Cárdenas Beltrán Melba Libia
Full Text Available Listening practice is often neglected or handled inappropriately in the teachinglearning process. This poses problem because listening is an integral part of conversations. Oral skills without equally welldeveloped listening abilities are of little practical value. In this article, I will take a look at issues related to the area of listening that may be considered when guiding students toward developing listening comprehension.
Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth
In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…
Richards, Jack C.
Three dimensions in the teaching of listening comprehension are outlined: (1) a theory is presented that takes account of the cognitive processes used (approach); (2) listeners' needs are analyzed and a taxonomy of microskills and objectives for teaching them are proposed (design); and (3) classroom exercises and activities are suggested…
Although listening is the skill mostly used by students in the classrooms, the desired success cannot be attained in teaching listening since this skill is shaped by multiple variables. In this research we focused on listening anxiety, listening comprehension and impact of authentic tasks on both listening anxiety and listening comprehension.…
Sommers, Mitchell S
The purpose of this summary is to examine changes in listening comprehension across the adult lifespan and to identify factors associated with individual differences in listening comprehension. In this article, the author reports on both cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in listening comprehension. Despite significant declines in both sensory and cognitive abilities, listening comprehension remains relatively unchanged in middle-aged listeners (between the ages of 40 and 60 years) compared with young listeners. These results are discussed with respect to possible compensatory factors that maintain listening comprehension despite impaired hearing and reduced cognitive capacities.
The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…
Aarnoutse, C.A.J.; Van den Bos, K.P.; Brand-Gruwel, S.
In this study the effects of providing text strategy instruction in a listening mode on listening and reading comprehension of experimental and control groups of 9- to 11-year-old poor readers were examined. All students were very poor in decoding and poor in reading comprehension. In addition, half
Hogan, Tiffany P; Adlof, Suzanne M; Alonzo, Crystle N
The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills (i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the correlation and the influence between listening strategies and listening comprehension. The eleventh grade students were selected as participants of this study. The instruments used in this research were listening strategies questionaire adapted from Lee (1997 and modified by Ho (2006 (as cited Golchi, 2012, and listening comprehension test conducted to measure students’ listening comprehension. Pearson product moment, regression analysis, R-square were used to find out the correlation and the influence between variables. The result revealed that there was a significant correlation between listening strategies and listening comprehension with r = .516. Besides, there was also a significant influence of listening strategies on listening comprehension with 26.6 %. This study could have implications for English language teachers, course designers, learners, and text book writers.
Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Porchesku, Galina V.
Improving listening comprehension skills is one of the urgent contemporary educational problems in the field of second language acquisition. Understanding how L2 listening comprehension works can have a serious influence on language pedagogy. The aim of the paper is to discuss the practical and methodological value of the notion of the perception…
Kashani, Ahmad Sabouri; Sajjadi, Samad; Sohrabi, Mohammad Reza; Younespour, Shima
The fact that visual aids such as pictures or graphs can lead to greater comprehension by language learners has been well established. Nonetheless, the order of presenting visuals to listeners is left unattended. This study examined listening comprehension from a strategy of introducing visual information, either prior to or during an audio…
Corsetti, Cristiane Ruzicki
Full Text Available This article addresses the role of strategy-based listening as an alternative methodological approach to develop pragmatic comprehension in L2 contexts. Pragmatic comprehension refers to the understanding of speech acts and conversational implicatures. Listening comprehension comprises both bottom-up and top-down processes. Strategy-based listening encompasses the activation of pragmatic knowledge through pre-listening activities and the development of specific listening micro-skills. An empirical project which included a classroom project carried out with a group of eight learners preparing for the IELTS examination in 2009 corroborated the following assumptions: in order to achieve listening proficiency, learners need practice in making inferences as semantic and pragmatic inferences are embedded in verbal communication; semantic and pragmatic aspects affecting the meaning of utterances can be highlighted via comprehension activities focusing on specific listening subskills. The results of the classroom project suggested that strategy-based listening is potentially capable of directly enhancing pragmatic comprehension but were inconclusive with regards to pragmatic production
idioms in the passage on listening comprehension. The American Heritage Dictionary (2000) defines idiom as “an expression consisting of two or more...years of age and spoke English without a noticeable foreign accent had significantly poorer word recognition scores than monolingual listeners for...of reference: The experience of the Dutch CEFR Construct Project. Language Assessment Quarterly, 3(1), 3–30. American Heritage Dictionary of the
Janfaza, Abusaied; Jelyani, Saghar Javidi; Soori, Afshin
With the advent of technology, the implication of authentic multimedia-based teaching materials are using widely in language classrooms. Technology can be in service of teaching different skills such as listening, reading, speaking and writing. Among these skills listening comprehension is a skill in which the learners have problems to master.…
Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Helland, Turid
Dichotic listening performance is considered a reliable and valid procedure for the assessment of language lateralisation in the brain. However, the documentation of a relationship between language functions and dichotic listening performance is sparse, although it is accepted that dichotic listening measures language perception. In particular, language comprehension should show close correspondence to perception of language stimuli. In the present study, we tested samples of reading-impaired and normally achieving children between 10 and 13 years of age with tests of reading skills, language comprehension, and dichotic listening to consonant-vowel (CV) syllables. A high correlation between the language scores and the dichotic listening performance was expected. However, since the left ear score is believed to be an error when assessing language laterality, covariation was expected for the right ear scores only. In addition, directing attention to one ear input was believed to reduce the influence of random factors, and thus show a more concise estimate of left hemisphere language capacity. Thus, a stronger correlation between language comprehension skills and the dichotic listening performance when attending to the right ear was expected. The analyses yielded a positive correlation between the right ear score in DL and language comprehension, an effect that was stronger when attending to the right ear. The present results confirm the assumption that dichotic listening with CV syllables measures an aspect of language perception and language skills that is related to general language comprehension.
Sommers, Mitchell S; Hale, Sandra; Myerson, Joel; Rose, Nathan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent
Although age-related declines in perceiving spoken language are well established, the primary focus of research has been on perception of phonemes, words, and sentences. In contrast, relatively few investigations have been directed at establishing the effects of age on the comprehension of extended spoken passages. Moreover, most previous work has used extreme-group designs in which the performance of a group of young adults is contrasted with that of a group of older adults and little if any information is available regarding changes in listening comprehension across the adult lifespan. Accordingly, the goals of the current investigation were to determine whether there are age differences in listening comprehension across the adult lifespan and, if so, whether similar trajectories are observed for age-related changes in auditory sensitivity and listening comprehension. This study used a cross-sectional lifespan design in which approximately 60 individuals in each of 7 decades, from age 20 to 89 yr (a total of 433 participants), were tested on three different measures of listening comprehension. In addition, we obtained measures of auditory sensitivity from all participants. Changes in auditory sensitivity across the adult lifespan exhibited the progressive high-frequency loss typical of age-related hearing impairment. Performance on the listening comprehension measures, however, demonstrated a very different pattern, with scores on all measures remaining relatively stable until age 65 to 70 yr, after which significant declines were observed. Follow-up analyses indicated that this same general pattern was observed across three different types of passages (lectures, interviews, and narratives) and three different question types (information, integration, and inference). Multiple regression analyses indicated that low-frequency pure-tone average was the single largest contributor to age-related variance in listening comprehension for individuals older than 65 yr, but
Full Text Available With the advent of technology, the implication of authentic multimedia-based teaching materials are using widely in language classrooms. Technology can be in service of teaching different skills such as listening, reading, speaking and writing. Among these skills listening comprehension is a skill in which the learners have problems to master. Regarding this issue, utilizing captions for the education purposes has been a good motivation for conducting some research on the effects of captions of listening skills. However, it seems that there is a gap in the literature whether to use captioned movies in the classroom and whether they are effective in improving listening comprehension. Many studies have been conducted on this issue. However, their findings are conclusive. While some studies refer to the effectiveness of using captions, others revel that they are not so effective for improving the learner’s language skills. Hence, the present study is a review of the effects of captioned movies on the improvement of listening skill. In this case, the findings of this study can clarify the role of using captioned movies in improving the listening skill Keywords: captioned movie, technology, listening comprehension, instruction
Tomlinson, John M; Fox Tree, Jean E
Listeners' comprehension of phrase final rising pitch on declarative utterances, or uptalk, was examined to test the hypothesis that prolongations might differentiate conflicting functions of rising pitch. In Experiment 1 we found that listeners rated prolongations as indicating more speaker uncertainty, but that rising pitch was unrelated to ratings. In Experiment 2 we found that prolongations interacted with rising pitch when listeners monitored for words in the subsequent utterance. Words preceded by prolonged uptalk were monitored faster than words preceded by non-prolonged uptalk. In Experiment 3 we found that the interaction between rising pitch and prolongations depended on listeners' beliefs about speakers' mental states. Results support the theory that temporal and situational context are important in determining intonational meaning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq
The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between EFL students strategic listening and their listening comprehension skills. Eighty secondary school students participated in this study. Participants' strategic listening was measured by a Strategic Listening Interview (SLI), a Strategic Listening Questionnaire (SLQ) and a…
Berne, Jane E.
Numerous studies related to listening comprehension strategies have been published in the past two decades. The present study seeks to build upon two previous reviews of listening comprehension strategies research. Of particular interest in this review are studies dealing with the types of cues used by listeners, the sequence of listening,…
Noroozi, Sara Sara; Sim, Tam Shu; Nimehchisalem, Vahid; Zareian, Gholamreza
In the body of literature on listening strategies to EFL learners, what seems to be lacking is that the focus is on teaching listening strategies to learners with little attention to their listening comprehension problems. No local research has been conducted on the nature of the Iranian tertiary level students' EFL listening comprehension…
@@ We many notice that in listening classroom, what proficient students complain most is that they can get every word in the listening material but the most difficult thing for them is to keep in mind what they have heard. Although listening comprehension is now widely considered to be of great importance in second language learning and is extensively studied, there has not been enough research on listening comprehensionfrom the language processing perspective. And there is not too much studies involving the concept of memory in listening comprehension,especially the relationship between working memory capacity and listening comprehension.
Long, Donna Reseigh
Enormous potential exists for the transfer of listening comprehension theory to second language listening research. The need for such research is highlighted through an exploration of recurring themes in the literature on background knowledge and through application of these themes to second language listening comprehension. (CB)
Listening comprehension has gained more prominence in EFL/ESL classes. Due to this prominence, scholars have tried to shed light on different ways of improving learners' listening comprehension. One of these ways is using listening strategies. There is still a controversy over the effective role of these strategies in improving listening…
Schneider, Bruce A; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Daneman, Meredyth
Comprehending spoken discourse in noisy situations is likely to be more challenging to older adults than to younger adults due to potential declines in the auditory, cognitive, or linguistic processes supporting speech comprehension. These challenges might force older listeners to reorganize the ways in which they perceive and process speech, thereby altering the balance between the contributions of bottom-up versus top-down processes to speech comprehension. The authors review studies that investigated the effect of age on listeners' ability to follow and comprehend lectures (monologues), and two-talker conversations (dialogues), and the extent to which individual differences in lexical knowledge and reading comprehension skill relate to individual differences in speech comprehension. Comprehension was evaluated after each lecture or conversation by asking listeners to answer multiple-choice questions regarding its content. Once individual differences in speech recognition for words presented in babble were compensated for, age differences in speech comprehension were minimized if not eliminated. However, younger listeners benefited more from spatial separation than did older listeners. Vocabulary knowledge predicted the comprehension scores of both younger and older listeners when listening was difficult, but not when it was easy. However, the contribution of reading comprehension to listening comprehension appeared to be independent of listening difficulty in younger adults but not in older adults. The evidence suggests (1) that most of the difficulties experienced by older adults are due to age-related auditory declines, and (2) that these declines, along with listening difficulty, modulate the degree to which selective linguistic and cognitive abilities are engaged to support listening comprehension in difficult listening situations. When older listeners experience speech recognition difficulties, their attentional resources are more likely to be deployed to
Solak, Ekrem; Altay, Firat
Listening skill has been called as the "Cinderella Skill" which is overlooked by its elder sister speaking in language learning. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to reemphasize the importance of listening skill in ELT context and to determine prospective English teachers' perceptions of listening comprehension problems. The study…
Rahimi, Mehrak; Soleymani, Elham
This study aimed at investigating the impact of mobile learning on EFL learners' listening anxiety and listening comprehension. Fifty students of two intermediate English courses were selected and sampled as the experimental (n = 25) and control (n = 25) groups. Students' entry level of listening anxiety was assessed by foreign language listening…
This paper presents the report of a study that investigated the effects of listening comprehension skill training on students' performance in Oral English Test. To investigate the effects that the teaching of listening comprehension skills would have on the performance in Oral English test, 82 Senior Secondary School 2 ...
Full Text Available The present paper is an attempt to introduce an innovative technique for a more effective teaching of L2 listening comprehension through a process-oriented approach. Much of what is traditionally known as listening practice is in fact testing material in which students are required to listen to a recording and answer a number of comprehension questions. However, as a preliminary step, teachers should focus on the process of listening comprehension by encouraging students to employ efficient learning strategies during the listening process and cooperatively evaluate them in the class. The suggested technique in this article provides students with appropriate metacognitive strategies, which pave the way for successful L2 listening practice.
Kassem, Hassan M.
The present study explored listening strategy use among a group of Egyptian EFL college sophomores (N = 84). More specifically, it aimed to identify 1) the strategies used more often by participants, 2) the relationship between listening strategy use, and listening comprehension and self-efficacy, and 3) differences in listening comprehension and…
Full Text Available In the body of literature on listening strategies to EFL learners, what seems to be lacking is that the focus is on teaching listening strategies to learners with little attention to their listening comprehension problems. No local research has been conducted on the nature of the Iranian tertiary level students' EFL listening comprehension problems or strategies. Therefore, no instrument is available to investigate these constructs. This paper reports the findings of a study that made an attempt to develop and test an instrument that will aid researchers identify students’ specific listening problems and listening strategy repertoire. The instrument was developed by integrating and validating the available instruments in the related literature. The two developed questionnaires were: the Listening Comprehension Problems Questionnaire (LCPQ and the Listening Strategy Use Questionnaire (LSUQ. Problems related to designing and testing this instrument is shared and the modifications made to it are presented. The instrument is expected to be useful for researchers interested to study the area of EFL listening in a similar setting.
Pangaribuan, Tagor; Sinaga, Andromeda; Sipayung, Kammer Tuahman
Listening comprehension is a complex skill particulaly in mastered by non-native speaker settings. This research aimed at finding out the effect of multimedia application on students' listening. The research design is experimental, with a t-test. The population is the sixth semester of HKBP Nommensen University at the academic year of 2016/2017,…
In this study, the effect of the learning together technique, which is one of the cooperative learning methods, on the development of the listening comprehension and listening skills of the secondary school eighth grade students was investigated. Regarding the purpose of the research, experimental and control groups consisting of 75 students from,…
Valizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Alavinia, Parviz
The researchers in the current study were after probing the potential relationship between emotional intelligence, foreign language listening anxiety (FLLA), and listening comprehension performance of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 233 participants, studying English language and literature at three different Universities in Urmia, were…
This paper compares the Public English Test System (PETS) administered in mainland, China and the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) administered in Taiwan, from the aspects of test levels, test contents and scoring weight. Compared with the PETS, the GEPT is found to value the English productive skills more, and have a greater ability to…
Full Text Available Abstract The current study aimed to investigate whether, and to what extent, there is a relationship between field independence / dependence cognitive styles and Iranian EFL learners' listening comprehension ability. For this purpose, a sample population of 131 Subjects was randomly selected. A battery of tests including: a the Group Embedded Figures Test (1971, b the TOFEL listening test (1995, c the listening task preference questionnaire, and d the Michigan ECPE test (1996 were administered. The data analysis showed that the correlation between the TOFEL and the GEFT scores for FD learners (both males and females was significant(r =0.70, and higher scores on the GEFT led to an increase in the FD learners TOFEL scores. Conducting one-way and two-way ANOVAs, it was suggested that while there was a relationship between cognitive style and listening comprehension (F= 18.02 and also no relationship between sex and listening comprehension (F=0.267, the interactional effect was significant (f = 7.03. Therefore, sex can be regarded as a source of performance difference in listening comprehension but not by itself and it seems that the interaction of sex and cognitive style can have a stronger effect on this skill. Regarding the learners’ preference toward the different parts of the TOEFL listening section, most learners favored the short conversations, informal assessment, and one item/one conversation, however, the FI ones did better on the longer conversations of the second and the third parts of the TOEFL listening test. Keywords: Cognitive style, Field dependence, Field independence, Listening comprehension.
The purpose of this study was to determine the physical load handling and listening comprehension effects on balance control. A total of 16 young and 16 elderly participants were recruited in this study. The physical load handling task required holding a 5-kg load in each hand with arms at sides. The listening comprehension task involved attentive listening to a short conversation. Three short questions were asked regarding the conversation right after the testing trial to test the participants' attentiveness during the experiment. Balance control was assessed by centre of pressure-based measures, which were calculated from the force platform data when the participants were quietly standing upright on a force platform. Results from this study showed that both physical load handling and listening comprehension adversely affected balance control. Physical load handling had a more deleterious effect on balance control under the listening comprehension condition vs. no-listening comprehension condition. Based on the findings from this study, interventions for the improvement of balance could be focused on avoiding exposures to physically demanding tasks and cognitively demanding tasks simultaneously. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Findings from this study can aid in better understanding how humans maintain balance, especially when physical and cognitive loads are applied. Such information is useful for developing interventions to prevent fall incidents and injuries in occupational settings and daily activities.
Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Altoè, Gianmarco; Levorato, Maria Chiara
The current study analyzed the relationship between text comprehension and memory skills in preschoolers. We were interested in verifying the hypothesis that memory is a specific contributor to listening comprehension in preschool children after controlling for verbal abilities. We were also interested in analyzing the developmental path of the relationship between memory skills and listening comprehension in the age range considered. Forty-four, 4-year-olds (mean age = 4 years and 6 months, SD = 4 months) and 40, 5-year-olds (mean age = 5 years and 4 months, SD = 5 months) participated in the study. The children were administered measures to evaluate listening comprehension ability (story comprehension), short-term and working memory skills (forward and backward word span), verbal intelligence and receptive vocabulary. Results showed that both short-term and working memory predicted unique and independent variance in listening comprehension after controlling for verbal abilities, with working memory explaining additional variance over and above short-term memory. The predictive power of memory skills was stable in the age range considered. Results also confirm a strong relation between verbal abilities and listening comprehension in 4- and 5-year-old children.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out whether listening to English songs can improve pre-intermediate EFL learners’ listening comprehension. To this end, a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design as one of the quasi-experimental research designs was employed. The sample of the study consisted of 40 male and female English learners from two classes in an Institute in Marand, Iran. The two classes were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. Then, a PET test was used to check the homogeneity of both groups. The listening section of PET was also considered as the pretest of the study. Then, fifteen English songs were used in the experimental group during the treatment period. Each session, within 45 minutes, one song was played for and practiced with the learners. Meanwhile, the control group had their usual teacher -fronted class without listening to songs. At the end, both groups were post tested on their listening comprehension using the listening section of another version of PET. The collected data were analyzed using Independent-Samples and Paired-Samples t-tests. The results revealed a statistically significant improvement in the performance of the experimental group. It is implied that songs are not only an entertaining tool but they can also be used as a pedagogic material in improving learners’ listening comprehension.
Alonzo, Crystle N.; Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Bevens, Beau
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine prekindergarten predictors of listening comprehension in second grade. Methods: Within a large, 5-year longitudinal study, children progressing from prekindergarten to second grade were administered a comprehensive set of prekindergarten measures of foundational language skills (vocabulary and…
Examines the development of the schema, or cognitive structure, theory of reading comprehension. Advances a model for improving listening comprehension within the classroom through a teacher-facilitated approach which leads students to selecting and utilizing existing schema within a whole-language environment. (MDM)
Few studies have been done on the listening comprehension processing, especially in second language. However, recent studies show that listening comprehension is considered as an active and cognitive process. This paper overviews studies on listening comprehension in the second language by presenting some models of listening comprehension processing. Then, listening comprehension was studied from cognitive psychology and educational point of view. Finally, the direction of future researches o...
Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the learning together technique, which is one of the cooperative learning methods, on the development of the listening comprehension and listening skills of the secondary school eighth grade students was investigated. Regarding the purpose of the research, experimental and control groups consisting of 75 students from, Yakutiye district Şair Nef'i Secondary School and Palandöken District, Alparslan Secondary School of Erzurum province were selected. Socio-economic statuses and success rates were taken into consideration when selecting the experimental and control groups. 'Listening-Comprehension Achievement Test' was applied to measure the listening skills of the experimental and control groups. In terms of pre-test scores, it was determined that the listening skills of the experiment and control group were similar. The selected experimental groups were taught by the learning together technique of cooperative learning method for seven weeks and the control group was taught in the traditional way. As a result of the research, the 'Listening-Comprehension Achievement Test', which was applied as the pre-test to the experimental and control groups, was applied again as the final test. When the findings obtained from the research were examined, it was determined that the students in the experimental group were more successful than the students in the control group in terms of post - test achievement scores. When the results of the study are examined, it can be said that the learning together technique, which is one of the cooperative learning methods, is more effective than the traditional learning method in improving the listening comprehension and the listening skills of the eighth grade students in Turkish class.
Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou
Listening is one of the most important skills in English language learning. When students listen to English language, they face a lot of listening difficulties. Students have critical difficulties in listening comprehension because universities and schools pay more attention to writing, reading, and vocabulary. Listening is not an important part…
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2017
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to add to our understanding of the dimensionality of oral language in children and to determine whether oral language and listening comprehension are separate constructs in children enrolled in preschool (PK) through 3rd grade. Method: In the spring of the school year, children from 4 states (N = 1,869)…
Kartal, Galip; Simsek, Harun
This study investigates the effects of audiobooks on listening comprehension skills of EFL Students, and their attitudes towards using audiobooks in a foreign language classroom. The participants are 66 first-year students of a state university in Turkey. The research follows a pre- post-test control group research design using quantitative and…
Berl, Madison M.; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R.; Moore, Erin N.; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Gaillard, William Davis
Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task…
A study determined the effectiveness of background classical music on listening comprehension. Nine special education students were read 10 different stories while music was either playing or not. They were asked the same four story element questions after each story. Results showed no significant differences between the two types of listening…
Cataloged from PDF version of article. Students at English-medium universities (EMUs) in Turkey need to develop strategic listening abilities to prepare for English-medium content instruction. Listening strategies need to be taught because they help learners deal with incoming speech, particularly when comprehension is not complete. This study aimed to explore the extent to which teacher participants (a) incorporate listening strategies into teaching listening (b) perceive l...
Among the four skills of the language acquisition, it has been pointed out that listening comprehension is the most difficult skill. The research on effective methods of teaching listening comprehension has been carried out from various viewpoints. After introducing the theory of listening comprehension, this review will describe recent trends in the teach-ing of listening as a second/foreign language. This will be done by focusing primarily on schema activator and strategy-instruction in tea...
Lin, Sheau-Wen; Liu, Yu
The purpose of this study was to explore elementary students' listening comprehension changes using a Web-based teaching system that can diagnose and remediate students' science listening comprehension problems during scientific inquiry. The 3-component system consisted of a 9-item science listening comprehension test, a 37-item diagnostic test,…
Berl, Madison M; Duke, Elizabeth S; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R; Moore, Erin N; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J; Gaillard, William Davis
Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task performance on fMRI activation and hemispheric laterality. Areas of supramodal language processing are identified, with the most robust region being left-lateralized activation along the superior temporal sulcus. Functionally, this conjunction has a role in semantic and syntactic processing, leading us to refer to this conjunction as "comprehension cortex." Different from adults, supramodal areas for children include less extensive inferior frontal gyrus but more extensive right cerebellum and right temporal pole. Broader neuroanatomical pathways are recruited for reading, reflecting the more active processing and larger set of cognitive demands needed for reading compared to listening to stories. ROI analyses reveal that reading is a less lateralized language task than listening in inferior frontal and superior temporal areas, which likely reflects the difficulty of the task as children in this study are still developing their reading skills. For listening to stories, temporal activation is stable by age four with no correlations with age, neuropsychological skills or post-task performance. In contrast, frontal activation during listening to stories occurs more often in older children, and frontal activation is positively correlated with better performance on comprehension questions, suggesting that the activation of frontal networks may reflect greater integration and depth of story processing. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Naci Yildiz; Nikoloz Parjanadze; Mustafa Albay
Though speaking has been considered as the most important skill in foreign language learning process, listening has a fundamental value because learning does not occur without comprehensible input. Listening is a complex process in which learners must do analysis to accurately interpret. In listening learners need to interpret with a speaker to construct meaning. This study tries to find out whether listening strategies are effective to influence listening comprehension and the major goal of ...
Berl, Madison M.; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R.; Moore, Erin N.; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Gaillard, William Davis
Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task performance on fMRI activation and hemispheric laterality. Areas of supramodal language processing are identified, with the most robust region being l...
Edele, Aileen; Stanat, Petra
Although the simple view of reading and other theories suggest that listening comprehension is an important determinant of reading comprehension, previous research on linguistic transfer has mainly focused on the role of first language (L1) decoding skills in second language (L2) reading. The present study tested the assumption that listening…
Full Text Available Listening is one of the important language skills. Traditionally, listening skills have been taught in isolation or it is sometimes combined with speaking tasks. Dictogloss is an interactive method which promotes cooperative learning and can assist in the development of both the teacher and students’ listening skills. Unlike in the traditional method of dictation, in dictogloss only the gist of the text is expected to be produced by the students. To find the usefulness of the method in a second language learning context, twenty BA ED (Hausa one hundred level students from the Language Arts section of the Ahmadu Bello University were used. Two texts, one from ‘Oliver Twist’ and the other was ‘The Seven Voyages of Simbad’. These were dictated to the students, one for each day. The result of the second task was recorded. The first exercise served as practice for the students to become familiar with the procedure. Although it is a new procedure, the results showed an improvement from the results of the first task. The students enjoyed the excercise and were willing to continue the next day even though the first results were not very good. Recommendations were given on how second language teachers could use dictogloss to their advantage for cooperative learning in listening comprehension classes.
Vandergrift, Larry; Baker, Susan C.
Listening comprehension, which is relatively straightforward for native language (L1) speakers, is often frustrating for second language (L2) learners. Listening comprehension is important to L2 acquisition, but little is known about the variables that influence the development of L2 listening skills. The goal of this study was to determine which…
Becker, Shannon R.; Sturm, Jessica L.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether integrating online audiovisual materials into the listening instruction of L2 French learners would have a measurable impact on their listening comprehension development. Students from two intact sections of second-semester French were tested on their listening comprehension before and…
Jannejad, Mohsen; Shokouhi, Hossein; Haghighi, Somayeh Biparva
This study seeks to determine the possible interactions between listening proficiency and the state of strategic self-awareness; second, and more importantly, to investigate the effects of learned strategies on listening comprehension and recall; and finally to describe the most common real-time listening comprehension problems faced by EFL…
Shi Liyan; Wang Duqin; Chu Chunyan
Abstract: Listening comprehension used to be thought of as a passive skill, and listeners were called as“tape-recorder” (Anderson & Lynch,1988). But in fact it is an active process, in which what the listener wants to get is an adequate understanding of what the speaker said and what the speaker meant. To achieve this purpose, English listeners should utilize contextual clues, background knowledge and depend on many learning strategies. Active listeners will understand what the speakers said ...
The purpose of the present study is twofold. The first goal is to examine the effects of phonological input on students' vocabulary learning. The second is to discuss how different pre-listening activities affect students' second language listening comprehension. The participants were first-year students at a Japanese university. There were two…
Mohammad Ali Fatemi
Full Text Available Self-regulated EFL students can comprehend better what they listen. The present study sought to investigate the relationship between EFL learners' listening comprehension and their self-regulation. To achieve the goals of this study, 103 intermediate EFL learners were selected in Torbat-e- Heydarieh, Iran. Two instruments were employed and the participants were to complete; first, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ to assess their Self-Regulation; and second, Standard Listening Test (SLT to measure their listening comprehension. Results of Pearson Correlation Coefficient indicated a statistically significant correlation. This finding provides pedagogical implications for EFL teachers to use self-regulatory approach when teaching listening comprehension.
By elaborating the definition of listening comprehension, the characteristic of spoken discourse, the relationship between STM and LTM and Krashen's comprehensible input, the paper puts forward the point that the priority of listening comprehension over speaking in the language acquisition process is very necessary.
The present paper discusses four aspects : (1) the relation between the process of language comprehension and working memory, (2) overview of studies on working memory model, (3) application of the working memory to studies of listening comprehension in previous studies, (4) potentiality of application of the working memory model to studies of listening comprehension of second language acquisition.
Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, Chiara
According to the 'Simple View of Reading', reading comprehension requires some abilities such as reading skill and listening comprehension. Individuals with Down's syndrome show relative strengths in reading skills, mainly in word recognition, where they attain a reading age of about 7-8 years. Compared with word recognition, their reading comprehension is usually delayed by at least 6 months. Poor reading comprehension is paralleled by weak listening comprehension. It is claimed that poor listening comprehension might constrain the development of reading comprehension and, therefore, be a cause for the asynchrony between reading skills and reading comprehension. A follow-up study was carried out in order to analyse the improvements in reading skills, listening and reading text comprehension, and to support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between listening and reading comprehension. Ten children and adolescents with Down's syndrome, aged between 11 years 3 months and 19 years 10 months, were assessed twice over a one-year period as to their reading skills, listening and reading text comprehension. Three main findings emerged: (1) reading skills, on the one hand, and comprehension (both listening and reading), on the other hand, are independent; (2) reading comprehension development is determined mainly by listening comprehension, which in the present study proved to be very poor; and (3) an improvement after a one-year period, even though limited, occurred for all examined abilities except for listening comprehension. The results are discussed in the light of the theoretical framework of the 'Simple View of Reading' and of their relevance for practical and educational issues. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.
Vandergrift, Larry; Baker, Susan
Listening comprehension plays a key role in language acquisition, yet little is known about the variables that contribute to the development of second language (L2) listening ability. This study sought to obtain empirical evidence for the impact of some of the learner variables and the degree to which they might predict success in L2 listening.…
Full Text Available Academic listening skill is an indispensable necessity for English for academic purposes (EAP students in English-medium universities and also critical for their future success in comprehending conference lectures. But due to the specific nature of such academic lectures, nonnative students all too often face challenges in getting a full command of this task. This study investigates the challenges of listening to academic lectures and the impact of related metacognitive strategies on academic lecture listening comprehension on a group of Iranian learners in an EAP workshop. Fifteen academic staff who took part in two intact classes at the University of Qom, Iran, were randomly assigned to treatment (N = 8 and control (N = 7 groups. The treatment group received 16 hr of metacognitive strategy instruction based on the models proposed by Vandergrift during academic listening instruction, while the control group was just exposed to academic lectures with no explicit strategy instruction. The academic listening sections of the British International English Language Testing System (IELTS were utilized to measure the listening comprehension of both groups before and after the treatment. The results of the data analysis determined that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in the listening posttest. The interviews before and after the treatment revealed details of challenges in academic lecture comprehension and also shed light on the perception of the learners regarding metacognitive strategy instruction and the frequency of main metacognitive strategies used in comprehending academic lectures.
Schenker, Victoria J; Petrill, Stephen A
This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schenker, Victoria J.; Petrill, Stephen A.
This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. PMID:26321677
Kang, Okim; Thomson, Ron I.; Moran, Meghan
This study compared five research-based intelligibility measures as they were applied to six varieties of English. The objective was to determine which approach to measuring intelligibility would be most reliable for predicting listener comprehension, as measured through a listening comprehension test similar to the Test of English as a Foreign…
Ockey, Gary J.; Papageorgiou, Spiros; French, Robert
This article reports on a study which aimed to determine the effect of strength of accent on listening comprehension of interactive lectures. Test takers (N = 21,726) listened to an interactive lecture given by one of nine speakers and responded to six comprehension items. The test taker responses were analyzed with the Rasch computer program…
Ahmad, Samah Zakareya
The present study aimed at investigating the effect of the flipped classroom model on Egyptian EFL students' listening comprehension. A one-group pre-posttest design was adopted. Thirty-four 3rd-year EFL students at the Faculty of Education, Suez University, were pretested on listening comprehension before the experiment and then posttested after…
Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan
The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…
Li, Miao; Cheng, Liying; Kirby, John R.
This study investigates the relationship between English listening comprehension and English and Chinese phonological awareness (PA), and the cross-linguistic transfer of PA in 48 Grade 2 and 47 Grade 4 Chinese English-immersion students. The results of the study indicate a correlation between English PA and English listening comprehension.…
Andringa, S.; Olsthoorn, N.; van Beuningen, C.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.
The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation
Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of nursery rhymes on the young language learners listening comprehension ability. To do so, 30 elementary learners were selected as the potential participants of the study. The learners’ perceptions about using nursery rhymes in teaching listening as well as teachers’ perceptions about teaching listening comprehension through nursery rhymes were taken into account. The listening pre- and post-tests and teachers and learners’ interviews were employed for data collection procedures. Quantitative as well as qualitative methodologies were adapted for data analysis. Findings showed that the young learners could improve their listening comprehension ability as a result of using nursery rhymes. Interview data also indicated that the learners’ perceptions about nursery rhymes were found to be positive since the rhymes provided an interesting atmosphere for the learners to improve their listening comprehension while benefiting from peer interaction and teacher’s support in the listening classroom. Teachers’ perceptions were also realistic regarding using nursery rhymes in teaching listening, especially for young learners. As to the implication side, finding can contribute to the positive application of nursery rhymes in paving the way for young learners to improve their listening comprehension ability.
Listening which is actively used beginning from birth in social life and learning process has a changeable quality as in other skill areas. The effective role of listening, especially in the process of education, makes the development of this skill essential in a certain program and a systematic way. Applying listening methods and techniques, teaching students how to use them consciously and effectively will result in achievement of targeted goals in this process. In this research, in order t...
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of captioned texts on second/foreign (L2 listening comprehension and vocabulary gains using a computer multimedia program. Additionally, it explored the caption ordering effect (i.e. captions displayed during the first or second listening, and the interaction of captioning order with the L2 proficiency level of language learners in listening comprehension and vocabulary performance. To these ends, a computer software program was designed and 200 EFL learners (100 high-intermediate and 100 low-intermediate level students were asked to participate in the experiment. They were randomly assigned into four groups: captioned (listening to texts twice with captions, noncaptioned (listening to texts twice without captions, first captioned (listening to texts first with captions and then without captions, and second captioned (listening to texts first without captions and then with captions groups. They listened to four audio texts (i.e. short stories twice and took the listening and vocabulary tests, administered through the software. Results from t-tests and two-way ANOVAs showed that the captioned stories were more effective than the non-captioned ones. Moreover, the caption ordering had no significant effect on the participants' L2 listening comprehension and vocabulary performance. Finally, L2 proficiency level differences did not affect performance derived from caption ordering.
Full Text Available Numerous studies are available on L2 learners’ strategy use; however, there is no study investigating the Iranian tertiary level EFL learners’ listening strategy use. The present paper reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that explored a group of Iranian EFL learners’ (n = 100 use of listening comprehension strategies. The instrument that was used for collecting the data was called the Listening Strategy Use Questionnaire (LSUQ by Nowrouzi, Tam, Nimehchisalem, and Zareian (2014. The instrument divides listening strategies into cognitive, metacognitive, and socio-affective categories. Based on the results, on average the respondents reported low levels of self-perceived use of cognitive, metacognitive, and socio-affective strategies. The results indicate a serious need to focus more on the students’ listening comprehension skills in general and their listening strategies in particular.
Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon; Luebbers, Julie
The Simple View of Reading (SVR) model posits that reading is the product of word decoding and language comprehension and that oral language (listening) comprehension is the best predictor of reading comprehension once word-decoding skill has been established. The SVR model also proposes that there are good readers and three types of poor…
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
We investigated component language and cognitive skills of oral language comprehension of narrative texts (i.e., listening comprehension). Using the construction--integration model of text comprehension as an overarching theoretical framework, we examined direct and mediated relations of foundational cognitive skills (working memory and…
Farangi, Mohamad Reza; Kheradmand Saadi, Zahra
Not only is listening considered as an active skill nowadays, but also different approaches are suggested to incorporate it effectively into language classrooms. Our purpose, here, is to compare two approaches claiming to be effective in enhancing EFL learners' listening capabilities including schema theory and dynamic assessment. Through a…
Seo, Daeryong; Taherbhai, Husein; Frantz, Roger
The importance of listening in the context of English language acquisition is gaining acceptance, but its unique attributes in language performance, while substantively and qualitatively justifiable, are generally not psychometrically defined. This article psychometrically supports listening as a distinct domain among the three other domains of…
Full Text Available Abstract: Based on the major dimensions of a communicative language test that Bachman proposed, this paper aims to have an investigation on the validity of the new CET-4 listening subtest in China from a communicative point of view. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are involved in the study. Material analysis falls into qualitative study, including analysis of the CET-4 testing syllabus and eight new CET-4 listening comprehension tests. Students’ scores of two tests and the questionnaires are analyzed quantitatively. Through analysis, it is found that the new CET-4 listening subtest has a high validity and can measure test-takers’ listening ability in real communication. First, the new CET-4 listening subtest has the quality of reliability. Second, the seven listening skills tested in this subtest can measure the communicative language ability required in the testing syllabus. The intra-correlation analysis shows that each part of the new CET-4 listening subtest focuses on different language abilities related to listening. Third, the authenticity of the new CET-4 listening subtest reaches a satisfactory level. The materials chosen in the test cover various topics and genres. Speakers’ pronunciation, tone and speed are in accordance with the real situation. However, some shortcomings also exist in the test design and should be improved later. For example, its limited item types cannot represent the task types in real life, and the actual input is too ideal to be authentic. Keywords: Communicative language ability, communicative language testing, listening comprehension, test validity
Serraj, Samaneh; Noordin, Noreen Bt.
Anxiety is an influential factor in a foreign language learning domain and plays a crucial role in language learners' performance. The following study was conducted to explore the possible impact of Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety on language learners' listening skill. The researcher was interested to know the…
Fatemi, Mohammad Ali; Alishahi, Maral; Khorasani, Maryam Noori; Seifi, Monir
Self-regulated EFL students can comprehend better what they listen. The present study sought to investigate the relationship between EFL learners' listening comprehension and their self-regulation. To achieve the goals of this study, 103 intermediate EFL learners were selected in Torbat-e- Heydarieh, Iran. Two instruments were employed and the…
This paper presents an empirical study that investigates the role of vocabulary knowledge in listening comprehension with 33 advanced Turkish learners of English as a foreign language. The Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt & Clapham, 2001) is used to measure the vocabulary knowledge of the participants and a standardized listening test…
Wolfgramm, Christine; Suter, Nicole; Göksel, Eva
Listening is regarded as a key requirement for successful communication and is fundamentally linked to other language skills. Unlike reading, it requires both hearing and processing information in real-time. We therefore propose that the ability to concentrate is a strong predictor of listening comprehension. Using structural equation modeling,…
This study examines common claims associated with shadowing. Studies in Japan conclude that shadowing is effective for improving learners' listening skills. Two common claims are that shadowing is effective for lower-proficiency learners and that it enhances learners' phoneme perception, thus improving listening comprehension skills. The former…
Al-Alwan, Ahmed; Asassfeh, Sahail; Al-Shboul, Yousef
Metacognitive strategies play an important role in many cognitive activities related to language use in oral communication. This study explored metacognitve listening strategies awareness and its relationship with listening comprehension on a convient sample of 386 tenth-grade EFL learners using two instruments: (a) Metacognition Awareness…
Yang, Jie Chi; Chang, Peichin
For many EFL learners, listening poses a grave challenge. The difficulty in segmenting a stream of speech and limited capacity in short-term memory are common weaknesses for language learners. Specifically, reduced forms, which frequently appear in authentic informal conversations, compound the challenges in listening comprehension. Numerous…
Bozorgian, Hossein; Alamdari, Ebrahim Fakhri
This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of metacognitive instruction through dialogic interaction in a joint activity on advanced Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' multimedia listening and their metacognitive awareness in listening comprehension. The data were collected through (N = 180) male and female Iranian…
Jafari, Khadijeh; Hashim, Fatimah
This study investigated the effects of using two types of written advance organizers, key sentences and key vocabulary, on the improvement of EFL learners' listening comprehension. 108 second year university students at the higher and lower listening proficiency levels were randomly assigned to one control group and two experimental groups. Prior…
Cottam, Michael Evan
The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of textual and visual annotations on Spanish listening comprehension and vocabulary acquisition in the context of an online multimedia listening activity. 95 students who were enrolled in different sections of first year Spanish classes at a community college and a large…
Dr. Boughelamallah Hanane-Algeria
Full Text Available Note-taking is a hot topic that attracts much considerable attention over time due to its great importance in teachinglearning process. Teaching listening comprehension in the Algerian EFL classrooms is designed to solve the problem of failure in taking good notes while listening.
Dr. Boughelamallah Hanane-Algeria
Note-taking is a hot topic that attracts much considerable attention over time due to its great importance in teachinglearning process. Teaching listening comprehension in the Algerian EFL classrooms is designed to solve the problem of failure in taking good notes while listening.
Gholam Reza Kiany
Full Text Available Testing the comprehension of spoken language is of primary importance. A lot of factors may affect the performance of EFL learners on listening comprehension tests, among which are the use of visual advance organizers, and types of listening passages (dialogues or monologues. As B-Ikeguchi (1997 states a few studies have been carried out on the effects of these factors on EFL learners’ listening comprehension with controversial results. And even fewer studies have concentrated on the effects of these factors on EFL learners’ performance on listening comprehension tests, which is the purpose of this study. In the present study, 180 advanced EFL learners were randomly selected by administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups each consisting of 60 students. As far as the performance of subjects on listening comprehension test was concerned, the following results were obtained: 1 There was a significant difference between the presence vs. lack of visual advance organizer; 2 There was a significant difference between the uses of short-interval vs. long-interval advance organizer; 3 There was a significant difference between different types of listening passages (dialogues vs. monologues; and 4 There was no significant interaction between the use of visual advance organizer and different types of listening passages.
L A Khokhlova
Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation findings of the listening comprehension mechanisms in left and right - hemisphere dominant students, factors contributing to effective language mastering being analyzed.
Roch, Maja; Levorato, M Chiara
According to the 'Simple View of Reading' (Hoover and Gough 1990), individual differences in reading comprehension are accounted for by decoding skills and listening comprehension, each of which makes a unique and specific contribution. The current research was aimed at testing the Simple View of Reading in individuals with Down's syndrome and comparing their profiles with typically developing first graders. Listening comprehension and the ability to read both words and non-words was compared in two groups with the same level of reading comprehension: 23 individuals with Down's syndrome aged between 11 years 3 months and 18 years 2 months and 23 first-grade typically developing children aged between 6 years 2 months and 7 years 4 months. The results indicate that at the same level of reading comprehension, individuals with Down's syndrome have less developed listening comprehension and more advanced word recognition than typically developing first graders. A comparison of the profiles of the two groups revealed that reading comprehension level was predicted by listening comprehension in both groups of participants and by word-reading skills only in typically developing children. The Simple View of Reading model is confirmed for individuals with Down's syndrome, although they do not show the reading profile of typically developing first graders; rather, they show an atypical profile similar to that of 'poor comprehenders' (Cain and Oakhill 2006). The crucial role of listening comprehension in Down's syndrome is also discussed with reference to the educational implications.
With recent developments in and studies of language teaching, the listening skill – once believed to be a passive skill - is today discovered to be an ‘interactive’ process in which the concept of background knowledge plays a very significant role. This background knowledge known as ‘schematic knowledge’ is today broadly acknowledged in second or foreign language teaching and a number of studies have been conducted to reveal the importance of schemata in both reading and listening comprehensi...
Mehri Khavazi; Mandana Yousefi; Naeemeh Kharaghani
This study, specifically, investigated the effect of note taking and summarizing strategies on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension. The study aimed at investigating the effects of note taking and summarizing on listening comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. The participants of the study included 75 female language learners in Bojnord who were homogenized in terms of language proficiency. They were divided into two experimental and onecontrol groups. ANCOVA test was used to analyze...
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate how the classroom practice in teaching listening comprehension at English Education Program of STKIP Tapanuli Selatan in 2016/2017 Academic Year is. The informants of this research were all of second semester students of STKIP Tapanuli Selatan in 2016/2017 academic year and a lecturer of listening comprehension at STKIP Tapanuli Selatan (63 students and one lecturer. A descriptive study was used to achieve the objective of the study. The sample was taken by cluster sampling. The data were collected by using interview to know how the lecturer carried out the teaching practice of listening, and questionnaire for the students and observation were used to find out how the calssroom activities were conducted. The descriptive analysis was used to anayse the data. Based on the data analysis, it was found that: (1 the lecturer carried out listening activities into four parts, they are preparation, prediction stage, listening, and post listening, and (2 the practice of teaching listening was effective related to the teaching pedagogical procedures in teaching listening comprehension. although there were some points that should be practice further. Based on the findings, it was recomended that the lecturer and the students may apply the less activities that had not been done.
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
We investigated component language and cognitive skills of oral language comprehension of narrative texts (i.e., listening comprehension). Using the construction-integration model of text comprehension as an overarching theoretical framework, we examined direct and mediated relations of foundational cognitive skills (working memory and attention), foundational language skills (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge), and higher-order cognitive skills (inference, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring) to listening comprehension. A total of 201 first grade children in South Korea participated in the study. Structural equation modeling results showed that listening comprehension is directly predicted by working memory, grammatical knowledge, inference, and theory of mind and is indirectly predicted by attention, vocabulary, and comprehension monitoring. The total effects were .46 for working memory, .07 for attention, .30 for vocabulary, .49 for grammatical knowledge, .31 for inference, .52 for theory of mind, and .18 for comprehension monitoring. These results suggest that multiple language and cognitive skills make contributions to listening comprehension, and their contributions are both direct and indirect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Among three sections that follow the Paper-Based TOEFL (PBT, many test takers find listening comprehension section is the most difficult. Thus, in this research the researcher aims to explore how students learn PBT’s listening comprehension section effectively through song technique. This sounds like a more interesting and engaging way to learn language because music is a very powerful motivational tool for learning language. To reach the goal of this study, the researcher applied the grammar approach. It is an appropriate approach since the main idea of grammar-based listening exercises is to analyze the language by its components and reconstruct an incomplete text. Besides, the researcher employed an English song as the media the researcher uses the top- down model for the Listening Process. In this research, the writer tries to share his experience in teaching listening in English department of Teknokrat College by implementing song technique.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of using podcast on listening comprehension among Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners. To fulfill the objectives of the study a Homogeneity test (Oxford Quick Placement Test was administered among 90 students at the pre-intermediate level of Poyesh language Institute and finally 60 participants were selected. Then, they were non-randomly divided into two subgroups, namely control and experimental groups. Before starting the treatment, a validated teacher-made listening comprehension test was administered to students as pre-test to assess the participants' listening comprehension at the beginning of the course. Then, the experimental group received the treatment, which was teaching listening comprehension through using podcasts while the control group was taught using traditional methods of teaching listening with no multimedia source. After 20 sessions of treatment, the two groups were administered the same teacher-made listening test as post-test. Data were analyzed by Paired and Independent Samples t-test. The findings showed that the experimental group significantly performed better than the control group. Generally, the experimental groups outperformed the control groups. The results suggest that podcasts can be used in English classes to develop listening ability among Iranian EFL learners.
Sörqvist, Patrik; Hurtig, Anders; Ljung, Robert; Rönnberg, Jerker
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Textbooks are the instruments that assist both teachers and learners in process of second language learning. With respect to the importance of textbooks in a language course, evaluation of course books is a significant issue for most researchers. The present study investigated and analyzed Listening Comprehension parts in Top Notch 2A & 2B 2nd edition. Top Notch 2A & 2B have 10 Units. The number of listening comprehension parts is in the range of 2 to 4 parts in each unit through the book. So the number of listening comprehension parts is not equally distributed. The participants of this study are 10 EFL teachers of two English language Institutes in Jahrom. Strong and weak aspects of Listening Comprehension parts have indicated in this research. The weaknesses involve the pictures and visuals are not clear enough to enhance students' motivation and interest, the audio is not completely suitable for students' English level, and Discussion parts are not stimulating students' talking. Furthermore this study revealed the crucial function of teachers in listening achievement of students. Keywords: textbook evaluation, listening comprehension, ELT
Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of dictogloss on EFL learners’ listening comprehension as well as on their use of metacognitive listening strategies with a focus on the effects on male and female learners. To this end, a total number of 50 female and male Iranian EFL learners, aged between 12 and 15 years old, at the intermediate proficiency level in a private language school in Iran were selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups with 25 male and female learners in each group. Dictogloss was employed to teach the learners in the experimental group for an instruction period of 12 sessions. Participants’ listening comprehension was determined through a pre/posttest which was adapted from the listening section of the standard test of PET and their use of metacognitive listening strategies via the MALQ, a questionnaire developed by Vandergrift et al. (2006. The data obtained were submitted to the t-test and results revealed significant improvement in the experimental group’s listening comprehension with no significant difference between male and female learners. Finally, the results showed that the listeners in the experimental group made noticeable gains in their choice of metacognitive strategies through using the dictogloss technique. Findings are discussed in light of recent theories of language learning and teaching.
Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon
Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension weaknesses. We report two studies to examine how reading and listening comprehension skills are related to inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Separate groups of 7- to 11-year-olds participated in each study. In both studies, we used teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to identify three groups at risk of ADHD: poor attention, high hyperactivity, poor attention and high hyperactivity, and also same-age controls. In Study 1, we explored how inattention and hyperactivity predicted reading after controlling for non-verbal IQ and vocabulary. In Study 2, we compared listening and reading comprehension in these groups. Poor attention was related to poor reading comprehension, although the relation was partially mediated by word reading skill (Study 1). Groups with high hyperactivity had weak listening comprehension relative to reading comprehension (Study 2). These results indicate that the reading comprehension problems of children with attention difficulties are related to poor word reading and that listening comprehension is particularly vulnerable in children at risk of ADHD. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Cigerci, Fatih Mehmet; Gultekin, Mehmet
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of digital stories on the Turkish (mother language) listening skills of fourth grade students. The study used a mixed methods and was conducted in two fourth grade classrooms (ages 9-10 years) in a primary school in Eskisehir city, Turkey, during the 2014-2015 spring semester. During the 8-week…
Developments in broadcast and multimedia technology have generated a readily available and vast supply of videotexts for use in second and foreign language learning contexts. However, without pedagogical direction learners are unlikely to be able to deal with the complexities of this authentic listening resource, and strategy instruction may be…
Declared the year of YouTube, 2007 was hailed as bringing a technological revolution in relation to pedagogy, one that may provide more convenient access to materials for language input, such as auditory, visual, and other types of authentic resources in order to promote advancement in all four language learning skills--listening, speaking,…
Panico, James; Healey, E Charles
To determine how text type, topic familiarity, and stuttering frequency influence listener recall, comprehension, and perceived mental effort. Sixty adults listened to familiar and unfamiliar narrative and expository texts produced with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% stuttering. Participants listened to 4 experimental text samples at only 1 stuttering frequency. After hearing the text samples, each listener performed a free recall task, answered cued recall questions, answered story comprehension questions, and rated their perceived mental effort. Free and cued recall as well as story comprehension scores were higher for narrative than for expository texts. Free and cued recall scores were better for familiar than for unfamiliar stories, although topic familiarity did not affect story comprehension scores. Samples with all levels of stuttering resulted in higher mental effort ratings for both text types and topic familiarities. Stuttering has a greater influence on listener recall and comprehension for narrative than for expository texts. Topic familiarity affects free and cued recall but has no influence on story comprehension. Regardless of the amount of stuttering, mental effort was high for both text types and levels of familiarity.
Full Text Available This study is motivated by the gap existing between theory and practice in teaching listening. Most of the techniques used to teach listening put more emphasis on top-down processing while listeners’ problems are more of perceptive ones (bottom-up. In order to address the pervasive decoding problem in listening, this study suggests using transcribing exercise as an input enhancement device and investigates its effect on beginning learners’ listening ability. To this end, 31 learners participated in the study. The control group did not have any transcribing practice while the experimental group received transcribing exercise. In the data analysis step, an independent samples t test was employed to compare the two groups. The results show that transcribing has a significant positive effect on beginning learners’ listening comprehension. The findings of the study as well as advantages of transcribing exercise are discussed. Implications of the study and scope for future research are also addressed.
Beth A. Rogowsky
Full Text Available With advancing technology, there is increasing interest in differences between listening versus reading comprehension or doing both simultaneously. Ninety-one participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups that received the same instructional material (the preface and a chapter from a non-fiction book, but each in a different input modality (digital audiobook, e-text, dual modality. After completing the material, participants took the same comprehension test in written form to establish both immediate comprehension (Time 1 and 2-week retention (Time 2. No statistically significant differences were found for any analyses pertaining to effects of the three different instructional conditions on comprehension at Time 1 or Time 2. Additional analyses showed that both males and females in each condition recalled an equal amount of information, regardless of whether they listened to an audiobook, read from an electronic tablet, or both listened and read simultaneously (dual modality.
Tok, Sükran; Mazl, Aysegül
This study has been conducted in order to examine the effects of the stories for thinking on 5th graders' reading comprehension and listening comprehension. A pretest-post test control group quasi-experimental design was used in the study. The sample of the etstudy was composed of 74 5th graders attending public elementary schools. The data have…
Hawkins, Renee O.; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Hale, Andrea D.; McGuire, Shannon; Hailley, Jennifer
Classwide instructional strategies to improve not only reading fluency but also comprehension and vocabulary knowledge are essential for student reading success. The current study examined the immediate effects of two classwide listening previewing strategies on reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. Twenty-one, fourth-grade general…
Jones, Linda C.
Extends Mayer's (1997, 2001) generative theory of multimedia learning and investigates under what conditions multimedia annotations can support listening comprehension in a second language. Highlights students' views on the effectiveness of multimedia annotations (visual and verbal) in assisting them in their comprehension and acquisition of…
Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Chang, Chih-Kai
This study investigates the effects of different display modes of video captions on mobile devices, including non-caption, full-caption, and target-word modes, on the English comprehension and vocabulary acquisition of fifth graders. During the one-month experiment, the status of the students' English listening comprehension and vocabulary…
Mohammad Zohrabi; Farzaneh Esfandyari
Note taking is a popular and operative strategy which increases the students? ability to remember, comprehend, and keep the material in mind. Nowadays, it is very common for teachers to use the note taking strategy in EFL listening classes due to the fact that taking notes can help students catch the main points easily and in turn promote their listening comprehension effectively. However, it creates areas of concerns for some researchers about whether taking notes is effective for students t...
Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon
Background: Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension weaknesses. Aims: We report two studies to examine how reading and listening comprehension skills are related to inattention and hyperactivity/impulsiv...
This study was conducted in order to inspect the impact of podcasts as learning and teaching tools on Iranian EFL learners' motivation for listening as well as on their listening comprehension ability. It also investigated the learners' perception towards podcasts. 34 intermediate learners who were homogeneous in terms of listening ability were…
Nirme, Jens; Haake, Magnus; Lyberg Åhlander, Viveka; Brännström, Jonas; Sahlén, Birgitta
Seeing a speaker's face facilitates speech recognition, particularly under noisy conditions. Evidence for how it might affect comprehension of the content of the speech is more sparse. We investigated how children's listening comprehension is affected by multi-talker babble noise, with or without presentation of a digitally animated virtual speaker, and whether successful comprehension is related to performance on a test of executive functioning. We performed a mixed-design experiment with 55 (34 female) participants (8- to 9-year-olds), recruited from Swedish elementary schools. The children were presented with four different narratives, each in one of four conditions: audio-only presentation in a quiet setting, audio-only presentation in noisy setting, audio-visual presentation in a quiet setting, and audio-visual presentation in a noisy setting. After each narrative, the children answered questions on the content and rated their perceived listening effort. Finally, they performed a test of executive functioning. We found significantly fewer correct answers to explicit content questions after listening in noise. This negative effect was only mitigated to a marginally significant degree by audio-visual presentation. Strong executive function only predicted more correct answers in quiet settings. Altogether, our results are inconclusive regarding how seeing a virtual speaker affects listening comprehension. We discuss how methodological adjustments, including modifications to our virtual speaker, can be used to discriminate between possible explanations to our results and contribute to understanding the listening conditions children face in a typical classroom.
Full Text Available Anxiety is an important factor in foreign language learning. Very few studies have been done on English as a Foreign Language (EFL Saudi students in listening classes. Therefore, this pilot study was aimed at exploring the causes of listening comprehension anxiety from EFL Saudi learners’ perspectives at Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. The pilot study involved two students who were selected based on the following criteria: 1 Only Saudi male undergraduate students who enrolled in Preparatory Year Program (PYP at Majmaah University would be involved in this study, 2 The students who had studied or lived in native English speaking countries would be excluded. The researcher used pseudonyms to refer to the participants as Mohammad and Ismail. This study employed a qualitative case study research design. The data were collected through Semi-structured interviews with the participants. The interview sessions were audiotaped and transcribed. The results show that the participants experienced a high level of anxiety when doing the listening comprehension tasks. Three main causes of listening comprehension anxiety emerged from this study: 1 the problematic nature of listening comprehension, 2 the classroom atmosphere, and 3 the low English proficiency of the students.
Worthington, Debra L.; Keaton, Shaughan; Cook, John; Fitch-Hauser, Margaret; Powers, William G.
The Watson-Barker Listening Test (WBLT) is one of the most popular measures of listening comprehension. However, participants in studies utilizing this scale have been almost exclusively Anglo-American. At the same time, previous research questions the psychometric properties of the test. This study addressed both of these issues by testing the…
Kashimada, Chiho; Ito, Takumi; Ogita, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Kamata, Kazuo; Ayama, Miyoshi
Comprehension of a sentence under a wide range of delay conditions between auditory and visual stimuli was measured in the environment with low auditory clarity of the level of -10dB and -15dB pink noise. Results showed that the image was helpful for comprehension of the noise-obscured voice stimulus when the delay between the auditory and visual stimuli was 4 frames (=132msec) or less, the image was not helpful for comprehension when the delay between the auditory and visual stimulus was 8 frames (=264msec) or more, and in some cases of the largest delay (32 frames), the video image interfered with comprehension.
Full Text Available This paper reported the attempt teachers did in developing native-like (NLS listening materials for their EFL learners using a text-to-speech (TTS technology. Observation was carried out to record teachers’ procedures for developing NLS materials. Interview with teachers were undertaken to explore their’ perceptions towards the NLS listening materials and the benefits they gained from developing instructional media using technology. In addition, a questionnaire was distributed to 65 eight-grade pupils to gather information related to their opinions regarding the listening materials developed and used by their teachers. The findings show that teachers and pupils responded positively towards the NLS materials for listening comprehension. In addition, teachers were found to have more confidence in teaching listening skill while using the technology. There are three conditions which endorse this teaching confidence: the suitability of instructional materials used with the learning curriculum and pupils’ level of English proficiency, teachers’ self-efficacy to the teaching task, and the integration of technology in classroom teaching. The study suggests that TTS system can be used as computer assisted language learning (CALL application particularly in the development of listening comprehension materials. The study also confirms earlier studies that teacher professional development can be promoted through integrated training on technology for classroom use.
Brand-Gruwel, S; Aarnoutse, CAJ; van den Bos, KP
Traditional intervention programs for children with decoding and reading comprehension problems often focus on remediation of the decoding ability. The goal of this study was to determine whether it is possible to teach these children text comprehension strategies. The subjects were fourth-grade
Nogueroles López, Marta
. After listening, they completed five comprehension questions, listened one more time with the transcript, reflected on their understanding and their strategic behaviour, and evaluated the protocol itself. These interviews were recorded, transcribed, analysed, categorized and computed. Results reveal......The present article outlines the procedure and shows the outcomes of a think-aloud study intended to, first, find out what listening strategies Hong Kong students of Spanish use to comprehend a particular oral passage in the target language, and, second, understand the participants’ perceptions...... of the think-aloud protocol. Such a protocol was developed during interviews in which students listened to an unidirectional text in Spanish twice, the first time interruptedly and the second without intermediate pauses, and were asked to verbalize the processes they had been using to understand such a passage...
Full Text Available This research paper identifies barriers and difficulties in listening comprehension faced by junior high school students. The research questions were what barriers did students encounter and how did they used strategies to overcome those barriers. This study used a qualitative method and was a case study involving 40 students and one English teacher. The data were obtained by ways of conducting a test of listening taken from TOEIC test. The tests indicated that the results scores were not quite satisfactory. This is primarily caused by speech delivery of the native speaker which was too fast. This means that students faced listening barriers especially in processing information. The data also indicated that students were also nervous when doing the test as habitual barrier. Strategies used to overcome these barriers are by making students get used to listen and use English and making them familiar with certain contexts in real life.
Full Text Available At elementary school the focus often lies on listening and speaking. While listening comprehension is the basis for learning a new language, children often feel differently about that. Many measure their success in their ability to speak. Some become frustrated, because they initially are not able to express much, not noticing how much they understand already. In my research I tried to find a way to help such children appreciate more what they have achieved so far. Through portfolio-work (self-evaluation and reflection I wanted them to see what is ‘unseen’, as well as get them to think about strategies that improve listening comprehension, as the following study report shows.
This paper begins with a brief examination of the relationship between reading and listening comprehension with emphasis placed on the similarities inherent in both the receptive skills. Goodman (1967) and Smith (1979) characterize reading as an interaction between printed information and the readers' knowledge. This characterization is true of listening comprehension because listeners make full use of the knowledge to understand the auditory information which is received. Schema theory p...
Full Text Available The present study was an attempt, to empirically investigate if there was any significant difference between authentic listening materials and their simplified version in terms of the listening comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, two groups of thirty subjects were chosen. One group received authentic listening materials and the other group received the same topic in simplified version through ten sessions. The subjects studied Top Notch Book, level 3. The listening parts were followed with seven listening comprehension questions to assess the listening comprehension of the subjects. Then, at the end of the course, the listening comprehension scores of the two groups were compared by a T-Test. The result showed that simplified demonstration of materials had a benefit over the use of authentic version. A questionnaire was also given to the subjects at the beginning and at the end of the course to find out their motivation toward using authentic or simplified materials. The result indicated that there was no significant difference between two groups in terms of motivation.
Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.
The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…
Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara
Two studies explored the relation between listening comprehension of text and listening comprehension of sentences in preschoolers aged 4 to 5 years, 11 months. The first study analyzed this relationship taking into account the role of lower level components, namely, word knowledge and verbal working memory, as possible mediators. These components…
Ghoneim, Nahed Mohamed Mahmoud
The current study focused on the problems which students encounter while listening to the English language, the mental processes they activate in listening comprehension, and the strategies they use in different phases of comprehension. Also, it aimed to find out whether there were any differences between advanced and intermediate students in…
Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih
Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media presentation modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media presentation mode (sound and text versus sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load.…
Among three sections that follow the Paper-Based TOEFL (PBT), many test takers find listening comprehension section is the most difficult. Thus, in this research the researcher aims to explore how students learn PBT's listening comprehension section effectively through song technique. This sounds like a more interesting and engaging way to learn…
The present study examines how display model, English proficiency and cognitive preference affect English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' listening comprehension of authentic videos and cognitive load degree. EFL learners were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The control group received single coding and the experimental group received…
The present study was conducted in the context of learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) with the purpose of assessing the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in academic listening comprehension. The Vocabulary Size Test (VST, Nation & Beglar, 2007) and the Word Associates Test (WAT, Read, 2004) were administered to…
The present study aimed at making a pedagogical exploration into listening comprehension skills and examining the problems faced by learners in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom situation at Jazan University, Jazan city, Saudi Arabia. To analyze the problems, two very important processes were considered; namely, top-down and…
Lan, Yu-Ju; Liao, Chia-Ying
The study aimed at enhancing Chinese as a second language (CSL) students' listening comprehension by using authentic contexts in Second Life (SL). Twenty-seven CSL students from 4 countries participated in the 6-week study. A within-subject design was adopted to confirm the effects of 3D immersive experiences on CSL students' listening…
The objective of this study is to investigate how the classroom practice in teaching listening comprehension at English Education Program of STKIP Tapanuli Selatan in 2016/2017 Academic Year is. The informants of this research were all of second semester students of STKIP Tapanuli Selatan in 2016/2017 academic year and a lecturer of listening…
Alrawashdeh, Ayah Isam; Al-zayed, Norma Nawaf
This study is aimed at investigating the difficulties that English teachers encountered while teaching listening comprehension and their attitudes towards the subjectin Karak schools. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used two instruments: a teacher's questionnaire and informal interviews. In order to answer the questions of…
Dewi, Resti Citra
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of using authentic materials on EFL students' in listening comprehension. The participants of this study was the second year students of Junior High School in Indonesia, 2014/2015 academic year. The population of this study consisted of five parallel classes with the total number of the…
Soori, Afshin; Haghani, Elham
Textbooks are the instruments that assist both teachers and learners in process of second language learning. With respect to the importance of textbooks in a language course, evaluation of course books is a significant issue for most researchers. The present study investigated and analyzed Listening Comprehension parts in Top Notch 2A & 2B 2nd…
Ahmadi Safa, Mohammad; Rozati, Fatemeh
Drawing on sociocultural theory, and a large number of empirical studies conducted on the effectiveness of scaffolding on second or foreign language learning, the authors investigated the application of different forms of scaffolding to improve listening comprehension of the Iranian intermediate English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. To…
This study was inspired by Qian (1999) and Staehr (2009) and researched 88 Chinese learners who had already passed the College English Test 4 (CET). These learners volunteered to participate in the study regarding the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge and its relationship with listening comprehension, which was assessed by analyzing the…
Lin, Sheau-Wen; Liu, Yu; Chen, Shin-Feng; Wang, Jing-Ru; Kao, Huey-Lien
The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-based assessment for elementary school students' listening comprehension of science talk within an inquiry-oriented environment. The development procedure had 3 steps: a literature review to define the framework of the test, collecting and identifying key constructs of science talk, and…
Tabrizi, Haleh Mojarrabi; Saeidi, Mahnaz
This study investigated the interrelationships among EFL learners' self-efficacy, autonomy and listening comprehension ability. Ninety female learners of intermediate level participated in the study. They were between 16 and 24 years old. In order to obtain the required data on the three variables (i.e., self-efficacy, autonomy, and listening…
Koster, M.P.; van der Wilt, F.M.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van der Veen, Chiel
In a quasi-experimental study with a pre-posttest design we examined the effect of a mind mapping intervention on listening comprehension and vocabulary of preschoolers (aged 4-6) in the Netherlands. Two classes (n=39) participated in the study. In the intervention condition (n=17) the teacher
The existence of different varieties of English in target language use (TLU) domains calls into question the usefulness of listening comprehension tests whose input is limited only to a native speaker variety. This study investigated the impact of non-native varieties or accented English speech on test takers from three different English use…
Mills, Kathy A.
Talk is the foundation for thought and understanding and the key to literacy learning. Research demonstrates that powerful metacognitive strategies can be taught to help students self-monitor their comprehension when reading print and digital texts. This article provides a repertoire of speaking and listening strategies to develop the…
The present research reports the findings of three experiments which explore how subtitles and advance organizers affect EFL learners' listening comprehension of authentic videos. EFL learners are randomly assigned to one of two groups. The control group receives no treatment and the experimental group receives the experimental conditions of one…
Leveridge, Aubrey Neil; Yang, Jie Chi
Instructional support has been widely discussed as a strategy to optimize student-learning experiences. This study examines instructional support within the context of a multimedia language-learning environment, with the predominant focus on learners' perceptions of captioning support for listening comprehension. The study seeks to answer two…
The Assessment of Language Competence (ALC) certificates is an annual, international testing program developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research to test the listening and reading comprehension skills of lower to middle year levels of secondary school. The tests are developed for three levels in French, German, Italian and…
Marashi, Hamid; Khaksar, Mojgan
This research compared the effect of using dictogloss and dicto-phrase tasks on EFL learners' listening comprehension. To fulfill the purpose of the study, a piloted sample Key English Test (KET) was administered to a total number of 90 Iranian female teenage EFL learners at Kish Language School, Tehran, and then 60 were selected based on their…
Jones, Linda C.
This article describes how effectively multimedia learning environments can assist second language (L2) students of different spatial and verbal abilities with listening comprehension and vocabulary learning. In particular, it explores how written and pictorial annotations interacted with high/low spatial and verbal ability learners and thus…
This study used an alternating treatment design to examine the use of a listening reading comprehension intervention package. This package was implemented in English as well as bilingually (on alternating days). This package was applied to four participants who were English Language Learners, were diagnosed with a severe intellectual delay, and…
Hayati, A. Majid; Jalilifar, Alireza
The main concern of the present study is to probe the relationship between note-taking strategy and students' listening comprehension (LC) ability. To conduct the study, a language proficiency test was administered to the undergraduate students majoring in English Translation at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz and sixty students were selected…
Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to inspect the impact of podcasts as learning and teaching tools on Iranian EFL learners’ motivation for listening as well as on their listening comprehension ability. It also investigated the learners’ perception towards podcasts. 34 intermediate learners who were homogeneous in terms of listening ability were chosen and then assigned into two groups. While the experimental group were given the treatment i.e. podcasts, the control group received the traditional practice. Data analysis results showed that the learners in the podcasting group surpassed the participants in the control group in their listening comprehension tests and in ELCMS scale as used to measure changes in the motivation of learners for listening. Students' views about the program were also elicited via podcast contribution questionnaire and individual interviews. The analysis of qualitative data showed that students perceived improvement in their listening achievement. Keywords: CALL, Listening skill, Motivation, Motivational strategies, Podcast
Full Text Available The present study has made an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of using English songs and lyrics on improving the listening comprehension ability of adult EFL learners in Iran. The participants of the study were selected based on their results in an OPT exam. 40 students whose score fell between 1SD below and above the mean were randomly assigned to two groups of control and experimental. At the beginning of the study a pre-test was run and the results of the groups were compared. The results didn’t show any specific difference between the groups. Experimental group received treatment via listening practice by English songs for two months. By the end of the study a listening post-test was run and the result of the independent sample t-test showed a significant difference between the control and experimental group. The findings of the study indicated that listening to English songs can be an effective way to improve listening comprehension ability of EFL learners.
Lee, Shu-Ping; Su, Hui-Kai; Lee, Shin-Da
This study investigated the effects of immediate feedback on computer-based foreign language listening comprehension tests and on intrapersonal test-associated anxiety in 72 English major college students at a Taiwanese University. Foreign language listening comprehension of computer-based tests designed by MOODLE, a dynamic e-learning environment, with or without immediate feedback together with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) were tested and repeated after one week. The analysis indicated that immediate feedback during testing caused significantly higher anxiety and resulted in significantly higher listening scores than in the control group, which had no feedback. However, repeated feedback did not affect the test anxiety and listening scores. Computer-based immediate feedback did not lower debilitating effects of anxiety but enhanced students' intrapersonal eustress-like anxiety and probably improved their attention during listening tests. Computer-based tests with immediate feedback might help foreign language learners to increase attention in foreign language listening comprehension.
Yang, Xiaohu; Jiang, Meng; Zhao, Yong
This study was intended to determine whether the effects of noise on English listening comprehension would vary among Chinese college students with different learning styles. A total of 89 participants with different learning styles measured using Kolb's (1985) Learning Style Inventory finished English listening comprehension tests in quiet and in white noise, Chinese two-talker babble, and English two-talker babble respectively. The results showed that the participants in general had significantly poorer performance in the two babble conditions than in quiet and white noise. However, the participants with assimilative and divergent learning styles performed relatively better in Chinese babble, and exhibited stable performance across the three noisy conditions, while the participants with convergent and accommodative learning styles had more impaired performance in both Chinese babble and English babble than in white noise. Moreover, of Kolb's four learning modes, reflective observation had a facilitative effect on listening performance in Chinese babble and English babble. These findings suggest that differences in learning style might lead to differential performance in foreign language listening comprehension in noise.
Full Text Available The present paper aims at investigating the application of an instructional method specifically focused on the expansion of metacognitive awareness and its effect on Serbian EFL students’ listening comprehension. The current study is a follow-up research of a similar study by Vandergrift and Tafaghodtari (2010. However, we sought to expand the previous research by investigating the relationship between the students’ current level of L2 (target language vocabulary and listening test scores. Our study likewise differed in the sample of participants, the target language, teaching and testing material used, and the duration of the very experiment. To answer the proposed research questions we conducted an experiment with 57 Serbian secondary school EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners divided into experimental (n=27 and control group (n=30. The results of the pre- and post-tests of the two groups showed the beneficial effects of developing metacognitive strategies and the strong positive correlation between the level of vocabulary and listening comprehension. The paper underlines important pedagogical implications especially regarding the enhancement of metacognitive awareness and vocabulary proficiency of students in order to improve performance on listening comprehension tasks.
Yang, Xiaohu; Jiang, Meng; Zhao, Yong
This study was intended to determine whether the effects of noise on English listening comprehension would vary among Chinese college students with different learning styles. A total of 89 participants with different learning styles measured using Kolb’s (1985) Learning Style Inventory finished English listening comprehension tests in quiet and in white noise, Chinese two-talker babble, and English two-talker babble respectively. The results showed that the participants in general had significantly poorer performance in the two babble conditions than in quiet and white noise. However, the participants with assimilative and divergent learning styles performed relatively better in Chinese babble, and exhibited stable performance across the three noisy conditions, while the participants with convergent and accommodative learning styles had more impaired performance in both Chinese babble and English babble than in white noise. Moreover, of Kolb’s four learning modes, reflective observation had a facilitative effect on listening performance in Chinese babble and English babble. These findings suggest that differences in learning style might lead to differential performance in foreign language listening comprehension in noise. PMID:29085317
Nasrin Hadidi Tamjid
Full Text Available Learning a foreign language is a challenging process in which learners need motivation and encouragement through the use of modern techniques. The present paper investigates the effects digital stories may have on Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners’ listening comprehension. To this end, the researchers carried out a quasi-experimental research in a language institution in Tabriz (Iran. In total, forty, 11-14-year-old female students participated in this research. Twenty students were in the experimental group and twenty in the control group. The Preliminary English Test (PET was administered at the beginning of the study to check whether all participants were homogeneous in terms of English language proficiency. A pre-test of listening comprehension was designed to gather initial data on the learners' listening skill prior to the treatment. The experimental group was presented with digital stories in a technology-equipped classroom. After the treatment, a post-test was administered to both groups to test the learners' progression in listening comprehension. Then, using an ANCOVA test, the performance of two groups was compared.The findings indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in the final test. The results raise interesting issues related to the use of technology in the context of foreign language learning, substantiating the link between technology rich environment and improved language learning.
Somayeh Karbalaie Safarali
Full Text Available The current research sought to explore the effectiveness of using videos presenting speakers’ gestures and facial clues on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension proficiency. It was carried out at Ayandeh English Institute among 60 advanced female learners with the age range of 17-30 through a quasi-experimental research design. The researcher administered a TOEFL test to determine the homogeneity of the participants regarding both their general English language proficiency level and listening comprehension ability. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. After coming up with the conclusion that the two groups were homogeneous, during 10 sessions of treatment, they received two different listening comprehension techniques, i.e. audio-visual group watching the video was equipped with the speaker’s gestures and facial clues, while the audio-only group could just listen to speaker’s voice and no additional clue was presented. Meanwhile, the participants were supposed to answer the questions related to each video. At the end of the treatment, both groups participated in the listening comprehension test of the Longman TOEFL test as the post-test. A t-test was used to compare the mean scores of the two groups, the result of which showed that the learners’ mean score in the audio-visual group was significantly higher than the learners’ mean score in the audio-only group. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that foreign language pedagogy, especially for adult English learners, would benefit from applying videos presenting speakers’ gestures and facial clues.
Liliana Ballesteros Muñoz
Full Text Available This article outlines a study that explores the relationship between SMART goal setting (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-based and learning English in Colombia concerning a foreign language learners’ self-efficacy beliefs in listening. The participants were seventh and ninth grade students of two schools in Bogotá, Colombia. The results revealed that self-efficacy was highly positive when related to goal setting as students were able to set SMART goals to improve their listening comprehension and learners showed improvement in self-efficacy beliefs and felt more motivated while completing listening tasks related to songs. Furthermore this study shows that goal setting training can be incorporated successfully into the English as a foreign language classroom.
Full Text Available The assessment of listening abilities is one of the least understood, least developed and, yet, one of the most important areas of language testing and assessment. It is particularly important because of its potential wash-back effects on classroom practices. Given the fact that listening tests play a great role in assessing the language proficiency of students, they are expected to enjoy a high level of construct validity. The present study was dedicated to investigating the construct validity of three different test formats, namely, multiple-choice, gap filling on summary (also called listening summary cloze, and fill-in-the-blank, used to evaluate the listening comprehension of EFL learners. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, three passages with relatively similar readability levels were used for the construction of 9 listening tests, that is, each appeared in three formats. Following a counter-balanced design, the tests were administered to 91homogeneous EFL learners divided into three groups. The statistical analysis of the results revealed that the multiple-choice test enjoyed the highest level of construct validity. Moreover, a repeated measure one-way ANOVA demonstrated that the fill-in-the-blank task was the most difficult with the MC test as the easiest for the participants.
Masoud Yazdani Moghadam
Full Text Available This paper reports a study investigating the role of negotiated assessment of metacognitive listening strategies in enhancing listening comprehension. To this aim, 60 Iranian EFL learners at intermediate level of language proficiency were assigned to an experimental (n = 30 and control group (n = 30. An attempt was made by the teacher in experimental group to raise students’ awareness of metacognitive strategies both prior to and after the doing listening comprehension tasks in a time bracket of eight weeks. Nonetheless, the control group followed conventional product-oriented approach to listening instruction; that is, no attempt was made to engage them in metacognitive instruction. Listening comprehension of both groups was assessed by listening section of IELTS at the onset and end of the study. Results of the study revealed that negotiated metacognitive assessment managed to significantly increase gains in listening comprehension. Furthermore, the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group. The results gave more credence to the positive role of process-based approach to teaching listening comprehension. The results are discussed in the light of metacognition and some pedagogical implications are included.
Parastoo Alizadeh Oghyanous
Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of teaching metacognitive listening strategies through shadowing activity on the listening comprehension of field-dependent (FD and field-independent (FI EFL learners. Since the researcher had access only to female participants,85 female EFL learners from a language institute in Tehran, at the pre-intermediate level of proficiency with the age range of 18-35 were selected out of the initial 120 participants based on their performance on a piloted PET. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT was administered to the selected participants in order to categorize them into the two experimental groups (49 FD and 36 FI. The participants including both FD and FI sat in several classes. During a five-week instruction period (twice a week, both groups practiced listening comprehension for 45 minutes through a combination of shadowing activity, and metacognitive strategy instruction with no difference in treatment. The results of the independent samples t-test demonstrated that there was no significant difference between listening posttest scores of FI and FD groups. Therefore, it was concluded that metacognitive strategy training coupled with shadowing activity could be equally beneficial in terms of listening proficiency for all students regardless of their perceptual tendency (FD/FI. The findings of the present study have implications for language teachers regarding metacognitive strategy training and listening comprehension enhancement.
Otair, Ibrahim; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd
Anxiety is an important factor in foreign language learning. Very few studies have been done on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Saudi students in listening classes. Therefore, this pilot study was aimed at exploring the causes of listening comprehension anxiety from EFL Saudi learners' perspectives at Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. The…
Acat, M. Bahaddin; Demiral, Hilmi; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih
The main purpose of this study is to measure listening comprehension skills of 5th grade school students with the help of web based system. This study was conducted on 5th grade students studying at the primary schools of Eskisehir. The scale used in the process of the study is "Web Based Listening Scale". In the process of the study,…
Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Chih-Kai
Fostering the listening comprehension of English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners has been recognized as an important and challenging issue. Videos have been used as one of the English listening learning resources; however, without effective learning supports, EFL students are likely to encounter difficulties in comprehending the video content,…
Santos, Sandra; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Ribeiro, Iolanda; Prieto, Gerardo; Brandão, Sara; Cadime, Irene
This investigation aimed to develop and collect psychometric data for two tests assessing listening comprehension of Portuguese students in primary school: the Test of Listening Comprehension of Narrative Texts (TLC-n) and the Test of Listening Comprehension of Expository Texts (TLC-e). Two studies were conducted. The purpose of study 1 was to construct four test forms for each of the two tests to assess first, second, third and fourth grade students of the primary school. The TLC-n was administered to 1042 students, and the TLC-e was administered to 848 students. The purpose of study 2 was to test the psychometric properties of new items for the TLC-n form for fourth graders, given that the results in study 1 indicated a severe lack of difficult items. The participants were 260 fourth graders. The data were analysed using the Rasch model. Thirty items were selected for each test form. The results provided support for the model assumptions: Unidimensionality and local independence of the items. The reliability coefficients were higher than .70 for all test forms. The TLC-n and the TLC-e present good psychometric properties and represent an important contribution to the learning disabilities assessment field.
Cheng, Liying; Klinger, Don; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine; Jin, Yan; Wu, Jessica
This study examined test-takers' motivation, test anxiety, and test performance across a range of social and educational contexts in three high-stakes language tests: the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment in Canada, the College English Test (CET) in the People's Republic of China, and the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT)…
Verlaan, Wolfram; Pearce, Daniel L.; Zeng, Guang
This study investigated the relationship between listening comprehension and reading comprehension to determine if environmental factors might be contributing to a possible change in the equalization age for these two comprehension modalities from what was theorized by Thomas Sticht. The study employed a counterbalanced design to measure the…
Carretti, Barbara; Caldarola, Nadia; Tencati, Chiara; Cornoldi, Cesare
Background: Metacognition and working memory (WM) have been found associated with success in reading comprehension, but no studies have examined their combined effect on the training of reading comprehension. Another open question concerns the role of listening comprehension: In particular, it is not clear whether training to improve reading…
Yanagawa, Kozo; Green, Anthony
The purpose of this study is to examine whether the choice between three multiple-choice listening comprehension test formats results in any difference in listening comprehension test performance. The three formats entail (a) allowing test takers to preview both the question stem and answer options prior to listening; (b) allowing test takers to…
Mira, William A; Schwanenflugel, Paula J
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral reading expressiveness on the comprehension of storybooks by 4- and 5-year-old prekindergarten children. The possible impact of prosody on listening comprehension was explored. Ninety-two prekindergarten children (M age = 57.26 months, SD = 3.89 months) listened to an expressive or inexpressive recording of 1 of 2 similar stories. Story comprehension was tested using assessments of both free recall and cued recall. Children showed statistically significantly better cued recall for the expressive readings of stories compared to the inexpressive readings of stories. This effect generalized across stories and when story length was controlled across both expressive and inexpressive versions. The effect of expressiveness on children's free recall was not significant. Highly expressive readings resulted in better comprehension of storybooks by prekindergarten children. Further, because recordings were used, this effect might be attributed to the facilitation of language processing rather than to enhanced social interaction between the reader and the child.
Scrimin, Sara; Patron, Elisabetta; Florit, Elena; Palomba, Daniela; Mason, Lucia
This study investigated the role of basal cardiac activity and inhibitory control at the beginning of the school year in predicting oral comprehension at the end of the year in pre-schoolers. Forty-three, 4-year-olds participated in the study. At the beginning of the school year children's electrocardiogram at rest was registered followed by the assessment of inhibitory control as well as verbal working memory and verbal ability. At the end of the year all children were administered a listening comprehension ability measure. A stepwise regression showed a significant effect of basal cardiac vagal tone in predicting listening comprehension together with inhibitory control and verbal ability. These results are among the first to show the predictive role of basal cardiac vagal tone and inhibitory control in pre-schoolers' oral text comprehension, and offer new insight into the association between autonomic regulation of the heart, inhibitory control, and cognitive activity at a young age. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This article focuses on the role that metacognition can effectively play in the development of second language listening comprehension, and specifically, how a mobile app can be specified for this end. A social mobile assisted listening app, ANT (Audio News Trainer, is presented as a prototype for exploring the way in which students can be helped to use metacognition to improve relevant linguistic communicative competences. A study has been undertaken with students using ANT to explore the intricate nature of the listening comprehension development process and the main metacognitive strategies that can be successfully applied. Special attention is paid to the implicitly and explicitly applied metacognitive strategies within the app, and related social network, where follow-on activities were undertaken, the strategies in question being: focus (a conscious effort on the gradual development of individual skills, engagement (interest is enhanced when a learning activity is enjoyable/successful, interaction (since collective activities seem to enhance emotional and social involvement, reflection (upon what works and does not work for each individual, self-regulation (through data about the students’ own progress and achievements, and attitude (here a further distinction is made between satisfaction, self-confidence and encouragement. The stages of engagement of a student with the app are explored in relation to the metacognitive strategy used and how they can contribute to the overall success of the learning experience. A final reflection is made about how metacognitive strategies offer an effective way to compensate for the lack of teacher presence, support and guidance on a medium/long term basis. However, although the study of the initial use of this social listening training app shows the potential for incorporating ‘knowing about knowing’ into mobile technology, it is suggested that future research is required to provide further finer
Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi
This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.
Full Text Available A number of studies have examined the contribution of technology in teaching such languages as English, French, and Spanish, among many others. Contrarily, most LCTL’s, have received very little attention. This study investigates if listening while reading (LWR may expedite Swahili reading fluency and comprehension. The study employed the iBook Author tool to create weekly mediated and interactive reading texts, with comprehension exercises, which were eventually used to collect descriptive and qualitative data from four Elementary Swahili students. Participants participated in a seven week reading program, which provided them with some kind of directed self-learning, and met with the instructor for at least 30 minutes every week for observation and more reading activities. The teacher recorded their reading scores, and a number of themes on how LWR influenced reading fluency and comprehension are discussed here. It shows that participants have a positive attitude towards LWR and they suggest it for all the reading classes.
Full Text Available This study is aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the experiential learning in listening comprehension with the focus on the implementation of the class story using language experience at SMAN 1 Telaga Biru. As the pre-experimental research, this study involved one class consisted of 27 students in the eleventh graders. However, most of the students of the eleventh graders in this school have some problems in their listening comprehension. This current research, therefore, aims at finding the result of the students’ listening comprehension by using experiential learning in focusing on the class story using language experience for the eleventh graders at SMAN 1 Telaga Biru and defining the students’ achievement in listening comprehension by using experiential learning focusing on the class story using language experience. This study also explored the learners’ listening comprehension by analyzing the result of the students’ pre-test and post-test. It was found that the mean of the pre-test was 60 while the mean of the post-test was 80,6. By analyzing this result, it indicated that the post-test was higher than the pre-test. In conclusion, the finding of this research showed that teaching listening in the eleventh graders of SMAN 1 Telaga Biru using experiential learning in focusing on the class story using language experience was effective to teach students’ listening comprehension. Therefore, it can be suggested that it was an alternative way to use of experiential learning focusing on the class story using language experience in teaching listening.
Full Text Available Sixty one people with aphasia (pwa and forty one matched controls were tested for the ability to understand sentences that required the ability to assign particular syntactic structures. Participants paced themselves word-by-word through twenty examples of eleven spoken sentence types and indicated which of two pictures corresponded to the meaning of each sentence. Sentences were developed in pairs such that comprehension of the experimental version of a pair required an aspect of syntactic processing not required in the corresponding baseline sentence. The need for the syntactic operations required only in the experimental version was triggered at a “critical word” in the experimental sentence. Listening times for critical words in experimental sentences were compared to those for corresponding words in the corresponding baseline sentences. We adjusted self paced listening times for word duration by subtracting word durations from tag-to-tag self paced listening times to correct for word duration, yielding what we have previously called “corrected listening times.” Corrected listening times above ceiling (10,000 msec for sentence-final words and 5,000 msec for all other words were discarded. For controls, this led to 0.2% of data being discarded and for PWAs 2.2% were discarded. Corrected listening times that were more than 3 standard deviations above or below the mean for that sentence type for each subject were adjusted either down to the upper limit or up to the lower limit of the 3SD range (not discarded. For accurate sentences, 1.7% of the control data were adjusted and 1.8% of the aphasic data were adjusted. For inaccurate sentences, 10% of the corrected listening times were adjusted for controls and 3.3% for aphasics. Our interest is in incremental parsing and interpretation. The measure we used of this process was the residual of a regression of corrected self paced listening times for critical words in experimental sentences
Carretti, Barbara; Caldarola, Nadia; Tencati, Chiara; Cornoldi, Cesare
Metacognition and working memory (WM) have been found associated with success in reading comprehension, but no studies have examined their combined effect on the training of reading comprehension. Another open question concerns the role of listening comprehension: In particular, it is not clear whether training to improve reading comprehension must necessarily be based on processing written material or whether, as suggested in a recent study by Clarke et al. (2010, Psychol. Sci., 21, 1106), a programme based on verbal language could also be effective. The study examined the feasibility of improving text comprehension in school children by comparing the efficacy of two training programmes, both involving metacognition and WM, but one based on listening comprehension, the other on reading comprehension. The study involved a sample of 159 pupils attending eight classes in the fourth and fifth grades (age range 9-11 years). The listening and reading programmes focused on the same abilities/processes strictly related to text comprehension, and particularly metacognitive knowledge and control, WM (per se and in terms of integrating information in a text). The training programmes were implemented by school teachers as part of the class's normal school activities, under the supervision of experts. Their efficacy was compared with the results obtained in an active control group that completed standard text comprehension activities. Our results showed that both the training programmes focusing on specific text comprehension skills were effective in improving the children's achievement, but training in reading comprehension generated greater gains than the listening comprehension programme. Our study suggests that activities focusing specifically on metacognition and WM could foster text comprehension, but the potential benefit is influenced by the training modality, that is, the Reading group obtained greater and longer-lasting improvements than the Active control or
Casalis, Séverine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather
This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Compréhension syntaxico-sémantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level in the written but not in the spoken modality, compared to reading age-matched children, suggesting a difficulty in handling syntax while reading. In the second task, syntactic processing was further explored through a test of relative clause processing, in which inflectional markers could aid in attributing roles to the elements in a complex syntactic structure. Children with dyslexia were insensitive to inflectional markers in both reading and listening, as was the reading age control group, while only the older normal reader group appeared to make use of the inflectional markers. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that difficulties in comprehension in dyslexia are strongly related to poor reading skills.
Full Text Available Adopting Weir’s (2005 socio-cognitive validation framework, the present paper focuses on the syntactic and lexical complexity of listening comprehension subtests in three B2-level examinations: The City Guilds international examination in English, The First Certificate in English, and the General Matura in English. By analysing and interpreting the results obtained from different automated tools, the research aims to determine to what extent the three subtests are comparable. The results of the study suggest the unreliability of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR as a sole mechanism for test comparisons.
Hamdan, Jihad M; Al-Hawamdeh, Rose Fowler
This empirical study examines the extent to which 'face', i.e. (audio visual dialogues), affects the listening comprehension of advanced Jordanian EFL learners in a TOFEL-like test, as opposed to its absence (i.e. a purely audio test) which is the current norm in many English language proficiency tests, including but not limited to TOFEL iBT, TOEIC and academic IELTS. Through an online experiment, 60 Jordanian postgraduate linguistics and English literature students (advanced EFL learners) at the University of Jordan sit for two listening tests (simulating English proficiency tests); namely, one which is purely audio [i.e. without any face (including any visuals such as motion, as well as still pictures)], and one which is audiovisual/video. The results clearly show that the inclusion of visuals enhances subjects' performance in listening tests. It is concluded that since the aim of English proficiency tests such as TOEFL iBT is to qualify or disqualify subjects to work and study in western English-speaking countries, the exclusion of visuals is unfounded. In actuality, most natural interaction includes visibility of the interlocutors involved, and hence test takers who sit purely audio proficiency tests in English or any other language are placed at a disadvantage.
Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M Chiara
The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome, aged between 11 and 26 years who were matched for reading comprehension with a group of 20 typically developing children aged between 6;3 and 7;3 years. The two groups were presented with a listening comprehension test and four verbal memory tasks in which the degree of processing load and the coding modality were manipulated. The results of the study confirmed the advantage of reading over listening comprehension for individuals with Down syndrome. Furthermore, it emerged that different aspects of verbal memory were related respectively to reading and to listening comprehension: visual memory with low processing load was related to the former and oral memory with high processing load to the latter. Finally, it was demonstrated that verbal memory contributed to explain the advantage of reading over listening comprehension in Down syndrome. The results are discussed in light of their theoretical relevance and practical implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yamchi, Roghayeh; Kumar, Vishal
The main concern of the present study was to compare Iranian monolingual and bilingual EFL students' listening comprehension in terms of Latinized Persian subtitling of English movie to see whether there was a significant difference between monolinguals and bilinguals on immediate linguistic comprehension of the movie. Latinized Persian subtitling…
Yildirim, Kasim; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy
The aim of this study was to examine fifth grade elementary school students' listening and reading comprehension levels with regard to text types. This study was conducted on 180 fifth grade elementary school students in Sincan-Ankara in the spring semester of the academic year 2008-2009. The comprehension test was administered to students. The…
Resti Citra Dewi
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of using authentic materials on EFL students’ in listening comprehension. The participants of this study was the second year students of Junior High School in Indonesia, 2014/2015 academic year. The population of this study consisted of five parallel classes with the total number of the students was 190 students. Purposive sampling technique was used in this study. The participants were divided into two groups, the experimental was 38 students and the control group was 38 students. This study used experimental research. The instrument used in collecting data was multiple choice test. The total items of the test was 20 items. The finding shows that t-test (5.09 was higher than t-table (2.02 with the level of significance 0.05 and the degree of freedom (df = 36. It shows that the hypothesis alternative (ha was accepted. It means that using authentic materials has influence on students’ achievement in listening comprehension.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to empirically investigate the possible correlation and the influence between students’ language learning strategies and listening comprehension. The population of this study was 138 eleventh grade students of Islamic Senior High School number 2 Palembang. The sample was all of eleventh grade students in social class. The total number of the student was 138. Since 16 students were absent, so the sample consisted of 122 students. To collect the data in order to measure the students’ language learning strategies and listening comprehension, SILL (strategy inventory in learning language and listening comprehension test from TOEFL Junior test were used in this study. The Pearson correlation was used in analyzing the data using SPSS 16. The result from questionnaire showed that most of the students used metacognitive strategies were in medium level and sometimes used language learning strategies. The result from listening comprehension test showed that most of the students were in very poor level. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between the two variables that can be seen from the correlation coefficient or r-obtained (-.011 was lower than r-table (0.1779 then the level of probability or sig. value (.902 was higher than .05. From the result, it can be concluded that there was no significant correlation between language learning strategies and listening comprehension of eleventh grade students of Islamic Senior High School number 2 Palembang.
Best, Virginia; Keidser, Gitte; Freeston, Katrina; Buchholz, Jörg M
Many listeners with hearing loss report particular difficulties with multitalker communication situations, but these difficulties are not well predicted using current clinical and laboratory assessment tools. The overall aim of this work is to create new speech tests that capture key aspects of multitalker communication situations and ultimately provide better predictions of real-world communication abilities and the effect of hearing aids. A test of ongoing speech comprehension introduced previously was extended to include naturalistic conversations between multiple talkers as targets, and a reverberant background environment containing competing conversations. In this article, we describe the development of this test and present a validation study. Thirty listeners with normal hearing participated in this study. Speech comprehension was measured for one-, two-, and three-talker passages at three different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and working memory ability was measured using the reading span test. Analyses were conducted to examine passage equivalence, learning effects, and test-retest reliability, and to characterize the effects of number of talkers and SNR. Although we observed differences in difficulty across passages, it was possible to group the passages into four equivalent sets. Using this grouping, we achieved good test-retest reliability and observed no significant learning effects. Comprehension performance was sensitive to the SNR but did not decrease as the number of talkers increased. Individual performance showed associations with age and reading span score. This new dynamic speech comprehension test appears to be valid and suitable for experimental purposes. Further work will explore its utility as a tool for predicting real-world communication ability and hearing aid benefit. American Academy of Audiology.
McKendry, Mairead Grainne; Murphy, Victoria A.
The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of different measures of listening comprehension for Years 2, 3 and 4 children with English as an additional language (EAL). Non-standardised uses of reading comprehension measures are often employed as proxy measures of listening comprehension, i.e. for purposes for which they were not…
Afsharrad, Mohammad; Nafchi, Asghar Moulavi
This study is motivated by the gap existing between theory and practice in teaching listening. Most of the techniques used to teach listening put more emphasis on top-down processing while listeners' problems are more of perceptive ones (bottom-up). In order to address the pervasive decoding problem in listening, this study suggests using…
Mohammad Ali Fatemi
Full Text Available Cultural integration can be used as an effective learning practice in contexts of English as Foreign Language (EFL classrooms. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of cultural integration on the development of Iranian EFL upper-intermediate learners' listening comprehension. To this end, fifty-two upper-intermediate EFL learners were selected based on the Quick Placement Test, developed by Oxford University Press and University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (2012. These participants were randomly assigned into experimental (N=26 and control (N=26 groups. T-test analysis indicated significant effects of cultural integration on the development of listening comprehension on upper-intermediate EFL learners. The findings offer pedagogical implications for integrating First Language (L1 culture in EFL listening comprehension classrooms.
M. Bahaddin Acat
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to measure listening comprehension skills of 5th grade school students with the help of web based system. This study was conducted on 5th grade students studying at the primary schools of Eskisehir. The scale used in the process of the study is “Web Based Listening Scale”. In the process of the study, it was investigated that the level of differentiation listening skill and educational level of mother and father, family income level, Turkish Course grading note, the most popular and listened music genre. According to the results obtained that significant difference was found with listening skills and educational level of mother and father, family income level and the most popular and listened music genre. Also it was found that there is powerful relationship between listening skills and Turkish Course grading note. In the process of the research, it was observed the students used the web based system more attentive and motivated. Nevertheless, personalized measuring environment was provided by the web based system. Finally, it can be said that the web based systems can be used positively for language learning, teaching, and instruction, improving, measuring and assessing process.
María Ángeles Martín del Pozo
Full Text Available CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning and EMI (English Medium Instruction practices have outpaced theory and teacher training. There is a need to provide answers to some of the key issues such as the language requirements. This paper aims to show that knowledge from English for Specific Purposes and English for Academic Purposes, fields which have provided effective teaching practices and materials, could now be used in CLIL/EMI. The paper focuses on two of these. First, the issues related to second language academic listening comprehension and, secondly, the findings from research on it and their implications for student / lecturer training and materials design. These implications and suggestions are summarized. The paper concludes providing some language learning resources originally targeted to students but which could become tools for (self training of those teachers who need to update their language skills for CLIL.
Dolores Ramírez Verdugo
Full Text Available This paper examines the effects that digital stories may have on the understanding of spoken English by a group of 6-year-old Spanish learners. To accomplish this aim, a quasi-experimental research study was launched in six state schools in Madrid. A pre-post test design was used to investigate whether internet-based technology could improve listening comprehension in English as a Foreign Language (henceforth, EFL. Findings indicate that the experimental group outperformed the control group in the final test administered. These results raise interesting issues related to the use of technology in the context of foreign language learning. Future research which includes other age groups and digital materials and which explores other linguistic areas could further substantiate the link between Information and Communication Technology (ICT rich environment and improved language learning.
James, Philip J; Krishnan, Saloni; Aydelott, Jennifer
Older adults have difficulty understanding spoken language in the presence of competing voices. Everyday social situations involving multiple simultaneous talkers may become increasingly challenging in later life due to changes in the ability to focus attention. This study examined whether individual differences in cognitive function predict older adults' ability to access sentence-level meanings in competing speech using a dichotic priming paradigm. Older listeners showed faster responses to words that matched the meaning of spoken sentences presented to the left or right ear, relative to a neutral baseline. However, older adults were more vulnerable than younger adults to interference from competing speech when the competing signal was presented to the right ear. This pattern of performance was strongly correlated with a non-auditory working memory measure, suggesting that cognitive factors play a key role in semantic comprehension in competing speech in healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of different modes of English captioning on EFL learners’ general listening comprehension. To this end, forty five intermediate-level learners were selected based on their scores on a standardized English proficiency test (PET to carry out the study. Then, the selected participants were randomly assigned into two experimental groups (full-captions and keyword-captions and one control group (no-captions. Research instrumentation included a pre-test and a post-test following an experimental design. Participants took a pre-test and a post-test containing 50 multiple-choice questions (25question for pre-test and 25 question for post-test selected from a standard listening test PET, and also 15 treatment sessions. The findings showed significant differences among full-captions, keyword-captions, and no-captions in terms of their effect on learners’ general listening comprehension. This study provided some pedagogical implications for teaching listening through using different modes of captions. Keywords: Caption, full caption, keyword caption, listening comprehension
Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca
Sixty-one people with aphasia (pwa) and 41 matched controls were tested for the ability to understand sentences that required the ability to process particular syntactic elements and assign particular syntactic structures. Participants paced themselves word-by-word through 20 examples of 11 spoken sentence types and indicated which of two pictures corresponded to the meaning of each sentence. Sentences were developed in pairs such that comprehension of the experimental version of a pair required an aspect of syntactic processing not required in the corresponding baseline sentence. The need for the syntactic operations required only in the experimental version was triggered at a "critical word" in the experimental sentence. Listening times for critical words in experimental sentences were compared to those for corresponding words in the corresponding baseline sentences. The results were consistent with several models of syntactic comprehension deficits in pwa: resource reduction, slowed lexical and/or syntactic processing, abnormal susceptibility to interference from thematic roles generated non-syntactically. They suggest that a previously unidentified disturbance limiting the duration of parsing and interpretation may lead to these deficits, and that this mechanism may lead to structure-specific deficits in pwa. The results thus point to more than one mechanism underlying syntactic comprehension disorders both across and within pwa.
Liu, Gi-Zen; Chen, Jing-Yao; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
Mobile applications on the go have been adopted in many fields and areas. However, there has been little research regarding the development and use of a context-aware application for users to improve their English listening comprehension through collaboration. This research aimed at helping users improve their listening comprehension with a…
Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Laakkonen, Eero; Silven, Maarit; Niemi, Pekka
In this two-year longitudinal study, we sought to examine the developmental relationships among early narrative listening comprehension and language skills (i.e., vocabulary knowledge, sentence memory, and phonological awareness) and the roles of these factors in predicting narrative listening comprehension at the age of 6 years. We also sought to…
Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq
The present study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of using explicit language learning strategy-based instruction in developing secondary school students' EFL listening comprehension skills. It was hypothesized that using explicit strategy-based instruction would develop students' EFL listening comprehension skill and its sub-skills. The…
This is a presentation of the results of a factor analysis of a battery of tests intended to measure listening and reading comprehension in English as a second language. The analysis sought to answer the following questions: (1) whether the factor analysis method yields results when applied to tests which are not specifically designed for this…
Fatemi, Mohammad Ali; Montazerinia, Fatemeh; Shirazian, Sharifeh; Atarodi, Maliheh
Cultural integration can be used as an effective learning practice in contexts of English as Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of cultural integration on the development of Iranian EFL upper-intermediate learners' listening comprehension. To this end, fifty-two upper-intermediate EFL learners…
Sehati, Samira; Khodabandehlou, Morteza
The present investigation was an attempt to study on the effect of power point enhanced teaching (visual input) on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners' listening comprehension ability. To that end, a null hypothesis was formulated as power point enhanced teaching (visual input) has no effect on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners' listening…
Sarani, Abdullah; Behtash, Esmail Zare; Nezhad Arani, Saieed Moslemi
This study aims at finding the effect of video-based tasks in improving the listening comprehension ability of Iranian pre-intermediate EFL (English Foreign Language) learners. After determining the level of learners, an experimental and control group, each of 20 participants, were nominated to contribute to the study. From the time the pre-test…
This study is aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the experiential learning in listening comprehension with the focus on the implementation of the class story using language experience at SMAN 1 Telaga Biru. As the pre-experimental research, this study involved one class consisted of 27 students in the eleventh graders. However, most of the…
Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Spencer, Mercedes; Schatschneider, Christopher
This study rank ordered the contributive importance of several predictors of listening comprehension for third, seventh, and tenth graders. Principal components analyses revealed that a three-factor solution with fluency, reasoning, and working memory components provided the best fit across grade levels. Dominance analyses indicated that fluency…
Behroozizad, Sorayya; Majidi, Sudabeh
This study investigated the effect of different modes of English captioning on EFL learners' general listening comprehension. To this end, forty-five intermediate-level learners were selected based on their scores on a standardized English proficiency test (PET) to carry out the study. Then, the selected participants were randomly assigned into…
Full Text Available In this study, an attempt was made to examine the effects of previewing questions, repetition of input, and topic preparation on listening comprehension of Iranian learners of English. The study was conducted with 104 high school students in 3 experimental and one control groups. The participants in the previewing questions group read the comprehension questions before hearing the text and answering the questions. The topic preparation group took advantage of topic-related texts in Persian followed by previewing questions; then they listened to the texts and answered the questions. The repetition of input group had two hearings with previewing before each hearing that preceded answering the comprehension questions. The control group, however, only had one hearing before answering the questions. The results obtained from data analysis showed that the topic preparation group performed better than the other participating groups. The repetition group, in turn, did better than the previewing group. There was, however, no statistically significant difference between the previewing and repetition groups. Based on the results obtained, it can be argued that providing and/or activating background knowledge and repeating a listening task might facilitate listening comprehension in EFL classroom settings. The findings and pedagogical implications of the study are discussed in detail.
Roch, Maja; Florit, Elena; Levorato, M. Chiara
The current study was designed to investigate the role played by verbal memory in the advantage shown by individuals with Down syndrome in reading over listening text comprehension (Roch & Levorato, 2009). Two different aspects of verbal memory were analyzed: processing load and coding modality. Participants were 20 individuals with Down syndrome,…
Montero Perez, Maribel; Peters, Elke; Desmet, Piet
The aim of this study was twofold: we investigated (a) the effect of two types of captioned video (i.e., on-screen text in the same language as the video) on listening comprehension; (b) L2 learners' perception of the usefulness of captions while watching L2 video. The participants, 226 university-level students from a Flemish university, watched…
Full Text Available The present study aims at examining the effect of word-recognition practice on EFL students’ listening comprehension. The participants consisted of 30 intermediate EFL learners studying in a language institute in Birjand City, Iran. They were assigned randomly to two equal groups, control and experimental. Before starting the experiment, the listening section of IELTS was given to all of the students as the pretest. Then, during the experiment, the experimental group was asked to transcribe the listening sections of their course book while in the control group, the students did not transcribe. After 25 sessions (2 hours each of instruction, another test of listening (IELTS proficiency test was given to both groups as the post-test. The results of the two tests were then analyzed and compared using one way ANCOVA test. The results indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group (p<0.05. Therefore, it was concluded that word-recognition practice is an effective way for the improvement of EFL learners’ listening comprehension. The overall results of the study are discussed and the implications for further research and practitioners are made.
Full Text Available This study investigated the use of cable TV to increase listening comprehension of the students of English education department of Muria Kudus University. The aims were to find out: (1 the listening comprehension achievement of the students taught by using cable TV, (2 the students’ response towards the teaching of listening comprehension class by using cable TV, and (3 the students’ difficulties when being involved in the listening class taught by using cable TV are. A classroom action research was conducted with three cycles. The data was collected by using test, observation checklist, & a questionnaire. The subject consisted of 29 students joining Advanced Listening class. The findings show that: (a The listening comprehension achievement of the students taught by using cable TV in cycle I, II, & III is fair, (b The students have enthusiasm and seriousness and motivation in joining the class in all cycles, (c In cycle III the students’ difficulties when being involved in the listening comprehension class taught by using cable TV are more and more decreasing. Keywords: Cable TV, Listening Comprehension
Full Text Available The current study investigated the effects of the use of VoiceThread (VT on the listening comprehension and attitudes of college students of Arabic as a foreign language. Thirty-five students in two 10-week classes of beginning Arabic participated in this study. The instruction in both classes was the same except that, for one group, the instruction was supplemented by the use of VT to enhance listening and speaking skills during the 10 weeks. Upon completion of the class, students using VT showed superior listening skills. Moreover, an Attitude and Engagement survey showed that the students enjoyed using VT and viewed it as a valuable tool that enhanced their language learning.
Joe-Bren Lee Consuelo, Ed. D.
Considering the garnered MPL of the experimental and control group in the four tested dimensions to determine the initial listening comprehension level of the subjects, it reveals that both of the experimental and control group fall under frustration level having an overall MPL 41.67 and 55.11, respectively. In literal dimension the subjects in the experimental and control group fall under instructional level having an MPL of 63.33 and 75.44 respectively. In lieu of this, it can be noted that there is a difference of 12.11 in the MPL of control group compared to the experimental group. For the interpretative dimension the experimental group got an MPL of 30.00 which means that pupils under this dimension belong to frustration level. In the control group under the interpretative level got ban MPL of 50.00 which also gives an indication that subjects are in frustration level under interpretative dimension. However, in critical dimension both the experimental and control group got an MPL of 43.34 respectively which means that the subjects in this dimension are under the frustration level. For vocabulary development an MPL of 30 was garnered by the experimental group, while the control group garnered an MPL of 46.67 which means that both the experimental and control group fall under the frustration level.
Ockey, Gary J.; French, Robert
Concerns about the need for assessing multidialectal listening skills for global contexts are becoming increasingly prevalent. However, the inclusion of multiple accents on listening assessments may threaten test fairness because it is not practical to include every accent that may be encountered in the language use domain on these tests. Given…
Levak, Natasha; Son, Jeong-Bae
Learning how to comprehend while listening to a second language is often considered by learners to be a difficult process that can lead to anxiety when trying to communicate (Graham, 2006; Graham & Macaro, 2008). Computer-mediated communication (CMC) can be used to assist in increasing access to native speakers and opportunities to listen.…
Freed, Jenny; Cain, Kate
Comprehension is critical for classroom learning and educational success. Inferences are integral to good comprehension: successful comprehension requires the listener to generate local coherence inferences, which involve integrating information between clauses, and global coherence inferences, which involve integrating textual information with background knowledge to infer motivations, themes, etc. A central priority for the diagnosis of comprehension difficulties and our understanding of why these difficulties arise is the development of valid assessment instruments. We explored typically developing children's ability to make local and global coherence inferences using a novel assessment of listening comprehension. The aims were to determine whether children were more likely to make the target inferences when these were asked during story presentation versus after presentation of the story, and whether there were any age differences between conditions. Children in Years 3 (n = 29) and 5 (n = 31) listened to short stories presented either in a segmented format, in which questions to assess local and global coherence inferences were asked at specific points during story presentation, or in a whole format, when all the questions were asked after the story had been presented. There was developmental progression between age groups for both types of inference question. Children also scored higher on the global coherence inference questions than the local coherence inference questions. There was a benefit of the segmented format for younger children, particularly for the local inference questions. The results suggest that children are more likely to make target inferences if prompted during presentation of the story, and that this format is particularly facilitative for younger children and for local coherence inferences. This has implications for the design of comprehension assessments as well as for supporting children with comprehension difficulties in the classroom
Vandergrift, Larry; Cross, Jeremy
Most recent publications related to listening comprehension research deal with listening strategy instruction, metacognitive instruction or multimedia applications. This paper discusses one study from each of these three domains--Graham & Macaro (2008), Vandergrift & Tafaghodtari (2010) and Brett (1997)--and presents the need and…
Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A; Just, Marcel Adam
Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is that the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hossein ali Manzouri
Full Text Available This study aims at uncovering the effect(s of genre-based instruction (GBI on listening proficiency among Iranian EFL learners. Moreover, it seeks to explore the relationship between effectiveness of GBI and listening proficiency. For this purpose, 68 EFL learners in two different groups at Zabol University were selected. Group A included 30 participants (12 males and 18 females, and Group B consisted of 36 participants (16 males, and 22 females. Group A was divided into treatment and control groups and underwent two listening proficiency tests for pre and posttest. Results of independent t-test indicated that treatment group outperformed the control group as the result of GBI (Sig =.001, t=3.740. Based on the proficiency test, Group B was also divided into proficient and less-proficient groups each one underwent two listening tests for pre and posttest. Results of independent t-test and paired t-test revealed both groups differed significantly as the result of GBI (Sig.= .00, correlation= .949, and .945 for proficient and less-proficient groups respectively indicating that listening proficiency is not a significant factor in effectiveness of GBI.
In Taiwan, English language learning in senior high school has predominantly focused on reading, with a heavy emphasis on memorising vocabulary and grammar rules. English listening has been marginalised and is not officially taught until the first year of university. In 2012, the Joint Board of College Recruitment Commission in Taiwan passed…
The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of authentic aural materials on listening ability of thirty female undergraduate psychology majors studying English as a foreign language. It basically focused on using authentic materials and real-life situations as part of the communicative approach. The results of the listening…
Moore, Mary Ruth; Hall, Susan
Understanding a story is an active process, whether children have listened to it being read aloud or, when they are older and read it for themselves. When children grasp a story, they (1) attend to what is important; (2) anticipate what is to come; and (3) build meaningful patterns from the many details. These active interactions with a story can…
Cadime, Irene; Rodrigues, Bruna; Santos, Sandra; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Chaves-Sousa, Séli; do Céu Cosme, Maria; Ribeiro, Iolanda
Empirical research has provided evidence for the simple view of reading across a variety of orthographies, but the role of oral reading fluency in the model is unclear. Moreover, the relative weight of listening comprehension, oral reading fluency and word recognition in reading comprehension seems to vary across orthographies and schooling years.…
The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…
Full Text Available The use of modern technologies has been widely prevalent among language learners, and video, in particular, as a valuable learning tool provides learners with comprehensible input. The present study investigated the effect of silent and freeze-frame viewing techniques of video materials on the intermediate English as a foreign language (EFL learners’ listening comprehension. To this end, 45 intermediate EFL learners participated in this quasi-experimental study. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental groups (using two types of viewing techniques and the control group. While the difference between the two experimental groups was not statistically significant, the experimental groups outperformed the control group significantly.
Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners
Peng, Zhao Ellen
The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non
Avivi-Reich, Meital; Jakubczyk, Agnes; Daneman, Meredyth; Schneider, Bruce A
We investigated how age and linguistic status affected listeners' ability to follow and comprehend 3-talker conversations, and the extent to which individual differences in language proficiency predict speech comprehension under difficult listening conditions. Younger and older L1s as well as young L2s listened to 3-talker conversations, with or without spatial separation between talkers, in either quiet or against moderate or high 12-talker babble background, and were asked to answer questions regarding their contents. After compensating for individual differences in speech recognition, no significant differences in conversation comprehension were found among the groups. As expected, conversation comprehension decreased as babble level increased. Individual differences in reading comprehension skill contributed positively to performance in younger EL1s and in young EL2s to a lesser degree but not in older EL1s. Vocabulary knowledge was significantly and positively related to performance only at the intermediate babble level. The results indicate that the manner in which spoken language comprehension is achieved is modulated by the listeners' age and linguistic status.
Yenkimaleki, M.; Vincent, van Heuven J.
This study investigates the effect of explicit teaching of prosodic features on developing listening comprehension by interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were formed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA level at the State
Li, Chen-Hong; Chen, Cai-Jun; Wu, Meng-Jie; Kuo, Ya-Chu; Tseng, Yun-Ting; Tsai, Shi-Yi; Shih, Hung-Chun
We examined the effect of cultural familiarity and question-preview types on the listening comprehension of L2 learners. The results showed that the participants who received the full question-preview format scored higher than those receiving either the answer-option preview or question-stem preview, despite a statistically nonsignificant…
Chibani, Omar; Li, X Allen
Three Monte Carlo photon/electron transport codes (GEPTS, EGSnrc, and MCNP) are bench-marked against dose measurements in homogeneous (both low- and high-Z) media as well as at interfaces. A brief overview on physical models used by each code for photon and electron (positron) transport is given. Absolute calorimetric dose measurements for 0.5 and 1 MeV electron beams incident on homogeneous and multilayer media are compared with the predictions of the three codes. Comparison with dose measurements in two-layer media exposed to a 60Co gamma source is also performed. In addition, comparisons between the codes (including the EGS4 code) are done for (a) 0.05 to 10 MeV electron beams and positron point sources in lead, (b) high-energy photons (10 and 20 MeV) irradiating a multilayer phantom (water/steel/air), and (c) simulation of a 90Sr/90Y brachytherapy source. A good agreement is observed between the calorimetric electron dose measurements and predictions of GEPTS and EGSnrc in both homogeneous and multilayer media. MCNP outputs are found to be dependent on the energy-indexing method (Default/ITS style). This dependence is significant in homogeneous media as well as at interfaces. MCNP(ITS) fits more closely the experimental data than MCNP(DEF), except for the case of Be. At low energy (0.05 and 0.1 MeV), MCNP(ITS) dose distributions in lead show higher maximums in comparison with GEPTS and EGSnrc. EGS4 produces too penetrating electron-dose distributions in high-Z media, especially at low energy (MCNP results depend significantly on the electron energy-indexing method.
Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon
Background: Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension…
Kiliçkaya, Ferit; Çokal Karadas, Derya
The study investigated the effect of note-taking on comprehension of lectures by 44 undergraduate EFL students who are in the first year of their undergraduate level in the Department of Foreign Language Education in Middle East Technical University. The participants were divided into two groups, namely experimental and control groups. The…
Wang, Yingying; Holland, Scott K
Comprehension of narrative stories plays an important role in the development of language skills. In this study, we compared brain activity elicited by a passive-listening version and an active-response (AR) version of a narrative comprehension task by using independent component (IC) analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 21 adolescents (ages 14-18 years). Furthermore, we explored differences in functional network connectivity engaged by two versions of the task and investigated the relationship between the online response time and the strength of connectivity between each pair of ICs. Despite similar brain region involvements in auditory, temporoparietal, and frontoparietal language networks for both versions, the AR version engages some additional network elements including the left dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and sensorimotor networks. These additional involvements are likely associated with working memory and maintenance of attention, which can be attributed to the differences in cognitive strategic aspects of the two versions. We found significant positive correlation between the online response time and the strength of connectivity between an IC in left inferior frontal region and an IC in sensorimotor region. An explanation for this finding is that longer reaction time indicates stronger connection between the frontal and sensorimotor networks caused by increased activation in adolescents who require more effort to complete the task.
Klatte, Maria; Lachmann, Thomas; Meis, Markus
The effects of classroom noise and background speech on speech perception, measured by word-to-picture matching, and listening comprehension, measured by execution of oral instructions, were assessed in first- and third-grade children and adults in a classroom-like setting. For speech perception, in addition to noise, reverberation time (RT) was varied by conducting the experiment in two virtual classrooms with mean RT = 0.47 versus RT = 1.1 s. Children were more impaired than adults by background sounds in both speech perception and listening comprehension. Classroom noise evoked a reliable disruption in children's speech perception even under conditions of short reverberation. RT had no effect on speech perception in silence, but evoked a severe increase in the impairments due to background sounds in all age groups. For listening comprehension, impairments due to background sounds were found in the children, stronger for first- than for third-graders, whereas adults were unaffected. Compared to classroom noise, background speech had a smaller effect on speech perception, but a stronger effect on listening comprehension, remaining significant when speech perception was controlled. This indicates that background speech affects higher-order cognitive processes involved in children's comprehension. Children's ratings of the sound-induced disturbance were low overall and uncorrelated to the actual disruption, indicating that the children did not consciously realize the detrimental effects. The present results confirm earlier findings on the substantial impact of noise and reverberation on children's speech perception, and extend these to classroom-like environmental settings and listening demands closely resembling those faced by children at school.
Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.
Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…
Oktavia Tri Sanggala Dewi
Full Text Available Linguistics of Speech as linguistic science is about language in use, and the only way to get data is through observations of how language works in real language contexts, and in which the focus is on meaning rather than structure (Kretszmar, W.A.Jr. 2009: 11. The emphasis in meaning is also currently implemented in the implementation of SFL–GBA (Systematic Funtional Linguistic - Genre Based Approach in Indonesia, in which the use of translation is encouraged (to a certain extend to improve understanding (Emilia,E.2011: 34, 41 }. In English classes of Listening Comprehension in Indonesia, as it is found anywhere else in non-English speaking countries, the emphasis is on meaning, i.e enabling students to understand language spoken by native speakers using both standard and spoken English in and about unlimited number ofcontexts and topics.As stated in the title, the goal of this research is to find out whether the basic concept and nature of ―Language‖, which is ―Language is Speech‖, could be materialized through implementing the principles of the Linguistics of Speech, the most important principle of which is the fact that this study concentrates on the ―speech circuit‖, which includes the oral implementation of articulatory, perceptual, physiological, and cognitive ―internal‖ aspects, with reference to ―external‖ considerations like geography, ethnology, policies, and institutions (Kretchmar 2009:62. Related to this, concerning Englishlearning context in Indonesia, the elements affecting learners seriously would be the perceptual andcognitive aspects, as these two have been paved by the policy of the Indonesian government which established Bahasa Indonesia as the first/ national language to be spoken anywhere and any time by Indonesians, and English as the formal second language. Thus the ―Indonesian grammar‖ way of thinking has quite an impact on thesetwo mental activities (perceptual and cognitive in learning and
Silagi, Marcela Lima; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane; Mansur, Letícia Lessa
To analyze the effect of education on sentence listening comprehension on cognitively healthy elderly. A total of 111 healthy elderly, aged 60-80 years of both genders were divided into two groups according to educational level: low education (0-8 years of formal education) and high education (≥9 years of formal education). The participants were assessed using the Revised Token Test, an instrument that supports the evaluation of auditory comprehension of orders with different working memory and syntactic complexity demands. The indicators used for performance analysis were the number of correct responses (accuracy analysis) and task execution time (temporal analysis) in the different blocks. The low educated group had a lower number of correct responses than the high educated group on all blocks of the test. In the temporal analysis, participants with low education had longer execution time for commands on the first four blocks related to working memory. However, the two groups had similar execution time for blocks more related to syntactic comprehension. Education influenced sentence listening comprehension on elderly. Temporal analysis allowed to infer over the relationship between comprehension and other cognitive abilities, and to observe that the low educated elderly did not use effective compensation strategies to improve their performances on the task. Therefore, low educational level, associated with aging, may potentialize the risks for language decline.
Liu, Meihua; Thondhlana, Juliet
The present study examined foreign language (FL) listening anxiety and listening strategy use in relation to the FL listening comprehension performance of 1702 undergraduate EFL learners from 5 universities in China. The findings were: (1) more than half of the students generally did not feel anxious when listening to English, were low in English listening proficiency, and were not confident in or satisfied with their English listening proficiency, and usually moderately used different types ...
Mendelsohn, David J.
Review of research on trends in teaching second-language listening focuses primarily on strategy instruction and a strategy-based approach but also refers to developments in terms of listening and "high-tech contexts," interactive listening, and academic listening. Classroom listening textbooks are discussed, with attention to the mismatch between…
In Japan, listening is given focused attention in the second language (L2) classroom.This paper begins by reviewing the nature of listening as well as the processinginvolved when listening. Content validity, purposefulness and transferability,listening or memory considerations, a teaching or testing orientation, and authenticlistening are discussed. By examining these five elements of effective listeningmaterials and also factors that affect comprehension, instructors can evaluatetextbooks an...
Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Wieling, Martijn; Huiskes, Mike
Background: Research on language comprehension in aphasia has primarily focused on comprehension of isolated words and sentences. Even though previous studies have provided insights into comprehension abilities of individuals with aphasia at the word and grammatical level, our understanding of the
Communicating effectively is a skill that must be taught and practiced--and the act of listening is a large part of this skill. According to the "International Journal of Listening," listening skills are imperative to reading comprehension and are valuable enough for "38 out of the 51 government entities to include listening skills as part of…
Freshour, Frank W.
Research indicates that people spend roughly 45 to 65 percent of their waking moments listening to other persons. To help administrators improve their listening effectiveness, a format to develop a profile of personal listening styles is provided. The strengths and weaknesses of six different listening styles are explored along with ways to…
Chibani, O; Tahanout, F; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
Purpose: To commission a new MLC model for the GEPTS Monte Carlo system. The model is based on the concept of leaves and interleaves effective densities Methods: GEPTS is a Monte Carlo system to be used for external beam planning verification. GEPTS incorporates detailed photon and electron transport algorithms (Med.Phys. 29, 2002, 835). A new GEPTS model for the Varian Millennium MLC is presented. The model accounts for: 1) thick (1 cm) and thin (0.5 cm) leaves, 2) tongue-and-groove design, 3) High-Transmission (HT) and Low-Transmission (LT) interleaves, and 4) rounded leaf end. Leaf (and interleaf) height is set equal to 6 cm. Instead of modeling air gaps, screw holes, and complex leaf heads, “effective densities” are assigned to: 1) thin leaves, 2) thick leaves, 3) HT-, and 4) LT-interleaves. Results: The new MLC model is used to calculate dose profiles for Closed-MLC and Tongue-and-Groove fields at 5 cm depth for 6, 10 and 15 MV Varian beams. Calculations are compared with 1) Pin-point ionization chamber transmission ratios and 2) EBT3 Radiochromic films. Pinpoint readings were acquired beneath thick and thin leaves, and HT and LT interleaves. The best fit of measured dose profiles was obtained for the following parameters: Thick-leaf density = 16.1 g/cc, Thin-leaf density = 17.2 g/cc; HT Interleaf density = 12.4 g/cc, LT Interleaf density = 14.3 g/cc; Interleaf thickness = 1.1 mm. Attached figures show comparison of calculated and measured transmission ratios for the 3 energies. Note this is the only study where transmission profiles are compared with measurements for 3 different energies. Conclusion: The new MLC model reproduces transmission measurements within 0.1%. The next step is to implement the MLC model for real plans and quantify the improvement in dose calculation accuracy gained using this model for IMRT plans with high modulation factors.
de Kok, I.A.
The thesis explores individual differences in listening behavior and how these differences can be used in the development and evaluation of listener response prediction models for embodied conversational agents. The thesis starts with introducing methods to collect multiple perspectives on listening
Ekaterina Nemtchinova's book "Teaching Listening" explores different approaches to teaching listening in second language classrooms. Presenting up-to-date research and theoretical issues associated with second language listening, Nemtchinova explains how these new findings inform everyday teaching and offers practical suggestions…
The comprehensive listening curriculum occupies an important position in elementary teaching stage for English major. How could we arrange the listening class better? Considering the characteristics of comprehensive listening curriculum for English major, teachers can help students improve speaking by listening, cultivating their thinking and…
Ristanti, Septia Ristanti Septiana; ', Eliwarti Eliwarti; Sumbayak, Desri Maria Sumbayak Maria
English is the most popular and most spoken language in the world which has been used effectively in many developing countries. One of the first skills that students should be learnt in English is listening. In learning language, students use listening to began the process of learning to comprehend and produce language. The problems that usually faced by students while listening are lack of control over the speed at which speakers speak, inability to concentrate (topic, effort, technical prob...
Full Text Available Language laboratory actually is advantageous for ESL teaching-learning process. In the language lab, students can improve their language skill, especially their listening skill, since most of the activities done there deal with listening comprehension. However, ESL students often feel bored when they study at the language lab because they only do monotonous activities there. Thus, teacher should make a lively lab atmosphere through interactive listening; that is, by creating communicative listening tasks for the students. Through this communicative listening tasks, students will not only listen, but also interact with either the teacher or the other students so that they feel as if they do the real life listening. These communicative listening tasks will also help students to improve both their proficiency in language components (vocabulary and pronunciation and in language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Full Text Available The study reported here thoroughly investigated the instruction of listening skill in academic English programs. This was researched through a semi-structured interview. In this regard, in order to obtain a picture of listening requirements across the academy, data were collected from two different state universities of Iran. To compile the data, five listening lecturers from these two universities were invited to participate in the study. Topics investigated through the interviews included; the importance and objectives of English as a Foreign Language (EFL listening in university study, the nature of listening in academic English programs, quantity and type of listening prescribed on courses, the integration of listening with other skills, and the evolution of changes in students’ listening requirements and practices. The analysis of the interviews revealed the two types of the courses; academic English-oriented courses and general English-oriented courses, each of them having their own perspectives regarding the various aspects of the listening. Regarding the changes in students’ practices, two types of transformations were found; transformation of the processes from bottom-up to top-down and transformation of the materials from textbook-oriented to more internet-oriented perspectives. The findings of the present study suggest some practical implications for the EFL students and teachers. In this regard, students need to equip and accustom themselves with more interpretive skills of listening and internet-oriented materials in their classes. Teachers are also required to balance between different types of skills and course materials in their classes according to their students’ needs.
Ždímalová, Hana; Anýžová, P.
Roč. 24, č. 2 /supplementary issue/ (2012), s. 23-38 ISSN 1210-0196. [New Ways to Teaching and Learning . Hrade Králové, 14.09.2012-15.09.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : listening comprehension * listening instruction * communicative competence * pre-listening stage Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics
Full Text Available The importance of listening in language learning can hardly be overestimated. In classrooms, students always do more listening than speaking. Listening competence is universally “larger” than other competence. Listening is not a oneway street. It is not merely the process of a unidirectional receiving of audible symbols one facet – the first step – 0f listening comprehension is the psychomotor process of receiving sound waves through the ear and transmitting nerve impulses to the brain. Every classroom lesson involves some form of assessment, whether it is in the form of informal, unplanned, and intuitive teacher processing and feedback, or in formal, prepared, scored tests.
Tafaghodtari, Marzieh H; Vandergrift, Larry
Identifying the variables which contribute to second and foreign language (L2) listening ability can provide a better understanding of the listening construct. This study explored the degree to which first language (L1) listening ability, L2 proficiency, motivation and metacognition contribute to L2 listening comprehension. 115 Persian-speaking English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university students completed a motivation questionnaire, the Language Learning Motivation Orientation Scale, a listening questionnaire, the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire, and an English-language proficiency measure, as well as listening tests in English and Persian. Scores from all measures were subjected to descriptive, inferential, and correlational analyses. The results support the hypothesis that variability in L2 listening cannot be explained by either L2 proficiency or L1 listening ability; rather, a cluster of variables including L2 proficiency, L1 listening ability, metacognitive knowledge and motivation orientations can better explain variability in L2 listening ability.
Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the
Full Text Available Listening is very important skill in language because by listening students can produce language like speaking and writing by vocabulary that they get from listening. The English teacher of MAN 3 Banjarmasin used some techniques in teaching listening using the facilities in language laboratory such as tape cassette, television, and VCD/DVD. This research described the techniques in teaching listening skill of the Islamic high school students. The subjects of this study were an English teacher and 48 students of the tenth grade at MAN 3 Banjarmasin in Academic Year 2009/2010. To collect the data, it was used some techniques such as observation, interview, and documentary. Then all data were analyzed using descriptive method qualitatively and quantitatively, by concluding inductively. The result indicates that the techniques in teaching listening applied by the English teacher of the tenth grade students at MAN 3 Banjarmasin in Academic Year 2009/2010 are: Information Transfer, Paraphrasing and Translating, Answering Questions, Summarizing, Filling in Blanks, and Answering to Show Comprehension of Messages. The students’ ability of listening comprehension using six techniques is categorized in very high, high, and average levels. Keywords: listening techniques, teaching listening skill
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the impact of metacognitive listening strategy instruction on the listening sub-skills performance of the Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners at the Foreign Language Center, Imam Ali University. The current study has been conducted with 64 participants. They were assigned into two groups randomly, an experimental group (n: 32 and a control group (n: 32. To determine the listening comprehension ability of the participants, a listening comprehension pretest based on the listening sub-skills was administered to the participants before the experiment. Then, the experimental group received an eight-week treatment on metacognitive listening strategies. After the treatment phase, a posttest was given to the participants in both the experimental and control group. The results of the independent t-test showed that there is a statistically significant difference (3.29>2; df = 62 between the posttest scores of the experimental group and the control group. Metacognitive strategy training promoted students’ listening comprehension remarkably; therefore, it should be integrated into the listening instruction programs to help language learners become more effective listeners.
Bozorgian, Hossein; Pillay, Hitendra
Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian) and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies:…
Active music listening is a creative activity in that the listener constructs a uniquely personal musical experience. Most approaches to teaching music listening emphasize a conceptual approach in which students learn to identify various characteristics of musical sound. Unfortunately, this type of listening is rarely done outside of schools. This…
Full Text Available The ultimate aim of this paper is to depict listening activities in teaching Basic Listening designed by lecturers in an EFL classroom observation of Islamic tertiary level of education in Indonesia. Qualitative methods, used to collect and analyze data gained from observation and interview. The result showed that the lecturer designed various activities in teaching Basic Listening in the EFL class, which they were set up in three stages: pre-listening, while-listening, and post-listening. The activities in the pre-listening were aimed at generating students’ interest, activating student’s prior knowledge, and trying to anticipate any difficult vocabularies. The while-listening stage is to invite students to be involved at listening through various physical movements, such as story telling, dialogue, listening to songs, and drama. The post-listening stage is to internalize what they have heard with other language skills and to check students’ comprehension.
Full Text Available This paper shares the results of a study into the way Iranian TEF or TEFAQ candidates treat the listening comprehension as a skill as well as their awareness and exploitation of metacognitive strategies while listening to an audio document. A Persian translation of the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ was used in addition to another questionnaire specifically developed for this research in order to gage how important candidates think listening in L2 is compared to the other skills, how much time they spent on practicing listening, and how often they take advantage of authentic documents to improve their listening. Not only did the results show an underestimation of the listening comprehension skill by the majority of Iranian L2 learners, but they also pointed to significant differences in the way men and women exercised their ears and treated the incoming audio stream. The paper concludes that learners’ awareness of listening strategies needs to be raised through classroom instruction and frequent exploitation of authentic documents outside the classroom setting should be encouraged.
Masoud Khalili Sabet
Full Text Available Listening is one of the most pivotal skills, though; it is unjustly neglected throughout the literature. It was previously considered as passive skill but now those myths have been demystified. Therefore seeking the innovative trends for teaching and developing listening for EFL students are taken for granted. Lack of adequate exposure to listening and dearth of attention with regard to these issues sets the ground for authentic listening materials to fill the cited gaps in Iranian context. There have been controversial ideas based on studies in dealing with authentic listening materials. Their results ranged from totally abstinence to completely utilizing. This study intends to investigate the impact of authentic listening materials on listening skills of Elementary students at university level. To this aim, sixty students of university were randomly assigned to two groups. One group was exposed to and received authentic listening materials (experimental group and the other groups received simplified listening materials (control group. A proficiency test (consisted of two sub-tests; listening comprehension and listening perception was used as a pretest to measure the students’ potential differences at outset of study. After the instruction sessions the same proficiency test was administered for both groups. Besides students feedback survey was given to experimental group to evaluate their attitudes and opinions regarding the materials. Analysis of quantitative study and comparing the mean scores of two groups via t-test showed that students who were exposed to authentic materials performed better in posttest. The analysis of feedback survey also denoted their satisfaction and positive attitudes to authentic listening materials.
This study investigated the breakdown effect of a listening comprehension test, whether test takers are affected in comprehending lectures by impediments, and collected test takers' cognitive awareness on test tasks which contain listening breakdown factors how they perceived these impediments. In this context of the study, a "Breakdown" is a test…
Vandergrift, Larry; Goh, Christine C. M.
This reader-friendly text, firmly grounded in listening theories and supported by recent research findings, offers a comprehensive treatment of concepts and knowledge related to teaching second language (L2) listening, with a particular emphasis on metacognition. The metacognitive approach, aimed at developing learner listening in a holistic…
Listening comprehension is essential to L2 learning. Pupils who are able to demonstrate L2 listening skills are able to demonstrate proficiency in other language skills. Due to the relatively unappreciated role of listening in language development, educators and language experts have been actively promoting the equal or emphasized enhancement of…
Zhafarghandi, Amir Mahdavi; Barekat, Behzad; Homaei, Sepideh
This study intends to deal with attitudes of teachers and learners toward authentic listening materials at pre-intermediate level. Studies have indicated the positive effect of authentic listening materials on motivation and listening comprehension ability in learners of English as a foreign language (Nuttall, 1996; Peacock, 1997; Miller, 2005;…
Castro, C. S.; And Others
This article reports on a study to identify listening, and aural comprehension difficulties experienced by students of English, specifically RELC (Regional English Language Centre in Singapore) course members. The most critical errors are discussed and conclusions about foreign language learning are drawn. (CLK)
Cella, C. E.
This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.
Chang, Anna C-S.; Millett, Sonia
This study investigates the effects on developing L2 listening fluency through doing extended listening-focused activities after reading and listening to audio graded readers. Seventy-six EFL university students read and listened to a total of 15 graded readers in a 15-week extensive listening programme. They were divided into three groups (Group…
Hitendra Pillay; Hossein Bozorgian
Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian) and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female p...
Listening comprehension is essential to L2 learning. Pupils who are able to demonstrate L2 listening skills are able to demonstrate proficiency in other language skills. Due to the relatively unappreciated role of listening in language development, educators and language experts have been actively promoting the equal or emphasized enhancement of listening skills among students. Through multimedia, L2 speakers are provided access to several visual and aural L2 texts via audio, video, th...
Rice, Suzanne; Burbules, Nicholas C.
Background Context: Despite its significance for learning, listening has received very little attention in the philosophy of education literature. This article draws on the philosophy and educational thought of Aristotle to illuminate characteristics of good listening. The current project is exploratory and preliminary, seeking mainly to suggest…
Nogueroles López, Marta
, who presented similar level of Spanish, needs, educational and cultural background, but did not receive such a training. The listening strategies instruction consisted in integrating the development of listening strategies into a regular course of Spanish as a foreign language. Data referring...
In this article, Anthony Schmidt presents results from his research on listening instruction in a second language. Schmidt reveals that throughout the history of English language teaching (ELT), most students have never been taught how to listen. It was not just listening, but the need to do this listening in conjunction with an approach that…
Full Text Available Listening used in language teaching refers to a complex process that allows us to understand spoken language. The current study, conducted in Iran with an experimental design, investigated the effectiveness of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1 (Persian and its effect on listening comprehension in L2. Five listening strategies: Guessing, making inferences, identifying topics, repetition, and note-taking were taught over 14 weeks during a semester. Sixty lower intermediate female participants came from two EFL classrooms in an English language institute. The experimental class (n = 30 who listened to their classroom activities performed better (t value = 10.083 than the control class using a methodology that led learners through five listening strategies in Persian. The same teacher taught the students in the control class (n = 30, who listened to the same classroom listening activities without any of the above listening strategies. A pre and post listening test made by a group of experts in the language institute assessed the effect of teaching listening strategies delivered in L1. Results gathered on the post intervention listening test revealed that listening strategies delivered in L1 led to a statistically significant improvement in their discrete listening scores compared with the control group.
Kodir Al-Baekani Abdul
Full Text Available Learning English is the most difficult to learn by students, especially in learning of listening aspect. This research aims to investigate the process of listening activity in the classroom using mobile phone as interactive media in extensive listening and how the students’ responds of learning listening using mobile phone as an interactive media in extensive listening. Methodology of this research is descriptive qualitative. The subject of this research is Private Senior High School Muhammadiyah Karawang with 30 students as the sample of this research. The data analysis of this research uses the result of observation, interview, and documentation. Observation is used to know the learning process in classroom. Interview is used to know the students’ respond in learning process. While documentation is used to strengthen the data. The result of observation class shows that the process of teaching and learning listening as follows: (1 the teacher begins learning within 10 minutes, (2 the main activity using mobile phone in learning listening within 25 minutes, and (2 the final activity: the teacher gives a test to measure the students’ ability in listening comprehension. Meanwhile, the result of interview with the students shows that students mentioned convenience and interesting using mobile phone (37% and accessed in anywhere and anytime (30%, easiness (17%, authenticity (10%, and usefulness and fun (7% to use their mobile phone in English listening.
Full Text Available With sophisticated multimedia technology, there is a renewed interest in the relationship between visual and auditory channels in assessing listening comprehension (LC. Research on the use of visuals in assessing listening has emerged with inconclusive results. Some learners perform better on tests which include visual input (Wagner, 2007 while others have found no difference in the performance of participants on the two test formats (Batty, 2015. These mixed results make it necessary to examine the role of using audio and video in LC as measured by L2 listening tests. The current study examined the effects of two different types of listening support on L2 learners’ comprehension: (a visual aid in a video with input modified with redundancy and (b no visuals (audio-only input with input modified with redundancy. The participants of this study included 246 Spanish students enrolled in two different intermediate Spanish courses at a large Midwestern university who participated in four listening tasks either with video or with audio. Findings of whether the video serves as a listening support device and whether the course formats differ on intermediate-level Spanish learners’ comprehension will be shared as well as participants’ preferences with respect to listening support.
Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…
Mohsen, Mohammed Ali
This paper provides a comprehensive review on the use of help options (HOs) in the multimedia listening context to aid listening comprehension (LC) and improve incidental vocabulary learning. The paper also aims to synthesize the research findings obtained from the use of HOs in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) literature and reveals the…
van Leeuwen, Theo
A study of listening as active participation, focusing on the use of listening shots in films and piano and drums accompaniment in jazz music......A study of listening as active participation, focusing on the use of listening shots in films and piano and drums accompaniment in jazz music...
Schäfer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter; Städtler, Christine; Huron, David
Why do people listen to music? Over the past several decades, scholars have proposed numerous functions that listening to music might fulfill. However, different theoretical approaches, different methods, and different samples have left a heterogeneous picture regarding the number and nature of musical functions. Moreover, there remains no agreement about the underlying dimensions of these functions. Part one of the paper reviews the research contributions that have explicitly referred to musical functions. It is concluded that a comprehensive investigation addressing the basic dimensions underlying the plethora of functions of music listening is warranted. Part two of the paper presents an empirical investigation of hundreds of functions that could be extracted from the reviewed contributions. These functions were distilled to 129 non-redundant functions that were then rated by 834 respondents. Principal component analysis suggested three distinct underlying dimensions: People listen to music to regulate arousal and mood, to achieve self-awareness, and as an expression of social relatedness. The first and second dimensions were judged to be much more important than the third—a result that contrasts with the idea that music has evolved primarily as a means for social cohesion and communication. The implications of these results are discussed in light of theories on the origin and the functionality of music listening and also for the application of musical stimuli in all areas of psychology and for research in music cognition. PMID:23964257
Schäfer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter; Städtler, Christine; Huron, David
Why do people listen to music? Over the past several decades, scholars have proposed numerous functions that listening to music might fulfill. However, different theoretical approaches, different methods, and different samples have left a heterogeneous picture regarding the number and nature of musical functions. Moreover, there remains no agreement about the underlying dimensions of these functions. Part one of the paper reviews the research contributions that have explicitly referred to musical functions. It is concluded that a comprehensive investigation addressing the basic dimensions underlying the plethora of functions of music listening is warranted. Part two of the paper presents an empirical investigation of hundreds of functions that could be extracted from the reviewed contributions. These functions were distilled to 129 non-redundant functions that were then rated by 834 respondents. Principal component analysis suggested three distinct underlying dimensions: People listen to music to regulate arousal and mood, to achieve self-awareness, and as an expression of social relatedness. The first and second dimensions were judged to be much more important than the third-a result that contrasts with the idea that music has evolved primarily as a means for social cohesion and communication. The implications of these results are discussed in light of theories on the origin and the functionality of music listening and also for the application of musical stimuli in all areas of psychology and for research in music cognition.
Captions and subtitles as a form of scaffolding for audiovisual materials has gained much attention in second or foreign language (L2) learning in recent years and various studies report their positive effects on learners' listening comprehension. However, few attempts have been made to investigate how textual information specifically affects the…
Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Karmon, Ayelet
This paper presents the thinking and making of the architectural research probe Listener. Developed as an interdisciplinary collaboration between textile design and architecture, Listener explores how information based fabrication technologies are challenging the material practices of architecture....... The paper investigates how textile design can be understood as a model for architectural production providing new strategies for material specification and allowing the thinking of material as inherently variegated and performative. The paper traces the two fold information based strategies present...
Full Text Available Listening is often listed as the most challenging language skill that the students need to learn in the language classrooms. Therefore the awareness of listening strategies and techniques, such as bottom-up and top-down processes, specific styles of listening, or various compensatory strategies, prove to facilitate the process of learning of older individuals. Indeed, older adult learners find decoding the aural input, more challenging than the younger students. Therefore, both students’ and teachers’ subjective theories and preferences regarding listening comprehension as well as the learners’ cognitive abilities should be taken into account while designing a teaching model for this age group. The aim of this paper is, thus, to draw the conclusions regarding processes, styles and strategies involved in teaching listening to older second language learners and to juxtapose them with the already existing state of research regarding age-related hearing impairments, which will serve as the basis for future research.
Wingerden-Fontein, E.G. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Background Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. Aims This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children
Alla V. Naidionova
Full Text Available A wide range of English teaching and learning approaches have emerged due to information and communication technology advancement. Podcasting is one such novel tool being exploited by teachers to enhance language skills and to encourage learning outside the classroom. Research on podcasting pedagogy suggests that podcasting helps learners boost their English language skills and support areas such as grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. This study proves that teaching listening to students by using podcasts makes it possible to increase student listening comprehension, as this technology provides students with authentic and contextual material. The findings also suggest that such listening practice should be an integral part of ESL teaching at university level.
Full Text Available Since some students including in my class become more self-oriented and less aware on group, there is a need to integrate online teaching material which contains values in society into English language course. We believe that English language teaching, in some extents, could facilitate this necessity. A good choice of material, for example, is not only beneficial to promote students’ language skill, but also could inspire students to become a better individual. This paper aims to examine whether online materials could promote students’ English language skill, especially in listening comprehension. In addition, it is keen to better understand how these resources could influence and develop their moral values. The paper is designed as a classroom action research. To collect data, we employ two tests (pre-and post-test, questionnaires, and interview. Since this paper is still a research design, it should be noted that there is no finding and discussion yet here.
Full Text Available Following a distinction John Mowitt draws between hearing (and phonics, and listening (and sonics, this article argues that the dominant notion of listening to sound was determined by the disciplinary framework of South African history and by the deployment of a cinematic documentary apparatus, both of which have served to disable the act of listening. The conditions of this hearing, and a deafness to a reduced or bracketed listening (Chion via Schaeffer that would enable us to think the post in post-apartheid differently, is thus at the centre of our concerns here. We stage a series of screenings of expected possible soundtracks for Simon Gush's film and installation Red, simultaneously tracking the ways that sound - and particularly music and dialogue - can be shown to hold a certain way of thinking both the political history of South Africa and the politics of South African history. We conclude by listening more closely to hiss and murmur in the soundtrack to Red and suggest this has major implications for considering ways of thinking and knowing.
Lemke, Ulrike; Besser, Jana
Listening effort has been recognized as an important dimension of everyday listening, especially with regard to the comprehension of spoken language. At constant levels of comprehension performance, the level of effort exerted and perceived during listening can differ considerably across listeners and situations. In this article, listening effort is used as an umbrella term for two different types of effort that can arise during listening. One of these types is processing effort, which is used to denote the utilization of "extra" mental processing resources in listening conditions that are adverse for an individual. A conceptual description is introduced how processing effort could be defined in terms of situational influences, the listener's auditory and cognitive resources, and the listener's personal state. Also, the proposed relationship between processing effort and subjectively perceived listening effort is discussed. Notably, previous research has shown that the availability of mental resources, as well as the ability to use them efficiently, changes over the course of adult aging. These common age-related changes in cognitive abilities and their neurocognitive organization are discussed in the context of the presented concept, especially regarding situations in which listening effort may be increased for older people.
(CCL), Center for Creative Leadership
Active listening is a person's willingness and ability to hear and understand. At its core, active listening is a state of mind that involves paying full and careful attention to the other person, avoiding premature judgment, reflecting understanding, clarifying information, summarizing, and sharing. By learning and committing to the skills and behaviors of active listening, leaders can become more effective listeners and, over time, improve their ability to lead.
Janusik, Laura; Imhof, Margarete
Listening is an integral part of communication, yet more research is conducted on the speaker as opposed to the listener. Previous research established a general schema of listening as a concept-driven behavior with four factors (Imhof & Janusik, 2006). Further testing by Bodie (2010) confirmed the factor structure and reduced the number of…
Anderson, William Todd
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mindful listening instruction on music listening sensitivity and music listening enjoyment. A pretest--posttest control group design was used. Participants, fourth-grade students (N = 42) from an elementary school in a large city in the Northeastern United States, were randomly assigned to two…
Listen to the voice of a young girl Lonnie, who was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at 16. Imagine that she is deeply involved in the social security system. She lives with her mother and two siblings in a working class part of a small town. She is at a special school for problematic youth, and her...
Berger, Charles R.
Interpersonal communication researchers have not only tended to ignore the role that listening plays in face-to-face interaction, they have also viewed message production and message processing as distinct processes. The message production-message processing bipolarity is belied by recent research suggesting that mirror neurons subserving speech…
Wirkus, Tom; Bohlken, Bob
In the book, "Talking from 9 to 5," Deborah Tannen suggests that females have difficulty listening to males in the workplace because of the masculine inclination to talk sports the majority of the time. Men use sports idioms, metaphors, and cliches, making business a "peculiar language" which excludes "naive"…
Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih
Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media delivery modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media delivery mode (sound and text vs. sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load. Participants…
Blaakilde, Anne Leonora
Radiobroadcasting and the hardware materialization of radio have during the 20th century changed significantly, which means that senior radio listeners have travelled along with this evolution from large, impressive radio furnitures to DAB and small, wireless, mobile devices, and from grave...... and solemn radio voices to lightharted, laughing and chatting speakers. Senior radio listerners have experienced the development and refinements of technique, content and genres. It is now expected of all media users that they are capable of crossing media, combining, juggling and jumping between various...... media platforms, not the least when listening to radio. The elder generation is no exception from this. Recently, for instance, the Danish public broadcast DR has carried out an exodus of programmes targeted for the senior segment. These programmes are removed from regular FM and sent to DAB receivers...
Bonde, Lars Ole
The chapter presents the receptive music therapy model "Guided Imagery of Music (GIM)" as an embodied way of music listening with documented effects on a number of physiological and psychological symptoms and problems. Relaxation, guiding and (classical) music stimulates and supports the work......, underlying theories, selected research/evidence and illustrative clinical vignettes. Based on a study of cancer survivors’ GIM therapy, grounded theories of the therapeutic process and music’s role in the process are presented and discussed....
The main focus of research papers on listening teaching published in recent years is the theoretical meanings of decoding on the training of listening comprehension ability. Although in many research papers the bottom-up approach and top-down approach, information processing mode theory, are applied to illustrate decoding and to emphasize the…
Stallings, William M.
Although nonverbal cues are often available in real-life communication, listening is usually tested by aural stimuli broadcast from an audio-tape. It would seem that testing listening comprehension might be improved by using television to offer nonverbal cues in addition to aural stimuli. (Author)
Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; van Rijn, Hedderik; Başkent, Deniz
This study compares two response-time measures of listening effort that can be combined with a clinical speech test for a more comprehensive evaluation of total listening experience; verbal response times to auditory stimuli (RTaud) and response times to a visual task (RTsvis) in a dual- task
Full Text Available This article is based on an experiments conducted within 5 classes of ESL Listening classrooms in IKIP PGRI Semarang. It takes a very broad look at some theories relating to language learning (especially in listening skill and motivation. Listening is a receptive skill, and receptive skills give way to productive skills. If we have our students produce something, the teaching will be more communicative. Lack of sociocultural, factual, and contextual knowledge of the target language can present an obstacle to listening comprehension and hence decrease students’ motivation to learn. In order to teach listening skills, a teacher should firstly state the difficulties, find the solution to overcome the difficulties and then help the students to maintain their motivation in the classroom. The article then illustrates the possible solutions with a practical example of how movies may be employed in the classroom in a manner which both facilitates language learning and further encourages students’ motivation. In conducting the experiment, four steps were taken with each purposive reason. The activities given stimulated learners with a clear goal that is achievable; there are no right or wrong answers, as long as the script fits the scene. Learners are encouraged to use the linguistic tools they have to solve an immediate problem/question. The activities also practice both extensive and intensive listening skills of the learners and allow them to use the non-verbal clues which make video such a rich medium for language learning. In this case, the group has expressed an interest in watching movies in English. The teacher's task is to manipulate this enthusiasm in a way that develops a positive attitude towards language learning. The challenge is obvious; if learners can tackle tasks related to a full-length movie then their confidence and self-esteem will be raised.
Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van
Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical
Sörqvist, Patrik; Ljung, Robert; Hygge, Staffan; Rönnberg, Jerker
The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students’ score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants’ baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores—and hence students’ grade in English—may depend on students’ classroom listening position. PMID:27304980
Hurtig, Anders; Sörqvist, Patrik; Ljung, Robert; Hygge, Staffan; Rönnberg, Jerker
The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students' score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants' baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores-and hence students' grade in English-may depend on students' classroom listening position.
The present study examined Japanese university students' processing time for English subject and object relative clauses in relation to their English listening proficiency. In Analysis 1, the relation between English listening proficiency and reading span test scores was analyzed. The results showed that the high and low listening comprehension groups' reading span test scores do not differ. Analysis 2 investigated English listening proficiency and processing time for sentences with subject and object relative clauses. The results showed that reading the relative clause ending and the main verb section of a sentence with an object relative clause (such as "attacked" and "admitted" in the sentence "The reporter that the senator attacked admitted the error") takes less time for learners with high English listening scores than for learners with low English listening scores. In Analysis 3, English listening proficiency and comprehension accuracy for sentences with subject and object relative clauses were examined. The results showed no significant difference in comprehension accuracy between the high and low listening-comprehension groups. These results indicate that processing time for English relative clauses is related to the cognitive processes involved in listening comprehension, which requires immediate processing of syntactically complex audio information.
Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.
The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation,
Full Text Available This paper discusses Egyptian colloquial Arabic connected speech as a listening problem. The paper proposes a modified approach for teaching listening: The Signal and Comprehension Approach. It is an approach that enhances listening as a skill to attain comprehension in any listening task. The approach focuses on signals laden with linguistic phonological changes that make deciphering connected speech very difficult. By adopting the proposed approach, learners can develop not only their listening skills but also their listening strategies and meaning building. It trains the language learner to crack the code in order to construct meaning. The approach includes pedagogical listening tasks that are based on topdown or world knowledge as well as bottom-up or data driven processes. The discussed tasks use songs as a venue of connected speech. These tasks come from an online course offered through the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech that uses songs to teach Arabic language, culture and history.
Cubilo, Justin; Winke, Paula
Researchers debate whether listening tasks should be supported by visuals. Most empirical research in this area has been conducted on the effects of visual support on listening comprehension tasks employing multiple-choice questions. The present study seeks to expand this research by investigating the effects of video listening passages (vs.…
Stressing that the importance of listening carefully cannot be underestimated, this handbook describes the process of listening (including the five components--previous knowledge, listening material, physiological activity, attention, and intellectual activity), some barriers to efficient listening, and bad and good listening habits. It also…
as a superficial feature. In the compositional structure, there are several indications of connection and development which can be explored. Hence a ‘continuity-after-all’ comprehension has been an important principle guiding most commentators, from Edward Cone’s threefold conception of ‘stratification...... in the immediate listening and a sense of coherence in the subsequent musical reflection....
Sheppard, Beth; Elliott, Nancy; Baese-Berk, Melissa
Intensive English Program (IEP) Instructors and content faculty both listen to international students at the university. For these two groups of instructors, this study compared perceptions of international student speech by collecting comprehensibility ratings and transcription samples for intelligibility scores. No significant differences were…
Newnes Short Wave Listening Handbook is a guide for starting up in short wave listening (SWL). The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss the basics and fundamental concepts of short wave radio listening. The coverage of the text includes electrical principles; types of signals that can be heard in the radio spectrum; and using computers in SWL. The book also covers SWL equipment, such as receivers, converters, and circuits. The text will be of great use to individuals who want to get into short wave listening.
Baylan, Satu; Swann-Price, Rhiannon; Peryer, Guy; Quinn, Terry
Music listening may have beneficial psychological effects but there has been no comprehensive synthesis of the available data describing efficacy of music listening in stroke. Areas covered: We performed a systematic review examining the effects of music listening interventions on cognition and mood post-stroke. We found five published trials (n = 169 participants) and four ongoing trials. All studies demonstrated benefits of music listening on at least one measure of cognition or mood. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis and all included studies had potential risk of bias. Common reporting or methodological issues including lack of blinding, lack of detail on the intervention and safety reporting. Expert commentary: It is too early to recommend music listening as routine treatment post-stroke, available studies have been under-powered and at risk of bias. Accepting these caveats, music listening may have beneficial effects on both mood and cognition and we await the results of ongoing controlled studies.
Ishler, James Mitchell
Effective listening comprehension skills are important as the world becomes increasingly global and television, radio, and the Internet become forums for English communication. However, many countries, such as Tunisia, do not use English as a first or second language, but as a foreign language. Therefore, realizing the importance of English, the…
Full Text Available The paper primarily stresses on exploring the teacher’s voice toward the application of metacognitive strategy with audio-visual aid in improving listening comprehension. The metacognitive strategy model applied in the study was inspired from Vandergrift and Tafaghodtari (2010 instructional model. Thus it is modified in the procedure and applied with audio-visual aids for improving listening comprehension. The study’s setting was at SMA Negeri 2 Parepare, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The population of the research was the teacher of English at tenth grade at SMAN 2. The sample was taken by using random sampling technique. The data was collected by using in depth interview during the research, recorded, and analyzed using qualitative analysis. This study explored the teacher’s response toward the modified model of metacognitive strategy with audio visual aids in class of listening which covers positive and negative response toward the strategy applied during the teaching of listening. The result of data showed that this strategy helped the teacher a lot in teaching listening comprehension as the procedure has systematic steps toward students’ listening comprehension. Also, it eases the teacher to teach listening by empowering audio visual aids such as video taken from youtube.
The process of acquiring language is often depicted as a tiered process of oral development: listening and speaking; and, literacy development: reading, and writing. As infants we first learn language by listening, then speaking. That is, regardless of culture, or dialect we are first immersed in language in this oral context. It is only after one…
This simple exercise, performed in teams, gives students practice in listening to instructions, particularly when there are restrictions for the communication. The teams compete in a limited amount of time to build a Lego[TM] structure based on the instructions of one team member. Which team listens the best and is most successful?
Carlos A. Mayora
Full Text Available The current paper reports an experience implementing a small-scale narrow listening scheme (one of the varieties of extensive listening with intermediate learners of English as a foreign language in a Colombian university. The paper presents (a how the scheme was designed and implemented, including materials and procedures (the process; (b how the students performed in the different activities with an emphasis on time spent watching/listening and their perceptions of video difficulty and self-rated comprehension (the product; and (c how the students felt and viewed the experience (perception. Product and perceptions showed that the pedagogical implementation was positive which leads to a discussion of a number of implications for this context and similar ones.
This dissertation on adult second language (L2) learning investigates individual learners’ experiences with listening in Danish as an L2 in everyday situations at work. More specifically, the study explores when international employees, who work at international companies in Denmark with English...... as a corporate language, listen in Danish at work, how they handle these situations, what problems they experience, and why some situations are more difficult to listen in than others. The study makes use of qualitative research methods and theoretical aspects from psycholinguistic approaches as well as socially...
Full Text Available The study is based on the use of a flexible learning framework to help students improve information processes underlying strategy instruction in EFL listening. By exploiting the online videotext self-dictation-generation (video-SDG learning activity implemented on the YouTube caption manager platform, the learning cycle was emphasized to promote metacognitive listening development. Two theories were used to guide the online video-SDG learning activity: a student question-generation method and a metacognitive listening training model in a second language (L2. The study investigated how college students in the online video-SDG activity enhanced the use of listening strategies by developing metacognitive listening skills. With emphasis on the metacognitive instructional process, students could promote their listening comprehension of advertisement videos (AVs. Forty-eight students were recruited to participate in the study. Through data collected from the online learning platform, questionnaires, a focus-group interview, and pre- and post- achievement tests, the results revealed that the online video-SDG learning activity could effectively engage students in reflecting upon their perceptions of specific problems countered, listening strategy usages, and strategic knowledge exploited in the metacognitive instructional process. The importance of employing cost-effective online video-SGD learning activities is worthy of consideration in developing students’ metacognitive listening knowledge for enhancing EFL listening strategy instruction.
Drawing while listening to music provides an opportunity for students to imagine and associate, leading to holistic listening experience. The personal qualitative listening experience triggered by music can be revealed in their drawings. In the process of representing of the listening experience through drawing, students can also increase their…
Decker, Carol; And Others
This instructor/lesson guide provides instructional materials for a 4-hour course in listening skills in the workplace. Stated objectives are to help students to become more effective listeners, to assist students in obtaining an understanding of how effective they are as listeners, and to assist students in identifying bad listening habits. Two…
Shera, Christopher A.
Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical
The purpose of this study was to determine the status of listening activities as part of middle and high school instrumental music instruction. Research questions addressed teachers' beliefs in the importance of listening, outcomes associated with listening, type and frequency of listening activities, presence of guided listening, and challenges…
Gaarden, Marianne; Lorensen, Marlene Ringgaard
Based on new empirical studies this essay explores how churchgoers listen to sermons in regard to the theological notion that “faith comes from hearing.” Through Bakhtinian theories presented by Lorensen and empirical findings presented by Gaarden, the apparently masked agency in preaching......) create new meaning and understanding. It is not a room that the listener or the preacher can control or occupy, but a room in which both engage....
Menenti, L.; Gierhan, S.M.E.; Segaert, K.; Hagoort, P.
Whether the brain's speech-production system is also involved in speech comprehension is a topic of much debate. Research has focused on whether motor areas are involved in listening, but overlap between speaking and listening might occur not only at primary sensory and motor levels, but also at
O'Bryan, Anne; Hegelheimer, Volker
Although research in the area of listening processes and strategies is increasing, it still remains the least understood and least researched of the four skills (Vandergrift, 2007). Based on research in listening comprehension, task design and strategies, this article uses a mixed methods approach to shed light on the development of four…
East, Martin; King, Chris
In the listening component of the IELTS examination candidates hear the input once, delivered at "normal" speed. This format for listening can be problematic for test takers who often perceive normal speed input to be too fast for effective comprehension. The study reported here investigated whether using computer software to slow down…
Menenti, L.M.E.; Gierhan, S.M.E.; Segaert, K.R.; Hagoort, P.
Whether the brain's speech-production system is also involved in speech comprehension is a topic of much debate. Research has focused on whether motor areas are involved in listening, but overlap between speaking and listening might occur not only at primary sensory and motor levels, but also at
Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in the effects of music listening on hearing. The purpose of this paper is to review published studies that detail the noise levels, the potential effects (e.g. noise-induced hearing loss), and the perceptions of those affected by music exposure in occupational and non-occupational settings. The review employed Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, and the World Wide Web to find relevant studies in the scientific literature. Considered in this review are 43 studies concerning the currently most significant occupational sources of high-intensity music: rock and pop music playing and employment at music venues, as well as the most significant sources of non-occupational high-intensity music: concerts, dicotheques (clubs), and personal music players. Although all of the activities listed above have the potential for hearing damage, the most serious threat to hearing comes from prolonged exposures to amplified live music (concerts). The review concludes that more research is needed to clarify the hearing loss risks of music exposure from personal music players and that current scientific literature clearly recognizes an unmet hearing health need for more education regarding the risks of loud music exposure and the benefits of wearing hearing protection, for more hearing protection use by those at risk, and for more regulations limiting music intensity levels at music entertainment venues.
The Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant was built on the river Rhine at the border between France and Germany and 25 km from Switzerland. It is the first PWR plant built in France. Operation started in 1977 after some very strong opposition from both sides of the Rhine during the building years. The plant belongs to EDF, the French national Electricity Company, which has been facing, for a couple of years, the opening of the market. 780 people work in Fessenheim, and they have often been described as remote and quite isolated behind their iron gates, not only by the members of the regional community, but also by their colleagues who also work for EDF, but in other activities (commercial, hydraulic plants, distribution ... . In this context, for the Fessenheim plant management, it was urgent to find a way to open not only executives or managers to their community and the other EDF units, but all employees whatever the position or the activity. In the year 2000, they took the opportunity of EDF President Francois Roussely calling all staff to think about new ways of benefiting to launch the operation 'Fessenheim a l'ecoute de son environnement' ('Fessenheim listens to its community'). (author)
Naqvi, Amber; Rumsey, Francis
This paper presents the results of computer simulation of active reflectors in a reference listening room which are used to create artificial reflections in a two speaker, stereo listening configuration. This formulates the second phase of experiments in the active listening room project involving the analysis of computer modeling results and loudspeaker selection based on free field response. The aim of this project is to create a truly variable listening condition in a reference listening r...
Bavelas, J B; Coates, L; Johnson, T
A collaborative theory of narrative story-telling was tested in two experiments that examined what listeners do and their effect on the narrator. In 63 unacquainted dyads (81 women and 45 men), a narrator told his or her own close-call story. The listeners made 2 different kinds of listener responses: Generic responses included nodding and vocalizations such as "mhm." Specific responses, such as wincing or exclaiming, were tightly connected to (and served to illustrate) what the narrator was saying at the moment. In experimental conditions that distracted listeners from the narrative content, listeners made fewer responses, especially specific ones, and the narrators also told their stories significantly less well, particularly at what should have been the dramatic ending. Thus, listeners were co-narrators both through their own specific responses, which helped illustrate the story, and in their apparent effect on the narrator's performance. The results demonstrate the importance of moment-by-moment collaboration in face-to-face dialogue.
Diao, Yali; Chandler, Paul; Sweller, John
Based on cognitive load theory, this study investigated the effect of simultaneous written presentations on comprehension of spoken English as a foreign language. Learners' language comprehension was compared while they used 3 instructional formats: listening with auditory materials only, listening with a full, written script, and listening with simultaneous subtitled text. Listening with the presence of a script and subtitles led to better understanding of the scripted and subtitled passage but poorer performance on a subsequent auditory passage than listening with the auditory materials only. These findings indicated that where the intention was learning to listen, the use of a full script or subtitles had detrimental effects on the construction and automation of listening comprehension schemas.
Video comprehension involves interpreting both sounds and images. Research has shown that processing an aural text with relevant pictorial information effectively enhances second/foreign language (L2) listening comprehension. A hypothesis underlying this mixed-methods study is that a visual-only silent film used as an advance organiser to activate…
Choisel, Sylvain; Hegarty, Patrick; Christensen, Flemming
A series of experiments was conducted in order to validate an experimental procedure to perform listening tests on car audio systems in a simulation of the car environment in a laboratory, using binaural synthesis with head-tracking. Seven experts and 40 non-expert listeners rated a range...... of stimuli for 15 sound-quality attributes developed by the experts. This paper presents a comparison between the attribute ratings from the two groups of participants. Overall preference of the non-experts was also measured using direct ratings as well as indirect scaling based on paired comparisons...
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Cheahyung; Park, Younghee
We examined the relations of discourse-level oral language skills [i.e., listening comprehension, and oral retell and production of narrative texts (oral retell and production hereafter)] to reading comprehension and written composition. Korean-speaking first grade students (N = 97) were assessed on listening comprehension, oral retell and…
Full Text Available In oral communication, listening skill is important because communication does not take place successfully if the message stated is not understood. To master the skill, learners should learn it. Therefore, good listening materials are needed. However, English teachers often find it difficult to teach listening skills because the listening materials are not adequately available. Besides, if the materials are available, they are not appropriate with the students’ needs and the curriculum. In that case, English teachers need to develop listening materials by themselves. For this, they should have knowledge of materials development. This paper presents ideas and tips for English teachers how to develop good and applicable listening materials.
Jul 1, 2016 ... In almost every human interaction, listening plays a vital role and so ... provided in order enhance effective communication. ... listening as “a deliberate process through which we seek to understand and retain aural (heard).
Full Text Available This study investigates the mechanisms responsible for fast changes in processing foreign-accented speech. Event Related brain Potentials (ERPs were obtained while native speakers of Spanish listened to native and foreign-accented speakers of Spanish. We observed a less positive P200 component for foreign-accented speech relative to native speech comprehension. This suggests that the extraction of spectral information and other important acoustic features was hampered during foreign-accented speech comprehension. However, the amplitude of the N400 component for foreign-accented speech comprehension decreased across the experiment, suggesting the use of a higher level, lexical mechanism. Furthermore, during native speech comprehension, semantic violations in the critical words elicited an N400 effect followed by a late positivity. During foreign-accented speech comprehension, semantic violations only elicited an N400 effect. Overall, our results suggest that, despite a lack of improvement in phonetic discrimination, native listeners experience changes at lexical-semantic levels of processing after brief exposure to foreign-accented speech. Moreover, these results suggest that lexical access, semantic integration and linguistic re-analysis processes are permeable to external factors, such as the accent of the speaker.
Watson, Kittie W
For many nurses, especially when workloads are high, it can be difficult to listen carefully to patients. Federally mandated Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys that help determine insurance reimbursement are asking patients how carefully their nurses listened. For Christian nurses, effective listening demonstrates the compassion, understanding, and care modeled by Jesus. An exploration of Jesus' responses reveals five ways Christ effectively listened to people that can guide nurses.
... Comprehensive Care Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Comprehensive Care Understand the importance of comprehensive MS care ... In this article A complex disease requires a comprehensive approach Today multiple sclerosis (MS) is not a ...
Sangster, Pauline; Anderson, Charles
Previous research into listening has tended to focus on individual processing rather than on how sociocultural contexts mediate the nature and quality of listening. This article draws on a study involving observations of listening lessons conducted by ten English teachers regarded as skilled practitioners, interviews with these teachers and with…
Topornycky, Joseph; Golparian, Shaya
Active listening is an important communication skill in a variety of disciplines and professions, including the profession of Educational Development. In our roles as educational developers, we engage in a variety of processes, all of which rely heavily on the practice of active listening. Emerging strategies of active listening praxis have…
Cox, Troy L.; Clifford, Ray
Because listening has received little attention and the validation of ability scales describing multidimensional skills is always challenging, this study applied a multistage, criterion-referenced approach that used a framework of aligned audio passages and listening tasks to explore the validity of the ACTFL and related listening proficiency…
Listen is a film about words, but around words. The words become useless and are surrounded by silence. And the whole film is constructed on this silence, which builds up like an unbreakable wall. The question is thus: what are we listening to? What should we listen to? And maybe, even more crucial...
Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer
Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…
This paper takes as its starting point the difficulties inherent in listening in a second language. It argues that self-efficacy, broadly defined as the belief in one's ability to carry out specific tasks successfully, is crucial to the development of effective listening skills, and that listening strategy instruction has the potential to boost…
de Kok, I.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.
In this paper we present three studies that investigate the individual differences in nonverbal listening behavior. Besides collecting a corpus of listener responses, we asked people to watch a video of a speaker and indicate where they would produce a listener response. Also we asked people to
Schendel, Joel D.; Shields, Joyce L.
Defining selective listening as an intelligence gathering technique that depends on an individual's ability to access, monitor, and report oral messages accurately and to give processing priority to messages of possible intelligence value, this report describes one important application of the technique: overhearing the conversations of others…
Heylen, Dirk K.J.
We provide an eclectic generic framework to understand the back and forth interactions between participants in a conversation highlighting the complexity of the actions that listeners are engaged in. Communicative actions of one participant implicate the “other��? in many ways. In this paper, we try
Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina
Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…
Stalinski, Stephanie M.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn
Emotions have important and powerful effects on cognitive processes. Although it is well established that memory influences liking, we sought to document whether liking influences memory. A series of 6 experiments examined whether liking is related to recognition memory for novel music excerpts. In the general method, participants listened to a…
Armstrong, Sandra; Rentz, Tina
This report describes a project for improving students' listening and motivation. The action research took place from September 2001 through January 2002. The targeted first grade reading and eighth grade physical education students live in rural, Midwestern, middle- to high-income communities located in central Illinois. The problem was that…
The purpose is to contribute to the theory and practice of listening reception as one of the four language arts in Swedish as a school subject. The object of inquiry is The Art of Listening (Adelmann 2009) as a Swedish example from a Scandinavian context, compared to mainstream listening research in the USA. The problem explored is: How can we, as researchers and teachers, handle some of the problems within international listening research and adapt listening research to a Scandinavian contex...
Bodie, Graham D.; St. Cyr, Kellie; Pence, Michelle; Rold, Michael; Honeycutt, James
The impressions we form of others during initial interactions are powerful. These impressions are a product of various implicit theories--mental representations of people and actions. This article investigates the structure of implicit theories of listening used when forming impressions of others after an initial encounter. Specifically, three…
Currie, Nicola K; Lew, Adina R; Palmer, Tom M; Basu, Helen; De Goede, Christian; Iyer, Anand; Cain, Kate
Difficulties in reading comprehension can arise from either word reading or listening comprehension difficulties, or a combination of the two. We sought to determine whether children with rolandic epilepsy had poor reading comprehension relative to typically developing comparison children, and whether such difficulties were associated with word reading and/or general language comprehension difficulties. In this cross-sectional study, children with rolandic epilepsy (n=25; 16 males, 9 females; mean age 9y 1mo, SD 1y 7mo) and a comparison group (n=39; 25 males, 14 females; mean age 9y 1mo, SD 1y 3mo) completed assessments of reading comprehension, listening comprehension, word/non-word reading, speech articulation, and Non-verbal IQ. Reading comprehension and word reading were worse in children with rolandic epilepsy (F 1,61 =6.89, p=0.011, ηp2=0.10 and F 1,61 =6.84, p=0.011, ηp2=0.10 respectively), with listening comprehension being marginal (F 1,61 =3.81, p=0.055, ηp2=0.06). Word reading and listening comprehension made large and independent contributions to reading comprehension, explaining 70% of the variance. Children with rolandic epilepsy may be at risk of reading comprehension difficulties. Thorough assessment of individual children is required to ascertain whether the difficulties lie with decoding text, or with general comprehension skills, or both. Children with rolandic epilepsy may be at risk of poor reading comprehension. This was related to poor word reading, poor listening comprehension, or both. Reading comprehension interventions should be tailored to the profile of difficulties. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.
Shi, Lu-Feng; Morozova, Natalia
Word recognition is a basic component in a comprehensive hearing evaluation, but data are lacking for listeners speaking two languages. This study obtained such data for Russian natives in the US and analysed the data using the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) and speech learning model (SLM). Listeners were randomly presented 200 NU-6 words in quiet. Listeners responded verbally and in writing. Performance was scored on words and phonemes (word-initial consonants, vowels, and word-final consonants). Seven normal-hearing, adult monolingual English natives (NM), 16 English-dominant (ED), and 15 Russian-dominant (RD) Russian natives participated. ED and RD listeners differed significantly in their language background. Consistent with the SLM, NM outperformed ED listeners and ED outperformed RD listeners, whether responses were scored on words or phonemes. NM and ED listeners shared similar phoneme error patterns, whereas RD listeners' errors had unique patterns that could be largely understood via the PAM. RD listeners had particular difficulty differentiating vowel contrasts /i-I/, /æ-ε/, and /ɑ-Λ/, word-initial consonant contrasts /p-h/ and /b-f/, and word-final contrasts /f-v/. Both first-language phonology and second-language learning history affect word and phoneme recognition. Current findings may help clinicians differentiate word recognition errors due to language background from hearing pathologies.
Based on learning motivation theory and metacognitive theory, the present study reports questionnaire surveys on cor-relation between motivation orientations and listening metacognitive strategies among 117 English majors. Findings suggest that:1) English majors are mainly stimulated by instrumental motivation and show bias towards planning and evaluation strate-gy in listening comprehension;2) there is a significant positive correlation between instrumental motivation and strategy of plan-ning and evaluation;3) significant difference between high motive group and low motive group only exists in planning and eval-uation strategy. Therefore, teachers are encouraged to help students strengthen the training of listening metacognitive strategies form long-lasting motivation and promote listening proficiency as well as self-learning ability.
Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE) vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge of popular culture. Results from the survey show a positive association between the number of hip-hop artists listened to and AAE comprehension vocabulary scores. Additionally, participants were more likely to know an AAE vocabulary item if the hip-hop artists they listen to use the word in their song lyrics. Together, these results suggest that young adults can acquire vocabulary through exposure to hip-hop music, a finding relevant for research on vocabulary acquisition, the construction of adolescent and adult identities, and the adoption of lexical innovations.
This paper is based on a research project-in-progress investigating curatorial practice as methodology for creating responsive interfaces to sound art practices. Sound art is a transdisciplinary practice. As such, it creates new domains that may be used for redesign-purposes. Not only do experien......This paper is based on a research project-in-progress investigating curatorial practice as methodology for creating responsive interfaces to sound art practices. Sound art is a transdisciplinary practice. As such, it creates new domains that may be used for redesign-purposes. Not only do...... experiences of sound alter; the way we listen to sound is transforming as well. Thus, the paper analyses and discusses two responsive sound interfaces and claim that curating as a transdisciplinary practice may frame what is termed in the paper as a domain-game redesigning the way the audience listens...
Bysko Maxim V.
Full Text Available The singularity of this article is that it is entirely based on a critical analysis of only one live musical radio program on the Mayak radio station and dedicated to the life and work of the famous British composer Andrew Lloyd Webber. In principle, the article can be considered a scientific review of the media product. Based on his analysis, the author comes to the paradoxical conclusion that the presence of a listener becomes unnecessary for modern broadcasting. This is stated by many principles of the conduct of the air, presented in the radio program, where all the information load is placed on the guest in the studio, where there is no preparatory work of the DJs, where their inability to navigate the genres of journalism violates communication norms and colloquial ethics, where an obvious deconstructive approach to the material offered for the listener. In addition, the phenomenon of being the DJs in the radio studio exclusively "for themselves" is emphasized by the sound design of the radio program, which runs counter to the logic of auditory perception (for example, the sequence of jingles, as well as the incompetent selection of musical material, which undoubtedly repels professional radio listeners-musicians.
Most second/foreign language (L2) learners have difficulty understanding listening input because of its implicit and ephemeral nature, and they typically have better reading comprehension than listening comprehension skills. This study examines the effects of using an interactive advance-organizer activity on the DVD video comprehension of L2…
Amir Mahdavi Zhafarghandi
Full Text Available This study intends to deal with attitudes of teachers and learners toward authentic listening materials at pre- intermediate level. Studies have indicated the positive effect of authentic listening materials on motivation and listening comprehension ability in learners of English as a foreign language (Nuttall, 1996; Peacock, 1997; Miller, 2005; Field, 2008. It focused on EFL teachers and students at pre intermediate proficiency level. Participants included 60 students, from both gender; male and female university students studying at Rodaki Higher Institute Education in the fields of: Accounting, Computer Engineering and Commercial Management and also 30 teachers who taught listening at Rodaki Higher Institute Education. The students were randomly selected and assigned to two groups. Then, Oxford Placement test as a standard test was administered to the participant in order to determine their proficiency level. Then, the participants were divided into two groups of control and experiment. The experiment group received the listening materials taken from UK radio program whereas the other group received simplified listening materials taken from the authentic listening materials. Afterwards, to be sure that they know what authentic materials are, they were exposed to both of related materials, then the questionnaire was distributed among them, the results taken from the questionnaire showed that the participants of this study prefer authentic materials and have positive attitudes toward using them. By the same token, the analysis of teachers’ questionnaire also showed their satisfaction with authentic listening materials. These findings can have implications for language learning/teaching, and curriculum development paving the way for educational policy makers, teachers and learners to introduce authentic listening materials to EFL learners at pre- intermediate proficiency level.
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that listeners are better able to understand speech when they are familiar with the talker’s voice. In most of these studies, talker familiarity was ensured by explicit voice training; that is, listeners learned to identify the familiar talkers. In the real world, however, the characteristics of familiar talkers are learned incidentally, through communication. The present study investigated whether speech comprehension benefits from implicit voice training; that is, through exposure to talkers’ voices without listeners explicitly trying to identify them. During four training sessions, listeners heard short sentences containing a single verb (e.g., “he writes”, spoken by one talker. The sentences were mixed with noise, and listeners identified the verb within each sentence while their speech-reception thresholds (SRT were measured. In a final test session, listeners performed the same task, but this time they heard different sentences spoken by the familiar talker and three unfamiliar talkers. Familiar and unfamiliar talkers were counterbalanced across listeners. Half of the listeners performed a test session in which the four talkers were presented in separate blocks (blocked paradigm. For the other half, talkers varied randomly from trial to trial (interleaved paradigm. The results showed that listeners had lower SRT when the speech was produced by the familiar talker than the unfamiliar talkers. The type of talker presentation (blocked vs. interleaved had no effect on this familiarity benefit. These findings suggest that listeners implicitly learn talker-specific information during a speech-comprehension task, and exploit this information to improve the comprehension of novel speech material from familiar talkers.
This pilot study explores the impact of online electronic storybooks (e-books) on the reading motivation and listening comprehension of six grade 1 students (aged 7 years) from Ontario, Canada. The researcher measured participants' perceived enjoyment of the online e-book reading experience using standardized listening comprehension tests,…
Fassaert, T.; Dulmen, S. van; Schellevis, F.; Bensing, J.
OBJECTIVE: Active listening is a prerequisite for a successful healthcare encounter, bearing potential therapeutic value especially in clinical situations that require no specific medical intervention. Although generally acknowledged as such, active listening has not been studied in depth. This
Caspersz, Donella; Stasinska, Ania
Listening is not the same as hearing. While hearing is a physiological process, listening is a conscious process that requires us to be mentally attentive (Low & Sonntag, 2013). The obvious place for scholarship about listening is in communication studies. While interested in listening, the focus of this study is on effective listening.…
Renandya, Willy A.; Farrell, Thomas S. C.
For many years, research effort has been devoted to understanding the nature of listening strategies and how listening strategies used by good listeners can be taught to so-called ineffective listeners. As a result of this line of research, strategy training activities have now become a standard feature of most modern listening coursebooks.…
Spataro, Sandra E.; Bloch, Janel
Listening is a critical communication skill and therefore an essential element of management education. "Active" listening surpasses passive listening or simple hearing to establish a deeper connection between speaker and listener, as the listener gives the speaker full attention via inquiry, reflection, respect, and empathy. This…
This article investigates the use of podcasts for out-of-class listening practice. Drawing on Vandergrift and Goh's metacognitive approach to extensive listening, it discusses their principles for listening projects in the context of podcast-based listening. The study describes a class of 28 intermediate German students, who listened to…
Borgers, Sherry B., Comp.; Ward, G. Robert, Comp.
This module is designed to provide practice in listening effectively and in responding to messages sent by another. The module is divided into two sets of activities, the first is the formation of a triad enabling the student to investigate the following: do you listen, listening and the unrelated response, incomplete listening, listening for…
Although listening has been shown to be the most frequent communication activity, and students desperately need listening training, the educational system usually ignores listening. After citing 10 bad listening habits which interfere with good aural communication and describing the characteristics of effective listeners, this paper offers 12…
Chang, Chi-Cheng; Warden, Clyde A.; Liang, Chaoyun; Chou, Pao-Nan
This study examines differences in English listening comprehension, cognitive load, and learning behaviour between outdoor ubiquitous learning and indoor computer-assisted learning. An experimental design, employing a pretest-posttest control group is employed. Randomly assigned foreign language university majors joined either the experimental…
Mohsen, Mohammed Ali
Several types of help options have been incorporated into reading and listening comprehension activities to aid second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. Textbook authors, teachers, and sometimes even students may pick and choose which help options they wish to use. In this paper, I investigate the effects of two help options in a multimedia…
This study investigated the relationships among the quality of L2 test takers' notes evaluated in terms of different levels of information and test takers' performance on open-ended listening tasks tapping into different comprehension subskills. In addition, this study examined the invariance of the structural relationships among the variables…
Merritt, Darcey H; Snyder, Susan M
This article presents an exploratory assessment of whether children's perceptions of caseworker support (e.g. feeling listened to) moderates the relationship between the type of maltreatment and problematic behaviors. Relying on data collected for the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW I), this research measures how often children felt listened to by their caseworkers and the effect on the relationship between two types of maltreatment (e.g. physical abuse and neglect) and problematic child behaviors. Results indicate that whereas children reported feeling listened to most of the time, there are significant differences in the probabilities of problematic behavior scores between physically abused and neglected children according to how often they felt listened to. With the exception of those children who felt listened to all of the time, physically abused children have a higher probability of problematic behaviors than neglected children. Comparisons between the two maltreatment types indicate a greater impact of listening on physically abused children across the continuum of feeling listened to (e.g. never to all of the time), than for neglected children, except for at the highest level of listening, as results indicate a small, but significant difference indicating neglected children are more positively impacted by listening than physically abused kids. Implications for practice are that children's perceptions of support from caseworkers may influence behavioral outcomes differently according to maltreatment type. Additionally, these findings encourage the inclusion of children's perspectives regarding the relationships they have with caseworkers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fassaert, T.; Dulmen, S. van; Schellevis, F.; Bensing, J.
OBJECTIVE: Active listening is a prerequisite for a successful healthcare encounter, bearing potential therapeutic value especially in clinical situations that require no specific medical intervention. Although generally acknowledged as such, active listening has not been studied in depth. This paper describes the development of the Active Listening Observation Scale (ALOS-global), an observation instrument measuring active listening and its validation in a sample of general practice consulta...
This sequenced activity encourages active engagement with the idea that listening and speaking are not inherently separate or one-way activities. Listening involves both verbal, and nonverbal responses and perceptions of effective listening are tied to these patterns of response. These patterns of response impact both the immediate communication…
Anderson, William Todd
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Mindful Listening Instruction on Music Listening Sensitivity and Music Listening Enjoyment. The type of mindfulness investigated in this study was of the social-psychological type, which shares both commonalities with and distinctions from meditative mindfulness. Enhanced context awareness,…
Chapin, John; Froats, Ted, Jr.; Hudspeth, Trey
The current study applies the Listening Styles Profile (LSP16) to nurses and nursing students. Compared to a control group (n = 102), nurses (n = 188) and nursing students (n = 206) show marked differences in listening styles. The majority of participants were people-oriented listeners. People-oriented nurses tend to be more knowledgeable about…
Chen, Cheryl Wei-yu
The current study reports on a group of Taiwanese college students' first-person diary accounts of their private, transactional listening activities outside the classroom. Issues related to students' material selection, listening problems, and perceived usefulness of keeping a listening diary were explored. It was found that most students chose…
This study aims to determine the effect of a listening education course on the listening behaviors of prospective Turkish teachers. The participants of the study are 45 prospective teachers who are studying at a state university in Istanbul and taking a listening education course. The study is an experimental study in the model of "one group…
Brunfaut, Tineke; Révész, Andrea
This study investigated the relationship between second language (L2) listening and a range of task and listener characteristics. More specifically, for a group of 93 nonnative English speakers, the researchers examined the extent to which linguistic complexity of the listening task input and response, and speed and explicitness of the input, were…
This study used structural equation modeling to explore the possible causal relations between foreign language (English) listening anxiety and English listening performance. Three hundred participants learning English as a foreign language (FL) completed the foreign language listening anxiety scale (FLLAS) and IELTS test twice with an interval of…
Bonde, Lars Ole; Beck, Bolette Daniels
Nature, its delights and horrors, its creatures, its challenges and affordances play an underrated role in receptive music therapy, especially Guided Imagery and Music (GIM). In general, people from Western cultures are challenged in their mostly recreational relationship with nature, while ancient...... and traditional cultures worship nature as a place of holiness and wholeness. In GIM, a client or a group listens to music in a relaxed state and multi-modal imagery is evoked and supported by the music. The imagery is shared with the guide/therapist. This chapter will focus on ‘nature imagery’ in GIM through...... a primarily qualitative, exploratory study....
Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona
This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listening comprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills,…
Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Camarata, Stephen
Purpose: There is an ongoing need to develop assessments of spontaneous speech that focus on whether the child's utterances are comprehensible to listeners. This study sought to identify the attributes of a stable ratings-based measure of speech comprehensibility, which enabled examining the criterion-related validity of an orthography-based…
Greenberg, Seth N.; Roscoe, Suzanne
Study of echoic memory interference among students in college introductory Spanish and German courses revealed that students with weaker listening comprehension skills depended more upon vulnerable sensory codes in echoic memory, while students with stronger comprehension relied on stable higher-order codes. (Author/CB)
Stalinski, Stephanie M; Schellenberg, E Glenn
Emotions have important and powerful effects on cognitive processes. Although it is well established that memory influences liking, we sought to document whether liking influences memory. A series of 6 experiments examined whether liking is related to recognition memory for novel music excerpts. In the general method, participants listened to a set of music excerpts and rated how much they liked each one. After a delay, they heard the same excerpts plus an equal number of novel excerpts and made recognition judgments, which were then examined in conjunction with liking ratings. Higher liking ratings were associated with improved recognition performance after a 10-min (Experiment 1) or 24-hr (Experiment 2) delay between the exposure and test phases. The findings were similar when participants made liking ratings after recognition judgments (Experiments 3 and 6), when possible confounding effects of similarity and familiarity were held constant (Experiment 4), and when a deeper level of processing was encouraged for all the excerpts (Experiment 5). Recognition did not vary as a function of liking for previously unheard excerpts (Experiment 6). The results implicate a direct association between liking and recognition. Considered jointly with previous findings, it is now clear that listeners tend to like music that they remember and to remember music that they like.
It is of vital importance that our students should be taught to listen effectively and critically. This essay focuses the metacognitive strategy in listening and an empirical study of the application of metacognitive strategy to primary listening teaching is made.
Hernandez-Ocampo Sonia Patricia
Full Text Available Spanish-speaking students constantly complain about the difficulty they have comprehending spoken English. It seems teachers do not often provide them with strategies to alleviate that. This article reports on a pedagogical experience carried out at a Colombian university to help pre-service teachers at an intermediate level of English to improve their aural comprehension. The students were given the task of designing listening activities to be worked on as micro-teaching sessions and were asked to describe their experience by answering a survey. The results showed that students developed the ability to think critically since they needed to make the best decisions regarding the audio level and the design of the activities. They also appeared to have become more autonomous as they realized they could be responsible for their improvement in listening. Additionally, there were evident changes in the teachers’ roles.Es común que los hablantes de español se quejen de su comprensión oral en inglés. Parece que los profesores no siempre dan a sus estudiantes estrategias para mejorar al respecto. En este artículo se describe la experiencia pedagógica desarrollada en una universidad colombiana con el propósito de ayudar a los estudiantes de inglés intermedio de una licenciatura a mejorar su comprensión auditiva. Se pidió a los estudiantes desarrollar actividades de escucha para ser trabajadas en sesiones de microenseñanza y describir su experiencia, contestando una encuesta. Los resultados evidenciaron que los estudiantes desarrollaron su pensamiento crítico en la medida que necesitaban tomar decisiones con respecto al nivel de dificultad del audio y al diseño de las actividades mismas. También se mostraron más autónomos por cuanto se hicieron conscientes de su responsabilidad en el mejoramiento de su comprensión oral. Adicionalmente, se dieron cambios en los papeles del profesor.
Wolvin, Andrew D.
Research supports the point that listening skills play an important role in 21st century personal, academic, and professional success. This article argues that educators should include listening, a critical communication competency, in the oral communication course in the general education curriculum. (Contains 1 table.)
Instructor listening skill is an understudied area in instructional communication research. This study looks at teachers' active empathic listening behavior association with student incivility. Scholars recognize student incivility as a growing problem and have called for research that identifies classroom behaviors that can affect classroom…
Full Text Available This text responds to Deniz Peters' argument with three things: a broad context for empathic listening based on its value as a transferable skill; a comment on the relationship between musical empathy and "social empathy via music"; and a comment on the "indeterminacy" at the beginning of empathic listening.
Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph
Background: It is frequently observed that listeners demonstrate gaze aversion to stuttering. This response may have profound social/communicative implications for both fluent and stuttering individuals. However, there is a lack of empirical examination of listeners' eye gaze responses to stuttering, and it is unclear whether cultural background…
LeBlanc, Albert; And Others
Measures the effect of four levels of tempo on the self-reported preferences of six different age-groups for traditional jazz music listening examples. Stated that listener age exerted a strong influence on overall preference scores. Reported an analysis of variance showing that there is a significant preference for increasingly faster tempo at…
While researchers have studied how white silence protects white innocence and white ignorance, in this essay Barbara Applebaum explores a form of white silence that she refers to as "listening silence" in which silence protects white innocence but does not necessarily promote resistance to learning. White listening silence can appear to…
Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz
Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing
Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul
Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…
Bundra, Judy Iwata
This article focuses on a number of research projects produced by members of the Center for the Study of Education and the Musical Experience (CSEME). Written over a fifteen year span, the studies were linked by a common topic--music listening. Each study explores a distinctive aspect of music listening, and together, they have generated a more…
Full Text Available The quality of the professional training of foreign language teachers presupposes high level of their listening competence. However, in non-authentic language environment developing proficiency in listening is recognized as a difficult task. Therefore, Ukrainian methodologists are in search of new ways to improve listening skills of pre-service teachers. The purpose of this article is to explore recent research into psycho-linguistic issues and analyse the grounds for the development of listening competence by means of fiction audiobooks. This paper therefore deals with the analysis of cognitive processes and psychological mechanisms, listening stages (motivational, analytically-synthetic, executive and controlling. It goes on to focus on artistic perception and its mechanisms and the information processing mechanisms. Since fiction is an art of words, specific features of listening to audiobooks are primarily related to the category of art. It is revealed that at all levels of the structure of an artistic text (genre, plot, structure there are some authors guidelines which guide, direct attention and activate apperception. The typical benchmarks of audiobooks that help to activate apperception (genre, cover, title, sample, summary, reviews, author / narrator, volume, rating etc. have been determined. It has been found that listening to an audiobook should result into its "projection" in the recipients mind. The "projection" may be materialized through a secondary text. It is concluded that the mechanisms of listening to fiction audiobooks are: 1 mental processes (perception, thinking, memory, attention; 2 psychological mechanisms (speech hearing, articulation, anticipation, comprehension, working memory; 3 mechanisms of artistic perception (emotions and feelings, imagination, apperception, figurative and associative thinking; 4 information processing mechanisms (mechanism of equivalent replacements, transcoding, compression, expansion
... learning program environments that engage and motivate children and youth in speaking, listening, reading... and grade-level mastery of (A) oral language skills, both listening and speaking, (B) phonological..., fluently, and with comprehension, relying on knowledge of the vocabulary in those texts and of the...
Ohlenforst, Barbara; Zekveld, Adriana A; Jansma, Elise P; Wang, Yang; Naylor, Graham; Lorens, Artur; Lunner, Thomas; Kramer, Sophia E
To undertake a systematic review of available evidence on the effect of hearing impairment and hearing aid amplification on listening effort. Two research questions were addressed: Q1) does hearing impairment affect listening effort? and Q2) can hearing aid amplification affect listening effort during speech comprehension? English language articles were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO from inception to August 2014. References of eligible studies were checked. The Population, Intervention, Control, Outcomes, and Study design strategy was used to create inclusion criteria for relevance. It was not feasible to apply a meta-analysis of the results from comparable studies. For the articles identified as relevant, a quality rating, based on the 2011 Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group guidelines, was carried out to judge the reliability and confidence of the estimated effects. The primary search produced 7017 unique hits using the keywords: hearing aids OR hearing impairment AND listening effort OR perceptual effort OR ease of listening. Of these, 41 articles fulfilled the Population, Intervention, Control, Outcomes, and Study design selection criteria of: experimental work on hearing impairment OR hearing aid technologies AND listening effort OR fatigue during speech perception. The methods applied in those articles were categorized into subjective, behavioral, and physiological assessment of listening effort. For each study, the statistical analysis addressing research question Q1 and/or Q2 was extracted. In seven articles more than one measure of listening effort was provided. Evidence relating to Q1 was provided by 21 articles that reported 41 relevant findings. Evidence relating to Q2 was provided by 27 articles that reported 56 relevant findings. The quality of evidence on both research questions (Q1 and Q2) was very low, according to the Grading of
Wolvin, Andrew D.; Coakley, Carolyn Gwynn
Surveys training directors of Fortune 500 corporations to determine the content and nature of listening training offered to employees. Discusses types of listening instruction, personnel receiving listening training, length of listening training, and backgrounds of listening trainers. (KEH)
Elvira Rosyida M. R.
Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating whether there is a significant correlation between students’ frequency of listening to English songs and their listening achievement This study was conducted at the first year students of State Senior High School 9 Bandarlampung, Lampung. A descriptive quantitative was employed in this study which used ex-post facto design and the data were taken from questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and listening test. The data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 16.0. The hypothesis was tested by using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The test result showed that there is a significant correlation between students’ frequency of listening to English songs and their listening achievement. From the result of interview, it showed that most of the students believe that by having high frequency of listening to English songs, it helps them in recognizing the spoken language and get high score in listening ability.Keywords: listening to English song, listening ability, frequency of listening
Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot
This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire.
Wu, Mengfan; El-Haj-Ali, Mouhamad; Sanchez Lopez, Raul
hearing aid settings that differed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement and temporal and spectral speech distortions were selected for testing based on a comprehensive technical evaluation of different parameterisations of the hearing aid simulator. Speech-in-noise perception was assessed...... stimulus comparison paradigm. RESULTS We hypothesize that the perceptual outcomes from the six hearing aid settings will differ across listeners with different auditory profiles. More specifically, we expect listeners showing high sensitivity to temporal and spectral differences to perform best with and....../or to favour hearing aid settings that preserve those cues. In contrast, we expect listeners showing low sensitivity to temporal and spectral differences to perform best with and/or to favour settings that maximize SNR improvement, independent of any additional speech distortions. Altogether, we anticipate...
Roberta Maria DiDonato
Full Text Available Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual and top-down (cognitive-linguistic resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational versus clear speech technique, the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors, and the environment (in competing speech babble noise versus quiet interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with ‘clear speech,’ (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones their learning efficiency, immediate and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field. This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker’s speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding.
DiDonato, Roberta M.; Surprenant, Aimée M.
Communication success under adverse conditions requires efficient and effective recruitment of both bottom-up (sensori-perceptual) and top-down (cognitive-linguistic) resources to decode the intended auditory-verbal message. Employing these limited capacity resources has been shown to vary across the lifespan, with evidence indicating that younger adults out-perform older adults for both comprehension and memory of the message. This study examined how sources of interference arising from the speaker (message spoken with conversational vs. clear speech technique), the listener (hearing-listening and cognitive-linguistic factors), and the environment (in competing speech babble noise vs. quiet) interact and influence learning and memory performance using more ecologically valid methods than has been done previously. The results suggest that when older adults listened to complex medical prescription instructions with “clear speech,” (presented at audible levels through insertion earphones) their learning efficiency, immediate, and delayed memory performance improved relative to their performance when they listened with a normal conversational speech rate (presented at audible levels in sound field). This better learning and memory performance for clear speech listening was maintained even in the presence of speech babble noise. The finding that there was the largest learning-practice effect on 2nd trial performance in the conversational speech when the clear speech listening condition was first is suggestive of greater experience-dependent perceptual learning or adaptation to the speaker's speech and voice pattern in clear speech. This suggests that experience-dependent perceptual learning plays a role in facilitating the language processing and comprehension of a message and subsequent memory encoding. PMID:26106353
Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth; Mlsna, Lauren M; Uppunda, Ajith K; Parrish, Todd B; Wong, Patrick C M
To appropriately adapt to constant sensory stimulation, neurons in the auditory system are tuned to various acoustic characteristics, such as center frequencies, frequency modulations, and their combinations, particularly those combinations that carry species-specific communicative functions. The present study asks whether such tunings extend beyond acoustic and communicative functions to auditory self-relevance and expertise. More specifically, we examined the role of the listening biography--an individual's long term experience with a particular type of auditory input--on perceptual-neural plasticity. Two groups of expert instrumentalists (violinists and flutists) listened to matched musical excerpts played on the two instruments (J.S. Bach Partitas for solo violin and flute) while their cerebral hemodynamic responses were measured using fMRI. Our experimental design allowed for a comprehensive investigation of the neurophysiology (cerebral hemodynamic responses as measured by fMRI) of auditory expertise (i.e., when violinists listened to violin music and when flutists listened to flute music) and nonexpertise (i.e., when subjects listened to music played on the other instrument). We found an extensive cerebral network of expertise, which implicates increased sensitivity to musical syntax (BA 44), timbre (auditory association cortex), and sound-motor interactions (precentral gyrus) when listening to music played on the instrument of expertise (the instrument for which subjects had a unique listening biography). These findings highlight auditory self-relevance and expertise as a mechanism of perceptual-neural plasticity, and implicate neural tuning that includes and extends beyond acoustic and communication-relevant structures. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Listening is very important. Conversations will take place only when we can understand what our interlocutor says; listening is also an important input. Yet, many of my students got frustrated in listening. Being a teacher, I tried to rethink about what I did in my listening classes and did some literature review. As a result, I found that there…
Much research regarding listening strategies has focused on assembling lists of reported strategies and gaining better understanding of differences in strategy usage between less- and more-skilled listeners. Less attention has been given to how the accumulating knowledge based on listening strategies informs listening strategy instruction as…
Bostrom, Robert N.
Theory about listening has been strongly affected by methodological orientations and institutional pressures. It would help if researchers spent more time on the objects of study rather than method. Traditional listening research has confused listening with general cognitive abilities, such as IQ. Studying listening as memory is a tempting…
McRae, Chris; Nainby, Keith
This article presents an understanding of listening as a performative and pedagogical act. Moving beyond existing theories of listening in communication and education studies that frame listening as a selective and incremental act, this article considers listening in terms of a performance studies and critical education studies perspective. An…
This article deals with teaching listening in English for Specific Purposes and more specifically in Military English. There are presented different approaches on listening and ways on teaching it in ESP. Active listening it is seen as one of the most productive and applicable approach in teaching ESP students how to master the skill of listening.…
Fontana, Peter C.; Cohen, Steven D.; Wolvin, Andrew D.
To better understand what constitutes listening competency, we perform a systematic review of listening scales. Our goal was twofold: to determine the most commonly appearing listening traits and to determine if listening scales are similar to one other. As part of our analysis, we identified 53 relevant scales and analyzed the scales…
Elvira Rosyida M. R.
This study is aimed at investigating whether there is a significant correlation between students’ frequency of listening to English songs and their listening achievement This study was conducted at the first year students of State Senior High School 9 Bandarlampung, Lampung. A descriptive quantitative was employed in this study which used ex-post facto design and the data were taken from questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and listening test. The data were analyzed by using Statistical ...
Erb, Julia; Henry, Molly J; Eisner, Frank; Obleser, Jonas
Listeners show a remarkable ability to quickly adjust to degraded speech input. Here, we aimed to identify the neural mechanisms of such short-term perceptual adaptation. In a sparse-sampling, cardiac-gated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition, human listeners heard and repeated back 4-band-vocoded sentences (in which the temporal envelope of the acoustic signal is preserved, while spectral information is highly degraded). Clear-speech trials were included as baseline. An additional fMRI experiment on amplitude modulation rate discrimination quantified the convergence of neural mechanisms that subserve coping with challenging listening conditions for speech and non-speech. First, the degraded speech task revealed an "executive" network (comprising the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex), parts of which were also activated in the non-speech discrimination task. Second, trial-by-trial fluctuations in successful comprehension of degraded speech drove hemodynamic signal change in classic "language" areas (bilateral temporal cortices). Third, as listeners perceptually adapted to degraded speech, downregulation in a cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit was observable. The present data highlight differential upregulation and downregulation in auditory-language and executive networks, respectively, with important subcortical contributions when successfully adapting to a challenging listening situation.
The purpose of this study was to compare online effects of syntactic complexity in written and spoken sentence comprehension in people with aphasia (PWA) and adults with no brain damage (NBD). The participants in Experiment 1 were NBD older and younger adults (n = 20 per group). The participants in Experiment 2 were 10 PWA. In both experiments, the participants read and listened to sentences in self-paced reading and listening tasks. The experimental materials consisted of object cleft sentences (e.g., It was the girl who the boy hugged.) and subject cleft sentences (e.g., It was the boy who hugged the girl.). The predicted effects of syntactic complexity were observed in both Experiments 1 and 2: Reading and listening times were longer for the verb in sentences with object compared to subject relative clauses. The NBD controls showed exaggerated effects of syntactic complexity in reading compared to listening. The PWA did not show different modality effects from the NBD participants. Although effects of syntactic complexity were somewhat exaggerated in reading compared with listening, both the PWA and the NBD controls showed similar effects in both modalities.
mohammad nabi karimi
Full Text Available Morphological Awareness (henceforth: MA, defined as the ability to understand the morphemic structure of the words, has been reported to affect various aspects of second language performance including reading comprehension ability, spelling performance, etc. Yet, the concept has been far less treated with reference to l2 listening transcription. Thus, against this background, this study aims to investigate the link between MA and listening transcription ability of Iranian pre-university students. To this aim, 40 pre-university students participated in the study, and were assigned to two control and experimental groups. Both groups were first given three short listening passages to transcribe as the pre-tests. The results of the independent-samples t-test revealed no significant difference between the two groups. The experimental group, then, received five one-hour sessions briefing them on the morphological realization of English words. The two groups were then given three short listening passages to transcribe as their post-tests. The results of the independent-samples t-tests attested to the significant difference between the two groups, thus, supporting the relationship between MA and listening transcription ability. The study concludes with some suggestions as to the incorporation of MA into L2 learning programs.
The Listening Train: A Collaborative, Connective Aesthetics Approach to Transgressive Social Learning. ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...
Christensen, Flemming; Martin, Geoff; Minnaar, Pauli
A selection procedure was devised in order to select listeners for experiments in which their main task will be to judge multi-channel reproduced sound. 91 participants filled in a web-based questionnaire. 78 of them took part in an assessment of their hearing thresholds, their spatial hearing......, and their verbal production abilities. The listeners displayed large individual differences in their performance. 40 subjects were selected based on the test results. The self-assessed listening habits and experience in the web questionnaire could not predict the results of the selection procedure. Further......, the hearing thresholds did not correlate with the spatial-hearing test. This leads to the conclusion that task-specific performance tests might be the preferable means of selecting a listening panel....
Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo
Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion.
Hwang, Jung Sun; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Jae Hee
Despite amplified speech, listeners with hearing loss often report more difficulties understanding speech in background noise compared to normalhearing listeners. Various factors such as deteriorated hearing sensitivity, age, suprathreshold temporal resolution, and reduced capacity of working memory and attention can attribute to their sentence-in-noise problems. The present study aims to determine a primary explanatory factor for sentence-in-noise recognition difficulties in adults with or without hearing loss. Forty normal-hearing (NH) listeners (23-73 years) and thirty-four hearing-impaired (HI) listeners (24-80 years) participated for experimental testing. For both NH and HI group, the younger, middle-aged, older listeners were included. The sentence recognition score in noise was measured at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio. The ability of temporal resolution was evaluated by gap detection performance using the Gaps-In-Noise test. Listeners' short-term auditory working memory span was measured by forward and backward digit spans. Overall, the HI listeners' sentence-in-noise recognition, temporal resolution abilities, and digit forward and backward spans were poorer compared to the NH listeners. Both NH and HI listeners had a substantial variability in performance. For NH listeners, only the digit backward span explained a small proportion of the variance in their sentence-in-noise performance. For the HI listeners, all the performance was influenced by age, and their sentence-in-noise difficulties were associated with various factors such as high-frequency hearing sensitivity, suprathreshold temporal resolution abilities, and working memory span. For the HI listeners, the critical predictors of the sentence-in-noise performance were composite measures of peripheral hearing sensitivity and suprathreshold temporal resolution abilities. The primary explanatory factors for the sentence-in-noise recognition performance differ between NH and HI listeners. Factors
Huette, Stephanie; Winter, Bodo; Matlock, Teenie; Ardell, David H; Spivey, Michael
Recent research using eye-tracking typically relies on constrained visual contexts in particular goal-oriented contexts, viewing a small array of objects on a computer screen and performing some overt decision or identification. Eyetracking paradigms that use pictures as a measure of word or sentence comprehension are sometimes touted as ecologically invalid because pictures and explicit tasks are not always present during language comprehension. This study compared the comprehension of sentences with two different grammatical forms: the past progressive (e.g., was walking), which emphasizes the ongoing nature of actions, and the simple past (e.g., walked), which emphasizes the end-state of an action. The results showed that the distribution and timing of eye movements mirrors the underlying conceptual structure of this linguistic difference in the absence of any visual stimuli or task constraint: Fixations were shorter and saccades were more dispersed across the screen, as if thinking about more dynamic events when listening to the past progressive stories. Thus, eye movement data suggest that visual inputs or an explicit task are unnecessary to solicit analog representations of features such as movement, that could be a key perceptual component to grammatical comprehension.
Full Text Available Recent research using eye-tracking typically relies on constrained visual contexts in particular goal-oriented contexts, viewing a small array of objects on a computer screen and performing some overt decision or identification. Eyetracking paradigms that use pictures as a measure of word or sentence comprehension are sometimes touted as ecologically invalid because pictures and explicit tasks are not always present during language comprehension. This study compared the comprehension of sentences with two different grammatical forms: the past progressive (e.g., was walking, which emphasizes the ongoing nature of actions, and the simple past (e.g., walked, which emphasizes the end-state of an action. The results showed that the distribution and timing of eye movements mirrors the underlying conceptual structure of this linguistic difference in the absence of any visual stimuli or task constraint: Fixations were shorter and saccades were more dispersed across the screen, as if thinking about more dynamic events when listening to the past progressive stories. Thus, eye movement data suggest that visual inputs or an explicit task are unnecessary to solicit analogue representations of features such as movement, that could be a key perceptual component to grammatical comprehension.
Canpolat, Murat; Kuzu, Sekvan; Yıldırım, Bilal; CANPOLAT, Sevilay
Problem Statement:In formal educational environments, the quality of student listening affects learning considerably. Students who areuninterested in a lesson listen reluctantly, wanting time to pass quickly andthe classto end as soon as possible. In such situations, students become passive and, thoughappearing to be listening, will not use listening strategies that promote productive and permanent learning. By contrast, when students willingly participate in lessonsby listening to instructor...
Ideas concerning the role of listening in SLA have evolved considerably in the last thirty years. In the 1960’s most researchers were convinced that listening was a passive skill of minor importance. However, listening is now considered a critical aspect of daily life and thus deserves primary consideration in SLA teaching and research. This article considers the role of listening in developing SL proficiency and offers an example of listening activities based on travel conversations. It is s...
Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y
To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and 2 presentation modalities (audio only [AO] and auditory-visual [AV]). Signal-to-noise ratios were adjusted to provide matched speech recognition across audio-only and AV noise conditions. Also measured were subjective perceptions of listening effort and 2 predictive variables: (a) lipreading ability and (b) WMC. Objective and subjective results indicated that listening effort increased in the presence of noise, but on average the addition of visual cues did not significantly affect the magnitude of listening effort. Although there was substantial individual variability, on average participants who were better lipreaders or had larger WMCs demonstrated reduced listening effort in noise in AV conditions. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that integrating auditory and visual cues requires cognitive resources in some participants. The data indicate that low lipreading ability or low WMC is associated with relatively effortful integration of auditory and visual information in noise.
Persson Waye, Kerstin; Magnusson, Lennart; Fredriksson, Sofie; Croy, Ilona
Perception of speech is crucial in school where speech is the main mode of communication. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a web based approach including listening tests and questionnaires could be used as a screening tool for poor classroom acoustics. The prime focus was the relation between pupils' comprehension of speech, the classroom acoustics and their description of the acoustic qualities of the classroom. In total, 1106 pupils aged 13-19, from 59 classes and 38 schools in Sweden participated in a listening study using Hagerman's sentences administered via Internet. Four listening conditions were applied: high and low background noise level and positions close and far away from the loudspeaker. The pupils described the acoustic quality of the classroom and teachers provided information on the physical features of the classroom using questionnaires. In 69% of the classes, at least three pupils described the sound environment as adverse and in 88% of the classes one or more pupil reported often having difficulties concentrating due to noise. The pupils' comprehension of speech was strongly influenced by the background noise level (pcomprehension. Of the pupils' descriptions of acoustic qualities, clattery significantly (pcomprehension. Clattery was furthermore associated to difficulties understanding each other, while the description noisy was associated to concentration difficulties. The majority of classrooms do not seem to have an optimal sound environment. The pupil's descriptions of acoustic qualities and listening tests can be one way of predicting sound conditions in the classroom.
... looks into the different listening styles exhibited by people; gives reasons why people are poor listeners and how to develop effective listening habit. It also states what an ideal listening process ought to be; what people listen to and how to improve listening through active and critical listening. African Research Review Vol ...
Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Morin-Lessard, Elizabeth; Lew-Williams, Casey
Infants growing up in bilingual homes learn two languages simultaneously without apparent confusion or delay. However, the mechanisms that support this remarkable achievement remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that infants use language-control mechanisms to preferentially activate the currently heard language during listening. In a naturalistic eye-tracking procedure, bilingual infants were more accurate at recognizing objects labeled in same-language sentences ("Find the dog!") than in switched-language sentences ("Find the chien !"). Measurements of infants' pupil size over time indicated that this resulted from increased cognitive load during language switches. However, language switches did not always engender processing difficulties: the switch cost was reduced or eliminated when the switch was from the nondominant to the dominant language, and when it crossed a sentence boundary. Adults showed the same patterns of performance as infants, even though target words were simple and highly familiar. Our results provide striking evidence from infancy to adulthood that bilinguals monitor their languages for efficient comprehension. Everyday practice controlling two languages during listening is likely to explain previously observed bilingual cognitive advantages across the lifespan.
McNaughton, David; Hamlin, Dawn; McCarthy, John; Head-Reeves, Darlene; Schreiner, Mary
The importance of parent-teacher communication has been widely recognized; however, there is only limited research on teaching effective listening skills to education professionals. In this study, a pretest-posttest control group design was used to examine the effect of instruction on the active listening skills of preservice education…
Weger, Harry, Jr.; Castle, Gina R.; Emmett, Melissa C.
Perhaps no communication skill is identified as regularly as active listening in training programs across a variety of disciplines and activities. Yet little empirical research has examined specific elements of active listening responses in terms of their effectiveness in achieving desired interpersonal outcomes. This study reports an experiment…
Helena Lopes da Silva
Full Text Available During the years 2015 and 2016 we coordinated a research entitled Mediated and expanded listening for high school music classes: Dialogues between Murray Schafer and Luciano Berio, which proposed structuring methodological approaches to develop and expand the musical listening of young people who are at school having as a start point the dialogue between listening strategies proposed by Murray Schafer and the work of Luciano Berio. For the construction of a pedagogical-musical approach centered on listening the teaching strategies to expand the listening proposed by Schafer (2011 were mapped as well as four musical pieces by the composer Luciano Berio were analyzed. Our hypothesis was that the use of the teaching strategies proposed by Schafer for the active appreciation of Berio repertoire could enhance the development of a renewed musical listening, which would require from the students and the teacher an extension or a expansion of concepts of what they understand by «music». The results showed that the young participants expressed interest in the contemporary repertoire as they were being instrumentalized by the developed mediation activities. Mediation was carried out through active listening proposals through creative action on the sounds around us and on the selected repertoire. The experience of listening to music is a creative activity and has intensive demands on your exercise. It is an inner process of knowledge and discovery that should be considered central in the training of music teachers.
Simmons, Nathaniel; Tenzek, Kelly E.
The importance of listening continues to be reinforced within professional, personal, and popular cultural contexts. Despite the attention employers, teachers, scholars, and various popular outlets attend to listening, engaging students in activities that practice such skills remain challenging. Understanding that interpersonal competence requires…
Kotzman, Mandy; Kotzman, Anne
This step-by-step guide is a companion to the popular "Listen to Me, Listen to You: A Practical Guide to Self-Awareness, Communication Skills and Conflict Management" (New Expanded Edition, Penguin Books, 2007). It is designed for use by anyone working in communication skills and personal development training. Resource material is grouped under…
Des baladeurs MP3 en classe d'allemand - L'effet de l'autorégulation matérielle de l'écoute sur la compréhension auditive en langue seconde MP3-player in the German classroom: Effect of self-controlled listening on auditory comprehension in second language
Full Text Available Nous rendons compte de plusieurs expérimentations au cours desquelles des élèves français de secondes LV1 allemand ont écouté plusieurs documents sonores en allemand au format MP3 sur ordinateur. Pendant leur écoute, leur écran a été filmé. Les mouvements de la souris et donc précisément les codes temporels (time codes des pauses, des retours en arrière et des avances rapides effectués pendant l'écoute ont ainsi ��té enregistrés, puis analysés. Cette méthode nous a permis de rendre compte des stratégies cognitives d'écoute autorégulée. Les données sont analysées d'un point de vue linguistique et psycholinguistique. Nous avons pu dégager quatre grands types d'écoute. Il en ressort que les auditeurs plus compétents ont une approche plus globale de la tâche d'écoute et que les moins compétents s'arrêtent plus souvent et ont plus de difficultés à comprendre le message. Notre étude montre que la possibilité d'exercer un contrôle sur l'input sonore améliore en règle générale la performance en compréhension. Cette performance dépend elle-même de la stratégie d'écoute utilisée et du niveau initial des auditeurs.Several experiments have been carried out in which L2 learners (L1: French listened to a MP3-track in German on a computer while a video of the screen recorded "on-line" the movements of the mouse and its time-course. Such a new method enabled accurate analysis of the subjects' self-controlled cognitive strategies in information input/intake. Data were then analysed, from both a linguistic and psycholinguistic point of view, yielding a typology of learning strategies: we recognize four listening types. More skilled learners deal with the listening task globally; less skilled learners do indeed stop more often and have difficulties in grasping the meaning of the message. On the whole, our study nevertheless shows that self-control over information input/intake does improve the learners
Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta
This study explores the extent to which a large set of musically experienced listeners share understanding with a performing saxophone-piano duo, and with each other, of what happened in three improvisations on a jazz standard. In an online survey, 239 participants listened to audio recordings of three improvisations and rated their agreement with 24 specific statements that the performers and a jazz-expert commenting listener had made about them. Listeners endorsed statements that the performers had agreed upon significantly more than they endorsed statements that the performers had disagreed upon, even though the statements gave no indication of performers' levels of agreement. The findings show some support for a more-experienced-listeners-understand-more-like-performers hypothesis: Listeners with more jazz experience and with experience playing the performers' instruments endorsed the performers' statements more than did listeners with less jazz experience and experience on different instruments. The findings also strongly support a listeners-as-outsiders hypothesis: Listeners' ratings of the 24 statements were far more likely to cluster with the commenting listener's ratings than with either performer's. But the pattern was not universal; particular listeners even with similar musical backgrounds could interpret the same improvisations radically differently. The evidence demonstrates that it is possible for performers' interpretations to be shared with very few listeners, and that listeners' interpretations about what happened in a musical performance can be far more different from performers' interpretations than performers or other listeners might assume.
Drijvers, L.; Özyürek, A.; Jensen, O.
During face-to-face communication, listeners integrate speech with gestures. The semantic information conveyed by iconic gestures (e.g., a drinking gesture) can aid speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we investigated the spatiotemporal
Kalaiah, Mohan Kumar; Theruvan, Nikhitha B; Kumar, Kaushlendra; Bhat, Jayashree S
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of active listening and listening effort on the contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (CSTEOAEs). Twenty eight young adults participated in the study. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded using 'linear' clicks at 60 dB peSPL, in three contralateral noise conditions. In condition 1, TEOAEs were obtained in the presence of white noise in the contralateral ear. While, in condition 2, speech was embedded into white noise at +3, -3, and -9 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and delivered to the contralateral ear. The SNR was varied to investigate the effect of listening effort on the CSTEOAE. In condition 3, speech was played backwards and embedded into white noise at -3 dB SNR. The conditions 1 and 3 served as passive listening condition and the condition 2 served as active listening condition. In active listening condition, the participants categorized the words in to two groups (e.g., animal and vehicle). CSTEOAE was found to be largest in the presence of white noise, and the amount of CSTEOAE was not significantly different between active and passive listening conditions (condition 2 and 3). Listening effort had an effect on the CSTEOAE, the amount of suppression increased with listening effort, when SNR was decreased from +3 dB to -3 dB. However, when the SNR was further reduced to -9 dB, there was no further increase in the amount of CSTEOAE, instead there was a reduction in the amount of suppression. The findings of the present study show that listening effort might affect CSTEOAE.
Sahlén, Birgitta; Haake, Magnus; von Lochow, Heike; Holm, Lucas; Kastberg, Tobias; Brännström, K Jonas; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka
The present study aims at exploring the influence of voice quality on listening effort in children performing a language comprehension test with sentences of increasing difficulty. Listening effort is explored in relation to gender ( = cisgender). The study has a between-groups design. Ninety-three mainstreamed children aged 8;2 to 9;3 with typical language development participated. The children were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 46/47) with equal allocation of boys and girls and for the analysis to four groups depending of gender and voice condition. Working memory capacity and executive functions were tested in quiet. A digital version of a language comprehension test (the TROG-2) was used to measure the effect of voice quality on listening effort, measured as response time in a forced-choice paradigm. The groups listened to sentences through recordings of the same female voice, one group with a typical voice and one with a dysphonic voice, both in competing multi-talker babble noise. Response times were logged after a time buffer between the sentence-ending and indication of response. There was a significant increase in response times with increased task difficulty and response times between the two voice conditions differed significantly. The girls in the dysphonic condition were slower with increasing task difficulty. A dysphonic voice clearly adds to the noise burden and listening effort is greater in girls than in boys when the teacher speaks with dysphonic voice in a noisy background. These findings might mirror gender differences as for coping strategies in challenging contexts and have important implications for education.
Scheidiger, Christoph; Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten
speech, e.g. phase jitter or spectral subtraction. Recent studies predict SI for normal-hearing (NH) listeners based on a signal-to-noise ratio measure in the envelope domain (SNRenv), in the framework of the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM, [20, 21]). These models have shown good...... agreement with measured data under a broad range of conditions, including stationary and modulated interferers, reverberation, and spectral subtraction. Despite the advances in modeling intelligibility in NH listeners, a broadly applicable model that can predict SI in hearing-impaired (HI) listeners...... is not yet available. As a firrst step towards such a model, this study investigates to what extent eects of hearing impairment on SI can be modeled in the sEPSM framework. Preliminary results show that, by only modeling the loss of audibility, the model cannot account for the higher speech reception...
Bonde, Lars Ole; Blom, Katarina Mårtenson
This article explores two fairly independent questions on the psychological and cultural aspects of music listening, focusing on music-evoked imagery in a therapeutic context: 1) Is imagery evoked by listening to selected classical music from the Western tradition always and only determined...... by culture, or can universal aspects of the imagery be observed and identified?; 2) Can imagery evoked by classical music from the Western tradition faciltate modes of surrender in listeners from Western cultures (in which a hypothesized universal, deeply human wish to surrender is often buried in culturally...... influenced psychological modes and scripts of control and self-centeredness)? The first question is explored in a literature review with focus on listerners’ experience of music (programs) used in the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), a receptive music therapy model known worldwide. The second...
Michael F Schober
Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which a large set of musically experienced listeners share understanding with a performing saxophone-piano duo, and with each other, of what happened in three improvisations on a jazz standard. In an online survey, 239 participants listened to audio recordings of three improvisations and rated their agreement with 24 specific statements that the performers and a jazz-expert commenting listener had made about them. Listeners endorsed statements that the performers had agreed upon significantly more than they endorsed statements that the performers had disagreed upon, even though the statements gave no indication of performers' levels of agreement. The findings show some support for a more-experienced-listeners-understand-more-like-performers hypothesis: Listeners with more jazz experience and with experience playing the performers' instruments endorsed the performers' statements more than did listeners with less jazz experience and experience on different instruments. The findings also strongly support a listeners-as-outsiders hypothesis: Listeners' ratings of the 24 statements were far more likely to cluster with the commenting listener's ratings than with either performer's. But the pattern was not universal; particular listeners even with similar musical backgrounds could interpret the same improvisations radically differently. The evidence demonstrates that it is possible for performers' interpretations to be shared with very few listeners, and that listeners’ interpretations about what happened in a musical performance can be far more different from performers’ interpretations than performers or other listeners might assume.
Fassaert, Thijs; van Dulmen, Sandra; Schellevis, François; Bensing, Jozien
Active listening is a prerequisite for a successful healthcare encounter, bearing potential therapeutic value especially in clinical situations that require no specific medical intervention. Although generally acknowledged as such, active listening has not been studied in depth. This paper describes the development of the Active Listening Observation Scale (ALOS-global), an observation instrument measuring active listening and its validation in a sample of general practice consultations for minor ailments. Five hundred and twenty-four videotaped general practice consultations involving minor ailments were observed with the ALOS-global. Hypotheses were tested to determine validity, incorporating patients' perception of GPs' affective performance, GPs' verbal attention, patients' self-reported anxiety level and gender differences. The final 7-item ALOS-global had acceptable inter- and intra-observer agreement. Factor analysis revealed one homogeneous dimension. The scalescore was positively related to verbal attention measured by RIAS, to patients' perception of GPs' performance and to their pre-visit anxiety level. Female GPs received higher active listening scores. The results of this study are promising concerning the psychometric properties of the ALOS-global. More research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. After establishing how active listening differentiates between health professionals, the ALOS-global may become a valuable tool in feedback and training aimed at increasing listening skills.
Masood Khalili Sabet
Full Text Available The challenge for many teachers teaching in academic English programs is, on the one hand, to actualize the objectives of their course and on the other hand, prepare their students for the important international tests such as IELTS and TOEFLE. The current study seeks to reconcile this challenge by drawing on the relationship between the IELTS listening and listening in academic English programs. The requirements of the two domains were compared through a semi – structured interview with five participating academic English instructors from two state universities of Iran. It was found that whilst IELTS listening bears a little bit of resemblance to the one aspect of academic listening - the literal understanding, there are also some very significant differences. The findings suggests that the type of listening the IELTS requires is different from academic listening in terms of pragmatic understanding, the integration of skills, multiplicity of texts for listening, information literacy and the concept of construct irrelevant variance. The findings also indicate the overall usefulness of the IELTS preparation practices within academic English courses.
Bech, Søren; Gulbol, Mehmet-Ali; Martin, Geoff
This paper describes two listening tests that were performed to provide initial validation of an auralisation system (see Part 1) to mimic the acoustics of a car interior. The validation is based on a comparison of results from an in-car listening test and another test using the auralisation system...... and recordings of the stimuli used for the in-car test. The music samples for the test were chosen from a database of various CODEC examples from a previous extensive ITU test to validate the ITU-R BS.1387-1 standard....
The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers' listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.
Full Text Available The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers’ listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.
Fontan, Lionel; Tardieu, Julien; Gaillard, Pascal; Woisard, Virginie; Ruiz, Robert
Purpose: The authors investigated the relationship between the intelligibility and comprehension of speech presented in babble noise. Method: Forty participants listened to French imperative sentences (commands for moving objects) in a multitalker babble background for which intensity was experimentally controlled. Participants were instructed to…
Thompson, William Forde; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Letnic, Adriana Katharine
We examined the effect of background music on reading comprehension. Because the emotional consequences of music listening are affected by changes in tempo and intensity, we manipulated these variables to create four repeated-measures conditions: slow/low, slow/high, fast/low, fast/high. Tempo and intensity manipulations were selected to be…
Crowther, Dustin; Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia; Saito, Kazuya
The current study investigated task effects on listener perception of second language (L2) comprehensibility (ease of understanding). Sixty university-level adult speakers of English from 4 first language (L1) backgrounds (Chinese, Romance, Hindi, Farsi), with 15 speakers per group, were recorded performing 2 tasks (IELTS long-turn speaking task…
Rashtchi, Mojgan; Zokaee, Zahra; Ghaffarinejad, Ali R; Sadeghi, Mohammad M
To compare the comprehension of depressed and non-depressed male and female Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in receptive skills, and to investigate whether inefficiency in learning English could be due to depression. We selected 126 boys and 96 girls aged between 15 and 18 by simple random sampling from 2 high schools in Kerman, Iran to examine whether there was any significant relationship between depression and comprehension of receptive skills in males and females. We undertook this descriptive, correlational study between January and May 2011 in Kerman, Iran. After administration of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), we found that 93 students were non-depressed, 65 had minimal depression, 48 mild depression, and 16 suffered from severe depression. The correlation between participants` scores on listening and reading test with depression level indicated a significant relationship between depression and comprehension of both listening, and reading. Males had higher scores in both reading and listening. In listening, there was no significant difference among the levels of depression and males and females. Regarding the reading skill, there was no significant difference among levels of depression; however, the reading comprehension of males and females differed significantly. Learners who show a deficiency in receptive skills should be examined for the possibility of suffering from some degree of depression.
Listening and grammar are the most difficult subjects for both teacher and students. This passage discussed how to visual aid and brain storming in the listening class;and the importance of confidence in the grammar teaching and learning.
A new approach for CERN to monitor the LHC-experiments' technical and scientific progress was introduced last year: The Comprehensive Reviews. A significant fraction of the full LHCC committee is mobilized during two days to review the complete project status. This event took place for ATLAS during 2-3 of July this year. With a rather exhaustive program we presented our status in 39 talks. It was a demanding and close to impossible task for the referees to comprehend the ATLAS status by listening to this massive amount of information, but from the ATLAS point-of-view we judged it important that the referees were exposed to both the progress and the remaining problem areas. The referees were satisfied with our status; probably more so this year than last year. They judged the main critical issues to be: The schedules of the barrel toroid, the end-cap TRT, the LAr barrel and end-cap A, and the MDTs. The procurement of radiation hard electronics was also thought to be a critical issue. They were informed of ...
Ransby, Marilyn J; Swanson, H Lee
This study explores the contribution of cognitive processes to comprehension skills in adults who suffered from childhood developmental dyslexia (CD). The performance of adults with CD (ages 17 to 23), chronological age-matched (CA) adults, and reading level-matched (RL) children was compared on measures of phonological processing, naming speed, working memory (WM), general knowledge, vocabulary, and comprehension. The results showed that adults with CD scored lower on measures of phonological processing, naming speed, WM, general knowledge, and vocabulary when compared to CA readers but were comparable to RL children on the majority of process measures. Phonological processing, naming speed, vocabulary, general knowledge, and listening comprehension contributed independent variance to reading comprehension accuracy, whereas WM, intelligence, phonological processing, and listening comprehension contributed independent variance to comprehension fluency. Adults with CD scored lower than CA adults and higher than RL children on measures of lexical processing, WM, and listening comprehension when word recognition and intelligence were partialed from the analysis. In summary, constraints in phonological processing and naming speed mediate only some of the influence of high-order processes on reading comprehension. Furthermore, adults with CD experience difficulties in WM, listening comprehension, and vocabulary independently of their word recognition problems and intellectual ability.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.
Ma’ssoumeh Bemani Naeini
Full Text Available Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory (MIT, however having been embraced in the field of language acquisition, has apparently failed to play a role in research on learning styles as an alternative construct. This study aims at examining the potential effects of MI-based activities, as learning styls, on the listening proficiency of Iranian TEFL university students. Based on two assumptions derived from MIT, one of the experimental groups (EG1; N=30 worked on activities across intelligences while the other experimental group (EG2; N=30 focused on the activities related to their most developed intelligence. McKenzie’s (1999 MI Inventory was used to identify the subjects’ preferred intelligences. There was a significant difference between listening scores on TOEFL before and after the intervention of MI-based activities as well as between the two experimental groups, indicating EG1 outperforming EG2. So, as the findings reveal, integration of MIT can significantly contribute to the enhancement of EFL learners’ listening comprehension and the effect is even more significant if teachers practice an integration of all intelligences rather than the most developed ones, only. Keywords: Multiple Intelligences Theory, learning styles, listening proficiency, Iranian EFL context
Full Text Available Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge of popular culture. Results from the survey show a positive association between the number of hip-hop artists listened to and AAE comprehension vocabulary scores. Additionally, participants were more likely to know an AAE vocabulary item if the hip-hop artists they listen to use the word in their song lyrics. Together, these results suggest that young adults can acquire vocabulary through exposure to hip-hop music, a finding relevant for research on vocabulary acquisition, the construction of adolescent and adult identities, and the adoption of lexical innovations.
Freitas, Maraiza Alves; Mattos, Augustus Tadeu Relo de; Gomes, William Zaccaro; Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo Gullaci Guimarães
The right to a dignified life for all requires overcoming the challenges imposed on the most vulnerable groups, and poverty is one of the oldest and most devastating phenomena. Listening to them is essential to create remediating opportunities. This study aims to identify characteristics of this listening in the context of health promotion and the Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs, an international effort to support the fight against poverty, among others. In an integrative review of literature, conducted through the search terms of Poverty, Right to the City, Equity Policy and Identification of Poverty, 86 studies that listened to vulnerable groups, such as women, children, adolescents, adults, the elderly, families and drug users, all poor and low-skilled workers were analyzed. Each strategy shown was related to one or more SDGs. The recurrent strategies in the studies analyzed were increased social protection and spaces to listen to vulnerable groups, as well as public policies that enabled the fight against poverty. Equity must be thought of in the context of comprehensive and universalizing rights policies, overcoming fragmented and focal policies that fail to address the structural causes of poverty and human exploitation.
Spunt, Robert P.
Listening to another speak is a basic process in social cognition. In the social neurosciences, there are relatively few studies that directly bear on listening; however, numerous studies have investigated the neural bases of some of the likely constituents of successful listening. In this article, I review some of this work as it relates to…
Abdullah, Amalia Qistina
Teaching listening skills is very challenging to ESL teachers. It involves active participation from both teachers and students to ensure the objectives of teaching listening skills can be achieved. Hence, this presentation provides interesting and exciting strategies to teach listening skills using selected songs. It is hoped that this would…
Listening is essential to the leaming process. Students in tertiary institutions of learning need to acquire effective listening and note-taking skiils in order to benefit from lectures. This paper focused on factors militating against effective listening during lectures such as poor rate of presentation, poor communication skills, ...
This paper considers research and practice relating to listening in instructed classroom settings, limiting itself to what might be called unidirectional listening (Macaro, Graham & Vanderplank 2007)--in other words, where learners listen to a recording, a TV or radio clip or lecture, but where there is no communication back to the speaker(s).…
Seferoglu, Golge; Uzakgoren, Sedef
This study aimed at investigating beginner level English language learners' perspectives on the listening skill with regard to several dimensions, and to find out the extent to which the learners who have been trained in listening strategies actually use them while listening. The study took place at the English Preparatory School of an English…
Graham, Suzanne; Santos, Denise; Vanderplank, Robert
This article reports on an investigation into the development of the listening proficiency and strategic behaviour of 15 lower-intermediate learners of French in England. We consider whether listeners remain in the same listening proficiency group after six months, and whether changes in strategy use are related to movement or non-movement between…
Poppe, Ronald Walter; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Heylen, Dirk K.J.
Artificial listeners are virtual agents that can listen attentively to a human speaker in a dialog. In this paper, we present two experiments where we investigate the perception of rule-based backchannel strategies for artificial listeners. In both, we collect subjective judgements of humans who
Teng, Huei-Chun; Chan, Chi-Yeu
The main intent of the present study is to find out what metacognitive strategies Taiwanese college students employ in EFL listening process. Four research questions explored in the study include: (1) What are the metacognitive strategies adopted by EFL listeners when they listen? (2) What are the differences of metacognitive strategies between…
Canpolat, Murat; Kuzu, Sekvan; Yildirim, Bilal; Canpolat, Sevilay
Problem Statement: In formal educational environments, the quality of student listening affects learning considerably. Students who are uninterested in a lesson listen reluctantly, wanting time to pass quickly and the class to end as soon as possible. In such situations, students become passive and, though appearing to be listening, will not use…
This article sketches out a philosophy and practice of open listening, linking open listening to Bergson's (1998) concept of creative evolution. I draw on examples of small children at play from a variety of sources, including Reggio-Emilia-inspired preschools in Sweden. The article offers a challenge to early childhood educators to listen and to…
Dulmen, S. van
Objective: Listening is at the very heart of communication in healthcare, but largely ignored in research and teaching. This paper presents different perspectives on listening within the context of healthcare and its implications for goal-directed communication. Methods: The assets of listening
Particular attention is given to the students' ability to engage successfully in the academic discourse by employing effective listening skills in their second language. Listening tasks were developed within the theoretical and practical framework of active listening. The discussion will focus on the theoretical approach and ...
Background/Context: Listening is largely overlooked in cultures constituted on the basis of the freedom of speech, such as we find in the United States and elsewhere. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The article explores compassionate listening as a creative spiritual activity. Such listening recognizes the suffering of others…
Farrell, J.; Cutler, A.; Liontas, J.I.
Listeners' recognition of spoken language involves complex decoding processes: The continuous speech stream must be segmented into its component words, and words must be recognized despite great variability in their pronunciation (due to talker differences, or to influence of phonetic context, or to
The purpose of this critical ethnography was to investigate how music educators can approach the development of students' music listening abilities democratically in order to deepen students' musical understandings and, by teaching through music, create pathways for student-teacher transactions that are inclusive, educative, ethical and…
Croft, Steve; Siemion, Andrew; De Boer, David; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Foster, Griffin; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Greg; Hickish, Jack; Isaacson, Howard; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David; Price, Daniel; Werthimer, Dan
The $100M, 10-year philanthropic "Breakthrough Listen" project is driving an unprecedented expansion of the search for intelligent life beyond Earth. Modern instruments allow ever larger regions of parameter space (luminosity function, duty cycle, beaming fraction, frequency coverage) to be explored, which is enabling us to place meaningful physical limits on the prevalence of transmitting civilizations. Data volumes are huge, and preclude long-term storage of the raw data products, so real-time and machine learning processing techniques must be employed to identify candidate signals as well as simultaneously classifying interfering sources. However, the Galaxy is now known to be a target-rich environment, teeming with habitable planets.Data from Breakthrough Listen can also be used by researchers in other areas of astronomy to study pulsars, fast radio bursts, and a range of other science targets. Breakthrough Listen is already underway in the optical and radio bands, and is also engaging with facilities across the world, including Square Kilometer Array precursors and pathfinders. I will give an overview of the technology, science goals, data products, and roadmap of Breakthrough Listen, as we attempt to answer one of humanity's oldest questions: Are we alone?
The author, a composer and the director of an electronic music lab, is concerned with developing an "aesthetic" in listening to electronic music. Describes an approach he has found to be successful with his students--one that provides "a mode of understanding, a vehicle for making aesthetic decisions". (Editor/RK)
Christensen, Flemming; Geoff, Martin; Minnaar, Pauli
This paper describes a system for simulating automotive audio through headphones for the purposes of conducting listening experiments in the laboratory. The system is based on binaural technology and consists of a component for reproducing the sound of the audio system itself and a component...
Sato, Marc; Shiller, Douglas M
In the present EEG study, the role of auditory prediction in speech was explored through the comparison of auditory cortical responses during active speaking and passive listening to the same acoustic speech signals. Two manipulations of sensory prediction accuracy were used during the speaking task: (1) a real-time change in vowel F1 feedback (reducing prediction accuracy relative to unaltered feedback) and (2) presenting a stable auditory target rather than a visual cue to speak (enhancing auditory prediction accuracy during baseline productions, and potentially enhancing the perturbing effect of altered feedback). While subjects compensated for the F1 manipulation, no difference between the auditory-cue and visual-cue conditions were found. Under visually-cued conditions, reduced N1/P2 amplitude was observed during speaking vs. listening, reflecting a motor-to-sensory prediction. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of behavioral compensatory F1 response and the magnitude of this speaking induced suppression (SIS) for P2 during the altered auditory feedback phase, where a stronger compensatory decrease in F1 was associated with a stronger the SIS effect. Finally, under the auditory-cued condition, an auditory repetition-suppression effect was observed in N1/P2 amplitude during the listening task but not active speaking, suggesting that auditory predictive processes during speaking and passive listening are functionally distinct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Broersma, M.; Cutler, A.
Spoken-word recognition in a nonnative language is particularly difficult where it depends on discrimination between confusable phonemes. Four experiments here examine whether this difficulty is in part due to phantom competition from onear-wordso in speech. Dutch listeners confuse English /ae/ and
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 9. Listening to the Shape of a Drum - The Mathematics of Vibrating Drums. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 3 Issue 9 September 1998 pp 26-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 10. Listening to the Shape of a Drum - You Cannot Hear the Shape of a Drum! S Kesavan. General Article Volume 3 Issue 10 October 1998 pp 49-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Business intelligence has been completely revamped over the past decade. After the arrival of social media, all brands realized that the organic insights and business intelligence lays in the conversation online. With that, the present and future of business can be found in social media listening.
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Oral language development facilitates print literacy. In this article, we focus on the ways in which teachers can ensure students' speaking and listening skills are developed. We provide a review of some time-tests classroom routines as well as some that can be enhanced with technology.
When learners spend a period of time in the L2 community, as students on exchange programmes, as immigrants, or even on holiday, they are surrounded by listening opportunities that are far more varied and numerous than those of the classroom. Drawing on learner data from Erasmus and Study Abroad students on placement at a UK university, this paper…
Robles, Dawn; Mitchell, Heather; Horsch, Elizabeth; St. John, Mark
"Listening to the River" (LTTR) is a watershed science education project funded by the National Science Foundation. The project aims to deliver watershed education experiences in and around Traverse City, Michigan, and also to develop a model that can be replicated in other locations. Inverness Research was contracted by the…
Kalaiah, Mohan Kumar; Theruvan, Nikhitha B; Kumar, Kaushlendra; Bhat, Jayashree S
Background and Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the effect of active listening and listening effort on the contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (CSTEOAEs). Subjects and Methods Twenty eight young adults participated in the study. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded using ?linear? clicks at 60 dB peSPL, in three contralateral noise conditions. In condition 1, TEOAEs were obtained in the presence of white noise in the con...