WorldWideScience

Sample records for gep-based spatial decision

  1. Spatial Decision Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ioan Bejinariu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The satellite image processing is an important tool for decision making in domains like agriculture, forestry, hydrology, for normal activity tracking but also in special situations caused by natural disasters. In this paper it is proposed a method for forestry surface evaluation in terms of occupied surface and also as number of trees. The segmentation method is based on watershed transform which offers good performances in case the objects to detect have connected borders. The method is applied for automatic multi-temporal analysis of forestry areas and represents a useful instrument for decision makers.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of spatial disease variables by Spatial Fuzzy Logic for Spatial Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, M.; Rapp, J.; Groessler, M.; Niehaus, E.; Babu, A.; Soman, B.

    2014-11-01

    A Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) provides support for decision makers and should not be viewed as replacing human intelligence with machines. Therefore it is reasonable that decision makers are able to use a feature to analyze the provided spatial decision support in detail to crosscheck the digital support of the SDSS with their own expertise. Spatial decision support is based on risk and resource maps in a Geographic Information System (GIS) with relevant layers e.g. environmental, health and socio-economic data. Spatial fuzzy logic allows the representation of spatial properties with a value of truth in the range between 0 and 1. Decision makers can refer to the visualization of the spatial truth of single risk variables of a disease. Spatial fuzzy logic rules that support the allocation of limited resources according to risk can be evaluated with measure theory on topological spaces, which allows to visualize the applicability of this rules as well in a map. Our paper is based on the concept of a spatial fuzzy logic on topological spaces that contributes to the development of an adaptive Early Warning And Response System (EWARS) providing decision support for the current or future spatial distribution of a disease. It supports the decision maker in testing interventions based on available resources and apply risk mitigation strategies and provide guidance tailored to the geo-location of the user via mobile devices. The software component of the system would be based on open source software and the software developed during this project will also be in the open source domain, so that an open community can build on the results and tailor further work to regional or international requirements and constraints. A freely available EWARS Spatial Fuzzy Logic Demo was developed wich enables a user to visualize risk and resource maps based on individual data in several data formats.

  3. Integrated Dialogue System for Spatial Decision Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yumi; Fukui, Hiromichi; Kaneyasu, Iwao; Nagasaka, Toshinari; Usuda, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Ai; Kusafuka, Minako

    2003-01-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is a difficult challenge for all countries that uses nuclear energy. In Japan, an implementing agency for HLW was authorized in 2001, and now seeking for municipalities that voluntarily apply to be a preliminary investigation area for a final disposal site. Along with these policy progresses, the HLW disposal program has been gaining social attentions. This leads to high demand for a systematic process for evaluating the proposed policy and environmental impact of geological disposal so that policy decisions can adequately address technical, ethical, and social considerations. As a step toward this objective, we have developed a participatory decision support system on the web. Web-based communication is in its infancy but may be viable support tool to engage different people. Through the study, we aimed to examine the possibility of web-based dialogue system for spatial decision process. One conclusion from the web-based dialogue is that it is possible to create a working environment on the web within those who have different backgrounds and interests. From the results, we found many findings that should be taken into account for further development. One is the need to re-construct the data, model imagery and opinions to judge the problem objectively. We will reexamine the contents based on the international activities so that participants can understand what the information means in the context. Facilitation is key element on the web, also. He or she is expected to make the atmosphere where even those who don't have high-level knowledge can participate in and arouse their opinion from the faceless communication. In the point, the auto navigation comes in very useful

  4. Visualization of uncertainty in spatial decision support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Clarke, L.A.; Keuper, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Many land allocation issues, such as land-use planning, require input from extensive spatial databases and involve complex decision-making. Spatial decision support systems (SDSS) are designed to make these issues more transparent and to support the design and evaluation of land allocation

  5. Perspectives on Spatial Decision Support Concerning Location of Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel

    whilst safeguarding a transparent and informative decision making process. Through the PhD thesis spatial temporal issues regarding slurry biomass resource availability is analysed together with the aspects of spatial competition in order to achieve national biogas policy ambitions. We find that slurry......, understand the industrial economic aspects of such a role. Through the use of spatial multi-criteria evaluation models stakeholder preferences to decision criteria are included in a sustainable biogas facility location analysis. By the use of these models it is demonstrated how overall biogas production...... costs can be reduced by 3% while also environmental and social concerns are appreciated. Spatial decision support models offer great potential for enhancing transparency and qualifying the basis for decision making with regard to location of future biogas plant. The spatial decision support tools, which...

  6. Framework for a spatial Decision Support Tool for policy and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsjens, G.J.; Chen, W.

    2008-01-01

    The main challenge of developing of a spatial DST (Decision Support Tool) to support the decision making on future livestock production will not be a technical one, but instead a challenge of meeting the con-text requirements of the tool, such as the characteristics of the country-specific spatial

  7. Spatial and Temporal Flood Risk Assessment for Decision Making Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizat, Nazirah; Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki Wan

    2018-03-01

    Heavy rainfall, adversely impacting inundation areas, depends on the magnitude of the flood. Significantly, location of settlements, infrastructure and facilities in floodplains result in many regions facing flooding risks. A problem faced by the decision maker in an assessment of flood vulnerability and evaluation of adaptation measures is recurrent flooding in the same areas. Identification of recurrent flooding areas and frequency of floods should be priorities for flood risk management. However, spatial and temporal variability become major factors of uncertainty in flood risk management. Therefore, dynamic and spatial characteristics of these changes in flood impact assessment are important in making decisions about the future of infrastructure development and community life. System dynamics (SD) simulation and hydrodynamic modelling are presented as tools for modelling the dynamic characteristics of flood risk and spatial variability. This paper discusses the integration between spatial and temporal information that is required by the decision maker for the identification of multi-criteria decision problems involving multiple stakeholders.

  8. Decision Performance Using Spatial Decision Support Systems: A Geospatial Reasoning Ability Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    As many consumer and business decision makers are utilizing Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS), a thorough understanding of how such decisions are made is crucial for the information systems domain. This dissertation presents six chapters encompassing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of geospatial reasoning ability on…

  9. Factors driving firm's spatial decisions on distribution channel layout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onstein, A.T.C.; Ektesaby, M.; Rezaei, J.; Tavasszy, L.A.; van Damme, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial decisions on distribution channel layout involve the layout of the transport and storage system between production and consumption as well as the selection of distribution centre locations. Both are strategic company decisions to meet logistics challenges, i.e. delivering the right product

  10. Modeling strategic investment decisions in spatial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Malischek, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Markets for natural resources and commodities are often oligopolistic. In these markets, production capacities are key for strategic interaction between the oligopolists. We analyze how different market structures influence oligopolistic capacity investments and thereby affect supply, prices and rents in spatial natural resource markets using mathematical programing models. The models comprise an investment period and a supply period in which players compete in quantities. We compare three models, one perfect competition and two Cournot models, in which the product is either traded through long-term contracts or on spot markets in the supply period. Tractability and practicality of the approach are demonstrated in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. Results may vary substantially between the different models. The metallurgical coal market has recently made progress in moving away from long-term contracts and more towards spot market-based trade. Based on our results, we conclude that this regime switch is likely to raise consumer rents but lower producer rents. The total welfare differs only negligibly.

  11. GEP-based method to formulate adhesion strength and hardness of Nb PVD coated on Ti-6Al-7Nb aimed at developing mixed oxide nanotubular arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieerad, A R; Bushroa, A R; Nasiri-Tabrizi, B; Fallahpour, A; Vadivelu, J; Musa, S N; Kaboli, S H A

    2016-08-01

    PVD process as a thin film coating method is highly applicable for both metallic and ceramic materials, which is faced with the necessity of choosing the correct parameters to achieve optimal results. In the present study, a GEP-based model for the first time was proposed as a safe and accurate method to predict the adhesion strength and hardness of the Nb PVD coated aimed at growing the mixed oxide nanotubular arrays on Ti67. Here, the training and testing analysis were executed for both adhesion strength and hardness. The optimum parameter combination for the scratch adhesion strength and micro hardness was determined by the maximum mean S/N ratio, which was 350W, 20 sccm, and a DC bias of 90V. Results showed that the values calculated in the training and testing in GEP model were very close to the actual experiments designed by Taguchi. The as-sputtered Nb coating with highest adhesion strength and microhardness was electrochemically anodized at 20V for 4h. From the FESEM images and EDS results of the annealed sample, a thick layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the sample surface after soaking in SBF for 10 days, which can be connected to the development of a highly ordered nanotube arrays. This novel approach provides an outline for the future design of nanostructured coatings for a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Farmer decision making and spatial variables in northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jefferson; Kanter, Rebekah; Yarnasarn, Sanay; Ekasingh, Methi; Jones, Royce

    1994-05-01

    This research has two interrelated objectives. The first is to determine the extent to which a relationship exists between farmer characteristics and farming practices in three villages in northern Thailand. The second is to use standard statistical methods for incorporating spatial variables into the analysis and to assess the effects of these variables on farmer decision making. The data base includes information on the location and size of villages, roads, streams, and fields; a digital elevation model with information on elevation, slope, and aspect; and information keyed to individual fields on crops and cropping methods and the ethnicity, income, and religion of farmers. The map data (517 plots) were entered into a computerized geographic information systems (GIS). Results suggest several hypotheses about the relationships between land use and owner characteristics. More significantly, the study concludes that spatial analysis appears to be most useful when the dependent variable is either continuous or ordinal. The outlook is not quite as optimistic when the dependent variable is a nonordinal categorical variable. Before spatial analysis can be applied regularly to social science data, better computational tools need to be developed.

  13. Evaluating Michigan's community hospital access: spatial methods for decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varnakovida Pariwate

    2006-09-01

    .1%. Conclusion Both modeling approaches enable policymakers to identify under-served areas. Ultimately this paper is concerned with the intersection of spatial analysis and policymaking. Using the best scientific practice to identify locations of under-served populations based on many factors provides policymakers with a powerful tool for making good decisions.

  14. A mixed integer program to model spatial wildfire behavior and suppression placement decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin J. Belval; Yu Wei; Michael. Bevers

    2015-01-01

    Wildfire suppression combines multiple objectives and dynamic fire behavior to form a complex problem for decision makers. This paper presents a mixed integer program designed to explore integrating spatial fire behavior and suppression placement decisions into a mathematical programming framework. Fire behavior and suppression placement decisions are modeled using...

  15. [Human body meridian spatial decision support system for clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    The spatial position and distribution of human body meridian are expressed limitedly in the decision support system (DSS) of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, which leads to the failure to give the effective quantitative analysis on the spatial range and the difficulty for the decision-maker to provide a realistic spatial decision environment. Focusing on the limit spatial expression in DSS of acupuncture and moxibustion, it was proposed that on the basis of the geographic information system, in association of DSS technology, the design idea was developed on the human body meridian spatial DSS. With the 4-layer service-oriented architecture adopted, the data center integrated development platform was taken as the system development environment. The hierarchical organization was done for the spatial data of human body meridian via the directory tree. The structured query language (SQL) server was used to achieve the unified management of spatial data and attribute data. The technologies of architecture, configuration and plug-in development model were integrated to achieve the data inquiry, buffer analysis and program evaluation of the human body meridian spatial DSS. The research results show that the human body meridian spatial DSS could reflect realistically the spatial characteristics of the spatial position and distribution of human body meridian and met the constantly changeable demand of users. It has the powerful spatial analysis function and assists with the scientific decision in clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion. It is the new attempt to the informatization research of human body meridian.

  16. A spatial decision support system for pipe-break susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lying properties. Existing decision support systems available in the field of water distribution system maintenance mainly focus on leak detection and pipe rehabilitation/replacement strategies. These existing systems, however, do not address the ...

  17. Texas Urban Triangle : pilot study to implement a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This project addressed sustainable transportation in the Texas Urban Triangle (TUT) by conducting a pilot : project at the county scale. The project tested and developed the multi-attribute Spatial Decision Support : System (SDSS) developed in 2009 u...

  18. Linking climate change and fish conservation efforts using spatially explicit decision support tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas P. Peterson; Seth J. Wenger; Bruce E. Rieman; Daniel J. Isaak

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries professionals are increasingly tasked with incorporating climate change projections into their decisions. Here we demonstrate how a structured decision framework, coupled with analytical tools and spatial data sets, can help integrate climate and biological information to evaluate management alternatives. We present examples that link downscaled climate...

  19. Geo-Spatial Tactical Decision Aid Systems: Fuzzy Logic for Supporting Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Raffaele; Giannecchini, Simone

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper describes a tactical decision aid system based on fuzzy logic reasoning for data fusion and on current Open Geospatial Consortium specifications for interoperability, data dissemination...

  20. Developing shape analysis tools to assist complex spatial decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E.; Ehler, G.B.; Cowen, D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and implement a shape identification measure within a geographic information system, specifically one that incorporates analytical modeling for site location planning. The application that was developed incorporated a location model within a raster-based GIS, which helped address critical performance issues for the decision support system. Binary matrices, which approximate the object's geometrical form, are passed over the grided data structure and allow identification of irregular and regularly shaped objects. Lastly, the issue of shape rotation is addressed and is resolved by constructing unique matrices corresponding to the object's orientation

  1. The Influence of Endogenous and Exogenous Spatial Attention on Decision Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Phillipp; Shapcott, Katharine A; Kaiser, Jochen; Schmiedt, Joscha T; Schmid, Michael C

    2017-07-25

    Spatial attention allows us to make more accurate decisions about events in our environment. Decision confidence is thought to be intimately linked to the decision making process as confidence ratings are tightly coupled to decision accuracy. While both spatial attention and decision confidence have been subjected to extensive research, surprisingly little is known about the interaction between these two processes. Since attention increases performance it might be expected that confidence would also increase. However, two studies investigating the effects of endogenous attention on decision confidence found contradictory results. Here we investigated the effects of two distinct forms of spatial attention on decision confidence; endogenous attention and exogenous attention. We used an orientation-matching task, comparing the two attention conditions (endogenous and exogenous) to a control condition without directed attention. Participants performed better under both attention conditions than in the control condition. Higher confidence ratings than the control condition were found under endogenous attention but not under exogenous attention. This finding suggests that while attention can increase confidence ratings, it must be voluntarily deployed for this increase to take place. We discuss possible implications of this relative overconfidence found only during endogenous attention with respect to the theoretical background of decision confidence.

  2. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongoh Valerie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector

  3. Spatial education: improving conservation delivery through space-structured decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Gannon, Jill J.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management is a form of structured decision making designed to guide management of natural resource systems when their behaviors are uncertain. Where decision making can be replicated across units of a landscape, learning can be accelerated, and biological processes can be understood in a larger spatial context. Broad-based partnerships among land management agencies, exemplified by Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (conservation partnerships created through the U.S. Department of the Interior), are potentially ideal environments for implementing spatially structured adaptive management programs.

  4. Multi-Criteria Decision Making for a Spatial Decision Support System on the Analysis of Changing Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyazadeh, Roya; van Westen, Cees; Bakker, Wim H.; Aye, Zar Chi; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazard risk management requires decision making in several stages. Decision making on alternatives for risk reduction planning starts with an intelligence phase for recognition of the decision problems and identifying the objectives. Development of the alternatives and assigning the variable by decision makers to each alternative are employed to the design phase. Final phase evaluates the optimal choice by comparing the alternatives, defining indicators, assigning a weight to each and ranking them. This process is referred to as Multi-Criteria Decision Making analysis (MCDM), Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) or Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA). In the framework of the ongoing 7th Framework Program "CHANGES" (2011-2014, Grant Agreement No. 263953) of the European Commission, a Spatial Decision Support System is under development, that has the aim to analyse changes in hydro-meteorological risk and provide support to selecting the best risk reduction alternative. This paper describes the module for Multi-Criteria Decision Making analysis (MCDM) that incorporates monetary and non-monetary criteria in the analysis of the optimal alternative. The MCDM module consists of several components. The first step is to define criteria (or Indicators) which are subdivided into disadvantages (criteria that indicate the difficulty for implementing the risk reduction strategy, also referred to as Costs) and advantages (criteria that indicate the favorability, also referred to as benefits). In the next step the stakeholders can use the developed web-based tool for prioritizing criteria and decision matrix. Public participation plays a role in decision making and this is also planned through the use of a mobile web-version where the general local public can indicate their agreement on the proposed alternatives. The application is being tested through a case study related to risk reduction of a mountainous valley in the Alps affected by flooding. Four alternatives are evaluated in

  5. Developing and Testing an Online Tool for Teaching GIS Concepts Applied to Spatial Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Steve; Evans, Andy; Kingston, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The development and testing of a Web-based GIS e-learning resource is described. This focuses on the application of GIS for siting a nuclear waste disposal facility and the associated principles of spatial decision-making using Boolean and weighted overlay methods. Initial student experiences in using the system are analysed as part of a research…

  6. Afforest sDSS: a metamodel based spatial decision support system for afforestation of agricultural land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilliams, S.; Orshoven, van J.; Muys, B.; Kros, J.; Heil, G.W.; Deursen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    The concept and structure of the Spatial Decision Support System AFFOREST sDSS dealing with environmental performance (EP) of afforestation on agricultural land in northwestern Europe, is presented. EP is defined in terms of three environmental impact categories: (1) carbon sequestration (2)

  7. CFOR: a spatial decision support system dedicated to forest management in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puletti N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a spatial decision support system dedicated to forest management in Calabria (CFOR is presented. The main aim of the tool is to assess wood production under various harvesting options. All functionalities have been developed by Python and R languages for QGIS. Main inputs are digital models, mainly derived from Lidar, and vector shapefiles.

  8. Urbanization suitability maps: a dynamic spatial decision support system for sustainable land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cerreta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluation approaches, with particular attention to the development of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Land use policy decisions are implemented mostly through spatial planning and its related zoning. This involves trade-offs between many sectorial interests and conflicting challenges seeking win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, this paper proposes a methodological approach for developing a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS, denominated Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA, supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Through empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluation approach implemented in a DSDSS helps produce "urbanization suitability maps" in which spatial analysis combined with multi-criteria evaluation methods proved to be useful for both facing the main issues relating to land consumption as well as minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.

  9. Spatial decision support system to evaluate crop residue energy potential by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Humberto; Castro, Liliana; Gauthier-Maradei, Paola; Rodríguez De La Vega, Reynel

    2016-11-01

    Implementing anaerobic digestion (AD) in energy production from crop residues requires development of decision tools to assess its feasibility and sustainability. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) was constructed to assist decision makers to select appropriate feedstock according to biomethanation potential, identify the most suitable location for biogas facilities, determine optimum plant capacity and supply chain, and evaluate associated risks and costs. SDSS involves a spatially explicit analysis, fuzzy multi-criteria analysis, and statistical and optimization models. The tool was validated on seven crop residues located in Santander, Colombia. For example, fique bagasse generates about 0.21millionm(3)CH4year(-1) (0.329m(3)CH4kg(-1) volatile solids) with a minimum profitable plant of about 2000tonyear(-1) and an internal rate of return of 10.5%. SDSS can be applied to evaluate other biomass resources, availability periods, and co-digestion potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Land resource sustainability for urban development: spatial decision support system prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Reza

    2005-08-01

    Land resource sustainability for urban development characterizes the problem of decision-making with multiplicity and uncertainty. A decision support system prototype aids in the assessment of incremental land development plan proposals put forth within the long-term community priority of a sustainable growth. Facilitating this assessment is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multi-criteria evaluation and decision support system. The decision support system incorporates multiple sustainability criteria, weighted strategically responsive to local public policy priorities and community-specific situations and values, while gauging and directing desirable future courses of development. Furthermore, the decision support system uses a GIS, which facilitates an assessment of urban form with multiple indicators of sustainability as spatial criteria thematically. The resultant land-use sustainability scores indicate, on the ratio-scale of AHP, whether or not a desirable urban form is likely in the long run, and if so, to what degree. The two alternative modes of synthesis in AHP-ideal and distributive-provide assessments of a land development plan incrementally (short-term) and city-wide pattern comprehensively (long-term), respectively. Thus, the spatial decision support system facilitates proactive and collective public policy determination of land resource for future sustainable urban development.

  11. Theoretical Approaches in the Context of Spatial Planning Decisions and the Relation with Urban Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz; Tüdeş, Şule

    2017-10-01

    The sustainability agenda has maintained its importance since the days, when the production system took its capitalist form, as well as the population in the urban areas started to rise. Increasing number of both goods and the people have caused the degradation of the certain systems, which generate the urban areas. These systems could mainly be classified as social, environmental, physical and economical systems. Today, urban areas still have difficulty to protect those systems, due to the significant demand of the population. Therefore, studies related with the sustainable issues are significant in the sense of continuity of the urban systems. Therefore, in this paper, those studies in the context of the effects of physical decisions taken in the spatial planning process on urban sustainability, will be examined. The components of the physical decisions are limited to land use, density and design. Land use decisions will be examined in the context of mixed land use. On the other hand, decisions related with density will be analyzed in the sense of population density and floor area ratio (FAR). Besides, design decisions will be examined, by linking them with neighborhood design criteria. Additionally, the term of urban sustainability will only be limited to its social and environmental contexts in this study. Briefly stated, studies in the sustainable literature concerned with the effects of land use, density and design decisions taken in the spatial planning process on the social and environmental sustainability will be examined in this paper. After the compilation and the analyze of those studies, a theoretical approach will be proposed to determine social and environmental sustainability in the context of land use, density and design decisions, taken in the spatial planning process.

  12. The Effects of Spatial and Temporal Decisions on Orange Marketing in Babol County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Najafi Alamdarlo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the fact that farmers are in the surrounding factors such as cultural, social and economic environment, these factors can influence the attitudes and decisions to accept or reject the innovation. Farmer`s opinion over time, also, have a significant role in making new decisions. Therefore, absent a model which would assess the temporal and spatial factors in the decision - making process by growing citrus is strongly needed. This study aims to identify and measure the factors affecting the sales channel chosen by farmers and considers the impact of neighboring on farmers’ decisions using the spatial probit model and finally provides some strategies to improve and increase the efficiency of distribution channels in the product market. One of the aims of this research is to assess the effects of accumulated decisions in the minds of farmers on the choosing of marketing channel. Another innovation of this study is evaluating the spatial factors on orange marketing which examines the effects of diffusive decisions in adjacent villages. Materials and Methods: The data used in this study were collected by questionnaire form 99 gardeners in 9 villages in Babol in 1391-92. In this paper, three distribution channels including retail, sales to middle man and sales to whole sale are evaluated at Babol County. For testing these three channels, probit panel data and spatial approach were used. Therefore, in this model the effects of age, experience, education, amount of sales, price, spatial and temporal effects variables have been modeled. To get the spatial effects, the weighted contiguity matrix was used. Results and Discussion: Age has a positive effect on wholesale approach. In sales to middleman approach, age has also positive effect, but its effect is more than wholesale and retail, because as the age increased, risk acceptance decreased. In retail, this variable (age has a negative effect. In this way, due to higher marketing

  13. Diverting the tourists: a spatial decision-support system for tourism planning on a developing island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedasy, Jaishree; Whyatt, Duncan

    Mauritius is a small island (1865 km 2) in the Indian Ocean. Tourism is the third largest economic sector of the country, after manufacturing and agriculture. A limitation of space and the island's vulnerable ecosystem warrants a rational approach to tourism development. The main problems so far have been to manipulate and integrate all the factors affecting tourism planning and to match spatial data with their relevant attributes. A Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for sustainable tourism planning is therefore proposed. The proposed SDSS design would include a GIS as its core component. A first GIS model has already been constructed with available data. Supporting decision-making in a spatial context is implicit in the use of GIS. However the analytical capability of the GIS has to be enhanced to solve semi-structured problems, where subjective judgements come into play. The second part of the paper deals with the choice, implementation and customisation of a relevant model to develop a specialised SDSS. Different types of models and techniques are discussed, in particular a comparison of compensatory and non-compensatory approaches to multicriteria evaluation (MCE). It is concluded that compensatory multicriteria evaluation techniques increase the scope of the present GIS model as a decision-support tool. This approach gives the user or decision-maker the flexibility to change the importance of each criterion depending on relevant objectives.

  14. Uncertainty management, spatial and temporal reasoning, and validation of intelligent environmental decision support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sànchez-Marrè, Miquel; Gilbert, Karina; Sojda, Rick S.; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Struss, Peter; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Voinov, A.A.; Jakeman, A.J.; Rizzoli, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    There are inherent open problems arising when developing and running Intelligent Environmental Decision Support Systems (IEDSS). During daily operation of IEDSS several open challenge problems appear. The uncertainty of data being processed is intrinsic to the environmental system, which is being monitored by several on-line sensors and off-line data. Thus, anomalous data values at data gathering level or even uncertain reasoning process at later levels such as in diagnosis or decision support or planning can lead the environmental process to unsafe critical operation states. At diagnosis level or even at decision support level or planning level, spatial reasoning or temporal reasoning or both aspects can influence the reasoning processes undertaken by the IEDSS. Most of Environmental systems must take into account the spatial relationships between the environmental goal area and the nearby environmental areas and the temporal relationships between the current state and the past states of the environmental system to state accurate and reliable assertions to be used within the diagnosis process or decision support process or planning process. Finally, a related issue is a crucial point: are really reliable and safe the decisions proposed by the IEDSS? Are we sure about the goodness and performance of proposed solutions? How can we ensure a correct evaluation of the IEDSS? Main goal of this paper is to analyse these four issues, review some possible approaches and techniques to cope with them, and study new trends for future research within the IEDSS field.

  15. Development of SOVAT: a numerical-spatial decision support system for community health assessment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch, Matthew; Parmanto, Bambang

    2006-01-01

    The development of numerical-spatial routines is frequently required to solve complex community health problems. Community health assessment (CHA) professionals who use information technology need a complete system that is capable of supporting the development of numerical-spatial routines. Currently, there is no decision support system (DSS) that is effectively able to accomplish this task as the majority of public health geospatial information systems (GIS) are based on traditional (relational) database architecture. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is a multidimensional data warehouse technique that is commonly used as a decision support system in standard industry. OLAP alone is not sufficient for solving numerical-spatial problems that frequently occur in CHA research. Coupling it with GIS technology offers the potential for a very powerful and useful system. A community health OLAP cube was created by integrating health and population data from various sources. OLAP and GIS technologies were then combined to develop the Spatial OLAP Visualization and Analysis Tool (SOVAT). The synergy of numerical and spatial environments within SOVAT is shown through an elaborate and easy-to-use drag and drop and direct manipulation graphical user interface (GUI). Community health problem-solving examples (routines) using SOVAT are shown through a series of screen shots. The impact of the difference between SOVAT and existing GIS public health applications can be seen by considering the numerical-spatial problem-solving examples. These examples are facilitated using OLAP-GIS functions. These functions can be mimicked in existing GIS public applications, but their performance and system response would be significantly worse since GIS is based on traditional (relational) backend. OLAP-GIS system offer great potential for powerful numerical-spatial decision support in community health analysis. The functionality of an OLAP-GIS system has been shown through a series of

  16. Spatial probabilistic multi-criteria decision making for assessment of flood management alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadisharaf, Ebrahim; Kalyanapu, Alfred J.; Chung, Eun-Sung

    2016-02-01

    Flood management alternatives are often evaluated on the basis of flood parameters such as depth and velocity. As these parameters are uncertain, so is the evaluation of the alternatives. It is thus important to incorporate the uncertainty of flood parameters into the decision making frameworks. This research develops a spatial probabilistic multi-criteria decision making (SPMCDM) framework to demonstrate the impact of the design rainfall uncertainty on evaluation of flood management alternatives. The framework employs a probabilistic rainfall-runoff transformation model, a two-dimensional flood model and a spatial MCDM technique. Thereby, the uncertainty of decision making can be determined alongside the best alternative. A probability-based map is produced to show the discrete probability distribution function (PDF) of selecting each competing alternative. Overall the best at each grid cell is the alternative with the mode parameter of this PDF. This framework is demonstrated on the Swannanoa River watershed in North Carolina, USA and its results are compared to those of deterministic approach. While the deterministic framework fails to provide the uncertainty of selecting an alternative, the SPMCDM framework showed that in overall, selection of flood management alternatives in the watershed is ;moderately uncertain;. Moreover, three comparison metrics, F fit measure, κ statistic, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient (ρ), are computed to compare the results of these two approaches. An F fit measure of 62.6%, κ statistic of 15.4-45.0%, and spatial mean ρ value of 0.48, imply a significant difference in decision making by incorporating the design rainfall uncertainty through the presented SPMCDM framework. The SPMCDM framework can help decision makers to understand the uncertainty in selection of flood management alternatives.

  17. Assessment of flood susceptible areas using spatially explicit, probabilistic multi-criteria decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongqian; Zhang, Hua; Yi, Shanzhen; Xiao, Yangfan

    2018-03-01

    GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is increasingly used to support flood risk assessment. However, conventional GIS-MCDA methods fail to adequately represent spatial variability and are accompanied with considerable uncertainty. It is, thus, important to incorporate spatial variability and uncertainty into GIS-based decision analysis procedures. This research develops a spatially explicit, probabilistic GIS-MCDA approach for the delineation of potentially flood susceptible areas. The approach integrates the probabilistic and the local ordered weighted averaging (OWA) methods via Monte Carlo simulation, to take into account the uncertainty related to criteria weights, spatial heterogeneity of preferences and the risk attitude of the analyst. The approach is applied to a pilot study for the Gucheng County, central China, heavily affected by the hazardous 2012 flood. A GIS database of six geomorphological and hydrometeorological factors for the evaluation of susceptibility was created. Moreover, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were performed to investigate the robustness of the model. The results indicate that the ensemble method improves the robustness of the model outcomes with respect to variation in criteria weights and identifies which criteria weights are most responsible for the variability of model outcomes. Therefore, the proposed approach is an improvement over the conventional deterministic method and can provides a more rational, objective and unbiased tool for flood susceptibility evaluation.

  18. Assessing the Geographic Expression of Urban Sustainability: A Scenario Based Approach Incorporating Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Lein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban sustainability involves a re-examination of urban development including environmental, social and economic policies and practices that acknowledge the role of cities in global environmental change. However, sustainability remains a broadly defined concept that has been applied to mean everything from environmental protection, social cohesion, economic growth, neighborhood design, alternative energy, and green building design. To guide sustainability initiatives and assess progress toward more sustainable development patterns this construct requires a means to place this concept into a decision-centric context where change can be evaluated and the exploitation of resources, the direction of investment, the orientation of technological development, and institutional programs can be made more consistent with future as well as present needs. In this study the problem of sustainability assessment was examined and a method that couples scenario analysis with spatial multicriteria decision analysis was introduced. The integration of a spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA model for sustainable development with scenario planning resulted in an interpretation of sustainability that is more appropriate for local conditions and useful when exploring sustainability’s semantic uncertainties, particularly those alternate perspectives that influence future environments.

  19. A spatial decision support system prototype for housing mobility program planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael P.

    This paper presents a GIS-based decision support system prototype intended for use by public housing authority (PHA) administrators and planners designing policy for housing mobility programs. Housing mobility programs enable low-income families, many of whom live in government-operated public housing, to move to more desirable private-market rentals via rent subsidies. Unfortunately, housing authority planners have limited ability to visualize alternative relocation schemes of cohorts of low-income families or the impacts associated with these relocation policies. Thus, they are often not able to give highest-quality advice to clients regarding places to search for private-market rental housing. Housing Location Planner assists PHA planners in three ways: it analyzes spatial, demographic and housing market characteristics of the study area, selects certain portions of the study area for input to an optimization model which generates alternative family allocations, and displays optimization model results in a way that links decision variable values and objective function values. Housing Location Planner is seen as a first step in the development of even more sophisticated multi-stakeholder spatial decision support systems for subsidized housing planning in which one or more alternative allocations of families across a study area is chosen as a basis for policy initiatives.

  20. A Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Urban Economic Analysis and Spatial Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Goodchild

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban economic modeling and effective spatial planning are critical tools towards achieving urban sustainability. However, in practice, many technical obstacles, such as information islands, poor documentation of data and lack of software platforms to facilitate virtual collaboration, are challenging the effectiveness of decision-making processes. In this paper, we report on our efforts to design and develop a geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI for urban economic analysis and simulation. This GCI provides an operational graphic user interface, built upon a service-oriented architecture to allow (1 widespread sharing and seamless integration of distributed geospatial data; (2 an effective way to address the uncertainty and positional errors encountered in fusing data from diverse sources; (3 the decomposition of complex planning questions into atomic spatial analysis tasks and the generation of a web service chain to tackle such complex problems; and (4 capturing and representing provenance of geospatial data to trace its flow in the modeling task. The Greater Los Angeles Region serves as the test bed. We expect this work to contribute to effective spatial policy analysis and decision-making through the adoption of advanced GCI and to broaden the application coverage of GCI to include urban economic simulations.

  1. Effects of pulvinar inactivation on spatial decision-making between equal and asymmetric reward options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Melanie; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    The ability to selectively process visual inputs and to decide between multiple movement options in an adaptive manner is critical for survival. Such decisions are known to be influenced by factors such as reward expectation and visual saliency. The dorsal pulvinar connects to a multitude of cortical areas that are involved in visuospatial memory and integrate information about upcoming eye movements with expected reward values. However, it is unclear whether the dorsal pulvinar is critically involved in spatial memory and reward-based oculomotor decision behavior. To examine this, we reversibly inactivated the dorsal portion of the pulvinar while monkeys performed a delayed memory saccade task that included choices between equally or unequally rewarded options. Pulvinar inactivation resulted in a delay of saccade initiation toward memorized contralesional targets but did not affect spatial memory. Furthermore, pulvinar inactivation caused a pronounced choice bias toward the ipsilesional hemifield when the reward value in the two hemifields was equal. However, this choice bias could be alleviated by placing a high reward target into the contralesional hemifield. The bias was less affected by the manipulation of relative visual saliency between the two competing targets. These results suggest that the dorsal pulvinar is involved in determining the behavioral desirability of movement goals while being less critical for spatial memory and reward processing.

  2. A group-based spatial decision support system for wind farm site selection in Northwest Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsevski, Pece V.; Cathcart, Steven C.; Mirzaei, Golrokh; Jamali, Mohsin M.; Ye, Xinyue; Gomezdelcampo, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of applying a spatial decision support system (SDSS) framework for evaluating the suitability for wind farm siting in Northwest Ohio. The multiple criteria evaluation (MCE) prototype system is intended for regional planning but also for promoting group decision making that could involve participants with different interests in the development of decision alternatives. The framework integrates environmental and economic criteria and builds a hierarchy for wind farm siting using weighted linear combination (WLC) techniques and GIS functionality. The SDSS allows the multiple participants to interact and develop an understanding of the spatial data for assigning importance values to each factor. The WLC technique is used to combine the assigned values with map layers, which are standardized using fuzzy set theory, to produce individual suitability maps. The maps created by personal preferences from the participants are aggregated for producing a group solution using the Borda method. Sensitivity analysis is performed on the group solution to examine how small changes in the factor weights affect the calculated suitability scores. The results from the sensitivity analysis are intended to aid understanding of compromised solutions through changes in the input data from the participant's perspective. - Highlights: ► We present a prototype tool that we developed for wind farm site selection. ► Multiple participants rank the factors for promoting group-based decision making. ► The factors are aggregated by WLC technique to generate maps from participants. ► Group-based solution uses Borda method to aggregate the maps from participants. ► Sensitivity analysis is performed on the group solution to examine solution affects

  3. Designing a socio-spatial need indicator for urban social services analysis and decision making. A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Morenos Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Decision taking on social services requires, as a previous step, to appraise the human needs and their spatial distribution, a key issue particularly sensitive in less developed zones or during economic crisis periods, as far as socio-spatial cohesion is then strongly challenged. Vari-ous methods have been used for measuring social needs, provided that these are diverse in nature and sometimes elusive. Incorporating the spatial dimension in this task involves an additional challenge, but the ...

  4. Using hippocampal-striatal loops for spatial navigation and goal-directed decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersi, Fabian; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-08-01

    The hippocampus plays a central role in spatial representation, declarative and episodic memory. In this area, so-called place cells possess high spatial selectivity, firing preferentially when the individual is within a small area of the environment. Interestingly, it has been found in rats that these cells can be active also when the animal is outside the location or context of their corresponding place field producing so-called "forward sweeps". These typically occur at decision points during task execution and seem to be utilized, among other things, for the evaluation of potential alternative paths. Anticipatory firing is also found in the ventral striatum, a brain area that is strongly interconnected with the hippocampus and is known to encode value and reward. In this paper, we describe a biologically based computational model of the hippocampal-ventral striatum circuit that implements a goal-directed mechanism of choice, with the hippocampus primarily involved in the mental simulation of possible navigation paths and the ventral striatum involved in the evaluation of the associated reward expectancies. The model is validated in a navigation task in which a rat is placed in a complex maze with multiple rewarding sites. We show that the rat mentally activates place cells to simulate paths, estimate their value, and make decisions, implementing two essential processes of model-based reinforcement learning algorithms of choice: look-ahead prediction and the evaluation of predicted states.

  5. A spatial multicriteria decision making tool to define the best agricultural areas for sewage sludge amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and implementation of visualization methods for the CHANGES Spatial Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristal, Irina; van Westen, Cees; Bakker, Wim; Greiving, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The CHANGES Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) is a web-based system aimed for risk assessment and the evaluation of optimal risk reduction alternatives at local level as a decision support tool in long-term natural risk management. The SDSS use multidimensional information, integrating thematic, spatial, temporal and documentary data. The role of visualization in this context becomes of vital importance for efficiently representing each dimension. This multidimensional aspect of the required for the system risk information, combined with the diversity of the end-users imposes the use of sophisticated visualization methods and tools. The key goal of the present work is to exploit efficiently the large amount of data in relation to the needs of the end-user, utilizing proper visualization techniques. Three main tasks have been accomplished for this purpose: categorization of the end-users, the definition of system's modules and the data definition. The graphical representation of the data and the visualization tools were designed to be relevant to the data type and the purpose of the analysis. Depending on the end-users category, each user should have access to different modules of the system and thus, to the proper visualization environment. The technologies used for the development of the visualization component combine the latest and most innovative open source JavaScript frameworks, such as OpenLayers 2.13.1, ExtJS 4 and GeoExt 2. Moreover, the model-view-controller (MVC) pattern is used in order to ensure flexibility of the system at the implementation level. Using the above technologies, the visualization techniques implemented so far offer interactive map navigation, querying and comparison tools. The map comparison tools are of great importance within the SDSS and include the following: swiping tool for comparison of different data of the same location; raster subtraction for comparison of the same phenomena varying in time; linked views for comparison

  7. Aspects of decision support in water management--example Berlin and Potsdam (Germany) I--spatially differentiated evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ute; Brüggemann, Rainer; Pudenz, Stefan

    2004-04-01

    Decisions about sustainable development demand spatially differentiated evaluations. As an example, we demonstrate the evaluation of water management strategies in the cities of Berlin and Potsdam (Germany) with respect to their ecological effects in 14 sections of the surface water system. Two decision support systems were compared, namely PROMETHEE, which is designed to obtain a clear decision (linear ranking), and Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT), normally providing more than one favourable solution (partial order). By PROMETHEE, the spatial differentiation had unwanted effects on the result, negating the stakeholders determined weighting of indicators. Therefore, the stakeholder can barely benefit from the convenience of obtaining a clear decision (linear ranking). In contrast, the result obtained by HDT was not influenced by spatial differentiation. Furthermore, HDT provided helpful tools to analyse the evaluation result, such as the concept of antagonistic indicators to discover conflicts in the evaluation process.

  8. Decision Accuracy and the Role of Spatial Interaction in Opinion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney, Colin J.; Levin, Simon A.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2013-04-01

    The opinions and actions of individuals within interacting groups are frequently determined by both social and personal information. When sociality (or the pressure to conform) is strong and individual preferences are weak, groups will remain cohesive until a consensus decision is reached. When group decisions are subject to a bias, representing for example private information known by some members of the population or imperfect information known by all, then the accuracy achieved for a fixed level of bias will increase with population size. In this work we determine how the scaling between accuracy and group size can be related to the microscopic properties of the decision-making process. By simulating a spatial model of opinion dynamics we show that the relationship between the instantaneous fraction of leaders in the population ( L), system size ( N), and accuracy depends on the frequency of individual opinion switches and the level of population viscosity. When social mixing is slow, and individual opinion changes are frequent, accuracy is determined by the absolute number of informed individuals. As mixing rates increase, or the rate of opinion updates decrease, a transition occurs to a regime where accuracy is determined by the value of L√{ N}. We investigate the transition between different scaling regimes analytically by examining a well-mixed limit.

  9. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Spatial decision support for strategic environmental assessment of land use plans. A case study in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geneletti, Davide; Bagli, Stefano; Napolitano, Paola; Pistocchi, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the construction of a spatial decision-support tool for the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of a land use plan: the spatial coordination plan of the Province of Naples, in southern Italy. The decision-support tool organises the relevant information, spatially resolves the actions of the plan, predicts their environmental impacts, and generates overall performance maps. Its final goal is to provide a suitable technical support to a formal SEA procedure. The expected implications of the plan, such as changes in land use and traffic flows and urban expansion, were modelled and assessed against a set of environmental criteria using SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis and mapping. It was found that the SWOT analysis provided a good basis for assessment and strategy formulation. The paper also intends to contribute to the topic of data and scale issues in SEA, by exemplifying the role played by spatial data and spatial analyses to support informative SEA

  11. Data Model for Multi Hazard Risk Assessment Spatial Support Decision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrejchenko, Vera; Bakker, Wim; van Westen, Cees

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the CHANGES Spatial Decision Support System is to support end-users in making decisions related to risk reduction measures for areas at risk from multiple hydro-meteorological hazards. The crucial parts in the design of the system are the user requirements, the data model, the data storage and management, and the relationships between the objects in the system. The implementation of the data model is carried out entirely with an open source database management system with a spatial extension. The web application is implemented using open source geospatial technologies with PostGIS as the database, Python for scripting, and Geoserver and javascript libraries for visualization and the client-side user-interface. The model can handle information from different study areas (currently, study areas from France, Romania, Italia and Poland are considered). Furthermore, the data model handles information about administrative units, projects accessible by different types of users, user-defined hazard types (floods, snow avalanches, debris flows, etc.), hazard intensity maps of different return periods, spatial probability maps, elements at risk maps (buildings, land parcels, linear features etc.), economic and population vulnerability information dependent on the hazard type and the type of the element at risk, in the form of vulnerability curves. The system has an inbuilt database of vulnerability curves, but users can also add their own ones. Included in the model is the management of a combination of different scenarios (e.g. related to climate change, land use change or population change) and alternatives (possible risk-reduction measures), as well as data-structures for saving the calculated economic or population loss or exposure per element at risk, aggregation of the loss and exposure using the administrative unit maps, and finally, producing the risk maps. The risk data can be used for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE). The

  12. Spatial decision supporting for winter wheat irrigation and fertilizer optimizing in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Yang, Hao; Dong, Yansheng; Yu, Haiyang

    2014-11-01

    Production management of winter wheat is more complicated than other crops since its growth period is covered all four seasons and growth environment is very complex with frozen injury, drought, insect or disease injury and others. In traditional irrigation and fertilizer management, agricultural technicians or farmers mainly make decision based on phenology, planting experience to carry out artificial fertilizer and irrigation management. For example, wheat needs more nitrogen fertilizer in jointing and booting stage by experience, then when the wheat grow to the two growth periods, the farmer will fertilize to the wheat whether it needs or not. We developed a spatial decision support system for optimizing irrigation and fertilizer measures based on WebGIS, which monitoring winter wheat growth and soil moisture content by combining a crop model, remote sensing data and wireless sensors data, then reasoning professional management schedule from expert knowledge warehouse. This system is developed by ArcIMS, IDL in server-side and JQuery, Google Maps API, ASP.NET in client-side. All computing tasks are run on server-side, such as computing 11 normal vegetable indexes (NDVI/ NDWI/ NDWI2/ NRI/ NSI/ WI/ G_SWIR/ G_SWIR2/ SPSI/ TVDI/ VSWI) and custom VI of remote sensing image by IDL; while real-time building map configuration file and generating thematic map by ArcIMS.

  13. Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems for Future Urban Energy Retrofitting Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lombardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing concern about sustainable urban energy development taking into account national priorities of each city. Many cities have started to define future strategies and plans to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Urban energy scenarios involve the consideration of a wide range of conflicting criteria, both socio-economic and environmental ones. Moreover, decision-makers (DMs require proper tools that can support their choices in a context of multiple stakeholders and a long-term perspective. In this context, Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems (MC-SDSS are often used in order to define and analyze urban scenarios since they support the comparison of different solutions, based on a combination of multiple factors. The main problem, in relation to urban energy retrofitting scenarios, is the lack of appropriate knowledge and evaluation criteria. The latter are crucial for delivering and assessing urban energy scenarios through a MC-SDSS tool. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and test two different methods for the definition and ranking of the evaluation criteria. More specifically, the paper presents an on-going research study related to the development of a MC-SDSS tool able to identify and evaluate alternative energy urban scenarios in a long-term period perspective. This study refers to two Smart City and Communities research projects, namely: DIMMER (District Information Modeling and Management for Energy Reduction and EEB (Zero Energy Buildings in Smart Urban Districts.

  14. Assessing the users’ need for a spatial decision support system of smallholder farming in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Teucher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate data of the natural conditions and agricultural systems with a good spatial resolution are a key factor to tackle food insecurity in developing countries. A broad variety of approaches exists to achieve precise data and information about agriculture. One system, especially developed for smallholder agriculture in East Africa, is the Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. It was first published in 1982/83 and fully revised in 2012, now containing 7 volumes. The handbooks contain detailed information on climate, soils, suitable crops and soil care based on scientific research results of the last 30 years. The density of facts leads to time consuming extraction of all necessary information. In this study we analyse the user needs and necessary components of a system for decision support for smallholder farming in Kenya based on a geographical information system (GIS. Required data sources were identified, as well as essential functions of the system. We analysed the results of our survey conducted in 2012 and early 2013 among agricultural officers. The monitoring of user needs and the problem of non-adaptability of an agricultural information system on the level of extension officers in Kenya are the central objectives. The outcomes of the survey suggest the establishment of a decision support tool based on already available open source GIS components. The system should include functionalities to show general information for a specific location and should provide precise recommendations about suitable crops and management options to support agricultural guidance on farm level.

  15. Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Support System and Strategic Environmental Assessment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Torrieri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA as an important tool to ensure sustainable development and reach a high level of environmental protection. More specifically, this paper provides an evaluation method based on the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS and Multi-criteria Analysis—named Integrated Spatial Multi-criteria Decision Support System (ISMDSS—to support the preparation of environmental assessment reports and the construction of scenarios for the adoption of urban plans, as an innovative tool that integrates objectives and multidimensional (economic, environmental, and social components, as well as different approaches and models for the construction of a long-term shared vision. In particular, considerations are made by presenting a thought-provoking case study on the SEA of the urban plan of the municipality of Marzano di Nola, located in the province of Avellino in the Campania region. The experiment carried out showed the potentiality of the ISMDSS to evaluate the impacts of different scenarios with the aim of developing a sustainable urban municipal plan. The spatial dimension is useful in understanding the dynamics that characterize each environmental topic in a specific area, by considering not only the components of the natural and developed environment, but also the interactions with social and economic components.

  16. Regulating outdoor advertisement boards; employing spatial decision support system to control urban visual pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakil, K.; Hussnain, MQ; Tahir, A.; Naeem, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanaged placement, size, location, structure and contents of outdoor advertisement boards have resulted in severe urban visual pollution and deterioration of the socio-physical living environment in urban centres of Pakistan. As per the regulatory instruments, the approval decision for a new advertisement installation is supposed to be based on the locational density of existing boards and their proximity or remoteness to certain land- uses. In cities, where regulatory tools for the control of advertisement boards exist, responsible authorities are handicapped in effective implementation due to the absence of geospatial analysis capacity. This study presents the development of a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for regularization of advertisement boards in terms of their location and placement. The knowledge module of the proposed SDSS is based on provisions and restrictions prescribed in regulatory documents. While the user interface allows visualization and scenario evaluation to understand if the new board will affect existing linear density on a particular road and if it violates any buffer restrictions around a particular land use. Technically the structure of the proposed SDSS is a web-based solution which includes open geospatial tools such as OpenGeo Suite, GeoExt, PostgreSQL, and PHP. It uses three key data sets including road network, locations of existing billboards and building parcels with land use information to perform the analysis. Locational suitability has been calculated using pairwise comparison through analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and weighted linear combination (WLC). Our results indicate that open geospatial tools can be helpful in developing an SDSS which can assist solving space related iterative decision challenges on outdoor advertisements. Employing such a system will result in effective implementation of regulations resulting in visual harmony and aesthetic improvement in urban communities.

  17. A spatial decision support tool for estimating population catchments to aid rural and remote health service allocation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen; Berube, Myriam

    2011-12-01

    There is mounting pressure on healthcare planners to manage and contain costs. In rural regions, there is a particular need to rationalize health service allocation to ensure the best possible coverage for a dispersed population. Rural health administrators need to be able to quantify the population affected by their allocation decisions and, therefore, need the capacity to incorporate spatial analyses into their decision-making process. Spatial decision support systems (SDSS) can provide this capability. In this article, we combine geographical information systems (GIS) with a web-based graphical user interface (webGUI) in a SDSS tool that enables rural decision-makers charged with service allocation, to estimate population catchments around specific health services in rural and remote areas. Using this tool, health-care planners can model multiple scenarios to determine the optimal location for health services, as well as the number of people served in each instance.

  18. Texas urban triangle : creating a spatial decision support system for mobility policy and investments that shape the sustainable growth of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    This project developed a GIS-based Spatial Decision Support System to help local, metropolitan, and state : jurisdictions and authorities in Texas understand the implications of transportation planning and : investment decisions, and plan appropriate...

  19. A Web-based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, F.; Agrillo, A.; Bonfante, A.; Buscemi, G.; Colandrea, M.; D'Antonio, A.; De Mascellis, R.; De Michele, C.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Marotta, L.; Mileti, F. A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Valentini, S.; Vingiani, S.; Basile, A.

    2015-07-01

    Today it is evident that there are many contrasting demands on our landscape (e.g. food security, more sustainable agriculture, higher income in rural areas, etc.) as well as many land degradation problems. It has been proved that providing operational answers to these demands and problems is extremely difficult. Here we aim to demonstrate that a spatial decision support system based on geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) can address all of the above, so producing a smart system for supporting decision making for agriculture, forestry, and urban planning with respect to the landscape. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, one that is highly focused on land management and soil conservation. The system allows us to obtain dynamic, multidisciplinary, multiscale, and multifunctional answers to agriculture, forestry, and urban planning issues through the Web. The system has been applied to and tested in an area of about 20 000 ha in the south of Italy, within the framework of a European LIFE+ project (SOILCONSWEB). The paper reports - as a case study - results from two different applications dealing with agriculture (olive growth tool) and environmental protection (soil capability to protect groundwater). Developed with the help of end users, the system is starting to be adopted by local communities. The system indirectly explores a change of paradigm for soil and landscape scientists. Indeed, the potential benefit is shown of overcoming current disciplinary fragmentation over landscape issues by offering - through a smart Web-based system - truly integrated geospatial knowledge that may be directly and freely used by any end user (www.landconsultingweb.eu). This may help bridge the last very important divide between scientists working on the landscape and end users.

  20. A web based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, F.; Agrillo, A.; Bonfante, A.; Buscemi, G.; Colandrea, M.; D'Antonio, A.; De Mascellis, R.; De Michele, C.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Marotta, L.; Mileti, F. A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Valentini, S.; Vingiani, S.; Basile, A.

    2015-02-01

    Today it is evident that there are many contrasting demands on our landscape (e.g. food security, more sustainable agriculture, higher income in rural areas, etc.) but also many land degradation problems. It has been proved that providing operational answers to these demands and problems is extremely difficult. Here we aim to demonstrate that a Spatial Decision Support System based on geospatial cyber-infrastructure (GCI) can embody all of the above, so producing a smart system for supporting decision making for agriculture, forestry and urban planning with respect to the landscape. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, one that is highly focused on soil and land conservation (SOILCONSWEB-LIFE+ project). The system allows us to obtain dynamic, multidisciplinary, multiscale, and multifunctional answers to agriculture, forestry and urban planning issues through the web. The system has been applied to and tested in an area of about 20 000 ha in the South of Italy, within the framework of a European LIFE+ project. The paper reports - as a case study - results from two different applications dealing with agriculture (olive growth tool) and environmental protection (soil capability to protect groundwater). Developed with the help of end users, the system is starting to be adopted by local communities. The system indirectly explores a change of paradigm for soil and landscape scientists. Indeed, the potential benefit is shown of overcoming current disciplinary fragmentation over landscape issues by offering - through a smart web based system - truly integrated geospatial knowledge that may be directly and freely used by any end user (http://www.landconsultingweb.eu). This may help bridge the last much important divide between scientists working on the landscape and end users.

  1. Environmental Condition Assessment of US Military Installations Using GIS Based Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Steve; Wang, Guangxing; Howard, Heidi; Anderson, Alan

    2012-08-01

    Environment functions in various aspects including soil and water conservation, biodiversity and habitats, and landscape aesthetics. Comprehensive assessment of environmental condition is thus a great challenge. The issues include how to assess individual environmental components such as landscape aesthetics and integrate them into an indicator that can comprehensively quantify environmental condition. In this study, a geographic information systems based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis was used to integrate environmental variables and create the indicator. This approach was applied to Fort Riley Military installation in which land condition and its dynamics due to military training activities were assessed. The indicator was derived by integrating soil erosion, water quality, landscape fragmentation, landscape aesthetics, and noise based on the weights from the experts by assessing and ranking the environmental variables in terms of their importance. The results showed that landscape level indicator well quantified the overall environmental condition and its dynamics, while the indicator at level of patch that is defined as a homogeneous area that is different from its surroundings detailed the spatiotemporal variability of environmental condition. The environmental condition was mostly determined by soil erosion, then landscape fragmentation, water quality, landscape aesthetics, and noise. Overall, environmental condition at both landscape and patch levels greatly varied depending on the degree of ground and canopy disturbance and their spatial patterns due to military training activities and being related to slope. It was also determined the environment itself could be recovered quickly once military training was halt or reduced. Thus, this study provided an effective tool for the army land managers to monitor environmental dynamics and plan military training activities. Its limitation lies at that the obtained values of the indicator vary and are

  2. From spatially variable streamflow to distributed hydrological models: Analysis of key modeling decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicia, Fabrizio; Kavetski, Dmitri; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the development and application of distributed hydrological models, focusing on the key decisions of how to discretize the landscape, which model structures to use in each landscape element, and how to link model parameters across multiple landscape elements. The case study considers the Attert catchment in Luxembourg—a 300 km2 mesoscale catchment with 10 nested subcatchments that exhibit clearly different streamflow dynamics. The research questions are investigated using conceptual models applied at hydrologic response unit (HRU) scales (1-4 HRUs) on 6 hourly time steps. Multiple model structures are hypothesized and implemented using the SUPERFLEX framework. Following calibration, space/time model transferability is tested using a split-sample approach, with evaluation criteria including streamflow prediction error metrics and hydrological signatures. Our results suggest that: (1) models using geology-based HRUs are more robust and capture the spatial variability of streamflow time series and signatures better than models using topography-based HRUs; this finding supports the hypothesis that, in the Attert, geology exerts a stronger control than topography on streamflow generation, (2) streamflow dynamics of different HRUs can be represented using distinct and remarkably simple model structures, which can be interpreted in terms of the perceived dominant hydrologic processes in each geology type, and (3) the same maximum root zone storage can be used across the three dominant geological units with no loss in model transferability; this finding suggests that the partitioning of water between streamflow and evaporation in the study area is largely independent of geology and can be used to improve model parsimony. The modeling methodology introduced in this study is general and can be used to advance our broader understanding and prediction of hydrological behavior, including the landscape characteristics that control hydrologic response, the

  3. A cyber-enabled spatial decision support system to inventory Mangroves in Mozambique: coupling scientific workflows and cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwu Tang; Wenpeng Feng; Meijuan Jia; Jiyang Shi; Huifang Zuo; Christina E. Stringer; Carl C. Trettin

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves are an important terrestrial carbon reservoir with numerous ecosystem services. Yet, it is difficult to inventory mangroves because of their low accessibility. A sampling approach that produces accurate assessment while maximizing logistical integrity of inventory operation is often required. Spatial decision support systems (SDSSs) provide support for...

  4. The spatial decision-supporting system combination of RBR & CBR based on artificial neural network and association rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yangge; Bian, Fuling

    2007-06-01

    The technology of artificial intelligence should be imported on the basis of the geographic information system to bring up the spatial decision-supporting system (SDSS). The paper discusses the structure of SDSS, after comparing the characteristics of RBR and CBR, the paper brings up the frame of a spatial decisional system that combines RBR and CBR, which has combined the advantages of them both. And the paper discusses the CBR in agriculture spatial decisions, the application of ANN (Artificial Neural Network) in CBR, and enriching the inference rule base based on association rules, etc. And the paper tests and verifies the design of this system with the examples of the evaluation of the crops' adaptability.

  5. Application of Spatial Models in Making Location Decisions of Wind Power Plant in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płuciennik, Monika; Hełdak, Maria; Szczepański, Jakub; Patrzałek, Ciechosław

    2017-10-01

    In this paper,we explore the process of making decisions on the location of wind power plants in Poland in connection with a gradually increasing consumption of energy from renewable sources and the increase of impact problems of such facilities. The location of new wind power plants attracts much attention, and both positive and negative publicity. Visualisations can be of assistance when choosing the most advantageous location for a plant, as three-dimensional variants of the facility to be constructed can be prepared. This work involves terrestrial laser scanning of an existing wind power plant and 3D modelling followed by. The model could be subsequently used in visualisation of real terrain, with special purpose in local land development plan. This paper shows a spatial model of a wind power plant as a new element of a capital investment process in Poland. Next, we incorporate the model into an undeveloped site, intended for building a wind farm, subject to the requirements for location of power plants.

  6. Towards a conceptual multi-agent-based framework to simulate the spatial group decision-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Seyed Morsal; Taleai, Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    Most spatial problems are multi-actor, multi-issue and multi-phase in nature. In addition to their intrinsic complexity, spatial problems usually involve groups of actors from different organizational and cognitive backgrounds, all of whom participate in a social structure to resolve or reduce the complexity of a given problem. Hence, it is important to study and evaluate what different aspects influence the spatial problem resolution process. Recently, multi-agent systems consisting of groups of separate agent entities all interacting with each other have been put forward as appropriate tools to use to study and resolve such problems. In this study, then in order to generate a better level of understanding regarding the spatial problem group decision-making process, a conceptual multi-agent-based framework is used that represents and specifies all the necessary concepts and entities needed to aid group decision making, based on a simulation of the group decision-making process as well as the relationships that exist among the different concepts involved. The study uses five main influencing entities as concepts in the simulation process: spatial influence, individual-level influence, group-level influence, negotiation influence and group performance measures. Further, it explains the relationship among different concepts in a descriptive rather than explanatory manner. To illustrate the proposed framework, the approval process for an urban land use master plan in Zanjan—a provincial capital in Iran—is simulated using MAS, the results highlighting the effectiveness of applying an MAS-based framework when wishing to study the group decision-making process used to resolve spatial problems.

  7. Heuristic algorithms and a spatial decision support system for locating hydrogen-refueling stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seow

    The vision of using hydrogen energy to replace fossil fuels as the primary energy carrier for our transportation infrastructure has been gaining recognition in recent years. The obstacles facing the hydrogen economy vision are technological feasibilities and the cost of infrastructure buildup. Technological feasibilities include the production, storage, distribution, and refueling of hydrogen energy in a safe and economical manner. The cost of infrastructure development includes the building of production plants, storage facilities, distribution network, and refueling stations of hydrogen energy. The purpose of the research is to develop heuristic algorithms and a spatial decision support system (SDSS) to facilitate efficient planning of the refueling infrastructure of hydrogen energy. Facility location-allocation models, specifically the Flow Refueling Location Model (FRLM), have been applied to determine the combination of refueling stations to be built in order to maximize the flow covered with a fixed investment cost. A mixed-integer programming version of the model has been formulated and published. While the mixed-integer programming model could be used to obtain an optimal solution for a problem, it is slow and inefficient in solving problems with a large network and large number of candidate facilities. In this research, heuristics algorithms, specifically the greedy adding, greedy adding with substitution, and genetic algorithm, are developed and applied to solve the FRLM problem. These algorithms are shown to be effective and efficient in solving complex FRLM-problems. The SDSS presented in this research integrates geographical information systems (GIS) and heuristic search algorithms to provide a flexible and powerful system for selecting the locations of hydrogen refueling stations in a real-world scenario. GIS is used to gather and process the input for the model, such as the candidate facilities and traffic flows. The SDSS also uses GIS to display and

  8. Development and evaluation of a spatial decision support system for malaria elimination in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Kinley; Banwell, Cathy; Gatton, Michelle L; Kelly, Gerard C; Namgay, Rinzin; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-03-22

    Bhutan has reduced its malaria incidence significantly in the last 5 years, and is aiming for malaria elimination by 2016. To assist with the management of the Bhutanese malaria elimination programme a spatial decision support system (SDSS) was developed. The current study aims to describe SDSS development and evaluate SDSS utility and acceptability through informant interviews. The SDSS was developed based on the open-source Quantum geographical information system (QGIS) and piloted to support the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in the two sub-districts of Samdrup Jongkhar District. It was subsequently used to support reactive case detection (RACD) in the two sub-districts of Samdrup Jongkhar and two additional sub-districts in Sarpang District. Interviews were conducted to ascertain perceptions on utility and acceptability of 11 informants using the SDSS, including programme and district managers, and field workers. A total of 1502 households with a population of 7165 were enumerated in the four sub-districts, and a total of 3491 LLINs were distributed with one LLIN per 1.7 persons. A total of 279 households representing 728 residents were involved with RACD. Informants considered that the SDSS was an improvement on previous methods for organizing LLIN distribution, IRS and RACD, and could be easily integrated into routine malaria and other vector-borne disease surveillance systems. Informants identified some challenges at the programme and field level, including the need for more skilled personnel to manage the SDSS, and more training to improve the effectiveness of SDSS implementation and use of hardware. The SDSS was well accepted and informants expected its use to be extended to other malaria reporting districts and other vector-borne diseases. Challenges associated with efficient SDSS use included adequate skills and knowledge, access to training and support, and availability of hardware including

  9. Spatial decisions and cognitive strategies of monkeys and humans based on abstract spatial stimuli in rotation test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekovářová, Tereza; Nedvídek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Bureš, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 36 (2009), s. 15478-15482 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA AV ČR KJB500110704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spatial cognition * geometry of space * mental rotations Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 9.432, year: 2009

  10. Multifunctional soil conservation and land management through the development of a web based spatial decision supporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, F.; Basile, A.; D'Antonio, A.; De Michele, C.; Bonfante, A.; Colandrea, M.; De Mascellis, R.; D'Urso, G.; Iamarino, M.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Marotta, L.; Minieri, L.

    2012-04-01

    This work aims to present the first results of the LIFE+ SOILCONSWEB project (LIFE08 ENV/IT/000408 ) aiming to produce, to test and to apply a decision supporting system (DSS) tool. The practical focus of this tool is to support (stakeholders) decision on landscape issues aiming to both the best soil conservation and land management and also to an easy landscape implementation of some important but complex environmental related EU directives. The project acknowledge that some of these EU directives/regulation have an intrinsic complexity because they apply to soils and landscapes which have the well recognized "multiple functions" as a fundamental feature. Then it is not surprising that this decision supporting tool requires, as fundamental feature, to include and mix many different high quality digital information, engine and processing in order to be successfully applied. Our DSS tool has been developed in the framework of a "Web-based Spatial Decision Supporting System" (WS-DSS) and it will consider soil and landscape. Decision makers (individuals, groups of interests and public bodies) can have real-time (or near real-time) access to critical, accurate, complete and up-to-date spatial data held in multiple data stores. The system produce detailed spatial documents, report and maps on a series of questions including agriculture, environment and climate change. The tool is available to and it will also allow to integrate classical top-down decision with bottom-up contributions to landscape planning and managing. The tool, as prototype, has been developed, tested and applied in an area of about 20,000 hectares in South Italy (Valle Telesina, province of Benevento in the Campania region) but its development will enable future applications in other areas. Among the several topics having a different level of complexity and already implemented in the DSS, we will show those concerning soil sealing and viticulture zoning (terroir). Emphasis will be on how combining

  11. Taming Data to Make Decisions: Using a Spatial Fuzzy Logic Decision Support Framework to Inform Conservation and Land Use Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, T.; Baker, B.; Degagne, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    With the abundance of data sources, analytical methods, and computer models, land managers are faced with the overwhelming task of making sense of a profusion of data of wildly different types. Luckily, fuzzy logic provides a method to work with different types of data using language-based propositions such as "the landscape is undisturbed," and a simple set of logic constructs. Just as many surveys allow different levels of agreement with a proposition, fuzzy logic allows values reflecting different levels of truth for a proposition. Truth levels fall within a continuum ranging from Fully True to Fully False. Hence a fuzzy logic model produces continuous results. The Environmental Evaluation Modeling System (EEMS) is a platform-independent, tree-based, fuzzy logic modeling framework. An EEMS model provides a transparent definition of an evaluation model and is commonly developed as a collaborative effort among managers, scientists, and GIS experts. Managers specify a set of evaluative propositions used to characterize the landscape. Scientists, working with managers, formulate functions that convert raw data values into truth values for the propositions and produce a logic tree to combine results into a single metric used to guide decisions. Managers, scientists, and GIS experts then work together to implement and iteratively tune the logic model and produce final results. We present examples of two successful EEMS projects that provided managers with map-based results suitable for guiding decisions: sensitivity and climate change exposure in Utah and the Colorado Plateau modeled for the Bureau of Land Management; and terrestrial ecological intactness in the Mojave and Sonoran region of southern California modeled for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan.

  12. Prevention of landfill pollution by multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS): development, implementation, and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshand, Afshin; Bafrani, Ali Hasani; Zahedipour, Mohammad; Mirbagheri, Seyed Ahmad; Ehtehsami, Majid

    2018-03-01

    Landfilling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the serious environmental concerns as improper location of MSW landfill site can release the pollutants into the surrounding environment. The process of selecting MSW landfill site is a complicated decision making problem since it is subjected to simultaneous assessment of several environmental criteria, rules, and restrictions besides sociocultural and economic ones. The current study suggests a framework based on Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) to select landfill site. The MC-SDSS is an advanced method to integrate multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and geographical information systems (GIS) techniques. This approach enables the incorporation of several conflicting objectives and preferences into spatial decision models. In this study, 14 criteria were chosen and then divided into environmental, sociocultural, and economic categories. Finally, suitability maps were generated based on the MC-SDSS analysis. The developed method was implemented in a real case study in Arak city in northwestern region of Iran, which is environmentally sensitive area. The suitability maps of the case study in Arak showed that 10% (391 km 2 ) is least suitable area, 23% (942 km 2 ) is low suitable, 37% (1507 km 2 ) is moderate suitable, 19% (783 km 2 ) is suitable, and 11% (489 km 2 ) is most suitable locations for landfill site, and finally, three best alternative sites were introduced for the final landfill site.

  13. Oblique decision trees for spatial pattern detection: optimal algorithm and application to malaria risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranque Stéphane

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to detect potential disease clusters where a putative source cannot be specified, classical procedures scan the geographical area with circular windows through a specified grid imposed to the map. However, the choice of the windows' shapes, sizes and centers is critical and different choices may not provide exactly the same results. The aim of our work was to use an Oblique Decision Tree model (ODT which provides potential clusters without pre-specifying shapes, sizes or centers. For this purpose, we have developed an ODT-algorithm to find an oblique partition of the space defined by the geographic coordinates. Methods ODT is based on the classification and regression tree (CART. As CART finds out rectangular partitions of the covariate space, ODT provides oblique partitions maximizing the interclass variance of the independent variable. Since it is a NP-Hard problem in RN, classical ODT-algorithms use evolutionary procedures or heuristics. We have developed an optimal ODT-algorithm in R2, based on the directions defined by each couple of point locations. This partition provided potential clusters which can be tested with Monte-Carlo inference. We applied the ODT-model to a dataset in order to identify potential high risk clusters of malaria in a village in Western Africa during the dry season. The ODT results were compared with those of the Kulldorff' s SaTScan™. Results The ODT procedure provided four classes of risk of infection. In the first high risk class 60%, 95% confidence interval (CI95% [52.22–67.55], of the children was infected. Monte-Carlo inference showed that the spatial pattern issued from the ODT-model was significant (p Satscan results yielded one significant cluster where the risk of disease was high with an infectious rate of 54.21%, CI95% [47.51–60.75]. Obviously, his center was located within the first high risk ODT class. Both procedures provided similar results identifying a high risk

  14. Elucidating the significance of spatial memory on movement decisions by African savannah elephants using state–space models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Leo; Kilian, Werner; Wittemyer, George

    2015-01-01

    Spatial memory facilitates resource acquisition where resources are patchy, but how it influences movement behaviour of wide-ranging species remains to be resolved. We examined African elephant spatial memory reflected in movement decisions regarding access to perennial waterholes. State–space models of movement data revealed a rapid, highly directional movement behaviour almost exclusively associated with visiting perennial water. Behavioural change point (BCP) analyses demonstrated that these goal-oriented movements were initiated on average 4.59 km, and up to 49.97 km, from the visited waterhole, with the closest waterhole accessed 90% of the time. Distances of decision points increased when switching to different waterholes, during the dry season, or for female groups relative to males, while selection of the closest waterhole decreased when switching. Overall, our analyses indicated detailed spatial knowledge over large scales, enabling elephants to minimize travel distance through highly directional movement when accessing water. We discuss the likely cognitive and socioecological mechanisms driving these spatially precise movements that are most consistent with our findings. By applying modern analytic techniques to high-resolution movement data, this study illustrates emerging approaches for studying how cognition structures animal movement behaviour in different ecological and social contexts. PMID:25808888

  15. Elucidating the significance of spatial memory on movement decisions by African savannah elephants using state-space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Leo; Kilian, Werner; Wittemyer, George

    2015-04-22

    Spatial memory facilitates resource acquisition where resources are patchy, but how it influences movement behaviour of wide-ranging species remains to be resolved. We examined African elephant spatial memory reflected in movement decisions regarding access to perennial waterholes. State-space models of movement data revealed a rapid, highly directional movement behaviour almost exclusively associated with visiting perennial water. Behavioural change point (BCP) analyses demonstrated that these goal-oriented movements were initiated on average 4.59 km, and up to 49.97 km, from the visited waterhole, with the closest waterhole accessed 90% of the time. Distances of decision points increased when switching to different waterholes, during the dry season, or for female groups relative to males, while selection of the closest waterhole decreased when switching. Overall, our analyses indicated detailed spatial knowledge over large scales, enabling elephants to minimize travel distance through highly directional movement when accessing water. We discuss the likely cognitive and socioecological mechanisms driving these spatially precise movements that are most consistent with our findings. By applying modern analytic techniques to high-resolution movement data, this study illustrates emerging approaches for studying how cognition structures animal movement behaviour in different ecological and social contexts. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing Sustainability of Coral Reef Ecosystem Services using a Spatially-Explicit Decision Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forecasting and communicating the potential outcomes of decision options requires support tools that aid in evaluating alternative scenarios in a user-friendly context and that highlight variables relevant to the decision options and valuable stakeholders. Envision is a GIS-base...

  17. Combining conservation value, vulnerability, and effectiveness of mitigation actions in spatial conservation decisions: an application to coastal oil spill combating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihaksi, Taina; Kokkonen, Teemu; Helle, Inari; Jolma, Ari; Lecklin, Tiina; Kuikka, Sakari

    2011-05-01

    Increasing oil transportation and severe oil accidents in the past have led to the development of various sensitivity maps in different countries all over the world. Often, however, the areas presented on the maps are far too large to be safeguarded with the available oil combating equipment and prioritization is required to decide which areas must be safeguarded. While oil booms can be applied to safeguard populations from a drifting oil slick, decision making on the spatial allocation of oil combating capacity is extremely difficult due to the lack of time, resources and knowledge. Since the operational decision makers usually are not ecologists, a useful decision support tool including ecological knowledge must be readily comprehensible and easy to use. We present an index-based method that can be used to make decisions concerning which populations of natural organisms should primarily be safeguarded from a floating oil slick with oil booms. The indices take into account the relative exposure, mortality and recovery potential of populations, the conservation value of species and populations, and the effectiveness of oil booms to safeguard different species. The method has been implemented in a mapping software that can be used in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) for operational oil combating. It could also be utilized in other similar conservation decisions where species with varying vulnerability, conservational value, and benefits received from the management actions need to be prioritized.

  18. Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Flood Risks in Aging-Dam Management in China: A Framework and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Qian, Xin; Zhang, Yuchao; Sheng, Jinbao; Shen, Dengle; Ge, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of spatial multicriteria decision analysis, this report generalizes a framework consisting of scenario definition, problem structuring, criteria construction, spatial quantification of criteria, criteria weighting, decision rules, sensitivity analyses, and scenario appraisal. The framework is presented in detail by using a case study to rank dam rehabilitation, decommissioning and existing-condition scenarios. The results show that there was a serious inundation, and that a dam rehabilitation scenario could reduce the multicriteria flood risk by 0.25 in the most affected areas; this indicates a mean risk decrease of less than 23%. Although increased risk (<0.20) was found for some residential and commercial buildings, if the dam were to be decommissioned, the mean risk would not be greater than the current existing risk, indicating that the dam rehabilitation scenario had a higher rank for decreasing the flood risk than the decommissioning scenario, but that dam rehabilitation alone might be of little help in abating flood risk. With adjustments and improvement to the specific methods (according to the circumstances and available data) this framework may be applied to other sites. PMID:21655125

  19. Integrated Modeling of Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneities and Decisions Induced by Catastrophic Events

    OpenAIRE

    Ermolieva, T.Y.; Fischer, G.; Obersteiner, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses an integrated model capable of dealing with spatial and temporal heterogeneities induced by extreme events, in particular weather related catastrophes. The model can be used for quite different problems which take explicitly into account the specifics of catastrophic risks: highly mutually dependent losses, inherent capacity of information, the need for long-term perspectives (temporal heterogeneity) and geographically explicit analyses (spatial heterogeneity) with respec...

  20. From Perceived Values to Shared Values: A Multi-Stakeholder Spatial Decision Analysis (M-SSDA for Resilient Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cerreta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forth a Multi-Stakeholder Spatial Decision Analysis (M-SSDA which combines Multi-Stakeholders Decision Analysis (M-SDA and GIS processing based on a collaborative, hybrid and adaptive evaluative approach to support the elaboration of enhancement strategies designed for resilient landscapes. This methodology has been tested in the research project “Cilento Labscape: An integrated model for the activation of a Living Lab in the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni”, which was conducted in the Cilento National Park (Southern Italy. The aim of the methodology is to find alternative touristic routes for the promotion of the Park. The different steps in the process will be described, as will the employment of multiple tools/techniques (interviews, GIS tools, Semantic Analysis, and Geo-Statistical Analysis to improve the reliability of the decision-making process. The most relevant results of the methodology will also be outlined in terms of the transition from the identification of the perceived landscape’s values to the acknowledgement of the shared values, and their consequent employment for the outlining of new thematic itineraries for the Park. To realise sustainable territorial strategies and preserve the landscape through bottom-up decision-making processes, the different local communities need to gain a new awareness of their identity shared values and make an active contribution towards promoting and managing their site-specific resources.

  1. Computational modeling and analysis of hippocampal-prefrontal information coding during a spatial decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahans-Price, Thomas; Gorochowski, Thomas E; Wilson, Matthew A; Jones, Matthew W; Bogacz, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a computational model describing rat behavior and the interactions of neural populations processing spatial and mnemonic information during a maze-based, decision-making task. The model integrates sensory input and implements working memory to inform decisions at a choice point, reproducing rat behavioral data and predicting the occurrence of turn- and memory-dependent activity in neuronal networks subserving task performance. We tested these model predictions using a new software toolbox (Maze Query Language, MQL) to analyse activity of medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) and dorsal hippocampal (dCA1) neurons recorded from six adult rats during task performance. The firing rates of dCA1 neurons discriminated context (i.e., the direction of the previous turn), whilst a subset of mPFC neurons was selective for current turn direction or context, with some conjunctively encoding both. mPFC turn-selective neurons displayed a ramping of activity on approach to the decision turn and turn-selectivity in mPFC was significantly reduced during error trials. These analyses complement data from neurophysiological recordings in non-human primates indicating that firing rates of cortical neurons correlate with integration of sensory evidence used to inform decision-making.

  2. Computational modelling and analysis of hippocampal-prefrontal information coding during a spatial decision-making task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eJahans-Price

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a computational model describing rat behaviour and the interactions of neural populations processing spatial and mnemonic information during a maze-based, decision-making task. The model integrates sensory input and implements a working memory to inform decisions at a choice point, reproducing rat behavioural data and predicting the occurrence of turn- and memory-dependent activity in neuronal networks supporting task performance. We tested these model predictions using a new software toolbox (Maze Query Language, MQL to analyse activity of medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC and dorsal hippocampal (dCA1 neurons recorded from 6 adult rats during task performance. The firing rates of dCA1 neurons discriminated context (i.e. the direction of the previous turn, whilst a subset of mPFC neurons was selective for current turn direction or context, with some conjunctively encoding both. mPFC turn-selective neurons displayed a ramping of activity on approach to the decision turn and turn-selectivity in mPFC was significantly reduced during error trials. These analyses complement data from neurophysiological recordings in non-human primates indicating that firing rates of cortical neurons correlate with integration of sensory evidence used to inform decision-making.

  3. Spatially detailed quantification of metal loading for decision making: Metal mass loading to American fork and Mary Ellen Gulch, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Effective remediation requires an understanding of the relative contributions of metals from all sources in a catchment, and that understanding must be based on a spatially detailed quantification of metal loading. A traditional approach to quantifying metal loading has been to measure discharge and chemistry at a catchment outlet. This approach can quantify annual loading and the temporal changes in load, but does not provide the needed spatial detail to evaluate specific sources, which is needed to support remediation decisions. A catchment or massloading approach provides spatial detail by combining tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling methods to quantify loading. Examples of studies in American Fork, Utah, and its tributary Mary Ellen Gulch illustrate this different approach. The mass-loading study in American Fork treated Mary Ellen Gulch as a single inflow. From that point of view, Mary Ellen Gulch was one of the greatest sources of Fe, Mn, Zn, and colloidal Pb loads to American Fork. But when Mary Ellen Gulch was evaluated in a separate catchment study, the detailed locations of metal loading were identified, and the extent of metal attenuation upstream from the mouth of Mary Ellen Gulch was quantified. The net, instantaneous load measured at the mouth of Mary Ellen Gulch for remediation planning would greatly underestimate the contributions of principal sources within the catchment. Extending the detailed sampling downstream from Mary Ellen Gulch indicated the possibility of diffuse groundwater inflow from Mary Ellen Gulch to American Fork. Comparing loads for Mary Ellen Gulch in the two studies indicates that metal loads could be substantially underestimated for planning purposes without the detailed catchment approach for the low-flow conditions in these studies. A mass-loading approach provides both the needed quantification of metal loading and the spatial detail to guide remediation decisions that would be the most effective in the catchments

  4. Performance analysis of statistical spatial measures for contaminant plume characterization toward risk-based decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, F.; de Barros, F. P. J.; Fiori, A.; Bellin, A.

    2013-06-01

    The spatial distribution of solute concentration in heterogeneous aquifers is extremely complex and variable over scales ranging from a few millimeters to kilometers. Obtaining a detailed spatial distribution of the concentration field is an elusive goal because of intrinsic technical limitations and budget constraints for site characterization. Therefore, local concentration predictions are highly uncertain and alternative measures of transport must be sought. In this paper, we propose to describe the spatial distribution of the concentrations of a nonreactive tracer plume by means of suitable spatial statistical transport measures, as an alternative to approaches relying only on the ensemble mean concentration. By assuming that the solute concentration is statistically distributed according to the Beta distribution model, we compare several models of concentration moments against numerical simulations and Cape Cod concentration data. These measures provide useful information which are: (i) representative of the overall transport process, (ii) less affected by uncertainty than the local probability density function and (iii) only marginally influenced by local features. The flexibility of the approach is shown by considering three different integral expressions for both the spatial mean and variance of concentration based on previous works. Aiming at a full statistical characterization, we illustrate how the Beta relative cumulative frequency distribution (obtained as a function of the spatial concentration) compares with the numerical cumulative frequencies. Our approach allows to estimate the probability of exceeding a given concentration threshold within the computational or observational domain, which could be used for sampling data campaigns, preliminary risk assessment and model refinement. Finally, our results highlight the importance of goal-oriented model development.

  5. Effect of Spatial Variability on Maintenance and Repair Decisions for Concrete Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasingly number of elder and deteriorating structures, maintenance is becoming a serious and more complex problem in most of the countries. A lot of studies have been carried out in this area for years. However, the fact that a lot of parameters show spatial random variability, which

  6. The design and implementation of urban police spatial decision support information systems based on COM GIS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Yang

    2006-10-01

    Based on a practical project and urban police professional work requirements, this paper has offered a solution for constructing the police spatial information decision support systems based on COM GIS technologies. According to the principles of software engineering, the systems development work contains the general system structure design, data requirements design, system function design, software interface design as well as the systems function realization methods. The main software technologies used in the systems development contain the spatial database, COM GIS, Web GIS, Oracle Objects for OLE (OO4O), and Police Decision Analysis Modeling technologies. In order to illustrate the basic principles and methods for the systems development, the realization process and relevant sample codes for crime case precaution function component has been described in the paper as an example for integrating GIS functions with police professional work models by using VC and VB developing tools. The realized systems function interfaces have also been offered in the paper for displaying the real effects of the systems. The development practice has proved that the COM GIS technology is very suitable for integrating police professional work models with GIS functions.

  7. Spatial Bayesian belief networks as a planning decision tool for mapping ecosystem services trade-offs on forested landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Redin, Julen; Luque, Sandra; Poggio, Laura; Smith, Ron; Gimona, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    An integrated methodology, based on linking Bayesian belief networks (BBN) with GIS, is proposed for combining available evidence to help forest managers evaluate implications and trade-offs between forest production and conservation measures to preserve biodiversity in forested habitats. A Bayesian belief network is a probabilistic graphical model that represents variables and their dependencies through specifying probabilistic relationships. In spatially explicit decision problems where it is difficult to choose appropriate combinations of interventions, the proposed integration of a BBN with GIS helped to facilitate shared understanding of the human-landscape relationships, while fostering collective management that can be incorporated into landscape planning processes. Trades-offs become more and more relevant in these landscape contexts where the participation of many and varied stakeholder groups is indispensable. With these challenges in mind, our integrated approach incorporates GIS-based data with expert knowledge to consider two different land use interests - biodiversity value for conservation and timber production potential - with the focus on a complex mountain landscape in the French Alps. The spatial models produced provided different alternatives of suitable sites that can be used by policy makers in order to support conservation priorities while addressing management options. The approach provided provide a common reasoning language among different experts from different backgrounds while helped to identify spatially explicit conflictive areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable tourism planning in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminu, M; Yusof, K W; Matori, A N

    2014-01-01

    The study describes a methodological approach based on an integrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) of Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) to determine nature conservation and tourism development priorities among the highland areas. A set of criteria and indicators were defined to evaluate the highlands biodiversity conservation and tourism development. Pair wise comparison technique was used in order to support solution of a decision problem by evaluating possible alternatives from different perspectives. After the weights have been derived from the pairwise comparison technique, the next step was to compute the unweighted supermatrix, weighted supermatrix and the limit matrix. The limit matrix was normalized to obtain the priorities and the results transferred into GIS environment. Elements evaluated and ranked were represented by criterion maps. Map layers reflecting the opinion of different experts involved were summed using the weighted overlay approach of GIS. Subsequently sustainable tourism development scenarios were generated. The generation of scenarios highlighted the critical issues of the decision problem because it allows one to gradually narrow down a problem

  9. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable tourism planning in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu, M.; Matori, A. N.; Yusof, K. W.

    2014-02-01

    The study describes a methodological approach based on an integrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) of Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) to determine nature conservation and tourism development priorities among the highland areas. A set of criteria and indicators were defined to evaluate the highlands biodiversity conservation and tourism development. Pair wise comparison technique was used in order to support solution of a decision problem by evaluating possible alternatives from different perspectives. After the weights have been derived from the pairwise comparison technique, the next step was to compute the unweighted supermatrix, weighted supermatrix and the limit matrix. The limit matrix was normalized to obtain the priorities and the results transferred into GIS environment. Elements evaluated and ranked were represented by criterion maps. Map layers reflecting the opinion of different experts involved were summed using the weighted overlay approach of GIS. Subsequently sustainable tourism development scenarios were generated. The generation of scenarios highlighted the critical issues of the decision problem because it allows one to gradually narrow down a problem.

  10. Modelling the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in bovines using decision tree, logistic regression and GIS query approaches for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennema, S C; Molento, M B; Scholte, R G; Carvalho, O S; Pritsch, I

    2017-11-01

    Fascioliasis is a condition caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica. In this paper, the spatial distribution of F. hepatica in bovines in Brazil was modelled using a decision tree approach and a logistic regression, combined with a geographic information system (GIS) query. In the decision tree and the logistic model, isothermality had the strongest influence on disease prevalence. Also, the 50-year average precipitation in the warmest quarter of the year was included as a risk factor, having a negative influence on the parasite prevalence. The risk maps developed using both techniques, showed a predicted higher prevalence mainly in the South of Brazil. The prediction performance seemed to be high, but both techniques failed to reach a high accuracy in predicting the medium and high prevalence classes to the entire country. The GIS query map, based on the range of isothermality, minimum temperature of coldest month, precipitation of warmest quarter of the year, altitude and the average dailyland surface temperature, showed a possibility of presence of F. hepatica in a very large area. The risk maps produced using these methods can be used to focus activities of animal and public health programmes, even on non-evaluated F. hepatica areas.

  11. The Neural Representation of Prospective Choice during Spatial Planning and Decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Kaplan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are remarkably adept at inferring the consequences of our actions, yet the neuronal mechanisms that allow us to plan a sequence of novel choices remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate how the human brain plans the shortest path to a goal in novel mazes with one (shallow maze or two (deep maze choice points. We observed two distinct anterior prefrontal responses to demanding choices at the second choice point: one in rostrodorsal medial prefrontal cortex (rd-mPFC/superior frontal gyrus (SFG that was also sensitive to (deactivated by demanding initial choices and another in lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC, which was only engaged by demanding choices at the second choice point. Furthermore, we identified hippocampal responses during planning that correlated with subsequent choice accuracy and response time, particularly in mazes affording sequential choices. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI analyses showed that coupling between the hippocampus and rd-mPFC increases during sequential (deep versus shallow planning and is higher before correct versus incorrect choices. In short, using a naturalistic spatial planning paradigm, we reveal how the human brain represents sequential choices during planning without extensive training. Our data highlight a network centred on the cortical midline and hippocampus that allows us to make prospective choices while maintaining initial choices during planning in novel environments.

  12. Snowmaking in ski resorts: spatial decision support for management of snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubier, Jean-Christophe; Kanevski, Mikhail; Doctor, Marut; Schumacher, Michael; Timonin, Vadim

    2010-05-01

    Since the early 2000s, the question of snowmaking that ensures activity in ski areas is controversial, because solutions to face climate change and sustainable development seem to be opposed to the economical needs of winter tourism. Actually, according to the Advisory Body on Climate Change (OCCC), we can expect an average rise of the limit of 0 degrees to 360 m in 2050. The application of the rule of 100 days (30 cm of snow for 100 days) shows that 1 ° increase in temperature reduced by 20% the number of viable skiing areas. Snowmaking seems thus to be a solution for continuing an optimal economical usage of the ski resorts. The usage of machine-made snow raises environmental issues which can no longer be denied. [Badre et al.2009] However, these issues should not be disconnected from local economic specificities of the high mountain valleys, where the ski economy is critical. This paper presents a study at the economic-environmental interface. The aim is to develop a tool for managing the production of artificial snow, with the goal to: • Reduce production costs and improve profit margins of companies operating ski areas; • Reduce environmental impacts by an optimized snow production "just in time". In this way, water and energy needs will be reduced. The problem of managing the snow is a highly complex problem: it cannot be solved analytically. Indeed, changes in height of snow are subject to intakes of snow (natural or manufactured) associated with changing weather conditions and the impact of skiers. Therefore, the work presented in this paper has chosen a probabilistic approach in a simulation using neural networks to predict and to manage snow height. We do this in two points: • We measure snowpack heights with radars mounted on grooming machines; • We produce a snow cover prediction in relation with weather prediction using a neuron network. This neural approach thus deals with the spatial prediction of snow cover [Kanevski et al., 2009] The

  13. Publically accessible decision support system of the spatially referenced regressions on watershed attributes (SPARROW) model and model enhancements in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste Journey; Anne B. Hoos; David E. Ladd; John W. brakebill; Richard A. Smith

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment program has developed a web-based decision support system (DSS) to provide free public access to the steady-stateSPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model simulation results on nutrient conditions in streams and rivers and to offer scenario testing capabilities for...

  14. Decision support tools for collaborative marine spatial planning: identifying potential sites for tidal energy devices around the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Arciniegas, G.A.; Alexander, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of offshore renewable energy production, such as wind, wave and tidal energy, is likely to lead to conflict between different users of the sea. Two types of spatial decision support tools were developed to support stakeholder workshops. A value mapping tool combines regional attributes

  15. The two-layer geochemical structure of modern biogeochemical provinces and its significance for spatially adequate ecological evaluations and decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Contamination of the environment has reached such a scale that ecogeochemical situation in any area can be interpreted now as a result of the combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The areas that appear uncomfortable for a long stay can have natural and anthropogenic genesis, but the spatial structure of such biogeochemical provinces is in any case formed of a combination of natural and technogenic fields of chemical elements. Features of structural organization and the difference in factors and specific time of their formation allow their separation on one hand and help in identification of areas with different ecological risks due to overlay of the two structures on the other. Geochemistry of soil cover reflects the long-term result of the naturally balanced biogeochemical cycles, therefore the soil geochemical maps of the undisturbed areas may serve the basis for evaluation of the natural geochemical background with due regard to the main factors of geochemical differentiation in biosphere. Purposeful and incidental technogenic concentrations and dispersions of chemical elements of specific (mainly mono- or polycentric) structure are also fixed in soils that serve as secondary sources of contamination of the vegetation cover and local food chains. Overlay of the two structures forms specific heterogeneity of modern biogeochemical provinces with different risk for particular groups of people, animals and plants adapted to specific natural geochemical background within particular concentration interval. The developed approach is believed to be helpful for biogeochemical regionalizing of modern biosphere (noosphere) and for spatially adequate ecogeochemical evaluation of the environment and landuse decisions. It allows production of a set of applied geochemical maps such as: 1) health risk due to chemical elements deficiency and technogenic contamination accounting of possible additive effects; 2) adequate soil fertilization and melioration with due

  16. A GIS based spatially-explicit sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approach for multi-criteria decision analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    GIS multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques are increasingly used in landslide susceptibility mapping for the prediction of future hazards, land use planning, as well as for hazard preparedness. However, the uncertainties associated with MCDA techniques are inevitable and model outcomes are open to multiple types of uncertainty. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. We access the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility maps produced with GIS-MCDA techniques. A new spatially-explicit approach and Dempster–Shafer Theory (DST) are employed to assess the uncertainties associated with two MCDA techniques, namely Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) implemented in GIS. The methodology is composed of three different phases. First, weights are computed to express the relative importance of factors (criteria) for landslide susceptibility. Next, the uncertainty and sensitivity of landslide susceptibility is analyzed as a function of weights using Monte Carlo Simulation and Global Sensitivity Analysis. Finally, the results are validated using a landslide inventory database and by applying DST. The comparisons of the obtained landslide susceptibility maps of both MCDA techniques with known landslides show that the AHP outperforms OWA. However, the OWA-generated landslide susceptibility map shows lower uncertainty than the AHP-generated map. The results demonstrate that further improvement in the accuracy of GIS-based MCDA can be achieved by employing an integrated uncertainty–sensitivity analysis approach, in which the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility model is decomposed and attributed to model's criteria weights. PMID:25843987

  17. A GIS based spatially-explicit sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approach for multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    GIS multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques are increasingly used in landslide susceptibility mapping for the prediction of future hazards, land use planning, as well as for hazard preparedness. However, the uncertainties associated with MCDA techniques are inevitable and model outcomes are open to multiple types of uncertainty. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. We access the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility maps produced with GIS-MCDA techniques. A new spatially-explicit approach and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) are employed to assess the uncertainties associated with two MCDA techniques, namely Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) implemented in GIS. The methodology is composed of three different phases. First, weights are computed to express the relative importance of factors (criteria) for landslide susceptibility. Next, the uncertainty and sensitivity of landslide susceptibility is analyzed as a function of weights using Monte Carlo Simulation and Global Sensitivity Analysis. Finally, the results are validated using a landslide inventory database and by applying DST. The comparisons of the obtained landslide susceptibility maps of both MCDA techniques with known landslides show that the AHP outperforms OWA. However, the OWA-generated landslide susceptibility map shows lower uncertainty than the AHP-generated map. The results demonstrate that further improvement in the accuracy of GIS-based MCDA can be achieved by employing an integrated uncertainty-sensitivity analysis approach, in which the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility model is decomposed and attributed to model's criteria weights.

  18. Spatial Variables as Proxies for Modelling Cognition and Decision-Making in Archaeological Settings: A Theoretical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Whitley

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a flourish of archaeological studies focusing on prehistoric cognition or motivation on the basis of GIS-generated interpretations. These have taken two very different forms on either side of the Atlantic. In the empirically driven positivist community of North American researchers, Cultural Resource Management (CRM projects have created a tendency toward using GIS-based archaeological data in the context of so-called 'predictive modelling', or within typically large-scale interpretations of environmental motivations for settlement. This perspective has its origins in the nature of the North American archaeological record, and the development and dominance of processualism. In contrast, the highly complex European archaeological record and the influence of both post-processualism and landscape forms of archaeology have led to a European focus on using GIS as a tool for reconstructing social and cognitive landscapes. Most frequently this has been in the form of visibility and viewshed analyses of henge-type monuments, hill fortifications and their surrounding landscapes. The disconnect between these two dichotomous traditions suggests on the one hand that North American approaches could benefit from methods that generate a more enriching discussion of agency and social theory, while European approaches could benefit from a less speculative form of epistemological argumentation. These ideas may come together through the use of an enhanced discussion of explanation and causality (in keeping with developments in the history and philosophy of science and key tools such as the use of spatial variables as proxies for cognitive decision-making and social agency.

  19. Decisions, Decisions!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, F. Lee

    1975-01-01

    A self-instructional program on decision making was used in conjunction with workshops to introduce the staff of an instructional materials company to the decision tree process as they used it to study their own film production problem. (Author/MS)

  20. Historical Roots of the Spatial, Temporal, and Diversity Scales of Agricultural Decision-Making in Sierra de Santa Marta, Los Tuxtlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete-Yankelevich, Simoneta; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Blanco-Rosas, José Luis; Barois, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Land degradation is a serious problem in tropical mountainous areas. Market prices, technological development, and population growth are often invoked as the prime causes. Using historical agrarian documents, literature sources, and historical population data, we (1) provide quantitative and qualitative evidence that the land degradation present at Sierra de Santa Marta (Los Tuxtlas, Mexico) has involved a historical reduction in the temporal, spatial, and diversity scales, in which individual farmers make management decisions, and has resulted in decreased maize productivity; and (2) analyze how these three scalar changes can be linked to policy, population growth, and agrarian history. We conclude that the historical reduction in the scales of land use decision-making and practices constitutes a present threat to indigenous agricultural heritage. The long-term viability of agriculture requires that initiatives consider incentives for co-responsibility with an initial focus on self-sufficiency.

  1. Internalising the costs of fragmentation and nutrient deposition in spatial planning: Extending a decision support tool for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppink, F.V.; Rietveld, P.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Vermaat, J.E.; Wassen, M.; Hilferink, M.T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Land Use Scanner (LUS) is a decision support system for land use planning that is widely used in the Netherlands. The model yields solutions that have a high resolution (500×500 m) and reflect economic equilibrium in the land market, in which eighteen types of land use and nine aggregated

  2. Spatial Distribution of Seropositive Dogs to Leptospira spp. and Evaluation of Leptospirosis Risk Factors Using a Decision Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Bier, Daniele; Martins-Bede, Flavia Toledo; Morikawa, Vivien Midori; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina [UNESP; Kikuti, Mariana [UNESP; Langoni, Hélio [UNESP; Canever, Ricardo Jose; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Molento, Marcelo Beltrao

    2012-01-01

    Background: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease associated with poor areas of urban settings of developing countries and early diagnosis and prompt treatment may prevent disease. Although rodents are reportedly considered the main reservoirs of leptospirosis, dogs may develop the disease, may become asymptomatic carriers and may be used as sentinels for disease epidemiology. The use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with spatial analysis techniques allows the mappi...

  3. Decision Making on Allocating Urban Green Spaces Based upon Spatially-Varying Relationships between Urban Green Spaces and Urban Compaction Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Sheng Chang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The compact city is becoming a prevailing paradigm in the world to control urban sprawl and achieve a pattern of sustainable urban development. However, discussions of the area's overcrowded neighborhoods, its health problems, and the destruction of its green areas have inspired self-examination with respect to the compact city paradigm. High population density attracts even more residents and frequently renders the existing urban green space (UGS insufficient for use as part of a living environment. Due to the unique benefits that these qualities confer, UGS allocation is now considered a significant contributing factor to urban livability. In addition, the UGS allocation may be different due to the presence of many spatial non-stationarity processes. Therefore, this study employs geographically-weighted regression (GWR to explore the unique and spatially-explicit relationships between the degree of urban compaction and UGS within the Taipei metropolitan area. Maps summarizing the GWR results demonstrate that there is significantly insufficient UGS allocation in the central area, which consists mainly of Taipei City. Townships with higher parameters contain UGS levels that better meet the needs of their residents. Overall, the exploration of conceptualizing spatial heterogeneity of relationships between the degree of urban compaction and UGS can provide insightful analyses for decision-making on allocating UGS.

  4. Development of a spatial decision support system for flood risk management in Brazil that combines volunteered geographic information with wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Flávio E. A.; Albuquerque, João Porto de; Degrossi, Lívia C.; Mendiondo, Eduardo M.; Ueyama, Jó

    2015-07-01

    Effective flood risk management requires updated information to ensure that the correct decisions can be made. This can be provided by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) which are a low-cost means of collecting updated information about rivers. Another valuable resource is Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) which is a comparatively new means of improving the coverage of monitored areas because it is able to supply supplementary information to the WSN and thus support decision-making in flood risk management. However, there still remains the problem of how to combine WSN data with VGI. In this paper, an attempt is made to investigate AGORA-DS, which is a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) that is able to make flood risk management more effective by combining these data sources, i.e. WSN with VGI. This approach is built over a conceptual model that complies with the interoperable standards laid down by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) - e.g. Sensor Observation Service (SOS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) - and seeks to combine and present unified information in a web-based decision support tool. This work was deployed in a real scenario of flood risk management in the town of São Carlos in Brazil. The evidence obtained from this deployment confirmed that interoperable standards can support the integration of data from distinct data sources. In addition, they also show that VGI is able to provide information about areas of the river basin which lack data since there is no appropriate station in the area. Hence it provides a valuable support for the WSN data. It can thus be concluded that AGORA-DS is able to combine information provided by WSN and VGI, and provide useful information for supporting flood risk management.

  5. Disentangling the geography of finance and real estate: competing space-times of decision-making and uneven spatial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Dörry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The versatile ‘city building’ processes are in the focus of this issue. The author’s papers deal with a plurality of related issues such as the complexities of the increasing transparency of local property markets or the tight relations between city planners and (inter-national investors. As the built environment decides on a city’s economic prospect and determines future planning and development opportunities, the consequences of city building processes are multifaceted. Financial processes of urban (redevelopment, for example, are discussed at the cutting edge of a larger process of uneven development, which is rooted in the structure of the capitalist mode of production and fuels controversial debates on the ownership of the city. The current edition aims to attract further attention to the complex of financial matters and the production of the built environment with the intention to locate both more centrally within geography, planning, and economics. Against this background, this introduction spans the idea of the decision-making itself in financial and real estate markets, which can neither be limited to a singular moment nor be separated from the context in which they take place. Disentangling these market interdependencies and illustrating the context dependency of decision-making is a common theme in all of the papers included in this issue.

  6. Spatially explicit modeling of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) habitat in Nevada and northeastern California: a decision-support tool for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Overton, Cory T.; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Kroger, Travis; Mauch, Kimberly; Niell, Lara; Howe, Kristy; Gardner, Scott; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter referred to as “sage-grouse”) populations are declining throughout the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem, including millions of acres of potential habitat across the West. Habitat maps derived from empirical data are needed given impending listing decisions that will affect both sage-grouse population dynamics and human land-use restrictions. This report presents the process for developing spatially explicit maps describing relative habitat suitability for sage-grouse in Nevada and northeastern California. Maps depicting habitat suitability indices (HSI) values were generated based on model-averaged resource selection functions informed by more than 31,000 independent telemetry locations from more than 1,500 radio-marked sage-grouse across 12 project areas in Nevada and northeastern California collected during a 15-year period (1998–2013). Modeled habitat covariates included land cover composition, water resources, habitat configuration, elevation, and topography, each at multiple spatial scales that were relevant to empirically observed sage-grouse movement patterns. We then present an example of how the HSI can be delineated into categories. Specifically, we demonstrate that the deviation from the mean can be used to classify habitat suitability into three categories of habitat quality (high, moderate, and low) and one non-habitat category. The classification resulted in an agreement of 93–97 percent for habitat versus non-habitat across a suite of independent validation datasets. Lastly, we provide an example of how space use models can be integrated with habitat models to help inform conservation planning. In this example, we combined probabilistic breeding density with a non-linear probability of occurrence relative to distance to nearest lek (traditional breeding ground) using count data to calculate a composite space use index (SUI). The SUI was then classified into two categories of use

  7. An integrated approach of analytical network process and fuzzy based spatial decision making systems applied to landslide risk mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi Gheshlaghi, Hassan; Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar

    2017-09-01

    Landslides in mountainous areas render major damages to residential areas, roads, and farmlands. Hence, one of the basic measures to reduce the possible damage is by identifying landslide-prone areas through landslide mapping by different models and methods. The purpose of conducting this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a combination of two models of the analytical network process (ANP) and fuzzy logic in landslide risk mapping in the Azarshahr Chay basin in northwest Iran. After field investigations and a review of research literature, factors affecting the occurrence of landslides including slope, slope aspect, altitude, lithology, land use, vegetation density, rainfall, distance to fault, distance to roads, distance to rivers, along with a map of the distribution of occurred landslides were prepared in GIS environment. Then, fuzzy logic was used for weighting sub-criteria, and the ANP was applied to weight the criteria. Next, they were integrated based on GIS spatial analysis methods and the landslide risk map was produced. Evaluating the results of this study by using receiver operating characteristic curves shows that the hybrid model designed by areas under the curve 0.815 has good accuracy. Also, according to the prepared map, a total of 23.22% of the area, amounting to 105.38 km2, is in the high and very high-risk class. Results of this research are great of importance for regional planning tasks and the landslide prediction map can be used for spatial planning tasks and for the mitigation of future hazards in the study area.

  8. Low and high gamma oscillations in rat ventral striatum have distinct relationships to behavior, reward, and spiking activity on a learned spatial decision task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Local field potential (LFP oscillations in the brain reflect organization thought to be important for perception, attention, movement, and memory. In the basal ganglia, including dorsal striatum, dysfunctional LFP states are associated with Parkinson’s disease, while in healthy subjects, dorsal striatal LFPs have been linked to decision-making processes. However, LFPs in ventral striatum have been less studied. We report that in rats running a spatial decision task, prominent gamma-50 (45-55 Hz and gamma-80 (70-85 Hz oscillations in ventral striatum had distinct relationships to behavior, task events, and spiking activity. Gamma-50 power increased sharply following reward delivery and before movement initiation, while in contrast, gamma-80 power ramped up gradually to reward locations. Gamma-50 power was low and contained little structure during early learning, but rapidly developed a stable pattern, while gamma-80 power was initially high before returning to a stable level within a similar timeframe. Putative fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs showed phase, firing rate, and coherence relationships with gamma-50 and gamma-80, indicating that the observed LFP patterns are locally relevant. Furthermore, in a number of FSIs such relationships were specific to gamma-50 or gamma-80, suggesting that partially distinct FSI populations mediate the effects of gamma-50 and gamma-80.

  9. A Spatial Decision Support System Framework for the Evaluation of Biomass Energy Production Locations: Case Study in the Regional Unit of Drama, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Ioannou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy Sources are expected to play a very important role in energy production in the following years. They constitute an energy production methodology which, if properly enabled, can ensure energy sufficiency as well as the protection of the environment. Energy production from biomass in particular is a very common method, which exploits a variety of resources (wood and wood waste, agricultural crops and their by-products after cultivation, animal wastes, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW and food processing wastes for the production of energy. This paper presents a Spatial Decision Support System, which enables managers to locate the most suitable areas for biomass power plant installation. For doing this, fuzzy logic and fuzzy membership functions are used for the creation of criteria layers and suitability maps. In this paper, we use a Multicriteria Decision Analysis methodology (Analytical Hierarchy Process combined with fuzzy system elements for the determination of the weight coefficients of the participating criteria. Then, based on the combination of fuzzy logic and theAnalytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, a final proposal is created thatdivides the area into four categories regarding their suitability forsupporting a biomass energy production power plant. For the two optimal locations, the biomass is also calculated.The framework is applied to theRegional Unit of Drama, which is situated in Northern Greece and is very well known for the area’s forest and agricultural production.

  10. A Spatially Explicit, Multi-Criteria Decision Support Model for Loggerhead Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat Suitability: A Remote Sensing-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Dunkin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nesting habitat for the federally endangered loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta were designated as critical in 2014 for beaches along the Atlantic Coast and Gulf of Mexico. Nesting suitability is routinely determined based on site specific information. Given the expansive geographic location of the designated critical C. caretta nesting habitat and the highly dynamic coastal environment, understanding nesting suitability on a regional scale is essential for monitoring the changing status of the coast as a result of hydrodynamic forces and maintenance efforts. The increasing spatial resolution and temporal frequency of remote sensing data offers the opportunity to study this dynamic environment on a regional scale. Remote sensing data were used as input into the spatially-explicit, multi-criteria decision support model to determine nesting habitat suitability. Results from the study indicate that the morphological parameters used as input into the model are well suited to provide a regional level approach with the results from the optimized model having sensitivity and detection prevalence values greater than 80% and the detection rate being greater than 70%. The approach can be implemented in various geographic locations to better communicate priorities and evaluate management strategies as a result of changes to the dynamic coastal environment.

  11. Advances in regional-scale predictions of VMEs in the New Zealand region and their use in decision-support tools for spatial management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinotte, J. M.; Anderson, O. F.; Rowden, A. A.; Clark, M. R.; Mormede, S.; Davies, A. J.; Bowden, D.; Tracey, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    Spatial management planning for vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) requires detailed predictions of species presence across broad areas of un-sampled seafloor. We utilised two habitat suitability modelling techniques, boosted regression trees (BRT) and maximum entropy (MaxEnt), to create potential distribution maps for 11 VME indicator taxa in the New Zealand area and adjacent seas. New bathymetry data was combined with existing environmental, chemical and physical data to produce a set of 52 predictor variables for the seafloor. Nine of these variables were selected for use in the models based on low covariance and high explanatory power. Historical biological survey data was used to provide models with absence data (BRT) or target-group background data (MaxEnt). Model agreement was high, with each model predicting areas of suitable habitat both in the vicinity of known VME indicator taxa presence locations as well as across broad regions of un-sampled seafloor where environmental conditions were suitable. Model performance measures, including cross-validation testing of models against sets of spatially independent data, did not clearly indicate a preferred model type across all taxa modelled. Despite its value in spatial management planning, previous habitat suitability modeling efforts have rarely accounted for model precision. In this study we used a bootstrap re-sampling technique to produce precision maps to accompany each habitat suitability map. Because of the similar performance of BRT and MaxEnt in this study, the best approach to incorporating model results into planning, for example using decision-support tools, may be to average predictions from the two techniques and/or select the model with the best performance for each taxon.

  12. Analyzing spatial variability of soil properties in the urban park before and after reconstruction to support decision-making in landscaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romzaikina, Olga; Vasenev, Viacheslav; Khakimova, Rita

    2017-04-01

    On-going urbanization stresses a necessity for structural and aesthetically organized urban landscapes to improve citizen's life quality. Urban soils and vegetation are the main components of urban ecosystems. Urban greenery regulates the climate, controls and air quality and supports biodiversity in urban areas. Soils play a key role in supporting urban greenery. However, soils of urban parks also perform other important environmental functions. Urban soils are influenced by a variety of environmental and anthropogenic factors and, in the result, are highly heterogeneous and dynamic. Reconstructions of green zones and urban parks, usually occurring in cities, alter soil properties. Analyzing spatial variability and dynamics of soil properties is important to support decision-making in landscaping. Therefore, the research aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of the key soil properties (acidity, soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient contents) in the urban park before and after reconstruction to support decision-making in selecting ornamental plants for landscaping. The research was conducted in the urban park named after Artyom Borovik in Moscow before (2012) and after (2014) the reconstruction. Urban soil's properties maps for both periods were created by interpolation of the field data. The observed urban soils included recreazems, urbanozems and constuctozems. Before the reconstruction soils were sampled using the uniform design (the net with 100 m side and key plots with 50m size). After the reconstructions the additional samples were collected at locations, where the land cover and functional zones changed in a result of the reconstruction.We sample from the depths 0-30, 30-50 and 50-100 cm. The following soil properties were measured: pH, SOC, K2O and P2O5. The maps of the analyzed properties were developed using open QGIS2.4 software by IDW. The vegetation in the park was examined using the scale of the visual assessment. The results of the visual

  13. Analysing urban resilience through alternative stormwater management options: application of the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System model at the neighbourhood scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsells, M; Barroca, B; Amdal, J R; Diab, Y; Becue, V; Serre, D

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in cities and their environments, caused by rapid urbanisation and climate change, have increased both flood probability and the severity of flooding. Consequently, there is a need for all cities to adapt to climate and socio-economic changes by developing new strategies for flood risk management. Following a risk paradigm shift from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future urban development, one of the main emerging tasks for city managers becomes the development of resilient cities. However, the meaning of the resilience concept and its operability is still not clear. The goal of this research is to study how urban engineering and design disciplines can improve resilience to floods in urban neighbourhoods. This paper presents the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System (DS3) model which we consider a relevant tool to analyse and then implement resilience into neighbourhood design. Using this model, we analyse and discuss alternative stormwater management options at the neighbourhood scale in two specific areas: Rotterdam and New Orleans. The results obtained demonstrate that the DS3 model confirmed in its framework analysis that stormwater management systems can positively contribute to the improved flood resilience of a neighbourhood.

  14. Integrating Spatial Multi Criteria Decision Making (SMCDM) with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for delineation of the most suitable areas for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahani Amineh, Zainab Banoo; Hashemian, Seyyed Jamal Al-Din; Magholi, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    Hamoon-Jazmoorian plain is located in southeast of Iran. Overexploitation of groundwater in this plain has led to water level decline and caused serious problems such as land subsidence, aquifer destruction and water quality degradation. The increasing population and agricultural development along with drought and climate change, have further increased the pressure on water resources in this region over the last years. In order to overcome such crisis, introduction of surface water into an aquifer at particular locations can be a suitable solution. A wide variety of methods have been developed to recharge groundwater, one of which is aquifer storage and recovery (ASR). One of the fundamental principles of making such systems is delineation of suitable areas based on scientific and natural facts in order to achieve relevant objectives. To that end, the Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was applied in this study. More specifically, nine main parameters including depth of runoff as the considered source of water, morphology of the earth surface features such as geology, geomorphology, land use and land cover, drainage and aquifer characteristics along with quality of water in the aquifer were considered as the main layers in GIS. The runoff water available for artificial recharge in the basin was estimated through Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method. The weighted curve number for each watershed was derived through spatial intersection of land use and hydrological soil group layers. Other thematic layers were extracted from satellite images, topographical map, and other collateral data sources, then weighed according to their influence in locating process. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was then used to calculate weights of individual parameters. The normalized weighted layers were then overlaid to build up the recharge potential map. The results revealed that 34% of the

  15. Minimizing Erosion and Agro-Pollutants Transport from Furrow Irrigated Fields to the Nearby Water Body Using Spatially-Explicit Agent Based Model and Decision Optimization Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoveisi, H.; Al Dughaishi, U.; Kiker, G.

    2017-12-01

    Maintaining water quality in agricultural watersheds is a worldwide challenge, especially where furrow irrigation is being practiced. The Yakima River Basin watershed in south central Washington State, (USA) is an example of these impacted areas with elevated load of sediments and other agricultural products due to runoff from furrow-irrigated fields. Within the Yakima basin, the Granger Drain watershed (area of 75 km2) is particularly challenged in this regard with more than 400 flood-irrigated individual parcels (area of 21 km2) growing a variety of crops from maize to grapes. Alternatives for improving water quality from furrow-irrigated parcels include vegetated filter strip (VFS) implementation, furrow water application efficiency, polyacrylamide (PAM) application and irrigation scheduling. These alternatives were simulated separately and in combinations to explore potential Best Management Practices (BMPs) for runoff-related-pollution reduction in a spatially explicit, agent based modeling system (QnD:GrangerDrain). Two regulatory scenarios were tested to BMP adoption within individual parcels. A blanket-style regulatory scenario simulated a total of 60 BMP combinations implemented in all 409 furrow-irrigated parcels. A second regulatory scenario simulated the BMPs in 119 furrow-irrigated parcels designated as "hotspots" based on a standard 12 Mg ha-1 seasonal sediment load. The simulated cumulative runoff and sediment loading from all BMP alternatives were ranked using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), specifically the Stochastic Multi-Attribute Acceptability Analysis (SMAA) method. Several BMP combinations proved successful in reducing loads below a 25 NTU (91 mg L-1) regulatory sediment concentration. The QnD:GrangerDrain simulations and subsequent MCDA ranking revealed that the BMP combinations of 5 m-VFS and high furrow water efficiency were highly ranked alternatives for both the blanket and hotspot scenarios.

  16. Spatial prediction of flood susceptible areas using rule based decision tree (DT) and a novel ensemble bivariate and multivariate statistical models in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrany, Mahyat Shafapour; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jebur, Mustafa Neamah

    2013-11-01

    Decision tree (DT) machine learning algorithm was used to map the flood susceptible areas in Kelantan, Malaysia.We used an ensemble frequency ratio (FR) and logistic regression (LR) model in order to overcome weak points of the LR.Combined method of FR and LR was used to map the susceptible areas in Kelantan, Malaysia.Results of both methods were compared and their efficiency was assessed.Most influencing conditioning factors on flooding were recognized.

  17. Influence of landscape factors and management decisions on spatial and temporal patterns of the transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn O’Hara Ruiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD has been reported in white-tailed deer at the border of the US states of Illinois and Wisconsin since 2002. Transmission of infectious prions between animals and from the environment has resulted in spatial and temporal structure observable in the spatio-temporal patterns of reported cases. Case locations of 382 positive cases from 28,954 deer tested between 2002 and 2009 provided insight into the potential risk factors and landscape features associated with transmission using a combination of clustering, generalised linear modelling and descriptive evaluations of a risk map of predicted cases of CWD. A species distribution map of white-tailed deer developed using MaxEnt provided an estimate of deer locations. We found that deer probability increased in areas with larger forests and less urban and agricultural lands. Spatial clustering analysis revealed a core area of persistent CWD transmission in the northern part of the region. The regression model indicated that larger and more compact forests were associated with higher risk for CWD. High risk areas also had soils with less clay and more sand than other parts of the region. The transmission potential was higher where landscape features indicated the potential for higher deer concentrations. The inclusion of spatial lag variables improved the model. Of the 102 cases reported in the study area in the two years following the study period, 89 (87% of those were in the 32% of the study area with the highest 50% of predicted risk of cases.

  18. Decision and decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuta Porutiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use of Decision Support Systems (DSS, as a necessity in a competitive environment. DSS optimize the situation by getting a timely decision because the decision making process must acquire, process and interpret an even larger amount of data in the shortest possible time. A solution for this purpose is the artificial intelligence systems, in this case Decision Support Systems (DSS, used in a wider area due to expansion of all the new information technologies in decisionmaking processes. These substantial cyber innovations have led to a radical shift in the relationship between enterprise success and quality of decisions made by managers.

  19. Spatialization of climate, physical and socioeconomic factors that affect the dairy goat production in Brazil and their impact on animal breeding decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B. Lopes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has high climate, soil and environmental diversity, as well as distinct socioeconomic and political realities, what results in differences among the political administrative regions of the country. The objective of this study was to determine spatial distribution of the physical, climatic and socioeconomic aspects that best characterize the production of dairy goats in Brazil. Production indices of milk per goat, goat production, milk production, as well as temperature range, mean temperature, precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index, relative humidity, altitude, agricultural farms; farms with native pasture, farms with good quality pasture, farms with water resources, farms that receive technical guidance, family farming properties, non-familiar farms and the human development index were evaluated. The multivariate analyses were carried out to spatialize climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables and so differenciate the Brazilian States and Regions. The highest yields of milk and goat production were observed in the Northeast. The Southeast Region had the second highest production of milk, followed by the South, Midwest and North. Multivariate analysis revealed distinctions between clusters of political-administrative regions of Brazil. The climatic variables were most important to discriminate between regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to implement animal breeding programs to meet the needs of each region.

  20. The application of GIS based decision-tree models for generating the spatial distribution of hydromorphic organic landscapes in relation to digital terrain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheir, Rania Bou; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2010-01-01

    measurements in hydromorphic landscapes of the Danish area chosen. A large number of tree-based classification models (186) were developed using (1) all of the parameters, (2) the primary DEM-derived topographic (morphological/hydrological) parameters only, (3) selected pairs of parameters and (4) excluding......Accurate information about organic/mineral soil occurrence is a prerequisite for many land resources management applications (including climate change mitigation). This paper aims at investigating the potential of using geomorphometrical analysis and decision tree modeling to predict the geographic...... distribution of hydromorphic organic landscapes in unsampled area in Denmark. Nine primary (elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, tangent curvature, flow direction, flow accumulation, and specific catchment area) and one secondary (steady-state topographic wetness index...

  1. Spatial quality, location theory and spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, Mathijs; Groenendijk, Nico

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with spatial quality as a possible factor in location choices made by companies. Actual location decisions as well as location theory have changed over time. In the industrial era primary “hard” cost factors were dominant, to be supplemented by agglomeration factors ever since the

  2. Overnight social isolation in pigs decreases salivary cortisol but does not impair spatial learning and memory or performance in a decision making task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Josef evan der Staay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs performance in a cognitive Holeboard (HB task (Experiment 1 and the Pig Gambling Task (PGT (Experiment 2, a decision making task inspired by the Iowa Gambling Task. In addition, we tested the effect of overnight social isolation on salivary cortisol levels. A within-subjects approach was used in which performance in the two behavioral tasks and cortisol levels were first determined during normal social housing, followed by performance and cortisol levels after experiencing stress induced by overnight social isolation. A total of nineteen female pigs with a birthweight closest to their respective litter average was selected from 10 different litters and placed in two pens after weaning. Following habituation, pigs were trained in the HB task, starting at 10 weeks of age. Then, the pigs were isolated overnight, five individuals per night, at 15, 16 and 17 weeks of age. Between these three isolations, social housing and training in the HB continued. Starting 6 weeks after the end of the HB experiment, at approximately 23 weeks of age, the pigs were trained in the PGT. The effects of overnight social isolation on performance in this task were assessed once, when the pigs were 25 weeks old. Salivary cortisol was measured from samples collected 15 minutes after the start of isolation and at the end of the isolation period, and compared to baseline values collected before the start of social isolation. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that isolation impaired HB performance and decision making in the PGT. Unexpectedly, overnight social isolation decreased cortisol levels below baseline values, an effect that was not associated with changes in performance

  3. Assessment of Spatial Interpolation Methods to Map the Bathymetry of an Amazonian Hydroelectric Reservoir to Aid in Decision Making for Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curtarelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The generation of reliable information for improving the understanding of hydroelectric reservoir dynamics is fundamental for guiding decision-makers to implement best management practices. In this way, we assessed the performance of different interpolation algorithms to map the bathymetry of the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir, located in the Brazilian Amazon, as an aid to manage and operate Amazonian reservoirs. We evaluated three different deterministic and one geostatistical algorithms. The performance of the algorithms was assessed through cross-validation and Monte Carlo Simulation. Finally, operational information was derived from the bathymetric grid with the best performance. The results showed that all interpolation methods were able to map important bathymetric features. The best performance was obtained with the geostatistical method (RMSE = 0.92 m. The information derived from the bathymetric map (e.g., the level-area and level-volume diagram and the three-dimensional grid will allow for optimization of operational monitoring of the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir as well as the development of three-dimensional modeling studies.

  4. Spatial distribution of traffic induced noise exposures in a US city: an analytic tool for assessing the health impacts of urban planning decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivard Tom

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Vehicle traffic is the major source of noise in urban environments, which in turn has multiple impacts on health. In this paper we investigate the spatial distribution of community noise exposures and annoyance. Traffic data from the City of San Francisco were used to model noise exposure by neighborhood and road type. Remote sensing data were used in the model to estimate neighborhood-specific percentages of cars, trucks, and buses on arterial versus non-arterial streets. The model was validated on 235 streets. Finally, an exposure-response relationship was used to predict the prevalence of high annoyance for different neighborhoods. Results: Urban noise was found to increase 6.7 dB (p Conclusion: The risk of annoyance from urban noise is large, and varies considerably between neighborhoods. Such risk should be considered in urban areas undergoing rapid growth. We present a relatively simple GIS-based noise model that may be used for routinely evaluating the health impacts of environmental noise.

  5. Spatial analysis and mapping of malaria risk in an endemic area, south of Iran: a GIS based decision making for planning of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Charrahy, Z; Haghdoost, A A; Zamani, G; Abedi, F; Sedaghat, M M; Soltani, M; Shahi, M; Raeisi, A

    2012-04-01

    Bashagard district is one of the important malaria endemic areas in southern Iran. From this region a total of 16,199 indigenous cases have been reported in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the situation of the disease and provide the risk map for the area. ArcGIS9.2 was used for mapping spatial distribution of malaria incidence. Hot spots were obtained using evidence-based weighting method for transmission risk. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, altitude, slope and distance to rivers were combined by weighted multi criteria evaluation for mapping malaria hazard area at the district level. Similarly, risk map was developed by overlaying weighted hazard, land use/land cover, population density, malaria incidence, development factors and intervention methods. Our results reveal that the disease mainly occurs in north and east of the study area. Consequently the district is divided into three strata. Appropriate interventions are recommended for each stratum based on national malaria policy. Malaria hazard and risk map, stratification based on relevant information and data analyzing provide a useful method preparedness and early warning system for malaria control, although regular updating is required timely. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Noradrenergic signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala differentially regulates vicarious trial-and-error in a spatial decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kubota, Natsuko; Umeyama, Nao; Nishijima, Takeshi; Kita, Ichiro

    2016-01-15

    In uncertain choice situations, we deliberately search and evaluate possible options before taking an action. Once we form a preference regarding the current situation, we take an action more automatically and with less deliberation. In rats, the deliberation process can be seen in vicarious trial-and-error behavior (VTE), which is a head-orienting behavior toward options at a choice point. Recent neurophysiological findings suggest that VTE reflects the rat's thinking about future options as deliberation, expectation, and planning when rats feel conflict. VTE occurs depending on the demand: an increase occurs during initial learning, and a decrease occurs with progression in learning. However, the brain circuit underlying the regulation of VTE has not been thoroughly examined. In situations in which VTE often appears, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the amygdala (AMY) are crucial for learning and decision making. Our previous study reported that noradrenaline regulates VTE. Here, to investigate whether the mPFC and AMY are involved in regulation of VTE, we examined the effects of local injection of clonidine, an alpha2 adrenergic autoreceptor agonist, into either region in rats during VTE and choice behavior during a T-maze choice task. Injection of clonidine into either region impaired selection of the advantageous choice in the task. Furthermore, clonidine injection into the mPFC suppressed occurrence of VTE in the early phase of the task, whereas injection into the AMY inhibited the decrease in VTE in the later phase and thus maintained a high level of VTE throughout the task. These results suggest that the mPFC and AMY play a role in the increase and decrease in VTE, respectively, and that noradrenergic mechanisms mediate the dynamic regulation of VTE over experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial distribution of traffic induced noise exposures in a US city: an analytic tool for assessing the health impacts of urban planning decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Edmund Yet Wah; Holt, Ashley; Rivard, Tom; Bhatia, Rajiv

    2007-06-21

    Vehicle traffic is the major source of noise in urban environments, which in turn has multiple impacts on health. In this paper we investigate the spatial distribution of community noise exposures and annoyance. Traffic data from the City of San Francisco were used to model noise exposure by neighborhood and road type. Remote sensing data were used in the model to estimate neighborhood-specific percentages of cars, trucks, and buses on arterial versus non-arterial streets. The model was validated on 235 streets. Finally, an exposure-response relationship was used to predict the prevalence of high annoyance for different neighborhoods. Urban noise was found to increase 6.7 dB (p < 0.001) with 10-fold increased street traffic, with important contributors to noise being bus and heavy truck traffic. Living along arterial streets also increased risk of annoyance by 40%. The relative risk of annoyance in one of the City's fastest growing neighborhoods, the South of Market Area, was found to be 2.1 times that of lowest noise neighborhood. However, higher densities of exposed individuals were found in Chinatown and Downtown/Civic Center. Overall, we estimated that 17% of the city's population was at risk of high annoyance from traffic noise. The risk of annoyance from urban noise is large, and varies considerably between neighborhoods. Such risk should be considered in urban areas undergoing rapid growth. We present a relatively simple GIS-based noise model that may be used for routinely evaluating the health impacts of environmental noise.

  8. Professional analysis in spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis contributes to accomplishment of the three basic aims of spatial planning: it is basic element for setting spatial policies, concepts and strategies, gives basic information to inhabitants, land owners, investors, planners and helps in performing spatial policies, strategies, plans, programmes and projects. Analysis in planning are generally devoted to: understand current circumstances and emerging conditions within planning decisions; determine priorities of open questions and their solutions; formulate general principles for further development.

  9. Split Decisions, Split Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lead stories in Nature and Science went in opposite directions this week. Science chose outer space, launching into NASA’s hotly disputed decision to shelve a planned mission to Pluto. Nature plunged into inner space with a story about a report to the European Commission advising against granting “premature” approval to create human embryos for stem-cell research.

  10. A Spatial Decision Support System to incorporate hydro-economic modeling results in the management of water resources under decentralized institutional arrangements in a semiarid reservoir region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado de Moraes, Márcia; Silva, Gerald; Siegmund-Schultze, Marianna

    2017-04-01

    The integration of economic and hydrological components in models, aimed to support evaluating alternatives of water allocation policies, is promising, though, challenging. Worldwide, these models have been used primarily in academia, and so far seldom by water managers for practical purposes. Ideally, the models should be available through a Decision Support System. The São Francisco River Basin in Northeast of Brazil has around 48% of its area in a semi-arid region. Irrigation and public water supply are the primary water use sectors, along with hydropower utilization. The water for electricity generation is stored in two large reservoirs, built 30 to 50 years ago under the premise of regulating flows for hydropower and controlling floods. Since 20 years, however, the law stipulates the multiple uses paradigm in a participatory and decentralized way. So far, only few rules laid down. Studies revealed that most of the respective institutions still needed to update their routines to the new paradigm. A hydro-economic model was developed and applied in order to determine the economically optimal water allocation of main users in that semiarid reservoir region. In order to make this model available to the decision makers, a minimum required is some form of manipulating data entry and output as well as some graphical interfaces. We propose and present the first features of a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) with dedicated hydro-economic modules in a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) environment for integrated water resource management. The open model platform should include geoprocessing tasks and water user related data management. The hydro-economic geoprocessing will link to generic optimization modeling systems, such as EXCEL Solver, GAMS and MATLAB. The institutions are deliberating or deciding over water allocation at different scales could use the generated information on potential economic benefits as a transparent basis for discussion. In

  11. Spatial planning of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes guidelines for spatial planning for wind power, based on experience with spatial planning in Belgium, Denmark, France and the Netherlands. In addition experiences from Germany and Ireland have been used. This guidelines quotes all decisive criteria for successful implementation of wind energy: landscape integration, stakeholders involvement, noise and distance from buildings. (author)

  12. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  13. Spatial Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grande, John

    1990-01-01

    Describes seven spatial abilities related to mathematics including eye-motor coordination, figure-ground perception, perceptual constancy, position-in-space perception, perception of spatial relationships, visual discrimination, and visual memory. Discusses the relationship of the spatial abilities to the study of geometry. Lists 19 references.…

  14. Spatially explicit modeling of annual and seasonal habitat for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Nevada and Northeastern California—An updated decision-support tool for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Mauch, Kimberly; Niell, Lara; Gardner, Scott; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-05-20

    Successful adaptive management hinges largely upon integrating new and improved sources of information as they become available. As a timely example of this tenet, we updated a management decision support tool that was previously developed for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereinafter referred to as “sage-grouse”) populations in Nevada and California. Specifically, recently developed spatially explicit habitat maps derived from empirical data played a key role in the conservation of this species facing listing under the Endangered Species Act. This report provides an updated process for mapping relative habitat suitability and management categories for sage-grouse in Nevada and northeastern California (Coates and others, 2014, 2016). These updates include: (1) adding radio and GPS telemetry locations from sage-grouse monitored at multiple sites during 2014 to the original location dataset beginning in 1998; (2) integrating output from high resolution maps (1–2 m2) of sagebrush and pinyon-juniper cover as covariates in resource selection models; (3) modifying the spatial extent of the analyses to match newly available vegetation layers; (4) explicit modeling of relative habitat suitability during three seasons (spring, summer, winter) that corresponded to critical life history periods for sage-grouse (breeding, brood-rearing, over-wintering); (5) accounting for differences in habitat availability between more mesic sagebrush steppe communities in the northern part of the study area and drier Great Basin sagebrush in more southerly regions by categorizing continuous region-wide surfaces of habitat suitability index (HSI) with independent locations falling within two hydrological zones; (6) integrating the three seasonal maps into a composite map of annual relative habitat suitability; (7) deriving updated land management categories based on previously determined cut-points for intersections of habitat suitability and an updated index of sage

  15. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  16. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  17. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  18. Failing Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Recently the Danish subway trains have begun to announce “on time” when they arrive at a station on time. This action reflects a worrying acceptance of the normality of failure. If trains were generally expected to be on time, there would be no reason to – triumphantly – announce it. This chapter...... as a controlled cost for achieving organizational goals. Decisions must fail so the organization can succeed. This chapter uses two cases to elaborate on these ideas. By way of introduction, I will reflect on the notion of ‘failing decisions’ within organization and decision theory. This chapter is also propelled...

  19. Perceptual spatial differentiation of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Krevs

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical studies of human perception of places at local scale are usually aimed at bet-ter understanding of human spatial perception and knowledge about the places, and of using this knowledge in spatial decision-making or spatial behaviour. Our focus on the first part of these general research aims is presented based on a case study, revealing how residents of the Municipality of Ljubljana perceive and value neighbourhoods of “their” municipality at the beginning of the century1.

  20. Organizational Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    in architectural competitions and claim that they reflect necessity more than vice. They are ways around the fundamental incommensurability of the alternative design proposals. The garbage can model is used as a framework for making sense of the observed counterintuitive ways of decision making. Its attempt...

  1. Organizational Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    traders reach diametrically opposite decisions, to buy what thousands of others are offering to sell. The traders, differ in objectives, differ in...differentiation among them is sought to make the final choise easier. This differentiation effort "leads to a search for new information, not...of the organization. Sales promotions to stimulate purchases during off-seasons are illustrations often used to stimulate buying . Utilities provide

  2. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1991-01-01

    This attempts to identify the role of judgmental processes in various nuclear arms/war decisions. That task analysis is done with some confidence. The next two steps, diagnosing potential weaknesses in those judgments and suggesting ameliorative procedures, are done with increasing timidity. The empirical research base is not (ever) as large as one would like. It is particularly weak with regard to studies of experts forced to go beyond hard data and rely on intuitive judgments within their field of expertise. further evidence is needed to substantiate the claim that experts think like everyone else unless they have had the opportunity to master a particular kind of judgment as a learned skill. Although there is both theoretical and empirical reason to believe that various forms of decision aiding are possible, the high stakes involved mandate caution before proposing any intervention. Ineffective steps may make matters worse if they raise confidence without improving performance, or if they disrupt the cognitive ecology within which decision makers are accustomed to functioning, so that they lose touch with their own imperfect intuitions without acquiring viable alternatives

  3. Decision analysis using decision trees for a simple clinical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Brian

    2012-10-01

    To illustrate the use of decision trees with a utility index in clinical decision making. A decision tree was created related to whether or not to perform a tonsillectomy. Data from the literature were applied to a common hypothetical clinical scenario. A decision tree graphically represents the typical decision-making process that many clinicians use. The addition of utility functions permitted consideration of the adverse or beneficial effects of outcomes, altering the treatment decision. Quantitative tools such as decision trees may quantify outcome preferences and aid in clinical decision making, but the proper tool and background data are essential.

  4. Decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, authors presents a greedy algorithm for construction of exact and partial decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. Exact decision rules can be \\'over-fitted\\', so instead of exact decision rules with many attributes, it is more appropriate to work with partial decision rules with smaller number of attributes. Based on results for set cover problem authors study bounds on accuracy of greedy algorithm for exact and partial decision rule construction, and complexity of the problem of minimization of decision rule length. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  6. Rapid Benefit Indicators (RBI) Spatial Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rapid Benefit Indicators (RBI) approach consists of five steps and is outlined in Assessing the Benefits of Wetland Restoration - A Rapid Benefits Indicators Approach for Decision Makers. This spatial analysis tool is intended to be used to analyze existing spatial informatio...

  7. Spatial interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and practical application of techniques of statistical interpolation are studied in this thesis, and new developments in multivariate spatial interpolation and the design of sampling plans are discussed. Several applications to studies in soil science are

  8. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  9. Structured decision making as a framework for large-scale wildlife harvest management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hurst, Jeremy E.; Swift, Bryan L.; Kirsch, Arthur; Farquhar, James F.; Decker, Daniel J.; Siemer, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Fish and wildlife harvest management at large spatial scales often involves making complex decisions with multiple objectives and difficult tradeoffs, population demographics that vary spatially, competing stakeholder values, and uncertainties that might affect management decisions. Structured decision making (SDM) provides a formal decision analytic framework for evaluating difficult decisions by breaking decisions into component parts and separating the values of stakeholders from the scientific evaluation of management actions and uncertainty. The result is a rigorous, transparent, and values-driven process. This decision-aiding process provides the decision maker with a more complete understanding of the problem and the effects of potential management actions on stakeholder values, as well as how key uncertainties can affect the decision. We use a case study to illustrate how SDM can be used as a decision-aiding tool for management decision making at large scales. We evaluated alternative white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) buck-harvest regulations in New York designed to reduce harvest of yearling bucks, taking into consideration the values of the state wildlife agency responsible for managing deer, as well as deer hunters. We incorporated tradeoffs about social, ecological, and economic management concerns throughout the state. Based on the outcomes of predictive models, expert elicitation, and hunter surveys, the SDM process identified management alternatives that optimized competing objectives. The SDM process provided biologists and managers insight about aspects of the buck-harvest decision that helped them adopt a management strategy most compatible with diverse hunter values and management concerns.

  10. Reprocessing decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The United States must decide whether to permit, delay, or prohibit the reprocessing and recycling of nuclear spent fuel. To permit reprocessing would allow recycle as early as 1985; to delay the decision for a later administration to deal with means spent fuel would mount up at nuclear reactor sites; to prohibit would eliminate recycling and mandate permanent storage. Bayesian decision analysis was used to examine reprocessing costs associated with risks and economic benefits. Three distinct categories of risk that are important in the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. These are: health, environment, and safety risks; nuclear theft and sabotage; and nuclear weapons proliferation risks. Results are discussed from comparing nine routes to weapons-usuable mterial available to nonweapons states that desire a nuclear capability. These are: production reactor and military reporcessor; research reacotr and military reprocessor; power plant plus military reprocessor or commercial reprocessor; enrichment (centrifuge, gaseous diffusion, electromagnetic separation, or aerodynamic jet cascade); and accelerator. It was found that the commercial power reactor-commercial reprocessor route is comparatively unattractive to a nonweapons state. In summary, allowing nuclear fuel reprocessing to go forward in the United States can be expected to increase the costs to society by a maximum $360 million a year. This is approximately one-seventh of the expected benefit (reduced electricity bills) to be dderived by society from closing the fuel cycle. It appears that the permitting reprocessing now is logically preferable to delaying or prohibiting the technology, the author concludes

  11. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  12. Using basic geographic information systems functionality to support sustainable forest management decision making and post-decision assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; R. James Barbour; Krista M. Gebert; Greg C. Liknes; Mark D. Nelson; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable management of natural resources requires informed decision making and post-decision assessments of the results of those decisions. Increasingly, both activities rely on analyses of spatial data in the forms of maps and digital data layers. Fortunately, a variety of supporting maps and data layers rapidly are becoming available. Unfortunately, however, user-...

  13. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  14. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multicriteria decision model for retrofitting existing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, B.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper a model to decide which buildings from an urban area should be retrofitted is presented. The model has been cast into existing ones by choosing the decision rule, criterion weighting and decision support system types most suitable for the spatial problem of reducing earthquake risk in urban areas, considering existing spatial multiatributive and multiobjective decision methods and especially collaborative issues. Due to the participative character of the group decision problem "retrofitting existing buildings" the decision making model is based on interactivity. Buildings have been modeled following the criteria of spatial decision support systems. This includes identifying the corresponding spatial elements of buildings according to the information needs of actors from different sphaeres like architects, construction engineers and economists. The decision model aims to facilitate collaboration between this actors. The way of setting priorities interactivelly will be shown, by detailing the two phases: judgemental and computational, in this case site analysis, collection and evaluation of the unmodified data and converting survey data to information with computational methods using additional expert support. Buildings have been divided into spatial elements which are characteristic for the survey, present typical damages in case of an earthquake and are decisive for a better seismic behaviour in case of retrofitting. The paper describes the architectural and engineering characteristics as well as the structural damage for constuctions of different building ages on the example of building types in Bucharest, Romania in compressible and interdependent charts, based on field observation, reports from the 1977 earthquake and detailed studies made by the author together with a local engineer for the EERI Web Housing Encyclopedia. On this base criteria for setting priorities flow into the expert information contained in the system.

  16. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    , the notion of aesthetics (taken in the original signification of aisthesis: sensory perception) helped to map the relations between city, human experience, and various forms of art and culture. Delving into our simultaneously optical and tactical reception of space (a dialectics pointed out by Walter...... Benjamin), studies in urbanity and aesthetics may highlight mul-tisensory everyday practices that pass unnoticed in the current era of visual domination. A humanistic approach to urban and spatial cultures should also learn from German sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel’s hypothesis of a modern need......: Memory”, and ”Staging and Interpretation: Places”....

  17. Assessing the Development of Kenya National Spatial Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial data plays a vital role in developmental activities, whether natural resource management or socio-economic development. Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) facilitate access, sharing and dissemination of spatial data necessary for complex decision-making processes of the future. Thus, conducting SDI assessment ...

  18. The Spatial Politics of Spatial Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the spatial politics of new governance landscapes and innovations in the use of spatial representations in planning. The central premise is that planning experiments with new relational approaches become enmeshed in spatial politics. The case of strategic...... spatial planning in Denmark reveals how fuzzy spatial representations and relational spatial concepts are being used to depoliticise strategic spatial planning processes and to camouflage spatial politics. The paper concludes that, while relational geography might play an important role in building...

  19. Spatiality of environmental law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse; Hvingel, Line

    2015-01-01

    Digital society challenges the traditional perception of legal sources. The use of maps as a basis for public administration dates far back, but e-Government’s use of digital maps that include legal information creates new legal obstacles. In the coming decades, the inspire directive of 2007...... maps showing representations of applied legal norms, to maps build on datasets that have legal authority. That will integrate legal and geographic information systems, and improve the legal accountability of decision support systems used in e-Government services based on spatio-legal data....... will determine the interplay between geographic data and technology in the fields of environmental legislation, environmental policy and environmental management. This article examines the legal regulation of spatial information as established by the inspire directive, on one hand, and on the other hand...

  20. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  1. Capturing Design Decision Rationale with Decision Cards

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez Lopez , Marisela; Rovelo , Gustavo; Haesen , Mieke; Luyten , Kris; Coninx , Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the design process, designers make a wide variety of decisions that are essential to transform a design from a conceptual idea into a concrete solution. Recording and tracking design decisions, a first step to capturing the rationale of the design process, are tasks that until now are considered as cumbersome and too constraining. We used a holistic approach to design, deploy, and verify decision cards; a low threshold tool to capture, externalize, and contextualize design decisions during...

  2. Shared decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  3. Semantic Metadata for Heterogeneous Spatial Planning Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniak, A.; Kaczmarek, I.; Łukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Coetzee, S.; Paluszyński, W.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa). The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  4. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  5. Developing Students' Spatial Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jeanne E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing students' understanding of certain spatial aspects of important concepts. Piaget's contributions to the development of spatial conceptualization are included. Some examples for applying spatial techniques in earth sciences, physics, and chemistry are also presented. (HM)

  6. Spatial Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial management files combine all related and relevant spatial management files into an integrated fisheries management file. Overlaps of the redundant spatial...

  7. Decisions, decisions: why the quality of medical decisions matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, David

    2004-01-01

    Questions about the process leading to particular medical decisions are seldom addressed in discussions of health care quality. In some cases, strict adherence to treatment protocols may overlook important elements in the clinical decision-making process, such as physicians' judgment and patients' preferences. Papers by Annette O'Connor and colleagues and Karen Sepucha and colleagues are welcome additions to this debate because they highlight the importance of the medical decision-making process; they suggest that the quality of this process should be considered when evaluating health care quality. I explore some key limitations and uncertainties that must be addressed before work in this area can become broadly applicable.

  8. The spatial representation of market information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeSarbo, WS; Degeratu, AM; Wedel, M; Saxton, MK

    2001-01-01

    To be used effectively, market knowledge and information must be structured and represented in ways that are parsimonious and conducive to efficient managerial decision making. This manuscript proposes a new latent structure spatial model for the representation of market information that meets this

  9. Fundamentals of spatial data quality

    CERN Document Server

    Devillers, Rodolphe

    2010-01-01

    This book explains the concept of spatial data quality, a key theory for minimizing the risks of data misuse in a specific decision-making context. Drawing together chapters written by authors who are specialists in their particular field, it provides both the data producer and the data user perspectives on how to evaluate the quality of vector or raster data which are both produced and used. It also covers the key concepts in this field, such as: how to describe the quality of vector or raster data; how to enhance this quality; how to evaluate and document it, using methods such as metadata;

  10. Spatial attention systems in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2015-08-01

    It has been established that processes relating to 'spatial attention' are implemented at cortical level by goal-directed (top-down) and stimulus-driven (bottom-up) networks. Spatial neglect in brain-damaged individuals has been interpreted as a distinguished exemplar for a disturbance of these processes. The present paper elaborates this assumption. Functioning of the two attentional networks seem to dissociate in spatial neglect; behavioral studies of patients' orienting and exploration behavior point to a disturbed stimulus-driven but preserved goal-directed attention system. When a target suddenly appears somewhere in space, neglect patients demonstrate disturbed detection and orienting if it is located in contralesional direction. In contrast, if neglect patients explore a scene with voluntarily, top-down controlled shifts of spatial attention, they perform movements that are oriented into all spatial directions without any direction-specific disturbances. The paper thus argues that not the top-down control of spatial attention itself, rather a body-related matrix on top of which this process is executed, seems affected. In that sense, the traditional role of spatial neglect as a stroke model for 'spatial attention' requires adjustment. Beyond its insights into the human stimulus-driven attentional system, the disorder most notably provides vistas in how our brain encodes topographical information and organizes spatially oriented action - including the top-down control of spatial attention - in relation to body position. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Informatics perspectives on decision taking

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for instance: plan, command, assertion, or boolean reply to a question. A decision effect is any consequence of putting a decision outcome into effect. Decision outcomes must be expected by the decider t...

  12. Application of GIS in foreign direct investment decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianlan; Sun, Koumei

    2007-06-01

    It is important to make decisions on how to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) to China and know how the inequality of FDI introduction by locational different provinces. Following background descriptions on China's FDI economic environments and FDI-related policies, this paper demonstrates the uses of geographical information system (GIS) and multi-criterion decision-making (MCDM) framework in solving a spatial multi-objective problem of evaluating and ranking China's provinces for FDI introduction. It implements a foreign direct investment decision support system, which reveals the main determinants of FDI in China and gives some results of regional geographical analysis over spatial data.

  13. Perspectives on Spatial Decision Support Concerning Location of Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel

    Biogas production is a contemporary important topic in many agri-intensive countries, among these Denmark, where biogas has received increasingly political and scholarly awareness during recent years. The Danish government has set an ambition that 50% of the livestock slurry should by 2020 by used...... biomass resource availability is expected to decline by 10% until 2020 but with regional variation. We find that large scale biogas producers enjoy 16% lower transportation costs than small biogas producers. It is argued that biogas producers need to see themselves as agro-based retailers and accordingly...

  14. A spatial decision support system for special health facility location ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to healthcare is a determinant of the wellbeing of the people. Planning the location and distribution of health facilities to ensure efficiency and equity in the face of limited resources can be challenging, especially where the type of care requires expensive equipments and specialists. This study attempts to provide a ...

  15. Rapid Benefit Indicators (RBI) Spatial Analysis Tools - Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rapid Benefit Indicators (RBI) approach consists of five steps and is outlined in Assessing the Benefits of Wetland Restoration - A Rapid Benefits Indicators Approach for Decision Makers. This spatial analysis tool is intended to be used to analyze existing spatial informatio...

  16. Searching for spatial data resources by fitness for use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, I.; Morales, J.M.; de By, R.A.; Beshe, T.S.; Gebresilassie, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    During the search for spatial data resources, users, both experts and non-experts in the geoinformation field, are expected to know what type of spatial data resource they need, and in which clearinghouse or geoportal to search. In the case of success, they are still left with the decision on

  17. Learning Probabilistic Decision Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred; Dalgaard, Jens; Silander, Tomi

    2004-01-01

    Probabilistic decision graphs (PDGs) are a representation language for probability distributions based on binary decision diagrams. PDGs can encode (context-specific) independence relations that cannot be captured in a Bayesian network structure, and can sometimes provide computationally more...

  18. Spatial econometrics using microdata

    CERN Document Server

    Dubé, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to spatial analyses concerning disaggregated (or micro) spatial data.Particular emphasis is put on spatial data compilation and the structuring of the connections between the observations. Descriptive analysis methods of spatial data are presented in order to identify and measure the spatial, global and local dependency.The authors then focus on autoregressive spatial models, to control the problem of spatial dependency between the residues of a basic linear statistical model, thereby contravening one of the basic hypotheses of the ordinary least squares appr

  19. Decision support systems

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana MARIN

    2008-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSS) are a specific class of computerized information system that supports business and organizational decision-making activities. A properly-designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from raw data, documents, personal knowledge, and/or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions. DSS belong to an environment with multidisciplinary foundations, including database reasearch, a...

  20. Marketing Decisions and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    The marketing literature generally assumes that managers and customers always make rational (reasonable and logical) decisions. In real life, however, decision making process is hardly rational and straight forward. Managers and customers normally make decisions “in-action” – i.e. as they grapple...

  1. Decision Support Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema van Eck, Gerard; Ceross, Aaron

    The decision support tool is part of the toolkit for policy makers which came out of the FP7 RESPECT project, which dealt with privacy and surveillance. It's aim is to support decision makers at all levels of government who face difficult decisions regarding the implementation of surveillance

  2. Measurement Decision Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    This paper describes and evaluates the use of decision theory as a tool for classifying examinees based on their item response patterns. Decision theory, developed by A. Wald (1947) and now widely used in engineering, agriculture, and computing, provides a simple model for the analysis of categorical data. Measurement decision theory requires only…

  3. Informatics perspectives on decision taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for

  4. Marketing Decisions and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    The marketing literature generally assumes that managers and customers always make rational (reasonable and logical) decisions. In real life, however, decision making process is hardly rational and straight forward. Managers and customers normally make decisions “in-action” – i.e. as they grapple...... students a variety of decision making skills as they prepare themselves to work in international companies. This is the task initiated in this book. It discusses how managers combine both rational and non-rational approaches and tools in their decision making processes, especially in international business...

  5. Marketing Decisions and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    The marketing literature generally assumes that managers and customers always make rational (reasonable and logical) decisions. In real life, however, decision making process is hardly rational and straight forward. Managers and customers normally make decisions “in-action” – i.e. as they grapple...... with critical problems on daily basis. As such, they tend to combine experience-based knowledge with intuition and analysis to inform their decisions. Their decision making processes become even more complex when their companies operate within international contexts. It is therefore appropriate to teach...

  6. Computerized operator decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the potential benefits associated with the use of computers in nuclear plants by the operating crew as an aid in making decisions. Pertinent findings are presented from recently completed projects to establish the context in which operating decisions have to be made. Key factors influencing the decision-making process itself are also identified. Safety parameter display systems, which are being implemented in various forms by the nuclear industry, are described within the context of decision making. In addition, relevant worldwide research and development activities are examined as potential enhancements to computerized operator decision aids to further improve plant safety and availability

  7. Make better decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Traditionally, decision making in organizations has rarely been the focus of systematic analysis. That may account for the astounding number of recent poor calls, such as decisions to invest in and securitize subprime mortgage loans or to hedge risk with credit default swaps. Business books are rich with insights about the decision process, but organizations have been slow to adopt their recommendations. It's time to focus on decision making, Davenport says, and he proposes four steps: (1) List and prioritize the decisions that must be made; (2) assess the factors that go into each, such as who plays what role, how often the decision must be made, and what information is available to support it; (3) design the roles, processes, systems, and behaviors your organization needs; and (4) institutionalize decision tools and assistance. The Educational Testing Service and The Stanley Works, among others, have succeeded in improving their decisions. ETS established a centralized deliberative body to make evidence-based decisions about new-product offerings, and Stanley has a Pricing Center of Excellence with internal consultants dedicated to its various business units. Leaders should bring multiple perspectives to their decision making, beware of analytical models that managers don't understand, be clear about their assumptions, practice "model management," and--because only people can revise decision criteria over time--cultivate human backups.

  8. Business making decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Benjamín Franklin Fincowsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available People and organizations make better or get wrong as consequence of making decisions. Sometimes making decisions is just a trial and error process. Some others, decisions are good and the results profitable with a few of mistakes, most of the time because it’s considered the experience and the control of a specific field or the good intention of who makes them. Actually, all kinds of decisions bring learning. What is important is the intention, the attitude and the values considered in this process. People from different scenes face many facts and circumstances—almost always out of control—that affect the making decisions process. There is not a unique way to make decisions for all companies in many settings. The person who makes a decision should identify the problem, to solve it later using alternatives and solutions. Even though, follow all the steps it’s not easy as it seems. Looking back the conditions related to the decisions, we can mention the followings: uncertainty, risk and certainty. When people identify circumstances and facts, as well as its effects in a possible situation, they will make decisions with certainty. As long as the information decreases and it becomes ambiguous the risk becomes an important factor in the making decisions process because they are connected to probable objectives (clear or subjective (opinion judgment or intuition. To finish, uncertainty, involves people that make a decision with no or little information about circumstances or criteria with basis

  9. The future role of GIS education in creating critical spatial thinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Bearman, Nick; Jones, Nick; André, Isabel; Cachinho, Herculano Alberto; DeMers, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Teaching of critical spatial thinking in higher education empowers graduates to effectively engage with spatial data. Geographic information systems (GIS) and science are taught to undergraduates across many disciplines; we evaluate how this contributes to critical spatial thinking. The discipline of GIS covers the whole process of spatial decision-making, but GIS modules often ignore the context setting of spatial problems, and just cover the technical aspects of how to ...

  10. Spatial Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Mamoulis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    Spatial database management deals with the storage, indexing, and querying of data with spatial features, such as location and geometric extent. Many applications require the efficient management of spatial data, including Geographic Information Systems, Computer Aided Design, and Location Based Services. The goal of this book is to provide the reader with an overview of spatial data management technology, with an emphasis on indexing and search techniques. It first introduces spatial data models and queries and discusses the main issues of extending a database system to support spatial data.

  11. Regulatory decision making by decision analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1993-11-01

    The Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) has studied with the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) the applicability of decision analytic approach to the treatment of nuclear safety related problems at the regulatory body. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in decision making has also been discussed. In the study, inspectors from STUK exercised with a decision analytic approach by reoperationalizing two occurred and solved problems. The research scientist from VTT acted as systems analysts guiding the analysis process. The first case was related to a common cause failure phenomenon in solenoid valves controlling pneumatic valves important to safety of the plant. The problem of the regulatory body was to judge whether to allow continued operation or to require more detailed inspections and in which time chedule the inspections should be done. The latter problem was to evaluate design changes of external electrical grid connections after a fire incident had revealed weakness in the separation of electrical system. In both cases, the decision analysis was carried out several sessions in which decision makers, technical experts as well as experts of decision analysis participated. A multi-attribute value function was applied as a decision model so that attributes had to be defined to quantify the levels of achievements of the objectives. The attributes included both indicators related to the level of operational safety of the plant such as core damage frequency given by PSA, and indicators related to the safety culture, i.e., how well the chosen option fits on the regulatory policy. (24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.)

  12. Info-gap decision theory decisions under severe uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Haim, Yakov

    2006-01-01

    Everyone makes decisions, but not everyone is a decision analyst. A decision analyst uses quantitative models and computational methods to formulate decision algorithms, assess decision performance, identify and evaluate options, determine trade-offs and risks, evaluate strategies for investigation, and so on. This book is written for decision analysts. The term ""decision analyst"" covers an extremely broad range of practitioners. Virtually all engineers involved in design (of buildings, machines, processes, etc.) or analysis (of safety, reliability, feasibility, etc.) are decision analysts,

  13. Active and passive contributions to spatial learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Warren, William H

    2012-02-01

    It seems intuitively obvious that active exploration of a new environment will lead to better spatial learning than will passive exposure. However, the literature on this issue is decidedly mixed-in part, because the concept itself is not well defined. We identify five potential components of active spatial learning and review the evidence regarding their role in the acquisition of landmark, route, and survey knowledge. We find that (1) idiothetic information in walking contributes to metric survey knowledge, (2) there is little evidence as yet that decision making during exploration contributes to route or survey knowledge, (3) attention to place-action associations and relevant spatial relations contributes to route and survey knowledge, although landmarks and boundaries appear to be learned without effort, (4) route and survey information are differentially encoded in subunits of working memory, and (5) there is preliminary evidence that mental manipulation of such properties facilitates spatial learning. Idiothetic information appears to be necessary to reveal the influence of attention and, possibly, decision making in survey learning, which may explain the mixed results in desktop virtual reality. Thus, there is indeed an active advantage in spatial learning, which manifests itself in the task-dependent acquisition of route and survey knowledge.

  14. Spatial Deixis in Chiwere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jill D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines spatial deixis in Chiwere (Siouan) in the framework of two theories of deixis. Denny (1978) attempts to define a set of distinctive features for spatial deixis, while Rauh (1983) uses spatial deixis as a template for organizing all deictic dimensions. Chiwere data suggest language and dimension specific expansion of both…

  15. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  16. Handbook on Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi C

    2010-01-01

    The present "Volume 1: Techniques and Applications" of the "Handbook on Decision Making" presents a useful collection of AI techniques, as well as other complementary methodologies, that are useful for the design and development of intelligent decision support systems. Application examples of how these intelligent decision support systems can be utilized to help tackle a variety of real-world problems in different domains, such as business, management, manufacturing, transportation and food industries, and biomedicine, are presented. The handbook includes twenty condensed c

  17. Continuous Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-24

    The International Journal of Multicriteria Decision Making describing the Triage Method • Chapter 4 contains a paper published in 2014 in The...International Journal of Multicriteria Decision Making describing extensions to the Triage Method to consider resource constraints • Chapter 5 contains a...was under review by The International Journal of Multicriteria Decision Making 7 • Chapter 6 contains a paper describing methods for eliciting

  18. Decision analysis multicriteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The ALARA procedure covers a wide range of decisions from the simplest to the most complex one. For the simplest one the engineering judgement is generally enough and the use of a decision aiding technique is therefore not necessary. For some decisions the comparison of the available protection option may be performed from two or a few criteria (or attributes) (protection cost, collective dose,...) and the use of rather simple decision aiding techniques, like the Cost Effectiveness Analysis or the Cost Benefit Analysis, is quite enough. For the more complex decisions, involving numerous criteria or for decisions involving large uncertainties or qualitative judgement the use of these techniques, even the extended cost benefit analysis, is not recommended and appropriate techniques like multi-attribute decision aiding techniques are more relevant. There is a lot of such particular techniques and it is not possible to present all of them. Therefore only two broad categories of multi-attribute decision aiding techniques will be presented here: decision analysis and the outranking analysis

  19. Testing Decision Rules for Multiattribute Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, C.; Traub, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the existence of an editing phase and studies the com- pliance of subjects' behaviour with the most popular multiattribute decision rules. We observed that our data comply well with the existence of an editing phase, at least if we allow for a natural error rate of some 25%.

  20. Making a Place for Space: Spatial Thinking in Social Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.

    2013-01-01

    New technologies and multilevel data sets that include geographic identifiers have heightened sociologists’ interest in spatial analysis. I review several of the key concepts, measures, and methods that are brought into play in this work, and offer examples of their application in a variety of substantive fields. I argue that the most effective use of the new tools requires greater emphasis on spatial thinking. A device as simple as an illustrative map requires some understanding of how people respond to visual cues; models as complex as HLM with spatial lags require thoughtful measurement decisions and raise questions about what a spatial effect represents. PMID:24273374

  1. Planning and decision making for aerial robots

    CERN Document Server

    Bestaoui Sebbane, Yasmina

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the emerging field of planning and decision making for aerial robots. An aerial robot is the ultimate form of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, an aircraft endowed with built-in intelligence, requiring no direct human control and able to perform a specific task. It must be able to fly within a partially structured environment, to react and adapt to changing environmental conditions and to accommodate for the uncertainty that exists in the physical world. An aerial robot can be termed as a physical agent that exists and flies in the real 3D world, can sense its environment and act on it to achieve specific goals. So throughout this book, an aerial robot will also be termed as an agent.   Fundamental problems in aerial robotics include the tasks of spatial motion, spatial sensing and spatial reasoning. Reasoning in complex environments represents a difficult problem. The issues specific to spatial reasoning are planning and decision making. Planning deals with the trajectory algori...

  2. Spatially-Heterodyned Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Clarence E [Knoxville, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN

    2006-02-21

    A method of recording a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram, including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and an object beam; interacting the object beam with an object; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digital recording the spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram; Fourier transforming axes of the recorded spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined by an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; cutting off signals around an origin; and performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Aggregation in Racial Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, models of rational choice have chimed into the discussion on racial profiling, the use of race in stop and search decisions of the police. The models describe the behavior of motorists and the police and provide empirical tests to assess the question whether the police exhibit racial animus. However, existing studies have neglected the effect of spatial and temporal aggregation of the data on the application of the tests. Using data from the Florida Highway Patrol, this pa...

  4. Decision Tree Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    8 2.4 Irrigation, Agronomic Inputs, and...documents will provide the reader in-depth background on the science and engineering mechanisms of phytoremediation. Using the decision tree and the...ITRC – Phytoremediation Decision Tree December 1999 8 • Contaminant levels • Plant selection • Treatability • Irrigation, agronomic

  5. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  6. Decision making and imperfection

    CERN Document Server

    Karny, Miroslav; Wolpert, David

    2013-01-01

    Decision making (DM) is ubiquitous in both natural and artificial systems. The decisions made often differ from those recommended by the axiomatically well-grounded normative Bayesian decision theory, in a large part due to limited cognitive and computational resources of decision makers (either artificial units or humans). This state of a airs is often described by saying that decision makers are imperfect and exhibit bounded rationality. The neglected influence of emotional state and personality traits is an additional reason why normative theory fails to model human DM process.   The book is a joint effort of the top researchers from different disciplines to identify sources of imperfection and ways how to decrease discrepancies between the prescriptive theory and real-life DM. The contributions consider:   ·          how a crowd of imperfect decision makers outperforms experts' decisions;   ·          how to decrease decision makers' imperfection by reducing knowledge available;   ...

  7. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...

  8. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  9. Food Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased

  10. Variation in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Gosling, Samuel; Gordon D.A., Brown,; Dingemanse, Niels; Ido, Erev,; Martin, Kocher,; Laura, Schulz,; Todd, Peter M; Weissing, Franz; Wolf, Max; Hammerstein, Peter; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in how organisms allocate their behavior over their lifetimes is key to determining Darwinian fitness., and thus the evolution of human and nonhuman decision making. This chapter explores how decision making varies across biologically and societally significant scales and what role such

  11. Designing for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…

  12. Decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L.N.; Noe, E.; Langvad, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The highly complex knowledge of scientific disciplines makes nuanced analysis and modelling possible. However, the information produced often does not reach farmers because it is presented in a way that does not correspond to the way their work is carried out in practice. The decision support...... 1000 farmers). A sociological investigation of farmers' decision-making styles in the area of crop protection has shown that arable farmers can be divided into three major groups: (a) system-orientated farmers, (b) experience-based farmers and (c) advisory-orientated farmers. The information required...... by these three groups to make their decisions varies and therefore different ways of using decision support systems need to be provided. Decision support systems need to be developed in close dialogue and collaboration with user groups....

  13. Responsive Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Lund; Andersen, Torben Juul

    developments and feeding that information into strategic decisions will enable higher quality outcomes and better adaptive responses for persistent performance. Thus we review relevant parts of the strategic decision making literature to conceptualize the responsive decision making model and propose a study......Strategic decision making remains a focal point in the strategy field, but despite decades of rich conceptual and empirical research we still seem distant from a level of understanding that can guide corporate practices effectively under turbulent and unpredictable environmental conditions. Hence......, the aim of this study is to gain deeper insights into the complex and multifaceted decision processes that take place in large complex organizations operating in dynamic high-velocity markets. It is proposed that the ability to obtain faster, more accurate and updated insights about ongoing environmental...

  14. Progress in Spatial Demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Matthews

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demography is an inherently spatial science, yet the application of spatial data and methods to demographic research has tended to lag that of other disciplines. In recent years, there has been a surge in interest in adding a spatial perspective to demography. This sharp rise in interest has been driven in part by rapid advances in geospatial data, new technologies, and methods of analysis. OBJECTIVE We offer a brief introduction to four of the advanced spatial analytic methods: spatial econometrics, geographically weighted regression, multilevel modeling, and spatial pattern analysis. We look at both the methods used and the insights that can be gained by applying a spatial perspective to demographic processes and outcomes. To help illustrate these substantive insights, we introduce six papers that are included in a Special Collection on Spatial Demography. We close with some predictions for the future, as we anticipate that spatial thinking and the use of geospatial data, technology, and analytical methods will change how many demographers address important demographic research questions. CONCLUSIONS Many important demographic questions can be studied and framed using spatial approaches. This will become even more evident as changes in the volume, source, and form of available demographic data - much of it geocode - -further alter the data landscape, and ultimately the conceptual models and analytical methods used by demographers. This overview provides a brief introduction to a rapidly changing field.

  15. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Landscape Modelling and Simulation Using Spatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed Naser Mohsin AL-Hameedawi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a procedure was performed for engendering spatial model of landscape acclimated to reality simulation. This procedure based on combining spatial data and field measurements with computer graphics reproduced using Blender software. Thereafter that we are possible to form a 3D simulation based on VIS ALL packages. The objective was to make a model utilising GIS, including inputs to the feature attribute data. The objective of these efforts concentrated on coordinating a tolerable spatial prototype, circumscribing facilitation scheme and outlining the intended framework. Thus; the eventual result was utilized in simulation form. The performed procedure contains not only data gathering, fieldwork and paradigm providing, but extended to supply a new method necessary to provide the respective 3D simulation mapping production, which authorises the decision makers as well as investors to achieve permanent acceptance an independent navigation system for Geoscience applications.

  17. Comparing Spatial Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Hering, Amanda S.

    2011-11-01

    Under a general loss function, we develop a hypothesis test to determine whether a significant difference in the spatial predictions produced by two competing models exists on average across the entire spatial domain of interest. The null hypothesis is that of no difference, and a spatial loss differential is created based on the observed data, the two sets of predictions, and the loss function chosen by the researcher. The test assumes only isotropy and short-range spatial dependence of the loss differential but does allow it to be non-Gaussian, non-zero-mean, and spatially correlated. Constant and nonconstant spatial trends in the loss differential are treated in two separate cases. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the size and power properties of this test, and an example based on daily average wind speeds in Oklahoma is used for illustration. Supplemental results are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Qualitys.

  18. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2011-01-01

    The scientific considerations upon which the nuclear regulations are based provide objective criteria for decisions on nuclear safety matters. However, the decisions that a regulatory agency takes go far beyond granting or not an operating license based on assessment of compliance. It may involve decisions about hiring experts or research, appeals, responses to other government agencies, international agreements, etc.. In all cases, top management of the regulatory agency should hear and decide the best balance between the benefits of regulatory action and undue risks and other associated impacts that may arise, including issues of credibility and reputation. The establishment of a decision framework based on well established principles and criteria ensures performance stability and consistency, preventing individual subjectivity. This article analyzes the challenges to the decision-making by regulatory agencies to ensure coherence and consistency in decisions, even in situations where there is uncertainty, lack of reliable information and even divergence of opinions among experts. The article explores the basic elements for a framework for regulatory decision-making. (author)

  19. Flow of cortical activity underlying a tactile decision in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zengcai V.; Li, Nuo; Huber, Daniel; Ophir, Eran; Gutnisky, Diego; Ting, Jonathan T.; Feng, Guoping; Svoboda, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual decisions involve distributed cortical activity. Does information flow sequentially from one cortical area to another, or do networks of interconnected areas contribute at the same time? Here we delineate when and how activity in specific areas drives a whisker-based decision in mice. A short-term memory component temporally separated tactile “sensation” and “action” (licking). Using optogenetic inhibition (spatial resolution, 2 mm; temporal resolution, 100 ms), we surveyed the neo...

  20. Spatially Integrated Social Science

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the chapter abstracts for the book—each chapter  illustrating how the spatial perspective adds value and insight to social science research, beyond what traditional non-spatial approaches might reveal.  The 21 chapters exemplify the founding principle for the Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science (CSISS)—that the analysis of social phenomena in space and time enhances our understanding of social processes. The chapters offer substantive empirical content for il...

  1. Spatial agglomeration dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Quah

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a model of economic growth and activity locating endogenously on a 3- dimensional featureless global geography. The same economic forces influence simultaneously growth, convergence, and spatial agglomeration and clustering. Economic activity is not concentrated on discrete isolated points but instead a dynamically- fluctuating, smooth spatial distribution. Spatial inequality is a Cass-Koopmans saddlepath, and the global distribution of economic activity converges towards ...

  2. Rumlig kultur / Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the relationships between urbanity and aesthetics. The articles span five realms: sensory and conceptual architecture, urban spaces, aesthetic textualities, collective memory, and spatial consciousness, all of which contribute to establishing spatial culture as an important field of research within the humanities......Gill University, the substantial captions of more than 100 illustrations make SPATIAL CULTURE accessible to an international readership. All contributions contain abstracts in English....

  3. Bayesian Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Bayesian statistical decision theory offers a natural framework for decision-policy making in the presence of uncertainty. Key advantages of the approach include efficient incorporation of information and observations. However, in complicated settings it is very difficult, perhaps essentially impossible, to formalize the mathematical inputs needed in the approach. Nevertheless, using the approach as a template is useful for decision support; that is, organizing and communicating our analyses. Bayesian hierarchical modeling is valuable in quantifying and managing uncertainty such cases. I review some aspects of the idea emphasizing statistical model development and use in the context of sea-level rise.

  4. Consumers’ Collision Insurance Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    Using interviews with 74 drivers, we elicit and analyse how people think about collision coverage and, more generally, about insurance decisions. We compare the judgments and behaviours of these decision makers to the predictions of a range of theoretical models: (a) A model developed by Lee (2007...... a cognitive model based on budgeting. Our findings emphasize the importance of budget constraints, which lead consumers to budget their income across consumption categories. We find also that a simple heuristic accounts for many collision coverage decisions: purchase coverage for cars worth more than some...

  5. Radwaste Decision Support System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrom, G.; Vance, J.N.; Gelhaus, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Radwaste Decision Support System (RDSS) is to provide expert advice, analysis results and instructional material relative to the treatment, handling, transport and disposal of low-level radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants. This functional specification addresses the following topics: Functions of the RDSS, Relationships and interfaces between the function, Development of the decisions and logic tree structures embodied in waste management, Elements of the database and the characteristics required to support the decision-making process, Specific User requirements for the RDSS, Development of the user interface, Basic software architecture, and Concepts for the RDSS usage including updating and maintenance

  6. Spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Chandler, Richard B.; Sollmann, Rahel; Gardner, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Spatial Capture-Recapture provides a revolutionary extension of traditional capture-recapture methods for studying animal populations using data from live trapping, camera trapping, DNA sampling, acoustic sampling, and related field methods. This book is a conceptual and methodological synthesis of spatial capture-recapture modeling. As a comprehensive how-to manual, this reference contains detailed examples of a wide range of relevant spatial capture-recapture models for inference about population size and spatial and temporal variation in demographic parameters. Practicing field biologists studying animal populations will find this book to be a useful resource, as will graduate students and professionals in ecology, conservation biology, and fisheries and wildlife management.

  7. Collective spatial keyword querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However, the quer......With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However...

  8. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  9. Decision taking as a service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Decision taking can be performed as a service to other parties and it is amenable to outtasking rather than to outsourcing. Outtasking decision taking is compatible with selfsourcing of decision making activities carried out in preparation of decision taking. Decision taking as a service (DTaaS) is

  10. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  11. Lone ranger decision making versus consensus decision making: Descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maite Sara Mashego

    2015-01-01

    Consensus decision making, concerns group members make decisions together with the requirement of reaching a consensus that is all members abiding by the decision outcome. Lone ranging worked for sometime in a autocratic environment. Researchers are now pointing to consensus decision-making in organizations bringing dividend to many organizations. This article used a descriptive analysis to compare the goodness of consensus decision making and making lone ranging decision management. This art...

  12. Departmental Appeals Board Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Chair and Board Members of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning determinations in discretionary, project grant programs, including...

  13. Medicare Appeals Council Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions of the Departmental Appeals Board's Medicare Appeals Council involving claims for entitlement to Medicare and individual claims for Medicare coverage and...

  14. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  15. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  16. Minimizing Spatial Variability of Healthcare Spatial Accessibility—The Case of a Dengue Fever Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of infectious diseases or multi-casualty incidents have the potential to generate a large number of patients. It is a challenge for the healthcare system when demand for care suddenly surges. Traditionally, valuation of heath care spatial accessibility was based on static supply and demand information. In this study, we proposed an optimal model with the three-step floating catchment area (3SFCA to account for the supply to minimize variability in spatial accessibility. We used empirical dengue fever outbreak data in Tainan City, Taiwan in 2015 to demonstrate the dynamic change in spatial accessibility based on the epidemic trend. The x and y coordinates of dengue-infected patients with precision loss were provided publicly by the Tainan City government, and were used as our model’s demand. The spatial accessibility of heath care during the dengue outbreak from August to October 2015 was analyzed spatially and temporally by producing accessibility maps, and conducting capacity change analysis. This study also utilized the particle swarm optimization (PSO model to decrease the spatial variation in accessibility and shortage areas of healthcare resources as the epidemic went on. The proposed method in this study can help decision makers reallocate healthcare resources spatially when the ratios of demand and supply surge too quickly and form clusters in some locations.

  17. Decision Taking versus Promise Issuing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    An alignment is developed between the terminology of outcome oriented decision taking and a terminology for promise issuing. Differences and correspondences are investigated between the concepts of decision and promise. For decision taking, two forms are distinguished: the external outcome

  18. Acquiring Common Sense Spatial Knowledge through Implicit Spatial Templates

    OpenAIRE

    Collell, Guillem; Van Gool, Luc; Moens, Marie-Francine

    2017-01-01

    Spatial understanding is a fundamental problem with wide-reaching real-world applications. The representation of spatial knowledge is often modeled with spatial templates, i.e., regions of acceptability of two objects under an explicit spatial relationship (e.g., "on", "below", etc.). In contrast with prior work that restricts spatial templates to explicit spatial prepositions (e.g., "glass on table"), here we extend this concept to implicit spatial language, i.e., those relationships (genera...

  19. Spatial Keyword Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Chen, Lisi; Cong, Gao

    2012-01-01

    The web is increasingly being used by mobile users. In addition, it is increasingly becoming possible to accurately geo-position mobile users and web content. This development gives prominence to spatial web data management. Specifically, a spatial keyword query takes a user location and user...

  20. Computing with spatial trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Covers the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art research inspired by the spatial trajectory data Readers are provided with tutorial-style chapters, case studies and references to other relevant research work This is the first book that presents the foundation dealing with spatial trajectories and state-of-the-art research and practices enabled by trajectories

  1. Spatial Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    With increasing accessibility to geographic information systems (GIS) software, statisticians and data analysts routinely encounter scientific data sets with geocoded locations. This has generated considerable interest in statistical modeling for location-referenced spatial data. In public health, spatial data routinely arise as aggregates over regions, such as counts or rates over counties, census tracts, or some other administrative delineation. Such data are often referred to as areal data. This review article provides a brief overview of statistical models that account for spatial dependence in areal data. It does so in the context of two applications: disease mapping and spatial survival analysis. Disease maps are used to highlight geographic areas with high and low prevalence, incidence, or mortality rates of a specific disease and the variability of such rates over a spatial domain. They can also be used to detect hot spots or spatial clusters that may arise owing to common environmental, demographic, or cultural effects shared by neighboring regions. Spatial survival analysis refers to the modeling and analysis for geographically referenced time-to-event data, where a subject is followed up to an event (e.g., death or onset of a disease) or is censored, whichever comes first. Spatial survival analysis is used to analyze clustered survival data when the clustering arises from geographical regions or strata. Illustrations are provided in these application domains.

  2. Spatial Attention Enhances Perceptual Processing of Single-Element Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, William; Johnston, James C.; Remington, Roger W.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Shiu and Pashler (1993) reported that precueing masked, single-element displays had negligible effects on identification accuracy. They argued that spatial attention does not actually enhance stimulus perceptibility, but only reduces decision noise. Alternatively, such negative results may arise if cues are sub-optimal, or if masks place an insufficient premium on timely deployment of attention. We report results showing that valid cueing enhances processing of even single-element displays. Spatial attention does indeed enhance perceptual processes.

  3. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  4. Decisions and desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Gardiner

    2006-01-01

    When we make decisions, we're not always in charge. One moment we hotheadedly let our emotions get the better of us; the next, we're paralyzed by uncertainty. Then we'll pull a brilliant decision out of thin air--and wonder how we did it. Though we may have no idea how decision making happens, neuroscientists peering deep into our brains are beginning to get the picture. What they're finding may not be what you want to hear, but it's worth listening. We have dog brains, basically, with human cortexes stuck on top. By watching the brain in action as it deliberates and decides, neuroscientists are finding that not a second goes by that our animal brains aren't conferring with our modern cortexes to influence their choices. Scientists have discovered, for example, that the "reward" circuits in the brain that activate in response to cocaine, chocolate, sex, and music also find pleasure in the mere anticipation of making money--or getting revenge. And the "aversion" circuits that react to the threat of physical pain also respond with disgust when we feel cheated by a partner. In this article, HBR senior editor Gardiner Morse describes the experiments that illuminate the aggressive participation of our emotion-driven animal brains in decision making. This research also shows that our emotional brains needn't always operate beneath our radar. While our dog brains sometimes hijack our higher cognitive functions to drive bad, or at least illogical, decisions, they play an important part in rational decision making as well. The more we understand about how we make decisions, the better we can manage them.

  5. Plutonium-238 Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Mike; Lechel, David J.; Leigh, C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Five transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, collectively, have more than 2,100 cubic meters of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) TRU waste that exceed the wattage restrictions of the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-11). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the DOE as a repository for TRU waste. With the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opening in 1999, these sites are faced with a need to develop waste management practices that will enable the transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste to WIPP for disposal. This paper describes a decision analysis that provided a logical framework for addressing the Pu-238 TRU waste issue. The insights that can be gained by performing a formalized decision analysis are multifold. First and foremost, the very process. of formulating a decision tree forces the decision maker into structured, logical thinking where alternatives can be evaluated one against the other using a uniform set of criteria. In the process of developing the decision tree for transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste, several alternatives were eliminated and the logical order for decision making was discovered. Moreover, the key areas of uncertainty for proposed alternatives were identified and quantified. The decision analysis showed that the DOE can employ a combination approach where they will (1) use headspace gas analyses to show that a fraction of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums are no longer generating hydrogen gas and can be shipped to WIPP ''as-is'', (2) use drums and bags with advanced filter systems to repackage Pu-238 TRU waste drums that are still generating hydrogen, and (3) add hydrogen getter materials to the inner containment vessel of the TRUPACT-11to relieve the build-up of hydrogen gas during transportation of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums

  6. Encouraging Spatial Talk: Using Children's Museums to Bolster Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinsky, Naomi; Perez, Jasmin; Grehl, Mora; McCrink, Koleen

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal spatial language intervention studies have shown that greater exposure to spatial language improves children's performance on spatial tasks. Can short naturalistic, spatial language interactions also evoke improved spatial performance? In this study, parents were asked to interact with their child at a block wall exhibit in a…

  7. Minimization of Decision Tree Average Depth for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2014-09-13

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of greedy algorithms for the minimization of average depth of decision trees for decision tables such that each row is labeled with a set of decisions. The goal is to find one decision from the set of decisions. When we compare with the optimal result obtained from dynamic programming algorithm, we found some greedy algorithms produces results which are close to the optimal result for the minimization of average depth of decision trees.

  8. Robustness of spatial micronetworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Thomas C.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Bagrow, James P.

    2015-04-01

    Power lines, roadways, pipelines, and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure, physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatial networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, i.e., small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality depends on both spatial distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its spatial length, we find that when failures depend on spatial distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting for spatial effects in both construction and robustness is important for designing efficient microgrids and other network infrastructure.

  9. Intuitive numbers guide decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Peters

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such evolutionarily ancient, intuitive numbers on human decisions. We demonstrate that individuals with more precise mental-number-line representations are higher in numeracy (number skills consistent with previous research with children. Individuals with more precise representations (compared to those with less precise representations also were more likely to choose larger, later amounts over smaller, immediate amounts, particularly with a larger proportional difference between the two monetary outcomes. In addition, they were more likely to choose an option with a larger proportional but smaller absolute difference compared to those with less precise representations. These results are consistent with intuitive number representations underlying: a perceived differences between numbers, b the extent to which proportional differences are weighed in decisions, and, ultimately, c the valuation of decision options. Human decision processes involving numbers important to health and financial matters may be rooted in elementary, biological processes shared with other species.

  10. Cross-Industry Spatially Localized Innovation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Evseevich Karlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article’s objective is to develop conceptual approach to the study of key decision-making factors of cross-industry spatially localized innovation networks regularities by the application of quantitative and qualitative data of St. Petersburg Innovation and Technology Cluster of Machinery Manufacturing and Metalworking. The paper is based on the previous research findings which conclude that such networks have a set of opportunities and constraints for innovation. The hypothesis is that in the clusters, representing a special type of these networks, the spatial proximity partly offsets the negative impact of industrial distance. The authors propose a structural and logical model of strategic decision-making to analyze these effects on innovation. They specify network’s influences on performance: cognitive diversity; knowledge and expertise; structural autonomy and equivalence. The model is applied to spatially localized cross-industry cluster and then improved in accordance with the obtained results for accounting resource flows. It allowed to take into account the dynamics of innovation activity and to develop the practical implications in the particular business context. The analysis identified the peculiarities of spatially localized crossindustry innovation cooperation in perspective of the combinations of tangible resources, information and other intangible resources for the renewal of mature industries. The research results can be used in business as well as in industrial and regional economic policy. In the conclusion, the article outlines future research directions: a comprehensive empirical study with the analysis of data on the factors of cross-industry cooperation which were identified in this paper with testing of causal relations; the developing an approach to the study of spatially localized networks based on the exchange of primary resources in the economic system stability framework.

  11. Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2005-10-01

    The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)

  12. Digital spatial data as support for river basin management: The case of Sotla river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prah Klemen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many real-world spatially related problems, including river-basin planning and management, give rise to geographical information system based decision making, since the performance of spatial policy alternatives were traditionally and are still often represented by thematic maps. Advanced technologies and approaches, such as geographical information systems (GIS, offer a unique opportunity to tackle spatial problems traditionally associated with more efficient and effective data collection, analysis, and alternative evaluation. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of the use of digital spatial data and geographical information systems in river basis management. Spatial data on social, environmental and other spatial conditions for the study area of 451.77 km2, the Slovenian part of the Sotla river basin, are used to study the GIS capabilities of supporting spatial decisions in the framework of river basin management.

  13. Ethical Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2012-01-01

    by the inclusion of multiple stakeholders. The conceptualization of the model enhances business ethics in decision making by managing and balancing stakeholder concerns with the same concerns as the traditional risk management models does – for the sake of the wider social responsibilities of the businesses......Purpose: For the last three decades, Stakeholder management has been concerned either with strategic business management or business ethics, values and quality. Many models have been developed, but recently the literature asks for more dynamic models that can explain the complexities...... of the interaction between a corporation and its stakeholders. Methodology/approach: This paper offers a theoretical 'Organic Stakeholder Model' based on decision making theory, risk assessment and adaption to a rapidly changing world combined with appropriate stakeholder theory for ethical purposes in decision...

  14. Non-standard spatial statistics and spatial econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Spatial statistics and spatial econometrics are recent sprouts of the tree "spatial analysis with measurement". Still, several general themes have emerged. Exploring selected fields of possible interest is tantalizing, and this is what the authors aim here.

  15. Unfolding Visual Lexical Decision in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Visual lexical decision is a classical paradigm in psycholinguistics, and numerous studies have assessed the so-called “lexicality effect" (i.e., better performance with lexical than non-lexical stimuli). Far less is known about the dynamics of choice, because many studies measured overall reaction times, which are not informative about underlying processes. To unfold visual lexical decision in (over) time, we measured participants' hand movements toward one of two item alternatives by recording the streaming x,y coordinates of the computer mouse. Participants categorized four kinds of stimuli as “lexical" or “non-lexical:" high and low frequency words, pseudowords, and letter strings. Spatial attraction toward the opposite category was present for low frequency words and pseudowords. Increasing the ambiguity of the stimuli led to greater movement complexity and trajectory attraction to competitors, whereas no such effect was present for high frequency words and letter strings. Results fit well with dynamic models of perceptual decision-making, which describe the process as a competition between alternatives guided by the continuous accumulation of evidence. More broadly, our results point to a key role of statistical decision theory in studying linguistic processing in terms of dynamic and non-modular mechanisms. PMID:22563419

  16. Frame Rate versus Spatial Quality: Which Video Characteristics Do Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Reiter, Ulrich; Ukhanova, Ann

    2013-01-01

    and temporal quality levels. We also propose simple yet powerful metrics for characterizing spatial and temporal properties of a video sequence, and demonstrate how these metrics can be applied for evaluating the relative impact of spatial and temporal quality on the perceived overall quality.......Several studies have shown that the relationship between perceived video quality and frame rate is dependent on the video content. In this paper, we have analyzed the content characteristics and compared them against the subjective results derived from preference decisions between different spatial...

  17. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  18. Ethical factors influencing decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldhaus, S.

    1993-01-01

    Ethics are determined by weighing risks against benefits, pros against cons, but also by evasion. Whenever decisions are taken, the side effects and risks to be accepted must be weighed. In law, this is called the principle of commensurability implying that ethical compromises are made. Too much emphasis on ethical principles leads to an evasion of realistic action. In consensus discussions it is often seen that the positions adopted by science and technology are incommensurable with those of philosophy, psychology, and theology. Any decision requires that the risk be evaluated in a spirit of responsibility. (orig.) [de

  19. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  20. Decision approaches to risk criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derby, S.L.; Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a definition of acceptable risk and explains how decision analysis could be used to determine ''How safe is safe enough.'' Practical limitations to the potential of decision analysis are then summarized. It discusses acceptable risk as a decision problem, setting acceptable risks using decision analysis, and other aspects of the subject. 10 refs

  1. Markovian equilibria in dynamic spatial legislative bargaining: existence with three players

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zápal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 98, July (2016), s. 235-242 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : dynamic decision-making * endogenous status-quo * spatial bargaining Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.904, year: 2016

  2. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  3. Knowledge, decision making, and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems depend heavily upon the ability to make decisions. Decisions require knowledge, yet there is no knowledge-based theory of decision making. To the extent that AI uses a theory of decision-making it adopts components of the traditional statistical view in which choices are made by maximizing some function of the probabilities of decision options. A knowledge-based scheme for reasoning about uncertainty is proposed, which extends the traditional framework but is compatible with it

  4. Exploring the effect of the spatial scale of fishery management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, Nao; Baskett, Marissa L

    2016-02-07

    For any spatially explicit management, determining the appropriate spatial scale of management decisions is critical to success at achieving a given management goal. Specifically, managers must decide how much to subdivide a given managed region: from implementing a uniform approach across the region to considering a unique approach in each of one hundred patches and everything in between. Spatially explicit approaches, such as the implementation of marine spatial planning and marine reserves, are increasingly used in fishery management. Using a spatially explicit bioeconomic model, we quantify how the management scale affects optimal fishery profit, biomass, fishery effort, and the fraction of habitat in marine reserves. We find that, if habitats are randomly distributed, the fishery profit increases almost linearly with the number of segments. However, if habitats are positively autocorrelated, then the fishery profit increases with diminishing returns. Therefore, the true optimum in management scale given cost to subdivision depends on the habitat distribution pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intentions, decisions and rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.; Roy, O.; Boylan, T.A.; Gekker, R.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that intentions with autonomous consequences pose difficulties that force us to go beyond traditional models of decision making. Of course, this does not mean that all intentions require such extensions. Intentions without autonomous consequences can readily be described in terms of

  6. The nuclear power decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power has now become highly controversial and there is violent disagreement about how far this technology can and should contribute to the Western energy economy. More so than any other energy resource, nuclear power has the capacity to provide much of our energy needs but the risk is now seen to be very large indeed. This book discusses the major British decisions in the civil nuclear field, and the way they were made, between 1953 and 1978. That is, it spans the period between the decision to construct Calder Hall - claimed as the world's first nuclear power station - and the Windscale Inquiry - claimed as the world's most thorough study of a nuclear project. For the period up to 1974 this involves a study of the internal processes of British central government - what the author terms 'private' politics to distinguish them from the very 'public' or open politics which have characterised the period since 1974. The private issues include the technical selection of nuclear reactors, the economic arguments about nuclear power and the political clashes between institutions and individuals. The public issues concern nuclear safety and the environment and the rights and opportunities for individuals and groups to protest about nuclear development. The book demonstrates that British civil nuclear power decision making has had many shortcomings and concludes that it was hampered by outdated political and administrative attitudes and machinery and that some of the central issues in the nuclear debate were misunderstood by the decision makers themselves. (author)

  7. The decision evaluation scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalmeier, PFM; Roosmalen, MS; Verhoef, LCG; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; Oosterwijk, JC; Moog, U; Hoogerbrugge, N; van Daal, WAJ

    There are several instruments to assess how patients evaluate their medical treatment choice. These are used to evaluate decision aids. Our objective is to investigate which psychological factors play a role when patients evaluate their medical treatment choices. A pool of 36 items was constructed,

  8. Decision making in neonatologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterlini, G; Tagliabue, P

    2010-06-01

    The field of neonatology presents a fascinating context in which hugely important decisions have to be made on the basis of physicians' assessments of the long term consequences of various possible choices. In many cases such assessments cannot be derived from a consensual professional opinion; the situation is characterized by a high level of uncertainty. A sample of neonatologists in different countries received a questionnaire including vignette cases for which no clear consensus exists regarding the (probabilistic) prognosis. They were asked to (I) assess the probability of various outcomes (death, severe impairment) and (II) choose a treatment to be offered to the parents. Information on the physicians' professional and socio-demographic characteristics and their ethical "values" was also collected. The goal of this international survey is to understand the prognosis and to analyze decision making by professionals in the context of life and death in medicine. The availability of an identical technology in different social and institutional contexts should help identifying the convergences and differences under consideration. Seventy percent of those invited responded to the questionnaire (International 60-80%). Italian neonatologists seem to be quite pessimistic about the prognosis of infants at high risk of death or long term disabilities, they show a pro-life attitude, but in a certain proportion are willing to change their minds if requested by parents. Furthermore personal opinions predominate in the decision-making process and the contribution of team meeting and/or ethic consultation seem not significantly modify the decisions.

  9. Decisions with endogenous frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a model of decision-making with endogenous frames and contrast the normative implications of our model to those of choice theoretic models in which observed choices are determined by exogenous frames or ancillary conditions. We argue that, frames, though they may be taken as given by the

  10. Architectural design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Antonius Gradus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A software architecture can be considered as the collection of key decisions concerning the design of the software of a system. Knowledge about this design, i.e. architectural knowledge, is key for understanding a software architecture and thus the software itself. Architectural knowledge is mostly

  11. Making training decisions proactively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The challenge of making training decisions with a high degree of confidence as to the results of those decisions face every DOD, Federal, State, and City agency. Training has historically been a very labor and paper intensive system with limited automation support. This paper outlines how one DOD component, the Air Force, is approaching that challenge. The Training Decision System (TDS) will provide the Air Force with an automated decision aid to help plan and estimate the consequences of various mixes of resident training, On-The-Job Training (OJT), and field training within a specialty such as security. The system described provides training from enlistment to separation and responds to hundreds of related security task needs. This system identifies what the tasks are, who should provide the training, what training setting should be used, what proficiency should be achieved, and through computer modeling provides an assessment of training effectiveness options and estimate the impact of implementing those options. With current budgetary constraints and with the possibility of further reductions in the future, the most cost effective training mix must be found to sustain required capabilities

  12. MULTICRITERIA DECISION-MAKING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENDRIKS, M. M. W. B.; de Boer, J. H.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Interest is growing in multicriteria decision making (MCDM) techniques and a large number of these techniques are now available. The purpose of this tutorial is to give a theoretical description of some of the MCDM techniques. Besides this we will give an overview of the differences and similarities

  13. Learning from Failed Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences and dilemmas posed by learning issues for decision making are discussed. Learning requires both awareness of barriers and a coping strategy. The motives to hold back information essential for learning stem from perverse incentives, obscure outcomes, and the hindsight bias. There is little awareness of perverse incentives that…

  14. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  15. Lone ranger decision making versus consensus decision making: Descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Sara Mashego

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Consensus decision making, concerns group members make decisions together with the requirement of reaching a consensus that is all members abiding by the decision outcome. Lone ranging worked for sometime in a autocratic environment. Researchers are now pointing to consensus decision-making in organizations bringing dividend to many organizations. This article used a descriptive analysis to compare the goodness of consensus decision making and making lone ranging decision management. This article explored the models, roles, tools and methods of consensus decision making. The results were that consensus decision making brings people together and cements the relationship among employees. The lone ranger’s decision is only consented to by staff but inwardly disagreeable resulting in short term benefits but long term collapse of organizations.

  16. A participatory GIS approach to spatial modeling for slum upgrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most prominent problem of rapid urbanism in Harare is the development of slums and Epworth is a notable example. The quality of planning and decision making in the participatory slum upgrading initiative can be sustainably improved by well managed processes of spatial and socio-economic data collection. More so ...

  17. Spatially explicit animal response to composition of habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin P. Pauli; Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Robert Cummings; Jonathan H. Gilbert; Eric J. Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Complex decisions dramatically affect animal dispersal and space use. Dispersing individuals respond to a combination of fine-scale environmental stimuli and internal attributes. Individual-based modeling offers a valuable approach for the investigation of such interactions because it combines the heterogeneity of animal behaviors with spatial detail. Most individual-...

  18. Shared clinical decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHaqwi, Ali I.; AlDrees, Turki M.; AlRumayyan, Ahmad; AlFarhan, Ali I.; Alotaibi, Sultan S.; AlKhashan, Hesham I.; Badri, Motasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine preferences of patients regarding their involvement in the clinical decision making process and the related factors in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a major family practice center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March and May 2012. Multivariate multinomial regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with patients preferences. Results: The study included 236 participants. The most preferred decision-making style was shared decision-making (57%), followed by paternalistic (28%), and informed consumerism (14%). The preference for shared clinical decision making was significantly higher among male patients and those with higher level of education, whereas paternalism was significantly higher among older patients and those with chronic health conditions, and consumerism was significantly higher in younger age groups. In multivariate multinomial regression analysis, compared with the shared group, the consumerism group were more likely to be female [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.27, p=0.008] and non-dyslipidemic (AOR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.03-8.09, p=0.04), and the paternalism group were more likely to be older (AOR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p=0.04), and female (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.32-4.06, p=0.008). Conclusion: Preferences of patients for involvement in the clinical decision-making varied considerably. In our setting, underlying factors that influence these preferences identified in this study should be considered and tailored individually to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. PMID:26620990

  19. The use of decision analytic techniques in energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Seppaelaeinen, T.O.

    1986-08-01

    The report reviews decision analytic techniques and their applications to energy policy decision making. Decision analysis consists in techniques for structuring the essential elements of a decision problem and mathematical methods for ranking the alternatives from a set of simple judgments. Because modeling subjective judgments is characteristic of decision analysis, the models can incorporate qualitative factors and values, which escape traditional energy modeling. Decision analysis has been applied to choices among energy supply alternatives, siting energy facilities, selecting nuclear waste repositories, selecting research and development projects, risk analysis and prioritizing alternative energy futures. Many applications are done in universities and research institutions, but during the 70's the use of decision analysis has spread both to the public and the private sector. The settings where decision analysis has been applied range from aiding a single decision maker to clarifying opposing points of view. Decision analytic methods have also been linked with energy models. The most valuable result of decision analysis is the clarification of the problem at hand. Political decisions cannot be made solely on the basis of models, but models can be used to gain insight of the decision situation. Models inevitably simplify reality, so they must be regarded only as aids to judgment. So far there has been only one decision analysis of energy policy issues in Finland with actual political decision makers as participants. The experiences of this project and numerous foreign applications do however suggest that the decision analytic approach is useful in energy policy questions. The report presents a number of Finnish energy policy decisions where decision analysis might prove useful. However, the applicability of the methods depends crucially on the actual circumstances at hand

  20. Decision support systems for ecosystem management: An evaluation of existing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Todd Mowrer; Klaus Barber; Joe Campbell; Nick Crookston; Cathy Dahms; John Day; Jim Laacke; Jim Merzenich; Steve Mighton; Mike Rauscher; Rick Sojda; Joyce Thompson; Peter Trenchi; Mark Twery

    1997-01-01

    This report evaluated 24 computer-aided decision support systems (DSS) that can support management decision-making in forest ecosystems. It compares the scope of each system, spatial capabilities, computational methods, development status, input and output requirements, user support availability, and system performance. Questionnaire responses from the DSS developers (...

  1. Multicriteria decision analysis: Overview and implications for environmental decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Caroline M.; Erickson, Jon D.; Erickson, Jon D.; Messner, Frank; Ring, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Environmental decision making involving multiple stakeholders can benefit from the use of a formal process to structure stakeholder interactions, leading to more successful outcomes than traditional discursive decision processes. There are many tools available to handle complex decision making. Here we illustrate the use of a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) outranking tool (PROMETHEE) to facilitate decision making at the watershed scale, involving multiple stakeholders, multiple criteria, and multiple objectives. We compare various MCDA methods and their theoretical underpinnings, examining methods that most realistically model complex decision problems in ways that are understandable and transparent to stakeholders.

  2. Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report,Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery of the Little Miami River Watershed in Southwest Ohio, USA . This report and associated land use/land cover (LULC) coverage is the result of a collaborative effort among an interdisciplinary team of scientists with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio. A primary goal of this project is to enhance the use of geography and spatial analytic tools in risk assessment, and to improve the scientific basis for risk management decisions affecting drinking water and water quality. The land use/land cover classification is derived from 82 flight lines of Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery acquired from July 24 through August 9, 2002 via fixed-wing aircraft.

  3. Proximity to natural amenities: A seemingly unrelated hedonic regression model with spatial durbin and spatial error processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    German M. Izon; Michael S. Hand; Daniel W. Mccollum; Jennifer A. Thacher; Robert P. Berrens

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that the presence of natural amenities, such as open spaces, can be highly valued and affect economic decisions about where people live and work. This article contributes to previous research by testing this hypothesis using a unique micro-level data set and by examining spatial variations in income levels and housing prices in the...

  4. Environmental decision support system on base of geoinformational technologies for the analysis of nuclear accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, T.C.; Maigan, M.; Arutyunyan, R.V.; Bolshov, L.A.; Demianov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The report deals with description of the concept and prototype of environmental decision support system (EDSS) for the analysis of late off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents and analysis, processing and presentation of spatially distributed radioecological data. General description of the available software, use of modem achievements of geostatistics and stochastic simulations for the analysis of spatial data are presented and discussed

  5. The Use of Spatial Data Infrastructure in Environmental Management:an Example from the Spatial Planning Practice in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwirowicz-Rutkowska, Agnieszka; Michalik, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Today's technology plays a crucial role in the effective use of environmental information. This includes geographic information systems and infrastructures. The purpose of this research is to identify the way in which the Polish spatial data infrastructure (PSDI) supports policies and activities that may have an impact on the environment in relation to one group of users, namely urban planners, and their tasks concerning environmental management. The study is based on a survey conducted in July and August, 2014. Moreover, the authors' expert knowledge gained through urban development practice and the analysis of the environmental conservation regulations and spatial planning in Poland has been used to define the scope of environmental management in both spatial planning studies and spatial data sources. The research included assessment of data availability, infrastructure usability, and its impact on decision-making process. The results showed that the PSDI is valuable because it allows for the acquisition of data on environmental monitoring, agricultural and aquaculture facilities. It also has a positive impact on decision-making processes and improves numerous planners' activities concerning both the inclusion of environmental indicators in spatial plans and the support of nature conservation and environmental management in the process of working on future land use. However, even though the infrastructure solves certain problems with data accessibility, further improvements might be proposed. The importance of the SDI in environmental management is noticeable and could be considered from many standpoints: Data, communities engaged in policy or decision-making concerning environmental issues, and data providers.

  6. Assessing fitness for use: the expected value of spatial data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.; Bregt, A.K.; Ven, van de M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes and illustrates a decision analytical approach to compare the value of alternative spatial data sets. In contrast to other work addressing value of information, its focus is on value of control. This is a useful concept when choosing the best data set for decision making under

  7. Spatial ecology across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  8. Decision Strategy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is: (1) to study the decision-making process in a nuclear context with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness; (2) to disseminate knowledge on nuclear emergency preparedness including courses in the field of off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents; (3) to co-ordinate efforts within SCK-CEN in the field of medical applications of radiation; (4) to support projects and reflexion groups related to interdisciplinary research on the no-technical aspects of radiation protection or nuclear apllications; (5) to give advice and support to authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available. Main focus of the programme is on the surveillance of the territory and emergency preparedness. Principal achievements in 2000 are described

  9. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  10. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  11. Actions and Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de

    2017-01-01

    How management philosophy is conceived depends on if pragmatism is acknowledged or not! After having been under the main domination of management science both research and education has until recently widened its scope from a decision-making to an action-perspective. It seems to be a recent...... but contain more than that. A decision-perspective explains by causal inference modelling choices as calculated or programmed. The action-perspectives strive at understanding intentions of agents by philosophical interpretations of action stories. It is less limited to finding the logics for constructing...... worlds, to paraphrase Herbert Simon’s favorite philosopher Rudolf Carnap, than embarking on plausible, although not certain, reconstructions of intentions giving meaning to action stories. This can be illustrated by turning to Elizabeth Anscombe’s Wittgensteinian investigation of intentions...

  12. Decision Strategy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is: (1) to study the decision-making process in a nuclear context with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness; (2) to disseminate knowledge on nuclear emergency preparedness including courses in the field of off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents; (3) to co-ordinate efforts within SCK-CEN in the field of medical applications of radiation; (4) to support projects and reflexion groups related to interdisciplinary research on the no-technical aspects of radiation protection or nuclear apllications; (5) to give advice and support to authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available. Main focus of the programme is on the surveillance of the territory and emergency preparedness. Principal achievements in 2000 are described.

  13. The Cesarean Decision Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puia, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive study design was used to describe the decision of women having a cesarean surgery. The Cesarean Birth Decision Survey was used to collect data from 101 postpartum women who underwent a cesarean. Most of the surgeries were to primipara women who reported doctor recommendation and increased safety for the baby as the main reasons for the cesarean. Those women who had repeat cesarean surgery all cited their previous cesarean as the main reason for the current surgery. Women’s knowledge of cesarean surgery needs to be assessed early in pregnancy so that appropriate education may be provided. Accurate and ongoing information may decrease the number of women choosing a cesarean surgery. PMID:24868134

  14. RADSS: an integration of GIS, spatial statistics, and network service for regional data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haitang; Bao, Shuming; Lin, Hui; Zhu, Qing

    2005-10-01

    Regional data mining, which aims at the discovery of knowledge about spatial patterns, clusters or association between regions, has widely applications nowadays in social science, such as sociology, economics, epidemiology, crime, and so on. Many applications in the regional or other social sciences are more concerned with the spatial relationship, rather than the precise geographical location. Based on the spatial continuity rule derived from Tobler's first law of geography: observations at two sites tend to be more similar to each other if the sites are close together than if far apart, spatial statistics, as an important means for spatial data mining, allow the users to extract the interesting and useful information like spatial pattern, spatial structure, spatial association, spatial outlier and spatial interaction, from the vast amount of spatial data or non-spatial data. Therefore, by integrating with the spatial statistical methods, the geographical information systems will become more powerful in gaining further insights into the nature of spatial structure of regional system, and help the researchers to be more careful when selecting appropriate models. However, the lack of such tools holds back the application of spatial data analysis techniques and development of new methods and models (e.g., spatio-temporal models). Herein, we make an attempt to develop such an integrated software and apply it into the complex system analysis for the Poyang Lake Basin. This paper presents a framework for integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service in regional data mining, as well as their implementation. After discussing the spatial statistics methods involved in regional complex system analysis, we introduce RADSS (Regional Analysis and Decision Support System), our new regional data mining tool, by integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service. RADSS includes the functions of spatial data visualization, exploratory spatial data analysis, and

  15. Participation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Valoyi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which employees would like to participate in decision making concerning various organisational issues, especially those concerning: the work itself, working conditions, human resources issues, and corporate policy and planning. The sample consisted of 146 participants, including managers, middle managers, and junior officials from a South African development corporation. A questionnaire to measure employees' desire to participate in decision making was specially constructed for this investigation. It has found that employees with higher academic qualifications were more desirous to participate in decision-making at all levels than employees with lower academic qualifications. This was also true for employees in higher job grades than in lower job grades. Men were more desirous to participate in decision making than women. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die huidige studie was om vas te stel in watter mate werknemers sal wil deelneem aan die besluit- nameproses van organisasies, veral rakende die volgende sake: die werk self, werksomstandighede, menslike hulpbronaangeleenthede en korporatiewe beleid en beplanning. Die steekproef het uit 146 deelnemers, insluitende bestuurders, middelvlakbestuurders en junior amptenare van'n Suid Afrikaanse ontwikkelingskorporasie, bestaan. nVraelys wat die begeerte van werknemers meet om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem, is spesiaal vir die doel van hierdie ondersoek, ontwerp. Dit is bevind dat werknemers met hoer akademiese kwalifikasies meer begerig is om aan die besluitnameproses op alle vlakke deel te neem as werknemers met laer akademiese kwalifikasies. Dit was ook waar vir werknemers in hoervlakposte vergeleke met werknemers in laervlakposte. Mans was ook meer begerig om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem as vroue. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  16. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  17. Big Decisions, Big Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Bruzelius, Nils; Rothengatter, Werner

    2002-01-01

    the borderlines of private and public involvement, four specific measures to increase accountability are suggested and detailed: (1) Transparency, (2) Performance specifications, (3) Explication of regulatory regimes, and (4) Involvement of risk capital. The decision on whether or not to build a multi......-billion dollar fixed link across the Baltic Sea connecting Scandinavia and Germany is used as an illustrative case. However, the approach developed is likely to be relevant for other major projects in other countries as well....

  18. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  19. Ethical Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: For the last three decades, Stakeholder management has been concerned either with strategic business management or business ethics, values and quality. Many models have been developed, but recently the literature asks for more dynamic models that can explain the complexities of the inter......Purpose: For the last three decades, Stakeholder management has been concerned either with strategic business management or business ethics, values and quality. Many models have been developed, but recently the literature asks for more dynamic models that can explain the complexities...... of the interaction between a corporation and its stakeholders. Methodology/approach: This paper offers a theoretical 'Organic Stakeholder Model' based on decision making theory, risk assessment and adaption to a rapidly changing world combined with appropriate stakeholder theory for ethical purposes in decision...... applicable): The Model is based on case studies, but the limited scope of the length of the paper did not leave room to show the empirical evidence, but only the theoretical study. Originality / value of a paper: The model offers a new way of combining risk management with ethical decision-making processes...

  20. Heuristic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, Gerd; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    As reflected in the amount of controversy, few areas in psychology have undergone such dramatic conceptual changes in the past decade as the emerging science of heuristics. Heuristics are efficient cognitive processes, conscious or unconscious, that ignore part of the information. Because using heuristics saves effort, the classical view has been that heuristic decisions imply greater errors than do "rational" decisions as defined by logic or statistical models. However, for many decisions, the assumptions of rational models are not met, and it is an empirical rather than an a priori issue how well cognitive heuristics function in an uncertain world. To answer both the descriptive question ("Which heuristics do people use in which situations?") and the prescriptive question ("When should people rely on a given heuristic rather than a complex strategy to make better judgments?"), formal models are indispensable. We review research that tests formal models of heuristic inference, including in business organizations, health care, and legal institutions. This research indicates that (a) individuals and organizations often rely on simple heuristics in an adaptive way, and (b) ignoring part of the information can lead to more accurate judgments than weighting and adding all information, for instance for low predictability and small samples. The big future challenge is to develop a systematic theory of the building blocks of heuristics as well as the core capacities and environmental structures these exploit.

  1. Valuation of environmental public goods and services at different spatial scales : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie; Drissen, Eric; Uiterkamp, Anton S.; Moll, Henk

    2010-01-01

    To manage environmental problems in an adequate way, it is essential to take different spatial scales into consideration. As a tool for decision making, it would be beneficial if valuation methods take spatial scales into account as well. In this article, we review the valuation literature with

  2. Lost in Virtual Space: Studies in Human and Ideal Spatial Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Brian J.; Legge, Gordon E.; Mansfield, J. Stephen; Schlicht, Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe 3 human spatial navigation experiments that investigate how limitations of perception, memory, uncertainty, and decision strategy affect human spatial navigation performance. To better understand the effect of these variables on human navigation performance, the authors developed an ideal-navigator model for indoor navigation…

  3. Optimising Transport Decision Making using Customised Decision Models and Decision Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis entitled “Optimising Transport Decision Making using Customised Decision Models and Decision Conferences” is multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision support in the context of transport infrastructure assessments. Despite the fact that large amounts...... depends to a high degree on subjective preferences stated by the decision-makers as the methodology deals with impacts (or criteria) that are difficult to quantify or assign with a monetary value. As a result of this an examination process is proposed that can guide the decision-makers through...... and rail to bike transport projects. Two major concerns have been to propose an examination process that can be used in situations where complex decision problems need to be addressed by experts as well as non-experts in decision making, and to identify appropriate assessment techniques to be used...

  4. Decision Architect - A Decision Documentation Tool for Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manteuffel, Christian; Tofan, Dan; Avgeriou, Paraskevas; Koziolek, Heiko; Goldschmidt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Architecture decisions are often not explicitly documented in practice, even though explicit capturing and documentation of architecture decisions has been associated with a multitude of benefits. Several decision documentation tools have been proposed but they often do not meet the expectations and

  5. Spatial data uncertainty management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana

    B4/37, č. 4 (2008), s. 209-213 ISSN 1682-1750 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Knowledge * Classification * Knowledge Management * Contextual Modelling * Temporal Modelling * Decision Support Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  6. Strategic Risk Assessment: A Decision Tool for Complex Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, Simon; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel; Yearsley, Roger [Environment Agency, London (United Kingdom). National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal; Kemp, Ray; Crawford, Mark [Galson Sciences Limited, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Reporting on the state of the environment often requires policy makers and regulators to prioritise a range of diverse environmental issues for the purpose of directing future action on environmental protection and improvement. Information on environmental issues to inform this type of analysis can be disparate, it may be too voluminous or even absent. Data on a range of issues are rarely presented in a common format that allows easy comparison. Nevertheless, strategic judgements are required on the significance of impacts from various environmental pressures and on the inherent uncertainties. Prioritising issues forces a discussion among stakeholders of the relative significance of 'environmental harm' from pressures acting on various receptors in the environment. Discussions of this sort rapidly evolve into a discourse on risks and values. In an attempt to help systematise these discussions and provide practical tools for the analysis of environmental risks at a strategic level, the Environment Agency of England and Wales has initiated developmental research on strategic risk assessment. The tools developed under this research use the concept of 'environmental harm' as a common currency, viewed from technical, social and economic perspectives, to analyse impacts from a range of environmental pressures. Critical to an informed debate is an understanding and analysis both of the various characteristics of harm (spatial and temporal extent, reversibility, latency, etc.) and of the social response to the actual or potential environmental harm. Recent developments in this approach allow a presentation of the analysis in a structured fashion so as to better inform risk management decisions. Here, we present recent developments in the strategic risk assessment research tool, as tested by case studies from state of the environment reporting and the analysis of a regional environmental plan. We discuss its relative advantages and limitations and its

  7. Strategic Risk Assessment: A Decision Tool for Complex Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, Simon; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel; Yearsley, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Reporting on the state of the environment often requires policy makers and regulators to prioritise a range of diverse environmental issues for the purpose of directing future action on environmental protection and improvement. Information on environmental issues to inform this type of analysis can be disparate, it may be too voluminous or even absent. Data on a range of issues are rarely presented in a common format that allows easy comparison. Nevertheless, strategic judgements are required on the significance of impacts from various environmental pressures and on the inherent uncertainties. Prioritising issues forces a discussion among stakeholders of the relative significance of 'environmental harm' from pressures acting on various receptors in the environment. Discussions of this sort rapidly evolve into a discourse on risks and values. In an attempt to help systematise these discussions and provide practical tools for the analysis of environmental risks at a strategic level, the Environment Agency of England and Wales has initiated developmental research on strategic risk assessment. The tools developed under this research use the concept of 'environmental harm' as a common currency, viewed from technical, social and economic perspectives, to analyse impacts from a range of environmental pressures. Critical to an informed debate is an understanding and analysis both of the various characteristics of harm (spatial and temporal extent, reversibility, latency, etc.) and of the social response to the actual or potential environmental harm. Recent developments in this approach allow a presentation of the analysis in a structured fashion so as to better inform risk management decisions. Here, we present recent developments in the strategic risk assessment research tool, as tested by case studies from state of the environment reporting and the analysis of a regional environmental plan. We discuss its relative advantages and limitations and its wider potential role

  8. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  9. Understanding marketing decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile a whole range of factors influences the outcomes of a marketing policy, it is managerial decision-making that can really make a difference. A clearer understanding of how marketers make decisions should therefore improve their quality.

  10. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...

  11. Assessing spatial data infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grus, L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades many countries and regions throughout the world have taken steps to establish Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs). Developing SDIs requires a considerable amount of time, energy and financial resources. Therefore it is increasingly important to assess SDI outcomes in order

  12. Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Akalin, Tahsin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is a developing and promising candidate for biological imaging, security inspection and communications, due to the low photon energy, the high transparency and the broad band properties of the THz radiation. However, a major encountered bottleneck is lack of efficient devices to manipulate the THz wave, especially to modulate the THz wave front. A wave front modulator should allow the optical or electrical control of the spatial transmission (or reflection) of an input THz wave and hence the ability to encode the information in a wave front. Here we propose a spatial THz modulator (STM) to dynamically control the THz wave front with photo-generated carriers. A computer generated THz hologram is projected onto a silicon wafer by a conventional spatial light modulator (SLM). The corresponding photo-generated carrier spatial distribution will be induced, which forms an amplitude hologram to modulate the wave front of the input THz beam. Some special intensity patterns and vortex beams are generated by using this method. This all-optical controllable STM is structure free, high resolution and broadband. It is expected to be widely used in future THz imaging and communication systems.

  13. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector...

  14. Creating spatial organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekanne Deprez, F.R.E.; Tissen, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the spatial design of modern organizations in the context of a fundamental change which is currently taking place in the way companies view their organizations and the inherent performance expectations, requirements and results underlying these. This change involves a managerial

  15. Spatial organization of drumlins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Chris D.; Ely, Jeremy; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    of drumlins in order to provide an improved description of the phenomenon and to guide hypotheses of their formation. We review the literature highlighting contradictory findings regarding drumlin spatial organization and then use this to motivate our study based on a large sample (42 488) of drumlins from...

  16. Cartography: LACIE's spatial processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, M. L.; Vela, R. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The spatial processing needs of LACIE include the location of agricultural test sites, and the registration of ground truth to LANDSAT imagery. The technological aspects of LACIE cartographic support, the need for cartography in satellite crop surveys, and proposed improvements which would enhance support of future programs are discussed.

  17. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  18. Financial decisions in the household

    OpenAIRE

    Kamleitner, Bernadette; Mengay, Till; Kirchler, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Financial decisions are a frequent occurrence within households. Depending on characteristics of the relationship between household members, the situation, and the concrete decision object, decisions can either be made jointly by multiple members of the household or individually by one member. This chapter outlines the four types of financial decisions (spending, saving and credit use, investment, money management) and identifies key parameters that are specific to and guide each o...

  19. Spatial analysis of the electrical energy demand in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Mamassis, Nikos; Photis, Yorgos N.

    2017-01-01

    The Electrical Energy Demand (EED) of the agricultural, commercial and industrial sector in Greece, as well as its use for domestic activities, public and municipal authorities and street lighting are analysed spatially using Geographical Information System and spatial statistical methods. The analysis is performed on data which span from 2008 to 2012 and have annual temporal resolution and spatial resolution down to the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level 3. The aim is to identify spatial patterns of the EED and its transformations such as the ratios of the EED to socioeconomic variables, i.e. the population, the total area, the population density and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Based on the analysis, Greece is divided in five regions, each one with a different development model, i.e. Attica and Thessaloniki which are two heavily populated major poles, Thessaly and Central Greece which form a connected geographical region with important agricultural and industrial sector, the islands and some coastal areas which are characterized by an important commercial sector and the rest Greek areas. The spatial patterns can provide additional information for policy decision about the electrical energy management and better representation of the regional socioeconomic conditions. - Highlights: • We visualize spatially the Electrical Energy Demand (EED) in Greece. • We apply spatial analysis methods to the EED data. • Spatial patterns of the EED are identified. • Greece is classified in five distinct groups, based on the analysis. • The results can be used for optimal planning of the electric system.

  20. How Firms Make Boundary Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    , and (b) how the firm arrived at a particular transactional choice in each decision. We find that decision makers extensively adapt decision structures in order to effectively make governance mode choices. They adapt hierarchy span, i.e. the number of hierarchical levels involved, and expertise span, i...

  1. Neuroanatomy of financial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, P E; Dorado, R; Zea-Sevilla, M A; Sánchez Menéndez, V

    2011-04-01

    Neuroeconomics is a new science that studies the brain processes involved in taking decisions, particularly related to economy and it has experienced an important advance in the recent years due to the development of the new neuroimaging techniques, basically functional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this paper it to carry out a review of the literature on the different neurological mechanisms involved in taking financial decisions, the concerned brain structures and the diseases that can affect them. We made a non systematic review of the literature in primary (PubMed) and secondary (Tripdatabase and Cochrane Library) bibliographic databases. We also used bibliography given by the Asociación Española de Neuroeconomía. Brain reward and loss aversion systems suppose a balance that makes us take one or another decision. Dopamine plays an important role on it and several brain structures have been involved in this balance such as the amygdale, the insula, the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulated cortex, the accumbens nucleus and the ventral tegmental area. The alteration of this balance may produce inappropriate financial behaviors what may occur in common diseases including depression, mania, alcoholism, gambling and several impulse control disorders. Neurologists should define our role in this interdisciplinary field due to the privileged position of our specialty to study how the brain works and due to the potential growing of this science in the near future. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  3. Decision-making Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2009-01-01

    It is a persistent finding in psychology and experimental economics that people's behavior is not only shaped by outcomes but also by decision-making procedures. In this paper we develop a general framework capable of modelling these procedural concerns. Within the context of psychological games we...... define procedures as mechanisms that influence the probabilities of reaching different endnodes. We show that for such procedural games a sequential psychological equilibrium always exists. Applying this approach within a principal-agent context we show that the way less attractive jobs are allocated...

  4. External PCR, ASN's decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The French law imposes in some situations the presence of a person skilled in radiation protection (PCR). This article describes the cases when this person must belong to the staff of the enterprise or when this person may be sub-contracted. For instance in most nuclear facilities the PCR must be on the payroll, for enterprises dedicated to nuclear transport the PCR's job can be sub-contracted. A decision given by the ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority) sets the minimal requests (in terms of training, job contract, activities) of the sub-contracted PCR. (A.C.)

  5. An overview of decision theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, S.O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper has been written to provide a non-technical overview of modern decision theory and to identify some of the major ways in which decision theory is relevant to the nuclear waste issue. It concludes that the use of decision theory in the nuclear waste issue should be further developed, and more sophisticated tools should be made used of. In particular, the application of models for uncertainty and for collective decision-making is warranted, and the same applies to models that include the earlier phases of the decision-making process. (92 refs.)

  6. Corporate Choice of Banks: Decision Factors, Decision Maker, and Decision Process – First Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, S.; Tumer Alkan, G.; Vermeer, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how firms choose their banks. We focus on the role played by the decision factors, the decision maker and the decision process in determining firm-bank relationships. We have access to a unique survey that was run by a major bank in the Czech Republic. We find that

  7. Decision strategy research: system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is (1) to develop theories, methods and software tools which help decision makers shape, analyse and understand their decisions; (2) to study group processes in decision making; (3) to apply theories, methods and tools in a context related to nuclear emergency preparedness and more generally to support in a context dealing with ionising radiation; (4) to increase SCK-CEN's knowledge on general emergency preparedness and to introduce SCK-CEN staff to computer supported decision techniques. Ongoing R and D has two components: (1) the study of the use of information and knowledge transfer in group decision processes, and more specific studying important factors when computers are used as information source and communication tool; and (2) the study of preference modelling individually and during group decision processes. Principal achievements in 1999 are described

  8. Decision strategy research: system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, B

    2000-07-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is (1) to develop theories, methods and software tools which help decision makers shape, analyse and understand their decisions; (2) to study group processes in decision making; (3) to apply theories, methods and tools in a context related to nuclear emergency preparedness and more generally to support in a context dealing with ionising radiation; (4) to increase SCK-CEN's knowledge on general emergency preparedness and to introduce SCK-CEN staff to computer supported decision techniques. Ongoing R and D has two components: (1) the study of the use of information and knowledge transfer in group decision processes, and more specific studying important factors when computers are used as information source and communication tool; and (2) the study of preference modelling individually and during group decision processes. Principal achievements in 1999 are described.

  9. Consultant choice across decision contexts: are abortion decisions different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finken, L L; Jacobs, J E

    1996-04-01

    A survey conducted among college students in the midwestern US indicated that abortion decision-making consultation patterns differ substantially from those associated with other types of decisions. Surveyed were 169 predominantly White, middle-income students (68 males and 101 females) 18-20 years of age recruited from an introductory psychology class. Participants were presented with vignettes that pertained to four types of decisions: abortion (unplanned pregnancy), medical (cancer treatment type), future (career move), and interpersonal (crisis with a friend). For each decision, students were asked who they would consult (specific family members, significant others, friends, various professionals) and the order in which they would consult them. The mean number of consultants selected was 3.72 for abortion, 5.54 for medical, 4.90 for future-oriented, and 2.41 for interpersonal decisions. Significant others were selected most often for all decision scenarios; however, the highest frequency of consultation and lowest mean rank order for the significant other was on the abortion decision. The next most important consultant for abortion decisions was friends, then family members, and, finally, professionals. The only gender difference was a greater tendency for females to consult their mothers. For every category of consultant (except best friend), the pattern differed depending on the type of decision. These findings underscore the importance of considering context and multifaceted approaches in the design of programs aimed at enhancing adolescents' decision-making skills.

  10. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction....... It reviews calibration procedures, outlines the computational algorithms, and summarizes examplary applications. Four different platforms for BD and DPD simulations are presented that differ in their focus, features, and complexity....

  11. Asymmetric spatial soliton dragging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, S; Wagner, K; McLeod, R

    1994-12-01

    A new low-latency, cascadable optical logic gate with gain, high contrast, and three-terminal input-output isolation is introduced. The interaction between two orthogonally polarized spatial solitons brought into coincidence at the boundary of a saturating nonlinear medium and propagating in different directions results in the phase-insensitive spatial dragging of a strong pump soliton by a weaker signal. As a result, the strong pump is transmitted through an aperture when the weak signal is not present, and it is dragged to the side by more than a beam width and blocked in the presence of the weak signal, thus implementing an inverter with gain. A multi-input, logically complete NOR gate also can be implemented in a cascaded system.

  12. DECISIONS, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES RELATED TO DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalised uncertainty, a phenomenon that today’s managers are facing as part of their professional experience, makes it impossible to anticipate the way the business environment will evolve or what will be the consequences of the decisions they plan to implement. Any decision making process within the company entails the simultaneous presence of a number of economic, technical, juridical, human and managerial variables. The development and the approval of a decision is the result of decision making activities developed by the decision maker and sometimes by a decision support team or/and a decision support system (DSS. These aspects related to specific applications of decision support systems in risk management will be approached in this research paper. Decisions in general and management decisions in particular are associated with numerous risks, due to their complexity and increasing contextual orientation. In each business entity, there are concerns with the implementation of risk management in order to improve the likelihood of meeting objectives, the trust of the parties involved, increase the operational safety and security as well as the protection of the environment, minimise losses, improve organisational resilience in order to diminish the negative impact on the organisation and provide a solid foundation for decision making. Since any business entity is considered to be a wealth generator, the analysis of their performance should not be restricted to financial efficiency alone, but will also encompass their economic efficiency as well. The type of research developed in this paper entails different dimensions: conceptual, methodological, as well as empirical testing. Subsequently, the conducted research entails a methodological side, since the conducted activities have resulted in the presentation of a simulation model that is useful in decision making processes on the capital market. The research conducted in the present paper

  13. Spatial Orientation in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    the vestibule lie the two otith organs the utricle and the g . They translate gravitational and inertial forces into spatial otientation information... vestibule contain the membranous semi- circular ducts and otolith organs, respectively. The semicircular ducts communicate at both ends with the...touched the face of God." 𔃾-O MOTION SICKNESS Motion sickness is a perennial aeromedical problem. This important. syndrome is discussed here to

  14. EDUCATIVE EFFECTS OF SPATIAL VISUALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROKÝŠEK, Miloš

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of the impact of spatial visualization on education. It reports on some of the findings of a research project focused on defining the correlation between components of spatial intelligence and absorbing the information presented by planar or spatial visualization. The research examined educational impact of differences in mental models of lower-secondary school students watching spatial visualization in relation to mental models formed through watching planar visualization and also a level of cognitive strain of learners perceiving spatial and planar visualization in relation to their specific predispositions, namely to various components of spatial intelligence.

  15. Spatially Embedded Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to apply a spatial approach to organizational inequality to explore why unequal opportunity structures persist in an organization despite its commitment to diversity and employing highly skilled ethnic minority employees. Design/methodology/approach: – The ......Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to apply a spatial approach to organizational inequality to explore why unequal opportunity structures persist in an organization despite its commitment to diversity and employing highly skilled ethnic minority employees. Design......’s distinction between structure and agency informs the analysis of how minority agency not only reproduces but also challenges organizational opportunity structures. Findings: – The analysis demonstrates how substructures of inequality stabilize in spatial routines enacted in an ethnic zoning of the workplace....../implications: – The reliance on a single case study restricts the generalizability of the findings but highlights fruitful areas for future research. Practical implications: – The study sensitizes HRM practitioners to the situated quality of workplace diversity and to develop a broader scope of HRM practices to address...

  16. Decision and Inhibitory Rule Optimization for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2016-04-25

    ‘If-then’ rule sets are one of the most expressive and human-readable knowledge representations. This thesis deals with optimization and analysis of decision and inhibitory rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. The most important areas of applications are knowledge extraction and representation. The benefit of considering inhibitory rules is connected with the fact that in some situations they can describe more knowledge than the decision ones. Decision tables with many-valued decisions arise in combinatorial optimization, computational geometry, fault diagnosis, and especially under the processing of data sets. In this thesis, various examples of real-life problems are considered which help to understand the motivation of the investigation. We extend relatively simple results obtained earlier for decision rules over decision tables with many-valued decisions to the case of inhibitory rules. The behavior of Shannon functions (which characterize complexity of rule systems) is studied for finite and infinite information systems, for global and local approaches, and for decision and inhibitory rules. The extensions of dynamic programming for the study of decision rules over decision tables with single-valued decisions are generalized to the case of decision tables with many-valued decisions. These results are also extended to the case of inhibitory rules. As a result, we have algorithms (i) for multi-stage optimization of rules relative to such criteria as length or coverage, (ii) for counting the number of optimal rules, (iii) for construction of Pareto optimal points for bi-criteria optimization problems, (iv) for construction of graphs describing relationships between two cost functions, and (v) for construction of graphs describing relationships between cost and accuracy of rules. The applications of created tools include comparison (based on information about Pareto optimal points) of greedy heuristics for bi-criteria optimization of rules

  17. Spatial measurement errors in the field of spatial epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhijie; Manjourides, Justin; Cohen, Ted; Hu, Yi; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spatial epidemiology has been aided by advances in geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems and the development of new statistical methodologies specifically designed for such data. Given the growing popularity of these studies, we sought to review and analyze the types of spatial measurement errors commonly encountered during spatial epidemiological analysis of spatial data. Methods: Google Scholar, Medline, and Scopus databases were searched usi...

  18. Spatial information systems for emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Kalman I. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Federated Innovation and Knowledge Center, Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-12-15

    In this presentation, we discuss the heightened role of spatial informatics on both 'sides' of the Kyoto process, i.e. in direct emission reduction in intelligent transport, and in indirect processes and the feedback of interventions, as in land use and forest management. The development of intelligent infrastructure has an acute role in the reduction of direct emission. The embedding of infocommunication technologies increases the effectiveness of the systems, and this results in significant energy savings. Intelligent transport based on geospatial information systems is among the most important intelligent infrastructures. This article analyses the role of spatial informatics in the reduction of the environmentally damaging effects of transport. Furthermore, various indirect processes contribute to emission reduction. One is monitoring the actual environmental impact of applied emission reduction solutions, e.g. in the area of land use and forest management. Therefore, spatial informatics has a key role in the factual determination of actual environmental conditions, in the preparation of human interventions directed towards the improvement of these, in decision-making and in the impact analysis of these interventions. The article analyses the possibilities of the use of geospatial tools in monitoring the factual effects of afforestation in the framework of carbon dioxide trade related to the Kyoto process. (orig.)

  19. Interactive Teaching Tools for Spatial Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Bowman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The statistical analysis of data which is measured over a spatial region is well established as a scientific tool which makes considerable contributions to a wide variety of application areas. Further development of these tools also remains a central part of the research scene in statistics. However, understanding of the concepts involved often benefits from an intuitive and experimental approach, as well as a formal description of models and methods. This paper describes software which is intended to assist in this understanding. The role of simulation is advocated, in order to explain the meaning of spatial correlation and to interpret the parameters involved in standard models. Realistic scenarios where decisions on the locations of sampling points in a spatial setting are required are also described. Students are provided with a variety of sampling strategies and invited to select the most appropriate one in two different settings. One involves water sampling in the lagoon of the Mururoa Atoll while the other involves sea bed sampling in a Scottish firth. Once a student has decided on a sampling strategy, simulated data are provided for further analysis. This extends the range of teaching activity from the analysis of data collected by others to involvement in data collection and the need to grapple with issues of design. It is argued that this approach has significant benefits in learning.

  20. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO SUPPORT DECISION PROCESSES WITH DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Rupnik

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques of data analysis do not enable the solution of all kind of problems and for that reason they have become insufficient. This caused a newinterdisciplinary field of data mining to arise, encompassing both classical statistical, and modern machine learning techniques to support the data analysis and knowledge discovery from data. Data mining methods are powerful in dealing with large quantities of data, but on the other hand they are difficult to master by business users to facilitate decision support. In this paper we introduce our approach to integration of decision support system with data mining. We discuss the role of data mining to facilitate decision support, the use of data mining methods in decision support systems, discuss applied approaches and introduce a data mining decision support system called DMDSS - Data Mining Decision Support System. We also present some obtained results and plans for future development.

  1. INFORMATION SYSTEMS OUTSOURCING DECISIONS UNDER FUZZY GROUP DECISION MAKING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    S. NAZARI-SHIRKOUHI; A. ANSARINEJAD; SS. MIRI-NARGESI; V. MAJAZI DALFARD; K. REZAIE

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, information system (IS) outsourcing has emerged as a major issue for organizations. As outsourcing decisions are often based on multicriteria approaches and group decisions, this paper proposes a structured methodology based on Fuzzy group decision making approach to evaluate and select the appropriate information system project (ISP) in an actual case. To achieve our purpose, we argue that seven criteria consisting of risk, management, economics, technology, resource,...

  2. Characterizing spatial uncertainty when integrating social data in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, A M; Raymond, C M; Adams, V M; Polyakov, M; Gordon, A; Rhodes, J R; Mills, M; Stein, A; Ives, C D; Lefroy, E C

    2014-12-01

    Recent conservation planning studies have presented approaches for integrating spatially referenced social (SRS) data with a view to improving the feasibility of conservation action. We reviewed the growing conservation literature on SRS data, focusing on elicited or stated preferences derived through social survey methods such as choice experiments and public participation geographic information systems. Elicited SRS data includes the spatial distribution of willingness to sell, willingness to pay, willingness to act, and assessments of social and cultural values. We developed a typology for assessing elicited SRS data uncertainty which describes how social survey uncertainty propagates when projected spatially and the importance of accounting for spatial uncertainty such as scale effects and data quality. These uncertainties will propagate when elicited SRS data is integrated with biophysical data for conservation planning and may have important consequences for assessing the feasibility of conservation actions. To explore this issue further, we conducted a systematic review of the elicited SRS data literature. We found that social survey uncertainty was commonly tested for, but that these uncertainties were ignored when projected spatially. Based on these results we developed a framework which will help researchers and practitioners estimate social survey uncertainty and use these quantitative estimates to systematically address uncertainty within an analysis. This is important when using SRS data in conservation applications because decisions need to be made irrespective of data quality and well characterized uncertainty can be incorporated into decision theoretic approaches. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Decisions in poverty contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Eldar

    2017-12-01

    The circumstances surrounding poverty-tight financial challenges, instability of income and expenses, low savings, no insurance, and several other stressors-translate into persistent and cognitively taxing hardship for people in poverty contexts. Thoughts about money and expenses loom large, shape mental associations, interfere with other experiences, and are difficult to suppress. The persistent juggling of insufficient resources affects attention, cognitive resources, and ensuing decisions. Despite the demanding struggle with challenging circumstances, people in poverty encounter disdain rather than admiration, and obstacles rather than support. Societal appreciation for the power of context, along with behaviorally informed programs designed to facilitate life under poverty, are essential for those in poverty contexts to be able to make the most of their challenging circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decision, 29 February 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains the text of a 1988 Decision of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Viet Nam authorizing Vietnamese citizens to travel abroad to attend to personal business. Such business may include visiting immediate relatives, needing medical treatment, meeting and accompanying returning handicapped persons, resolving the question of marriage with foreigners or with overseas Vietnamese resident, pursuing education abroad, accompanying relatives who are old or weak or who are children, bringing home the remains of a dead relative, and tourism in foreign countries. Those who will not receive permission to travel abroad include criminals and those who oppose the socialist order. The normal period of travel abroad will not exceed three months, but extensions will be possible.

  5. Shaft siting decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study identifies and establishes relative guidelines to be used for siting of repository shafts. Weights were determined for the significant factors that impact the selection of shaft locations for a nuclear waste repository in salt. The study identified a total of 45 factors. A panel of experienced mining people utilized the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) Decision Analysis Process to perform a structured evaluation of each significant shaft siting factor. The evaluation determined that 22 of the factors were absolute constraints and that the other 23 factors were desirable characteristics. The group established the relative weights for each of the 23 desirable characteristics by using a paired comparison method. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Determining Optimal Decision Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ioana Amariei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we start from the calculation of the product cost, applying the method of calculating the cost of hour- machine (THM, on each of the three cutting machines, namely: the cutting machine with plasma, the combined cutting machine (plasma and water jet and the cutting machine with a water jet. Following the calculation of cost and taking into account the precision of manufacturing of each machine, as well as the quality of the processed surface, the optimal decisional version needs to be determined regarding the product manufacturing. To determine the optimal decisional version, we resort firstly to calculating the optimal version on each criterion, and then overall using multiattribute decision methods.

  7. Spatial organization and individual mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, J. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with the following topics: the notion of spatial organization or spatial development, present options, considerations concerning the main stream of opinions, and the contribution of science. (author) 13 refs.

  8. Spatial Game Analytics and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Schubert, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The recently emerged field of game analytics and the development and adaptation of business intelligence techniques to support game design and development has given data-driven techniques a direct role in game development. Given that all digital games contain some sort of spatial operation......, techniques for spatial analysis had their share in these developments. However, the methods for analyzing and visualizing spatial and spatio-temporal patterns in player behavior being used by the game industry are not as diverse as the range of techniques utilized in game research, leaving room......, and present four key areas of spatial and spatio-temporal analytics: Spatial Outlier Detection, Spatial Clustering, Spatial Predictive Models, Spatial Pattern and Rule Mining. All key areas are well-established outside the context of games and hold the potential to reshape the research roadmap in game...

  9. Decision exploration lab: a visual analytics solution for decision management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeksema, Bertjan; Baudel, Thomas; Telea, Arthur G; Crisafulli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    We present a visual analytics solution designed to address prevalent issues in the area of Operational Decision Management (ODM). In ODM, which has its roots in Artificial Intelligence (Expert Systems) and Management Science, it is increasingly important to align business decisions with business goals. In our work, we consider decision models (executable models of the business domain) as ontologies that describe the business domain, and production rules that describe the business logic of decisions to be made over this ontology. Executing a decision model produces an accumulation of decisions made over time for individual cases. We are interested, first, to get insight in the decision logic and the accumulated facts by themselves. Secondly and more importantly, we want to see how the accumulated facts reveal potential divergences between the reality as captured by the decision model, and the reality as captured by the executed decisions. We illustrate the motivation, added value for visual analytics, and our proposed solution and tooling through a business case from the car insurance industry.

  10. The decision to trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Robert F

    2006-09-01

    Surveys have shown that 80% of Americans don't trust corporate executives and--worse--that roughly half of all managers don't trust their own leaders. Mergers, downsizing, and globalization have accelerated the pace of change in organizations, creating a crisis of trust that didn't exist a generation ago. Leaders who understand how trust is built can actively influence its development, resulting in a more supportive and productive work environment and, not incidentally, a competitive advantage in the war for talent. Building on research in social psychology, and on his 15 years of experience consulting on trust, the author has developed a model for predicting whether trust or distrust will be chosen in a given situation. It helps managers analyze ten factors at play in the decision-making process. Hundreds of top executives have used it to diagnose and address the root causes of distrust in their work relationships. Some of the factors in the model relate to the decision maker: How tolerant of risk, how well-adjusted, and how relatively powerful is he or she? Others relate to the specific situation: How closely aligned are the interests of the parties concerned? Does the person who is asking to be trusted demonstrate competence? Predictability and integrity? Frequent and honest communication? Sue, a relatively new VP of sales, used the trust model to manage her relationship with Joe, an employee nearing retirement who was not performing well in a new sales role. Fearing for his job, Joe wasn't initially inclined to trust her. Sue took concrete steps to communicate openly with Joe, explore other options for him, and show concern for his well-being. When joe was transferred, he let his former colleagues know how pleased he was with Sue's handling of the situation. As a result, the level of trust increased in Sue's department, even though it was experiencing major change.

  11. Spatial vulnerability assessments by regression kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Szatmári, Gábor

    2016-04-01

    information representing IEW or GRP forming environmental factors were taken into account to support the spatial inference of the locally experienced IEW frequency and measured GRP values respectively. An efficient spatial prediction methodology was applied to construct reliable maps, namely regression kriging (RK) using spatially exhaustive auxiliary data on soil, geology, topography, land use and climate. RK divides the spatial inference into two parts. Firstly the deterministic component of the target variable is determined by a regression model. The residuals of the multiple linear regression analysis represent the spatially varying but dependent stochastic component, which are interpolated by kriging. The final map is the sum of the two component predictions. Application of RK also provides the possibility of inherent accuracy assessment. The resulting maps are characterized by global and local measures of its accuracy. Additionally the method enables interval estimation for spatial extension of the areas of predefined risk categories. All of these outputs provide useful contribution to spatial planning, action planning and decision making. Acknowledgement: Our work was partly supported by the Hungarian National Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA, Grant No. K105167).

  12. Matlab Software for Spatial Panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J.Paul

    2014-01-01

    Elhorst provides Matlab routines to estimate spatial panel data models at his website. This article extends these routines to include the bias correction procedure proposed by Lee and Yu if the spatial panel data model contains spatial and/or time-period fixed effects, the direct and indirect

  13. Spatial Premise Integration in Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Spatial reasoning or locating objects in a spatial space has long been an important area of research in cognitive science because analyzing space categorically and finding objects is a fundamental act of mental perception and cognition. Premise integration in tasks of spatial reasoning has recently received considerable research attention. This is…

  14. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  15. Ten Challenges for Decision Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Huettel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision neuroscience research, as currently practiced, employs the methods of neuroscience to investigate concepts drawn from the social sciences. A typical study selects one or more variables from psychological or economic models, manipulates or measures choices within a simplified choice task, and then identifies neural correlates. Using this neuroeconomic approach, researchers have described brain systems whose functioning shapes key economic variables, most notably aspects of subjective value. Yet, the standard approach has fundamental limitations. Important aspects of the mechanisms of decision making – from the sources of variability in decision making to the very computations supported by decision-related regions – remain incompletely understood. Here, I outline ten outstanding challenges for future research in decision neuroscience. While some will be readily addressed using current methods, others will require new conceptual frameworks. Accordingly, a new strain of decision neuroscience will marry methods from economics and cognitive science to concepts from neurobiology and cognitive neuroscience.

  16. Quantitative decisions in drug development

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang-Stein, Christy

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a high-level treatise of evidence-based decisions in drug development. Because of the inseparable relationship between designs and decisions, a good portion of this book is devoted to the design of clinical trials. The book begins with an overview of product development and regulatory approval pathways. It then discusses how to incorporate prior knowledge into study design and decision making at different stages of drug development. The latter include selecting appropriate metrics to formulate decisions criteria, determining go/no-go decisions for progressing a drug candidate to the next stage and predicting the effectiveness of a product. Lastly, it points out common mistakes made by drug developers under the current drug-development paradigm. The book offers useful insights to statisticians, clinicians, regulatory affairs managers and decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry who have a basic understanding of the drug-development process and the clinical trials conducted to support dru...

  17. Health assessment and risk mitigation of railroad networks exposed to natural hazards using commercial remote sensing and spatial information technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    The overarching goal of this project was to integrate data from commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) technologies to create a novel data-driven decision making framework that empowers the railroad industry to monitor, assess, an...

  18. Photography activities for developing students’ spatial orientation and spatial visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendroanto, Aan; van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, D.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Setyawan, F.; Istiandaru, A.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial orientation and spatial visualization are the foundation of students’ spatial ability. They assist students’ performance in learning mathematics, especially geometry. Considering its importance, the present study aims to design activities to help young learners developing their spatial orientation and spatial visualization ability. Photography activity was chosen as the context of the activity to guide and support the students. This is a design research study consisting of three phases: 1) preparation and designing 2) teaching experiment, and 3) retrospective analysis. The data is collected by tests and interview and qualitatively analyzed. We developed two photography activities to be tested. In the teaching experiments, 30 students of SD Laboratorium UNESA, Surabaya were involved. The results showed that the activities supported the development of students’ spatial orientation and spatial visualization indicated by students’ learning progresses, answers, and strategies when they solved the problems in the activities.

  19. An object-oriented approach to site characterization decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1995-01-01

    Effective decision support for site characterization is key to determining the nature and extent of contamination and the associated human and environmental risks. Site characterization data, however, present particular problems to technical analysts and decision-makers. Such data are four dimensional, incorporating temporal and spatial components. Their sheer volume can be daunting -- sites with hundreds of monitoring wells and thousands of samples sent for laboratory analyses are not uncommon. Data are derived from a variety of sources including laboratory analyses, non-intrusive geophysical surveys, historical information, bore logs, in-field estimates of key physical parameters such as aquifer transmissivity, soil moisture content, depth-to-water table, etc. Ultimately, decisions have to be made based on data that are always incomplete, often confusing, inaccurate, or inappropriate, and occasionally wrong. In response to this challenge, two approaches to environmental decision support have arisen, Data Quality Objectives (DQOS) and the Observational Approach (OA). DQOs establish criteria for data collection by clearly defining the decisions that need to be made, the uncertainty that can be tolerated, and the type and amount of data that needs to be collected to satisfy the uncertainty requirements. In practice, DQOs are typically based on statistical measures. The OA accepts the fact that the process of characterizing and remediating contaminated sites is always uncertain. Decision-making with the OA is based on what is known about a site, with contingencies developed for potential future deviations from the original assumptions about contamination nature, extent, and risks posed

  20. Marine Spatial Data Infrastruktur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigsen, Tino Kastbjerg; Weber, Michael; Hvingel, Line Træholt

    2011-01-01

    En bæredygtig fremtid har stået højt på den politiske dagsorden siden Brundtlandsrapporten udkom i 1987. Geodata spiller en væsentlig rolle i opfyldelse af dette mål. Med udgangspunkt i geodata kan der skabes en datainfrastruktur, der kan være med til at understøtte den planlægning, administratio...... Enabled Society, såvel som i teorier om digital forvaltning (eGovernment). Alle diskurser anerkender vigtigheden af Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), og dermed af geodata, som et redskab og katalysator for processen....

  1. Rumlig kultur / Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    artikler et forskningsfelt for rumlig kultur, hvori alskens sanse- og refleksionsformer finder sammen. Based in humanistic urban studies as practiced in the Department of Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, SPATIAL CULTURE outlines a novel framework for understanding the social....... Considerable parts of the volume are in both English and Danish. Along with the introductory chapter by Henrik Reeh, Associate Professor of Humanistic Urban Studies and Modern Culture, University of Copenhagen, and the final essay by Albertó Pérez-Gómez, Professor of the History of Architecture, Mc...

  2. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  3. Ethical aspect price decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers...

  4. Uncertainty modeling and decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    We first formulate the problem of decision making under uncertainty. The importance of the representation of our knowledge about the uncertainty in formulating a decision process is pointed out. We begin with a brief discussion of the case of probabilistic uncertainty. Next, in considerable detail, we discuss the case of decision making under ignorance. For this case the fundamental role of the attitude of the decision maker is noted and its subjective nature is emphasized. Next the case in which a Dempster-Shafer belief structure is used to model our knowledge of the uncertainty is considered. Here we also emphasize the subjective choices the decision maker must make in formulating a decision function. The case in which the uncertainty is represented by a fuzzy measure (monotonic set function) is then investigated. We then return to the Dempster-Shafer belief structure and show its relationship to the fuzzy measure. This relationship allows us to get a deeper understanding of the formulation the decision function used Dempster- Shafer framework. We discuss how this deeper understanding allows a decision analyst to better make the subjective choices needed in the formulation of the decision function

  5. Aging and consumer decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Stephanie M; Yoon, Carolyn

    2011-10-01

    Research on consumer decision making and aging is especially important for fostering a better understanding of ways to maintain consumer satisfaction and high decision quality across the life span. We provide a review of extant research on the effects of normal aging on cognition and decision processes and how these age-related processes are influenced by task environment, meaningfulness of the task, and consumer expertise. We consider how research centered on these topics generates insights about changes in consumption decisions that occur with aging and identify a number of gaps and directions for future research. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Decision analytic methods in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzenko, V.; French, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, RODOS seeks to provide decision support at all levels ranging from the largely descriptive to providing a detailed evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of various countermeasure strategies and ranking them according to the societal preferences as perceived by the decision makers. To achieve this, it must draw upon several decision analytic methods and bring them together in a coherent manner so that the guidance offered to decision makers is consistent from one stage of an accident to the next. The methods used draw upon multi-attribute value and utility theories

  7. Classification for Inconsistent Decision Tables

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2016-09-28

    Decision trees have been used widely to discover patterns from consistent data set. But if the data set is inconsistent, where there are groups of examples with equal values of conditional attributes but different labels, then to discover the essential patterns or knowledge from the data set is challenging. Three approaches (generalized, most common and many-valued decision) have been considered to handle such inconsistency. The decision tree model has been used to compare the classification results among three approaches. Many-valued decision approach outperforms other approaches, and M_ws_entM greedy algorithm gives faster and better prediction accuracy.

  8. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  9. Structured decision making: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Cain, James W. III

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.

  10. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  11. Collective animal decisions: preference conflict and decision accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Larissa

    2013-12-06

    Social animals frequently share decisions that involve uncertainty and conflict. It has been suggested that conflict can enhance decision accuracy. In order to judge the practical relevance of such a suggestion, it is necessary to explore how general such findings are. Using a model, I examine whether conflicts between animals in a group with respect to preferences for avoiding false positives versus avoiding false negatives could, in principle, enhance the accuracy of collective decisions. I found that decision accuracy nearly always peaked when there was maximum conflict in groups in which individuals had different preferences. However, groups with no preferences were usually even more accurate. Furthermore, a relatively slight skew towards more animals with a preference for avoiding false negatives decreased the rate of expected false negatives versus false positives considerably (and vice versa), while resulting in only a small loss of decision accuracy. I conclude that in ecological situations in which decision accuracy is crucial for fitness and survival, animals cannot 'afford' preferences with respect to avoiding false positives versus false negatives. When decision accuracy is less crucial, animals might have such preferences. A slight skew in the number of animals with different preferences will result in the group avoiding that type of error more that the majority of group members prefers to avoid. The model also indicated that knowing the average success rate ('base rate') of a decision option can be very misleading, and that animals should ignore such base rates unless further information is available.

  12. Improving treatment decisions from radiographs: effect of a decision aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mileman, P.A.; van den Hout, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether dental students’ accuracy of treatment decision making for dentine caries using radiographs improved after using a decision aid (DA). Methods: Dental students (n = 227) assessed the need for treatment for proximal surfaces of a test set of radiographs for a scenario patient.

  13. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  14. A Decision Support System for Optimum Use of Fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Hoskinson; J. R. Hess; R. K. Fink

    1999-07-01

    The Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) is an expert system being developed by the Site-Specific Technologies for Agriculture (SST4Ag) precision farming research project at the INEEL. DSS4Ag uses state-of-the-art artificial intelligence and computer science technologies to make spatially variable, site-specific, economically optimum decisions on fertilizer use. The DSS4Ag has an open architecture that allows for external input and addition of new requirements and integrates its results with existing agricultural systems' infrastructures. The DSS4Ag reflects a paradigm shift in the information revolution in agriculture that is precision farming. We depict this information revolution in agriculture as an historic trend in the agricultural decision-making process.

  15. A Decision Support System for Optimum Use of Fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Hess, John Richard; Fink, Raymond Keith

    1999-07-01

    The Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) is an expert system being developed by the Site-Specific Technologies for Agriculture (SST4Ag) precision farming research project at the INEEL. DSS4Ag uses state-of-the-art artificial intelligence and computer science technologies to make spatially variable, site-specific, economically optimum decisions on fertilizer use. The DSS4Ag has an open architecture that allows for external input and addition of new requirements and integrates its results with existing agricultural systems’ infrastructures. The DSS4Ag reflects a paradigm shift in the information revolution in agriculture that is precision farming. We depict this information revolution in agriculture as an historic trend in the agricultural decision-making process.

  16. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC. SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method.

  17. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, L; Thyagharajan, K K

    2015-01-01

    H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC). SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD) is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method.

  18. Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Paul [American Meteorological Society, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ) Analyze existing climate assessments and translate projected impacts into possible, probable, and effectively certain impacts. 4) Improve climate projections with respect to precipitation (timing, amount, and intensity), extreme events, and tails of probability distributions (i.e., low-probability but high-consequence events). 5) Increase spatial resolution of climate projections in order to provide climate information at the scale most relevant to financial investments. 6) Improve projections of the societal consequences of climate impacts through integrated assessments of physical, natural, and social sciences. 7) Create a user-friendly information repository and portal that provides easy access to information relevant to financial decision making. 8) Create and maintain opportunities to bring together financial decision makers, scientists, and service providers. Near-term financial decisions have long-term implications for the United States’ social and economic well-being that depend, in part, on climate variability and change. Investments will be most successful, and will advance the interests of society most effectively, if they are grounded in the best available knowledge & understanding.

  19. Learning shapes spatiotemporal brain patterns for flexible categorical decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Mayhew, Stephen D; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2012-10-01

    Learning is thought to facilitate our ability to perform complex perceptual tasks and optimize brain circuits involved in decision making. However, little is known about the experience-dependent mechanisms in the human brain that support our ability to make fine categorical judgments. Previous work has focused on identifying spatial brain patterns (i.e., areas) that change with learning. Here, we take advantage of the complementary high spatial and temporal resolution of simultaneous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics between cortical networks involved in flexible category learning. Observers were trained to use different decision criteria (i.e., category boundaries) when making fine categorical judgments on morphed stimuli (i.e., radial vs. concentric patterns). Our findings demonstrate that learning acts on a feedback-based circuit that supports fine categorical judgments. Experience-dependent changes in the behavioral decision criterion were associated with changes in later perceptual processes engaging higher occipitotemporal and frontoparietal circuits. In contrast, category learning did not modulate early processes in a medial frontotemporal network that are thought to support the coarse interpretation of visual scenes. These findings provide evidence that learning flexible criteria for fine categorical judgments acts on distinct spatiotemporal brain circuits and shapes the readout of sensory signals that provide evidence for categorical decisions.

  20. Integrated land-use models for spatial planning support: country-specific solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilja Vaszóczik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The key issue of contemporary planning is that it has to work within and respond to the scarcity of resources. The competition for land is particularly intense in growth areas, especially around cities, where suburbanisation is accelerating and causes fundamental change of the evolved settlement pattern and the structure of land use. Planning in this situation must perform the difficult role of mediator in the competition for land, guiding the growth process and at the same time saving and protecting the open spaces which are indispensable for healthy living and are significant natural heritage. The integrated decision support systems (DSS are more and more popular among spatial planners and decision makers since 2000. These systems facilitate to incorporate scientific knowledge in the decision making process. During the last years in the unit for spatial planning of the Lechner Knowledge Centre we developed for a country specific spatial decision support, the Hungary Spatial Decision Support model. This study introduces this model and how it can assist territorial planning and decision making.

  1. Spatial measurement errors in the field of spatial epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Manjourides, Justin; Cohen, Ted; Hu, Yi; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-07-01

    Spatial epidemiology has been aided by advances in geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems and the development of new statistical methodologies specifically designed for such data. Given the growing popularity of these studies, we sought to review and analyze the types of spatial measurement errors commonly encountered during spatial epidemiological analysis of spatial data. Google Scholar, Medline, and Scopus databases were searched using a broad set of terms for papers indexed by a term indicating location (space or geography or location or position) and measurement error (measurement error or measurement inaccuracy or misclassification or uncertainty): we reviewed all papers appearing before December 20, 2014. These papers and their citations were reviewed to identify the relevance to our review. We were able to define and classify spatial measurement errors into four groups: (1) pure spatial location measurement errors, including both non-instrumental errors (multiple addresses, geocoding errors, outcome aggregations, and covariate aggregation) and instrumental errors; (2) location-based outcome measurement error (purely outcome measurement errors and missing outcome measurements); (3) location-based covariate measurement errors (address proxies); and (4) Covariate-Outcome spatial misaligned measurement errors. We propose how these four classes of errors can be unified within an integrated theoretical model and possible solutions were discussed. Spatial measurement errors are ubiquitous threat to the validity of spatial epidemiological studies. We propose a systematic framework for understanding the various mechanisms which generate spatial measurement errors and present practical examples of such errors.

  2. Impact decision support diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to “find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach” to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report “Defending Planet Earth” can be generalized to a notional “Impact Decision Support Diagram” by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  3. Reactive Software Agent Anesthesia Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant H. Kruger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Information overload of the anesthesiologist through technological advances have threatened the safety of patients under anesthesia in the operating room (OR. Traditional monitoring and alarm systems provide independent, spatially distributed indices of patient physiological state. This creates the potential to distract caregivers from direct patient care tasks. To address this situation, a novel reactive agent decision support system with graphical human machine interface was developed. The system integrates the disparate data sources available in the operating room, passes the data though a decision matrix comprising a deterministic physiologic rule base established through medical research. Patient care is improved by effecting change to the care environment by displaying risk factors and alerts as an intuitive color coded animation. The system presents a unified, contextually appropriate snapshot of the patient state including current and potential risk factors, and alerts of critical patient events to the operating room team without requiring any user intervention. To validate the efficacy of the system, a retrospective analysis focusing on the hypotension rules were performed. Results show that even with vigilant and highly trained clinicians, deviations from ideal patient care exist and it is here that the proposed system may allow more standardized and improved patient care and potentially outcomes.

  4. Translating climate data for business decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, N.

    2015-12-01

    Businesses are bound to play an integral role in global and local climate change adaptation efforts, and integrating climate science into business decision-making can help protect companies' bottom-line and the communities which they depend upon. Yet many companies do not have good means to measure and manage climate risks. There are inherent limiting factors to incorporating climate data into existing operations and sourcing strategies. Spatial and temporal incongruities between climate and business models can make integration cumbersome. Even when such incongruities are resolved, raw climate data must undergo multiple transformations until the data is deemed actionable or otherwise translatable in dollar terms. However, the predictability of future impacts is advancing along with the use of second-order variables such as Cooling Degree Days and Water-Limited Crop productivity, helping business managers make better decisions about future energy and water demand requirements under the prospect of rising temperatures and more variable rainfall. This presentation will discuss the methods and opportunities for transforming raw climate data into business metrics. Results for the 2015 Corporate Adaptation Survey, led by Four Twenty Seven and in partnership with Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index, will also be presented to illustrate existing gaps between climate science and its application in the business context.

  5. TAU INFLUENCE ON DECISION MAKING IN BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Correia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in sport emerges from the players' interaction with the game context (Araújo, Davids, & Hristovski, 2006. Results from studies on the one-on-one in basketball identified interpersonal distance and relative velocity as relevant variables (i.e., control parameters. These results are reinterpreted in the perspective of the General Tau Theory (Lee, 1998, in which movement is regarded as guided by controlling tau motion-gaps (time to fulfil a gap and taucouplings. Further empirical evidence for this argument, came from a recent study in a team ball sport, where the tau variable was considered and verified as significantly related to decisional behaviour. Following this, it is assumed that the focus in candidate control parameters that detach the spatial component from the temporal one, presented in previous studies, may not be sufficient to explain the decisional behaviour in basketball. In this way, the variable tau is proposed as more informative given that enfolds inextricably spatial-temporal information.

  6. Characterizing Decision Support Telemedicine Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannings, B.; Abu-Hanna, A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decision Support Telemedicine Systems (DSTS) are at the intersection of two disciplines: tele-medicine and clinical decision support systems (CDSS). The objective of this paper is to provide a set of characterizing properties for DSTSs. This characterizing property set (CPS) can be used

  7. Platform decisions supported by gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  8. Group Decisions in Value Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiono Utomo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with a technique to expedite group decision making during the selection of technical solutions for value management process. Selection of a solution from a set of alternatives is facilitated by evaluating using multicriteria decision making techniques. During the process, every possible solution is rated on criteria of function and cost. Function deals more with quality than with quantity, and cost can be calculated based on the theoretical time value of money. Decision-making techniques based on satisfying games are applied to determine the relative function and cost of solutions and hence their relative value. The functions were determined by function analysis system technique. Analytical hierarchy process was applied to decision making and life-cycle cost analysis were used to calculate cost. Cooperative decision making was shown to consist of identifying agreement options, analyzing, and forming coalitions. The objective was attained using the satisfying game model as a basis for two main preferences. The model will improve the value of decision regarding design. It further emphasizes the importance of performance evaluation in the design process and value analysis. The result of the implementation, when applied to the selection of a building wall system, demonstrates a process of selecting the most valuable technical solution as the best-fit option for all decision makers. This work is relevant to group decision making and negotiation, as it aims to provide a framework to support negotiation in design activity.

  9. Decision Making: The Underdeveloped Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Robert

    1974-01-01

    Business educators should give students specific training in a methodology which will enable them to make logical, systematic, and rational decisions. Kepner-Tregoe Analysis (KTA), a decision making model, is described and illustrated with an example of a student buying his first car. (SC)

  10. The Decision to Publish Electronically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Gary

    1983-01-01

    Argues that decision to publish a given intellectual product "electronically" is a business decision based on customer needs, available format alternatives, current business climate, and variety of already existing factors. Publishers are most influenced by customers' acceptance of new products and their own role as intermediaries in…

  11. What shapes social decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Simon M; Leris, Ioannis

    2014-02-01

    Outcome transparency and the weight given to social information both play important roles in decision making, but we argue that an overarching influence is the degree to which individuals can and do gather information. Evolution, experience, and development may shape individual specializations in social decision making that carry over across contexts, and these individual differences may influence collective behavior and cultural evolution.

  12. Financial Decision Making Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanova, E. N.; Zmitrovich, A. I.; Voshevoz, A. A.; Krivko-Krasko, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we consider concepts and components of the Financial Decision Making System that is being developed in the Institute of Business and Management Technology, BSU. Such system can be successfully used either for training experts in financial analytics and financial management or for financial managers and financial directors in an enterprise for the effective financial decision making.

  13. TOOLS USED IN DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Bernabeu Elena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is one of the important tasks of every manager. The process of taking decisions has to be based on knowledge. For optimizing this process some software solutions has been created. In this article we tried to summarize some of the features which exists in some software applications.

  14. Multicriteria decision analysis in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunlin, Georges; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Montero, Alberto J; Xiao, Hong

    2015-12-01

    There has been a growing interest in the development and application of alternative decision-making frameworks within health care, including multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). Even though the literature includes several reviews on MCDA methods, applications of MCDA in oncology are lacking. The aim of this paper is to discuss a rationale for the use of MCDA in oncology. In this context, the following research question emerged: How can MCDA be used to develop a clinical decision support tool in oncology? In this paper, a brief background on decision making is presented, followed by an overview of MCDA methods and process. The paper discusses some applications of MCDA, proposes research opportunities in the context of oncology and presents an illustrative example of how MCDA can be applied to oncology. Decisions in oncology involve trade-offs between possible benefits and harms. MCDA can help analyse trade-off preferences. A wide range of MCDA methods exist. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. Choosing the appropriate method varies depending on the source and nature of information used to inform decision making. The literature review identified eight studies. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was the most often used method in the identified studies. Overall, MCDA appears to be a promising tool that can be used to assist clinical decision making in oncology. Nonetheless, field testing is desirable before MCDA becomes an established decision-making tool in this field. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Spatially coded backscatter radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, S.; Hussein, E.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography requires access to two opposite sides of an object, which makes it unsuitable for the inspection of extended and/or thick structures (airframes, bridges, floors etc.). Backscatter imaging can overcome this problem, but the indications obtained are difficult to interpret. This paper applies the coded aperture technique to gamma-ray backscatter-radiography in order to enhance the detectability of flaws. This spatial coding method involves the positioning of a mask with closed and open holes to selectively permit or block the passage of radiation. The obtained coded-aperture indications are then mathematically decoded to detect the presence of anomalies. Indications obtained from Monte Carlo calculations were utilized in this work to simulate radiation scattering measurements. These simulated measurements were used to investigate the applicability of this technique to the detection of flaws by backscatter radiography

  16. The Spatiale Rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan

    2009-01-01

    it is embedded and sectioned. This has the unfortunate side effect that all information about positioning within the object is lost for blocks and sections. For complex tissue, like the mammalian brain, this information is of utmost importance to ensure measurements are performed in the correct region......The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest before...... is obeyed by randomizing the orientation of the virtual probe itself within the thick section. Overall, the benefit is that positional information is kept for any block and section of the specimen. As the Spatial Rotator is a 3D probe, data must be gathered from sections thicker than 25 micro meters to form...

  17. Recurrent Spatial Transformer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Maaløe, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We integrate the recently proposed spatial transformer network (SPN) [Jaderberg et. al 2015] into a recurrent neural network (RNN) to form an RNN-SPN model. We use the RNN-SPN to classify digits in cluttered MNIST sequences. The proposed model achieves a single digit error of 1.5% compared to 2.......9% for a convolutional networks and 2.0% for convolutional networks with SPN layers. The SPN outputs a zoomed, rotated and skewed version of the input image. We investigate different down-sampling factors (ratio of pixel in input and output) for the SPN and show that the RNN-SPN model is able to down-sample the input...

  18. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....

  19. Managerial Decision Making in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is defined as a selection of a certain actionamong several alternatives. It is the essence of planning, asin the managerial sense there is no plan until a decision of engagementof resources, reputation and direction of activities ismade. Decision-making is, in fact, only a step in planning, evenwhen it is performed quickly and without special consideration.It is what we all experience every day. It is one of the most fascinatingbiological activities and the subject of frightening implicationsfor the whole human race. Since various techniques improvethe system and the quality of managerial decision-making,they are classified into three assumptions: risk analysis, decision-making trees, and the theory of revealed preference. Allof these are based on the interaction of a certain number of importantvariables out of which many contain the elements ofuncertainty, but maybe also high level of probability.

  20. The Structure of Medical Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel C.; Reventlow, Susanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, medical choices involve deciding whether to look for evidence of undetected, asymptomatic conditions, or increased risk of future conditions (i.e. screening). Those who screen at sufficiently high risk face decisions about interventions to prevent or postpone the onset of possible......, but not certain, future symptomatic conditions. Other preventive decisions include whether or not to accept population-based intervention, such as vaccination. Using decision trees, we model the normative structures and associated uncertainties that underlie five medical decision situations, each of which......) an individual for a population-based intervention. Analysis of these situations facilitates examination of intuitive probabilistic reasoning. Drawing on evidence in related literature, we discuss some implications of decision-makers imposing the wrong structure or probabilistic reasoning when making medical...

  1. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    /methodology/approach – The present analysis draws on insights from previous research into decision making in product and portfolio management and studies on organizational decision making. The authors frame why the attention of decision makers is so critical in complex situations. Data for this study were collected through direct......Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...... portfolio meetings. The study seeks to investigate how managers allocate their attention and the role of different factors for their attention. Observations also make it possible to compare prior research and expectations with the actual observed behavior of decision makers. Design...

  2. THE MAKING OF DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yuji Tamura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Electronics was a Brazilian startup in the 1990's that was acquired by an American equity fund in 2012. They are currently the largest manufacturer of vehicle tracking and infotainment systems. The company was founded by three college friends, who are currently executives at the company: Camilo Santos, Pedro Barbosa and Luana Correa. Edward Hutter was sent by the equity fund to take over the company’s finances, but is having trouble making organizational decisions with his colleagues. As a consultant, I was called to help them improve their decision making process and project prioritization. I adapted and deployed our firm's methodology, but, in the end, its adequacy is shown to be very much in question. The author of this case study intends to explore how actual organizational decisions rely on different decision models and their assumptions, .as well as demonstrate that a decision model is neither absolutely good nor bad as its quality is context dependent.

  3. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K.

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  4. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  5. Time to decision: the drivers of innovation adoption decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganek, Andrew Paul; (Dave) Haseman, William; Ramamurthy, K.

    2014-03-01

    Organisations desire timeliness. Timeliness facilitates a better responsiveness to changes in an organisation's external environment to either attain or maintain competitiveness. Despite its importance, decision timeliness has not been explicitly examined. Decision timeliness is measured in this study as the time taken to commit to a decision. The research objective is to identify the drivers of decision timeliness in the context of adopting service-oriented architecture (SOA), an innovation for enterprise computing. A research model rooted in the technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework is proposed and tested with data collected in a large-scale study. The research variables have been examined before in the context of adoption, but their applicability to the timeliness of innovation decision-making has not received much attention and their salience is unclear. The results support multiple hypothesised relationships, including the finding that a risk-oriented organisational culture as well as normative and coercive pressures accelerates decision timeliness. Top management support as well as the traditional innovation attributes (compatibility, relative advantage and complexity/ease-of-use) were not found to be significant when examining their influence on decision timeliness, which appears inconsistent with generally accepted knowledge and deserves further examination.

  6. Public Decisions and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Mutascu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The way in which the social subjects take decisions, the interactions established between these, the web of social institutions and rules, the architecture of the power relationships between the various “points of social coagulation” have as a foundation a complex set of determinants, in which the “pure” economic factors have an important, but not unique role. Thus, this paper intends to draft a possible analytical framework, capable of allowing the stress of some existing connections between the cultural variables, the social actions and the role of the public power. Heavy indebted to OLSON and NOZICK, the starting point is made out by a version of the mandate theory, within the way in which society, as a whole, as well as its individual components, delegates a certain set of social responsibilities to the public authorities, based on some social utility functions, which include the characteristics of the dominant cultural model. Part I of the paper deals with the elements of the theoretical foundation, elements resumed by a set of critical postulates and a special definition of state as the dominant agency in a social space and also of the negotiation/parallel associations. Part II is an attempt to examine some empirical evidences in the favor of some results derived from this foundation. The main conclusion of the paper could be resumed by the idea that trying to describe the interactions between state and society without taking into the account the characteristics of the cultural paradigm is equivalent to talk about Hamlet without mentioning the prince of Denmark.

  7. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  8. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FOREST SPATIAL DATABASE: AN APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Sönmez

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available General Directorate of Forests (GDF has not yet created the spatial forest database to manage forest and catch the developed countries in forestry. The lack of spatial forest database results in collection of the spatial data redundancy, communication problems among the forestry organizations. Also it causes Turkish forestry to be backward of informatics’ era. To solve these problems; GDF should establish spatial forest database supported Geographic Information System (GIS. To design the spatial database, supported GIS, which provides accurate, on time and current data/info for decision makers and operators in forestry, and to develop sample interface program to apply and monitor classical forest management plans is paramount in contemporary forest management planning process. This research is composed of three major stages: (i spatial rototype database design considering required by the three hierarchical organizations of GDF (regional directorate of forests, forest enterprise, and territorial division, (ii user interface program developed to apply and monitor classical management plans based on the designed database, (iii the implementation of the designed database and its user interface in Artvin Central Planning Unit.

  9. Microdevelopment of Complex Featural and Spatial Integration with Contextual Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Hirsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex spatial decisions involve the ability to combine featural and spatial information in a scene. In the present work, 4- through 9-year-old children completed a complex map-scene correspondence task under baseline and supported conditions. Children compared a photographed scene with a correct map and with map-foils that made salient an object feature or spatial property. Map-scene matches were analyzed for the effects of age and featural-spatial information on children’s selections. In both conditions children significantly favored maps that highlighted object detail and object perspective rather than color, landmark, and metric elements. Children’s correct performance did not differ by age and was suboptimal, but their ability to choose correct maps improved significantly when contextual support was provided. Strategy variability was prominent for all age groups, but at age 9 with support children were more likely to give up their focus on features and transition to the use of spatial strategies. These findings suggest the possibility of a U-shaped curve for children’s development of geometric knowledge: geometric coding is predominant early on, diminishes for a time in middle childhood in favor of a preference for features, and then reemerges along with the more advanced abilities to combine featural and spatial information.

  10. Participative Spatial Scenario Analysis for Alpine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Marina; Stotten, Rike; Steinbacher, Melanie; Leitinger, Georg; Tasser, Erich; Schirpke, Uta; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Schermer, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Land use and land cover patterns are shaped by the interplay of human and ecological processes. Thus, heterogeneous cultural landscapes have developed, delivering multiple ecosystem services. To guarantee human well-being, the development of land use types has to be evaluated. Scenario development and land use and land cover change models are well-known tools for assessing future landscape changes. However, as social and ecological systems are inextricably linked, land use-related management decisions are difficult to identify. The concept of social-ecological resilience can thereby provide a framework for understanding complex interlinkages on multiple scales and from different disciplines. In our study site (Stubai Valley, Tyrol/Austria), we applied a sequence of steps including the characterization of the social-ecological system and identification of key drivers that influence farmers' management decisions. We then developed three scenarios, i.e., "trend", "positive" and "negative" future development of farming conditions and assessed respective future land use changes. Results indicate that within the "trend" and "positive" scenarios pluri-activity (various sources of income) prevents considerable changes in land use and land cover and promotes the resilience of farming systems. Contrarily, reductions in subsidies and changes in consumer behavior are the most important key drivers in the negative scenario and lead to distinct abandonment of grassland, predominantly in the sub-alpine zone of our study site. Our conceptual approach, i.e., the combination of social and ecological methods and the integration of local stakeholders' knowledge into spatial scenario analysis, resulted in highly detailed and spatially explicit results that can provide a basis for further community development recommendations.

  11. Participative Spatial Scenario Analysis for Alpine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Marina; Stotten, Rike; Steinbacher, Melanie; Leitinger, Georg; Tasser, Erich; Schirpke, Uta; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Schermer, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Land use and land cover patterns are shaped by the interplay of human and ecological processes. Thus, heterogeneous cultural landscapes have developed, delivering multiple ecosystem services. To guarantee human well-being, the development of land use types has to be evaluated. Scenario development and land use and land cover change models are well-known tools for assessing future landscape changes. However, as social and ecological systems are inextricably linked, land use-related management decisions are difficult to identify. The concept of social-ecological resilience can thereby provide a framework for understanding complex interlinkages on multiple scales and from different disciplines. In our study site (Stubai Valley, Tyrol/Austria), we applied a sequence of steps including the characterization of the social-ecological system and identification of key drivers that influence farmers' management decisions. We then developed three scenarios, i.e., "trend", "positive" and "negative" future development of farming conditions and assessed respective future land use changes. Results indicate that within the "trend" and "positive" scenarios pluri-activity (various sources of income) prevents considerable changes in land use and land cover and promotes the resilience of farming systems. Contrarily, reductions in subsidies and changes in consumer behavior are the most important key drivers in the negative scenario and lead to distinct abandonment of grassland, predominantly in the sub-alpine zone of our study site. Our conceptual approach, i.e., the combination of social and ecological methods and the integration of local stakeholders' knowledge into spatial scenario analysis, resulted in highly detailed and spatially explicit results that can provide a basis for further community development recommendations.

  12. Reference Data as a Basis for National Spatial Data Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mildorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data are increasingly being used for a range of applications beyond their, traditional uses. Collection of such data and their update constitute a substantial part of the total costs for their maintenance. In order to ensure sustainable development in the area of geographic information systems, efficient data custody and coordination mechanisms for data sharing must be put in place. This paper shows the importance of reference data as a basis for national spatial data infrastructure that serves as a platform for decision making processes in society. There are several European initiatives supporting the wider use of spatial data. An example is the INSPIRE Directive. Its principles and the main world trends in data integration pave the way to successful SDI driven by stakeholders and coordinated by national mapping agencies.

  13. A vestibular sensation: probabilistic approaches to spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, Dora E; Klier, Eliana M; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2009-11-25

    The vestibular system helps maintain equilibrium and clear vision through reflexes, but it also contributes to spatial perception. In recent years, research in the vestibular field has expanded to higher-level processing involving the cortex. Vestibular contributions to spatial cognition have been difficult to study because the circuits involved are inherently multisensory. Computational methods and the application of Bayes theorem are used to form hypotheses about how information from different sensory modalities is combined together with expectations based on past experience in order to obtain optimal estimates of cognitive variables like current spatial orientation. To test these hypotheses, neuronal populations are being recorded during active tasks in which subjects make decisions based on vestibular and visual or somatosensory information. This review highlights what is currently known about the role of vestibular information in these processes, the computations necessary to obtain the appropriate signals, and the benefits that have emerged thus far.

  14. Spatial Aspects of the Provision of Forest Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg

    , habitat for biodiversity and recreational access is examined at varying spatial scales and complexity, and previous literature for each subject is augmented by combining Geographical Information Systems (GIS) data with micro-level public registers, ecological and survey data. The first paper presents new...... of land for conservation into systematic conservation planning. Finally, the fourth paper uses a choice experiment to test whether people’s WTA for restricted access is influenced by spatial heterogeneity in local forest conditions. In addition, the paper assesses the potential for self-selection bias......The research objective of this thesis is to examine the importance of spatial landscape patterns for the provision of forest ecosystem services and the implications for effective land management and policy decisions. This thesis presents four papers providing different approaches...

  15. Modeling Urban Spatial Growth in Mountainous Regions of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scale and speed of urbanization in the mountainous regions of western China have received little attention from researchers. These cities are facing rapid population growth and severe environmental degradation. This study analyzed historical urban growth trends in this mountainous region to better understand the interaction between the spatial growth pattern and the mountainous topography. Three major factors—slope, accessibility, and land use type—were studied in light of their relationships with urban spatial growth. With the analysis of historical data as the basis, a conceptual urban spatial growth model was devised. In this model, slope, accessibility, and land use type together create resistance to urban growth, while accessibility controls the sequence of urban development. The model was tested and evaluated using historical data. It serves as a potential tool for planners to envision and assess future urban growth scenarios and their potential environmental impacts to make informed decisions.

  16. The role of spatial attention in visual word processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Folk, Charles L.; Johnston, James C.

    1992-01-01

    Subjects made lexical decisions on a target letter string presented above or below fixation. In Experiments 1 and 2, target location was cued 100 ms in advance of target onset. Responses were faster on validly than on invalidly cued trials. In Experiment 3, the target was sometimes accompanied by irrelevant stimuli on the other side of fixation; in such cases, responses were slowed (a spatial filtering effect). Both cuing and filtering effects on response time were additive with effects of word frequency and lexical status (words vs. nonwords). These findings are difficult to reconcile with claims that spatial attention is less involved in processing familiar words than in unfamiliar words and nonwords. The results can be reconciled with a late-selection locus of spatial attention only with difficulty, but are easily explained by early-selection models.

  17. Qualitative Description of Spatial Quality in Inclusive Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryhl, Camilla; Kajita, Masashi; Sørensen, René

    2016-01-01

    Universal design (UD) has gained global significance and is in the process of institutionalisation in the Nordic Region. This is despite an urgent necessity for developing the theoretical basis and practical applicability of UD. Reflecting this need for furthering the comprehensive understanding of spatial implication of UD, this paper aims to contribute for articulating a means to assess the quality of UD in architecture. Drawing upon numerous cases from research conducted at the Danish Building Research Institute, the paper focuses on sensory aspects of spatial quality, and discusses as well as reflects an applied method for producing the qualitative description of selected buildings that embody UD through creative solutions. The qualitative description of collected examples appears to be effective in delineating sensory aspects of spatial experience; however the systematic development of assessment criteria is essential in order to support students and designers to make responsible decisions in shaping built environments that are accessible and inclusive but also enjoyable.

  18. The impact of I(C)T in spatial planning education, 25 years of blended e-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, van der W.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wageningen spatial planning education curriculum is based on a mix of decision-oriented and design-oriented approaches. It is also intertwined with a wide range of E-learning options. The Elearning environment consists of a spectrum of applications such as model studies, spatial analysis using

  19. SPATIAL NEGLECT AND ATTENTION NETWORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere injuries to ventral fronto-parietal cortex. We propose that neglect reflects deficits in the coding of saliency, control of spatial attention, and representation within an egocentric frame of reference, in conjunction with non-spatial deficits of reorienting, target detection, and arousal/vigilance. In contrast to theories that link spatial neglect to structural damage of specific brain regions, we argue that neglect is better explained by the physiological dysfunction of distributed cortical networks. The ventral lesions in right parietal, temporal, and frontal cortex that cause neglect directly impair non-spatial functions and hypoactivate the right hemisphere, inducing abnormalities in task-evoked activity and functional connectivity of a dorsal frontal-parietal network that controls spatial attention. The anatomy and right hemisphere dominance of neglect follows from the anatomy and laterality of the ventral regions that interact with the dorsal attention network. PMID:21692662

  20. Spatially enabling the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Stephen Weeramanthri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article we offer the view that greater utilisation of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike.In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high and low-resource settings.

  1. Presentation : Spatial Analysis and GEOmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Josselin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available SAGEO is the annual International Conference on Spatial Analysis and GEOmatics. It aims to:  present recent and high quality research in the field of Geomatics and Spatial Analysis, bring together researchers from various disciplines, provide an exchange platform on research and development in Geomatics, on a national and international level, for public or private bodies. SAGEO is a good opportunity for two complementary research networks to meet and to discuss their points of view on spatial...

  2. How Attention Affects Spatial Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Marisa; Barbot, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    We summarize and discuss a series of psychophysical studies on the effects of spatial covert attention on spatial resolution, our ability to discriminate fine patterns. Heightened resolution is beneficial in most, but not all, visual tasks. We show how endogenous attention (voluntary, goal driven) and exogenous attention (involuntary, stimulus driven) affect performance on a variety of tasks mediated by spatial resolution, such as visual search, crowding, acuity, and texture segmentation. Exo...

  3. Prospect theory or construal level theory? Diminishing sensitivity vs. psychological distance in risky decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Stefan T; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk that are typical of agency situations. Unnoticed in the literature, the two theories make contradicting predictions. The current study investigates which theory provides a better description of risky decisions in the presence of temporal, spatial, and social factors. We find that the psychophysical effects modeled by prospect theory dominate the psychological distance effects of construal level theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  5. Forward and backward inference in spatial cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will D Penny

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the various computations underlying spatial cognition can be implemented using statistical inference in a single probabilistic model. Inference is implemented using a common set of 'lower-level' computations involving forward and backward inference over time. For example, to estimate where you are in a known environment, forward inference is used to optimally combine location estimates from path integration with those from sensory input. To decide which way to turn to reach a goal, forward inference is used to compute the likelihood of reaching that goal under each option. To work out which environment you are in, forward inference is used to compute the likelihood of sensory observations under the different hypotheses. For reaching sensory goals that require a chaining together of decisions, forward inference can be used to compute a state trajectory that will lead to that goal, and backward inference to refine the route and estimate control signals that produce the required trajectory. We propose that these computations are reflected in recent findings of pattern replay in the mammalian brain. Specifically, that theta sequences reflect decision making, theta flickering reflects model selection, and remote replay reflects route and motor planning. We also propose a mapping of the above computational processes onto lateral and medial entorhinal cortex and hippocampus.

  6. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Patry, Marc W.; Penrod, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a p...

  7. Decision support for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.

    1989-05-01

    A short introduction will be given to the Nordic project ''NKA/INF: Information Technology for Accident and Emergency Management'', which is now in its final phase. To perform evaluation of the project, special scenarious have been developed, and experiments based on these will be fulfilled and compared with experiments without use of the decision support system. Furthermore, the succeeding European project, ''IT Support for Emergency Management - ISEM'', with the purpose of developing a decision support system for complex and distributed decision making in emergency management in full scale, will be described and the preliminary conceptual model for the system will be presented. (author)

  8. Decision modeling and acceptance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    formulation of decision criteria and public acceptance criteria connected to risk analysis of technical operations that may endanger human life and property. Public restrictions on the decisions concerning the design, construction and managing of the technical operation have in the past been imposed......, the owner that tries to optimize the net gain of the operation, and the public that has somewhat different preferences than the owner, but also strong interests in the success of the owner. The principles of rational decision are needed for appreciation of the problem. Recognizing that there is an insurance...

  9. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...

  10. Abuja sustainable spatial housing design: A spatial dialectics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abuja sustainable spatial housing design: A spatial dialectics (volumetric and unvolumetric settlements) ... the influx of new migrants and indigenous settlers have resulted in housing shortage, infrastructure overload, and the proliferation of defective housing and informal settlements in the city and surrounding territories.

  11. One Spatial Map or Many? Spatial Coding of Connected Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Becker, Suzanna

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how humans encode large-scale spatial environments using a virtual taxi game. We hypothesized that if 2 connected neighborhoods are explored jointly, people will form a single integrated spatial representation of the town. However, if the neighborhoods are first learned separately and later observed to be connected, people will…

  12. Spatial Forecast of Landslides in Three Gorges Based On Spatial Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmin Wang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges is a region with a very high landslide distribution density and a concentrated population. In Three Gorges there are often landslide disasters, and the potential risk of landslides is tremendous. In this paper, focusing on Three Gorges, which has a complicated landform, spatial forecasting of landslides is studied by establishing 20 forecast factors (spectra, texture, vegetation coverage, water level of reservoir, slope structure, engineering rock group, elevation, slope, aspect, etc. China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (Cbers images were adopted based on C4.5 decision tree to mine spatial forecast landslide criteria in Guojiaba Town (Zhigui County in Three Gorges and based on this knowledge, perform intelligent spatial landslide forecasts for Guojiaba Town. All landslides lie in the dangerous and unstable regions, so the forecast result is good. The method proposed in the paper is compared with seven other methods: IsoData, K-Means, Mahalanobis Distance, Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance, Parallelepiped and Information Content Model. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper has a high forecast precision, noticeably higher than that of the other seven methods.

  13. Spatial forecast of landslides in three gorges based on spatial data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianmin; Niu, Ruiqing

    2009-01-01

    The Three Gorges is a region with a very high landslide distribution density and a concentrated population. In Three Gorges there are often landslide disasters, and the potential risk of landslides is tremendous. In this paper, focusing on Three Gorges, which has a complicated landform, spatial forecasting of landslides is studied by establishing 20 forecast factors (spectra, texture, vegetation coverage, water level of reservoir, slope structure, engineering rock group, elevation, slope, aspect, etc). China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (Cbers) images were adopted based on C4.5 decision tree to mine spatial forecast landslide criteria in Guojiaba Town (Zhigui County) in Three Gorges and based on this knowledge, perform intelligent spatial landslide forecasts for Guojiaba Town. All landslides lie in the dangerous and unstable regions, so the forecast result is good. The method proposed in the paper is compared with seven other methods: IsoData, K-Means, Mahalanobis Distance, Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance, Parallelepiped and Information Content Model. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper has a high forecast precision, noticeably higher than that of the other seven methods.

  14. Decision process for Hanford sitewide groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes a decision process for planning future investigations and remediating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This decision process details the following: identifies key decisions and activities; defines the criteria used in making each decision; and defines the logic that links the decisions and the activities in a stepwise manner

  15. Articulations amongst multiple geographical scales: logics and spatial strategies of companie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Encarnação Beltrão Sposito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In current times, marked by forms of production and consumption associated with post-fordism, and the social constitution and neoliberal policy, compa- nies of different economic sizes and spatial scopes base their decision-making to the location of their establishments and to conform their markets and ar- eas according to different geographical scales. The link between, on the one hand, economic and spatial logic and on the other, spatial strategies of com- panies is presented in this text, in the context of contemporary capitalism and formation of shop networks that rely on urban networks as a condition of acting, but also transform their settings and the roles of various cities in these spatial structures of interurban scale. We take, as empirical reference, the economic and spatial logic of some companies and other’s spatial strategies to show what is generally and what can be understood as particular and unique in the analyzed trends.

  16. Spatial Language and Children’s Spatial Landmark Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber A. Ankowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined how spatial language affected search behavior in a landmark spatial search task. In Experiment 1, two- to six-year-old children were trained to find a toy in the center of a square array of four identical landmarks. Children heard one of three spatial language cues once during the initial training trial (“here,” “in the middle,” “next to this one”. After search performance reached criterion, children received a probe test trial in which the landmark array was expanded. In Experiment 2, two- to four-year-old children participated in the search task and also completed a language comprehension task. Results revealed that children’s spatial language comprehension scores and spatial language cues heard during training trials were related to children’s performance in the search task.

  17. Spatial Preference Modelling for equitable infrastructure provision: an application of Sen's Capability Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismadi, Arif; Zuidgeest, Mark; Brussel, Mark; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the inclusion of spatial neighbourhood comparison factors in Preference Modelling allows spatial decision support systems (SDSSs) to better address spatial equity, we introduce Spatial Preference Modelling (SPM). To evaluate the effectiveness of this model in addressing equity, various standardisation functions in both Non-Spatial Preference Modelling and SPM are compared. The evaluation involves applying the model to a resource location-allocation problem for transport infrastructure in the Special Province of Yogyakarta in Indonesia. We apply Amartya Sen's Capability Approach to define opportunity to mobility as a non-income indicator. Using the extended Moran's I interpretation for spatial equity, we evaluate the distribution output regarding, first, `the spatial distribution patterns of priority targeting for allocation' (SPT) and, second, `the effect of new distribution patterns after location-allocation' (ELA). The Moran's I index of the initial map and its comparison with six patterns for SPT as well as ELA consistently indicates that the SPM is more effective for addressing spatial equity. We conclude that the inclusion of spatial neighbourhood comparison factors in Preference Modelling improves the capability of SDSS to address spatial equity. This study thus proposes a new formal method for SDSS with specific attention on resource location-allocation to address spatial equity.

  18. Auditory Spatial Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  19. Multi-stage optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2017-06-16

    We study problems of optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions. As cost functions, we consider depth, average depth, number of nodes, and number of terminal/nonterminal nodes in trees. Decision tables with many-valued decisions (multi-label decision tables) are often more accurate models for real-life data sets than usual decision tables with single-valued decisions. Inhibitory trees can sometimes capture more information from decision tables than decision trees. In this paper, we create dynamic programming algorithms for multi-stage optimization of trees relative to a sequence of cost functions. We apply these algorithms to prove the existence of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision and inhibitory trees for some modified decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  20. Competition for marine space: modelling the Baltic Sea fisheries and effort displacement under spatial restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2015-01-01

    to fishery and from vessel to vessel. The impact assessment of new spatial plans involving fisheries should be based on quantitative bioeconomic analyses that take into account individual vessel decisions, and trade-offs in cross-sector conflicting interests.Weuse a vessel-oriented decision-support tool (the...... DISPLACE model) to combine stochastic variations in spatial fishing activities with harvested resource dynamics in scenario projections. The assessment computes economic and stock status indicators by modelling the activity of Danish, Swedish, and German vessels (.12 m) in the international western Baltic...... Sea commercial fishery, together with the underlying size-based distribution dynamics of the main fishery resources of sprat, herring, and cod. The outcomes of alternative scenarios for spatial effort displacement are exemplified by evaluating the fishers’s abilities to adapt to spatial plans under...

  1. Decide Now - Ditch Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campion, John

    2004-01-01

    .... The separation of psychology into sub-disciplines or paradigms that don't talk to one another. 3. The failure to distinguish between technical and common language usage when dealing with concepts such as decision making and command...

  2. HUD Administrative Law Judges Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This site contains substantive and precedential decisions issued by the Office of Administrative Law Judges. The site does not contain subsequent rulings or...

  3. Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory contains descriptions of past and present CDS projects across the Federal Government. It includes Federal projects,...

  4. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  5. Heuristic decision making in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marewski, Julian N.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care. PMID:22577307

  6. Ethical aspect price decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers, whose irreverence does not entail any juridical sanctions, rather its application is sanctioned by the self - awareness. The acception and stability of the ethical aspect price decision making are determined by the characteristic of selected marketing environment.

  7. Decision theory principles and approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Decision theory provides a formal framework for making logical choices in the face of uncertainty. Given a set of alternatives, a set of consequences, and a correspondence between those sets, decision theory offers conceptually simple procedures for choice. This book presents an overview of the fundamental concepts and outcomes of rational decision making under uncertainty, highlighting the implications for statistical practice. The authors have developed a series of self contained chapters focusing on bridging the gaps between the different fields that have contributed to rational decision making and presenting ideas in a unified framework and notation while respecting and highlighting the different and sometimes conflicting perspectives. This book: Provides a rich collection of techniques and procedures.Discusses the foundational aspects and modern day practice.Links foundations to practical applications in biostatistics, computer science, engineering and economics.Presents different perspectives and cont...

  8. Decision support using nonparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Beatty, Warren

    2018-01-01

    This concise volume covers nonparametric statistics topics that most are most likely to be seen and used from a practical decision support perspective. While many degree programs require a course in parametric statistics, these methods are often inadequate for real-world decision making in business environments. Much of the data collected today by business executives (for example, customer satisfaction opinions) requires nonparametric statistics for valid analysis, and this book provides the reader with a set of tools that can be used to validly analyze all data, regardless of type. Through numerous examples and exercises, this book explains why nonparametric statistics will lead to better decisions and how they are used to reach a decision, with a wide array of business applications. Online resources include exercise data, spreadsheets, and solutions.

  9. Developing an Analytical Framework: Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Decision Making - Proceedings of a Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dianna; Arthaud, Greg; Pattison, Malka; Sayre, Roger G.; Shapiro, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The analytical framework for understanding ecosystem services in conservation, resource management, and development decisions is multidisciplinary, encompassing a combination of the natural and social sciences. This report summarizes a workshop on 'Developing an Analytical Framework: Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Decision Making,' which focused on the analytical process and on identifying research priorities for assessing ecosystem services, their production and use, their spatial and temporal characteristics, their relationship with natural systems, and their interdependencies. Attendees discussed research directions and solutions to key challenges in developing the analytical framework. The discussion was divided into two sessions: (1) the measurement framework: quantities and values, and (2) the spatial framework: mapping and spatial relationships. This workshop was the second of three preconference workshops associated with ACES 2008 (A Conference on Ecosystem Services): Using Science for Decision Making in Dynamic Systems. These three workshops were designed to explore the ACES 2008 theme on decision making and how the concept of ecosystem services can be more effectively incorporated into conservation, restoration, resource management, and development decisions. Preconference workshop 1, 'Developing a Vision: Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Decision Making,' was held on April 15, 2008, in Cambridge, MA. In preconference workshop 1, participants addressed what would have to happen to make ecosystem services be used more routinely and effectively in conservation, restoration, resource management, and development decisions, and they identified some key challenges in developing the analytical framework. Preconference workshop 3, 'Developing an Institutional Framework: Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Decision Making,' was held on October 30, 2008, in Albuquerque, NM; participants examined the relationship between the institutional framework and

  10. Crew decision making under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, J.

    1992-01-01

    Flight crews must make decisions and take action when systems fail or emergencies arise during flight. These situations may involve high stress. Full-missiion flight simulation studies have shown that crews differ in how effectively they cope in these circumstances, judged by operational errors and crew coordination. The present study analyzed the problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains fitting three different personality profiles. Our goal was to identify more and less effective strategies that could serve as the basis for crew selection or training. Methods: Twelve 3-member B-727 crews flew a 5-leg mission simulated flight over 1 1/2 days. Two legs included 4 abnormal events that required decisions during high workload periods. Transcripts of videotapes were analyzed to describe decision making strategies. Crew performance (errors and coordination) was judged on-line and from videotapes by check airmen. Results: Based on a median split of crew performance errors, analyses to date indicate a difference in general strategy between crews who make more or less errors. Higher performance crews showed greater situational awareness - they responded quickly to cues and interpreted them appropriately. They requested more decision relevant information and took into account more constraints. Lower performing crews showed poorer situational awareness, planning, constraint sensitivity, and coordination. The major difference between higher and lower performing crews was that poorer crews made quick decisions and then collected information to confirm their decision. Conclusion: Differences in overall crew performance were associated with differences in situational awareness, information management, and decision strategy. Captain personality profiles were associated with these differences, a finding with implications for crew selection and training.

  11. Decision Strategy Research: Policy Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to perform research on relevant topics that might have an important impact on decision making related to nuclear applications, including social and economic sciences. Main achievements in this area in 1999 are described

  12. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  13. Optimization of decision rule complexity for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    We describe new heuristics to construct decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions from the point of view of length and coverage which are enough good. We use statistical test to find leaders among the heuristics. After that, we compare our results with optimal result obtained by dynamic programming algorithms. The average percentage of relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 6.89% (15.89%, respectively) for leaders which seems to be a promising result. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  15. Auditory spatial perception without vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Voss

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Valuable insights into the role played by visual experience in shaping spatial representations can be gained by studying the effects of visual deprivation on the remaining sensory modalities. For instance, it has long been debated how spatial hearing evolves in the absence of visual input. While several anecdotal accounts tend to associate complete blindness with exceptional hearing abilities, experimental evidence supporting such claims is, however, matched by nearly equal amounts of evidence documenting spatial hearing deficits. The purpose of this review is to summarize the key findings which support either enhancements or deficits in spatial hearing observed following visual loss and to provide a conceptual framework that isolates the specific conditions under which they occur. Available evidence will be examined in terms of various spatial dimensions (horizontal, vertical and depth perception and in terms of frames of reference (egocentric and allocentric. Evidence suggests that while early blind individuals show superior spatial hearing in the horizontal plane, they also show significant deficits in the vertical plane. Potential explanations underlying these contrasting findings will be discussed. Early blind individuals also show spatial hearing impairments when performing tasks that require the use of an allocentric frame of reference. Results obtained with late-onset blind individuals suggest that early visual experience plays a key role in the development of both the spatial hearing enhancements and deficits observed in the early blind.

  16. Elements of a Spatial Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    and are relevant to a text argument. An important element in enabling such queries is to be able to rank spatial web objects. Another is to be able to determine the relevance of an object to a query. Yet another is to enable the efficient processing of such queries. The talk covers recent results on spatial web...

  17. Serial and spatial error correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    This paper demonstrates that jointly modeling serial and spatial error correlation results in a trade-off between the serial and spatial autocorrelation coefficients. Ignoring this trade-off causes inefficiency and may lead to nonstationarity. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender differences in spatial cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial abilities, such as wayfinding and memorizing object locations, seem to be equally important for every individual. Yet both common belief and scientific literature claim that men and women differ in these abilities. Whereas ‘spatial ability’ used to be considered as a unitary capacity, on

  19. Understanding The Decision Context: DPSIR, Decision Landscape, And Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishing the decision context for a management problem is the critical first step for effective decision analysis. Understanding the decision context allow stakeholders and decision-makers to integrate the societal, environmental, and economic considerations that must be con...

  20. Modeling for spatial multilevel structural data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Suqin; He, Xiaoqun

    2013-03-01

    The traditional multilevel model assumed independence between groups. However, the datasets grouped by geographical units often has spatial dependence. The individual is influenced not only by its region but also by the adjacent regions, and level-2 residual distribution assumption of traditional multilevel model is violated. In order to deal with such spatial multilevel data, we introduce spatial statistics and spatial econometric models into multilevel model, and apply spatial parameters and adjacency matrix in traditional level-2 model to reflect the spatial autocorrelation. Spatial lag model express spatial effects. We build spatial multilevel model which consider both multilevel thinking and spatial correlation.

  1. Human decision error (HUMDEE) trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, L.T.

    1993-01-01

    Graphical presentations of human actions in incident and accident sequences have been used for many years. However, for the most part, human decision making has been underrepresented in these trees. This paper presents a method of incorporating the human decision process into graphical presentations of incident/accident sequences. This presentation is in the form of logic trees. These trees are called Human Decision Error Trees or HUMDEE for short. The primary benefit of HUMDEE trees is that they graphically illustrate what else the individuals involved in the event could have done to prevent either the initiation or continuation of the event. HUMDEE trees also present the alternate paths available at the operator decision points in the incident/accident sequence. This is different from the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) event trees. There are many uses of these trees. They can be used for incident/accident investigations to show what other courses of actions were available and for training operators. The trees also have a consequence component so that not only the decision can be explored, also the consequence of that decision

  2. Development and Application of a Planning Support System for Regional Spatial Functional Zoning Based on GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaorui Zhang; Qian Hua; Linya Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Regional spatial functional zoning in China is a large-scale strategic planning and requires very advanced planning decision support technology. With respect to spatial functional zoning, the planning support system (PSS) is introduced as one of the most popular computer aided planning systems at the present time in this paper, and is further explained with the example of the latest regional main functional area (RMFA) planning in China. On the Visual Studio.NET visualization development plat...

  3. Decision mining revisited - Discovering overlapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.; Van Der Aalst, Wil M P

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  4. Argumentation and Multi-Agent Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, S; Jennings, NR

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises our on-going work on mixed- initiative decision making which extends both classical decision theory and a symbolic theory of decision making based on argumentation to a multi-agent domain.

  5. Impaired decision making among morbidly obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brogan, Amy

    2011-02-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures affective decision making and has revealed decision making impairments across a wide range of eating disorders. This study aimed to investigate affective decision making in severely obese individuals.

  6. Perspectives on spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This book takes both a retrospective and prospective view of the field of spatial analysis by combining selected reprints of classic articles by Arthur Getis with current observations by leading experts in the field. Four main aspects are highlighted, dealing with spatial analysis, pattern analysis, local statistics as well as illustrative empirical applications. Researchers and students will gain an appreciation of Getis' methodological contributions to spatial analysis and the broad impact of the methods he has helped pioneer on an impressively broad array of disciplines including spatial epidemiology, demography, economics, and ecology. The volume is a compilation of high impact original contributions, as evidenced by citations, and the latest thinking on the field by leading scholars. This makes the book ideal for advanced seminars and courses in spatial analysis as well as a key resource for researchers seeking a comprehensive overview of recent advances and future directions in the field.

  7. Six Myths About Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Nora S.; Stieff, Mike

    2012-04-01

    Visualizations are an increasingly important part of scientific education and discovery. However, users often do not gain knowledge from them in a complete or efficient way. This article aims to direct research on visualizations in science education in productive directions by reviewing the evidence for widespread assumptions that learning styles, sex differences, developmental stages, and spatial language determine the impact of visualizations on science learning. First, we examine the assumption that people differ in their verbal versus visual learning style. Due to the lack of rigorous evaluation, there is no current support for this distinction. Future research should distinguish between two different kinds of visual learning style. Second, we consider the belief that there are large and intractable sex differences in spatial ability resultant from immutable biological reasons. Although there are some spatial sex differences (in some types of spatial tests although not all), there is actually only very mixed support for biological causation. Most important, there is conclusive evidence that spatial skills can be improved through training and education. Third, we explore educators' use of Piaget's ideas about spatial development to draw conclusions about 'developmental appropriateness'. However, recent research on spatial development has focused on identifying sequences that begin with early starting points of skill, and spatial education is possible in some form at all ages. Fourth, although spatial language does not determine spatial thought, it does frame attention in a way that can have impact on learning and understanding. We examine the empirical support for each assumption and its relevance to future research on visualizations in science education.

  8. Spatial Dependence and Determinants of Dairy Farmers' Adoption of Best Management Practices for Water Protection in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Sharp, Basil

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses spatial dependence and determinants of the New Zealand dairy farmers' adoption of best management practices to protect water quality. A Bayesian spatial durbin probit model is used to survey data collected from farmers in the Waikato region of New Zealand. The results show that farmers located near each other exhibit similar choice behaviour, indicating the importance of farmer interactions in adoption decisions. The results also address that information acquisition is the most important determinant of farmers' adoption of best management practices. Financial problems are considered a significant barrier to adopting best management practices. Overall, the existence of distance decay effect and spatial dependence in farmers' adoption decisions highlights the importance of accounting for spatial effects in farmers' decision-making, which emerges as crucial to the formulation of sustainable agriculture policy.

  9. Application of multicriteria decision analysis in environmental decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiker, Gregory A; Bridges, Todd S; Varghese, Arun; Seager, P Thomas P; Linkov, Igor

    2005-04-01

    Decision making in environmental projects can be complex and seemingly intractable, principally because of the inherent trade-offs between sociopolitical, environmental, ecological, and economic factors. The selection of appropriate remedial and abatement strategies for contaminated sites, land use planning, and regulatory processes often involves multiple additional criteria such as the distribution of costs and benefits, environmental impacts for different populations, safety, ecological risk, or human values. Some of these criteria cannot be easily condensed into a monetary value, partly because environmental concerns often involve ethical and moral principles that may not be related to any economic use or value. Furthermore, even if it were possible to aggregate multiple criteria rankings into a common unit, this approach would not always be desirable because the ability to track conflicting stakeholder preferences may be lost in the process. Consequently, selecting from among many different alternatives often involves making trade-offs that fail to satisfy 1 or more stakeholder groups. Nevertheless, considerable research in the area of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has made available practical methods for applying scientific decision theoretical approaches to complex multicriteria problems. This paper presents a review of the available literature and provides recommendations for applying MCDA techniques in environmental projects. A generalized framework for decision analysis is proposed to highlight the fundamental ingredients for more structured and tractable environmental decision making.

  10. Web-based GIS for spatial pattern detection: application to malaria incidence in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Quang; Pham, Hai Minh

    2016-01-01

    There is a great concern on how to build up an interoperable health information system of public health and health information technology within the development of public information and health surveillance programme. Technically, some major issues remain regarding to health data visualization, spatial processing of health data, health information dissemination, data sharing and the access of local communities to health information. In combination with GIS, we propose a technical framework for web-based health data visualization and spatial analysis. Data was collected from open map-servers and geocoded by open data kit package and data geocoding tools. The Web-based system is designed based on Open-source frameworks and libraries. The system provides Web-based analyst tool for pattern detection through three spatial tests: Nearest neighbour, K function, and Spatial Autocorrelation. The result is a web-based GIS, through which end users can detect disease patterns via selecting area, spatial test parameters and contribute to managers and decision makers. The end users can be health practitioners, educators, local communities, health sector authorities and decision makers. This web-based system allows for the improvement of health related services to public sector users as well as citizens in a secure manner. The combination of spatial statistics and web-based GIS can be a solution that helps empower health practitioners in direct and specific intersectional actions, thus provide for better analysis, control and decision-making.

  11. The adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, C-H; Wang, P-W; Liu, T-L; Chen, C-S; Yen, C-F; Yen, J-Y

    2017-07-01

    Persistent gaming, despite acknowledgment of its negative consequences, is a major criterion for individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). This study evaluated the adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of individuals with IGD. We recruited 87 individuals with IGD and 87 without IGD (matched controls). All participants underwent an interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) diagnostic criteria for IGD and completed an adaptive decision-making task; the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation Scale, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and Barratt Impulsivity Scale were also assessed on the basis of the information from the diagnostic interviews. The results demonstrated that the participants in both groups tend to make more risky choices in advantage trials where their expected value (EV) was more favorable than those of the riskless choice. The tendency to make a risky choice in advantage trials was stronger among IGD group than that among controls. Participants of both groups made more risky choices in the loss domain, a risky option to loss more versus sure loss option, than they did in the gain domain, a risky option to gain more versus sure gain. Furthermore, the participants with IGD made more risky choices in the gain domain than did the controls. Participants with IGD showed higher and lower preferences for intuitive and deliberative decision-making styles, respectively, than controls and their preferences for intuition and deliberation were positively and negatively associated with IGD severity, respectively. These results suggested that individuals with IGD have elevated EV sensitivity for decision-making. However, they demonstrated risky preferences in the gain domain and preferred an intuitive rather than deliberative decision-making style. This might explain why they continue Internet gaming despite negative consequences. Thus, therapists should focus more on decision

  12. Wind Resource Mapping Using Landscape Roughness and Spatial Interpolation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Van Ackere

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving, reduction of greenhouse gasses and increased use of renewables are key policies to achieve the European 2020 targets. In particular, distributed renewable energy sources, integrated with spatial planning, require novel methods to optimise supply and demand. In contrast with large scale wind turbines, small and medium wind turbines (SMWTs have a less extensive impact on the use of space and the power system, nevertheless, a significant spatial footprint is still present and the need for good spatial planning is a necessity. To optimise the location of SMWTs, detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution of the average wind speed is essential, hence, in this article, wind measurements and roughness maps were used to create a reliable annual mean wind speed map of Flanders at 10 m above the Earth’s surface. Via roughness transformation, the surface wind speed measurements were converted into meso- and macroscale wind data. The data were further processed by using seven different spatial interpolation methods in order to develop regional wind resource maps. Based on statistical analysis, it was found that the transformation into mesoscale wind, in combination with Simple Kriging, was the most adequate method to create reliable maps for decision-making on optimal production sites for SMWTs in Flanders (Belgium.

  13. Spatial Downscaling of Alien Species Presences using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Moustakas, Aristides

    2017-07-01

    Large scale, high-resolution data on alien species distributions are essential for spatially explicit assessments of their environmental and socio-economic impacts, and management interventions for mitigation. However, these data are often unavailable. This paper presents a method that relies on Random Forest (RF) models to distribute alien species presence counts at a finer resolution grid, thus achieving spatial downscaling. A sufficiently large number of RF models are trained using random subsets of the dataset as predictors, in a bootstrapping approach to account for the uncertainty introduced by the subset selection. The method is tested with an approximately 8×8 km2 grid containing floral alien species presence and several indices of climatic, habitat, land use covariates for the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece. Alien species presence is aggregated at 16×16 km2 and used as a predictor of presence at the original resolution, thus simulating spatial downscaling. Potential explanatory variables included habitat types, land cover richness, endemic species richness, soil type, temperature, precipitation, and freshwater availability. Uncertainty assessment of the spatial downscaling of alien species’ occurrences was also performed and true/false presences and absences were quantified. The approach is promising for downscaling alien species datasets of larger spatial scale but coarse resolution, where the underlying environmental information is available at a finer resolution than the alien species data. Furthermore, the RF architecture allows for tuning towards operationally optimal sensitivity and specificity, thus providing a decision support tool for designing a resource efficient alien species census.

  14. Spatial Downscaling of Alien Species Presences Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Daliakopoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit assessments of alien species environmental and socio-economic impacts, and subsequent management interventions for their mitigation, require large scale, high-resolution data on species presence distribution. However, these data are often unavailable. This paper presents a method that relies on Random Forest (RF models to distribute alien species presence counts at a finer resolution grid, thus achieving spatial downscaling. A bootstrapping scheme is designed to account for sub-setting uncertainty, and subsets are used to train a sufficiently large number of RF models. RF results are processed to estimate variable importance and model performance. The method is tested with an ~8 × 8 km2 grid containing floral alien species presence and several potentially exploratory indices of climatic, habitat, land use, and soil property covariates for the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece. Alien species presence is aggregated at 16 × 16 km2 and used as a predictor of presence at the original resolution, thus simulating spatial downscaling. Uncertainty assessment of the spatial downscaling of alien species' occurrences was also performed and true/false presences and absences were quantified. The approach is promising for downscaling alien species datasets of larger spatial scale but coarse resolution, where the underlying environmental information is available at a finer resolution. Furthermore, the RF architecture allows for tuning toward operationally optimal sensitivity and specificity, thus providing a decision support tool for designing a resource efficient alien species census.

  15. Using the fuzzy majority approach for GIS-based multicriteria group decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroushaki, Soheil; Malczewski, Jacek

    2010-03-01

    This paper is concerned with developing a framework for GIS-based multicriteria group decision-making using the fuzzy majority approach. The procedure for solving a spatial group decision-making problem involves two stages. First, each decision-maker solves the problem individually. Second, the individual solutions are aggregated to obtain a group solution. The first stage is operationalized by a linguistic quantifier-guided ordered weighted averaging (OWA) procedure to create individual decision-maker's solution maps. Then the individual maps are combined using the fuzzy majority procedure to generate the group solution map which synthesizes the majority of the decision-makers' preferences. The paper provides an illustrative example of the fuzzy majority method for a land suitability problem. It also demonstrates the implementation of the framework within the ArcGIS environment.

  16. Decision trees in epidemiological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Venkatasubramaniam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. Main text We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable. We compare two decision tree methods, the popular Classification and Regression tree (CART technique and the newer Conditional Inference tree (CTree technique, assessing their performance in a simulation study and using data from the Box Lunch Study, a randomized controlled trial of a portion size intervention. Both CART and CTree identify homogeneous population subgroups and offer improved prediction accuracy relative to regression-based approaches when subgroups are truly present in the data. An important distinction between CART and CTree is that the latter uses a formal statistical hypothesis testing framework in building decision trees, which simplifies the process of identifying and interpreting the final tree model. We also introduce a novel way to visualize the subgroups defined by decision trees. Our novel graphical visualization provides a more scientifically meaningful characterization of the subgroups identified by decision trees. Conclusions Decision trees are a useful tool for identifying homogeneous subgroups defined by combinations of individual characteristics. While all decision tree techniques generate subgroups, we advocate the use of the newer CTree technique due to its simplicity and ease of interpretation.

  17. Decision trees in epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramaniam, Ashwini; Wolfson, Julian; Mitchell, Nathan; Barnes, Timothy; JaKa, Meghan; French, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable. We compare two decision tree methods, the popular Classification and Regression tree (CART) technique and the newer Conditional Inference tree (CTree) technique, assessing their performance in a simulation study and using data from the Box Lunch Study, a randomized controlled trial of a portion size intervention. Both CART and CTree identify homogeneous population subgroups and offer improved prediction accuracy relative to regression-based approaches when subgroups are truly present in the data. An important distinction between CART and CTree is that the latter uses a formal statistical hypothesis testing framework in building decision trees, which simplifies the process of identifying and interpreting the final tree model. We also introduce a novel way to visualize the subgroups defined by decision trees. Our novel graphical visualization provides a more scientifically meaningful characterization of the subgroups identified by decision trees. Decision trees are a useful tool for identifying homogeneous subgroups defined by combinations of individual characteristics. While all decision tree techniques generate subgroups, we advocate the use of the newer CTree technique due to its simplicity and ease of interpretation.

  18. Logical and Decisive Combining Criterion for Binary Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vrana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new combining criterion, the Multiplicative Proportional Deviative Influence (MPDI is presented for combining or aggregating multi-expert numerical judgments in Yes-or-No type ill-structured group decision making situations. This newly proposed criterion performs well in comparison with the widely used aggregation means: the Arithmetic Mean (AM, and Geometric Mean (GM, especially in better reflecting the degree of agreement between criteria levels or numerical experts’ judgments. The MPDI can be considered as another class of combining criteria that make effect of the degree of agreement among multiple numerical judgments. The MPDI is applicable in integrating several collaborative or synergistic decision making systems through combining final numerical decision outputs. A discussion and generalization of the proposed MPDI is discussed withnumerical example.

  19. Spatial Structure of Modern Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria V. Goloukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the spatial structure of modern Moscow and features distinguishing it from the cities of Western Europe and the US. The city has hybrid spatial structure combining elements which emerged on different stages of the city development. In the 14th century two tendencies appeared: the prestige of the city centre and opposition of Western districts as more prestigious to Eastern districts as less prestigious. Crucial spatial characteristics emerged in the Soviet era and up to now they define the image of Moscow. Firstly, it's a peculiar density profile. Population density in post-socialist cities tends to increase as we move further from the city centre while in Western European cities population density is the highest in central districts. Secondly, elementary units of Moscow spatial structure are so called micro-districts (neighbourhoods. The concept of a microdistrict was very popular with Soviet urban planners and widely applied in the residential construction. Another peculiarity of Moscow spatial structure is social heterogeneity of districts and absence of ethnic quarters or ghettos. Furthermore, significant part of the city area is occupied by former industrials zones which are not used anymore and need to be reconstructed. With transition to market economy a number of spatial changes emerged. They were partly related to the large-scale privatization, infill construction and lack of effective urban planning policy. In conclusion the article states the need for the new model of spatial organization which would take into account the specifics of Russian reality.

  20. Discerning a theological agenda for spatial justice in South Africa: An imperative for sustained reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan de Beer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A spatial turn has occurred in various disciplines over the past decades. This article holds that it has not occurred in a similar decisive manner in theological discourse and not in South Africa in particular. After considering the necessity of a spatial turn and spatial consciousness, the article examines the concept of spatial justice against the backdrop of how injustice was and is spatially expressed in South African cities. Considering the way in which South African cities have evolved since the Native Land Act of 1913 – the segregated and apartheid city and the (postapartheid city – the article then argues that deep and sustained reconciliation will be impossible should current spatial patterns of segregation, exclusion and injustice continue. It advocates theological and ecclesial participation in a national agenda for spatial transformation, to be fleshed out in relation to four interconnected challenges: land, landlessness, housing and home; the ‘creative destruction’ of neighbourhoods, gentrification and the displacement of the poor; participation in city-making (from below and transformative spatial interventions; and close collaboration with social movements working for spatial justice. It concludes by asserting that such a trans- and/or postdisciplinary agenda for spatial justice would participate with the Spirit to mend the oikos of God.

  1. Spatial Data Management System (SDMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Mark W.

    1994-01-01

    The Spatial Data Management System (SDMS) is a testbed for retrieval and display of spatially related material. SDMS permits the linkage of large graphical display objects with detail displays and explanations of its smaller components. SDMS combines UNIX workstations, MIT's X Window system, TCP/IP and WAIS information retrieval technology to prototype a means of associating aggregate data linked via spatial orientation. SDMS capitalizes upon and extends previous accomplishments of the Software Technology Branch in the area of Virtual Reality and Automated Library Systems.

  2. Spatial computation with gamma oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, Ben; Vaadia, Eilon

    2014-01-01

    Gamma oscillations in cortex have been extensively studied with relation to behavior in both humans and animal models; however, their computational role in the processing of behaviorally relevant signals is still not clear. One oft-overlooked characteristic of gamma oscillations is their spatial distribution over the cortical space and the computational consequences of such an organization. Here, we advance the proposal that the spatial organization of gamma oscillations is of major importance for their function. The interaction of specific spatial distributions of oscillations with the functional topography of cortex enables select amplification of neuronal signals, which supports perceptual and cognitive processing. PMID:25249950

  3. Spatial experiences and interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Peter

    2006-01-01

    IT is rapidly spreading to non-desktop environments, and is increasingly being used for post-functional purposes. Recent contributions within the field of interaction design have indicated a tight coupling between physico-spatial and experiential issues, both on a technological and on a theoretical...... level. However, interaction design and HCI yet has little to offer designers working with physico-spatial and experiential issues in practical design cases. In this paper, I argue that experiments that explore spatial and experiential aspects are crucial in developing the practice of interaction design...

  4. Elements of spatial data quality

    CERN Document Server

    Guptill, SC

    1995-01-01

    Elements of Spatial Data Quality outlines the need and suggests potential categories for the content of a comprehensive statement of data quality that must be imbedded in the metadata that accompanies the transfer of a digital spatial data file or is available in a separate metadata catalog. Members of the International Cartographic Association's Commission on Spatial Data Quality have identified seven elements of data quality: positional accuracy, attribute accuracy, completeness, logical consistency, lineage, semantic accuracy and temporal information. In the book the authors describe: compo

  5. Statistical methods in spatial genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Leblois, Raphael; Coulon, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    The joint analysis of spatial and genetic data is rapidly becoming the norm in population genetics. More and more studies explicitly describe and quantify the spatial organization of genetic variation and try to relate it to underlying ecological processes. As it has become increasingly difficult...... to keep abreast with the latest methodological developments, we review the statistical toolbox available to analyse population genetic data in a spatially explicit framework. We mostly focus on statistical concepts but also discuss practical aspects of the analytical methods, highlighting not only...

  6. Decision Making Under Uncertain Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ying-Fen Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of what categories are and are not relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use was and was not appropriate.

  7. Spatial features register: toward standardization of spatial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Janette

    1994-01-01

    As the need to share spatial data increases, more than agreement on a common format is needed to ensure that the data is meaningful to both the importer and the exporter. Effective data transfer also requires common definitions of spatial features. To achieve this, part 2 of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) provides a model for a spatial features data content specification and a glossary of features and attributes that fit this model. The model provides a foundation for standardizing spatial features. The glossary now contains only a limited subset of hydrographic and topographic features. For it to be useful, terms and definitions must be included for other categories, such as base cartographic, bathymetric, cadastral, cultural and demographic, geodetic, geologic, ground transportation, international boundaries, soils, vegetation, water, and wetlands, and the set of hydrographic and topographic features must be expanded. This paper will review the philosophy of the SDTS part 2 and the current plans for creating a national spatial features register as one mechanism for maintaining part 2.

  8. Spatial Aspects of the Provision of Forest Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg

    The research objective of this thesis is to examine the importance of spatial landscape patterns for the provision of forest ecosystem services and the implications for effective land management and policy decisions. This thesis presents four papers providing different approaches to the incorpora......The research objective of this thesis is to examine the importance of spatial landscape patterns for the provision of forest ecosystem services and the implications for effective land management and policy decisions. This thesis presents four papers providing different approaches...... to the incorporation of spatial factors into cost and benefit evaluation of FES provision. Focus is on assessing where forest ecosystem provision should be undertaken, determinants of private stakeholder provision efforts and welfare consequences of changes in the provision level. Provision of carbon sequestration......, to assess where afforestation should be undertaken for given carbon prices. The second paper investigates the determinants of landowner participation in a Danish voluntary conservation program. Combining contract data of landowners’ actual choices, GIS information on area specific characteristics...

  9. Practical Activities that Focus on the Decision-Making Process. TEAL Occasional Papers, Vol. 2, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Nancy

    This paper demonstrates how a diagram of a Safeway supermarket can be the vehicle for a language lesson based on Lawrence's cognitive categories (classification, definition, spatial order, chronological order, generalizations and specifics, and cause and effect). A wide variety of decision-making activities based on this diagram are described.…

  10. De natuurplanner; Decision Support Systeem natuur en milieu. Versie 1.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latour JB; Staritsky IG; Alkemade JRM; Wiertz J; LBG; TNO; CSO

    1997-01-01

    The Natureplanner is essentially a computer system to predict the effects of environmental and spatial scenarios on nature for national and regional policy. It supports further the decisions on setting environmental standards, on detection of the dominant stress factor and the choice between area

  11. E-DECIDER Decision Support Gateway For Earthquake Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Stough, T. M.; Parker, J. W.; Burl, M. C.; Donnellan, A.; Blom, R. G.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Ma, Y.; Rundle, J. B.; Yoder, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) is a NASA-funded project developing capabilities for decision-making utilizing remote sensing data and modeling software in order to provide decision support for earthquake disaster management and response. E-DECIDER incorporates earthquake forecasting methodology and geophysical modeling tools developed through NASA's QuakeSim project in order to produce standards-compliant map data products to aid in decision-making following an earthquake. Remote sensing and geodetic data, in conjunction with modeling and forecasting tools, help provide both long-term planning information for disaster management decision makers as well as short-term information following earthquake events (i.e. identifying areas where the greatest deformation and damage has occurred and emergency services may need to be focused). E-DECIDER utilizes a service-based GIS model for its cyber-infrastructure in order to produce standards-compliant products for different user types with multiple service protocols (such as KML, WMS, WFS, and WCS). The goal is to make complex GIS processing and domain-specific analysis tools more accessible to general users through software services as well as provide system sustainability through infrastructure services. The system comprises several components, which include: a GeoServer for thematic mapping and data distribution, a geospatial database for storage and spatial analysis, web service APIs, including simple-to-use REST APIs for complex GIS functionalities, and geoprocessing tools including python scripts to produce standards-compliant data products. These are then served to the E-DECIDER decision support gateway (http://e-decider.org), the E-DECIDER mobile interface, and to the Department of Homeland Security decision support middleware UICDS (Unified Incident Command and Decision Support). The E-DECIDER decision support gateway features a web interface that

  12. Design and implementation of intelligent electronic warfare decision making algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsin-Hsien; Chen, Chang-Kuo; Hsueh, Chi-Shun

    2017-05-01

    Electromagnetic signals and the requirements of timely response have been a rapid growth in modern electronic warfare. Although jammers are limited resources, it is possible to achieve the best electronic warfare efficiency by tactical decisions. This paper proposes the intelligent electronic warfare decision support system. In this work, we develop a novel hybrid algorithm, Digital Pheromone Particle Swarm Optimization, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA). We use PSO to solve the problem and combine the concept of pheromones in ACO to accumulate more useful information in spatial solving process and speed up finding the optimal solution. The proposed algorithm finds the optimal solution in reasonable computation time by using the method of matrix conversion in SFLA. The results indicated that jammer allocation was more effective. The system based on the hybrid algorithm provides electronic warfare commanders with critical information to assist commanders in effectively managing the complex electromagnetic battlefield.

  13. Glossary of Spatial Data Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available All items are listed in the Glossary by alphabetical order. If an item consists of two or more words, the first is always a noun. For example: spatial data infrastructure is listed as infrastructure, saptial data.

  14. Mechanisms for Human Spatial Competence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunzelmann, Glenn; Lyon, Don R

    2007-01-01

    .... This work posits a close link of aspects of spatial information processing to vision and motor planning, and integrates theoretical perspectives that have been proposed over the history of research in this area...

  15. GCCS Spatial Data Base Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... JMTK is divided into three primary areas: (1) Visual, (2) Analysis (non-visual), and (3) Spatial Data Base (SDBM). The primary objective of the SDBM effort is to define, design, develop and test mapping, charting and geodesy...

  16. Decisions and their unintended consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrodiev, P.

    2014-07-01

    All individuals who live in groups, whether they be humans or animals, rely on collective decision-making to establish and sustain viable social organisations. While the benefits of effective collective decisions are widely recognised (e.g. functioning democracies), it is the unexpected collective effects of many individual decisions that deserve attention, as they bear far-reaching consequences for our social lives. Drawing from diverse contexts, this thesis presents examples of such unintended effects and, in the spirit of complex systems, offers a way by which we can understand these effects and, sometimes, use them to our advantage. In the first part, we focus on contemporary decision-making scenarios in human societies. How does social influence affect collective decisions and can we control its effects? How can we use social herding as a mechanism to promote cooperation without explicit enforcement? Under what conditions can user actions, innocuous at first sight, cause the collapse of an online community? Using formal tools and agent-based models, we study the interaction mechanisms underlying the complexity inherent in these questions. In the second part, we shift our focus to the mitigation of unintended negative consequences. We study two colonies of Bechtein bats, whose survival is predicated on solving a coordination problem under limited information. We follow up on existing field work and apply concepts from network theory to reveal the individual contribution in maintaining the needed group cohesion. Finally, we combine agent-based modelling and network analysis to infer simple interaction rules that reproduce the observed collective coordination. We emphasise that these mechanistic rules can serve as a guide for the design of future experimental studies on collective-decision making in Bechstein bats. (author)

  17. Couples' fertility decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The decision about whether to start a family within a partnership can be viewed as a result of an interaction process. The influence of each of the partners in a couple differs depending on their individual preferences and intentions towards having children. Both of the partners additionally influence each other's fertility intentions and preferences. Objective: We specify, estimate, and test a model that examines the decision about whether to have a child as a choice that is made jointly by the two partners. The transition to the birth of a (further child is investigated with the explicit consideration of both the female partner and the male partner in the partnership context. Methods: An approach for modelling the interactive influences of the two actors in the decision-making process was proposed. A trivariate distribution consisting of both the female and the male partners' fertility intentions, as well as the joint generative decision, was modelled. A multivariate non-linear probit model was chosen and the problem of identification in estimating the relative effects of the actors was resolved. These parameters were used to assess the relative importance of each of the partners' intentions in the decision. We carried out the analysis with MPLUS. Data from the panel of intimate relationships and family dynamics (pairfam was used to estimate the model. Results: The biographical context of each of the partners in relation to their own as well as to their partner's fertility intentions was found to be of considerable importance. Of the significant individual and partner effects, the male partner was shown to have the greater influence. But the female partner was found to have stronger parameters overall and she ultimately has a veto power in the couple's final decision.

  18. EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-10-01

    Effective contaminated land management requires a number of decisions addressing a suite of technical, economic, and social concerns. These concerns include human health risks, ecological risks, economic costs, technical feasibility of proposed remedial actions, and the value society places on clean-up and re-use of formerly contaminated lands. Decision making, in the face of uncertainty and multiple and often conflicting objectives, is a vital and challenging role in environmental management that affects a significant economic activity. Although each environmental remediation problem is unique and requires a site-specific analysis, many of the key decisions are similar in structure. This has led many to attempt to develop standard approaches. As part of the standardization process, attempts have been made to codify specialist expertise into decision support tools. This activity is intended to facilitate reproducible and transparent decision making. The process of codifying procedures has also been found to be a useful activity for establishing and rationalizing management processes. This study will have two primary objectives. The first is to develop taxonomy for Decision Support Tools (DST) to provide a framework for understanding the different tools and what they are designed to address in the context of environmental remediation problems. The taxonomy will have a series of subject areas for the DST. From these subjects, a few key areas will be selected for further study and software in these areas will be identified. The second objective, will be to review the existing DST in the selected areas and develop a screening matrix for each software product.

  19. Decisions and their unintended consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrodiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    All individuals who live in groups, whether they be humans or animals, rely on collective decision-making to establish and sustain viable social organisations. While the benefits of effective collective decisions are widely recognised (e.g. functioning democracies), it is the unexpected collective effects of many individual decisions that deserve attention, as they bear far-reaching consequences for our social lives. Drawing from diverse contexts, this thesis presents examples of such unintended effects and, in the spirit of complex systems, offers a way by which we can understand these effects and, sometimes, use them to our advantage. In the first part, we focus on contemporary decision-making scenarios in human societies. How does social influence affect collective decisions and can we control its effects? How can we use social herding as a mechanism to promote cooperation without explicit enforcement? Under what conditions can user actions, innocuous at first sight, cause the collapse of an online community? Using formal tools and agent-based models, we study the interaction mechanisms underlying the complexity inherent in these questions. In the second part, we shift our focus to the mitigation of unintended negative consequences. We study two colonies of Bechtein bats, whose survival is predicated on solving a coordination problem under limited information. We follow up on existing field work and apply concepts from network theory to reveal the individual contribution in maintaining the needed group cohesion. Finally, we combine agent-based modelling and network analysis to infer simple interaction rules that reproduce the observed collective coordination. We emphasise that these mechanistic rules can serve as a guide for the design of future experimental studies on collective-decision making in Bechstein bats. (author)

  20. Risk Decision Making Based on Decision-theoretic Rough Set: A Three-way View Decision Model

    OpenAIRE

    Huaxiong Li; Xianzhong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Rough set theory has witnessed great success in data mining and knowledge discovery, which provides a good support for decision making on a certain data. However, a practical decision problem always shows diversity under the same circumstance according to different personality of the decision makers. A simplex decision model can not provide a full description on such diverse decisions. In this article, a review of Pawlak rough set models and probabilistic rough set models is presented, and a ...