in Apyr-R (97- and 480-fold, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain, ACY) were partially or mostly suppressed by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), suggesting that P450 monooxygenases and hydrolases are involved in resistance to these two pyrethroids in Apyr-R. However, incomplete suppression of pyrethroid resistance with PBO and DEF implies that one or more additional mechanisms are involved in resistance. Injection, compared with topical application, resulted in 43- and 48-fold increases in toxicity of permethrin in ACY and Apyr-R, respectively. Similarly, injection increased the toxicity of deltamethrin 27-fold in ACY and 28-fold in Apyr-R. These data indicate that cuticular penetration is one of the obstacles for the effectiveness of pyrethroids against German cockroaches. However, injection did not change the levels of resistance to either permethrin or deltamethrin, suggesting that a decrease in the rate of cuticular penetration may not play an important role in pyrethroid resistance in Apyr-R. Apyr-R showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid, with a resistance ratio of 10. PBO treatment resulted in no significant change in the toxicity of imidacloprid, implying that P450 monooxygenase-mediated detoxication is not the mechanism responsible for cross-resistance. Apyr-R showed no cross-resistance to spinosad, although spinosad had relatively low toxicity to German cockroaches compared with other insecticides tested in this study. This result further confirmed that the mode of action of spinosad to insects is unique. Fipronil, a relatively new insecticide, was highly toxic to German cockroaches, and the multi-resistance mechanisms in Apyr-R did not confer significant cross-resistance to this compound. Thus, we propose

  14. The Contemporary System of German Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman O. Raynkhardt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the description and analysis of functioning of the German national system of economic diplomacy. The author provides a brief summary of historical and economic background, stages and conditions of its development from the 1950-s to present time. He casts light upon the procedures and mechanisms of interaction between the key national economic-diplomatic agents i.e. ministries, agencies, other authorized bodies, public and private institutes outlining their usage of concrete economic, administrative and legal instruments in the course of respective policy measures. The author looks into the distinctive features which encompass the essence of the model: a two-level system with three pillars: foreign representations of the MFA, Germany Trade and Investment Agency, chambers of commerce. The above elements do not overlap each other's functions, but complement them; their functioning is based upon interministeriality and the single window concept. A special focus is made on the practice of economic-diplomatic agents, especially chambers of commerce, using private public partnership instruments. In general, notwithstanding recurring negative trends of the domestic and global business climate (oil crisis in the 1970-s, recession of the late 2000s - early 2010s the German economy demonstrated of high resistibility to exogenous shocks compared to other economies and according to the absolute values of its macroeconomic indicators. Alongside other economic and noneconomic factors this stability can to a certain extent be explained by an efficient system of economic diplomacy. Established in the 1970s it keeps on evolving in order to stand up to new challenges. At any stage of the business cycle it constitutes a pillar of the German economy and, ultimately, of the economy of the European Union.

  15. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-01-01

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: → Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. → The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. → Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  16. German Translation and Validation of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire Short Form (CSQ-SF-D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J M Huys

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations.The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects.The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D including only 27 of the 72 items.The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers.

  17. No grammatical gender effect on affective ratings: evidence from Italian and German languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Roivainen, Eka

    2018-06-06

    In this study, we tested the linguistic relativity hypothesis by studying the effect of grammatical gender (feminine vs. masculine) on affective judgments of conceptual representation in Italian and German. In particular, we examined the within- and cross-language grammatical gender effect and its interaction with participants' demographic characteristics (such as, the raters' age and sex) on semantic differential scales (affective ratings of valence, arousal and dominance) in Italian and German speakers. We selected the stimuli and the relative affective measures from Italian and German adaptations of the ANEW (Affective Norms for English Words). Bayesian and frequentist analyses yielded evidence for the absence of within- and cross-languages effects of grammatical gender and sex- and age-dependent interactions. These results suggest that grammatical gender does not affect judgments of affective features of semantic representation in Italian and German speakers, since an overt coding of word grammar is not required. Although further research is recommended to refine the impact of the grammatical gender on properties of semantic representation, these results have implications for any strong view of the linguistic relativity hypothesis.

  18. Timing of international market entry of UK and German high-tech start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Bürgel, Oliver; Fier, Andreas; Licht, Georg; Murray, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    We examine the impact of technological product advantages, prior international experience of the management, firm size and age, country differences, and sunk costs as determinants of the timing of international market entry. The timing of internationalisation is analysed using ?event history analysis? for 600 British and German start-up companies in high-technology industries. The results indicate that the incidence of internationalization increases over time. For the majority of new firms th...

  19. Nuclear power in the energy economics of the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The present structure of the energy economy in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is described and the need of nuclear power stations for the future supply of energy is demonstrated. The selection of the type of nuclear reactor, the existing operating experience with nuclear equipment and the collaboration in this field with the U.S.S.R. is described. The training of personnel in nuclear techniques is noted. (H.E.G.)

  20. Availability Improvement of German Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    High availability is important for the safety and economical performance of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The strategy for availability improvement in a typical German PWR shall be discussed here. Key parameters for strategy development are plant design, availability of safety systems, component reliability, preventive maintenance and outage organization. Plant design, availability of safety systems and component reliability are to a greater extent given parameters that can hardly be influenced after the construction of the plant. But they set the frame for maintenance and outage organisation which have shown to have a large influence on the availability of the plant. (author)

  1. [Poet-physicians in German literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perels, C

    1991-12-17

    Starting with standards arising from the relationship between medicine and art in classical antiquity, biblical tradition and teutonic-pagan antiquity, this article roams through german literature from the Middle Ages up to the 20th century, from Hildegard of Bingen to Gottfried Benn and Alfred Döblin, guided by the question, how strongly medical knowledge and medical practise are reflected in the poetry of writing physicians. Individual dispositions and epoque-specific features are discussed. Special attention is given to Paul Fleming and Angelus Silesius, Albrecht von Haller and Friedrich Schiller, romanticism and Georg Büchner.

  2. Radiation exposure in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1981-01-01

    The individual and collective doses in German nuclear power stations have decreased remarkably since the beginning of the commercial nuclear power production. The paper discusses the influencing factors, that have caused this development and points out areas where improvements are possible in the future. Moreover the interaction between radiation protection practice and the relevant legal regulations is considered. Usually the recording of job related doses is regarded as the most direct access to possible improvements. Concluding, it is therefore demonstrated by some examples how the evaluation of such information has taken effect in practice. (orig.) [de

  3. Heisenberg and the German atomic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, A.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of nuclear fusion 50 years ago, man's entry into the new atomic age, occurred in a fateful era, marked by the Munich Agreement shortly before and the outbreak of World War II shortly afterwards. Werner Heisenberg, Germany's Number One Physicist, was, on the one hand, respected as a competent and 'useful' theoretician, but on the other, was reviled as a 'white Jew, the spirit of Einstein's spirit'. He plays a key role in answering the question of whether research at that time could have resulted in a German atomic bomb. (orig.) [de

  4. Germans don’t make Jokes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    This paper presents early results of a study on the uses of humour by members of the European Parliament. The paper is based on semi-structured interviews done with French, German and Romanian MEPS. The interviews reveal how humour is used by MEPS as well the constraints the interviewees perceive...... develop political strategies which are adapted to the particularities of the political and institutional game at play in an atypical parliament like the EP. On the other hand, they reveal cultural and language borders between MEPs who may have a harder time than expected evolving in a multicultural...

  5. Fifth French-German Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The 2-yearly French-German Conferences on Optimization review the state-of-the-art and the trends in the field. The proceedings of the Fifth Conference include papers on projective methods in linear programming (special session at the conference), nonsmooth optimization, two-level optimization, multiobjective optimization, partial inverse method, variational convergence, Newton type algorithms and flows and on practical applications of optimization. A. Ioffe and J.-Ph. Vial have contributed survey papers on, respectively second order optimality conditions and projective methods in linear programming.

  6. German-Egyptian seminar on environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.; Nentwich, D.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial development and scientific advancement have opened new frontiers of interest and challenges. Anthropogenic activities are increasingly upsetting the natural environmental balance and are at the same time shifting from local impact to global importance. Science is confronted with the challenge to answer the question of what are the consequences of anthropogenic changes to the environment and to help politics formulate countermeasures for the sake of a sustainable future. Protect results achieved within the Egyptian-German cooperation were presented to the scientific community and to the interested public and discussions on future lines of actions took place. (orig./KW)

  7. The German Environmentalist Party - The Greens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettke, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Greens are winning supporters throughout the FRG, quite a few of them are already members of the parliament of various lands. Will they cooperate with the established political parties in Bonn. Will they take over from the Free Democrats the role of holding the balance of power. In this book, Spiegel editors present their analyses of the changing concepts of the new political movement. The most outstanding members of the Environmentalist Party - the so-called Greens - define their position and state their opinions on the problems of coalition forming, and prominent members of the parties of the German Bundestag answer these statements. (orig.) [de

  8. The German energy landscape in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a brief overview of the German energy sector: stagnation of primary energy consumption, shares of the different energy sources (renewable, coal, lignite, oil, gas, nuclear), shares of the different electric power production sources and their recent evolution. It evokes issues related to the objectives defined for energy transition, the high level of renewable energy production and the high level of power exports. It outlines that consumption must be reduced to reach the objectives defined for 2020. It notices a stagnation of the energy system de-carbonation, and comments the evolution of electricity prices

  9. Energy report of the Federal German Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In its governmental declaration of May 4th, 1983, the Federal German Government has pointed out how it will safeguard the continuous, economical, and non-polluting supply of energy to the Federal Republic of Germany. By that report the Federal Government strikes a balance of its policy and defines its position with regard to topical questions, especially the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The report comprises four chapters: 1. peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 2. Summary statement on energy policy, 3. Current situation in the energy market and long-term perspectives, 4. Points of main emphasis of future energy policy. (orig./UA) [de

  10. Ageing management in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.; Reiner, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany, the term 'ageing management' comprises several aspects. A demand for a special ageing monitoring programme is not explicitly contained in the regulations. However, from the Atomic Energy Act and its regulations results the operator's obligation to perform extensive measures to maintain the quality of the plant and the operating personnel working in the plant. From this point of view, comprehensive ageing management in German nuclear power plants has taken place right from the start under the generic term of quality assurance. (author)

  11. German radionuclide exports and imports 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Protection of imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples and sealed emitters above 1850 GBq show a slight decline by 11.8%, on the basis of activity, in imports and a somewhat higher rise by 21.6% in exports in 1990. Imports returned to the level of 1988 after having experienced an extraordinary rise in 1989. Exports were slightly better than in the previous year, but still considerably below the average of the past five years. (orig.) [de

  12. Skin care practice in German nursing homes: a German-wide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Rahn, Yasmin; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Lahmann, Nils

    2013-04-01

    Due to anatomical and physiological changes in the course of aging and due to increased vulnerability, there are special skin care needs in elderly and care-dependent persons. Little is known about skin care practice in German long-term care facilities. The aim of the study was to gather epidemiological data about skin care practice in German nursing homes. In spring 2012 a German-wide cross sectional study was conducted in 47 nursing homes. Based on standardized data collection sheets. demographics and variables about methods and frequencies of skin cleansing and application of skin care products for 3 552 nursing home residents were collected and analyzed. The variables age, gender and level of care dependency was representative for the group of all German nursing home residents. More than 90% of investigated nursing home residents required skin care assistance. Washing body parts or the whole body were conducted most frequently (89.1%, 95% CI 88.0- 90.1). Skin care leave-on products were used in 91.7% (95% CI 90.7-92.6), whereas there were large variations between individuals. In total, more than 100 brands were used. Skin care practice in multimorbid care dependent persons shows large variations. How skin care products meet the special requirements of aged skin and whether they enhance the skin barrier function and prevent cuteneous skin damage is unknown. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  13. Germans or Jews? German-Speaking Jews in Post-War Europe: An Introduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, Kateřina; Rechter, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, November (2017), s. 69-74 ISSN 0075-8744 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Jews * Germans * post- war period Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) https://academic.oup.com/leobaeck/issue/volume/62?browseBy=volume

  14. Middle Triassic chirotherid trackways on earthquake influenced intertidal limulid reproduction flats of the European Germanic Basin coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2012-09-01

    Chirotherid footprints of Synaptichnium, Chirotherium and Isochirotherium appeared during the late Early (Aegean) to early Late (Carnian) Triassic in central Europe. These taxa are partly revised herein, using both perfect and variably preserved tracks, and very long trackways from an upper Pelsonian intertidal-flat megatracksite of the Germanic Basin coast Pelsonian (Karlstadt Formation). The global Middle Triassic distribution of those footprints suggests seasonal migrations across Pangaea of possible archosauriform reptile trackmakers, such as Euparkeria, Ticinosuchus, Arizonasaurus and Batrachotomus, caused by horseshoe-crab mass migrations into tidal-flat beach reproductive zones in the Germanic Basin. Such seasonal migrations may even suggest a Pangaea-wide food-chain reaction, possibly including the mobilization of fish, marine and terrestrial reptiles, and of which situation the Germanic Basin intertidal-flats is a globally unique example.

  15. The German-German history of the nuclear power plant Greifswald. Nuclear power between east and west. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegselius, Per

    2015-01-01

    The historical study covers the chapters The nuclear power plant Greifswald; Lubmin shortly before the ''Wende'' 1989; the German ''Wende''; from the last vote for the ''Volkskammer (parliament of the German Democratic Republic) to the German reunification; Lubmin in reunified Germany; conclusions and perspectives. In the attachment technical data about the reactors WWER-440/W-230 are summarized, including a list of WWERs in the former eastern bloc countries.

  16. The German Fukushima disaster. Media tsunami and policy GAU destroy the energy supply; Das deutsche Fukushima-Desaster. Medien-Tsunami und Polit-GAU verwuesten die Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermecke, Klaus

    2011-10-15

    The author states that that Fukushima accident has shown that severe accident are controllable even in case of deficient planning. The crisis in Fukushima had Japan specific origin and was the result of severe carelessness. The German and Swiss safety technology would have prevented the escalation of the crisis. Fukushima delivers extensive experiences for the further improvement of infrastructure, training and accident management. The German phaseout hysteria is according to the author not based on facts.

  17. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  18. Belief in the paranormal and suggestion in the seance room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma; Smith, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    In Experiment 1, participants took part in a fake seance. An actor suggested that a table was levitating when, in fact, it remained stationary. After the seance, approximately one third of participants incorrectly reported that the table had moved. Results also showed a significant relationship between the reported movement of the table and belief in the paranormal, with a greater percentage of believers than disbelievers, reporting that the table had moved. Experiment 2 varied whether the suggestion was consistent, or inconsistent, with participants' belief in the paranormal. Results again showed that believers were more susceptible to suggestion than disbelievers, but only when the suggestion was consistent with their belief in the paranormal. Approximately one fifth of participants believed that the fake seances contained genuine paranormal phenomena.

  19. German concept and status of the disposal of spent fuel elements from German research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorowski, K.; Storch, S.; Thamm, G.

    1995-01-01

    Eight research reactors with a power ≥ 100 kW are currently being operated in the Federal Republic of Germany. These comprise three TRIGA-type reactors (power 100 kW to 250 kW), four swimming-pool reactors (power 1 MW to 10 MW) and one DIDO type reactor (power 23 MW). The German research reactors are used for neutron scattering for basic research in the field of solid state research, neutron metrology, for the fabrication of isotopes and for neutron activation analysis for medicine and biology, for investigating the influence of radiation on materials and for nuclear fuel behavior. It will be vital to continue current investigations in the future. Further operation of the German research reactors is therefore indispensable. Safe, regular disposal of the irradiated fuel elements arising now and in future operation is of primary importance. Furthermore, there are several plants with considerable quantities of spent fuel, the safe disposal of which is a matter of urgency. These include above all the VKTA facilities in Rossendorf and also the TRIGA reactors, where disposal will only be necessary upon decommissioning. The present paper report is concerned with the disposal of fuel from the German research reactors. It briefly deals with the situation in the USA since the end of 1988, describes interim solutions for current disposal requirements and then mainly concentrates on the German disposal concept currently being prepared. This concept initially envisages the long-term (25--50 years) dry interim storage of fuel elements in special containers in a central German interim store with subsequent direct final disposal without reprocessing of the irradiated fuel

  20. Clarification of the memory artefact in the assessment of suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P

    2008-04-01

    The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some extent the fact that people with ID have poor recall of the story; however, there are discrepancies in this relationship. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a closer match between memory and suggestibility would be found using a measure of recognition memory rather than free recall. Three modifications to the procedure were presented to users of a learning disabilities day service. In all three experiments, a measure of forced-choice recognition memory was built into the suggestibility test. In experiments 1 and 2, the GSS was presented using either divided presentation (splitting the story into two halves, with memory and suggestibility tests after each half) or multiple presentation (the story was presented three times before presentation of the memory and suggestibility tests). Participants were tested twice, once with the standard version of the test and once with one of the modified versions. In experiment 3, an alternative suggestibility scale (ASS3) was created, based on real events in a learning disabilities day service. The ASS3 was presented to one group of participants who had been present at the events, and a second group who attended a different day service, to whom the events were unfamiliar. As observed previously, suggestibility was not closely related to free recall performance: recall was increased equally by all three manipulations, but they produced, respectively, no effect, a modest effect and a large effect on suggestibility. However, the effects on suggestibility were closely related to performance on the forced-choice recognition memory task: divided presentation of the GSS2 had no