Sample records for geothermometers

  1. Proposed empirical gas geothermometer using multidimensional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supranto; Sudjatmiko; Toha, Budianto; Wintolo, Djoko; Alhamid, Idrus


    Several formulas of surface gas geothermometer have been developed to utilize in geothermal exploration, i.e. by D'Amore and Panichi (1980) and by Darling and Talbot (1992). This paper presents an empirical gas geothermometer formula using multidimensional approach. The formula was derived from 37 selected chemical data of the 5 production wells from the Awibengkok Geothermal Volcanic Field in West Java. Seven components, i.e., gas volume percentage, CO2, H2S, CH4, H2, N2, and NH3, from these data are utilize to developed three model equations which represent relationship between temperature and gas compositions. These formulas are then tested by several fumarolic chemical data from Sibual-buali Area (North Sumatera) and from Ringgit Area (South Sumatera). Preliminary result indicated that gas volume percentage, H2S and CO2 concentrations have a significant role in term of gas geothermometer. Further verification is currently in progress.

  2. Clorities as geothermometer. La Bragada mine. Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.; Mas, G.


    Clorities have been proposed as geothermometer in geothermal and hydrothermal environments environments because they show a rather wide range of variation in their structural and chemical characteristics, regarded with the temperature of formation. Taking into account that this group of minerals constitute one of the main products of the hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks at the mesothermal gold deposit La Bragada. The optical and XRD study of these minerals have been performed in order to used them as geothermometer . The relation of this geothermometer with fluid inclusions thermometry in the same deposit has been analyzed in order to assess their use as a quick and simple mean for the thermometric characterization of an alteration zone. (author)

  3. Current status on techniques for determining paleo-temperature using geothermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Sunao; Oikawa, Teruki; Umeda, Koji; Tomiyama, Shingo


    Development of the research technologies for geotectonic events has been carried out to evaluate the long-term stability of geological environment. In terms of the effects of geothermal activity, it is necessary to estimate the geothermal regime and thermal history on any given site. This paper describes the current status on techniques for determining paleo-temperature using geothermometer, and presents a concept of the systematic research techniques. The application of geothermometer, especially thermochronology, has been effective in the studies on the cooling history of geological body and the paleo-geothermal structure at depth. (author)

  4. Isotopic geothermometers in geothermal areas. A comparative experimental study in Larderella, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuti, S.; Panichi, C.


    The stable isotope composition of some geothermal fluid components has been determined in view of evaluating the temperature at depth in Italian geothermal fields (Larderello, Mt. Amiata, Travale). The isotopic systems used are: 13 C(CO 2 -CH 4 ), 18 O(CO 2 -H 2 O), D(H 2 -CH 4 ) and D(H 2 O-H 2 ), for which the isotopic equilibrium variation with temperature are known either experimentally or theoretically. The 18 O(CO 2 -H 2 O) geothermometer gives temperatures similar to those observed at the well-head, and provides therefore useful information on the physical state of water (steam or evaporating liquid water) at the well bottom. On the contrary, all other geothermometers produce too high temperatures which can be explained by incomplete equilibration or lack of equilibrium between components and, perhaps in some cases, by the insufficient knowledge of the fractionation factors. The comparison between the different isotopic geothermometers, along with some chemical and physico-chemical evidence, suggests that the reaction already proposed, i.e. CO 2 +4H 2 =CH 4 +2H 2 O, is unable to explain the isotopic composition observed. On the contrary, the water dissociation reaction (H 2 O=H 2 +1/2O 2 ) and the synthesis reaction of methane (C+2H 2 =CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (C+O 2 =CO 2 ) seem able to provide an appropriate explanation of the isotopic behaviour of the geothermal field fluid components

  5. Thermal activation of OSL as a geothermometer for quartz grain heating during fault movements

    CERN Document Server

    Rink, W J; Rees-Jones, J; Schwarcz, H P


    In discussions of ESR dating of fault movements, there has been much debate whether zeroing of ESR signals is a mechanical shearing effect or caused by frictional heating. The OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) sensitivity of quartz is known to increase after heating. This thermal activation of dose response of the OSL in quartz should be useful as a geothermometer to test whether quartz particles in fault gouge had been heated. We tested the OSL sensitivities of quartz from fault gouge, and from a control (quartz grains from sandstone) and were able to show heat-induced enhancement of OSL sensitivity to a test dose. We observed that relative enhancement of OSL dose response (ratio of heated to unheated single aliquots) is significantly less for the finest grains (45-75 and 100-150 mu m) compared with coarser grains (150-250 mu m). These data are consistent with a model of zeroing of the quartz grains during faulting, by frictional heating localized to the grain boundaries, which would be expected to aff...

  6. Thermal activation of OSL as a geothermometer for quartz grain heating during fault movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, W.J.; Toyoda, S.; Rees-Jones, J.; Schwarcz, H.P.


    In discussions of ESR dating of fault movements, there has been much debate whether zeroing of ESR signals is a mechanical shearing effect or caused by frictional heating. The OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) sensitivity of quartz is known to increase after heating. This thermal activation of dose response of the OSL in quartz should be useful as a geothermometer to test whether quartz particles in fault gouge had been heated. We tested the OSL sensitivities of quartz from fault gouge, and from a control (quartz grains from sandstone) and were able to show heat-induced enhancement of OSL sensitivity to a test dose. We observed that relative enhancement of OSL dose response (ratio of heated to unheated single aliquots) is significantly less for the finest grains (45-75 and 100-150 μm) compared with coarser grains (150-250 μm). These data are consistent with a model of zeroing of the quartz grains during faulting, by frictional heating localized to the grain boundaries, which would be expected to affect smaller grains more than large ones. This argues against a zeroing model in which the entire fault gouge is heated by friction. Higher laboratory preheating of sandstone quartz reduces between-aliquot variability of OSL dose response in the unheated grains to nearly zero. Unheated coarsest fault gouge grains displayed virtually no among-aliquot variability, whereas fine grains showed much larger between-aliquot variability; as with the quartz sand, variability dropped to near zero after laboratory heating, suggesting that fine grains in fault gouge have experienced a wide range of natural thermal histories during faulting. This may present a problem for ESR dating of fault gouge using the plateau method

  7. A Revised Clinopyroxene-Liquid Geothermometer for Silicic Igneous Systems with Applications to Diffusion Chronometry of the Scaup Lake Rhyolite, Yellowstone Caldera, WY (United States)

    Brugman, K. K.; Till, C. B.


    Eruption of the Scaup Lake Rhyolite (SCL) ended 220,000 years of dormancy at Yellowstone caldera and initiated the volcano's youngest sequence of eruptions [Christiansen et al., USGS, 2007]. SCL contains 14% phenocrysts (e.g., feldspar, quartz, pyroxene, zircon, Fe-Ti oxides) which exhibit disequilbrium textures that indicate multiple rejuvenation events occurred shortly before eruption. Our previous work using NanoSIMS elemental concentration profiles from clinopyroxene (cpx) intracrystalline zone boundaries as a diffusion dating tool supported our hypothesis that different minerals may not record the same series of pre-eruptive events, with the cpx rims recording older magmatic events (100s of years prior to eruption [Brugman et al., AGU, 2016]) relative to the sanidine rims (historical experimental data, and thus has not been included in existing cpx and cpx-liquid geothermometer calibrations. These geothermometers predict temperatures >40°C in error of low-Al cpx-saturated experiments. A new regression of Putirka's [RiMG, 2008] cpx-liquid geothermometer calibrated with 64 experimentally-derived cpx of a similar composition to that of SCL increases the geothermometer's dependence on the Mg# and Na+K component of the liquid and decreases its dependence on the Ca+Si component of the liquid. This revised geothermometer reproduces experimental conditions to ±20°C. This updated thermometer returns temperatures for SCL cpx 30°C lower than the Putirka [RiMG, 2008] cpx-liquid geothermometer, thereby increasing the timescales previously reported for SCL cpx, and increasing the difference in timescales recorded by the SCL cpx and sanidine rims.

  8. Investigating Volcanic-Hydrothermal Systems in Dominica, Lesser Antilles: Temporal Changes in the Chemical Composition of Hydrothermal Fluids for Volcanic Monitoring Using Geothermometers (United States)

    Onyeali, M. M. C.; Joseph, E. P.; Frey, H. M.


    Dominica has an abundance of volcanic activity, with nine potentially active volcanoes, many of which have highly active volcanic-hydrothermal systems. The waters are predominantly acid-sulphate in character (SO4=100-4200 mg/L, pH≤4), and likely formed because of dilution of acidic gases in near surface oxygenated groundwater. The waters are of primarily meteoric origin, but are likely affected by evaporation effects at/near the surface, with δ18O ranging from -1.75 to 10.67‰, and δD from -6.1 to 14.5‰. With updated water chemistry and isotopic data from five hydrothermal areas (Boiling Lake, Valley of Desolation, Sulphur Springs, Wotten Waven, Cold Soufriere) for the period 2014 to 2017, we will re-evaluate the characteristics of these systems, which were last reported in 2011. We will present updated reservoir temperatures using a variety of geothermometers and provide insight into water-rock interactions taking place in the reservoirs. Recent changes in chemistry of the waters have indicated that while the origin of the hydrothermal systems are still dominantly meteoric (δ18O = -3 to 8‰ and δD = -5 to 18‰), surface evaporation effects and variable amounts of mixing with shallow ground waters play an important role. Fumaroles appear to reflect a deeper source contribution as compared to thermal waters with differences in acidity, temperature, TDS, δ18O, and δD observed. The general composition of the waters for most of the hydrothermal systems studied indicate no significant changes, with the exception of the Boiling Lake, which experienced a draining event in November 2016 which lasted for 6 weeks. Decreases in temperature, pH, Na, K, and Cl were seen post draining, while SO4 remained relatively low (66 ppm), but showed a small increase. The chemistry of the Boiling Lake appears to show significant changes in response to changes in the groundwater system. Changes in the groundwater system at the lake observed during the 2004/2005 draining, which

  9. Resetting of Mg isotopes between calcite and dolomite during burial metamorphism: Outlook of Mg isotopes as geothermometer and seawater proxy (United States)

    Hu, Zhongya; Hu, Wenxuan; Wang, Xiaomin; Lu, Yizhou; Wang, Lichao; Liao, Zhiwei; Li, Weiqiang


    Magnesium isotopes are an emerging tool to study the geological processes recorded in carbonates. Calcite, due to its ubiquitous occurrence and the large Mg isotope fractionation associated with the mineral, has attracted great interests in applications of Mg isotope geochemistry. However, the fidelity of Mg isotopes in geological records of carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite) against burial metamorphism remains poorly constrained. Here we report our investigation on the Mg isotope systematics of a dolomitized Middle Triassic Geshan carbonate section in eastern China. Magnesium isotope analysis was complemented by analyses of Sr-C-O isotopic compositions, major and trace element concentrations, and petrographic and mineralogical features. Multiple lines of evidence consistently indicated that post-depositional diagenesis of carbonate minerals occurred to the carbonate rocks. Magnesium isotope compositions of the carbonate rocks closely follow a mixing trend between a high δ26Mg dolomite end member and a low δ26Mg calcite end member, irrespective of sample positions in the section and calcite/dolomite ratio in the samples. By fitting the measured Mg isotope data using a two-end member mixing model, an inter-mineral Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation of 0.72‰ was obtained. Based on the experimentally derived Mg isotope fractionation factors for dolomite and calcite, a temperature of 150-190 °C was calculated to correspond to the 0.72‰ Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation. Such temperature range matches with the burial-thermal history of the local strata, making a successful case of Mg isotope geothermometry. Our results indicate that both calcite and dolomite had been re-equilibrated during burial metamorphism, and based on isotope mass balance of Mg, the system was buffered by dolomite in the section. Therefore, burial metamorphism may reset Mg isotope signature of calcite, and Mg isotope compositions in calcite should be dealt with caution in studies of carbonate rocks with thermal history. By contrast, Mg isotopes of dolomite are less prone to post-depositional resetting due to a number of properties including high Mg abundance and high thermodynamic stability, and Mg isotopes in dolomite may be a more robust recorder for original carbonate precipitates.

  10. Zircon-scale insights into the history of a Supervolcano, Bishop Tuff, Long Valley, California, with implications for the Ti-in-zircon geothermometer (United States)

    Reid, M.R.; Vazquez, J.A.; Schmitt, A.K.


    Zircon has the outstanding capacity to record chronological, thermal, and chemical information, including the storage history of zoned silicic magma reservoirs like the one responsible for the Bishop Tuff of eastern California, USA. Our novel ion microprobe approach reveals that Bishop zircon rims with diverse chemical characteristics surround intermediate domains with broadly similar compositions. The highest Y, REE, U, and Th concentrations tend to accompany the largest excesses in Y + REE3+:P beyond what can be explained by xenotime substitution in zircon. Apparent Ti-in-zircon temperatures of Ti-in-zircon temperatures are probably better explained by sources of inaccuracy in the temperature estimates. After apparently nucleating from different melts, zircons from across the Bishop Tuff compositional spectrum may have evolved to broadly similar chemical and thermal conditions and therefore it is possible that there was no significant thermal gradient in the magma reservoir at some stage in its evolution. There is also no compelling evidence for punctuated heat ?? chemical influxes during the intermediate stages of zircon growth. Judging by the zircon record, the main volume of the erupted magma evolved normally by secular cooling but the latest erupted portion is characterized by a reversal in chemistry that appears to indicate perfusion of the magma reservoir by-or zircon entrainment in-a less evolved melt from the one in which the zircons had previously resided. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Seismic Velocity/Temperature Correlations and a Possible New Geothermometer: Insights from Exploration of a High-Temperature Geothermal System on Montserrat, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Alexander Ryan


    Full Text Available In 2013, two production wells were drilled into a geothermal reservoir on Montserrat, W.I. (West Indies Drilling results confirmed the main features of a previously developed conceptual model. The results confirm that below ~220 °C there is a negative correlation between reservoir temperature and seismic velocity anomaly. However, above ~220 °C there is a positive correlation. We hypothesise that anomalous variations in seismic velocity within the reservoir are controlled to first order by the hydrothermal mineral assemblage. This study suggests a new geophysical thermometer which can be used to estimate temperatures in three dimensions with unprecedented resolution and to indicate the subsurface fluid pathways which are the target of geothermal exploitation.

  12. Intensive parameters of enstatite chondrite metamorphism (United States)

    Fogel, Robert A.; Hess, Paul C.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.


    A geothermometer based on the assemblage kamacite-quartz-enstatite-oldhamite-troilite found in enstatite chondrites is described. Data obtained with the geothermometer reveal that the EL6 meteorites experienced temperatures exceeding 1000 C. These temperatures imply a metal-sulfide melting event that may have fractionated the melt from the source region.

  13. Use of deuterium and oxygen-18 in hydrological problems at Villa de Reyes, S.L.P. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, P.; Castillo C, R.


    A survey of an initial study in order to understand the general behaviour of ground water at Villa de Reyes, S.L.P. Mexico is presented. Deuterium and oxygen results are discussed and two geothermometers were used in order to search for a geothermal area. (author)

  14. Low temperature geothermal systems in carbonate-evaporitic rocks: Mineral equilibria assumptions and geothermometrical calculations. Insights from the Arnedillo thermal waters (Spain). (United States)

    Blasco, Mónica; Gimeno, María J; Auqué, Luis F


    Geothermometrical calculations in low-medium temperature geothermal systems hosted in carbonate-evaporitic rocks are complicated because 1) some of the classical chemical geothermometers are, usually, inadequate (since they were developed for higher temperature systems with different mineral-water equilibria at depth) and 2) the chemical geothermometers calibrated for these systems (based on the Ca and Mg or SO 4 and F contents) are not free of problems either. The case study of the Arnedillo thermal system, a carbonate-evaporitic system of low temperature, will be used to deal with these problems through the combination of several geothermometrical techniques (chemical and isotopic geothermometers and geochemical modelling). The reservoir temperature of the Arnedillo geothermal system has been established to be in the range of 87±13°C being the waters in equilibrium with respect to calcite, dolomite, anhydrite, quartz, albite, K-feldspar and other aluminosilicates. Anhydrite and quartz equilibria are highly reliable to stablish the reservoir temperature. Additionally, the anhydrite equilibrium explains the coherent results obtained with the δ 18 O anhydrite - water geothermometer. The equilibrium with respect to feldspars and other aluminosilicates is unusual in carbonate-evaporitic systems and it is probably related to the presence of detrital material in the aquifer. The identification of the expected equilibria with calcite and dolomite presents an interesting problem associated to dolomite. Variable order degrees of dolomite can be found in natural systems and this fact affects the associated equilibrium temperature in the geothermometrical modelling and also the results from the Ca-Mg geothermometer. To avoid this uncertainty, the order degree of the dolomite present in the Arnedillo reservoir has been determined and the results indicate 18.4% of ordered dolomite and 81.6% of disordered dolomite. Overall, the results suggest that this multi

  15. Whole system chemical geothermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Zhonghe


    Chemical and isotopic geothermometers are equations or models based on temperature dependent chemical reactions or isotope equilibrium fractionation reactions from which equilibrium temperatures of these reactions can be calculated. The major drawback of all the conventional geothermometry methods lies in their incapability on making a judgement on the equilibrium status of the studied systems. This review will focus on two of recent approaches in this field. Zhangzhou Geothermal Field in SE China will be used as an example to demonstrate the applications

  16. Characterization of Organic Materials in the Xenolithic Clasts in Sharps (H3.4) Meteorite Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Kebukawa, Y.


    Graphitization of carbon is an irreversible process which alters the structure of graphitic materials in response to the increase in metamorphic grade (temperature and/or pressure). Carbonaceous materials offer a reliable geothermometer as their Raman spectra change systematically with increasing metamorphic grade. In this study, we identified carbonaceous materials in the xenolithic clasts in Sharps and interpreted their metamorphic history by revealing the structural organization (order) of the polyaromatic organic phases using micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Characterization of Organic Materials in the Xenolithic Clasts in Sharps (H3.4) Meteorite Using Microraman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Kebukawa, Y.


    Graphitization of carbon is an irreversible process which alters the structure of graphitic materials in response to the increase in metamorphic grade (temperature and/or pressure). Carbonaceous materials offer a reliable geothermometer as their Raman spectra change systematically with increasing metamorphic grade [1-3]. In this study, we identified carbonaceous materials in the xenolithic clasts in Sharps and interpreted their metamorphic history by revealing the structural organization (order) of the polyaromatic organic phases using µ-Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Tae-Jin; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Huh, Dae-Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)


    The reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of these heterogeneities and distributions of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but for the development of the petroleums. Methods and principles of the reservoir geochemistry, which are applicable to the petroleum exploration and development, are reviewed in the study. In addition, a case study was carried out on the gas, condensate, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir, taken from the Haenam, Pohang areas and the Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Mineral geothermometers were studied to estimate the thermal history in sedimentary basins and successfully applied to the Korean onshore and offshore basins. The opal silica-to-quartz transformation was investigated in the Pohang basin as a geothermometer. In Korean basins, the smectite-to-illite changes indicate that smectite and illite can act as the geothermometer to estimate the thermal history of the basins. The albitization reaction was also considered as a temperature indicator. Naturally fractured reservoir is an important source of oil and gas throughout the world. The properties of matrix and fracture are the key parameters in predicting the performances of naturally fractured reservoirs. A new laboratory equipment has been designed and constructed by pressure pulse method to determine the properties, which are (1) the porosity of matrix, (2) the permeability of matrix, (3) the effective width of the fractures, and the permeability of the fractures. (author). 97 refs.

  19. Bibliographical review about Na/Li geo-thermometry and lithium isotopes applied to worldwide geothermal waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.


    This study is performed within the framework of the FP6 European project HITI (High Temperature Instruments for supercritical geothermal reservoir characterization and exploitation). This research project, co-funded by EU and the different partners, aims to provide geophysical and geochemical sensors and methods to evaluate deep geothermal wells up to supercritical conditions (T > 370 deg. C), which are more cost-effective than those of the conventional wells. A deep geothermal well is currently being drilled for this purpose into the Krafla area, Iceland, as part of the IDDP ('Iceland Deep Drilling Project') and with joint funding from Icelandic industry and science Institutes. Another deep well will be drilled in the Reykjanes peninsula, Iceland, within the framework of the same project. This study, a bibliographical review about the Na/Li geo-thermometer and lithium isotopes applied on the world geothermal waters, is the first step of the task envisaged by BRGM to use and validate the sodium-lithium (Na-Li) chemical geo-thermometer on Icelandic geothermal waters at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500 deg. C. In this study, more than 120 temperature and chemical data from world geothermal and oil-fields, sedimentary basins, oceanic ridges, emerged rifts and island arcs have been collected and investigated. These additional data have allowed to confirm and refine the three existing Na/Li thermometric relationships. Moreover, a new Na/Li thermometric relationship relative to the processes of seawater or dilute seawater-basalt interaction occurring in the oceanic ridges and emerged rifts is proposed. Even if the running of Na/Li is still poorly understood, the existence of a new thermometric relationship confirms that the Na/Li ratios not only depend on the temperature but also on other parameters such as the fluid salinity and origin, or the nature of the reservoir rocks in contact with the geothermal fluids. For most of the geothermal waters in contact with

  20. Bibliographical review about Na/Li geo-thermometry and lithium isotopes applied to worldwide geothermal waters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.


    This study is performed within the framework of the FP6 European project HITI (High Temperature Instruments for supercritical geothermal reservoir characterization and exploitation). This research project, co-funded by EU and the different partners, aims to provide geophysical and geochemical sensors and methods to evaluate deep geothermal wells up to supercritical conditions (T > 370 deg. C), which are more cost-effective than those of the conventional wells. A deep geothermal well is currently being drilled for this purpose into the Krafla area, Iceland, as part of the IDDP ('Iceland Deep Drilling Project') and with joint funding from Icelandic industry and science Institutes. Another deep well will be drilled in the Reykjanes peninsula, Iceland, within the framework of the same project. This study, a bibliographical review about the Na/Li geo-thermometer and lithium isotopes applied on the world geothermal waters, is the first step of the task envisaged by BRGM to use and validate the sodium-lithium (Na-Li) chemical geo-thermometer on Icelandic geothermal waters at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500 deg. C. In this study, more than 120 temperature and chemical data from world geothermal and oil-fields, sedimentary basins, oceanic ridges, emerged rifts and island arcs have been collected and investigated. These additional data have allowed to confirm and refine the three existing Na/Li thermometric relationships. Moreover, a new Na/Li thermometric relationship relative to the processes of seawater or dilute seawater-basalt interaction occurring in the oceanic ridges and emerged rifts is proposed. Even if the running of Na/Li is still poorly understood, the existence of a new thermometric relationship confirms that the Na/Li ratios not only depend on the temperature but also on other parameters such as the fluid salinity and origin, or the nature of the reservoir rocks in contact with the geothermal fluids. For most of the geothermal waters in contact

  1. Investigation of geothermal fields in himalayan range in pakistan using isotope and chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Sheikh, M.R.; Akram, W.; Tasneem, M.A.; Iqbal, N.; Latif, Z.


    There are many geothermal sites in Himalayan belt of Pakistan having low to high temperatures(boiling water). Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal fields at Tatta Pani and Tato lying along Main Mantle Thrust, Murtazabad along Main Karakoram Thrust and Kotli in the area of overlapping thrusts: Punjal Thrust, Main Boundary Thrust and the Himalaya Frontal Thrust. Discharge of the springs varies from 30 to 2000 liters per minute with the surface temperature from 47.3 to 92 degree C. Two sets of water samples were collected from these fields. The samples were analyzed for various isotopes (O/sup 18/, H/sup 2/ and H/sup 3/ of water; C/sup 13/ of dissolved inorganic carbon; S/sup 34/ and O/sup 18/ of dissolved sulphates); and water chemistry. The thermal waters of the Northern Areas of Pakistan are generally neutral to slightly alkaline and have low dissolved contents. Sodium is the dominant cation in all the cases. In terms of anions, HCO/sub 3/ is dominating. Source of recharge is meteoric water (rains and/or snow-melt). The dominant process of cooling is conduction at Tatta Pani, Tato, and Murtazabad. Shallow groundwater is mixing with the thermal springs in different proportions at Murtazabad, while there is no mixing in the thermal waters of Tatta Pani and Tato. The equilibrium temperature of the thermal end-member at Murtazabad is in the range of 185- 225 degree C and the isochemical-mixing model based on the Na-K and quartz geothermometers estimates 227 degree C temperature. O/sup 18/ (SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geothermometer indicates equilibrium temperatures (before mixing) above I85 degree C. The dissolved silica vs. enthalpy plot suggests heat losses through conduction from the original temperature about 245 degree C. The reservoir temperatures of Tatta Pani (100-130 degree C) determined by the Na-K, K-Mg and quartz geothermometers are in good agreement. O/sup 18/ (SO

  2. Thermal waters along the Konocti Bay fault zone, Lake County, California: a re-evaluation (United States)

    Thompson, J.M.; Mariner, R.H.; White, L.D.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.


    The Konocti Bay fault zone (KBFZ), initially regarded by some as a promising target for liquid-dominated geothermal systems, has been a disappointment. At least five exploratory wells were drilled in the vicinity of the KBFZ, but none were successful. Although the Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometers indicate that the thermal waters discharging in the vicinity of Howard and Seigler Springs may have equilibrated at temperatures greater than 200??C, the spring temperatures and fluid discharges are low. Most thermal waters along the KBFZ contain >100 mg/l Mg. High concentrations of dissolved magnesium are usually indicative of relatively cool hydrothermal systems. Dissolution of serpentine at shallow depths may contribute dissolved silica and magnesium to rising thermal waters. Most thermal waters are saturated with respect to amorphous silica at the measured spring temperature. Silica geothermometers and mixing models are useless because the dissolved silica concentration is not controlled by the solubility of either quartz or chalcedony. Cation geothermometry indicates the possibility of a high-temperature fluid (> 200??C) only in the vicinity of Howard and Seigler Springs. However, even if the fluid temperature is as high as that indicated by the geothermometers, the permeability may be low. Deuterium and oxygen-18 values of the thermal waters indicate that they recharged locally and became enriched in oxygen-18 by exchange with rock. Diluting meteoric water and the thermal water appear to have the same deuterium value. Lack of tritium in the diluted spring waters suggest that the diluting water is old. ?? 1992.

  3. Some petrological aspects of Imbrium stratigraphy (United States)

    Ridley, W. I.


    Descriptions are given of the petrochemistry of two Apennine Front breccias, both ejected to the surface during excavation of Spur Crater. The first clast type is breccia number 15445, a spinel pyroxenite whose mineralogy and petrochemistry are consistent with the original rock type being a garnet pyroxenite. The second rock, breccia 15459, is plutonic norite, in which coarsely exsolved inverted pigeonite is associated with anorthitic plagioclase. Application of mineral geothermometers indicates crystallization of these rocks below 1100 C; hence their textures probably developed largely by solid state recrystallization during impact-metamorphism.

  4. Origin of sulphur compounds and application of isotope geothermometry in selected geothermal systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Zhonghe


    Geothermal and groundwater samples from East of Heber (EH) Province in the North China Basin and South of Fujian (SF) Province in Southeast of China were studied using sulphur and water isotopes. EH is located in a Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin while SF is composed of small fault-block basins formed in Quaternary period. These systems belong to non-volcanic geothermal environments. Samples were collected from exploratory and production geothermal wells: 11 wells in EH and 17 wells in SF. The samples were analyzed for oxygen-18 (δ 18 O) and deuterium (δ 2 H) in water, sulfur-34 (δ 34 S) and oxygen-18 ((δ 18 O) in aqueous sulphate (SO 4 ). Chemical composition of the water samples was also determined. Results show that aqueous sulphate in the saline thermal waters of SF is of marine origin. The aqueous sulphate in EH waters is of non-marine origin. Reservoir temperature estimated using the oxygen isotope geothermometer is not compatible to those by chemical geothermometers or by down-hole measurements in the sedimentary environment for EH, different from that for the SF samples where aqueous sulphate seems to have reached equilibrium with thermal waters in the main up-flow zone. (author)

  5. Advances in Hydrogeochemical Indicators for the Discovery of New Geothermal Resources in the Great Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Stuart F. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Geology and Geological Engineering; Spycher, Nicolas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division


    This report summarizes the results of Phase I work for a go/no go decision on Phase II funding. In the first objective, we assessed the extent to which fluid-mineral equilibria controlled deep water compositions in geothermal systems across the Great Basin. Six systems were evaluated: Beowawe; Desert Peak; Dixie Valley; Mammoth; Raft River; Roosevelt. These represent a geographic spread of geothermal resources, in different geological settings and with a wide range of fluid compositions. The results were used for calibration/reformulation of chemical geothermometers that reflect the reservoir temperatures in producing reservoirs. In the second objective, we developed a reactive -transport model of the Desert Peak hydrothermal system to evaluate the processes that affect reservoir fluid geochemistry and its effect on solute geothermometry. This included testing geothermometry on “reacted” thermal water originating from different lithologies and from near-surface locations where the temperature is known from the simulation. The integrated multi-component geothermometer (GeoT, relying on computed mineral saturation indices) was tested against the model results and also on the systems studied in the first objective.

  6. Los sistemas geotermales del Pirineo Central. II. Resultados de la aplicación de técnicas geotermométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimeno, M. J.


    Full Text Available Reservoir temperatures are calculated for six geothermal systems in the Central Pyrenees (Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Benasque, Panticosa, Luchon and Cauterets using different geothermometrical methods. In general, the selected hot springs have similar geochemical features belonging to the group of alkaline thermal systems installed in granitic environments. More in detail, however, it is important to note that Na and K concentrations of Panticosa and Benasque thermal springs are the lowest found in this water group to date. Both classical geothermometers and modeling calculations agree within a few degrees for the Arties, Caldas and Luchon geothermal systems: thermal waters are in equilibrium in their reservoirs with a common mineral association (quartz, albite, K-feldspar, caolinite and some calc-aluminum silicate at 103, 107 and 127° C, respectively. Cauterets, Panticosa and Benasque thermal waters appear to be equilibrated with the same mineral association at 98, 107 and 94° C, respectively as deduced from silica and Na-K geothermometers. Na-K-Ca and Ca-K geothermometers provide lower temperatures for these systems, probably because of some exchange of calcium between rock and water during the ascent of solutions. Nevertheless, the modeling calculations fail to represent the composition of Panticosa and Benasque thermal springs: these waters are out of equilibrium with the selected mineral association at the temperatures given by Na-K and SiO2-quartz geothermometers Therefore, the agreement between these geothermometers appear to be fortuitous, specially for Benasque thermal waters.Mediante la utilización de distintas técnicas geotermométricas se han estimado las temperaturas en el reservorio de seis sistemas geotermales (Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Benasque, Panticosa, Luchon y Cauterets instalados en los materiales graníticos del Pirineo Central. Los manantiales seleccionados para realizar los cálculos muestran similares caracteres

  7. Geotermometría de rocas ígneas. Su aplicación a los basaltos alcalinos de la región volcánica del NE de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebriá Gómez, J. M.


    Full Text Available The most common geothermometers for igneous basic rocks are reviewed in the first part of the present work. In the second part, several of these geothermometers are applied to the basaltic rocks from the NE Spain region. The temperatures calculated in the principal petrologic types of this region, suggest that the olivine appears at 1240° C in the leucite-basanites; at 1230° C in the nepheline-basanites; and at 1190° C in the olivine basalts. Clinopyroxene temperatures are around 1020° C in the three petrologic types. Finally, plagioclase crystallized at lower temperatures than 1000° C, although this estimation could not be confirmed by the geothermometers used. Concerning the oxygen fugacity, this parameter oscillated between 10-7.54 and 10-8.87 atmospheres,when the olivine crystallized.En la primera parte de este trabajo se revisan los geotermómetros más usuales utilizados en rocas igneas básicas. En la segunda parte se aplican estos geotermómetros a las rocas basálticas de la región volcánica del NE de España. Las temperaturas calculadas en los tipos petrológicos mayoritarios de los tres sectores de dicha región, sugieren que la aparición de olivino se produjo en torno a los 1240° C en las basanitas leuciticas; a unos 1230° C en las basanitas nefelínicas; y alrededor de los 1190° C en los basaltos olivínicos. El clinopiroxeno cristalizó alrededor de los 1020° C en los tres tipos petrológicos. Finalmente, la plagioclasa debió cristalizar por debajo de los 1000° C, aunque esta temperatura no puede fijarse adecuadamente, con los geotermómetros utilizados. En lo que concierne a la fO2, las estimaciones realizadas indican que el valor de la misma ha oscilado entre 10-7.54 y 10-8.87 atmósferas, en el inicio de la cristalización.

  8. Lithium Isotopes in Geothermal Fluids from Iceland (United States)

    Millot, R.; Asmundsson, R.; Sanjuan, B.


    One of the main objectives of the HITI project (HIgh Temperature Instruments for supercritical geothermal reservoir characterization and exploitation), partially funded by the European Union, is to develop methods to characterize the reservoir and fluids of deep and very high temperature geothermal systems. The chemical composition of geothermal waters in terms of major and trace elements is related to the temperature, the degree of water/rock interaction and the mineralogical assemblage of the bedrock. Traditional geothermometers, such as silica, Na-K, Na-K-Ca or K-Mg applied to geothermal waters, make it possible to estimate the temperature at depth of the reservoir from which the waters are derived. However, the values estimated for deep temperature are not always concordant. The chemical geothermometer Na/Li which presents the singularity of associating two chemical elements, one a major element (sodium) and the other a trace element (Li), can be also used and gives an additional temperature estimation. The primary objective of this work was to better understand the behavior of this last geothermometer using the isotopic systematics of Li in order to apply it at very high temperature Icelandic geothermal systems. One particularly important aspect was to establish the nature, extent and mechanism of Li isotope fractionation between 100 and 350°C during water/rock interaction. For that purpose, we measured Li isotopes of about 25 geothermal waters from Iceland by using a Neptune MC-ICP-MS that enabled the analysis of Li isotopic ratios in geothermal waters with a level of precision of ±0.5‰ (2 standard deviations) on quantities of 10-50 ng of Li. Geothermal waters from Reykjanes, Svartsengi, Nesjavellir, Hveragerdi, Namafjall and Krafla geothermal systems were studied and particular emphasis was placed on the characterization of the behavior of Li isotopes in this volcanic context at high temperature with or without the presence of seawater during water

  9. Las aguas termales de Fitero (Navarra y Arnedillo (Rioja. II. Análisis comparativo de la aplicación de técnicas geotermométricas químicas a aguas relacionadas con reservorios carbonatado-evaporíticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guaras, B.


    Full Text Available We have checked the geothermometrical technics for Fitero and Amedillo thermal waters. Both of them belong to low enthalpy systems and are associated to carbonatic-evaporitic reservoirs, where the basic asumption of equilibrium for most geothermometers is doubtful. So, Na-K, Na-K-Ca and Na-K-Ca-Mg geothermometers can't be applied because of their supposed equilibrium fails at depth. Some calibrates appear to be in good agreement with other geothermometers (e.g. silica-quartz but this can be explained by an unsuitable relation between their basic equilibrium assumption and the waters used for calibrate them. The specific geothermometers calcite-dolomite and anhydrite-fluorite (Marini et al., 1986 developped for carbonatic-evaporitic environments are very influenced by reequilibration processes such as mixture phenomena and water-rock reactions during the rising of waters, and they must be handled with care. The good agreement between silica-quartz, K-Mg and Na-Li geothermomethers suggest the existence of a possible equilibrium between argillaceous minerals at depth.Los resultados obtenidos mediante la aplicación de las técnicas geotermométricas más usuales se han contrastado para el caso de las aguas termales de Fitero y Amedillo, sistemas ambos de baja entalpía y relacionados en profundidad con materiales carbonatado-evaporíticos. El supuesto de equilibrio básico para la aplicación de los geotermómetros presenta distintas dificultades en este tipo de sistemas, y así se tiene que los geotermómetros Na-K, Na-K-Ca y NaK- Ca-Mg proporcionan resultados poco fiables debido a la ausencia de los equilibrios apropiados en profundidad. La aparente coherencia de resultados de algunos de los calibrados de estos geotermómetros puede explicarse por la falta de consistencia existente entre los principios teóricos y las aguas utilizadas en la operación de calibrado. La utilización de los geotermómetros calcita-dolomita y anhidrita

  10. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.


    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  11. Hydrothermal alteration in the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, Ethopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklemariam, M. [Ethiopian Institute of Geological Surveys, Addis Adaba (Ethiopia). Geothermal Exploration Project; Battaglia, S.; Gianelli, G.; Ruggieri, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Ist. Internazionale per le Ricerche Geotermiche


    The hydrothermal mineral assemblages found in eight wells (with a depth range of 1320-2500 m) of the active geothermal field of Aluto-Langano (Ethiopia) indicate a complex evolution of water-rock interaction processes. The zone of upflow is characterized by high temperatures (up to 335{sup o}C) and the presence of a propylitic alteration (epidote, calcite, quartz and chlorite, as major phases) coexisting with calcite and clay minerals. The zone of lateral outflow is characterized by mixing of deep and shallow waters and the occurrence of a calcite-clay alteration that overprints a previous propylitic assemblage. Clay minerals have a mushroom-shaped zonal distribution consistent with the present thermal structure of the field. Microprobe analyses have been carried out on chlorite and illite in order to apply several geothermometers. (author)

  12. Preliminary evaluation of thermal and nonthermal waters at selected sites in Panama, Central America. Evaluacion preliminar de aguas termales y no termales de sitios seleccionados en Panama, Centroamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, L.


    Thirty-one thermal and nonthermal water samples were collected in Panama by the Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion and analyzed by the Earth and Space Sciences Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the geothermal potential of four different areas. Chemical and isotopic analyses were performed on each sample. Because samples from several areas were submitted, the chemistry of the samples is varied, with total dissolved solids of thermal fluids ranging from 900 to nearly 10,000 mg/{ell}. All water samples studied are meteoric in origin, and none of the thermal waters exhibit an {sup 18}O enrichment, which is characteristic of high-temperature isotopic, exchange between water and rock. At all four areas, calculated geothermometer temperatures within a reservoir of less than 160{degrees}C. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. GeoT User’s Guide, A Computer Program for Multicomponent Geothermometry and Geochemical Speciation, Version 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spycher, Nicolas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Peiffer, Loic [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Finsterle, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    GeoT implements the multicomponent geothermometry method developed by Reed and Spycher (1984, Geochim. Cosmichim. Acta 46 513–528) into a stand-alone computer program, to ease the application of this method and to improve the prediction of geothermal reservoir temperatures using full and integrated chemical analyses of geothermal fluids. Reservoir temperatures are estimated from statistical analyses of mineral saturation indices computed as a function of temperature. The reconstruction of the deep geothermal fluid compositions, and geothermometry computations, are all implemented into the same computer program, allowing unknown or poorly constrained input parameters to be estimated by numerical optimization using existing parameter estimation software, such as iTOUGH2, PEST, or UCODE. This integrated geothermometry approach presents advantages over classical geothermometers for fluids that have not fully equilibrated with reservoir minerals and/or that have been subject to processes such as dilution and gas loss.

  14. Development of a technique for mass spectrometric measurement of δ18O of aqueous sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, U.P.; Sharma, Suman


    Application of stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen as tracers in hydrology for studying the origin of water is well established. δ 18 O of water molecule itself is used for identifying the source of water whereas δ 18 O of dissolved oxy anions (such as carbonate, phosphate, sulphate, nitrate and silicate) present in the same water reveal their source of origin. δ 18 O of SO 4 finds applications in identifying the origin of sulfate i.e. marine, marine evaporite or non-marine in nature and as a geothermometer in determining subsurface temperature of geothermal waters. A vacuum line of glass was fabricated to measure δ 18 O of aqueous sulfate. This paper deals with the technique and results of a trial with NBS-127, Sea water barium sulfate

  15. Isotopic and chemical studies of geothermal waters of Northern Areas in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dildar Hussain, S; Ahmad, M; Akram, W; Sajjad, M I [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Gonfiantini, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Isotope Hydrology Section; Tasneem, M A


    Northern Areas is one of the major thermal fields of Pakistan with more than two dozen known hot springs having discharge temperature ranging from 35 deg. C to 94 deg. C. Isotopic and chemical techniques applied to study the geothermal fields show that thermal waters are of meteoric origin and can be classified as Na-HCO{sub 3}, Na-SO{sub 4} and mixed type on the basis of their chemical contents. At some places cooling of thermal waters seems to be due to steam separation whereas mixing with fresh cold water is prominent at the remaining sites. The temperatures estimated by isotopic and chemical geothermometers for the two major fields i.e. Tatta Pani and Murtazabad are 83-257 deg. C and 65-296 deg. C respectively. (author). 24 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs.

  16. Groundwater contributions to Waikite geothermal fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.


    Isotopic data are reported for hot springs in the Waikite area. The data, along with chemical data, are used to produce a consistent interpretation of mixing between deep chloride water and groundwater, with some samples being affected by evaporation after rising to the surface. The constant ratio between chloride and bicarbonate concentrations shows that mixing takes place at depth before any boiling occurs. Reservoir temperatures are assessed using the KMg geothermometer. Tritium concentrations in springs with the highest temperature reservoirs are non-zero indicating a small input of 1960's water. Groundwater downflow from the nearby Paeroa Range is inferred. The weight of evidence supports the springs being a peripheral outflow on the margin of the Waiotapu system rather than being genetically related to Te Kopia. (author). 6 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs

  17. An evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Tecuamburro Volcano area of Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Duffield, W. (eds.)


    Radiometric ages indicate that the Tecuamburro Volcano and three adjacent lava domes grew during the last 38,300 years, and that a 360-m-wide phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, was formed near the base of these domes about 2900 years ago. Laguna Ixpaco is located within the Chupadero crater, from which pyroxene pumice deposits were erupted 38,300 years ago. Thus, the likelihood is great for a partly molten or solid-but-still-hot near-surface intrusion beneath the area. Fumaroles and hot springs issue locally from the Tecuamburro volcanic complex and near Laguna Ixpaco. Analyses of gas and fluid samples from these and other nearby thermal manifestations yield chemical-geothermometer temperatures of about 150{degree} to 300{degree}C, with the highest temperatures at Ixpaco. The existence of a commercial-grade geothermal reservoir beneath the Ixpaco area seems likely. 84 refs., 70 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Earl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fujita, Yoshiko [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within ±30 °C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  19. Chemical classification and geotermometry of chlorites from the cretaceous Santa Rosa and Lutitas de Macanal formations, eastern emerald belt, eastern cordillera, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Arias, Alejandro; Mantilla Figueroa, Luis Carlos; Terraza Melo, Roberto


    The study of the chemical composition of chlorites from the Santa Rosa and Lutitas de Macanal formations in the eastern emerald belt (eastern cordillera), are used to estimate the formation temperature of these minerals and the associated hydrothermal fluids. The chlorites were analyzed using the classification proposed by hey (1954), foster (1962), and Bailey (1980); and the formation temperature is calculated from empirical geothermometers from kranidiotis and Maclean (1987), Cathelineau (1988), Jowett (1991) and Xie et al. (1997). Chlorites in hydrothermally altered rocks associated with emerald mineralization of the Santa Rosa formation is classified as clinochlore and formed at temperatures of 354 Celsius degrade; this temperature is consistent with the fluid inclusions in emeralds of the same formation. Chlorites in veins from Lutitas de Macanal Formation are classified as chamosites and formed at lower temperatures between 210 to 225 Celsius degrade

  20. A Review of Methods Applied by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Assessment of Identified Geothermal Resources (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.


    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an updated assessment of geothermal resources in the United States. The primary method applied in assessments of identified geothermal systems by the USGS and other organizations is the volume method, in which the recoverable heat is estimated from the thermal energy available in a reservoir. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. The new assessment will incorporate some changes in the models for temperature and depth ranges for electric power production, preferred chemical geothermometers for estimates of reservoir temperatures, estimates of reservoir volumes, and geothermal energy recovery factors. Monte Carlo simulations are used to characterize uncertainties in the estimates of electric power generation. These new models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of natural geothermal reservoirs.

  1. Exploring for geothermal resources in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendrinos, Dimitrios; Choropanitis, Ioannis; Polyzou, Olympia; Karytsas, Constantine [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving (CRES), 19th km Marathon Avenue, 19009 Pikermi (Greece)


    In Greece the geothermal areas are located in regions of Quaternary or Miocene volcanism and in continental basins of high heat flow. The existence of high-temperature (>200 C) resources has been proven by deep drilling on the islands of Milos and Nisyros and inferred on the island of Santorini by its active volcanism. Elsewhere, geological investigations, geochemical analyses of thermal springs and shallow drilling have identified many low-temperature (<100 C) reservoirs, utilized for spas and greenhouse/soil heating. Ternary K-Na-Mg geothermometer data suggest deep, medium-temperature resources (100-200 C) in Sousaki, the islands of Samothraki, Chios and Lesvos, in the basins of Nestos River Delta and Alexandroupolis and in the graben of Sperchios River. In the basins of northern Greece these resources are also inferred from deep oil exploration well data. (author)

  2. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California (United States)

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.


    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  3. Geochemistry of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region, California, and implications for hot dry rock geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Mansfield, J.


    Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connote types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast, ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connote end-members. The latter end-member has enriched [delta]D as well as enriched d[sup l8]O, very different from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data and modeling of ages indicate most Clear Lake region waters are 500 to > 10,000 yr., although mixing of old and young components is implied by the data. The age of end-member connate water is probably > 10,000 yr. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is [le] 150[degrees]C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures [le] 150[degrees]C (except for Sulphur Bank Mine). Hot dry rock technologies are the best way to commercially exploit the known high temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region, particularly within the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  4. Hydrogeochemical evaluation of conventional and hot dry rock geothermal resource potential in the Clear Lake region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.


    Chemistry, stable isotope, and tritium contents of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region were used to evaluate conventional and hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal potential for electrical generation. Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connate types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connate (generic) end-members. The latter end-member has enriched {delta}D as well as enriched {delta}{sup 18}O, from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data indicate most Clear Lake region waters are mixtures of old and young fluid components. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is {le}150{degree}C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures {le}150{degree}C (except for Sulphur Bank mine). HDR technologies are probably the best way to commercially exploit the known high-temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region particularly within and near the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  5. Examination of chloritization of biotite as a tool for reconstructing the physicochemical parameters of mineralization and associated alteration in the Zafarghand porphyry copper system, Ardestan, Central Iran: mineral-chemistry and stable isotope analyses (United States)

    Aminroayaei Yamini, Maryam; Tutti, Faramarz; Aminoroayaei Yamini, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadian, Jamshid; Wan, Bo


    The chloritization of biotite and stable isotopes of silicate have been studied for the Zafarghand porphyry copper deposit, Ardestan, Iran. The studied area, in the central part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt, contains porphyry-style Cu mineralization and associated hydrothermal alteration within the Miocene (19-26 Ma, Zircon U-Pb age) granodioritc stock and adjacent andesitic to rhyodacitic volcanic rocks (ca. 56 Ma, zircon U-Pb age). The primary and secondary biotite that formed during potassic alteration in this porphyry and these volcanic host rocks are variably chloritized. Chloritization of biotite pseudomorphically is characterized by an increase in MgO, FeOt, and MnO, with decreasing in SiO2, K2O, and TiO2. Based on the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer of Henry et al. (Am Mineral 90:316-328, 2005) and Al-in-chlorite geothermometer of Cathelineau (Clay Miner 23:417-485, 1988), crystallization temperatures of primary biotite representative of magmatic conditions and later chloritization temperature range from 617° to 675 °C ± 24 °C and 177° to 346 °C, respectively. Calculated isotopic compositions of fluids that chloritized primary and secondary biotite display isotopic compositions of 1.1 to 1.7 per mil for δ18O and -19.9 to -20.5 per mil for δD consistent with meteoric water. Sericite, barren, and A-type-quartz veins from phyllic alteration were produced by mixed magmatic and meteoric water with δ18O values from -2.8 to 2.5 and δD values of ˜ -23 per mil; the narrow range of δD values of the propylitic epidote may be due to a meteoric water with δ18O values from 0.8 to 1.6 and δD values from -14.6 to -16.9 per mil.

  6. Germanium enrichment in supergene settings: evidence from the Cristal nonsulfide Zn prospect, Bongará district, northern Peru (United States)

    Mondillo, Nicola; Arfè, Giuseppe; Herrington, Richard; Boni, Maria; Wilkinson, Clara; Mormone, Angela


    Supergene nonsulfide ores form from the weathering of sulfide mineralization. Given the geochemical affinity of Ge to Si4+ and Fe3+, weathering of Ge-bearing sulfides could potentially lead to Ge enrichments in silicate and Fe-oxy-hydroxide minerals, although bulk rock Ge concentrations in supergene nonsulfide deposits are rarely reported. Here, we present the results of an investigation into Ge concentrations and deportment in the Cristal supergene Zn nonsulfide prospect (Bongará, northern Peru), which formed from the weathering of a preexisting Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) sulfide deposit. Material examined in this study originates from drillcore recovered from oxidized Zn-rich bodies 15-20 m thick, containing 5-45 wt% Zn and Ge concentrations 100 ppm. Microanalysis and laser ablation-ICP-MS show that precursor sphalerite is rich in both Fe (mean Fe = 8.19 wt%) and Ge (mean Ge = 142 ppm). Using the mineral geothermometer GGIMFis—geothermometer for Ga, Ge, In, Mn, and Fe in sphalerite—proposed by Frenzel et al. (Ore Geol Rev 76:52-78, 2016), sphalerite trace element data from the Cristal prospect suggest a possible formation temperature ( T GGIMFis) of 225 ± 50 °C, anomalously high for a MVT deposit. Germanium concentrations measured in both goethite (mean values 100 to 229 ppm, max 511 ppm) and hemimorphite (mean values 39 to 137 ppm, max 258 ppm) are similar to concentrations measured in hypogene sphalerite. Additionally, the Ge concentrations recorded in bulk rock analyses of sphalerite-bearing and oxidized samples are also similar. A persistent warm-humid climate is interpreted for the region, resulting in the development of an oxidation zone favoring the formation of abundant Zn hydrosilicates and Fe hydroxides, both able to incorporate Ge in their crystal structure. In this scenario, Ge has been prevented from dispersion during the weathering of the Ge-bearing sulfide bodies and remains in the resultant nonsulfide ore.

  7. The main chemical properties of hot and cold mineral waters in Bayankhongor, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Oyuntsetseg


    Full Text Available In the current study, hot and cold mineral springs and sub mineral waters in the Bayankhongor province were examined for their chemical characteristics and identified cold mineral waters classification according to mineral water classification of Mongolia. The hot spring waters belong to Na+-HCO3- and Na+-SO42- types. The cold mineral spring of Lkham belongs to Ca2+-HCO3- type. All sub mineral waters are generally located in the two areas (northern part or mountain forest area and the southern part or Gobi desert area. TDS concentrations of cold springs of the southern part in the study area were higher than northern part’s cold springs. The total dissolved silica content of cold spring was ranged from 4.5mg/L to 26 mg/L which did not correspond to requirements of mineral water standard of Mongolia. Thus, these cold springs are belonging to sub mineral water classification. The sub mineral waters were characterized into four types such as a Ca2+-SO42-, Na+-SO42-, Na+-HCO3 and Ca2+ - HCO3 by their chemical composition in the study area. The values for the quartz, chalcedony geothermometer and the Na/K geothermometer were quite different. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 124 and 197°C and most of the hot waters have been  probably mixed with cold water. The result shows that an averaged value of calculated temperature ranges from 77°C to 119°C which indicates that studied area has low temperature geothermal resources. DOI: Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p56-62

  8. Mineralogy and geothermometry of high-temperature rhyolites from the central and western Snake River Plain (United States)

    Honjo, N.; Bonnichsen, B.; Leeman, W.P.; Stormer, J.C.


    Voluminous mid-Miocene rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and lava flows are exposed along the northern and southern margins of the central and western Snake River Plain. These rhyolites are essentially anhydrous with the general mineral assemblage of plagioclase ??sanidine ?? quartz + augite + pigeonite ?? hypersthene ?? fayalitic olivine + Fe-Ti oxides + apatite + zircon which provides an opportunity to compare feldspar, pyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxide equilibration temperatures for the same rocks. Estimated pyroxene equilibration temperatures (based on the geothermometers of Lindsley and coworkers) range from 850 to 1000??C, and these are well correlated with whole-rock compositions. With the exception of one sample, agreement between the two-pyroxene thermometers tested is well within 50??C. Fe-Ti oxide geothermometers applied to fresh magnetite and ilmenite generally yield temperatures about 50 to 100??C lower than the pyroxene temperatures, and erratic results are obtained if these minerals exhibit effects of subsolidus oxidation and exsolution. Results of feldspar thermometry are more complicated, and reflect uncertainties in the thermometer calibrations as well as in the degree of attainment of equilibrium between plagioclase and sanidine. In general, temperatures obtained using the Ghiorso (1984) and Green and Usdansky (1986) feldspar thermometers agree with the pyroxene temperatures within the respective uncertainties. However, uncertainties in the feldspar temperatures are the larger of the two (and exceed ??60??C for many samples). The feldspar thermometer of Fuhrman and Lindsley (1988) produces systematically lower temperatures for many of the samples studied. The estimated pyroxene temperatures are considered most representative of actual magmatic temperatures for these rhyolites. This range of temperatures is significantly higher than those for rhyolites from many other suites, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the Snake River Plain rhyolitic magmas formed

  9. Experimental cation redistribution in the tourmaline lucchesiite, CaFe2 + 3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O (United States)

    Bosi, Ferdinando; Skogby, Henrik; Hålenius, Ulf; Ciriotti, Marco E.


    Natural Mg-rich lucchesiite was thermally treated in air and hydrogen atmosphere up to 800 °C to study potential changes in Fe-, Mg- and Al ordering over the octahedrally coordinated Y- and Z-sites, and to explore possible applications to intracrystalline geothermometry based on tourmaline. Overall, the experimental data (structural refinement, Mössbauer, infrared and optical absorption spectroscopy) show that thermal treatment of lucchesiite results in an increase of Fetot contents at Z balanced by an increase of Mg and Al at Y. This process is accompanied by a significant deprotonation of the O3 anion site. The Fe order-disorder reaction depends more on temperature, than on redox conditions. During heat treatment in H2, reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ was not observed despite strongly reducing conditions, indicating that the f O2 conditions do not exclusively control the Fe oxidation state at the present experimental conditions. On the basis of this and previous studies, the intersite order-disorder process induced by thermal treatment indicates that Fe redistribution is an important factor for Fe-Mg-Al-exchange and is significant at temperatures around 800 °C. As a result, Fe-Mg-Al intersite order-disorder is sensitive to temperature variations, whereas geothermometers based solely on Mg-Al order-disorder appear insensitive and involve large uncertainties. The presented findings are important for interpretation of the post-crystallization history of both tourmaline and tourmaline host rocks, and indicate that successful tourmaline geothermometers may be developed by thermal calibration of the Fe-Mg-Al order-disorder reaction.

  10. Geochemical study of the Sakalol-Harralol geothermal field (Republic of Djibouti): Evidences of a low enthalpy aquifer between Manda-Inakir and Asal rift settings (United States)

    Awaleh, Mohamed Osman; Boschetti, Tiziano; Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Baudron, Paul; Kawalieh, Ali Dirir; Dabar, Omar Assowe; Ahmed, Moussa Mahdi; Ahmed, Samaleh Idriss; Daoud, Mohamed Ahmed; Egueh, Nima Moussa; Mohamed, Jalludin


    Eighty-six sodium bicarbonate to sodium chloride hot springs and four water wells in the Tadjourah Region of Djibouti were investigated for major, minor (B, Br, F, Sr, Li) chemistry and isotope composition of water and dissolved components (87Sr/86Sr, 11B/10B, 13C/12C and 14C of DIC, 34S/32S and 18O/16O of sulfate). The deep saline Na-Cl reservoir at 143 °C shows affinity with the shallow geothermal water from the "active" Asal rift. Asal water is a diluted and recycled seawater component with the major cation composition obliterated by equilibration with Stratoid basalt. Locally, the deep reservoir is differentiated in term of recharge, and re-equilibration with rocks and mixing. In particular, two spring groups reveal contributions from evaporites typical of the "passive" graben setting of the Afar. A model on 34S/32S and 18O/16O demonstrates the isotope imprint of magmatic SO2 disproportionation on dissolved and solid sulfate, whose values probably persists in a sedimentary environment without trace of seawater. On the other hand a seawater signature, modified by mixing and secondary fractionation effects, is partially maintained according to the boron isotope composition (up to + 27.4‰). Temperature estimation in low-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs is notoriously difficult, especially where mixing with fluids of differing genesis and/or conduction cooling take place. From a geothermometric point of view, the multi-method approach followed in this study (up-to-date theoretical and thermodynamic equations, ad-hoc silica geothermometers inferred from local rocks, checking of the results on a 18Oαsulfate-water vs. temperature diagram) provides some insights and perspectives on how to tackle the problem. Table S2. Sampling locations, T, pH, EC, TDS and hydrochemical types of the sampled waters. Table S3. Chemical analyses of thermal and cold waters from Sakalaol-Haralol geothermal field. Table S4. Mineral saturation indices of SHGF hot springs waters calculated

  11. Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Characterization of Drill Core and Cutting Mineralogy (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Kratt, C.; Kruse, F. A.


    Water geochemistry can vary with depth and location within a geothermal reservoir, owing to natural factors such as changing rock type, gas content, fluid source and temperature. The interaction of these variable fluids with the host rock will cause well known changes in alteration mineral assemblages that are commonly factored into the exploration of hydrothermal systems for economic metals, but are less utilized with regard to mapping borehole geology for geothermal energy production. Chemistry of geothermal fluids and rock alteration products can impact production factors such as pipeline corrosion and scaling and early studies explored the use of both silica and chlorites as geothermometers. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly good at identifying a wide variety of alteration minerals, especially in discrimination among clay minerals, with no sample preparation. The technique has been extensively used in the remote identification of materials, but is not commonly used on drill core or chips. We have performed several promising pilot studies that suggest the power of the technique to sample continuously and provide mineral logs akin to geophysical ones. We have surveyed a variety of samples, including drill chip boards, boxed core, and drill cuttings from envelopes, sample bottles and chip trays. This work has demonstrated that core and drill chips can be rapidly surveyed, acquiring spectra every few to tens of cm of section, or the vertical resolution of the chip tray (typically 10 feet). Depending on the sample type we can acquire spectral data over thousands of feet depth at high vertical resolution in a fraction of the time that is needed for traditional analytical methods such as XRD or TEM with better accuracy than traditional geologic drill or chip logging that uses visual inspection alone. We have successfully identified layered silicates such as illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite chlorite and prehnite, zeolites, opal, calcite, jarosite and iron oxides

  12. The Effect of Element Substitution on Ti-in-Zircon Geothermometry in Volcanic Zircons from Mount Pinatubo, Philippines (United States)

    Lee, S. L.; Hattori, K.


    Despite the extensive application of the Ti-in-zircon geothermometer, its accuracy in natural systems remains uncertain. In order to investigate the parameters contributing to Ti in zircon, we examined zircons from dacitic eruption products of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, from the Pliocene (>2.5-2.7 Ma), 35000BP and 1991AD. All samples are unaltered and quenched from magmas at 790-825°C (Fe-Ti-oxide thermometry). Furthermore, the magma conditions of 1991 samples are well characterized: 780°C (cummingtonite rims on hornblende, Fe-Ti-oxide thermometry), 2 kbar pressure, 5.5-6.5 wt.% H2O and fO2 of NNO+1.6. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures are 760, 744 and 738°C (oldest to youngest). Zircon Ti concentrations are low (2.0-8.8 ppm), show positive covariation with U (35.6-639 ppm), Th (18.7-696 ppm), ∑REE (237-1310 ppm) and Y (247-1770 ppm), and negative covariation with Hf (7610-12000 ppm). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer by Ferry and Watson (2007) yields mean temperatures of 690, 666 and 663°C (oldest to youngest), using TiO2 activity=0.6, SiO2 activity=1 and -40°C pressure correction. Therefore, temperatures calculated using this method are underestimated by >100°C. We suggest that elements in the Zr site impact the substitution of Ti in the Si site of zircon. Ti shows a positive covariation with Zr/Hf (37.0-57.3, r2=0.551). The ionic radius of Hf4+ is smaller than Zr4+, whereas cations like U4+, Th4+, REE3+ and Y3+ are larger. The departure from the ideal crystal configuration is evaluated using the parameter Zr/(Hf-x), whereby x=U4+, Th4+, ∑REE and Y3+. Ti contents are more strongly correlated with the parameter than Zr/Hf (r2=0.559, 0.565, 0.608, 0.616; respectively). This suggests that large cations replacing Zr strain the lattice, reducing the amount of Ti incorporated into zircon. This further suggests that ZrSiO4 activity is less than 1 in natural rocks, resulting in the systematic underestimation of Ti-in-zircon temperatures.

  13. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 1: Chemical evolution and water-rock interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, Peter, E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), Gerencia de Geotermia, Av. Reforma 113, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62490 (Mexico); Garcia, Bernardo Martinez; Milland Padron, Carlos M. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur, Activo Integral Bellota-Jujo, Diseno de Explotacion, Cardenas, Tabasco (Mexico)


    mixing of different water types and the formation of secondary minerals by water-rock interaction. A best fit between measured and calculated reservoir temperatures was obtained with the Mg-Li geothermometer for high salinity formation water (TDS > 180 g/L), whereas Na-K, Na-Ka-Ca and quartz geothermometers are partially applicable for less salinite water (TDS < 23 g/L).

  14. Mg isotope systematics during magmatic processes: Inter-mineral fractionation in mafic to ultramafic Hawaiian xenoliths (United States)

    Stracke, A.; Tipper, E. T.; Klemme, S.; Bizimis, M.


    Observed differences in Mg isotope ratios between bulk magmatic rocks are small, often on a sub per mill level. Inter-mineral differences in the 26Mg/24Mg ratio (expressed as δ26Mg) in plutonic rocks are on a similar scale, and have mostly been attributed to equilibrium isotope fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Here we report Mg isotope data on minerals in spinel peridotite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from the rejuvenated stage of volcanism on Oahu and Kauai, Hawaii. The new data are compared to literature data and to theoretical predictions to investigate the processes responsible for inter-mineral Mg isotope fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Theory predicts up to per mill level differences in δ26Mg between olivine and spinel at magmatic temperatures and a general decrease in Δ26Mgolivine-spinel (=δ26Mgolivine - δ26Mgspinel) with increasing temperature, but also with increasing Cr# in spinel. For peridotites with a simple petrogenetic history by melt depletion, where increasing depletion relates to increasing melting temperatures, Δ26Mgolivine-spinel should thus systematically decrease with increasing Cr# in spinel. However, most natural peridotites, including the Hawaiian spinel peridotites investigated in this study, are overprinted by variable extents of melt-rock reaction, which disturb the systematic primary temperature and compositionally related olivine-spinel Mg isotope systematics. Diffusion, subsolidus re-equilibration, or surface alteration may further affect the observed olivine-spinel Mg isotope fractionation in peridotites, making Δ26Mgolivine-spinel in peridotites a difficult-to-apply geothermometer. The available Mg isotope data on clinopyroxene and garnet suggest that this mineral pair is a more promising geothermometer, but its application is restricted to garnet-bearing igneous (garnet pyroxenites) and metamorphic rocks (eclogites). Although the observed δ26Mg variation is on a sub per mill range in bulk magmatic rocks

  15. The Hydrogeochemistry of Qingshui Geothermal Field, Northeastern Taiwan. (United States)

    Yu-Wen, Chen; Cheng-Kuo, Lin; Wayne, Lin; Yu-Te, Chang; Pei-Shan, Hsieh


    The Qingshui geothermal field is located at the upstream valley of Lanyang Creek, northeastern Taiwan. It is renowned as a geothermal field. The previous studies demonstrated a higher geothermal gradient, 100oC/km warmer than a normal geotherm. However, Qingshui geothermal field has not been well developed due to the higher mining costs. In the recent years, the Taiwan government has been focusing on developing alternative and renewable energy and initiated a 10 year project, Nation Energy Program. This study is part of this project In general, it is very difficult to collect deep downhole samples without considerable change of hydro- and gas- chemistry of water under high temperature and pressure. A new sampling tool, GTF Sampler, was designed by the research team, Green Energy and Environment Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute. This tool can simultaneously collect high quality geothermal water and gas sample and moreover, the sampling depth can reach up to 800 meters. Accordingly, a more accurate measurements can be conducted in the laboratory. In this study, 10 geothermal samples were collected and measured. The results demonstrate that geothermal water samples are characterized with Na(K)-HCO3 water type and located at the mature water area in Giggenbach Na-K-Mg diagram. Several geothermometers, including silica and cation geothermometry, were used to estimate potential temperature in the geothermal reservoir systems. In general, the geothermoters of Na-K and Na-K-Ca obtain reservoir temperatures between 120-190oC and 130-210oC, respectively, but the silica geothermometer indicates a lower reservoir temperature between 90 and 170oC. There is no big difference among them. It is worth to note that all calculated temperatures are lower than those of in-situ downhole measurements; therefore, more detailed and advanced researches would be needed for the inconsistency. To examine the argument about igneous heat source in the previous studies, rare

  16. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 1: Chemical evolution and water-rock interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, Peter; Garcia, Bernardo Martinez; Milland Padron, Carlos M.


    different water types and the formation of secondary minerals by water-rock interaction. A best fit between measured and calculated reservoir temperatures was obtained with the Mg-Li geothermometer for high salinity formation water (TDS > 180 g/L), whereas Na-K, Na-Ka-Ca and quartz geothermometers are partially applicable for less salinite water (TDS < 23 g/L).

  17. Hydrogeochemistry and Genesis Analysis of Thermal and Mineral Springs in Arxan, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Gu


    Full Text Available In this work, the hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopic compositions of thermal and mineral springs in Arxan, northeastern China, were used to assess the genesis of the thermal system hosted by deep-seated faults. The reservoir temperature was calculated using the mineral saturation index and geothermometers. According to isotopic analysis, the spring water was of meteoric origin. Sixteen springs in the Arxan geothermal system with outlet temperatures ranging from 10.9 to 41.0 °C were investigated. The water samples can be classified into four groups by using a Piper diagram. The aquifer in which the Group I and Group III samples were obtained was a shallow cold aquifer of the Jurassic system, which is related to the local groundwater system and contains HCO3–Ca·Na groundwater. The Group II and Group IV samples were recharged by deeply circulating meteoric water with HCO3–Na and HCO3·SO4–Na·Ca groundwater, respectively. The springs rise from the deep basement faults. The estimated thermal reservoir temperature is 50.9–68.8 °C, and the proportion of shallow cold water ranges from 54% to 87%. A conceptual flow model based on hydrogeochemical results and hydrogeological features is given to describe the geothermal system of the Arxan springs.

  18. Geofluids Assessment of the Ayub and Shafa Hot Springs in Kopet-Dagh Zone (NE Iran: An Isotopic Geochemistry Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mohammadzadeh


    Full Text Available Geothermal energy has a wide range of uses in our life. It is very important to characterize the temperature and the depth of geothermal reservoirs. The aim of this paper is the determination of type, origin source of water temperature, and depth of water circulation in the Ayub-Peighambar and Shafa (AP and SH hot springs, located in NE Iran, using hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopes (2H and 18O. AP hot spring has elevated temperature (36–40°C and as such is very important for balneotherapy and geotourism industry purposes. The average values of δ18O and δ2H for this hot spring (−10‰ and −73‰, resp. are analogous to that of geothermal and meteoric waters. This indicates that the heat source cannot be related to volcanic activities (with average δ18O value of about 5‰ and it is most probably associated with geothermal gradient with deep circulation of groundwater through faults. Based on Na-K geothermometers coupled with isotopic (18O and 2H geochemistry the temperature of the AP geothermal reservoir was estimated to be in the range of 100–150°C with 3–5 and 4.2 kilometres’ depth, respectively. Chemically, the AP samples are CaSO4 facies with a chemically homogeneous source and steam heated waters type.

  19. Determination of palaeotemperatures of apatite with the fission-track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, E.; Maerk, E.; Bertel, E.; Pahl, M.; Maerk, T.D.


    As a consequence of thermal fading of fission tracks in minerals, the fission-track dating method can be used to obtain a sensitive geothermometer for unfolding thermal events in the history of rocks, especially if it is possible to determine the temperature associated with a measured fission-track age, i.e., yielding a temperature age. Based on the concept of a minimum fission-track length the differential annealing equation has been solved for apatite, taking into account the fact that the annealing coefficient depends also on the degree of fission-track reduction. This allows us to calculate an improved age-temperature relationship for apatite, which gives for a measured corrected fission-track age the corresponding temperature, assuming either linear or exponential time-dependence of the temperature. The present results for apatite are compared with previous calculations in apatite and sphene. As expected, a fission-track age of apatite dates a younger (lower temperature) point in the thermal-cooling history than a fission-track age of sphene. (author)

  20. iGeoT v1.0: Automatic Parameter Estimation for Multicomponent Geothermometry, User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spycher, Nicolas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Geosciences Division; Finsterle, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Geosciences Division


    GeoT implements the multicomponent geothermometry method developed by Reed and Spycher [1984] into a stand-alone computer program to ease the application of this method and to improve the prediction of geothermal reservoir temperatures using full and integrated chemical analyses of geothermal fluids. Reservoir temperatures are estimated from statistical analyses of mineral saturation indices computed as a function of temperature. The reconstruction of the deep geothermal fluid compositions, and geothermometry computations, are all implemented into the same computer program, allowing unknown or poorly constrained input parameters to be estimated by numerical optimization. This integrated geothermometry approach presents advantages over classical geothermometers for fluids that have not fully equilibrated with reservoir minerals and/or that have been subject to processes such as dilution and gas loss. This manual contains installation instructions for iGeoT, and briefly describes the input formats needed to run iGeoT in Automatic or Expert Mode. An example is also provided to demonstrate the use of iGeoT.

  1. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies of returned comet nucleus samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Fundow; Kim, S.S.; Liang, R.H.


    The most important objective of the Comet Nucleus Sample Returm Mission is to return samples which could reflect formation conditions and evolutionary processes in the early solar nebula. It is expected that the returned samples will consist of fine-grained silicate materials mixed with ices composed of simple molecules such as H 2 O, NH 3 , CH 4 as well as organics and/or more complex compounds. Because of the exposure to ionizing radiation from cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, and solar wind protons at low temperature, free radicals are expected to be formed and trapped in the solid ice matrices. The kind of trapped radical species together with their concentration and thermal stability can be used as a dosimeter as well as a geothermometer to determine thermal and radiation histories as well as outgassing and other possible alternation effects since the nucleus material was formed. Since free radicals that are known to contain unpaired electrons are all paramagnetic in nature, they can be readily detected and characterized in their native form by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. In fact, ESR has been shown to be a non-destructive, highly sensitive tool for the detection and characterization of paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and radiation damage centers in terrestrial and extraterrestrial geological samples. The potential use of ESR as an effective method in the study of returned comet nucleus samples, in particular, in the analysis of fine-grained solid state icy samples is discussed

  2. Hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the mineralized thermal waters of Kirsehir Province, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsal, Nail; Celik, Mehmet; Murathan, Atilla M.


    The main objective of this study is to determine the chemical and isotopic properties and reservoir temperature of mineralized thermal waters of Kirsehir region, Turkey. Areas which have been included in this study are Savcih, Karakurt, Terme, Bulamach and Mahmutlu. Mahmutlu and Bulamach waters are mainly of the Na-Cl type, Savcih waters are of the Na-HCO 3 -Cl type and Karakurt and Terme waters are mainly of the Ca-HCO 3 type. The Saturation Index values of the waters have been evaluated and mineralized thermal waters were found to be saturated with respect to the calcite and dolomite minerals but undersaturated with respect to the halite mineral in spite of being NaCl type. The results of hydrochemical and environmental isotope ( 18 O, D, 3 H) analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and have varying component of relatively old water. The reservoir temperature of the five areas of thermal manifestations fall between 50 and 100 degC. Highest temperatures of about 100 degC have been estimated for Bulamach and Mahmutlu using various chalcedony geothermometers. Mahmutlu mineralized thermal water has longer residence times and higher reservoir temperature compared to other geothermal areas in Kirsehir Province. (author)

  3. Multi proxy approach to evaluate and delineate the potential of hot springs in the Kotli District (Kashmir, Pakistan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anees, M.; Shah, M.; Qureshi, A.; Manzoor, S.


    Tattapani hot springs are located near the Kotli District of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. This study evaluates these hot springs based on surface geological information, radon emission measurements, hydro-geochemical and isotopic signatures and potential source mechanisms. Field observations reveal that the hot springs are located at the crest of the Tattapani anticline along the faulted contact of Cambrian carbonates with Paleocene siliciclastics. In addition, remnants of igneous intrusions in the Cambrian carbonates are commonly observed. Spatial distribution of radon emissions (ranging between 2.1 and 29.5KBq m-3) indicates an anomalous zone located over the Cambrian-Paleocene faulted contact. Hydro-geochemical data show sodium-bicarbonate affinity of hot springs. The highest surface temperature of these springs is recorded at 60.8ºC. Average reservoir temperatures based on silica and cation geo-thermometers are 101ºC and 115ºC, respectively. Giggenbach ternary diagram (Na-K-Mg) suggests a non-equilibrium state between fluid and rock, whereas isotopic and chemical data indicate heat loss by conductive cooling and mixing with groundwater during the flow of thermal water up to the surface. Oxygen and deuterium isotopes indicate that thermal water is of meteoric origin, rain and/or snow in the north at higher altitudes providing the potential recharge. Furthermore, absence of tritium in the thermal water suggests a residence time of more than 50 years.

  4. Hydrogeochemistry Characteristics and Daily Variation of Geothermal Water in the Moxi Fault,Southwest of China (United States)

    Qi, Jihong; Xu, Mo; An, Chenjiao; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhang, Qiang


    The Xianshuihe Fault with frequent earthquakes activities is the regional deep fault in China. The Moxi Fault is the southern part of the Xianshuihe Fault, where the strong activities of geothermal water could bring abundant information of deep crust. In this article, some typical geothermal springs were collected along the Moxi fault from Kangding to Shimian. Using the the Na-K-Mg equilibrium diagram, it explains the state of water-rock equilibrium, and estimates the reservoir temperature basing appropriate geothermometers. Basing on the relationship between the enthalpy and chlorine concentration of geothermal water, it analyze the mixing progress of thermal water with shallow groundwater. Moreover, the responses of variation of geothermal water to the solid tides are considered to study the hydrothermal activities of this fault. The Guanding in Kangding are considered as the center of the geothermal system, and the hydrothermal activities decrease southward extending. Geothermal water maybe is heated by the deep heat source of the Himalayan granites, while the springs in the south area perform the mixture with thermal water in the sub-reservoir of the Permian crystalline limestone. It improves the research of hydrothermal activities in the Moxi Fault, meanwhile using the variation of geothermal water maybe become a important method to study the environment of deep earth in the future.

  5. Hydrogeochemistry and reservoir model of Fuzhou geothermal field, China (United States)

    Huang, H. F.; Goff, Fraser


    Fuzhou geothermal field is a low- to intermediate-temperature geothermal system consisting of meteoric water that circulates deeply along faults. The area of the field is about 9 km 2 but it is elongated in a NNW-trending direction. Fluids in the field are controlled by a series of four NNW extensional faults in Cretaceous granitic basement (Fuzhou fault zone). These faults feed warm waters into overlying permeable Quaternary sediments. The hydrothermal system consists of north and south parts whose chemical compositions are subtly different. In the northern part the system discharges sulfate/chloride waters with relatively low chloride concentrations, but in the south the system discharges chloride waters having relatively high chloride concentrations. Maximum wellhead temperatures are 97°C, which agrees with the chalcedony geothermometer in many cases. Based on the solubility of quartz, the deep-reservoir temperature cannot exceed 123 to 131°C. From heat and mass balance calculations, we conclude that the present total extracted capacity of fluid from the reservoir (20,000 tons/day) could be doubled without noticeable drawdown. We estimate the recoverable heat in the reservoir to be about 1.71 × 10 11 MJ.

  6. Magnetotelluric-Geochemistry Investigations of Blawan Geothermal Field, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukir Maryanto


    Full Text Available An integrated magnetotelluric (MT and geochemical study of the Blawan geothermal field has been performed. The character of the hot springs, the reservoir temperature, and geothermal reserve potential of Blawan geothermal field are assessed. MT measurements, with 250 m up to 1200 m spacings, were made at 19 sites, and 6 locations at the Blawan hot springs have been sampled for geochemical survey. The results of 2D modelling indicated that the geothermal system in the research area consisted of a cap rock zone (≤32 Ω•m, reservoir zone (>32 – ≤512 Ω•m, and heat source zone (>512 Ω•m, and also identified faults. The characteristics of the hot spring water were identified through analyzing the major and minor elements. A ternary diagram (Cl-SO4-HCO3 showed that the Blawan hot springs consist of bicarbonate water (at locations of AP-01, AP-02, AP-03 and chloride water (at locations of AP-04, AP-05, and AP-06, with a reservoir temperature of approximately 90 °C based on the Na–K–Ca geothermometer results. An estimate of the geothermal energy using the volumetric method, gave a total geothermal reserve potential of 1.823 MWe.

  7. Fe-isotope fractionation in magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits: A case study from the Renison Sn-W deposit, Tasmania (United States)

    Wawryk, Christine M.; Foden, John D.


    We present 50 new iron isotopic analyses of source granite and mineral separates from the Renison tin deposit in western Tasmania. The aim of the study is to characterise the composition of minerals within a tin deposit associated with a reduced, S-type magma. We have analysed bulk samples of granite, and separates of pyrrhotite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, magnetite, chalcopyrite and siderite by multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The isotopic compositions of mineral separates are consistent with theoretical predictions of equilibrium fractionation based on Mössbauer spectroscopy and other parametric calculations. Mineral-mineral pairs yield temperatures of formation that are in agreement with prior detailed fluid inclusion studies, but are spatially inconsistent with declining fluid temperatures with distance from the causative intrusion, limiting the use of Fe isotopes as a potential geothermometer, at least in this case. Comparison of our data with published data from other deposits clearly demonstrates that pyrite, magnetite and chalcopyrite from the hottest ore fluids (>300-400 °C) at Renison are isotopically heavier than minerals sampled from a deposit formed at similar temperatures, but associated with a more oxidised and less differentiated intrusion.

  8. Assembling of a low energy ion beam analysis facility and use of Nuclear Microprobe techniques in geological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utui, R


    In this work, both PIXE and ion beam induced luminescence, or just Ionoluminescence (IL) were used for geochemical studies. The possibility of rapid absolute quantification of elements in the ppm level by PIXE combined with the yet higher sensitivity of IL to transition metals and Rare Earth Elements (REE) activators, in the absence of quenching phenomena, allow for a synergic use of the two methods in geological applications with enhanced sensitivity. IL and PIXE were combined for studying REE distribution in apatite minerals and ion beam induced damage in inorganic material in general with emphasis to synthetically grown zircon crystals doped with REE. Due to the sensitivity of IL to changes in chemical bonding in the material, beam damage effects can be studied even at low integrated doses, through wavelength shift or fading of the induced light. Micro PIXE technique was used for studying profile concentrations of trace elements in pyrite grains and of elements used as geothermometers. Geothermometry allowed to assess the cooling rates in iron meteorites and the mineralization conditions in metamorphic rocks, attempting to describe the tectonic history of the terranes, with application in petrologic studies and geological prospecting. 148 refs.

  9. Results of investigation at the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Resultados de las investigaciones en el campo geotermico de Miravalles, Costa Rica; Parte 2, Muestreo de fluidos pozo abajo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.A.; Dennis, B.; Kolar, J.; Corrales, R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose (Costa Rica))


    Samples of the geothermal fluids in the Miravalles, Costa Rica, geothermal system were collected from production wellbores using downhole fluid samplers, from flowing wellheads using miniseparators, and from hot springs that discharge in the area. The reservoir fluid at Miravalles is a neutral-chloride-type water, but fumaroles and acid-sulfate springs are present within the main thermal area, and there are bicarbonate-rich hot springs that are clearly related to the neutral-chloride reservoir fluids. Dissolved gases are primarily a mixture of CO{sub 2} with air, but samples collected in the fumarolic areas also contain H{sub 2}S. Water-stable isotope analyses suggest local meteoric recharge, and the reservoir fluid shows oxygen isotopic shifts of about 2.5% due to high-temperature oxygen exchange between water and rock. Chemical geothermometer temperatures are consistent with the measured downhole temperature of 220{degrees} to 255{degrees}C. This pattern of neutral-chloride reservoir fluids with acid-sulfate springs near the source region and bicarbonate-rich chloride hot springs at the periphery of the system suggests a lateral outflow type of hydrothermal system. In addition to the geochemical evidence, temperature profiles from several of the wells show temperature reversals that are characteristic of lateral outflow plumes. We find no evidence for the underlying, higher temperature (300{degrees}C) system, which has been suggested by other investigators. 24 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Salt effects on isotope partitioning and their geochemical implications: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, J.; Cole, D.R.; Fortier, S.M.


    Essential to the use of stable isotopes as natural tracers and geothermometers is the knowledge of equilibrium isotope partitioning between different phases and species, which is usually a function of temperature only. The one exception known to date is oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation between liquid water and other phases (steam, gases, minerals), which changes upon the addition of salts to water, i.e., the isotope salt salt effect. Our knowledge of this effect, the difference between activity and composition (a-X) of isotopic water molecules in salt solutions, is very limited and controversial, especially at elevated temperatures. For the last several years, we have been conducting a detailed, systematic experimental study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the isotope salt effects from room temperature to elevated temperatures (currently to 500 degree C). From this effort, a simple, coherent picture of the isotope salt effect is emerging, that differs markedly from the complex results reported in the literature. In this communication, we present an overview on the isotope salt effect, obtained chiefly from our study. Observed isotope salt effects in salt solutions are significant even at elevated temperatures. The importance and implications of the isotope salt effect for isotopic studies of brine-dominated systems are also discussed in general terms

  11. Assessment of the origin and geothermal potential of the thermal waters by hydro-isotope geochemistry: Eskisehir province, Turkey. (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Italiano, Francesco; Yasin, Didem; Taskiran, Lutfi; Gulbay, Ahmet Hilmi


    The thermal fluids vented over Eskisehir province have been investigated for their origin and to estimate the geothermal potential of the area. Thermal waters as well as bubbling and dissolved gases were collected and analysed for their chemical and isotopic features. Their isotopic composition varies in the range from -11.5 to -7.7 ‰ for δ 18 O, -84 and -57 ‰ for δ 2 H, and 0-7.2 TU for tritium. The gases (bubbling and dissolved) are mostly N 2 -dominated with a significant amount of CO 2 . The helium isotopic ratios are in the range of 0.2-0.66 R/Rac, indicate remarkable mantle-He contribution ranging between 2 and 10 % in the whole study area. Considering the estimated geothermal gradient about three times higher than the normal gradient, and the reservoir temperatures estimated to be between 50 and 100 °C using quartz and chalcedony geothermometers, a circulation model was built where possible mixing with shallow waters cool down the uprising geothermal fluids.

  12. Water information bulletin No. 30 geothermal investigations in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.C.; Johnson, L.L.; Anderson, J.E.; Spencer, S.G.; Sullivan, J.F.


    There are 899 thermal water occurrences known in Idaho, including 258 springs and 641 wells having temperatures ranging from 20 to 93/sup 0/C. Fifty-one cities or towns in Idaho containing 30% of the state's population are within 5 km of known geothermal springs or wells. These include several of Idaho's major cities such as Lewiston, Caldwell, Nampa, Boise, Twin Falls, Pocatello, and Idaho Falls. Fourteen sites appear to have subsurface temperatures of 140/sup 0/C or higher according to the several chemical geothermometers applied to thermal water discharges. These include Weiser, Big Creek, White Licks, Vulcan, Roystone, Bonneville, Crane Creek, Cove Creek, Indian Creek, and Deer Creek hot springs, and Raft River, Preston, and Magic Reservoir areas. These sites could be industrial sites, but several are in remote areas away from major transportation and, therefore, would probably be best utilized for electrical power generation using the binary cycle or Magma Max process. Present uses range from space heating to power generation. Six areas are known where commercial greenhouse operations are conducted for growing cut and potted flowers and vegetables. Space heating is substantial in only two places (Boise and Ketchum) although numerous individuals scattered throughout the state make use of thermal water for space heating and private swimming facilities. There are 22 operating resorts using thermal water and two commercial warm-water fish-rearing operations.

  13. Multireaction equilibrium geothermometry: A sensitivity analysis using data from the Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA (United States)

    King, Jonathan M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine


    A multireaction chemical equilibria geothermometry (MEG) model applicable to high-temperature geothermal systems has been developed over the past three decades. Given sufficient data, this model provides more constraint on calculated reservoir temperatures than classical chemical geothermometers that are based on either the concentration of silica (SiO2), or the ratios of cation concentrations. A set of 23 chemical analyses from Ojo Caliente Spring and 22 analyses from other thermal features in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park are used to examine the sensitivity of calculated reservoir temperatures using the GeoT MEG code (Spycher et al. 2013, 2014) to quantify the effects of solute concentrations, degassing, and mineral assemblages on calculated reservoir temperatures. Results of our analysis demonstrate that the MEG model can resolve reservoir temperatures within approximately ±15°C, and that natural variation in fluid compositions represents a greater source of variance in calculated reservoir temperatures than variations caused by analytical uncertainty (assuming ~5% for major elements). The analysis also suggests that MEG calculations are particularly sensitive to variations in silica concentration, the concentrations of the redox species Fe(II) and H2S, and that the parameters defining steam separation and CO2 degassing from the liquid may be adequately determined by numerical optimization. Results from this study can provide guidance for future applications of MEG models, and thus provide more reliable information on geothermal energy resources during exploration.

  14. A thermodynamic model of the hydrolysis of microcline in acid sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedolph, R.E.; Parry, W.T.


    A theoretical model of the hydrolysis of microcline by a hydrothermal solution has been determined for a closed system at constant temperature. Hypothetical solution compositions and temperatures were chosen to match the known geothermal system at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah. The calculated reaction paths indicate that the overall reaction process is an exchange of potassium from the reactant mineral, microcline, for hydrogen from the solution. Aluminum is nearly conserved among solid phases. The amount of microcline reacted per kilogram of solution before overall equilibrium is reached is a function of temperature and initial solution pH. Since the system is closed and at constant temperature natural conditions are not reproduced well enough to apply the model as a geothermometer. The reaction paths suggest qualitative models of alteration mineral zoning patterns that are similar to zoning at Roosevelt Hot Springs, utah; Steamboat Springs, Nevada, and Butte, Montana. The models presented view alteration zoning as a function of temperature and pH gradients within homogeneous host rocks where microcline and quartz are abundant.

  15. Near-infrared laboratory spectroscopy of mineral chemistry: A review (United States)

    Meer, Freek van der


    Spectroscopy is the science concerned with the investigation and measurement of spectra produced when materials interacts with or emits electromagnetic radiation. Commercial infrared spectrometer were designed from the 1950's onward and found their way into the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In the 1970's and 1980's also natural sciences notably mineralogy and vegetation science started systematically to measure optical properties of leaves and minerals/rocks with spectrometers. In the last decade spectroscopy has made the step from qualitative observations of mineral classes, soil type and vegetation biomass to quantitative estimates of mineral, soil and vegetation chemistry. This resulted in geothermometers used to characterize metamorphic and hydrothermal systems and to the advent of foliar biochemistry. More research is still needed to bridge the gap between laboratory spectroscopy and field spectroscopy. Empirical studies of minerals either as soil or rock constituents (and vegetation parameters) derived from regression analysis of spectra against chemistry is important in understanding the physics of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation and matter which in turn is important in the design of future satellite missions. Physics based models and retrievals are needed to operationalize these relationships and implement them in future earth observation missions as these are more robust and easy to transfer to other areas and data sets.

  16. Assembling of a low energy ion beam analysis facility and use of Nuclear Microprobe techniques in geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utui, R.


    In this work, both PIXE and ion beam induced luminescence, or just Ionoluminescence (IL) were used for geochemical studies. The possibility of rapid absolute quantification of elements in the ppm level by PIXE combined with the yet higher sensitivity of IL to transition metals and Rare Earth Elements (REE) activators, in the absence of quenching phenomena, allow for a synergic use of the two methods in geological applications with enhanced sensitivity. IL and PIXE were combined for studying REE distribution in apatite minerals and ion beam induced damage in inorganic material in general with emphasis to synthetically grown zircon crystals doped with REE. Due to the sensitivity of IL to changes in chemical bonding in the material, beam damage effects can be studied even at low integrated doses, through wavelength shift or fading of the induced light. Micro PIXE technique was used for studying profile concentrations of trace elements in pyrite grains and of elements used as geothermometers. Geothermometry allowed to assess the cooling rates in iron meteorites and the mineralization conditions in metamorphic rocks, attempting to describe the tectonic history of the terranes, with application in petrologic studies and geological prospecting. 148 refs

  17. New geochemical investigations in Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites (Honduras) (United States)

    Barberi, Franco; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Cioni, Roberto; Lelli, Matteo; Menichini, Matia; Ranaldi, Massimo; Ricci, Tullio; Tarchini, Luca


    Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites of Honduras are located in an inner part of the Caribbean Plate far from the active volcanic front of Central America. Here geology indicates that there are not the conditions for the occurrence of shallow magmatic heat sources for high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Geothermal perspectives are related to the possibility of a deep circulation of meteoric water along faults and the storage of the heated fluid in fractured permeable reservoirs. Geochemical geothermometers indicate a temperature for the deeper part of the geothermal reservoir close to 200 °C for Platanares and of 150-170 °C for Azacualpa. Calcite scaling, with subordinate silica deposition has to be expected in both sites. CO2 soil flux investigations have been carried out in both areas and reveal the presence of positive anomalies likely corresponding to the presence at depth of fractured degassing geothermal reservoirs. Compared with the geothermal areas of Central Italy whose reservoirs are hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g. Latera (Chiodini et al., 2007), the CO2 soil flux measured in Honduras is significantly lower (mean of 17 g/m2day at Platanares and of 163 g/m2day at Azacualpa) probably because of the dominant silicate nature of the deep reservoirs.

  18. Geochemistry of hot springs in the Ie Seu’um hydrothermal areas at Aceh Besar district, Indonesia (United States)

    Idroes, R.; Yusuf, M.; Alatas, M.; Subhan; Lala, A.; Saiful; Suhendra, R.; Idroes, G. M.; Marwan


    Indonesia geothermal resources are the largest in the world, about 40 percent of the total geothermal resources worldwide with a potential energy of 28,617 MW. Geothermal energy is one of the renewable energy in the world that can be developed sustainably. This kind of energy is not only environmentally friendly but also highly prospective compared to fossil energy. One of the potential geothermal energy in Indonesia is Seulawah Agam geothermal field with some manifestation areas. The fluid type of Ie Seu’um manifestation was chloride (Cl-) obtained from the ternary diagram Cl--SO4 2--HCO3 -, using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, argentometry and acidimetry method. The reservoir range temperature was 188,7 ± 9,3°C calculated using geothermometer Na-K-Ca, Na-K Fournier and Na-K Giggenbach by applying Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. This data processing was carried out using liquid chemistry plotting spreadsheet version 3 powell geoscience Ltd.3 September 2012 by Powell & Cumming. The potential in the geothermal manifestation of Ie Seu’um was estimated about 50-100 MW (medium enthalpy).

  19. Subsurface temperatures and surface heat flow in the Michigan Basin and their relationships to regional subsurface fluid movement (United States)

    Vugrinovich, R.


    Linear regression of 405 bottomhole temperature (BHT) measurements vs. associated depths from Michigan's Lower Peninsula results in the following equation relating BHT and depth: BHT(??C) = 14.5 + 0.0192 ?? depth(m) Temperature residuals, defined as (BHT measured)-(BHT calculated), were determined for each of the 405 BHT's. Areas of positive temperature residuals correspond to areas of regional groundwater discharge (determined from maps of equipotential surface) while areas of negative temperature residuals correspond to areas of regional groundwater recharge. These relationships are observed in the principal aquifers in rocks of Devonian and Ordovician age and in a portion of the principal aquifer in rocks of Silurian age. There is a similar correspondence between high surface heat flow (determined using the silica geothermometer) and regional groundwater discharge areas and low surface heat flow and regional groundwater recharge areas. Post-Jurassic depositional and tectonic histories suggest that the observed coupling of subsurface temperature and groundwater flow systems may have persisted since Jurassic time. Thus the higher subsurface palaeotemperatures (and palaeogeothermal gradients) indicated by recent studies most likely pre-date the Jurassic. ?? 1989.

  20. Fluid Inclusion and Oxygen Isotope Constraints on the Origin and Hydrothermal Evolution of the Haisugou Porphyry Mo Deposit in the Northern Xilamulun District, NE China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihai Shu


    Full Text Available The Haisugou porphyry Mo deposit is located in the northern Xilamulun district, northeastern China. Based on alteration and mineralization styles and crosscutting relationships, the hydrothermal evolution in Haisugou can be divided into three stages: an early potassic alteration stage with no significant metal deposition, a synmineralization sericite-chlorite alteration stage with extensive Mo precipitation, and a postmineralization stage characterized by barren quartz and minor calcite and fluorite. The coexistence of high-salinity brine inclusions with low-salinity inclusions both in potassic alteration stage (~440°C and locally in the early time of mineralization stage (380–320°C indicates the occurrence of fluid boiling. The positive correlations between the homogenization temperatures and the salinities of the fluids and the low oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18Ofluid < 3‰ of the syn- to postmineralization quartz together suggest the mixing of magmatic fluids with meteoric water, which dominated the whole mineralization process. The early boiling fluids were not responsible for ore precipitation, whereas the mixing with meteoric water, which resulted in temperature decrease and dilution that significantly reduced the metal solubility, should have played the major role in Mo mineralization. Combined fluid inclusion microthermometry and chlorite geothermometer results reveal that ore deposition mainly occurred between 350 and 290°C in Haisugou.

  1. Temperature Range for Metasomatism at the Bakalskoe Siderite Deposits with Use of Geochemical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Krupenin


    Full Text Available The data obtained with the quantitative microprobe ankerite–siderite composition analysis of seven samples from the different parts of Bakalskoe field showed that the wallrock ankerites in the western and central parts of the ore field differ in average concentrations of FeCO 3 (respectively 14.21 and 20.84 wt.%. However, there is no significant difference in composition of siderites. The calculation of the Mg-Fe metasomatism temperatures based on ankerite-siderite and ankerite-breinerite geothermometers showed the close agreement of the values of both methods at temperatures of 250 °C and above. The average temperatures of siderite metasomatism in the central part of the Bakalskoe ore field are in range 250-270 ° C, and, in the peripheral part, the determined temperature does not exceed 190-220 ° C. These values do not depend on the position of the siderite deposits in stratigraphic level of the Bakalskaya Suite.

  2. Fluid-aided incorporation of Y into almandine-pyrope garnet via coupled dissolution-reprecipitation (United States)

    Harlov, D. E.


    In nature almandine-pyrope garnet is a well-known host for a variety of trace elements including (Y+HREE), Sr, HFSE, as well as LREE such as Sm and Nd; all of which have important roles with regard to various geological processes (Kohn, 2009, GCA, 73, 170). For example, Y exchange between xenotime and garnet has been empirically calibrated as a geothermometer (Pyle and Spear, 2000, CMP, 138, 51). Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf dating, using garnet, is a well-known geochronometer (Thöni et al., 2008, Chem Geol, 254, 216). In general, REE + HFSE + Sr have been used to chart garnet growth and subsequently the evolution of the host rock (Konrad-Schmolke et al., 2008, EPSL, 272, 488). Incorporation of Y into garnet is probably the most widely studied trace element. These studies range from stress-induced redistribution of Y in garnet (Røhr et al, 2007, Am Mineral, 92, 1276) to Y zoning during garnet growth (Zeh, 2005, J Petrol, 47, 2335). While the incorporation of Y into garnet has generally been thought to occur either via diffusion or during garnet growth, more recent workers have suggested that incorporation of Y could also be fluid-aided. Fluid-aided incorporation of Y into garnet has been tested in the piston-cylinder apparatus (CaF2 assemblies, cylindrical graphite ovens) at 1000 MPa and 900 °C (8 days duration). Here, 10 mg of 50-200 µm size, inclusion-free, gem quality, fragments of the Gore Mountain garnet (Alm40-49, Py37-43, Gr13-16, Sp1) plus 5 mg 2N NaOH and 2 mg Y2O3 were loaded into a 3 mm diameter, 1 cm long, Au capsule that was then arc-welded shut and placed vertically in the CaF2 assembly such that the NiCr thermocouple tip came halfway up along the Au capsule length. Examination of the garnet fragments after the experiment indicates both high Y mobility and the partial alteration of the garnet in the form of a remobilized Y3Al5O12 component enriching those areas of the garnet along the grain rim. The enriched areas take the form of a series of intergrowths with

  3. Water geochemistry to estimate reservoir temperature of Stabio springs, Switzerland (United States)

    Pera, Sebastian; Soma, Linda


    The Mendrisiotto region located in Southern Switzerland and close to the Italian border, is characterized by the presence of a thick sequence of Mesozoic limestones and dolostones above a volcanic rocks from Permian (Bernoulli, 1964). Within the carbonates, fractures and dissolution processes increased limestone permeability and favored the widespread presence of springs. The presence of few localized H2S and CH4 bearing springs is known from historical times in Stabio. Its localization is related to the faulting affecting the area (Balderer et Al., 2007). These waters were classified by Greber et Al. (1997) as Na-(Ca)-(Mg)-HCO3-Cl-(SO4) type with having a total dissolved solid content in the range of 0.8 and 1.2 gl-1. According with Balderer et Al. (2007) the stable isotopic composition deviates from the global meteoric water line (IAEA, 1984) being the values of δ18O and δ2H respectively 0.8 ‰ and 5‰ lower than the normal shallow groundwater of the area. The values of δ13C of TDIC (-1.54‰ 1.44 ) indicate exchange with CO2 of thermo - metamorphic or even Mantle origin. While 14C in TDIC (7.95, 26.0 pMC) and 3H (1.1 ±0.7, 3.1±0.7 TU) indicates uprising of deep water along faults with some mixing. To estimate reservoir temperature, a new sampling was conducted in 2015 for chemical and isotopic analysis. The sampling was carried out from the only source that allows getting water directly from the dolostone in order to avoid mixing. Although some differences are noticed respect to previous studies, the results show a substantial agreement for stable isotopic composition of water, δ13C and 14C of TDIC. Reservoir temperature was calculated by using several geothermometers. The results show a great variability ranging from 60 ˚ C using Silica to more than 500 ˚ C using cationic ( Na - Ca) geothermometers; indicating that besides mixing, exchange processes and chemical reactions along flow path affect results. This study was partially funded by Azienda

  4. Chemical and isotopic investigation of warm springs associated with normal faults in Utah (United States)

    Cole, David R.


    Thermal springs associated with normal faults in Utah have been analyzed for major cations and anions, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. Springs with measured temperatures averaging greater than 40°C are characterized by Na + K- and SO 4 + Cl-rich waters containing 10 3 to 10 4 mg/l of dissolved solids. Lower temperature springs, averaging less than 40°C, are more enriched in Ca + Mg relative to Na + K. Chemical variations monitored through time in selected thermal springs are probably produced by mixing with non-thermal waters. During the summer months at times of maximum flow, selected hot springs exhibit their highest temperatures and maximum enrichments in most chemical constituents. Cation ratios and silica concentrations remain relatively constant through time for selected Utah thermal springs assuring the applicability of the geothermometer calculations regardless of the time of year. Geothermometer calculations utilizing either the quartz (no steam loss), chalcedony or Mg-corrected Na/K/Ca methods indicate that most thermal springs in Utah associated with normal faults have subsurface temperatures in the range of 25 to less than 120°C. This temperature range suggests fluid circulation is restricted to depths less than about three kilometers assuming an average thermal gradient of about 40°C/km. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that most thermal springs are oversaturated with respect to calcite, quartz, pyrophyllite, (Fe, Mg)-montmorillonite, microcline and hematite, and undersaturated with respect to anhydrite, gypsum, fluorite and anorthite. Chalcedony and cristobalite appear to be the only phases consistently at or near saturation in most waters. Theoretical evaluation of mixing on mineral saturation trends indicates that anhydrite and calcite become increasingly more undersaturated as cold, dilute groundwater mixes with a hot (150°C), NaCl-rich fluid. The evolution of these thermal waters issuing from faults appears to be one involving the

  5. Caracterización hidroquímica y análisis de los estados de equilibrio termodinámico en aguas termominerales de Alhama de Murcia (Murcia, Espana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla Benítez, A.


    Full Text Available The principal physico-chemical characteristics of sorne thermomineral waters of Alhama de Murcia detrital aquifer are studied. The waters show a temperature between 26-41 °C and they are calcium-magnesium chloride-sulphate type. The origin of ions has a direct relationship with the dissolution of evaporitic sulphate-chloride salts, carbonatic and silica rocks, agricultural contamination processes and possibly ore-deposits. Mixing processes with cold waters possibly also occur. By SOLMINEQ.88 program the thermodinamic equilibrium conditions in surface are studied; the samples are saturated in quartz, chalcedony and albite. A great part of the waters are also saturated in calcite, aragonite, dolomite, gypsum, barite and magnesite. Finally, the waters are undersaturated in cristobalite, anhydrite and fluorite. Conventional chemical geothermometers yield a broad range of temperatures. Both, calcite-dolomite and anhydrite-fluorite geothermometers was applied to two samples with anomalous results. The saturation index modeling, at a series of growing temperatures, shows an approach equilibrium with quartz, chalcedony, albite, sanidine, gipsum, anhydrite, gibbsite and halloisite between 80-110 °C. A spread in the apparent equilibration temperatures deduced from two metodology, should be a consequence of dilution by surface waters, effects of re-equilibration of minerals with waters and CO2 loss. Temperature and chemical composition of the waters shows a thermal anomaly directly related with the tectonic activity in the area.Se estudian las principales características físico-químicas de algunas aguas termominerales del acuífero detrítico de Alhama de Murcia cuya temperatura está comprendida entre 26 y 41 °C y son de facies clorurada-sulfatada cálcico-magnésica. El origen de los iones encontrados está relacionado con la disolución de materiales evaporíticos, sales sulfatadas y cloruradas, carbonatados y silicatados, procesos de

  6. Estimation and application of the thermodynamic properties of aqueous phenanthrene and isomers of methylphenanthrene at high temperature (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Evans, Katy A.; Holman, Alex I.; Jaraula, Caroline M. B.; Grice, Kliti


    Estimates of standard molal Gibbs energy (ΔGf°) and enthalpy (ΔHf°) of formation, entropy (S°), heat capacity (CP°) and volume (V°) at 25 °C and 1 bar of aqueous phenanthrene (P) and 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 9-methylphenanthrene (1-MP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 9-MP) were made by combining reported standard-state properties of the crystalline compounds, solubilities and enthalpies of phenanthrene and 1-MP, and relative Gibbs energies, enthalpies and entropies of aqueous MP isomers from published quantum chemical simulations. The calculated properties are consistent with greater stabilities of the β isomers (2-MP and 3-MP) relative to the α isomers (1-MP and 9-MP) at 25 °C. However, the metastable equilibrium values of the abundance ratios 2-MP/1-MP (MPR) and (2-MP + 3-MP)/(1-MP + 9-MP) (MPI-3) decrease with temperature, becoming Australia) indicates a likely effect of high-temperature equilibration on reported values of MPR and MPI-3, but this finding is contingent on the location within the deposit. If metastable equilibrium holds, a third aromatic maturity ratio, 1.5 × (2-MP + 3-MP)/(P + 1-MP + 9-MP) (MPI-1), can be used as a proxy for oxidation potential. Values of logaH2aq determined from data reported for HYC and for a sequence of deeply buried source rocks are indicative of more reducing conditions at a given temperature than those inferred from data reported for two sets of samples exposed to contact or regional metamorphism. These results are limiting-case scenarios for the modeled systems that do not account for effects of non-ideal mixing or kinetics, or external sources or transport of the organic matter. Nevertheless, quantifying the temperature dependence of equilibrium constants of organic reactions enables the utilization of organic maturity parameters as relative geothermometers at temperatures higher than the nominal limits of the oil window.

  7. On the Future of Thermochemical Databases, the Development of Solution Models and the Practical Use of Computational Thermodynamics in Volcanology, Geochemistry and Petrology: Can Innovations of Modern Data Science Democratize an Oligarchy? (United States)

    Ghiorso, M. S.


    Computational thermodynamics (CT) has now become an essential tool of petrologic and geochemical research. CT is the basis for the construction of phase diagrams, the application of geothermometers and geobarometers, the equilibrium speciation of solutions, the construction of pseudosections, calculations of mass transfer between minerals, melts and fluids, and, it provides a means of estimating materials properties for the evaluation of constitutive relations in fluid dynamical simulations. The practical application of CT to Earth science problems requires data. Data on the thermochemical properties and the equation of state of relevant materials, and data on the relative stability and partitioning of chemical elements between phases as a function of temperature and pressure. These data must be evaluated and synthesized into a self consistent collection of theoretical models and model parameters that is colloquially known as a thermodynamic database. Quantitative outcomes derived from CT reply on the existence, maintenance and integrity of thermodynamic databases. Unfortunately, the community is reliant on too few such databases, developed by a small number of research groups, and mostly under circumstances where refinement and updates to the database lag behind or are unresponsive to need. Given the increasing level of reliance on CT calculations, what is required is a paradigm shift in the way thermodynamic databases are developed, maintained and disseminated. They must become community resources, with flexible and assessable software interfaces that permit easy modification, while at the same time maintaining theoretical integrity and fidelity to the underlying experimental observations. Advances in computational and data science give us the tools and resources to address this problem, allowing CT results to be obtained at the speed of thought, and permitting geochemical and petrological intuition to play a key role in model development and calibration.

  8. Post-Eocene volcanics of the Abazar district, Qazvin, Iran: Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for a complex magmatic evolution (United States)

    Asiabanha, A.; Bardintzeff, J. M.; Kananian, A.; Rahimi, G.


    The style of volcanism of post-Eocene volcanism in the Alborz zone of northern Iran is different to that of Eocene volcanism (Karaj Formation). Indeed, the volcanic succession of the Abazar district, located in a narrow volcanic strip within the Alborz magmatic assemblage, is characterized by distinct mineralogical and chemical compositions linked to a complex magmatic evolution. The succession was produced by explosive eruptions followed by effusive eruptions. Two main volcanic events are recognized: (1) a thin rhyolitic ignimbritic sheet underlain by a thicker lithic breccia, and (2) lava flows including shoshonite, latite, and andesite that overlie the first event across a reddish soil horizon. Plagioclase in shoshonite (An 48-92) shows normal zoning, whereas plagioclase in latite and andesite (An 48-75) has a similar composition but shows reverse and oscillatory zoning. QUILF temperature calculations for shoshonites and andesites yield temperatures of 1035 °C and 1029 °C, respectively. The geothermometers proposed by Ridolfi et al. (2010) and Holland and Blundy (1994) yield temperatures of 960 °C and 944 °C for latitic lava, respectively. The samples of volcanic rock show a typical geochemical signature of the continental arc regime, but the andesites clearly differ from the shoshonites, the latites and the rhyolites. The mineralogical and chemical characteristics of these rocks are explained by the following petrogenesis: (1) intrusion of a hot, mantle-depth mafic (shoshonitic) magma, which differentiated in the magma chamber to produce a latitic and then a rhyolitic liquid; (2) rhyolitic ignimbritic eruptions from the top of the magma chamber, following by shoshonitic and then latitic extrusions; (3) magma mingling between the latitic and andesitic magmas, as indicated by the occurrence of andesite clasts within the latite; and (4) andesitic effusions. The youngest volcanic events in the Alborz zone show a close chemical relationship with continental arc

  9. The bulk isotopic composition of hydrocarbons in subaerial volcanic-hydrothermal emissions from different tectonic settings (United States)

    Fiebig, J.; Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Viveiros, M. F.; Silva, C.; Lopez, T. M.; D'Alessandro, W.; Stefansson, A.


    Assuming that methane and its higher chain homologues derive from a common source, carbon isotope patterns have been applied as a criterion to identify occurrences of abiogenic hydrocarbons. Based on these, it has been postulated that abiogenic hydrocarbon production occurs within several (ultra)mafic environments. More evolved volcanic-hydrothermal systems may also provide all the prerequisites necessary for abiogenic hydrocarbon production, such as availability of inorganic CO2, hydrogen and heat. We have investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of n-alkanes contained within subaerial hydrothermal discharges emitted from a range of hot spot, subduction and rift-related volcanoes to determine the origin of hydrocarbons in these systems. Amongst these are Nisyros (Greece), Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Pantelleria and Vulcano (all Italy), Mt. Mageik and Trident (USA), Copahue (Argentina), Teide (Spain), Furnas and Fogo (Portugal). The carbon isotopic composition of methane emitted from these sites varies from -65 to -8‰ , whereas δ13C of ethane and propane exhibit a much narrower variation from -17‰ to -31‰. Methane that occurs most enriched in 13C is also characterized by relatively positive δD values ranging up to -80‰. Carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane are only observed for locations exhibiting δ13C-CH4 values > -20‰, such as Teide, Pantelleria, Trident and Furnas. At Furnas, δ13C-CH4 varies by 50‰ within a relatively short distance of <50m between two vents, whereas δ13C-C2H6 varies by less than 2‰ only. For some of the investigated locations apparent carbon isotopic temperatures between methane and CO2 are in agreement with those derived from gas concentration geothermometers. At these locations methane, however seems to be in disequilibrium with ethane and propane. These findings imply that methane on the one hand and the C2+ hydrocarbons on the other hand often might derive from distinct sources.

  10. Reconstruction of limnology and microbialite formation conditions from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry. (United States)

    Petryshyn, V A; Lim, D; Laval, B L; Brady, A; Slater, G; Tripati, A K


    Quantitative tools for deciphering the environment of microbialite formation are relatively limited. For example, the oxygen isotope carbonate-water geothermometer requires assumptions about the isotopic composition of the water of formation. We explored the utility of using 'clumped' isotope thermometry as a tool to study the temperatures of microbialite formation. We studied microbialites recovered from water depths of 10-55 m in Pavilion Lake, and 10-25 m in Kelly Lake, spanning the thermocline in both lakes. We determined the temperature of carbonate growth and the (18)O/(16)O ratio of the waters that microbialites grew in. Results were then compared to current limnological data from the lakes to reconstruct the history of microbialite formation. Modern microbialites collected at shallow depths (11.7 m) in both lakes yield clumped isotope-based temperatures of formation that are within error of summer water temperatures, suggesting that clumped isotope analyses may be used to reconstruct past climates and to probe the environments in which microbialites formed. The deepest microbialites (21.7-55 m) were recovered from below the present-day thermoclines in both lakes and yield radioisotope ages indicating they primarily formed earlier in the Holocene. During this time, pollen data and our reconstructed water (18)O/(16)O ratios indicate a period of aridity, with lower lake levels. At present, there is a close association between both photosynthetic and heterotrophic communities, and carbonate precipitation/microbialite formation, with biosignatures of photosynthetic influences on carbonate detected in microbialites from the photic zone and above the thermocline (i.e., depths of generally <20 m). Given the deeper microbialites are receiving <1% of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), it is likely these microbialites primarily formed when lower lake levels resulted in microbialites being located higher in the photic zone, in warm surface waters. © 2014 John

  11. Implications of ground water chemistry and flow patterns for earthquake studies. (United States)

    Guangcai, Wang; Zuochen, Zhang; Min, Wang; Cravotta, Charles A; Chenglong, Liu


    Ground water can facilitate earthquake development and respond physically and chemically to tectonism. Thus, an understanding of ground water circulation in seismically active regions is important for earthquake prediction. To investigate the roles of ground water in the development and prediction of earthquakes, geological and hydrogeological monitoring was conducted in a seismogenic area in the Yanhuai Basin, China. This study used isotopic and hydrogeochemical methods to characterize ground water samples from six hot springs and two cold springs. The hydrochemical data and associated geological and geophysical data were used to identify possible relations between ground water circulation and seismically active structural features. The data for delta18O, deltaD, tritium, and 14C indicate ground water from hot springs is of meteoric origin with subsurface residence times of 50 to 30,320 years. The reservoir temperature and circulation depths of the hot ground water are 57 degrees C to 160 degrees C and 1600 to 5000 m, respectively, as estimated by quartz and chalcedony geothermometers and the geothermal gradient. Various possible origins of noble gases dissolved in the ground water also were evaluated, indicating mantle and deep crust sources consistent with tectonically active segments. A hard intercalated stratum, where small to moderate earthquakes frequently originate, is present between a deep (10 to 20 km), high-electrical conductivity layer and the zone of active ground water circulation. The ground water anomalies are closely related to the structural peculiarity of each monitoring point. These results could have implications for ground water and seismic studies in other seismogenic areas.

  12. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Geothermal Fluids in the Chabu High-Temperature Geothermal System, Southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang


    Full Text Available This study defines reasonable reservoir temperatures and cooling processes of subsurface geothermal fluids in the Chabu high-temperature geothermal system. This system lies in the south-central part of the Shenzha-Xietongmen hydrothermal active belt and develops an extensive sinter platform with various and intense hydrothermal manifestations. All the geothermal spring samples collected systematically from the sinter platform are divided into three groups by cluster analysis of major elements. Samples of group 1 and group 3 are distributed in the central part and northern periphery of the sinter platform, respectively, while samples of group 2 are scattered in the transitional zone between groups 1 and 3. The hydrochemical characteristics show that the geothermal waters of the research area have generally mixed with shallow cooler waters in reservoirs. The reasonable reservoir temperatures and the mixing processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids could be speculated by combining the hydrochemical characteristics of geothermal springs, calculated results of the chemical geothermometers, and silica-enthalpy mixing models. Contour maps are applied to measured emerging temperatures, mass flow rates, total dissolved solids of spring samples, and reasonable subsurface temperatures. They indicate that the major cooling processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids gradually transform from adiabatic boiling to conduction from the central part to the peripheral belt. The geothermal reservoir temperatures also show an increasing trend. The point with the highest reservoir temperature (256°C appears in the east-central part of the research area, which might be the main up-flow zone. The cooling processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids in the research area can be shown on an enthalpy-chloride plot. The deep parent fluid for the Chabu geothermal field has a Cl− concentration of 290 mg/L and an enthalpy of 1550 J/g (with a water temperature of

  13. Hydrogeochemistry and geothermometry of deep thermal water in the carbonate formation in the main urban area of Chongqing, China (United States)

    Yang, Pingheng; Cheng, Qun; Xie, Shiyou; Wang, Jianli; Chang, Longran; Yu, Qin; Zhan, Zhaojun; Chen, Feng


    Many geothermal reservoirs in Chongqing in southwestern China are located in carbonate rock aquifers and exploited through drilling. Water samples from 36 geothermal wells have been collected in the main urban area of Chongqing. Chemical types of the thermal water samples are Ca·Mg-SO4 and Ca-SO4. High contents of Ca2+ and SO42- in the thermal water samples are derived from the dissolution of evaporates. Furthermore, the HCO3- concentration is constrained by the common ion effect. Drilling depth has no effect on the physical and chemical characteristics according to the results of a t-test. The geothermal reservoir's temperature can be estimated to be 64.8-93.4 °C (average 82 °C) using quartz and improved SiO2 geothermometers. Values of δD and δ18O for the thermal water samples indicate that the thermal water resources originate from local precipitation with a recharge elevation between 838 and 1130 m and an annual air temperature between 10.4 and 13.9 °C. A conceptual model of regional scale groundwater flow for the thermal water is proposed. The thermal water mainly originates from the meteoric water recharged in the elevated areas of northeastern Tongluoshan and Huayingshan by means of percolation through exposed carbonate before becoming groundwater. The groundwater is heated at depth and moves southwest along the fault and the anticlinal core in a gravity-driven regime. The thermal water is exposed in the form of artesian hot springs in river cutting and low-elevation areas or in wells.

  14. Raman spectra of carbonaceous materials in a fault zone in the Longmenshan thrust belt, China; comparisons with those of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks (United States)

    Kouketsu, Yui; Shimizu, Ichiko; Wang, Yu; Yao, Lu; Ma, Shengli; Shimamoto, Toshihiko


    We analyzed micro-Raman spectra of carbonaceous materials (CM) in natural and experimentally deformed fault rocks from Longmenshan fault zone that caused the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, to characterize degree of disordering of CM in a fault zone. Raman spectral parameters for 12 samples from a fault zone in Shenxigou, Sichuan, China, all show low-grade structures with no graphite. Low crystallinity and δ13C values (-24‰ to -25‰) suggest that CM in fault zone originated from host rocks (Late Triassic Xujiahe Formation). Full width at half maximum values of main spectral bands (D1 and D2), and relative intensities of two subbands (D3 and D4) of CM were variable with sample locations. However, Raman parameters of measured fault rocks fall on established trends of graphitization in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. An empirical geothermometer gives temperatures of 160-230 °C for fault rocks in Shenxigou, and these temperatures were lower for highly sheared gouge than those for less deformed fault breccia at inner parts of the fault zone. The lower temperature and less crystallinity of CM in gouge might have been caused by the mechanical destruction of CM by severe shearing deformation, or may be due to mixing of host rocks on the footwall. CM in gouge deformed in high-velocity experiments exhibits slight changes towards graphitization characterized by reduction of D3 and D4 intensities. Thus low crystallinity of CM in natural gouge cannot be explained by our experimental results. Graphite formation during seismic fault motion is extremely local or did not occur in the study area, and the CM crystallinity from shallow to deep fault zones may be predicted as a first approximation from the graphitization trend in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. If that case, graphite may lower the friction of shear zones at temperatures above 300 °C, deeper than the lower part of seismogenic zone.

  15. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Cache Valley, Utah. Report of investigation No. 174

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, J.L.


    Field work consisted of locating 90 wells and springs throughout the study area, collecting water samples for later laboratory analyses, and field measurement of pH, temperature, bicarbonate alkalinity, and electrical conductivity. Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Ca/sup +2/, Mg/sup +2/, SiO/sub 2/, Fe, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, Cl/sup -/, F/sup -/, and total dissolved solids were determined in the laboratory. Temperature profiles were measured in 12 additional, unused walls. Thermal gradients calculated from the profiles were approximately the same as the average for the Basin and Range province, about 35/sup 0/C/km. One well produced a gradient of 297/sup 0/C/km, most probably as a result of a near-surface occurrence of warm water. Possible warm water reservoir temperatures were calculated using both the silica and the Na-K-Ca geothermometers, with the results averaging about 50 to 100/sup 0/C. If mixing calculations were applied, taking into account the temperatures and silica contents of both warm springs or wells and the cold groundwater, reservoir temperatures up to about 200/sup 0/C were indicated. Considering measured surface water temperatures, calculated reservoir temperatures, thermal gradients, and the local geology, most of the Cache Valley, Utah area is unsuited for geothermal development. However, the areas of North Logan, Benson, and Trenton were found to have anomalously warm groundwater in comparison to the background temperature of 13.0/sup 0/C for the study area. The warm water has potential for isolated energy development but is not warm enough for major commercial development.

  16. Change in color of the hot spring deposits at the Chinoike-Jigoku hot pool, Beppu geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazuthoshi, Oue; Ohsawa, Shinji; Yusa, Yuki [Kyoto University, Beppu (Japan). Beppu Geothermal Research Laboratory, Graduate School of Science


    The Chinoike-Jigoku hot pool in Beppu geothermal field, Central Kyushu, Japan, displays a blood-red color due to the hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) deposited at the bottom of the pool. The colors of the deposits collected on 1 October 1990, on 27 March 1995, and on 6 March 1996 were measured with a colorimeter. The results show that the red deposits became yellower in 1995 and 1996 than they were in 1990. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and chemical compositions of the deposits indicate that the discoloration of the Chinoike-Jigoku pool water is caused by an increase in the content of jarosite [KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]. The temperature of the subsurface thermal water beneath the Chinoike-Jigoku hot pool, as estimated by the anhydrite chemical geothermometer, has declined from 200 to 150{sup o}C over the past 25 years. The Na and Cl concentrations of the hot spring water discharging from Chinoike-Jigoku have decreased, while the SO{sub 4} concentration has increased. The temporal variations in subsurface temperature and dissolved ion concentrations suggest that the mixing ratio between the high-temperature, neutral Na-Cl type water and the relatively low-temperature, acid H-SO{sub 4} type water that form the thermal water of Chinoike-Jigoku has changed over the last 25 years. Hydrothermal studies of jarosite stability have confirmed that the increase in jarosite content in the deposits was caused by a temperature drop of the mixed thermal water beneath Chinoike-Jigoku pool, due to an increase in the contribution of the cooler H-SO{sub 4} water type to the thermal mixture. (author)

  17. Update on Production Chemistry of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Stuart; Kirby, Stefan; Allis, Rick; Moore, Joe; Fischer, Tobias


    Analyses of production fluids from the Roosevelt Hot Springs reservoir were acquired from well sampling campaigns in 2015 and 2016. The resulting data have been recalculated to reservoir conditions by correcting for effects of steam loss, and the values are compared to legacy data from earlier reports to quantify changes with time in response to fluid production. The reservoir composition is similar to that at the start of reservoir exploitation, having near neutral pH, total dissolved solids of 7000-10,000 mg/kg, and ionic ratios of Cl/HCO3 ~50-100, Cl/SO4 ~50-100, and Na/K ~4-5. Cation, gas and silica geothermometers indicate a range of equilibration temperatures between 240 and 300 °C, but quartz-silica values are most closely consistent with measured reservoir temperatures and well enthalpies. The largest change in fluid composition is observed in well 54-3. The fluid has evolved from being fed by a single phase liquid to a twophase mixture of steam and liquid due to pressure draw down. The fluid also shows a 25% increase in reservoir chloride and a ~20° C decrement of cooling related to mixing with injected brine. The other production wells also show increase in chloride and decrease in temperature, but these changes diminish in magnitude with distance from injection well 14-2. Stable isotope compositions indicate that the reservoir water is largely meteoric in origin, having been modified by hydrothermal waterrock interaction. The water has also become progressively enriched in isotopic values in response to steam loss and mixing of injectate. N2-Ar-He and helium isotope ratios indicate a deep magmatic source region that probably supplies the heat for the hydrothermal system, consistent with recent Quaternary volcanism in the Mineral Mountains.

  18. Physical characteristics and quality of water from selected springs and wells in the Lincoln Point-Bird Island area, Utah Lake, Utah (United States)

    Baskin, R.L.; Spangler, L.E.; Holmes, W.F.


    From February 1991 to October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Utah Water Conservancy District, investigated the hydrology of the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area in the southeast part of Utah Lake, Utah. The investigation included measurements of the discharge of selected springs and measurements of the physical and chemical characteristics of water from selected springs and wells in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area. This report contains data for twenty-one distinct springs in the study area including two springs beneath the surface of Utah Lake at Bird Island. Data from this study, combined with data from previous studies, indicate that the location of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area probably is controlled by fractures that are the result of faulting. Measured discharge of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to 0.84 cubic foot per second. Total discharge in the study area, including known unmeasured springs and seeps, is estimated to be about 5 cubic feet per second. Reported and measured temperatures of water from springs and wells in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from 16.0 degrees Celsius to 36.5 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-solids con-centrations ranged from 444 milligrams per liter to 7,932 milligrams per liter, and pH ranged from 6.3 to 8.1. Physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water from the west side of Lincoln Point were virtually identical to the physical and chemical characteristics of water from the submerged Bird Island springs, indicating a similar source for the water. Water chemistry, isotope analyses, and geothermometer calculations indicate deep circulation of water discharging from the springs and indicate that the source of recharge for the springs at Lincoln Point and Bird Island does not appear to be localized in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area.

  19. Variations of geothermometry and chemical-isotopic compositions of hot spring fluids in the Rehai geothermal field, southwestern China (United States)

    Du, Jianguo; Liu, Congqiang; Fu, Bihong; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Zhang, Youlian; Wang, Chuanyuan; Wang, Hualiu; Sun, Zigang


    Geothermal variations, origins of carbon-bearing components and reservoir temperatures in the Rehai geothermal field (RGF) of Tengchong volcanic area, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, are discussed on the basis of carbon isotope compositions, combined with helium isotope ratios and geothermal data from 1973 to 2000. δ 13C values of CO 2, CH 4, HCO 3-, CO 3= and travertine in the hot springs range from -7.6‰ to -1.18‰, -56.9‰ to -19.48‰, -6.7‰ to -4.2‰, -6.4‰ to -4.2‰ and -27.1‰ to +0.6‰, respectively. The carbon dioxide probably has a mantle/magma origin, but CH 4 and He have multiple origins. HCO 3- and CO 3= in RGF thermal fluids are predominantly derived from igneous carbon dioxide, but other ions originate from rocks through which the fluids circulate. The 13C values of CO 2, HCO 3- (aq) and CO 3= (aq) illustrate that isotopic equilibriums between CO 2 and HCO 3- (aq), and CO 3= (aq) and between DIC and travertine were not achieved, and no carbon isotope fractionation between HCO 3- (aq) and CO 3= (aq) of the hot springs in RGF was found. Using various geothermometers, temperatures of the geothermal reservoirs are estimated in a wide range from 69 °C to 450 °C that fluctuated from time to time. The best estimate of subsurface reservoir temperature may be 250-300 °C. Contributions of mantle fluids and shallow crust fluids in Rehai geothermal field varied with time, which resulted in variations of chemical and isotopic compositions and reservoir temperatures.

  20. Geochemical and isotopic evidence on the recharge and circulation of geothermal water in the Tangshan Geothermal System near Nanjing, China: implications for sustainable development (United States)

    Lu, Lianghua; Pang, Zhonghe; Kong, Yanlong; Guo, Qi; Wang, Yingchun; Xu, Chenghua; Gu, Wen; Zhou, Lingling; Yu, Dandan


    Geothermal resources are practical and competitive clean-energy alternatives to fossil fuels, and study on the recharge sources of geothermal water supports its sustainable exploitation. In order to provide evidence on the recharge source of water and circulation dynamics of the Tangshan Geothermal System (TGS) near Nanjing (China), a comprehensive investigation was carried out using multiple chemical and isotopic tracers (δ2H, δ18O, δ34S, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, 14C and 3H). The results confirm that a local (rather than regional) recharge source feeds the system from the exposed Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks area on the upper part of Tangshan Mountain. The reservoir temperature up to 87 °C, obtained using empirical as well as theoretical chemical geothermometers, requires a groundwater circulation depth of around 2.5 km. The temperature of the geothermal water is lowered during upwelling as a consequence of mixing with shallow cold water up to a 63% dilution. The corrected 14C age shows that the geothermal water travels at a very slow pace (millennial scale) and has a low circulation rate, allowing sufficient time for the water to become heated in the system. This study has provided key information on the genesis of TGS and the results are instructive to the effective management of the geothermal resources. Further confirmation and even prediction associated with the sustainability of the system could be achieved through continuous monitoring and modeling of the responses of the karstic geothermal reservoir to hot-water mining.

  1. Geochemical features of the geothermal fluids from the Mapamyum non-volcanic geothermal system (Western Tibet, China) (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Xiaohong; Shen, Licheng; Wu, Kunyu; Huang, Mingzhi; Xiao, Qiong


    Mapamyum geothermal field (MGF) in western Tibet is one of largest geothermal areas characterized by the occurrence of hydrothermal explosions on the Tibetan Plateau. The geochemical properties of hydrothermal water in the MGF system were investigated to trace the origin of the solutes and to determine the equilibrium temperatures of the feeding reservoir. The study results show that the geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in the MGF system is mainly of the Na-HCO3 type. The chemical components of hydrothermal waters are mainly derived from the minerals in the host rocks (e.g., K-feldspar, albite, Ca-montmorillonite, and Mg-montmorillonite). The hydrothermal waters are slightly supersaturated or undersaturated with respect to aragonite, calcite, dolomite, chalcedony and quartz (saturation indices close to 0), but are highly undersaturated with respect to gypsum and anhydrite (saturation indices < 0). Mixing models and Na-K-Mg ternary diagrams show that strong mixing between cold meteoric water and deeply-seated thermal fluids occurred during the upward flowing process. δD and δ18O data confirm that the meteoric water acts as the water source of the geothermal waters. An 220 °C equilibrated reservoir temperature of hydrothermal spring waters was calculated via both the Na-K-Mg ternary diagrams and the cationic chemical geothermometers. The logpCO2 of hydrothermal waters in the MGF system ranges from - 2.59 to - 0.57 and δ13C of the total dissolved inorganic carbon ranges from - 5.53‰ to - 0.94‰, suggesting that the carrier CO2 in hydrothermal water are mainly of a magmatic or metamorphic CO2 origin.

  2. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and genesis of the high-temperature geothermal system in the Tashkorgan basin of the Pamir syntax, western China (United States)

    Li, Yiman; Pang, Zhonghe; Yang, Fengtian; Yuan, Lijuan; Tang, Pinghui


    High-temperature geothermal systems in China, such as those found in Tenchong and Tibet, are common. A similar system without obvious manifestations found in the Tashkorgan basin in the western Xinjiang Autonomous Region, however, was not expected. The results from borehole measurements and predictions with geothermometers, such as quartz, Na-K and Na-K-Mg, indicate that the reservoir temperature is approximately 250-260 °C. Geothermal water is high in Total Dissolved Solids (>2.5 g/L) and SiO2 content (>273 mg/L), and the water type is Cl·SO4-Na, likely resulting from water-rock interactions in the granodiorite reservoirs. Based on isotope analysis, it appears to be recharged by local precipitation and river water. Evidence from the relationships between major ions and the Cl and molar Na/Cl ratio suggests mixing between deep geothermal water and shallow cold groundwater during the upwelling process. Mixing ratios calculated by the relationship between Cl and SiO2 show that the proportion from cold end-members are 96-99% and 40-90% for riparian zone springs and geothermal water from boreholes, respectively. Active regional tectonic and Neo-tectonic movements in the Pamir syntax as well as radioactive elements in the granodiorite reservoir of the Himalayan stage provide basis for the high heat flow background (150-350 mW/m2). NNW trending fault systems intersecting with overlying NE faults provide circulation conduits with high permeability for geothermal water.

  3. Gas geochemistry for the Los Azufres (Michoacán geothermal reservoir, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Segovia


    Full Text Available Gas data of the Los Azufres geothermal field were analyzed using a method based on equilibrium of the Fischer- Tropsch (FT reaction: CH4 + 2H2O = 4H2 +CO2 and on the combined pyrite-hematite-magnetite (HSH2 reactions: 5/4 H2 +3/2 FeS2 +3/4 Fe2O3 + 7/4 H2O = 3 H2S +Fe3O4 in order to estimate reservoir temperature and excess steam. The solution of equilibrium equations produces a grid (FT-HSH2. This method is suitable for reservoirs with relatively high H2S but low H2 and NH3 concentrations in the fluid as is the case of the Los Azufres well discharges. Reservoir temperature and reservoir excess steam values were estimated for initial and present conditions in representative wells of the field to study the evolution of fluids, because of exploitation and waste fluids reinjection. This method was very useful in estimating reservoir temperatures in vapor wells, while in two-phase wells it was found that as the well produces a smaller fraction of water, the reservoir temperature estimation agrees qualitatively with results from cationic or silica geothermometers. For liquid-dominated wells the reservoir temperature estimations agree with temperatures obtained from the well simulator WELFLO. This indicates that FT-HSH2 results provide the temperature of the fluid entering the well where the last equilibrium occurs. Results show a decrease in reservoir temperatures in the southern zone of the field where intensive reinjection takes place. With exploitation, it was also noted that the deep liquid phase in the reservoir is changing to two-phase increasing the reservoir steam fraction and the non-condensable gases in well discharges.

  4. Geothermal pilot study final report: creating an international geothermal energy community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresee, J.C.; Yen, W.W.S.; Metzler, J.E. (eds.)


    The Geothermal Pilot Study under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was established in 1973 to apply an action-oriented approach to international geothermal research and development, taking advantage of the established channels of governmental communication provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Pilot Study was composed of five substudies. They included: computer-based information systems; direct application of geothermal energy; reservoir assessment; small geothermal power plants; and hot dry rock concepts. The most significant overall result of the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study, which is now complete, is the establishment of an identifiable community of geothermal experts in a dozen or more countries active in development programs. Specific accomplishments include the creation of an international computer file of technical information on geothermal wells and fields, the development of studies and reports on direct applications, geothermal fluid injection and small power plants, and the operation of the visiting scientist program. In the United States, the computer file has aready proven useful in the development of reservoir models and of chemical geothermometers. The state-of-the-art report on direct uses of geothermal energy is proving to be a valuable resource document for laypersons and experts in an area of increasing interest to many countries. Geothermal fluid injection studies in El Salvador, New Zealand, and the United States have been assisted by the Reservoir Assessment Substudy and have led to long-range reservoir engineering studies in Mexico. At least seven small geothermal power plants are in use or have been planned for construction around the world since the Small Power Plant Substudy was instituted--at least partial credit for this increased application can be assigned to the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study. (JGB)

  5. BACA Project: geothermal demonstration power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The various activities that have been conducted by Union in the Redondo Creek area while attempting to develop the resource for a 50 MW power plant are described. The results of the geologic work, drilling activities and reservoir studies are summarized. In addition, sections discussing the historical costs for Union's involvement with the project, production engineering (for anticipated surface equipment), and environmental work are included. Nineteen geothermal wells have been drilled in the Redondo Creek area of the Valles Caldera: a prominent geologic feature of the Jemez mountains consisting of Pliocene and Pleistocene age volcanics. The Redondo Creek area is within a complex longitudinal graben on the northwest flank of the resurgent structural dome of Redondo Peak and Redondo Border. The major graben faults, with associated fracturing, are geologically plausible candidates for permeable and productive zones in the reservoir. The distribution of such permeable zones is too erratic and the locations too imprecisely known to offer an attractive drilling target. Log analysis indicates there is a preferred mean fracture strike of N31W in the upper portion of Redondo Creek wells. This is approximately perpendicular to the major structure in the area, the northeast-striking Redondo Creek graben. The geothermal fluid found in the Redondo Creek reservoir is relatively benign with low brine concentrations and moderate H/sub 2/S concentrations. Geothermometer calculations indicate that the reservoir temperature generally lies between 500/sup 0/F and 600/sup 0/F, with near wellbore flashing occurring during the majority of the wells' production.

  6. Thermo chronology by the fission track method of a passive marge (Ponta Grossa dome in south-eastern Brazil) and within a collision chain (external zone of the alpine arch in France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros Vignol Lelarge, M.L.


    The dating method by counting fission tracks on apatite (this rock is a geo-thermometer sensitive to weak temperature changes below 150 Celsius degrees) is an efficient tool for the thermal history of rocks. We have used this method in 2 different geological contexts: the Ponta Grossa dome in south-eastern Brazil and the alpine mountain in France. This dating method is based on the fact that some rocks like mica keep fossil remains of the passage of the fission products emitted during the simultaneous fission of uranium 238 present in the rock. This method requires the irradiation in a slow neutron flux of the sample because the initial quantity of uranium is unknown. The age t of the sample is given by the formula: t=(1/l 1 )*ln[1+(r s /r i )*(l 2 /l 1 )*F*σ*I] where: l 1 is the alpha decay constant of U 238 ; l 2 is the simultaneous fission decay constant of U 238 , r s is the number of fission tracks in the sample before the irradiation; r i is the number of fission tracks induced by the irradiation; F is the thermal neutron flux; σ is the thermal fission cross-section of U 235 ; and I is the isotopic rate U 235 /U 238 . This document is divided into 4 chapters. The first chapter presents the general principle of the method, the mechanisms capable of producing fission tracks and the techniques used to make these tracks visible with an optical microscope. The second chapter deals with the conditions of the irradiation and the calibration of the method. The 2 last chapters are dedicated to the applications to the 2 geological contexts. (A.C.)

  7. Paleogeothermal record of the Emeishan mantle plume: evidences from borehole Ro data in the Sichuan basin, SW China (United States)

    Hu, S.


    The Emeishan basalt province located in the southwest of China is widely accepted to be a result of the eruption of a mantle plume at the time of middle-late Permian. If it was a mantle plume, the ambient sedimentary rocks must be heated up during the development of the mantle plume and this thermal effect must be recorded by some geothermometers in the country rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a maximum paleotemperature recorder from boreholes in Sichuan basin was employed to expose the thermal regime related to the proposed Emeishan mantle plume. The Ro profiles from boreholes which drilled close to the Emeishan basalts shows a ';dog-leg' (break) style at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, and the Ro profiles in the lower subsection (pre-middle Permian) shows a significantly higher slopes (gradients) than those in the upper subsection. In contrast, those Ro profiles from boreholes far away from the center of the basalt province have no break at the uncomformity. Based on the chemical kinetic model of Ro, the paleo-temperature gradients for the upper and the lower subsections in different boreholes, as well as the erosion at the unconformity between the middle and the upper Permian, were reconstructed to reveal the variations of the temperature gradients and erosion thickness with geological time and space. Both the thermal regime and the erosion thickness together with their spatial variation (structure) provide strong geothermal evidence for the existence of the Emeishan mantle plume in the middle-late Permian.

  8. Hydrochemistry and geothermometrical modeling of low-temperature Panticosa geothermal system (Spain) (United States)

    Asta, Maria P.; Gimeno, Maria J.; Auqué, Luis F.; Gómez, Javier; Acero, Patricia; Lapuente, Pilar


    The chemical characteristics of the low-temperature geothermal system of Panticosa (Spain) were investigated in order to determine the water temperature at the reservoir and to identify the main geochemical processes that affect the water composition during the ascent of the thermal waters. In general, the studied waters are similar to other geothermal systems in the Pyrenees, belonging to the group of granite-related alkaline thermal waters (high pH, low total dissolved solids, very low magnesium concentration, and sodium as the dominant cation). According to the alkaline pH of these waters, they have a very low CO2 partial pressure, bicarbonate is the dominant anion and silica is partially ionized as H3SiO4-. The unusually active acid-base pairs (HCO3-/CO32 - and, mainly, H4SiO4/H3SiO4-) act as homogeneous pH buffers and contribute to the total alkalinity in these alkaline waters. On the basis of the study of the conservative elements, a mixing process between a hot and a cold end-member has been identified. Additionally, in order to determinate the water temperature at the reservoir, several geothermometric techniques have been applied, including both geothermometrical modeling and classical geothermometrical calculations. The geothermometrical modeling seems to indicate that thermal waters re-equilibrate with respect to calcite and kaolinite during their ascent to the surface. Modeling results suggest that these thermal waters would be in equilibrium with respect to albite, K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, kaolinite and zoisite at a similar temperature of 90 ± 20 °C in the reservoir, which is in good agreement with the results obtained by applying the classical geothermometers.

  9. Insights into Andean slope hydrology: reservoir characteristics of the thermal Pica spring system, Pampa del Tamarugal, northern Chile (United States)

    Scheihing, Konstantin W.; Moya, Claudio E.; Tröger, Uwe


    The thermal Pica springs, at ˜1,400 m above sea level (asl) in the Pampa del Tamarugal (Chile), represent a low-saline spring system at the eastern margin of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, where groundwater resources are scarce. This study investigates the hydrogeological and geothermal characteristics of their feed reservoir, fostered by the interpretation of a 20-km east-west-heading reflection-seismic line in the transition zone from the Andean Precordillera to the Pampa del Tamarugal. Additional hydrochemical, isotope and hydrologic time-series data support the integrated analysis. One of the main factors that enabled the development of the spring-related vertical fracture system at Pica, is a disruption zone in the Mesozoic Basement caused by intrusive formations. This destabilized the younger Oligocene units under the given tectonic stress conditions; thus, the respective groundwater reservoir is made up of fractured Oligocene units of low to moderate permeability. Groundwater recharge takes place in the Precordillera at ˜3,800 m asl. From there groundwater flow covers a height difference of ˜3,000 m with a maximum circulation depth of ˜800-950 m, where the waters obtain their geothermal imprint. The maximal expected reservoir temperature, as confirmed by geothermometers, is ˜55 °C. Corrected mean residence times of spring water and groundwater plot at 1,200-4,300 years BP and yield average interstitial velocities of 6.5-22 m/year. At the same time, the hydraulic head signal, as induced by recharge events in the Precordillera, is transmitted within 20-24 months over a distance of ˜32 km towards the Andean foothills at Pica and Puquio Nunez.

  10. Hydrogeothermal characteristics of groundwater from Ribarska Banja spa, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragišić Veselin S.


    Full Text Available Ribarska Banja spa is one of the most popular balneotherapy and recreation centers in Serbia. It features several thermal groundwater sources whose temperatures range from 26 to 54°C. The mineral content of these waters is low and their composition is of the SO4-Na or HCO3-Na type. Thermal water exploration has been conducted in the general area for many years, to assess the hydrogeothermal potential in order to extract larger amounts of thermal water for multiple uses. The hydrogeothermal system of Ribarska Banja spa was defined based on a synthesis of the results of comprehensive structural geology, geophysical, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geothermal research. The primary groundwater reservoir of the hydrogeothermal system is comprised of tectonic zones (systems of faults and fractures within Cretaceous-Paleogene metamorphosed and non-metamorphosed rocks. The overlying hydrogeological and temperature barrier is made up of a series of low metamorphosed rocks (chlorite, chlorite-sericite schists, gabbros, etc., highly metamorphosed rocks (gneisses and Neogene clay and sand sediments. The system is recharged by infiltration of atmospheric precipitation and surface water at the highest elevations of Mt. Jastrebac. Investigations have also shown that the system’s heat source is younger granitoide intrusion spreading northwest of Ribarska Banja spa. Based on the quartz geothermometers, expected reservoir temperatures are in the range of 85-97°C that can be expected at a depth of 1.87 km. Total energy usage at Ribarska Banja spa is 31 TJ/y with thermal capacity of 1.65 MWt and utilization factor of 0.58. Geothermal gradient is 0,051°C/m, while heat flow density is 163.5 mW/m2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  11. The temperature of primary melts and mantle sources of komatiites, OIBs, MORBs and LIPs (United States)

    Sobolev, Alexander


    There is general agreement that the convecting mantle, although mostly peridotitic in composition, is compositionally and thermally heterogeneous on different spatial scales. The amount, sizes, temperatures and compositions of these heterogeneities significantly affect mantle dynamics because they may diverge greatly from dominant peridotites in their density and fusibility. Differences in potential temperature and composition of mantle domains affect magma production and cannot be easily distinguished from each other. This has led to radically different interpretations of the melting anomalies that produce ocean-island basalts, large igneous provinces and komatiites: most scientists believe that they originate as hot, deep-sourced mantle plumes; but a small though influential group (e.g. Anderson 2005, Foulger, 2010) propose that they derive from high proportions of easily fusible recycled or delaminated crust, or in the case of komatiites contain large amount of H2O (e.g. Grove & Parman, 2004). The way to resolve this ambiguity is an independent estimation of temperature and composition of mantle sources of various types of magma. In this paper I report application of newly developed olivine-spinel-melt geothermometers based on partition of Al, Cr, Sc and Y for different primitive lavas from mid-ocean ridges, ocean-island basalts, large igneous provinces and komatiites. The results suggest significant variations of crystallization temperature for the same Fo of high magnesium olivines of different types of mantle-derived magmas: from the lowest (down to 1220 degree C) for MORB to the highest (up to over 1500 degree C) for komatiites and Siberian meimechites. These results match predictions from Fe-Mg olivine-melt equilibrium and confirm the relatively low temperature of the mantle source of MORB and higher temperatures in the mantle plumes that produce the OIB of Iceland, Hawaii, Gorgona, Archean komatiites and several LIPs (e.g Siberian and NAMP). The

  12. Potential Temperatures of Sources of MORB, OIB and LIPs Based on AL Partitioning Between Olivine and Spinel (United States)

    Sobolev, A. V.; Batanova, V. G.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Borisov, A.; Arndt, N.; Kuzmin, D.; Krivolutskaya, N.; Sushevskaya, N.


    Knowledge of potential temperatures of convecting mantle is required for the understanding the global processes on the Earth [1]. The common way to estimate these is the reconstruction of primary melt compositions and liquidus temperatures based on the Fe-Mg partitioning between olivine and melt. This approach requires knowledge of the compositions of primitive melts in equilibrium with olivine alone as well as composition of olivine equilibrium with primary melts. This information is in most cases unavailable or of questionable quality. Here we report a new approach to obtain crystallization temperatures of primary melts based on the olivine-spinel Al-Cr geothermometer [2]. The advantages of this approach are: (1) low rate of diffusion of Al in the olivine, which promises to preserve high magmatic temperatures and (2) common presence of spinel in assemblage with high-Mg olivine. In order to decipher influence of elevated Ti concentrations in spinel we have run several experiments at high temperatures (1400-1200 degree C), atmospheric pressure and controled oxygen fugacity. We also analysed over two thousand spinel inclusions and high-Mg host olivines from different MORB, OIB, LIP and Archean komatiites on the JXA-8230 EPMA at ISTerre, Grenoble, France. Concentrations of Al, Ti, Na, P, Zn, Cr, Mn, Ca, Co, Ni were determined with a precision of 10 ppm (2 standard errors) using a newly developed protocol [3]. When available, we also analysed matrix glass and glass inclusions in olivine and found that temperature estimations from olivine-spinel (Al-Cr) and olivine-melt (Fe-Mg) [4] equilibrium match within (+/-30 degree C). The results show contrasting crystallization temperatures of Mg-rich olivine of the same Fo content from different types of mantle-derived magmas, from the lowest (down to 1220 degree C) for MORB to the highest (up to 1550 degree C) for komatiites and Siberian meimechites. These results match predictions from Fe-Mg olivine-melt equilibrium and

  13. Amphibole stability using new thermobarometric formulations on calc-alkaline magmas of Volcán Doña Inés, Chile (United States)

    Hines, R. A.; Walker, J. A.


    Moulds (1989) using 2-pyroxene and Fe-Ti oxide geothermometers which ranged from 872-941 ± 40 *C. Not surprisingly the central vent displays the largest variation in crystallizing conditions for amphibole, consistent with a more complex magmatic plumbing system. The pressure-temperature estimates for this Miocene calc-alkaline volcano are similar to those from more recent andesite-dacite systems as compiled by Ridolfi et al. (2010), and demonstrate the consistency of the thermobarometer for subduction-related volcanoes.

  14. Late Neoproterozoic layered mafic intrusion of arc-affinity in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: A case study from the Shahira layered mafic intrusion, southern Sinai, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer, M.K.; Obeid, M.A.; Gahalan, H.A.


    The Shahira Layered Mafic Intrusion (SLMI), which belongs to the late Neoproterozoic plutonic rocks of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, is the largest layered mafic intrusion in southern Sinai. Field relations indicate that it is younger than the surrounding metamorphic rocks and older than the post-orogenic granites. Based on variation in mineral paragenesis and chemical composition, the SLMI is distinguished into pyroxene-hornblende gabbro, hornblende gabbro and diorite lithologies. The outer zone of the mafic intrusion is characterized by fine-grained rocks (chilled margin gabbroic facies), with typical subophitic and/or microgranular textures. Different rock units from the mafic intrusion show gradational boundaries in between. They show some indications of low grade metamorphism, where primary minerals are transformed into secondary ones. Geochemically, the Shahira layered mafic intrusion is characterized by enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE (e.g. Nb, P, Zr, Ti, Y), and LREE relative to HREE [(La/Lu)n= 4.75–8.58], with subalkaline characters. It has geochemical characteristics of pre-collisional arc-type environment. The geochemical signature of the investigated gabbros indicates partial melting of mantle wedge in a volcanic-arc setting, being followed by fractional crystallization and crustal contamination. Fractional crystallization processes played a vital role during emplacement of the Shahira intrusion and evolution of its mafic and intermediate rock units. The initial magma was evolved through crystallization of hornblende which was caused by slight increasing of H2O in the magma after crystallization of liquidus olivine, pyroxene and Ca-rich plagioclase. The gabbroic rocks crystallized at pressures between 4.5 and 6.9kbar (~15–20km depth). Whereas, the diorites yielded the lowest crystallization pressure between 1.0 to 4.4Kbar (<10km depth). Temperature was estimated by several geothermometers, which yielded crystallization temperatures ranging from 835

  15. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium controls on the abundances of clumped isotopologues of methane during thermogenic formation in laboratory experiments: Implications for the chemistry of pyrolysis and the origins of natural gases (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Douglas, Peter M.J.; Zhang, Shuichang; Stolper, Daniel A.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lawson, Michael; Lewan, Michael; Formolo, Michael; Mi, Jingkui; He, Kun; Hu, Guoyi; Eiler, John M.


    Multiply isotopically substituted molecules (‘clumped’ isotopologues) can be used as geothermometers because their proportions at isotopic equilibrium relative to a random distribution of isotopes amongst all isotopologues are functions of temperature. This has allowed measurements of clumped-isotope abundances to be used to constrain formation temperatures of several natural materials. However, kinetic processes during generation, modification, or transport of natural materials can also affect their clumped-isotope compositions. Herein, we show that methane generated experimentally by closed-system hydrous pyrolysis of shale or nonhydrous pyrolysis of coal yields clumped-isotope compositions consistent with an equilibrium distribution of isotopologues under some experimental conditions (temperature–time conditions corresponding to ‘low,’ ‘mature,’ and ‘over-mature’ stages of catagenesis), but can have non-equilibrium (i.e., kinetically controlled) distributions under other experimental conditions (‘high’ to ‘over-mature’ stages), particularly for pyrolysis of coal. Non-equilibrium compositions, when present, lead the measured proportions of clumped species to be lower than expected for equilibrium at the experimental temperature, and in some cases to be lower than a random distribution of isotopes (i.e., negative Δ18 values). We propose that the consistency with equilibrium for methane formed by relatively low temperature pyrolysis reflects local reversibility of isotope exchange reactions involving a reactant or transition state species during demethylation of one or more components of kerogen. Non-equilibrium clumped-isotope compositions occur under conditions where ‘secondary’ cracking of retained oil in shale or wet gas hydrocarbons (C2-5, especially ethane) in coal is prominent. We suggest these non-equilibrium isotopic compositions are the result of the expression of kinetic isotope effects during the irreversible generation

  16. Hydrogeochemistry and environmental impact of geothermal waters from Yangyi of Tibet, China (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin; Liu, Wei


    The Yangyi geothermal field, located 72 km northwest to Lhasa City, capital of Tibet, has a high reservoir temperature up to at least 207.2 °C. The geothermal waters from both geothermal wells and hot springs belong to the HCO 3 (+CO 3)-Na type. Factor analysis of all the chemical constituents shows that they can be divided into two factors: F 1 factor receives the contributions of SO 42-, Cl -, SiO 2, As, B, Na +, K +, and Li +; whereas F 2 factor is explained by HCO 3-, F -, CO 32-, Ca 2+, and Sr 2+. The F 1 factor can be regarded as an indicator of the reservoir temperature distribution at Yangyi, but its variable correlation with the results of different geothermometers (Na-K, quartz and K-Mg) does not allow one to draw further inferences. Different from F 1, the F 2 factor is an indicator of a group of hydrogeochemical processes resulting from the CO 2 pressure decrease in geothermal water during its ascent from the deep underground, including transformation of HCO 3- to CO 32-, precipitation of Ca 2+ and Sr 2+, and release of F - from some fluoride-bearing minerals of reservoir rocks. The plot of enthalpy vs. chloride, prepared on the basis of Na-K equilibrium temperatures, suggests that a parent geothermal liquid (PGL) with Cl - concentration of 185 mg/L (that of sample YYT-8) and enthalpy of 1020 J/g (corresponding to a temperature of 236-237 °C, i.e., somewhat higher than that of sample YYT-6) is present in the geothermal reservoir of the Yangyi area, below both the Qialagai valley and the Bujiemu valley, although the samples less affected by mixing and cooling (YYT-6 and YYT-7) come from the second site. The discharge of geothermal waters with high contents of toxic elements such as B, As and F into the Luolang River, the only drinking water source for local residents, has caused slight pollution of the river water. Great care should therefore be taken in the geothermal water resource management at Yangyi.

  17. Fluid geochemistry and geothermometry applications of the Kangding high-temperature geothermal system in eastern Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Qi; Pang, Zhonghe; Wang, Yingchun; Tian, Jiao


    High-temperature geothermal systems hold an enormous capacity for generating geothermal energy. The Kangding area is a typical high-temperature geothermal field in the Himalayan Geothermal Belt. Hydrogeochemical, gas geochemical and isotopic investigations were performed to identify and qualify the main hydrogeochemical processes affecting thermal water composition, including mixing and degassing, and then to estimate a reliable reservoir temperature. Nine water samples and four geothermal gas samples were collected and analysed for chemical and isotopic components. The results demonstrate the alkaline deep geothermal water is the mixtures of approximately 75% snow-melt water and 25% magmatic water. It is enriched in Na, K, F, Li and other trace elements, indicating the granite reservoir nature. The shallow geothermal water is the mixtures of approximately 30% upward flow of deep geothermal water and 70% meteoric cold water. High concentrations of Ca, Mg and HCO_3 indicate the limestone reservoir nature. There is no remarkable oxygen isotope shift in the geothermal water since the rapid circulation is difficult to trigger off strong water-rock interaction. CO_2 is the predominant geothermal gas, accounting for more than 97% of total gases in volume percentage. The concentration of CO_2 degassing ranged from 0.4 mol L"−"1 to 0.8 mol L"−"1 via geothermometrical modelling. As a result, the geothermal water pH increased from 6.0 to 9.0, and approximately 36% of the total SiO_2 re-precipitate. The sources of CO_2 are the metamorphism of limestone and magmatic degassing based on the composition of carbon isotope. The appropriate geothermometers of Na-K and Na-Li yield reservoir temperature of 280 °C. The geothermometrical modelling, developed to eliminate the effects of CO_2 degassing, yields temperature of 250 °C. The silica-enthalpy mixing model yields temperature of 270 °C with no steam separation before mixing. - Highlights: • Water and gas

  18. A geothermal resource in the Puna plateau (Jujuy Province, Argentina): New insights from the geochemistry of thermal fluid discharges (United States)

    Peralta Arnold, Yesica; Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco; Caffe, Pablo; Vaselli, Orlando


    Several hydrothermal mineralization and thermal fluid discharges are distributed in the high altitude Puna plateau at the eastern border of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes in the Jujuy Province, a region where volcanic explosive activity developed from Oligocene-Miocene to Neogene produced giant calderas and huge ignimbrite deposits. This study presents the geochemical and isotopic composition of thermal fluids discharged from Granada, Vilama, Pairique, Coranzulì and Olaroz zones, which are located between S 22°20'- 23°20' and W 66°- 67°. This aim is to provide insights into the physicochemical features of the deep fluid circulating system in order to have a preliminary indication about the geothermal potential in this area. The occurrence of partially mature Na+-Cl- waters suggests that a deep (>5,000 m b.g.l.) hydrothermal reservoir, hosted within the Paleozoic crystalline basement, represents the main fluid source. Regional tectonics, dominated by S-oriented faulting systems that produced a horst and graben tectonics, as well as NE-, NW- and WE-oriented transverse structures, favour the uprising of the deep-originated fluids, including a significant amount (up to 16%) of mantle He. The dry gas phase mainly consists of CO2 mostly produced from subducted C-bearing organic-rich material. The interaction between meteoric water and Cretaceous, Palaeogene to Miocene sediments at shallow depth gives rise to relatively cold Na+-HCO3-type aquifers. Dissolution of evaporitic surficial deposits (salares), produced by the arid climate of the region, strongly affects the chemistry of the thermal springs in the peripheral zones of the study area. Geothermometry in the Na-K-Ca-Mg system suggests equilibrium temperatures up to 200 °C for the deep aquifer, whereas the H2 geothermometer equilibrates at lower temperatures (from 105 to 155 °C), likely corresponding to those of the shallower aquifer. Although the great depth of the main fluid reservoir represents a

  19. Crystallization Temperatures of Lower Crustal Gabbros from the Oman Ophiolite and the Persistence of the 'Mush Zone' at Intermediate/Fast Spreading Ridges (United States)

    VanTongeren, J. A.


    Oceanic crust is formed when mantle-derived magmas are emplaced at the ridge axis, a zone of intense rifting and extension. Magmas begin to cool and crystallize on-axis, forming what is termed the "Mush Zone", a region of partially molten rocks. Several attempts have been made to understand the nature of the Mush Zone at fast spreading mid-ocean ridges, specifically how much partial melt exists and how far off-axis the Mush Zone extends. Geophysical estimates of P-wave velocity perturbations at the East Pacific Rise show a region of low velocity approximately 1.5-2.5 km off-axis, which can be interpreted to be the result of higher temperature [e.g. Dunn et al., 2000, JGR] or the existence of partial melt. New petrological and geochemical data and methods allow for the calculation of the lateral extent of the Mush Zone in the lower oceanic crust on exposed sections collected from the Oman ophiolite, a paleo-fast/intermediate spreading center. I will present new data quantifying the crystallization temperatures of gabbros from the Wadi Khafifah section of lower oceanic gabbros from the Oman ophiolite. Crystallization temperatures are calculated with the newly developed plagioclase-pyroxene REE thermometer of Sun and Liang [2017, Contrib. Min. Pet.]. There does not appear to be any systematic change in the crystallization temperature of lower crustal gabbros with depth in the crust. In order to quantify the duration of crystallization and the lateral extent of the Mush Zone of the lower crust, crystallization temperatures are paired with estimates of the solidus temperature and cooling rate determined from the same sample, previously constrained by the Ca diffusion in olivine geothermometer/ geospeedometer [e.g. VanTongeren et al., 2008 EPSL]. There is no systematic variation in the closure temperature of Ca in olivine, or the cooling rate to the 800°C isotherm. These results show that gabbros throughout the lower crust of the Oman ophiolite remain in a partially

  20. Mineralogía y condiciones de cristalización en el complejo subvolcánico de Barcarrota (Badajoz, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casquet, C.


    Full Text Available A description of mineral chemistry from rocks of the subvolcanic Barcarrota Complex is made. This igneous massif consists of several sub-alkaline lithologies, namely olivine gabbros, diorites, quartz-monzonites and amphibole granites, as well as minor peralkaline granites. Physico-chemical conditions during magma crystallization are obtained on the basis of mineral data. Thus different geothermometers lead to the following crystallization temperatures: olivine gabbros (972-1.008° C, diorites (953-995° C, quartz-monzonites (801-833° C and amphibole granites 750° C. The presence of illmenite as the sole Fe-Ti mineral in these rocks (except in the peralkaline types where it is magnetite, sugests that the fO2 was never higher than the MW buffer, decreasing continuously with the differentiation degree fram fO2= 1O-13.2 atm. for the olivine gabbros to 10-18.87 atm. in the granites Furthemore water played an important role during crystallization of the different magmas.Se estudian las características químicas de los minerales más significativos del Complejo subvolcánico de Barcarrota, formado por litologías subalcalinas consistentes en: gabros olivínicos, dioritas, cuarzo-monzonitas y granitos anfibólicos, así como por pequeños afloramientos de granitos peralcalinos. Estos datos se emplean para definir las condiciones físico-químicas de cristalización magmática. Mediante distintos geotermómetros se obtienen las siguientes temperaturas de cristalización: Gabras olivínicos (972-1008º C, Dioritas (953-995º C, Cuarzo-monzonitas (801-833º C y los Granitos anfibólicos 750º C. La presencia como único óxido de FeTi, de ilmenita en todas las rocas excepto en los tipos peralcalinos, que es magnetita, indica que la fO2 no superó las condiciones del tampón MW, decreciendo con el grado de diferenciación (fO2= 10-132 en los gabros olivínicos hasta 10-18,87 en los granitos. La presencia de agua debió jugar un notable

  1. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the warm and cold waters of the Luigiane Spa near Guardia Piemontese (Calabria, Italy) in a complex faulted geological framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vespasiano, Giovanni; Apollaro, Carmine; Muto, Francesco; Dotsika, Elissavet; De Rosa, Rosanna; Marini, Luigi


    Highlights: • Geo-structural and hydrogeological patterns: thermal waters discharge in a tectonic window. • Use of S isotopes to discriminate different evaporite sources, considering effects of BSR. • Use of the local approach instead of the regional approach to investigate the thermal site. • Use of geothermometric functions specifically calibrated for the thermal waters of interest. • Synthesis of geo-structural, hydrogeological and geochemical results in a conceptual model. - Abstract: Waters discharging at the Luigiane Spa come from two different hydrogeological circuits, which are chiefly hosted in the carbonate rocks and Upper Triassic evaporites of two distinct geological units, known as Verbicaro Unit and Cetraro Unit. The first unit contains a cold and relatively shallow aquifer behaving as a sort of piston-flow circuit with high flow rate, whereas the second unit encloses a warm and comparatively deep aquifer acting as a sort of well-mixed reservoir, where the circulation is slower and the rate is lower. Meteoric waters infiltrating along the Coastal Chain at similar elevations (615–670 m asl on average, in spite of considerable uncertainties) recharge both aquifers and, in the first case, acquire heat from rocks through conductive transfer as a consequence of deepening along a fault system and/or crossing between different systems, as suggested by local structural geology. In particular, the warm deeper reservoir has a temperature of ∼60 °C, as indicated by the chalcedony solubility and the Ca–Mg and SO 4 –F geothermometers, which were specifically calibrated for the peculiar water–rock-interaction (WRI) processes originating the Na–Cl–SO 4 high-salinity warm waters that discharge at the Luigiane Spa. The warm deeper reservoir is probably located at depths close to 1.4 km, assuming a geothermal gradient of 33 °C km −1 . The water leaving the deep reservoir discharges at the surface at 40.9 ± 3.3 °C after a relatively fast

  2. Mixing effects on geothermometric calculations of the Newdale geothermal area in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Cody J. Cannon; Thomas R. Wood; Trevor A. Atkinson; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad


    The Newdale geothermal area in Madison and Fremont Counties in Idaho is a known geothermal resource area whose thermal anomaly is expressed by high thermal gradients and numerous wells producing warm water (up to 51 °C). Geologically, the Newdale geothermal area is located within the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) that has a time-transgressive history of sustained volcanic activities associated with the passage of Yellowstone Hotspot from the southwestern part of Idaho to its current position underneath Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Locally, the Newdale geothermal area is located within an area that was subjected to several overlapping and nested caldera complexes. The Tertiary caldera forming volcanic activities and associated rocks have been buried underneath Quaternary flood basalts and felsic volcanic rocks. Two southeast dipping young faults (Teton dam fault and an unnamed fault) in the area provide the structural control for this localized thermal anomaly zone. Geochemically, water samples from numerous wells in the area can be divided into two broad groups – Na-HCO3 and Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type waters and are considered to be the product of water-rhyolite and water-basalt interactions, respectively. Each type of water can further be subdivided into two groups depending on their degree of mixing with other water types or interaction with other rocks. For example, some bivariate plots indicate that some Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 water samples have interacted only with basalts whereas some samples of this water type also show limited interaction with rhyolite or mixing with Na-HCO3 type water. Traditional geothermometers [e.g., silica variants, Na-K-Ca (Mg-corrected)] indicate lower temperatures for this area; however, a traditional silica-enthalpy mixing model results in higher reservoir temperatures. We applied a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry tool (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that is based on inverse geochemical modeling which

  3. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium controls on the abundances of clumped isotopologues of methane during thermogenic formation in laboratory experiments: Implications for the chemistry of pyrolysis and the origins of natural gases (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Douglas, Peter M. J.; Zhang, Shuichang; Stolper, Daniel A.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lawson, Michael; Lewan, Michael D.; Formolo, Michael; Mi, Jingkui; He, Kun; Hu, Guoyi; Eiler, John M.


    Multiply isotopically substituted molecules ('clumped' isotopologues) can be used as geothermometers because their proportions at isotopic equilibrium relative to a random distribution of isotopes amongst all isotopologues are functions of temperature. This has allowed measurements of clumped-isotope abundances to be used to constrain formation temperatures of several natural materials. However, kinetic processes during generation, modification, or transport of natural materials can also affect their clumped-isotope compositions. Herein, we show that methane generated experimentally by closed-system hydrous pyrolysis of shale or nonhydrous pyrolysis of coal yields clumped-isotope compositions consistent with an equilibrium distribution of isotopologues under some experimental conditions (temperature-time conditions corresponding to 'low,' 'mature,' and 'over-mature' stages of catagenesis), but can have non-equilibrium (i.e., kinetically controlled) distributions under other experimental conditions ('high' to 'over-mature' stages), particularly for pyrolysis of coal. Non-equilibrium compositions, when present, lead the measured proportions of clumped species to be lower than expected for equilibrium at the experimental temperature, and in some cases to be lower than a random distribution of isotopes (i.e., negative Δ18 values). We propose that the consistency with equilibrium for methane formed by relatively low temperature pyrolysis reflects local reversibility of isotope exchange reactions involving a reactant or transition state species during demethylation of one or more components of kerogen. Non-equilibrium clumped-isotope compositions occur under conditions where 'secondary' cracking of retained oil in shale or wet gas hydrocarbons (C2-5, especially ethane) in coal is prominent. We suggest these non-equilibrium isotopic compositions are the result of the expression of kinetic isotope effects during the irreversible generation of methane from an alkyl

  4. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry (United States)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.


    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at contamination are most evident in pre-ore magmas, whereas ore-forming intrusions at low temperatures are dominated by crystal

  5. Graphite as an indicator of contact influence of Western Keivy alkaline granite intrusion, the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomina E. N.


    Full Text Available The results of complex petro-mineragraphic, Raman and isotope- geochemical study of three types of graphite- bearing rocks circulated at different distances from the alkaline granites: (1 kyanite schists of Bolshiye Keivy, sampled at a considerable distance from a contact with alkaline gran ites; (2 sillimanite schists, sampled close to the contact, and (3 silexites, located in the inner part of th e alkaline granite massif Western Keivy have been presented. Five morphogenetic types of graphite have been revealed in the rocks under consideration: fine- grained Gr-1, intergranular Gr-2, nest-shaped Gr-3, vein Gr- 4 and spherulitic Gr-5. Current study demonstrates that these five types of graphite distinctly vary not only i n morphology, but also in temperature of crystallization, as determined by RSCM-Raman geothermometer, and in carbon isotop e composition. The most likely source for the anomalous "light" graphite Gr-1 and Gr-2 [δ 13 C(PDB = −43...−45 ‰] from kyanite schists is a water- methane fluid originating from sedimentary rocks with org anic compounds. The carbon of graphite Gr-5 of the silexites selected at the inner part of alkaline granite massif West ern Keivy, on the contrary, proved to be most "heavy" [δ 13 C(PDB = −8 ‰], which indicates its origin from the lower crustal or mantle carbon dioxide fluid. Thus, carbon extracted into the rocks of Keivy structure from at least two contrasting isotope sources. Graphite Gr-3, that makes up the bulk of graphite of exocontact sil limanite schists, is also isotopically light, but not anomalously [δ 13 C(PDB = −17...−28 ‰]. The crystallization temperature of the gi ven graphite (435−520 ºC, and its structural relationships with other minerals of th e rock evidence of its synmetamorphic origin. The presence of veinlets of isotopically heavy [δ 13 C(PDB = −10 ‰...−11 ‰] high-temperature (570−670 ºC graphite intersecting minerals of the metamorphic paragenesis (i

  6. Mg-Fe Isotope Systems of Mantle Xenoliths: Constrains on the Evolution of Siberian Craton (United States)

    An, Y.; Kiseeva, E. S.; Sobolev, N. V.; Zhang, Z.


    Mantle xenoliths bring to the surface a variety of lithologies (dunites, lherzolites, harzburgites, wehrlites, eclogites, pyroxenites, and websterites) and represent snapshots of the geochemical processes that occur deep within the Earth. Recent improvements in the precision of the MC-ICP-MS measurements have allowed us to expand the amount of data on Mg and Fe isotopes for mantle-derived samples. For instance, to constrain the isotopic composition of the Earth based on the study of spinel and garnet peridotites (An et al., 2017; Teng et al., 2010), to trace the origin and to investigate the isotopic fractionation mechanism during metamorphic process using cratonic or orogenic eclogites (Li et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2012) and to reveal the metasomatism-induced mantle heterogeneity by pyroxenites (Hu et al., 2016). Numerous multi-stage modification events and mantle layering are detected in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle under the Siberian craton (Ashchepkov et al., 2008a; Sobolev et al., 1975, etc). Combined analyses of Mg and Fe isotopic systems could provide new constraints on the formation and evolution of the ancient cratonic mantle. In order to better constrain the magnitude and mechanism of inter-mineral Mg and Fe isotopic fractionations at high temperatures, systematic studies of mantle xenoliths are needed. For example, theoretical calculations and natural samples measurements have shown that large equilibrium Mg isotope fractionations controlled by the difference in coordination number of Mg among minerals could exist (Huang et al., 2013; Li et al., 2011). Thus, the Mg isotope geothermometer could help us trace the evolution history of ancient cratons. In this study we present Mg and Fe isotopic data for whole rocks and separated minerals (clinopyroxene (cpx) and garnet (grt)) from different types of mantle xenoliths (garnet pyroxenites, eclogites, grospydites and garnet peridotites) from a number of kimberlite pipes in Siberian craton (Udachnaya

  7. Geochemistry of thermal fluids in NW Honduras: New perspectives for exploitation of geothermal areas in the southern Sula graben (United States)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Franco, Tassi; Alberto, Renzulli; Orlando, Vaselli; Marco, Menichetti; Salvatore, Inguaggiato


    The results of a geochemical survey on thermal waters and, for the first time for this site, gas discharges in five geothermal sites (Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua, Río Gualcarque, El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente) in NW Honduras are here presented and discussed. El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente, in the southern part of the Sula graben are very close to a Quaternary basaltic field, whereas Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua and Río Gualcarque, located to the southwest of the Yojoa Lake, direcly emerge from the Cretaceous limestone deposits. The measured temperatures range between 37.5 and 104.8 °C. "Mature", alkaline, Na-SO4 thermal waters discharge from Azacualpa "La Cueva", while those from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente are "immature" and show a Na-HCO3 composition. Chemical equilibria of waters and gases from the Azacualpa "La Cueva" thermal springs indicate temperatures ranging from 150 to 200 °C. Conversely, gas discharges from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente have attained a partial chemical equilibrium in the liquid phase at slightly higher temperatures (200-250 °C), although gas-gas faster reactions involving CO seem to be adjusted in an isothermally separated vapor phase. Unlike Azacualpa, SiO2 geothermometer at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente indicates equilibrium temperatures for the liquid phase much lower than those calculated for the gas phase (≤ 120 °C). We conclude that thermal waters from the Azacualpa area likely represent the direct emergence of a water dominated reservoir having temperatures ≤ 150-200 °C. By contrast, at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente hot springs are supplied by a boiling shallow aquifer fed by a vapor phase rising from a steam-dominated zone. The above geochemical model is consistent with a geothermal reservoir hosted within the Cretaceous carbonate sequences of the Yojoa Group in the whole investigated sites. The reservoir extensively crops out in the Azacualpa area whereas the

  8. Intracrystalline "geothermometry" assessed on clino and orthopyroxene bearing synthetic rocks (United States)

    Murri, M.; Cámara, F.; Adam, J.; Domeneghetti, M. C.; Alvaro, M.


    Recent discussion on the application of intracrystalline "geothermometers" based on the Fe-Mg order-disorder reaction in pyroxene in natural rocks, indicates that the available calibration equations for clino and orthopyroxenes (cpx and opx), which express the equilibrium intracrystalline Fe-Mg distribution coefficient kD(Fe-Mg) as a function of temperature, require independent validation. In this paper, we tested the available experimental calibrations for clino and orthopyroxenes by determining the site occupancies of these minerals in synthetic samples grown from a hydrous nepheline basanite in a piston-cylinder apparatus at 1050 °C at 2.0 GPa to 1170 °C at 3.0 GPa, and quenched very rapidly by shutting off the power. The site occupancies were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) and used to calculate the closure temperature, TC, of cation ordering using available calibrations of kD(Fe-Mg) vs. T. The calculated TC values of both clino and orthopyroxenes were found to be close to the temperatures at which they were quenched, in line with expected kinetic behavior, when calibrations for cpx (Murri et al., 2016) and opx (Stimpfl et al., 2005) based on SC-XRD structure refinements were used. In particular, the smallest discrepancy between calculated and actual temperature is of the order of a few degrees (12 °C for cpx and 4 °C for opx), and the largest is of the order of tens of degrees (22 °C for cpx and 55 °C for opx). On the other hand, much lower TCs were obtained when calibrations based on Mössbauer determination of site occupancies were used. These results confirm that the two methods (i.e. SC-XRD and Mössbauer) give inherently different site occupancy data and that the same methodology should thus be used for both calibration and natural samples in the determination of cooling rate of host rocks.

  9. Geochemical studies of abyssal lavas recovered by DSRV Alvin from Eastern Galapagos Rift, Inca Transform, and Ecuador Rift: 2. Phase chemistry and crystallization history (United States)

    Perfit, Michael R.; Fornari, Daniel J.


    A diverse suite of lavas recovered by DSRV Alvin from the eastern Galapagos rift and Inca transform includes mid-ocean ridge tholeiitic basalts (MORB), iron- and titanium-enriched basalts (FeTi basalts), and abyssal andesites. Rock types transitional in character (ferrobasalts and basaltic andesites) were also recovered. The most mafic glassy basalts contain plagioclase, augite, and olivine as near-liquidus phases, whereas in more fractionated basalts, pigeonite replaces olivine and iron-titanium oxides crystallize. Plagioclase crystallizes after pyroxenes and iron-titanium oxides in andesites, possibly due to increased water contents or cooling rates. Apatite phenocrysts are present in some andesitic glasses. Ovoid sulfide globules are also common in many lavas. Compositional variations of phenocrysts in glassy lavas reflect changes in magma chemistry, temperature of crystallization, and cooling rate. The overall chemical variations parallel the chemical evolution of the lava suite and are similar to those in other fractionated tholeiitic complexes. Elemental partitioning between plagioclase-, pyroxene-, and olivine-glass pairs suggests that equilibration occurred at low pressure in a rather restricted temperature range. Various geothermometers indicate that the most primitive MORB began to crystallize between 1150° and 1200°C with fo2 PH 2 o could have been as high as 1 kbar during andesite crystallization. Compositions of the lavas from the Galapagos rift follow the experimentally determined (1 atm-QFM) liquid line of descent. Least squares calculations for the major elements indicate that the entire suite of lavas can be produced by fractional crystallization of successive residual liquids from a MORB parent magma. FeTi basalts represent 30-65 cumulative weight percent crystallization of plagioclase, augite, and olivine. An additional 30-50% fractionation of pyroxenes, plagioclase, titanomagnetite, and possible apatite is required to generate andesite from Fe

  10. The Thermal Waters of Jordan (United States)

    Sass, I.; Schäffer, R.


    In a recent field campaign all known natural hot spring areas of Jordan were investigated. Their hydrochemical properties including some fundamental isotopes were measured. Jordan's thermal springs can be classified into four thermal provinces (Nahr Al-Urdun, Hammamat Ma'in, Zara and Wadi Araba province), with similar hydrochemical and geologicalsettings. Thermal springs of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are situated on prominent faults. Reservoir temperature estimation with the Mg-corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometer indicates temperatures between 61 °C and 82 °C. Even taking into account the increased geothermal gradient at Dead Sea's east coast, the water's origin has to be considered mainly in deeper formations. Carbon dioxide, emitted by tertiary basalts situated close to the springs, may be responsible for gas lift. Mineralisation and δ18O-values indicate, that the spring water's origin is mostly fossil, i.e. not part of the global water cycle. It is shown, that ground water mining led to a shift within δ18O-ratio during the last 30 years due to a reduction of shallow water portion in addition to a dislocation of the catchment area. Ground water mining will impact the thermal spring productivity and quality anyway in the future. Present-day precipitation rates and catchment areas in Dead Sea region are by far not sufficient to explain relative high discharge. For the Hammamat Ma'in Province is documented, that discharge and maximal spring water temperatures are constant during the last 50 years, showing marginal seasonal oscillation and negligible influence by short-term climatic changes. The water characteristics of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are related. However, Zara waters feature systematically less ion concentration and lower temperatures due to a stronger influence of vadose water. The springs of Nahr Al-Urdun province are recharged mainly by shallow groundwater. Thus temperature and mineralisation is lower than at the springs at the Dead Sea

  11. A reconnaissance geochemical study of La Primavera geothermal area, Jalisco, Mexico (United States)

    Mahood, G.A.; Truesdell, A.H.; Templos, M.L.A.


    The Sierra La Primavera, a late Pleistocene rhyolitic caldera complex in Jalisco, Me??xico, contains fumaroles and large-discharge 65??C hot springs that are associated with faults related to caldera collapse and to later magma insurgence. The nearly-neutral, sodium bicarbonate, hot springs occur at low elevations at the margins of the complex, whereas the water-rich fumaroles are high and central. The Comisio??n Federal de Electricidad de Me??xico (CFE) has recently drilled two deep holes at the center of the Sierra (PR-1 and Pr-2) and one deep hole at the western margin. Temperatures as high as 285??C were encountered at 1160 m in PR-1, which produced fluids with 820 to 865 mg/kg chloride after flashing to one atmosphere. Nearby, PR-2 encountered temperatures to 307??C at 2000 m and yielded fluids with chloride contents fluctuating between 1100 and 1560 mg/kg after flashing. Neither of the high-temperature wells produced steam in commercial quantities. The well at the western margin of the Sierra produced fluids similar to those from the hot springs. The temperature reached a maximum of 100??C near the surface and decreased to 80??C at 2000 m. Various geothermometers (quartz conductive, Na/K, Na-K-Ca, ??18O(SO4-H2O) and D/H (steam-water) all yield temperatures of 170 ?? 20??C when applied to the hot spring waters, suggesting that these spring waters flow from a large shallow reservoir at this temperature. Because the hot springs are much less saline than the fluids recovered in PR-1 and PR-2, the mixed fluid in the shallow reservoir can contain no more than 10-20% deep fluid. This requires that most of the heat is transferred by steam. There is probably a thin vapor-dominated zone in the central part of the Sierra, through which steam and gases are transferred to the overlying shallow reservoir. Fluids from this reservoir cool from ???170??C to 65??C by conduction during the 5-7 km of lateral flow to the hot springs. ?? 1983.

  12. Four magnetite generations in the Precambrian Varena Iron Ore deposit, SE Lithuania, as a result of rock-fluid interactions (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Prusinskiene, Sabina; Siliauskas, Laurynas


    Iron ores in Precambrian crystalline basement of the Varena area, SE Lithuania, were discovered during the detail geological-geophysical exploration in 1982-1992. They are covered with 210-500 m thick sediments. The Varena Iron Ore deposit (VIOD) may yield from 71 to 219.6 million tons of iron ore according to different economic evaluations (Marfin, 1996). They were assumed to be of metasomatic and hydrothermal origin, however several other hypotheses explaining the VIOZ origin, e.g. as a layered mafic or carbonatite intrusions were also suggested. Magnetites of the VIOD were thoroughly investigated by the Cameca SX100 microprobe at the Warsaw University and by the Quanta 250 Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) at the Nature Research Centre in Vilnius, Lithuania. Four generations of magnetite were distinguished in the studied serpentine-magnetite ores (D8 drilling) and were compared with the earlier studied and reference magnetites. The earliest, spinel inclusion-rich magnetite cores (Mag-1) have the highest trace element contents (in wt%): Si (0.032), Al (0.167-0.248), Mg (0.340-0.405), Ti (0.215-0.254), V (0.090-0.138) etc. They might have formed during an early metamorphism and/or related skarn formation. Voluminous second magnetite (Mag-2) replacing olivine, pyroxenes, spinel and other skarn minerals at c. 540o C (Magnetite-Ilmenite geothermometer) has much lower trace element abundances, probably washed out by hydrothermal fluids. The latest magnetites (Mag-3 and Mag-4) overgrow the earlier ones and occur near or within the sulfide veins (Mag-4). As was observed from microtextures, the Mag-3 and Mag-4 have originated from the late thermal reworking by dissolution-reprecipitation processes. To imply an origin of the studied magnetites, they were compared to the earlier studied magmatic-metamorphic (1058 drilling), presumably skarn (982 drilling) magnetites from the studied area and plotted in the major magnetite ore type fields according to Dupuis and Beaudoin

  13. Detection of frictional heat in seismic faults by coal reflectance (United States)

    Kitamura, M.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Fulton, P. M.; Hirose, T.


    Quantitative assessment of heat generation along a fault during coseismic faulting is of primary importance in understanding the dynamics of earthquakes. Evidence of substantial frictional heating along a fault is also a reliable indicator determining whether a fault has slipped at high velocity in the past, which is crucial for assessing earthquake and tsunami hazard. The reflectance measurement of vitrinite (one of the primary components of coals) has been considered a possible geothermometer of fault zones, especially in accretionary wedges where vitrinite fragments are common [e.g., Sakaguchi et al., 2011]. Under normal burial conditions, vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increases by irreversible maturation reaction as temperature is elevated and thus sensitively records the maximum temperature to which the vitrinite is subjected. However, the commonly used kinetic models of vitrinite maturation [e.g., Sweeney and Burnham, 1990] may not yield accurate estimates of the peak temperature in a fault zone resulting from fast frictional heating rates [Fulton and Harris, 2012]. Whether or not coal can mature in typical earthquake rise time (e.g., ~10 seconds) remains uncertain. Here we present the results of friction experiments aimed at revealing coal maturation by frictional heat generated at slip velocities representative of natural earthquakes of up to 1.3 m/s. All friction experiments were conducted on a mixture of 90 wt% quartz powder and 10 wt% coal grains for simulated fault gouge at three different velocities of 0.0013 m/s, 0.65 m/s and 1.3 m/s, a constant normal stress of 1.0 MPa and ~15 m displacement under anoxic, dry nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature. We also measured temperature in the gouge zone during faulting by thermocouples. The initial coal fragments consist of vitrinite, inertinite and liptinite. Although liptinite was easy to identify microscopically, it was difficult to discriminate between vitrinite and inertinite grains as their grain size

  14. Petrography and petrology of the Nornahraun eruption of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland (United States)

    Guðfinnsson, Guðmundur H.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur Ari; Bali, Enikő; Jakobsson, Sigurður; Sverrisdóttir, Guðrún; Höskuldssson, Ármann; Riishuus, Morten S.; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; The 2014 Nornahraun Eruption Team


    The on-going fissure eruption north of Dyngjujökull is becoming the largest of its kind in Iceland since the 1783-84 Laki eruption. The erupted lava is olivine tholeiite, containing up to 5% normative olivine. It is relatively macrocryst-poor, initially containing less than 1% phenocrysts by volume, increasing to over 1% as the eruption has progressed. Plagioclase is the dominant macrocryst phase but olivine and augite are also present. In most of the samples, crystallization of the groundmass is substantial, with plagioclase and augite as the key groundmass minerals and minor olivine. It features subophitic texture, typical for olivine tholeiites, where the interstitial glass contains dendritic Fe-Ti oxide. During the first two months of the eruption, magma composition has been constant, displaying uniform major and trace element composition and nearly uniform isotopic compositions (Halldórsson et al. (a), this session). The major and trace element contents, in addition to the isotope ratios of lead, are indistinguishable from basalts in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Halldórsson et al. (b), this session). The compositional trends are consistent with crystallization along the ol-plag-cpx cotectic. Crystallization depth estimates, based on the pressure dependence of the cotectic (Yang et al., 1996), indicate that the magma equilibrated at a minimum depth between 6-9 km, consistent with depth estimates derived from CO2-bearing fluid inclusions trapped in plagioclase phenocrysts (Bali et al., this session). The bulk of the earthquakes associated with this volcano-tectonic episode are also in this range (e.g., Sigmundsson et al., 2015). Calculations with several different magma geothermometers suggest that the temperature of the magma as it rises to the surface is about 1170-1180°C, in good agreement with on-site measurements by thermal imaging cameras. The eruption has been characterized by steady, high emission of SO2. The sulfur-rich nature of the lava is

  15. Detailed thermal fingerprinting of obduction-related processes: insights from Northern New Caledonia (United States)

    Vitale Brovarone, A.; Agard, P.; Monié, P.; Chauvet, A.


    ): geodynamic implications. Tectonophysics 340 (1-2), 23-59. [2] Ulrich, M., Picard C., Guillot S., Chauvel C., Cluzel D., Meffre S. (2010) The New Caledonia Ophiolite : multiple Stage of melting and refertilisation process as indicators of ridge to subduction formation. Lithos. doi 10.1016/j.lithos.2009.12.011. [3] Brothers, R. N. & Blake, M. C., 1972. Tertiary plate tectonics and high-pressure metamorphism in New Caledonia. Tectonophysics, 17, 359-391. [4] Fitzherbert, J. A., Clarke, G. L. & Powell, R., 2003. Lawsonite- omphacite bearing metabasites of the Pam Peninsula, NE New Caledonia: Evidence for disrupted blueschist to eclogite facies conditions. Journal of Petrology, 44, 1805-1831. [5] Spandler, C., & Hermann, J., 2006. High-pressure veins in eclogite from New Caledonia and their significance for fluid migration in subduction zones. Lithos, 89 (1-2). pp. 135-153. ISSN 1872-6143 [6] Beyssac, O., Goffé, B., Chopin, C. & Rouzaud, J.N., 2002. Raman spectra of carbonaceous material in metasediments: a new geothermometer. J. Metamorph. Geol., 20, 859-871. [7] Lahfid, A., Beyssac, O., Deville, E., Negro, F., Chopin, C. & Goffé, B., 2010. Evolution of the Raman spectrum of carbonaceous material in low-grade metasediments of the Glarus Alps (Switzerland). Terra Nova, 22: 354-360. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2010.00956.x

  16. Petrologic Applications of Tourmaline (United States)

    London, D.; Morgan, G. B., VI; Wolf, M. B.; Guttery, B. M.


    (tourmaline is isotopically light with respect to the fluid), but it is pressure-dependent at least up to 200 MPa. This isotopic range is narrow in relation to vast tourmaline-producing magmatic-hydrothermal systems, such as the granites of Cornwall, UK. Preliminary experiments by Hervig et. al. (2002) report a large variation of Δ11B between aqueous fluid and granitic melt over small ranges of T, such that the isotopic composition of tourmaline should shift dramatically to higher (vapor) or lower (melt) values when crystallization occurs from a two-phase fluid system. Existing studies of consanguineous granite-pegmatite systems show nearly no variation of δ11B from common tourmaline in source granites to elbaite in the most fractionated pegmatites; the values correspond to those of tourmaline-melt, with little evidence for crystallization from vapor. Tourmaline may prove useful as a geothermometer in the same way as other AFM minerals, but the complexities of coupled substitutions in relation to the multitude of site occupancies in tourmaline will make experimental calibration a difficult, if not futile effort. Elemental fractionation between the polar ends of tourmaline, and its tendency for unidirectional growth, further complicate any quantitative treatment of its chemical composition.

  17. Data integration and conceptual modelling of the Larderello geothermal area, Italy (United States)

    Manzella, Adele; Gola, Gianluca; Bertini, Giovanni; Bonini, Marco; Botteghi, Serena; Brogi, Andrea; De Franco, Roberto; Dini, Andrea; Donato, Assunta; Gianelli, Giovanni; Liotta, Domenico; Montanari, Domenico; Montegrossi, Giordano; Petracchini, Lorenzo; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Santilano, Alessandro; Scrocca, Davide; Trumpy, Eugenio


    fluids can be controlled by: i) structural conduits crossing a multi-layered crust affected by magmatic intrusions; ii) mechanisms controlling the fluid migration in different rheological settings; and iii) self-sealing processes of magmatic hypersaline fluids arising from the brittle/ductile transition. Our study is addressed to the better understanding of the structure of the deepest part of the Larderello geothermal field, by integrating structural, geological, geochemical and geophysical data. Based on downward temperature extrapolation, fluid inclusions and geothermometers analyses, the possible occurrence of super-hot fluids, in supercritical conditions, nearby the K-horizon is envisaged. The final goal is to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the geological structure and the physical conditions (pressure and temperature) of the deep reservoir including also the zone corresponding to the K-horizon, to characterize the supercritical geothermal system as well as the deep crustal processes that work in synergy leading to the regional anomaly.

  18. Circulation path of thermal waters within the Laga foredeep basin inferred from chemical and isotopic (δ18O, δD, 3H, 87Sr/86Sr) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusari, Alessandro; Carroll, Michael R.; Ferraro, Stefano; Giovannetti, Rita; Giudetti, Geoffrey; Invernizzi, Chiara; Mussi, Mario; Pennisi, Maddalena


    , supported by structural data, suggests the Laga Mountains as the recharge area of the system. Reservoir temperature inferred by SO 4 2− –HCO 3 − –F, Ca/Mg and SO 4 2− /F geothermometers is about 80 °C, consistent with the geothermal gradient of the foredeep basin, and deserving further investigations for potential economic implications about this low-enthalpy geothermal area. - Highlights: • One deep thermal end-member has been identified to interpret the chemical results of samples. • Acquasanta thermal water is hosted in limestone, dolomites and anhydrites aquifers. • A geochemical model, water flow path and dilution are proposed. • Thermal end-member shows meteoric origin and average infiltration altitude of 1500–1700 m a.s.l. • Laga Mountains about 30 km south of Acquasanta are identifying as the recharge area.

  19. Element migration of pyrites during ductile deformation of the Yuleken porphyry Cu deposit (NW-China) (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Xu, Xing-Wang; Gao, Jun; Peters, Stephen; Li, Jilei; Cao, Mingjian; Xiang, Peng; Wu, Chu; You, Jun


    The strongly deformed Yuleken porphyry Cu deposit (YPCD) occurs in the Kalaxiangar porphyry Cu belt (KPCB), which occupies the central area of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) between the Sawu’er island arc and the Altay Terrane in northern Xinjiang. The YPCD is one of several typical subduction-related deposits in the KPCB, which has undergone syn-collisional and post-collisional metallogenic overprinting. The YPCD is characterized by three pyrite-forming stages, namely a hydrothermal stage A (Py I), a syn-ductile deformation stage B (Py II) characterized by Cu-Au enrichment, and a fracture-filling stage C (Py III). In this study, we conducted systematic petrographic and geochemical studies of pyrites and coexist biotite, which formed during different stages, in order to constrain the physicochemical conditions of the ore formation. Euhedral, fragmented Py I has low Pb and high Te and Se concentration and Ni contents are low with Co/Ni ratios mostly between 1 and 10 (average 9.00). Py I is further characterized by enrichments of Bi, As, Ni, Cu, Te and Se in the core relative to the rim domains. Anhedral round Py II has moderate Co and Ni contents with high Co/Ni ratios >10 (average 95.2), and average contents of 46.5 ppm Pb and 5.80 ppm Te. Py II is further characterized by decreasing Bi, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Te, Mo, Sb and Au contents from the rim to the core domains. Annealed Py III has the lowest Co content of all pyrite types with Co/Ni ratios mostly <0.1 (average 1.33). Furthermore, Py III has average contents of 3.31 ppm Pb, 1.33 ppm Te and 94.6 ppm Se. In addition, Fe does not correlate with Cu and S in the Py I and Py III, while Py II displays a negative correlation between Fe and Cu as well as a positive correlation between Fe and S. Therefore, pyrites which formed during different tectonic regimes also have different chemical compositions. Biotite geothermometer and oxygen fugacity estimates display increasing temperatures and oxygen

  20. Geochemical and isotopic behavior of fluids from wells in Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Comportamiento geoquimico e isotopico del fluido de los pozos del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)


    In general the wells in Los Humeros geothermal fields produce sodium bicarbonate water with a low salinity because the fluids are produced from the shallow part of the reservoir. The fluids in wells H-33 and H-6 are sodium chloride: the first influenced by fluids from deep levels in the reservoir and the second by fluids coming only from the deeps part of the reservoir. Fluid mixture for other wells depends on operating conditions. To date, it has been difficult with the geothermetric temperatures to establish the underground flow directions and whether or not an infiltration of shallow low-temperature fluids occurs. Well H-16 has the lowest-temperature fluid in the liquid phase, which suggests infiltration of shallow local fluids-a result corroborated by an isotopic study. Using the methodology of Giggenbach and Goguel, we found that the gases are in equilibrium with the liquid phase at temperatures between 275 and 325 Celsius degrees. The maximum temperature is measured in wells H-12 and H-9, where good agreement exists between this temperature and those calculated with a geothermometer of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} . Isotopic results show, in general, that the wells with the highest levels of oxygen-18 are those with the highest geothermetric temperatures (CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2})- both in the north (H-35 and H-9) and in the south (H-6 and H-12)-results that agree with the temperatures measured in the field. The initial thermodynamic conditions of the wells show that they produce fluids from the liquid region. This fact, together with the low salinity, permit the application of the D' Amore methodology, with which the estimations of vapor fractions in the reservoir are relatively low. [Spanish] En general, los pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros producen agua del tipo bicarbonato sodico con baja salinidad. Esto se debe a que extraen fluidos de la parte somera del yacimiento. Los pozos H-33 y H-6 son clorurados sodicos; el primero por cierta influencia de la zona

  1. Mineralogy, alteration patterns, geochemistry, and fluid properties of the Ag-Au epithermal deposit Nová Baňa, Slovakia (United States)

    Majzlan, Juraj; Berkh, Khulan; Kiefer, Stefan; Koděra, Peter; Fallick, Anthony E.; Chovan, Martin; Bakos, František; Biroň, Adrián; Ferenc, Štefan; Lexa, Jaroslav


    In this contribution, we report new data on mineralogy, alteration patterns, geochemistry, fluid properties and source of fluids for the deposit Nová Baňa, one of the smaller epithermal deposits in the Middle Miocene Štiavnica andesite stratovolcano (Western Carpathians, Slovakia). Ore veins and the associated rocks were studied in samples from outcrops and old mines, grab samples, and bore holes from the central part of the deposit (ore structures Althandel, Jozef, Jakub, Vavrinec), northern part (Freischurf), SE part (Gupňa) and SW part (Šibeničný vrch). Pervasive hydrothermal alteration transformed the rock-forming minerals into a mixture of adularia and fine-grained quartz, with lesser amount of pyrite, Ti oxides and Fe oxides. This assemblage was further altered to omnipresent interstratified illite/smectite that was used in this study as a geothermometer, corroborating the results from the fluid inclusion work. Ore minerals comprise predominantly pyrite, sphalerite, galena but all sulfides are relatively sparse in the samples studied. Minerals of precious metals are electrum, Ag-tetrahedrite, acanthite, members of the polybasite-pearceite and pyrargyrite-proustite solid solution, and rare miargyrite, Hg-Ag tetrahedrite, and diaphorite. In the central part, we have found also some stibnite. In the SE part of the deposit, acanthite, uytenbogaardtite, and petrovskaite occur and seem to be related to supergene enrichment of the ores. In bulk ore samples, Zn usually dominates over Pb and Cu. The average Ag:Au ratio for the entire deposit is 64:1. The concentrations of precious metals in the grab samples reach maxima of 50 ppm Au and 570 ppm Ag in the SE part and 116 ppm Au and 1110 ppm Ag in the central part of the deposit. Fluid inclusions show signs of trapping of a heterogeneous fluid. In the central, northern and SE parts of the deposit, homogenization temperatures of 190-260 °C and consistently low salinities of minerals is recalculated to fluid

  2. Geothermal potential in Mexico; Potencial geotermico de la republica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordaz Mendez, Christian Arturo; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Silva, German [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    Globally, Mexico is the fourth largest generator of geothermal electricity with an installed capacity of 958 MWe. The Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos (GPG, Geothermal-electric division of the Federal Commision for Electricity -CFE) is responsible for using geothermal resources. The GPG calculated the country's geothermal potential as part of CFE's strategy to increase power generation through non-conventional sources. The calculation departed from the GPG's national inventory of thermal manifestations, which is composed of 1380 manifestations scattered throughout the country. At each, surface temperatures were measured and subsurface temperatures estimated by geo-thermometers. The calculation of the geothermal potential was based on the classifying these manifestations by geo-thermometric temperature ranges, providing for high, medium and low enthalpy resources. The volumetric method was used to obtain the national geothermal potential. The results indicate that the Potential Reserves of high-enthalpy resources amounts to 5691 MWe; of moderate-enthalpy resources, 881 MWe; and of low-enthalpy resources, 849 MWe -a total of 7422 MWe. Moreover, the Probable Reserves for high-enthalpy resources amounts to 1643 MWe; of moderate-enthalpy resources, 220 MWe; and of low-enthalpy resources, 212 MWe -a total of 2077 MWe. Finally the Proved Reserves were considered, defined as the additional capacity able to be installed in each known geothermal field, for a total of 186 MWe. All the information was processed and integrated using the Geographic Information System (GIS) ArcGis 9.2 (copyright), resulting in the CFE's intranet publication of the Geothermal Potential Map of Mexico. [Spanish] A nivel mundial, Mexico ocupa el cuarto lugar como generador de electricidad por medio de la energia geotermica con una capacidad instalada de 958 MWe. La Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos (GPG) es la responsable del aprovechamiento de estos recursos y como

  3. A new garnet-orthopyroxene thermometer developed: method, results and applications (United States)

    Olivotos, Spyros-Christos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios


    The Fe-Mg exchange reaction between garnet and orthopyroxene is a robust geothermometer that has extensively been used to retrieve metamorphic temperatures from granulitic and peridotitic/pyroxenitic lithologies with important implications on the thermal state of the continental lithosphere. More than 800 experimental mineral pairs from both simple and complex systems were gleaned from the literature covering the P-T range 0.5-15 GPa / 800-1800°C. Grt was treated as a senary (Py, Alm, Grs, Sps, Kno and Uv), whereas Opx as a septenary (En, Fs, Di, Hd, FeTs, MgTs and MgCrTs) solid solution. For Opx, Al in the M1 site was calculated following Carswell (1991) and Fe/Mg equipartitioning between sites was assumed. A mixing on sites model was employed to calculate mole fractions of components for both minerals. With regard to the excess free energy of solution and activity coefficients the formalism of Mukhopadhyay et al. (1993) was adopted treating both minerals as symmetric regular solutions. Calibration was achieved in multiple steps; in each step ΔS was allowed to vary until the standard deviation of the differences between experimental and calculated temperature for all experiments was minimised. The experiment with the largest absolute relative deviation in temperature was then eliminated and the process was repeated. The new thermometer reproduces the experimental data to within 50°C and is independent of P-T-X variations within the bounds of the calibrant data set. Application of our new calibration to metamorphosed crustal and mantle rocks that occur both as massifs and xenoliths in volcanics suggested the following results. Granulite terranes have recorded differences in temperature between peak and re-equilibration conditions in the range 100-340°C, primarily depending on the mechanism and rate of exhumation. Several provinces retain memory of discrete cooling pulses (e.g. Palni Hills, South Harris, Adirondacks, E. Antarctic Belt, Aldan Shield) whereas

  4. Diagenesis and transfers in fractured argillaceous environment: the Tournemire argillite (Aveyron, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyaud, J.B.


    The Tournemire experimental site (Aveyron, France) is located on the Western margin of the Causses basin, South of Massif Central, and is studied as natural analogue of a nuclear wastes disposal site by the French Institute for Nuclear Safety and Radioprotection (IRSN). It is situated inside a former railway tunnel passing through a lithified and fractured Toarcian shale formation, 200 m thick, covered by a 300 m thick limestone and dolomite aquifer. This work aims at characterizing the evolution of confinement capacities in the shale during its geological history. In the Causses basin, sedimentary dynamics are uncertain during Lower Cretaceous due to an important Cretaceous erosion event. The thermal history of the region was reconstructed to solve this problem, using geo-thermometers and geo-chrono-thermometers. Organic mater Tmax determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis range from 433 to 440 deg C and indicate diagenetic condition consistent with oil window upper limit. Homogenization temperatures in two-phase aqueous inclusions measured between 80 and 120 deg. C, the occurrence of ordered mixed layer with illite content higher than 70%, and thermal resetting of apatite fission tracks agree with these conditions. Fission tracks data reveal the occurrence of an important and quick denudation beginning at about 120-110 Main the Causses area, consistent with the Durancian Isthmus formation in the SE basin. Tmax modelling supports the sedimentation of 800 to 1600 m thick deposits during Lower Cretaceous. Those sediments were removed during the erosion period that occurred between 110 and 90 Main the Causses basin. During Jurassic, a global extension phase induces subsidence in the Causses basin, and cause the shale burial. Another deformation phase, a compression phase, occurred during Eocene, owing to the Pyrenean orogeny. During extension, calcite veins crystallized at temperatures between 80 and 120 deg C from fluids evolved from marine water, whereas they crystallized

  5. Goechemical and Hydrogeochemical Properties of Cappadocia Geothermal Province (United States)

    Furkan Sener, Mehmet; Sener, Mehmet; Uysal, Tonguc


    In order to determine the geothermal resource potential of Niǧde, Nevşehir and Aksaray provinces in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP), geothermal fluids, surface water, and alteration rock samples from the Cappadocia volcanic zone in Turkey were investigated for their geochemical and stable isotopic characteristics in light of published geological and tectonic studies. Accordingly, the Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP) has two different geothermal systems located along tectonic zones including five active and two potential geothermal fields, which are located between Tuzgölü Fault Zone and Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault and north of Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault. Based on water chemistry and isotope compositions, samples from the first area are characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 ve Ca-HCO3 type mineral poor waters and Ca-Na-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO4 type for the cold waters and the hot waters, respectively, whereas hot waters from the second area are Na-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3 type mineral poor waters. According to δ18O and δ2H isotope studies, the geothermal waters are fed from meteoric waters. Results of silica geothermometer indicate that the reservoir temperature of Dertalan, Melendiz Mount, Keçiboyduran Mount, Hasan Mount (Keçikalesi), Ziga, Acıgöl, and Derinkuyu geothermal waters are 150-173 oC, 88-117 oC, 91-120 oC, 94-122 oC, 131-156 oC, 157-179 oC; 152-174 oC and 102-130 oC, respectively. The REE composition of geothermal fluids, surface water, and mineral precipitates indicate that temperature has a strong effect on REE fractionation of the sampled fluids. Eu- and Ce- anomalies (Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*) are visible in several samples, which are related to the inheritance from the host reservoir rocks and redox-controlled fractionation of these elements during water-rock interactions. REE and Yttrium geochemistry results of altered rock samples and water samples, which were taken from same locations exhibited quite similar features in each system. Hence, it was

  6. A conceptual geochemical model of the geothermal system at Surprise Valley, CA (United States)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Ferguson, Colin; Cantwell, Carolyn A.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; McClain, James; Spycher, Nicolas; Dobson, Patrick


    Characterizing the geothermal system at Surprise Valley (SV), northeastern California, is important for determining the sustainability of the energy resource, and mitigating hazards associated with hydrothermal eruptions that last occurred in 1951. Previous geochemical studies of the area attempted to reconcile different hot spring compositions on the western and eastern sides of the valley using scenarios of dilution, equilibration at low temperatures, surface evaporation, and differences in rock type along flow paths. These models were primarily supported using classical geothermometry methods, and generally assumed that fluids in the Lake City mud volcano area on the western side of the valley best reflect the composition of a deep geothermal fluid. In this contribution, we address controls on hot spring compositions using a different suite of geochemical tools, including optimized multicomponent geochemistry (GeoT) models, hot spring fluid major and trace element measurements, mineralogical observations, and stable isotope measurements of hot spring fluids and precipitated carbonates. We synthesize the results into a conceptual geochemical model of the Surprise Valley geothermal system, and show that high-temperature (quartz, Na/K, Na/K/Ca) classical geothermometers fail to predict maximum subsurface temperatures because fluids re-equilibrated at progressively lower temperatures during outflow, including in the Lake City area. We propose a model where hot spring fluids originate as a mixture between a deep thermal brine and modern meteoric fluids, with a seasonally variable mixing ratio. The deep brine has deuterium values at least 3 to 4‰ lighter than any known groundwater or high-elevation snow previously measured in and adjacent to SV, suggesting it was recharged during the Pleistocene when meteoric fluids had lower deuterium values. The deuterium values and compositional characteristics of the deep brine have only been identified in thermal springs and

  7. High-temperature carbonates in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA (United States)

    Aird, H. M.; Boudreau, A. E.


    The processes involved in the petrogenesis of the sulphide-hosted platinum-group-element (PGE) deposits of the Stillwater Complex are controversial, with theories ranging from the purely magmatic to those involving an aqueous fluid. To further constrain these models, we have been examining the trace phase assemblages in rocks away from the ore zones. High-temperature carbonates have been observed in association with sulphide minerals below the platiniferous J-M Reef of the Stillwater Complex. The carbonate assemblage consists of dolomite with exsolved calcite and is found in contact with sulphide minerals: chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite in the Peridotite Zone; and pyrrhotite with pentlandite, pyrite and chalcopyrite in Gabbronorite I of the Lower Banded Series. The minimal silicate alteration and the lack of greenschist minerals in association with the mineral assemblage are consistent with a high-temperature origin for the carbonates. The calcite-dolomite geothermometer [1] yields a minimum formation temperature of ~900°C for the unmixed assemblages. A reaction rim surrounds the carbonate-sulphide assemblages, showing an alteration of the host orthopyroxene to a more Ca-enriched, Fe-depleted composition. This is consistent with diffusive exchange between carbonates and pyroxenes at high temperatures, mediated by an aqueous fluid. The highly variable molar MnO/FeO ratios in both the high-temperature carbonates and their associated altered pyroxene rims also imply their interaction with a fluid. The carbonate assemblages are consistent with Stillwater fluid inclusion studies [2], showing that fluids comprising coexisting Cl-rich brine and carbonic fluid were trapped in pegmatitic quartz at 700-715°C, some of which also contained "accidental" calcite inclusions. The high Cl-content of apatite [3] found below the platiniferous J-M Reef is further evidence that a Cl-rich fluid was migrating through the rocks beneath the Reef. Carbonates have been shown to be stabilized

  8. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.


    estimated by both dissolved SiO2 and Na-K-Ca geothermometers are in the range of 125.0 to 135.4 C, and higher than the values measured at orifices (77.3 to 90.0 C). CO2 and homologs of straight chain alkanes (C1-C5) were identified in gas samples. Carbon isotope values of alkanes increase with carbon numbers. The C-13 fractionation between CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon suggests they are out of carbon isotope equilibrium. The hypothesis regarding the formation of carbon-bearing compounds in SVHS may involve two processes: 1) Under high heat flow conditions which are caused by regional faulting and crustal extension, original high molecular weight organic compounds (kerogens) in clay-rich rocks decomposed to generate methane and other alkane homologs. 2) The SVHS area is associated with outflow structures, and distant from the heat source. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate at shallow depth (< 90 C) is suggested as being responsible for the generation of CO2 in SVHS.

  9. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.


    by both dissolved SiO2 and Na-K-Ca geothermometers are in the range of 125.0 to 135.4 oC, and higher than the values measured at orifices (77.3 to 90.0 oC). CO2 and homologs of straight chain alkanes (C1-C5) were identified in gas samples. Carbon isotope values of alkanes increase with carbon numbers. The 13C fractionation between CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon suggests they are out of carbon isotope equilibrium. The hypothesis regarding the formation of carbon-bearing compounds in SVHS may involve two processes: 1) Under high heat flow conditions which are caused by regional faulting and crustal extension, original high molecular weight organic compounds (kerogens) in clay-rich rocks decomposed to generate methane and other alkane homologs. 2) The SVHS area is associated with outflow structures, and distant from the heat source. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate at shallow depth (< 90 oC) is suggested as being responsible for the generation of CO2 in SVHS.

  10. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.


    generally can be characterized as a sodium bicarbonate type, with greater proportions of chloride north of the Dixie Valley playa, and greater proportions of sulfate south of the playa. Analysis of major ion water chemistry data sampled during the study period indicates that groundwater north and south of Township 22N differ chemically. Dixie Valley groundwater quality is marginal when compared with national primary and secondary drinking-water standards. Arsenic and fluoride concentrations exceed primary drinking water standards, and total dissolved solids and manganese concentrations exceed secondary drinking water standards in samples collected during this study. High concentrations of boron and tungsten also were observed. Chemical comparisons between basin-fill and geothermal aquifer water indicate that most basin-fill groundwater sampled could contain 10–20 percent geothermal water. Geothermal indicators such as high temperature, lithium, boron, chloride, and silica suggest that mixing occurs in many wells that tap the basin-fill aquifer, particularly on the north, south, and west sides of the basin. Magnesium-lithium geothermometers indicate that some basin-fill aquifer water sampled for the current study likely originates from water that was heated above background mountain-block recharge temperatures (between 3 and 15 degrees Celsius), highlighting the influence of mixing with warm water that was possibly derived from geothermal sources.

  11. Los óxidos de Fe-Ti de las rocas calco-alcalinas del sureste de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Ruiz, J.


    Full Text Available The Fe-Ti oxides appearing in the calc-alkaline rocks from SE Spain are titanomagnetite and ilmenite, although there are also sorne crystals of maghemite resulting from the oxidation of the rnagnetite. Titanomagnetite is to be found in all petrologic types, but the second is absent from the basaltic andesites and even from the less siliceous andesites. The titanomagnetites present a low proportion of molecule ulvospinel (10.6-28.9%, because of the low content in TiO2 of these lavas . The percentage of R.O. in the ilmenites analysed is relatively small (19.7-26.5%. However, both oxides are progressively richer in the above-mentioned molecules as they pass from andesites to dacites . From the chemical composition of both coexisting oxide phases it has been estimated, using the curves of Buddington and Lidsley (1964, that the andesites crystallized at temperatures between 880°C and 855°C and under oxygen fugacities of around 10-11.2 and 10-11.4 atm., while the temperatures in the case of the dacites were between 880°C and 8l0°C, with oxygen fugacities of 10-11.4 and 10-12.3 atm. The fO2-T curve of these rocks is therefore situated above that of nickel-nickel oxide (NNO buffer. These crystallization temperatures are somewhat lower than those determined by using the pair orthopyroxene-c1inopyroxene (Wood and Banno, 1973 and Wells, 1977. However, since it is widely considered that the titanomagnetite-ilmenite geothermometer is the most accurate, these temperatures are considered more correct than those determined from the composition of pyroxenes .

    Los óxidos de Fe-Ti que aparecen en las rocas calco-alcalinas del sureste de España son titanomagnetita e ilmenita, si bien también hay algunos cristales de maghemita, producto de la oxidación de la magnetita. La primera está presente en todos los tipos petrológicos existentes , pero la segunda está ausente en las andesitas

  12. The distribution of gallium, germanium and indium in conventional and non-conventional resources. Implications for global availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Max


    devoted to the chemistry of sphalerite. Sphalerite is the chief host mineral of gallium, germanium and indium in many base-metal sulphide deposits. A better understanding of the geological controls on its composition is therefore most relevant, since base-metal sulphide deposits constitute a major source of all three elements. Making use of the compiled geochemical data, it could be shown that the concentrations of Ga, Ge (also Fe and Mn), and to a lesser degree In, in hydrothermal sphalerite depend strongly on its temperature of formation. The quantification of these dependencies led to the proposal of a new sphalerite geothermometer. Not only do these results have wide-ranging implications for the identification of gallium-, germanium- and indium-rich ore deposits, but they are also of general relevance to the field of economic geology as a whole. To summarise, this thesis introduces a general methodology for the assessment of the geological and technological supply potentials of by-product elements, overcoming the major shortcomings in current approaches. It makes use of relevant analytical and technological (recovery) data. Application to the particular examples of gallium, germanium and indium shows that large differences exist in the supply situations of these superficially similar by-product elements. In the future, assessments of this kind should be extended to all other high-tech elements commonly produced as by-products (e.g. selenium, tellurium, rhenium, hafnium), and the results incorporated into criticality assessments. As demonstrated in this work, this is necessary to avoid serious misrepresentations of the important mid- to long-term issues pertinent to each individual element.

  13. Thermal history of type-3 chondrites in the NASA antarctic collection (United States)

    Bonal, L.; Quirico, E.; Montagnac, G.


    petrologic type attributions were found for several chondrites with mostly underestimations of the metamorphic grades. (iv) The structural grade of the polyaromatic carbonaceous matter is fairly homogeneous in most of the considered chondrites with a few exceptions, interpreted in terms of shock events. (v) Recently, there were some promising advances (e.g. [5,6]) in terms of interpretation of the structural order of the polyaromatic carbonaceous matter as a geothermometer for terrestrial rocks of low maturity grades. The used spectral tracers will be considered and the thermometry potentially applied to infer new constraints on the metamorphic temperature experienced by these type 3 chondrites.