WorldWideScience

Sample records for geothermal industry assessment

  1. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This study was initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  2. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes a study initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  3. Industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy is currently limited by the limited knowledge of the resource's distribution. However, the resource assessment activity in the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, has identified a number of fairway or potential resource zones. These zones are located in Kenedy County; in and about Corpus Christi and Nueces Bays in Nueces, San Patricio, and Aransas Counties; in the coastal zones of Matagorda County; and in a crescent-shaped zone parallel to the coastline in Brazoria and Galveston Counties. The Kenedy and Matagorda County zones are situated in rural areas with little or no industrial activity. The Corpus Christi and Brazoria-Galveston zones are in and adjacent to highly industrialized and urbanized districts. The rural zones will require the establishment of new industries for geothermal fluid utilization while the industrial-urban zones will require either new industry, expansion to existing industry, or modification to existing plant and process. Proposed industries for geothermal fluid utilization can be considered with respect to fitting the industry to the available fluids; this has been the usual approach. An alternate approach is to fit the abailable fluids to the proposed industry. In order to follow the alternate approach requires consideration of ways to upgrade the quality of existing geothermal fluids or geothermal-derived or -energized fluids.

  4. Review of International Geothermal Activities and Assessment of US Industry Opportunites: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-08-01

    This report contains detailed summaries, with bibliographies, of past, present, and planned geothermal development in 71 selected countries and areas. The report gives a pretty good description of types of work that had been done in each country by the mid 1980s, but does not tell much about which geothermal-provider country did the work. There are maps for most of the countries. There are numbers for market factors, but not for estimated geothermal potential. The information in this document has been superceded by the country summaries in the World Geothermal Congress Transactions of 1995, 2000, and 2005. This report was prepared by Meridian Corporation, Alexandria, VA. (DJE 2005)

  5. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  6. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  7. Investigation of Corrosion in Geothermal Wells - A Qualitative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kalvenes, Kristi Larsdottir

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering The petroleum industry uses a variety of qualitative risk assessment methods for maintaining well integrity, such as well barrier schematics and barrier diagrams. Identifying barriers and using well barrier schematics are helpful tools in qualitative risk assessments. However, it is not yet clear if these methods can be applied for risk assessments in the geothermal industry. Geothermal wells often produce directly through the casing, instead of thr...

  8. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  9. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  10. Geothermal energy and the bulk electric power and petroleum industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, S.

    1977-01-01

    The roles of competition and power pooling in the utility industry are assessed and explained, and the structure of the Western Electric Utility industry is evaluated. It is argued that a hostile environment for small utilities, maintained by larger investor-owned utilities and by the Bureau of Reclamation, leads to a combination of motives for rapid development of geothermal resources and impedes their success. It is suggested that the impediment feature of the hostile environment for small utilities could be alleviated by granting small utilities access to pooling and, relatedly, by improving the power marketing performance of the Bureau of Reclamation. (MHR)

  11. Application of the geothermal energy in the industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovska-Vasilevska, Sanja

    2001-01-01

    In the worldwide practice, the geothermal energy application, as an alternative energy resource, can be of great importance. This is especially case in the countries where exceptional natural geothermal potential exists. Despite using geothermal energy for both greenhouses heating and balneology, the one can be successfully implemented in the heat requiring industrial processes. This kind of use always provides greater annual heat loading factor, since the industrial processes are not seasonal (or not the greater part of them). The quality of the geothermal resources that are available in Europe, dictates the use within the low-temperature range technological processes. However, these processes are significantly engaged in different groups of processing industries. But, beside this fact the industrial application of geothermal energy is at the beginning in the Europe. (Original)

  12. Assessment of Geothermal Data Resources and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of Geothermal Technologies Program activities and archives related to data collection and analysis. It includes an assessment of the current state of geothermal data, future program and stakeholder data needs, existence of and access to critical data, and high-level direction and prioritization of next steps to meet the Program’s data needs.

  13. Geothermal Program Review XVII: proceedings. Building on 25 years of Geothermal Partnership with Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XVII in Berkeley, California, on May 18--20, 1999. The theme this year was "Building on 25 Years of Geothermal Partnership with Industry". In 1974, Congress enacted Public Law 93-410 which sanctioned the Geothermal Energy Coordination and Management Project, the Federal Government's initial partnering with the US geothermal industry. The annual program review provides a forum to foster this federal partnership with the US geothermal industry through the presentation of DOE-funded research papers from leaders in the field, speakers who are prominent in the industry, topical panel discussions and workshops, planning sessions, and the opportunity to exchange ideas. Speakers and researchers from both industry and DOE presented an annual update on research in progress, discussed changes in the environment and deregulated energy market, and exchanged ideas to refine the DOE Strategic Plan for research and development of geothermal resources in the new century. A panel discussion on Climate Change and environmental issues and regulations provided insight into the opportunities and challenges that geothermal project developers encounter. This year, a pilot peer review process was integrated with the program review. A team of geothermal industry experts were asked to evaluate the research in progress that was presented. The evaluation was based on the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) criteria and the goals and objectives of the Geothermal Program as set forth in the Strategic Plan. Despite the short timeframe and cursory guidance provided to both the principle investigators and the peer reviewers, the pilot process was successful. Based on post review comments by both presenters and reviewers, the process will be refined for next year's program review.

  14. Environmental Assessment -- Hydrothermal Geothermal Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    This environmental impact assessment addresses the design, construction, and operation of an electric generating plant (3 to 4 MWe) and research station (Hawaii Geothermal Research Station (HGRS)) in the Puna district on the Island of Hawaii. The facility will include control and support buildings, parking lots, cooling towers, settling and seepage ponds, the generating plant, and a visitors center. Research activities at the facility will evaluate the ability of a successfully flow-tested well (42-day flow test) to provide steam for power generation over an extended period of time (two years). In future expansion, research activities may include direct heat applications such as aquaculture and the effects of geothermal fluids on various plant components and specially designed equipment on test modules. Construction-related impacts would be relatively minor. Construction of the facility will require the distance of about 1.7 ha (4.1 acres). No further disturbance is anticipated, unless it becomes necessary to replace the seepage pond with an injection well, because the production well is in service and adjacent roads and transmission lines are adequate. Disruption of competing land uses will be minimal, and loss of wildlife habitat will be acceptable. Noise should not significantly affect wildlife and local residents; the most noise activities (well drilling and flow testing) have been completed. Water use during construction will not be large, and impacts on competing uses are unlikely. Socio-economic impacts will be small because the project will not employ a large number of local residents and few construction workers will need to find local housing.

  15. Prospects for geothermal commercialization in the greenhouse industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressler, S.E.; Hanemann, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    A number of areas considered directly relevant to a particular greenhouse firm's decision to use or not to use geothermal energy for its commercial needs are emphasized. These areas include: current fuel uses and problems, and future fuel concerns; firm decision-making processes, including managerial and financing conventions; perceived commercial potential for geothermal energy in the industry; the potential institutional framework for user involvement in geothermal development; and the role that government might most effectively play in stimulating user development. The results are based upon extensive personal interviews with decision-makers in the industry. (MHR)

  16. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, P.; Cataldi, R.

    1978-01-01

    future. In a manner similar to mineral and fuel assessment, this recoverability is expressed as a "recovery factor". For an ideally permeable hot-water system, the recovery factor may be as much as 50% and seems to be independent of temperature. It must decrease as effective porosity (??e) decreases, but the relation between the two is little more than a guess. On the other hand, for favorable systems like Larderello that produce steam by a mechanism of intergranular vaporization, the recovery factor is probably around 15-20%, decreasing to zero at an effective porosity of zero. According to the anlysis of Bodvarsson (1974), it increases with decreasing reservoir temperature, and as pointed out by Nathenson (1975a) is limited at low temperatures by the need to have sufficient reservoir pressure for extraction and use. The extent to which a geothermal reservoir can be resupplied with heat during "industrial" times of 10-100 yr can be evaluated using simple analytical models. The results, combined with gravity and levelling data of Hunt (1977) for Wairakei and Isherwood (1977) for The Geysers, confirm earlier conclusions by Ramey (1970) and Nathenson (1975a) that resupply to reservoirs producing only steam can be neglected, and the conclusion of Nathenson (1975a) that it may be significant for hot-water systems of high natural discharge. Major subjects that demand continuing investigation include: 1. 1. Determination of recovery factors as functions of temperature and effective porosity, particularly for hot-water systems. 2. 2. Evaluation of fluid recharge and heat resupply by repetitive gravity, levelling and underground temperature surveys in producing geothermal fields. 3. 3. Analysis of the extent to which a recovery factor can be enhanced by stimulation and by use of confined circulation loops. ?? 1979.

  17. Pahoa geothermal industrial park. Engineering and economic analysis for direct applications of geothermal energy in an industrial park at Pahoa, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    This engineering and economic study evaluated the potential for developing a geothermal industrial park in the Puna District near Pahoa on the Island of Hawaii. Direct heat industrial applications were analyzed from a marketing, engineering, economic, environmental, and sociological standpoint to determine the most viable industries for the park. An extensive literature search produced 31 existing processes currently using geothermal heat. An additional list was compiled indicating industrial processes that require heat that could be provided by geothermal energy. From this information, 17 possible processes were selected for consideration. Careful scrutiny and analysis of these 17 processes revealed three that justified detailed economic workups. The three processes chosen for detailed analysis were: an ethanol plant using bagasse and wood as feedstock; a cattle feed mill using sugar cane leaf trash as feedstock; and a papaya processing facility providing both fresh and processed fruit. In addition, a research facility to assess and develop other processes was treated as a concept. Consideration was given to the impediments to development, the engineering process requirements and the governmental support for each process. The study describes the geothermal well site chosen, the pipeline to transmit the hydrothermal fluid, and the infrastructure required for the industrial park. A conceptual development plan for the ethanol plant, the feedmill and the papaya processing facility was prepared. The study concluded that a direct heat industrial park in Pahoa, Hawaii, involves considerable risks.

  18. The geothermal partnership: Industry, utilities, and government meeting the challenges of the 90's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal community. This year's conference, Program Review IX, was held in San Francisco on March 19--21, 1991. The theme of this review was The Geothermal Partnership -- Industry, Utilities, and Government Meeting the Challenges of the 90's.'' The importance of this partnership has increased markedly as demands for improved technology must be balanced with available research resources. By working cooperatively, the geothermal community, including industry, utilities, DOE, and other state and federal agencies, can more effectively address common research needs. The challenge currently facing the geothermal partnership is to strengthen the bonds that ultimately will enhance opportunities for future development of geothermal resources. Program Review IX consisted of eight sessions including an opening session. The seven technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy and the progress associated with the Long Valley Exploratory Well. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  19. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Troppe, W. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  20. FIJI geothermal resource assessment and development programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autar, Rohit K.

    1996-01-24

    The Fiji Department of Energy (DOE) has a comprehensive resource assessment programme which assesses and promotes the use of local renewable energy resources where they are economically viable. DOE is currently involved in the investigation of the extent of geothermal resources for future energy planning and supply purposes. The aim is to determine (a) whether exploitable geothermal fields exist in the Savusavu or Labasa areas. the two geothermal fields with the greatest potential, (b) the cost of exploiting these fields for electricity generation/process heat on Vanua Levu. (c) the comparative cost per mega-watt-hour (MWh) of geothermal electricity generation with other generating options on Vanua Levu, and. (d) to promote the development of the geothermal resource by inviting BOO/BOOT schemes. Results to date have indicated that prospects for using geothermal resource for generating electricity lies in Savusavu only - whereas the Labasa resource can only provide process heat. All geophysical surveys have been completed and the next stage is deep drilling to verify the theoretical findings and subsequent development.

  1. Geothermal resources assessment in Hawaii. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1984-02-21

    The Hawaii Geothermal Resources Assessment Program was initiated in 1978. The preliminary phase of this effort identified 20 Potential Geothermal Resource Areas (PGRA's) using available geological, geochemical and geophysical data. The second phase of the Assessment Program undertook a series of field studies, utilizing a variety of geothermal exploration techniques, in an effort to confirm the presence of thermal anomalies in the identified PGRA's and, if confirmed, to more completely characterize them. A total of 15 PGRA's on four of the five major islands in the Hawaiian chain were subject to at least a preliminary field analysis. The remaining five were not considered to have sufficient resource potential to warrant study under the personnel and budget constraints of the program.

  2. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  3. Geothermal power for communities and industry. Lecture meeting; Geothermische Energie fuer Kommunen und Industrie. Vortragsveranstaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Geothermal energy is utilized in many ways in Germany for heating, cooling and power generation. The first industrial-scale power generation plant was commissioned in Neustadt-Glewe, Mecklenburg, in late 2003. This marks the beginning of an era of rapid development which will make geothermal power a key element of power supply in Germany. Studies show a vast geothermal potential. This proceedings volume comprises 17 papers which illustrate the many applications of geothermal power and its legal and economic boundary conditions. (orig.)

  4. Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives

  5. Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives.

  6. Mechanism of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in the Geothermal Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is one of the cleanest sources of energy which is gaining importance as an alternative to hydrocarbons. Geothermal energy reserves in China are enormous and it has a huge potential for exploitation and utilization. However, the development of the geothermal industry in China lags far behind other renewable energy sources because of the lack of fiscal and taxation policy support. In this paper, we adopt the system dynamics method and use the causal loop diagram to explore the development mechanism of fiscal and taxation policies in the geothermal industry. The effect of the fiscal and taxation policy on the development of the geothermal industry is analyzed. In order to promote sustainable development of the geothermal industry in China, the government should pay more attention to subsidies for the geothermal industry in the life-cycle stage of the geothermal industry. Furthermore, a plan is necessary to provide a reasonable system of fiscal and taxation policies.

  7. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  8. NANA Geothermal Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-06-22

    In 2008, NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) assessed geothermal energy potential in the NANA region for both heat and/or electricity production. The Geothermal Assessment Project (GAP) was a systematic process that looked at community resources and the community's capacity and desire to develop these resources. In October 2007, the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17075 to NRC for the GAP studies. Two moderately remote sites in the NANA region were judged to have the most potential for geothermal development: (1) Granite Mountain, about 40 miles south of Buckland, and (2) the Division Hot Springs area in the Purcell Mountains, about 40 miles south of Shungnak and Kobuk. Data were collected on-site at Granite Mountain Hot Springs in September 2009, and at Division Hot Springs in April 2010. Although both target geothermal areas could be further investigated with a variety of exploration techniques such as a remote sensing study, a soil geochemical study, or ground-based geophysical surveys, it was recommended that on-site or direct heat use development options are more attractive at this time, rather than investigations aimed more at electric power generation.

  9. The state of the Canadian geothermal heat pump industry 2010 : industry survey and market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    This report provided an overview of the state of the Canadian geothermal heat pump industry for 2010. In 2003, the Canadian GeoExchange Coalition (CGC) embarked on a market transformation initiative that continues to shape Canada's geothermal heat pump markets. The market for ground source heat pumps has grown by more than 60 percent annually in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The large increases in oil prices has created a price effect strong enough to trigger fuel switching for many consumers. Growth in the industry has also coincided with grant and financial assistance programs deployed by provincial governments, utilities, and the federal government. The ecoENERGY retrofitting program initiated in 2007 encouraged the use of geothermal heat pumps in the residential retrofit market. Tax rebate and load programs, as well as direct grants from provincial governments have increased demand in the new-built market. Canada's geothermal heat pump markets are growing much faster than United States geothermal markets. Closed horizontal loop systems accounted for 49.4 percent of residential installations. The CGC has trained over 2968 installers as well as many designers and inspectors for geothermal heat pumps. Colleges and public institutions are now creating training programs related to geothermal energy use. The total economic activity of the geoexchange industry in 2009 was estimated at in excess of $500 million. 29 tabs., 63 figs.

  10. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffler, L.J.P. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The geothermal resource assessment presented is a refinement and updating of USGS Circular 726. Nonproprietary information available in June 1978 is used to assess geothermal energy in the ground and, when possible, to evaluate the fraction that might be recovered at the surface. Five categories of geothermal energy are discussed: conduction-dominated regimes, igneous-related geothermal systems, high-temperature (> 150/sup 0/C) and intermediate-temperature (90 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal convection systems, low-temperature (< 90/sup 0/C) geothermal waters, and geopressured-geothermal energy (both thermal energy and energy from dissolved methane). Assessment data are presented on three colored maps prepared in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers on these five categories.

  11. The USGS national geothermal resource assessment: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Reed, M.J.; Galanis, S.P.; DeAngelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program and other geothermal organizations on a three-year effort to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources. The new assessment will introduce significant changes in the models for geothermal energy recovery factors, estimates of reservoir volumes, and limits to temperatures and depths for electric power production. It will also include the potential impact of evolving Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. New models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of both natural geothermal reservoirs and reservoirs that may be created through the application of EGS technology. Project investigators have also made substantial progress studying geothermal systems and the factors responsible for their formation through studies in the Great Basin-Modoc Plateau region, Coso, Long Valley, the Imperial Valley and central Alaska, Project personnel are also entering the supporting data and resulting analyses into geospatial databases that will be produced as part of the resource assessment.

  12. 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal assessment program, Colorada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, J.A.; Hemborg, H.T.

    1995-01-01

    Previous assessments of Colorado`s low-temperature geothermal resources were completed by the Colorado Geological Survey in 1920 and in the mid- to late-1970s. The purpose of the 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment is to update the earlier physical, geochemical, and utilization data and compile computerized databases of the location, chemistry, and general information of the low-temperature geothermal resources in Colorado. The main sources of the data included published data from the Colorado Geological Survey, the US Geological Survey WATSTOR database, and the files of the State Division of Water Resources. The staff of the Colorado Geological Survey in 1992 and 1993 visited most of the known geothermal sources that were recorded as having temperatures greater than 30{degrees}C. Physical measurements of the conductivity, pH, temperature, flow rate, and notes on the current geothermal source utilization were taken. Ten new geochemical analyses were completed on selected geothermal sites. The results of the compilation and field investigations are compiled into the four enclosed Quattro Pro 4 databases. For the purposes of this report a geothermal area is defined as a broad area, usually less than 3 sq mi in size, that may have several wells or springs. A geothermal site is an individual well or spring within a geothermal area. The 1992-1993 assessment reports that there are 93 geothermal areas in the Colorado, up from the 56 reported in 1978; there are 157 geothermal sites up from the 125 reported in 1978; and a total of 382 geochemical analyses are compiled, up from the 236 reported in 1978. Six geothermal areas are recommended for further investigation: Trimble Hot Springs, Orvis Hot Springs, an area southeast of Pagosa Springs, the eastern San Luis Valley, Rico and Dunton area, and Cottonwood Hot Springs.

  13. Quantitative Risk Assessment for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.; McKenna, S. A.; Hadgu, T.; Kalinina, E.

    2011-12-01

    This study uses a quantitative risk-assessment approach to place the uncertainty associated with enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) development into meaningful context and to identify points of attack that can reduce risk the most. Using the integrated geothermal assessment tool, GT-Mod, we calculate the complimentary cumulative distribution function of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) that results from uncertainty in a variety of geologic and economic input parameter values. EGS is a developing technology that taps deep (2-10km) geologic heat sources for energy production by "enhancing" non-permeable hot rock through hydraulic stimulation. Despite the promise of EGS, uncertainties in predicting the physical end economic performance of a site has hindered its development. To address this, we apply a quantitative risk-assessment approach that calculates risk as the sum of the consequence, C, multiplied by the range of the probability, ΔP, over all estimations of a given exceedance probability, n, over time, t. The consequence here is defined as the deviation from the best estimate LCOE, which is calculated using the 'best-guess' input parameter values. The analysis assumes a realistic but fictitious EGS site with uncertainties in the exploration success rate, the sub-surface thermal gradient, the reservoir fracture pattern, and the power plant performance. Uncertainty in the exploration, construction, O&M, and drilling costs are also included. The depth to the resource is calculated from the thermal gradient and a target resource temperature of 225 °C. Thermal performance is simulated using the Gringarten analytical solution. The mass flow rate is set to produce 30 MWe of power for the given conditions and is adjusted over time to maintain that rate over the plant lifetime of 30 years. Simulations are conducted using GT-Mod, which dynamically links the physical systems of a geothermal site to simulate, as an integrated, multi-system component, the

  14. The use of Geothermal Energy Resources in the Tourism Industry of Vojvodina (Northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Tomić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of geothermal energy in Vojvodina is still at an unjustly low level taking into account the abundance of resource locations, some of which are ranked among the most affluent in Europe. Moreover, development of geothermal exploitation started in Serbia at about the same time as in other countries whose geothermal energy facilities are now at the highest technological level and which are leaders in this field. The largest use of geothermal energy in Vojvodina is present in the non-energetic area, especially in spas and sports–recreational centers. Other, seasonal consumers of geothermal energy are from the field of industry and agricultural production where the energy is used for heating of cattle and poultry farms, greenhouses and other facilities. However these consumers use only a small portion of available geothermal resources. The main users are those from the tourism industry. The goal of this paper is to give an overview and an analysis of the use of geothermal energy resources, mainly geothermal waters, in the tourism industry of Vojvodina. It shows how these resources are used and also for what are they used by the tourism industry. The paper covers only geothermal resources that are currently being used by the tourism industry. The potential for future usage in this area is also briefly discussed

  15. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  16. Assessing the environmental impact of geothermal residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, G.L.; Kirk, D.W.; Graydon, J.W.; Seyfried, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Philippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing As, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb at levels above the earth's crustal abundance were studied for their environmental impact. Several techniques and procedures were used to assess the risk posed by the residues: whole rock analysis, X- ray diffraction, radioactivity counting, protocol leach tests, toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test and a preliminary acid mine dramage potential test. There was no evidence of toxicity or genotoxicity present in any of the samples tested. Leaching tests indicated that all of the wastes could be classified as non-hazardous. One sample showed a low-level radio activity but it was still within the occupational dose limit. Three samples tested positive for acidification potential while none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after three months of weathering test

  17. Energy balance and economic feasibility of shallow geothermal systems for winery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mazarrón, F.; Almoguera-Millán, J.; García-Llaneza, J.; Perdigones, A.

    2012-04-01

    paper analyzes the use of shallow geothermal systems in wineries, studying its feasibility versus conventional HVAC systems. A comparative analysis of six European locations will be performed. [1] OIV, Assessment on the world vitiviniculture situation in 2010, in, Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin, 2010. [2] FAO, Agribusiness Handbook: Grapes Wine, in, Investment Centre Division. FAO, 2009. [3] F.R. Mazarrón, J. Cid-Falceto, I. Cañas, An assessment of using ground thermal inertia as passive thermal technique in the wine industry around the world, Applied Thermal Engineering, 33-34 (0) (2012) 54-61.

  18. Geothermal life cycle assessment - part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, E. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A set of key issues pertaining to the environmental performance of geothermal electric power have been addressed. They include: 1) greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from geothermal facilities, 2) the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a geofluid for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), 3) quantifying the impact of well field exploration on the life cycle of geothermal power, and finally 4) criteria pollutant emissions for geothermal and other electric power generation. A GHG emission rate (g/kWh) distribution as function of cumulative running capacity for California has been developed based on California and U. S. government data. The distribution is similar to a global distribution for compared geothermal technologies. A model has been developed to estimate life cycle energy of and CO2 emissions from a coupled pair of coal and EGS plants, the latter of which is powered by scCO2 captured from coal plant side. Depending on the CO2 capture rate on the coal side and the CO2 consumption rate on the EGS side, significant reductions in GHG emissions were computed when the combined system is compared to its conventional coal counterpart. In effect, EGS CO2 consumption acts as a sequestration mechanism for the coal plant. The effects CO2 emissions from the coupled system, prompt on the coal side and reservoir leakage on the EGS side, were considered as well as the subsequent decline of these emissions after entering the atmosphere over a time frame of 100 years. A model was also developed to provide better estimates of the impact of well field exploration on the life cycle performance of geothermal power production. The new estimates increase the overall life cycle metrics for the geothermal systems over those previously estimated. Finally, the GREET model has been updated to include the most recent criteria pollutant emissions for a range of renewable (including geothermal) and other power

  19. Retrospective examination of geothermal environmental assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J.W.; Eddlemon, G.K.; Reed, A.W.

    1984-03-01

    Since 1976, the Department of Energy (DOE) has supported a variety of programs and projects dealing with the exploration, development, and utilization of geothermal energy. This report presents an overview of the environmental impacts associated with these efforts. Impacts that were predicted in the environmental analyses prepared for the programs and projects are reviewed and summarized, along with measures that were recommended to mitigate these impacts. Also, for those projects that have gone forward, actual impacts and implemented mitigation measures are reported, based on telephone interviews with DOE and project personnel. An accident involving spills of geothermal fluids was the major environmental concern associated with geothermal development. Other important considerations included noise from drilling and production, emissions of H/sub 2/S and cooling tower drift, disposal of solid waste (e.g., from H/sub 2/S control), and the cumulative effects of geothermal development on land use and ecosystems. Mitigation measures were frequently recommended and implemented in conjunction with noise reduction; drift elimination; reduction of fugitive dust, erosion, and sedimentation; blowout prevention; and retention of wastes and spills. Monitoring to resolve uncertainties was often implemented to detect induced seismicity and subsidence, noise, drift deposition, concentrations of air and water pollutants, and effects on groundwater. The document contains an appendix, based on these findings, which outlines major environmental concerns, mitigation measures, and monitoring requirements associated with geothermal energy. Sources of information on various potential impacts are also listed.

  20. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  1. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  2. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    for geothermal resources have been hindered. To increase the effective regional implementation of geothermal resources as an energy source for power production requires meeting several objectives. These include: 1) Expand (oil and gas as well as geothermal) industry awareness of an untapped source of geothermal energy within deep permeable strata of sedimentary basins; 2) Identify and target specific geographic areas within sedimentary basins where deeper heat sources can be developed; 3) Increase future geothermal field size from 10 km2 to many 100’s km2 or greater; and 4) Increase the productive depth range for economic geothermal energy extraction below the current 4 km limit by converting deep depleted and abandoned gas wells and fields into geothermal energy extraction wells. The first year of the proposed 3-year resource assessment covered an eight county region within the Delaware and Val Verde Basins of West Texas. This project has developed databases in Excel spreadsheet form that list over 8,000 temperature-depth recordings. These recordings come from header information listed on electric well logs recordings from various shallow to deep wells that were drilled for oil and gas exploration and production. The temperature-depth data is uncorrected and thus provides the lower temperature that is be expected to be encountered within the formation associated with the temperature-depth recording. Numerous graphs were developed from the data, all of which suggest that a log-normal solution for the thermal gradient is more descriptive of the data than a linear solution. A discussion of these plots and equations are presented within the narrative. Data was acquired that enable the determination of brine salinity versus brine density with the Permian Basin. A discussion on possible limestone and dolostone thermal conductivity parameters is presented with the purpose of assisting in determining heat flow and reservoir heat content for energy extraction. Subsurface

  3. Operational benefits from industrial clusters for the geothermal sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Unnthorsson, Runar; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    Before the 2008 financial crisis, key turbine maintenance procedures within Icelandic geothermal power plants were outsourced to Germany and the United states. During post financial crisis, such procedures became more expensive, creating an incentive for domestic development of such maintenance...... procedures. The Icelandic geothermal sector furthermore seems to prefer marine engineers to oversee operation and maintenance within the power plants. Previous experience of the engineers has been shown by the authors to influence the operation and maintenance developments within the power plants...

  4. Preliminary geothermal assessment surveys for the State of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.; Cox, M.E.; Lienert, B.R.; Kauahikaua, J.P.; Mattice, M.D.

    1980-09-01

    The Geothermal Resource Assessment Program of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics has conducted a series of geochemical and geophysical surveys in ten separate locations within the State of Hawaii in an effort to identify and assess potential geothermal areas throughout the state. The techniques applied include groundwater chemistry and temperatures, soil mercury surveys, ground radon emanometry, time-domain electromagnetic surveys and Schlumberger resistivity soundings. Although geochemical and geophysical anomalies were identified in nearly all the survey sites, those areas which show most promise, based on presently available data, for a geothermal resource are as follows: Puna, Kailua Kona, and Kawaihae on the island of Hawaii; Haiku-Paia and Olowalu-Ukumehame canyons on Maui; and Lualualei Valley on Oahu. Further surveys are planned for most of these areas in order to further define the nature of the thermal resource present.

  5. Hydrothermal Geothermal Subprogram, Hawaii Geothermal Research Station, Hawaii County, Hawaii: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This environmental impact assessment addresses the design, construction, and operation of an electric generating plant (3 to 4 MWe) and research station (Hawaii Geothermal Research Station (HGRS)) in the Puna district on the Island of Hawaii. The facility will include control and support buildings, parking lots, cooling towers, settling and seepage ponds, the generating plant, and a visitors center. Research activities at the facility will evaluate the ability of a successfully flow-tested well (42-day flow test) to provide steam for power generation over an extended period of time (two years). In future expansion, research activities may include direct heat applications such as aquaculture and the effects of geothermal fluids on various plant components and specially designed equipment on test modules. 54 refs., 7 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. A geographically weighted regression model for geothermal potential assessment in mediterranean cultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arpa, S.; Zaccarelli, N.; Bruno, D. E.; Leucci, G.; Uricchio, V. F.; Zurlini, G.

    2012-04-01

    Geothermal heat can be used directly in many applications (agro-industrial processes, sanitary hot water production, heating/cooling systems, etc.). These applications respond to energetic and environmental sustainability criteria, ensuring substantial energy savings with low environmental impacts. In particular, in Mediterranean cultural landscapes the exploitation of geothermal energy offers a valuable alternative compared to other exploitation systems more land-consuming and visual-impact. However, low enthalpy geothermal energy applications at regional scale, require careful design and planning to fully exploit benefits and reduce drawbacks. We propose a first example of application of a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) for the modeling of geothermal potential in the Apulia Region (South Italy) by integrating hydrological (e.g. depth to water table, water speed and temperature), geological-geotechnical (e.g. lithology, thermal conductivity) parameters and land-use indicators. The GWR model can effectively cope with data quality, spatial anisotropy, lack of stationarity and presence of discontinuities in the underlying data maps. The geothermal potential assessment required a good knowledge of the space-time variation of the numerous parameters related to the status of geothermal resource, a contextual analysis of spatial and environmental features, as well as the presence and nature of regulations or infrastructures constraints. We create an ad hoc geodatabase within ArcGIS 10 collecting relevant data and performing a quality assessment. Cross-validation shows high level of consistency of the spatial local models, as well as error maps can depict areas of lower reliability. Based on low enthalpy geothermal potential map created, a first zoning of the study area is proposed, considering four level of possible exploitation. Such zoning is linked and refined by the actual legal constraints acting at regional or province level as enforced by the regional

  7. Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

  8. The evolution of project financing in the geothermal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, G.S.; Miller, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Sound underlying economics and beneficial contractual relationships are the fundamentals of any project financing. Given these essential elements, the successful transaction must properly allocate the costs, benefits and risks to the appropriate participants in the most efficient manner. In this paper the authors examine four instances in which project financing offered optimal solutions to this problem in a series of transactions for the successive development of the 70 MW Ormesa Geothermal Energy Complex in the Imperial Valley of California

  9. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  10. Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of our Nation's geothermal resources. Geothermal power plants are currently operating in six states: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. The assessment indicates that the electric power generation potential from identified geothermal systems is 9,057 Megawatts-electric (MWe), distributed over 13 states. The mean estimated power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 MWe. Additionally, another estimated 517,800 MWe could be generated through implementation of technology for creating geothermal reservoirs in regions characterized by high temperature, but low permeability, rock formations.

  11. Geothermal spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.L.; Takahashi, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The spa business, part of the health and fitness industry that has sprung up in recent years, is highly successful world-wide. The most traditional type of spa is the geothermal spa, found in geothermal areas around the world. In Japan, for example, some 2,000 geothermal spas and resorts generate $6 billion annually. Hawaii has an ideal environment for geothermal spas, and several locations in the islands could supply warm mineral water for spa development. Hawaii receives about 6 million visitors annually, a high percentage of whom are familiar with the relaxing and therapeutic value of geothermal spas, virtually guaranteeing the success of this industry in Hawaii. Presently, Hawaii does not have a single geothermal spa. This paper reports that the geothermal spa business is an industry whose time has come, an industry that offers very promising investment opportunities, and one that would improve the economy while expanding the diversity of pleasurable vacation options in Hawaii

  12. Geothermal absorption refrigeration for food processing industries. Final report, December 13, 1976--November 13, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.L.; Olson, G.K.; Mah, C.S.; Bujalski, J.H.

    1977-11-01

    The first step in the economic analysis of the integration of geothermally powered absorption refrigeration into a food processing plant was an evaluation of the potential geothermal sites in the Western United States. The evaluation covered availability of raw materials, transportation, adequate geothermal source, labor, and other requirements for food processing plants. Several attractive geothermal sites were identified--Raft River, Idaho; Sespe Hot Springs, California; Vale Hot Springs, Oregon; Weisler-Crane Creek, Idaho; Cosco Hot Springs, California; and the Imperial Valley, California. The most economically attractive food processing industry was then matched to the site based on its particular energy, raw material, and transportation requirements. The more promising food processors identified were for frozen potato or vegetable products, freeze-dried products, and meat processing. For the refrigeration temperature range of +32/sup 0/F to -40/sup 0/F and geothermal temperature range of 212/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F, an absorption refrigeration system had to be identified, designed, and evaluated. Both the conventional ammonia/water and an organic absorption refrigeration system using monochlorodifluoromethane (R-22) as the refrigerant and dimethyl formamide (DMF) as the absorbent were studied. In general, only a 60/sup 0/F to 100/sup 0/F temperature drop would be effectively used for refrigeration leaving the remainder of the allowable temperature drop available for other use. The economic evaluation of the geothermal system installed in a food processing plant required the comparison of several principal alternatives. These alternatives were evaluated for three different food processing plants located at their optimum geothermal site: a forzen potato product processing plant located at Raft River, Idaho; a freeze-dried product plant located at Sespe Hot Springs, California; a beef slaughter operation located in the Imperial Valley of California. (JGB)

  13. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  14. Assessment of Geothermal Resources of the United States--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.E.; Williams, D.L. [eds.

    1975-01-01

    This is the first of two significant assessments of the geological energy potential of the U.S. The second one is U.S.G.S. Circular 790. Systems analyzed include: Hydrothermal convection systems (with estimates of potential for many specific sites in the West), Igneous related systems (related to current or recent volcanism), Estimates of the conductive transport of heat in most areas of CONUS, Recovery of heat from molten igneous systems (magma), and Geopressured geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast area. The significance of this report is that it began to give policy makers a first handle on the quantities and qualities of geothermal energy in the ground in much of the U.S. Economics (costs and revenues) are not considered. (DJE - 2005)

  15. Reconnaissance geothermal resource assessment of 40 sites in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leivas, E.; Martin, R.C.; Higgins, C.T.; Bezore, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results are set forth for a continuing reconnaissance-level assessment of promising geothermal sites scattered through California. The studies involve acquisition of new data based upon field observations, compilation of data from published and unpublished sources, and evaluation of the data to identify areas suitable for more intensive area-specific studies. Forty sites were chosen for reporting on the basis of their relative potential for development as a significant resource. The name and location of each site is given, and after a brief synopsis, the geothermal features, chemistry, geology, and history of the site are reported. Three sites are recommended for more detailed study on the basis of potential for use by a large number of consumers, large volume of water, and the likelihood that the resource underlies a large area. (LEW)

  16. Value distribution assessment of geothermal development in Lake County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchman, C.W.; Nelson, H.G.; Eacret, K.

    1977-10-01

    A value distribution assessment is defined as the determination of the distribution of benefits and costs of a proposed or actual development, with the intent of comparing such a development with alternative plans. Included are not only the social and economic effects, but also people's perceptions of their roles and how they are affected by the proposed or actual development. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: on morality and ethics; the vanishing community; case study of pre-development planning--Lake County; methodology for research; Lake County geothermal energy resource; decision making; Planning Commission hearing; communication examples; benefit tracing; response to issues raised by the report of the State Geothermal Task Force; and, conclusions and recommendations. (JGB)

  17. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  18. Assessment and Public Reporting of Geothermal Resources in Germany: Review and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Agemar; Josef Weber; Inga S. Moeck

    2018-01-01

    Any geothermal resource assessment requires consistent and widely accepted terminology, methods, and reporting schemes that facilitate the comparison of geothermal resource estimates. This paper reviews common resource assessment methods, as well as reporting codes and terminology. Based on a rigorous analysis of the portrayed concepts and methods, it discusses the appropriateness of the existing reporting codes for sustainable utilization of geothermal resources in Germany. Since the last qu...

  19. Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-deWys, J. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, now in its fifteenth year, is entering the transition period to commercial use. The industry cost-shared proposals to the consortium, represented in the presentations included in these proceedings, attest to the interest developing in the industrial community in utilizing the geopressured-geothermal resource. Sixty-five participants attended these sessions, two-thirds of whom represented industry. The areas represented by cost-shared proposals include (1) thermal enhanced oil recovery, (2) direct process use of thermal energy, e.g., aquaculture and agriculture, (3) conversion of thermal energy to electricity, (4) environment related technologies, e.g., use of supercritical processes, and (5) operational proposals, e.g., a field manual for scale inhibitors. It is hoped that from this array of potential use projects, some will persist and be successful in proving the viability of using the geopressured-geothermal resource. Such industrial use of an alternative and relatively clean energy resource will benefit our nation and its people.

  20. Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-deWys, J. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, now in its fifteenth year, is entering the transition period to commercial use. The industry cost-shared proposals to the consortium, represented in the presentations included in these proceedings, attest to the interest developing in the industrial community in utilizing the geopressured-geothermal resource. Sixty-five participants attended these sessions, two-thirds of whom represented industry. The areas represented by cost-shared proposals include (1) thermal enhanced oil recovery, (2) direct process use of thermal energy, e.g., aquaculture and agriculture, (3) conversion of thermal energy to electricity, (4) environment related technologies, e.g., use of supercritical processes, and (5) operational proposals, e.g., a field manual for scale inhibitors. It is hoped that from this array of potential use projects, some will persist and be successful in proving the viability of using the geopressured-geothermal resource. Such industrial use of an alternative and relatively clean energy resource will benefit our nation and its people.

  1. Mask industry assessment: 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert V.; Hector, Scott D.

    2004-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the third in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey builds upon the 2003 survey to provide an ongoing database using the same questions as a baseline with only a few minor changes or additions. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  2. Future Scenario Development from Disruptive Exploration Technologies and Business Models in the U.S. Geothermal Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Anna

    2017-05-01

    With recent trends toward intermittent renewable energy sources in the U.S., the geothermal industry in its current form faces a crossroad: adapt, disrupt, or be left behind. Strategic planning with scenario analysis offers a framework to characterize plausible views of the future given current trends - as well as disruptions to the status quo. To inform strategic planning in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO), the Geothermal Vision Study is tasked with offering data-driven pathways for future geothermal development. Scenario analysis is a commonly used tool in private industry corporate strategic planning as a way to prioritize and manage large investments in light of uncertainty and risk. Since much of the uncertainty and risk in a geothermal project is believed to occur within early stage exploration and drilling, this paper focuses on the levers (technical and financial) within the exploration process that can be pulled to affect change. Given these potential changes, this work first qualitatively explores potential shifts to the geothermal industry. Future work within the Geothermal Vision Study will incorporate these qualitative scenarios quantitatively, in competition with other renewable and conventional energy industries.

  3. Mask industry assessment: 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia

    2006-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the fifth in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 survey. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  4. Mask Industry Assessment: 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David

    2011-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the tenth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report has been used as one of the baselines to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It continues to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was essentially the same as the 2005 through 2010 surveys. Questions are grouped into following categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  5. Mask industry assessment: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2009-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the eighth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2008 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This in combination with the past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  6. Mask Industry Assessment: 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia; Hughes, Greg

    2007-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the sixth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 and 2006 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  7. Mask Industry Assessment: 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Chan, David Y.

    2010-09-01

    A survey created supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the ninth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was basically the same as the 2005 through 2009 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  8. Mask industry assessment: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2008-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the seventh in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2007 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  9. Geothermic Potential Assessment of hydrothermal vents of Township Barranca De Upia - Meta - Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chica, J.; Chicangana, G.; Eco Energy Research Group

    2013-05-01

    Hydrothermal vents have been traditionally exploited in Colombia as a source of tourism revenue such as pools and saunas. Leaving aside its high potential for geothermal power generation in applications like heating, drying, cooling, extensive use in crops, livestock, electricity generation and more. Currently the use given to this natural resource in the town of Barranca de Upia in Meta department, central Colombia, is like Wellness Centre. However, the geothermal gradient for the area where hydrothermal vents occur, indicates that the water emerges at temperatures above 70 ° C (Alfaro et al., 2003), which opens a window of opportunity to assess their geothermal potential, in order to know the actual energy potential of the region as an option of augmenting their development. this research is the analysis of information gathered from databases in gravimetry and magnetometry of the study area and the temperatures measured in wells derived from the oil industry. Based on that information, a numerical analysis of the data will be performed in order to establish a model to parameterize the energy potential of the study area and identify possible uses of the energy contained by the hydrothermal vents.

  10. Geothermal Reservoir Insurance Program: Evaluation of Alternatives and Assessment of Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Kamal

    1980-12-16

    In this paper we present some thoughts on a study that would help in laying the groundwork for drafting regulations for the geothermal reservoir insurance program. The objectives of this study would be 1) to assess the likelihood and the financial consequences of premature depletion of reservoirs 2) to evaluate the advantages and shortcomings of alternative schemes for reducing the financial risks of geothermal development 3) to assess the need for government-sponsored reservoir insurance programs, and 4) to delineate the areas and conditions under which a reservoir insurance program would be most useful in promoting national goals . In view of the importance of the government-funded reservoir insurance program and the complex nature of the problem, four issues must be considered in defining the scope and objectives of this study. First, the goals and expectations of the government must be specifically defined and a procedure be developed to allow for measuring the achievement of these goals. Second, the reservoir-related risk should be assessed and a framework should be developed for resolution of differences among the views expressed by segments of the industry on the likelihood of premature reservoir depletion and the financial consequences of such events. Third, given the diversity of opinion among interest groups, it is important that the viewpoints of various segments of industry and the public be sought and incorporated into the study. Fourth, the study should avoid recommending a policy that would be "optimal" from an overall point of view yet would involve so many compromises that no group would consider it beneficial. With these points in mind, we propose the following four steps: DEFINING THE GOALS OF THE GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; ASSESSING THE RISK OF PREMATURE RESERVOIR DEPLETION; EVALUATING ALTERNATIVE SCHEMES; ACHIEVING CONSENSUS AND RECOMMENDING GUIDELINES.

  11. Outstanding Issues in the Assessment of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.; Deangelo, J.

    2010-12-01

    The successful implementation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology has the potential to dramatically expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been working to develop a comprehensive EGS resource assessment for the United States. However, a number of outstanding scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to ensure the accuracy and reliability of this assessment. Among these are determining those conditions under which it is possible to replicate the high average permeability (approximately 10-15 to 10-13 m2) characteristic of natural hydrothermal reservoirs, evaluating the likely heterogeneity of fracture permeability within EGS reservoirs and its influence on the geothermal recovery factor, Rg, which is defined as the ratio of produced thermal energy to the thermal energy contained in the stimulated volume comprising the reservoir, and improving estimates of temperature in the upper crust to better quantify the thermal energy available at those depths viable for EGS reservoir creation. Models for the development of fracture permeability from the shear slip along pre-existing natural fractures induced by hydraulic stimulation indicate that production from EGS reservoirs will be sensitive to the influence of effective stress and rock properties on the processes of shear fracture formation and closure. Calibration of model parameters with results from EGS field experiments and demonstration projects suggests that sufficient permeability may be difficult to attain through shear stimulation at depths greater than approximately 6 km, particularly in regions characterized by high normal stress on pre-existing faults and fractures. In addition, the expected heterogeneity of fracture permeability within EGS reservoirs may limit Rg to values on the order of 0.05 to 0.1, which is at the lower end of the observed range for producing natural geothermal reservoirs. Although

  12. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150 0 C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  13. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  14. Mask industry assessment: 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2003-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask technology and mask supply issues of cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was initiated in 2002 with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition.1 This paper presents the results of the second annual survey which is an enhanced version of the inaugural survey building upon its strengths and improving the weak points. The original survey was designed with the input of member company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. The assessment is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the critical mask industry. An objective is to create a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities and to guide investments on critical-path issues. As subsequent years are added, historical profiles can also be created. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers representing approximately 80% of the global mask market (using revenue as the measure) and making this the most comprehensive mask industry survey ever. The participating companies are: Compugraphics, Dai Nippon Printing, Dupont Photomask, Hoya, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Taiwan Mask Company, Toppan, and TSMC. Questions are grouped into five categories: General Business Profile Information; Data Processing; Yields and Yield loss Mechanisms; Delivery Time; and Returns and Services. Within each category are a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry.

  15. Evaluation of geothermal energy as a heat source for the oilsands industry in Northern Alberta (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M.; Gray, A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Babadagli, T.; Walsh, N.; Weides, S.; Verveda, R.

    2012-12-01

    The extraction and processing of bitumen from the oilsands of Northern Alberta requires very large amounts of heat that is obtained by burning natural gas. At current levels, the gas used represents 6% of Canada's natural gas production. Geothermal energy could potentially provide this heat, thereby reducing both the financial costs and environmental impact of the oilsands industry. The Helmholtz Alberta Initiative is evaluating this application of geothermal energy through an integrated program of geology, geophysics, reservoir simulation and calculations of the cost benefit. A first stage in this evaluation is refining estimates of subsurface temperature beneath Northern Alberta. This has involved three stages: (1) Corrected industrial thermal data have been used to revise estimates of the upper crustal temperatures beneath the oilsands regions in Alberta. The geothermal gradient map produced using heat flow and thermal conductivity for the entire Phanerozoic column suggests that the overall gradient of the entire column is less than the gradients calculated directly from industry measurements. (2) Paleoclimatic corrections must be applied , since this region has experienced a significant increase in surface temperatures since the end of the last ice age causing a perturbation of shallow heat flow. For this reason, estimates of geothermal gradient based on shallow data are not necessarily characteristic of the whole sedimentary column and can lead to errors in temperature prediction at depth. (3) Improved measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity of the crystalline basement rocks (average = 2.9±0.8 W/m K). Thermal conductivity exhibits significant spatial variability and to a large degree controls the temperature conditions in the Precambrian crystalline basement rocks and its heat content at given heat flow-heat generation. When these steps are used to calculate subsurface temperatures, it can be shown that the temperatures required for geothermal

  16. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  17. Mask industry assessment: 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the fourth in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey contains all of the 2004 survey questions to provide an ongoing database. Additional questions were added to the survey covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market. This participation rate is reduced by one captive from 2004. Note: Toppan, DuPont Photomasks Inc and AMTC (new) were consolidated into one input therefore the 2004 and 2005 surveys are basically equivalent.

  18. Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, D.S. [SUNY, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.

  19. Energy performance strategies for the large scale introduction of geothermal energy in residential and industrial buildings: The GEO.POWER project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambastiani, B.M.S.; Tinti, F.; Mendrinos, D.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of shallow geothermal energy, in terms of ground coupled heat pumps (GCHP) for heating and cooling purposes, is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective alternative with potential to replace fossil fuels and help mitigate global warming. Focusing on the recent results of the GEO.POWER project, this paper aims at examining the energy performance strategies and the future regional and national financial instruments for large scale introduction of geothermal energy and GCHP systems in both residential and industrial buildings. After a transferability assessment to evaluate the reproducibility of some outstanding examples of systems currently existing in Europe for the utilisation of shallow geothermal energy, a set of regulatory, economic and technical actions is proposed to encourage the GCHP market development and support geothermal energy investments in the frame of the existing European normative platforms. This analysis shows that many European markets are changing from a new GCHP market to growth market. However some interventions are still required, such as incentives, regulatory framework, certification schemes and training activities in order to accelerate the market uptake and achieve the main European energy and climate targets. - Highlights: • Potentiality of geothermal applications for heating and cooling in buildings. • Description of the GEO.POWER project and its results. • Local strategies for the large scale introduction of GCHPs

  20. 3-D Seismic Methods for Geothermal Reservoir Exploration and Assessment--Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.

    2003-07-14

    the effect of fractures on seismic wave propagation are now being applied to image fractures in gas and oil environments. It now may be appropriate to apply these methods, with modifications, to geothermal applications. It is assumed that to implement the appropriate methods an industry coupled program tightly linked to actual field cases, iterating between development and application will be pursued. The goal of this work is to evaluate the most promising methods and approaches that may be used for improved geothermal exploration and reservoir assessment. It is not a comprehensive review of all seismic methods used to date in geothermal environments. This work was motivated by a need to assess current and developing seismic technology that if applied in geothermal cases may greatly improve the chances for locating new geothermal resources and/or improve assessment of current ones.

  1. Nevada low-temperaure geothermal resource assessment: 1994. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garside, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    Data compilation for the low-temperature program is being done by State Teams in two western states. Final products of the study include: a geothermal database, in hardcopy and as digital data (diskette) listing information on all known low- and moderate- temperature springs and wells in Nevada; a 1:1,000,000-scale map displaying these geothermal localities, and a bibliography of references on Nevada geothermal resources.

  2. Environmental assessment: Industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadley, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian mining industry supports the concept of environmental assessment, but the current process at the time of the conference had a number of problems that the industry felt should be addressed. The author makes the following suggestions: that the process for individual projects should be separated from policy issues; that panel members should be drawn from a full-time staff; that there should be better referral criteria to determine which projects require full scale assessment including public hearings; that either the government or project opponents should participate but not both; that the financial burden on proponents should be reduced; that funding of intervenors should be controlled; that there should be a definite time frame

  3. Basic overview towards the assessment of landslide and subsidence risks along a geothermal pipeline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astisiasari; Van Westen, Cees; Jetten, Victor; van der Meer, Freek; Rahmawati Hizbaron, Dyah

    2017-12-01

    An operating geothermal power plant consists of installation units that work systematically in a network. The pipeline network connects various engineering structures, e.g. well pads, separator, scrubber, and power station, in the process of transferring geothermal fluids to generate electricity. Besides, a pipeline infrastructure also delivers the brine back to earth, through the injection well-pads. Despite of its important functions, a geothermal pipeline may bear a threat to its vicinity through a pipeline failure. The pipeline can be impacted by perilous events like landslides, earthquakes, and subsidence. The pipeline failure itself may relate to physical deterioration over time, e.g. due to corrosion and fatigue. The geothermal reservoirs are usually located in mountainous areas that are associated with steep slopes, complex geology, and weathered soil. Geothermal areas record a noteworthy number of disasters, especially due to landslide and subsidence. Therefore, a proper multi-risk assessment along the geothermal pipeline is required, particularly for these two types of hazard. This is also to mention that the impact on human fatality and injury is not presently discussed here. This paper aims to give a basic overview on the existing approaches for the assessment of multi-risk assessment along geothermal pipelines. It delivers basic principles on the analysis of risks and its contributing variables, in order to model the loss consequences. By considering the loss consequences, as well as the alternatives for mitigation measures, the environmental safety in geothermal working area could be enforced.

  4. Environmental assessment of the proposed nonelectric application of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an environmental analysis performed in evaluating various proposed geothermal demonstration projects at Desert Hot Springs. These are categorized in two ways: (1) indirect, or (2) direct uses. Among the former are greenhouses, industrial complexes, and car washes. The latter include aquaculture, a cascaded agribusiness system, and a mobile home park. Major categories of environmental impact covered are: (1) site, (2) construction of projects, and (3) the use of the geothermal source. Attention is also given to the disposal of the geothermal fluid after use. Finally, it is concluded that there are no major problems forseen for each project, and future objectives are discussed.

  5. National Geothermal Data System: Interactive Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Lee [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Richard, Stephen [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Clark, Ryan; Patten, Kim; Love, Diane; Coleman, Celia; Chen, Genhan; Matti, Jordan; Pape, Estelle; Musil, Leah

    2012-01-30

    Geothermal-relevant geosciences data from all 50 states (www.stategeothermaldata.org), federal agencies, national labs, and academic centers are being digitized and linked in a distributed online network via the U.S. Department of Energy-funded National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) to foster geothermal energy exploration and development through use of interactive online ‘mashups,’data integration, and applications. Emphasis is first to make as much information as possible accessible online, with a long range goal to make data interoperable through standardized services and interchange formats. An initial set of thirty geoscience data content models is in use or under development to define a standardized interchange format: aqueous chemistry, borehole temperature data, direct use feature, drill stem test, earthquake hypocenter, fault feature, geologic contact feature, geologic unit feature, thermal/hot spring description, metadata, quaternary fault, volcanic vent description, well header feature, borehole lithology log, crustal stress, gravity, heat flow/temperature gradient, permeability, and feature descriptions data like developed geothermal systems, geologic unit geothermal properties, permeability, production data, rock alteration description, rock chemistry, and thermal conductivity. Map services are also being developed for isopach maps, aquifer temperature maps, and several states are working on geothermal resource overview maps. Content models are developed preferentially from existing community use in order to encourage widespread adoption and promulgate minimum metadata quality standards. Geoscience data and maps from other NGDS participating institutions, or “nodes” (USGS, Southern Methodist University, Boise State University Geothermal Data Coalition) are being supplemented with extensive land management and land use resources from the Western Regional Partnership (15 federal agencies and 5 Western states) to provide access to a comprehensive

  6. Hawaii geothermal resource assessment program: 1980 geophysics subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauahikaua, J.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    The following are discussed: microearthquake location mapping, gravity and magnetic mapping, computer software development, dc resistivity sounding on Maui, electromagnetic and resistivity sounds on Hawaii, evaluation of VLF and EM loop-loop profiling as tools for rapid geothermal reconnaissance in Hawaii, and the application of statistical analysis to the determination of geothermal indicators. (MHR)

  7. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect

  8. Innovative approach for risk assessment in green field geothermal project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batini, F.; Wees, J.-D. van

    2010-01-01

    At present, the worldwide geothermal energy production provides less than 1% of the world's energy needs but the geothermal resources confined in the first 6 km of the earth's crust are estimated to be in the fairly above 200 GW of which 50-80 GW are located in Europe. Exploring and developing at

  9. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 1. Environment, health, and socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D. (ed.)

    1980-07-01

    Utilization of the Imperial Valley's geothermal resources to support energy production could be hindered if environmental impacts prove to be unacceptable or if geothermal operations are incompatible with agriculture. To address these concerns, an integrated environmental and socioeconomic assessment of energy production in the valley was prepared. The most important impacts examined in the assessment involved air quality changes resulting from emissions of hydrogen sulfide, and increases in the salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waste waters for power plant cooling. The socioeconomics consequences of future geothermal development will generally be beneficial. (MHR)

  10. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Limberger, J.; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, David; Manzella, Adelle; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.; van Wees, J.-D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a volumetric heat-in-place method to improve current global geothermal resource base estimates for direct heat applications. The amount of thermal energy stored within aquifers depends on the Earth's he...

  11. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  12. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste

  13. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, H.; Bouchot, V.; Lopez, S.; Bialkowski, A.; Colnot, A.; Rigollet, C.; Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.; Brach, M.; Asmundsson, R.; Giroud, N.

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal energy has shown a revival for several years and should strongly develop in a near future. Its potentiality is virtually unexhaustible. Its uses are multiple and various: individual and collective space heating, heat networks, power generation, heat storage, heat exchanges etc.. Re-launched by the demand of renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has become credible thanks to the scientific works published recently which have demonstrated its economical and technical relevance. Its image to the public is changing as well. However, lot of work remains to do to make geothermal energy a real industry in France. Several brakes have to be removed rapidly which concern the noise pollution of geothermal facilities, the risk of bad results of drillings, the electricity costs etc. This dossier gives an overview of today's main research paths in the domain of geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy in France: historical development, surface and deep resources, ambitions of the French national energy plan (pluri-annual investment plan for heat generation, incentives, regional 'climate-air-energy' schemes), specific regulations; 2 - geothermal energy at the city scale - sedimentary basins: Ile-de-France 40 years of Dogger reservoir exploitation, potentialities of clastic reservoirs - the Chaunoy sandstones example; 3 - geothermal power generation: conventional reservoirs - the Bouillante model (Guadeloupe, French Indies); the Soultz-sous-Forets pilot plant (Bas-Rhin, France); the supercritical reservoirs - the Krafla geothermal area (Iceland). (J.S.)

  14. Developing a framework for assessing the impact of geothermal development phases on ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedi, Jarot M.; Willemen, Louise; Nurlambang, Triarko; van der Meer, Freek; Koestoer, Raldi H.

    2017-12-01

    The 2014 Indonesian National Energy Policy has set a target to provide national primary energy usage reached 2.500 kWh per capita in the year 2025 and reached 7.000 kWh in the year 2050. The National Energy Policy state that the development of energy should consider the balance of energy economic values, energy supply security, and the conservation of the environment. This has led to the prioritization of renewable energy sources. Geothermal energy a renewable energy source that produces low carbon emissions and is widely available in Indonesia due to the country’s location in the “volcanic arc”. The development of geothermal energy faces several problems related to its potential locations in Indonesia. The potential sites for geothermal energy are mostly located in the volcanic landscapes that have a high hazard risk and are often designated protected areas. Local community low knowledge of geothermal use also a challenge for geothermal development where sometimes strong local culture stand in the way. Each phase of geothermal energy development (exploration, construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning) will have an impact on the landscape and everyone living in it. Meanwhile, natural and other human-induced drivers will keep landscapes and environments changing. This conference paper addresses the development of an integrated assessment to spatially measure the impact of geothermal energy development phases on ecosystem services. Listing the effects on the ecosystem services induced by each geothermal development phases and estimating the spatial impact using Geographic Information System (GIS) will result in an overview on where and how much each geothermal development phase affects the ecosystem and how this information could be included to improve national spatial planning.

  15. Environmental assessment for geothermal loan guarantee: South Brawley geothermal exploration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The foregoing analysis indicates that the proposed geothermal field experiment could result in several adverse environmental effects. Such effects would lie primarily in the areas of air quality, noise, aesthetics, land use, and water consumption. However, for the most part, mitigating measures have been, or easily could be, included in project plans to reduce these adverse effects to insignificant levels. Those aspects of the project which are not completely amenable to mitigation by any reasonable means include air quality, noise, aesthetics, land use and water use.

  16. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth. It represents an inexhaustible source of energy. In many countries, which are mostly located within the geothermal belts of the world, geothermal energy is being used since many decades for electricity generation and direct heating applications comprising municipal, industrial and agricultural heating. Outside the geothermal anomalous volcanic regions, hot ground water from deep rock formations at temperatures above 70 o C is used for process heat and space heating. Low prices for gas and oil hinder the development of geothermal plants in areas outside positive geothermal anomalies; the cost of drilling to reach depths, where temperatures are above 50 o C to 70 o C, is high. The necessary total investment per MW th installed capacity is in the order of 5 Mio- DM/MW th (3 Mio $/MW th ). Experience shows, that an economic break even with oil is reached at an oil price of 30$ per barrel or if an adequate bonus for the clean, environmentally compatible production of geothermal heat is granted. Worldwide the installed electric capacity of geothermal power plants is approximately 6 000 MW e . About 15 000 MW th of thermal capacity is being extracted for process heat and space heat. The importance of the terrestrial heat as an energy resource would be substantially increased, if the heat, stored in the hot crystalline basement could be extracted at economical production costs. Geothermal energy is a competitive energy source in areas with high geothermal gradients (relative low cost for drilling) and would be competitive in areas with normal geothermal gradients, if a fair compensation for environmental implications from fossil and nuclear power production would be granted. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  17. Issues of geothermal and biomass energy efficiency in agriculture, industry, transports and domestic consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy efficiency should be a concern for both the firm managers and any leader at any level, given that energy efficiency significantly reduce production costs. An important aspect of this is the use of renewable energy sources, in different types of activities, depending on the possibilities to produce it on favorable terms, to supply at relatively low costs and to efficiently consume it both in the producing units and the households. A skilful and powerful leader will seek and support, through its influence, all the means that determine the reduction of the production costs and obtain a profit as high as possible. Wider use of renewable energy promotes concern for the environment through clean energy, for reducing pollution and for facilitate, in some cases, even the increase of the production with the same costs or lower costs. In agriculture, industry, transports and household consumption, a high importance presents the geothermal energy and the biomass as source of energy.

  18. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource assessment program, Fiscal Year 1979. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N. (eds.)

    1980-10-01

    The results of low-temperature geothermal energy resource assessment efforts in New Mexico during the period from 1 October 1978 to 30 June 1980 are summarized. The results of the efforts to extend the inventory of geothermal energy resources in New Mexico to low-temperature geothermal reservoirs with the potential for direct heating applications are given. These efforts focused on compiling basic geothermal data and new hydrology and temperature gradient data throughout New Mexico in a format suitable for direct transfer to the US Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for inclusion in the GEOTHERM data file and for preparation of New Mexico low-temperature geothermal resources maps. The results of geothermal reservoir confirmation studies are presented. (MHR)

  19. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource-assessment program, Fiscal Year 1980. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N. (eds.)

    1981-08-01

    Magnetic, gravity, seismic-refraction, and seismic-reflection profiles across the Las Alturas Geothermal Anomaly, New Mexico, are presented. Studies in the Socorro area include the following: seismic measurements of the tertiary fill in the Rio Grande Depression west of Socorro, geothermal data availability for computer simulation in the Socorro Peak KGRA, and ground water circulation in the Socorro Geothermal Area. Regional geothermal exploration in the Truth or Consequences Area includes: geological mapping of the Mud Springs Mountains, hydrogeology of the thermal aquifer, and electrical-resistivity investigation of the geothermal potential. Other studies included are: geothermal exploration with electrical methods near Vado, Chamberino, and Mesquite; a heat-flow study of Dona Ana County; preliminary heat-flow assessment of Southeast Luna County; active fault analysis and radiometric dating of young basalts in southern New Mexico; and evaluation of the geothermal potential of the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico.

  20. The 1980-1982 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, Michael A.; Phillips, William M.; Schuster, J.Eric

    1983-08-01

    Since 1978, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources of the Washington Department of Natural Resources has participated in the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) State-Coupled Geothermal Resource Program. Federal and state funds have been used to investigate and evaluate the potential for geothermal resources, on both a reconnaissance and area-specific level. Preliminary results and progress reports for the period up through mid-1980 have already been released as a Division Open File Report (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981). Preliminary results and progress summaries of work carried out from mid-1980 through the end of 1982 are presented in this report. Only one other summary report dealing with geothermal resource investigations in the state has been published. An Information Circular released by the Division (Schuster and others, 1978) compiled the geology, geochemistry, and heat flow drilling results from a project in the Indian Heaven area in the south Cascades. The previous progress report for the geothermal program (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981) included information on temperature gradients measured throughout the state, heat flow drilling in the southern Cascades, gravity surveys for the southern Cascades, thermal and mineral spring investigations, geologic mapping for the White Pass-Tumac Mountain area, and area specific studies for the Camas area of Clark County and Mount St. Helens. This work, along with some additional studies, led to the compilation of the Geothermal Resources of Washington map (Korosec, Kaler, and others, 1981). The map is principally a nontechnical presentation based on all available geothermal information, presented as data points, tables, and text on a map with a scale of 1:500,000.

  1. Application of experimental design in geothermal resources assessment of Ciwidey-Patuha, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashat, Ali; Pratama, Heru Berian

    2017-12-01

    The successful Ciwidey-Patuha geothermal field size assessment required integration data analysis of all aspects to determined optimum capacity to be installed. Resources assessment involve significant uncertainty of subsurface information and multiple development scenarios from these field. Therefore, this paper applied the application of experimental design approach to the geothermal numerical simulation of Ciwidey-Patuha to generate probabilistic resource assessment result. This process assesses the impact of evaluated parameters affecting resources and interacting between these parameters. This methodology have been successfully estimated the maximum resources with polynomial function covering the entire range of possible values of important reservoir parameters.

  2. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemale, J.

    2009-01-01

    The geothermal energy, listed among the new and renewable energy sources, is characterized by a huge variety of techniques and applications. This book deals with the access to underground geothermal resources and with their energy valorization as well. After a presentation of the main geological, hydrogeological and thermal exploitation aspects of this resource, the book presents the different geothermal-related industries in detail, in particular the district heating systems, the aquifer-based heat pumps, the utilizations in the agriculture, fishery and balneology sectors, and the power generation. (J.S.)

  3. Klamath County YMCA geothermal heating project environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreve, J.H. (ed.)

    1979-07-10

    The YMCA Geothermal Heating project proposes to obtain approximately 57% of the total facility energy usage through direct application of the Klamath Falls KGRA. This will be accomplished through the design and construction of a retrofit and injection system for the utilization of an existing 110/sup 0/F geothermal energy source at the project site. The existing 2016 foot well will be outfitted with a turbine pump with variable speed drive. The well head will be enclosed by a 10' x 10' building. The geothermal fluid, pumped at a peak rate of 350 gpm will be transported to the YMCA Facility through 5'' diameter schedule 40 black iron pipe fitted with victaulic couplings for expansion. All underground supply pipes will be equipped with magnesium anodes for galvaic protection and will be insulted with 1'' thick calcium silicate insulation, with two layers of 45 number roofing felt applied with asphaltic compound. All supply lines within the building will be insulated with 1'' fiberglass insulation material with a cloth jacket. The fluids will pass through a heating coil and heat exchanger system to provide heat for the 30,000 square foot YMCA facility as well as for the 90,000 gallon swimming pool. The spent geothermal fluids will then be conveyed through a 4'' black iron return pipe to be returned to an acceptable aquifer through the 1500 foot injection well.

  4. Assessment of the Geothermal Potential Within the BPA Marketing Area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Allen, Eliot D.

    1980-07-01

    The potential of geothermal energy is estimated that can be used for direct heat applications and electrical power generation within the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) marketing area. The BPA marketing area includes three principal states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and portions of California, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, and Utah bordering on these three states. This area covers approximately 384,000 square miles and has an estimated population of 6,760,000. The total electrical geothermal potential within this marketing area is 4077 MW/sub e/ from hydrothermal resources and 16,000 MW/sub e/ from igneous systems, whereas the total thermal (wellhead) potential is 16.15 x 10/sup 15/ Btu/y. Approximately 200 geothermal resource sites were initially identified within the BPA marketing area. This number was then reduced to about 100 sites thought to be the most promising for development by the year 2000. These 100 sites, due to load area overlap, were grouped into 53 composite sites; 21-3/4 within BPA preference customer areas and 31-1/4 within nonpreference customer areas. The geothermal resource potential was then estimated for high-temperature (> 302/sup 0/F = 150/sup 0/C), intermediate-temperature (194 to 302/sup 0/F = 90 to 150/sup 0/C), and low-temperature (< 194/sup 0/F = 90/sup 0/C) resources.

  5. 1979-1980 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, M.A.; Schuster, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for seven papers. Also included are a bibliography of geothermal resource information for the State of Washington, well temperature information and locations in the State of Washington, and a map of the geology of the White Pass-Tumac Mountain Area, Washington. (MHR)

  6. Assessment of New Approaches in Geothermal Exploration Decision Making: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, S.; Young, K. R.

    2015-02-01

    Geothermal exploration projects have significant amount of risk associated with uncertainties encountered in the discovery of the geothermal resource. Understanding when and how to proceed in an exploration program, and when to walk away from a site, are two of the largest challenges for increased geothermal deployment. Current methodologies for exploration decision making is left to subjective by subjective expert opinion which can be incorrectly biased by expertise (e.g. geochemistry, geophysics), geographic location of focus, and the assumed conceptual model. The aim of this project is to develop a methodology for more objective geothermal exploration decision making at a given location, including go-no-go decision points to help developers and investors decide when to give up on a location. In this scope, two different approaches are investigated: 1) value of information analysis (VOIA) which is used for evaluating and quantifying the value of a data before they are purchased, and 2) enthalpy-based exploration targeting based on reservoir size, temperature gradient estimates, and internal rate of return (IRR). The first approach, VOIA, aims to identify the value of a particular data when making decisions with an uncertain outcome. This approach targets the pre-drilling phase of exploration. These estimated VOIs are highly affected by the size of the project and still have a high degree of subjectivity in assignment of probabilities. The second approach, exploration targeting, is focused on decision making during the drilling phase. It starts with a basic geothermal project definition that includes target and minimum required production capacity and initial budgeting for exploration phases. Then, it uses average temperature gradient, reservoir temperature estimates, and production capacity to define targets and go/no-go limits. The decision analysis in this approach is based on achieving a minimum IRR at each phase of the project. This second approach was

  7. National forecast for geothermal resource exploration and development with techniques for policy analysis and resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Shimamoto, G.T.; Amundsen, C.B.; Blair, P.D.; Finan, W.F.; Smith, M.R.; Edeistein, R.H.

    1982-03-31

    The backgrund, structure and use of modern forecasting methods for estimating the future development of geothermal energy in the United States are documented. The forecasting instrument may be divided into two sequential submodels. The first predicts the timing and quality of future geothermal resource discoveries from an underlying resource base. This resource base represents an expansion of the widely-publicized USGS Circular 790. The second submodel forecasts the rate and extent of utilization of geothermal resource discoveries. It is based on the joint investment behavior of resource developers and potential users as statistically determined from extensive industry interviews. It is concluded that geothermal resource development, especially for electric power development, will play an increasingly significant role in meeting US energy demands over the next 2 decades. Depending on the extent of R and D achievements in related areas of geosciences and technology, expected geothermal power development will reach between 7700 and 17300 Mwe by the year 2000. This represents between 8 and 18% of the expected electric energy demand (GWh) in western and northwestern states.

  8. Assessment of the geothermal/geopressure potential of the Gulf Coastal Plan of Alabama. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.V.; Wang, G.C.; Mancini, E.A.; Benson, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Geothermal and geopressure as well as geologic and geophysical data were studied to evaluate the potential for future development of geothermal resources underlying the Alabama Coastal Plain. Wire-line log data compiled and interpreted from more than 1300 oil and gas test wells included maximum recorded temperatures, mud weights, rock resistivities as related to geopressure, formation tops, fault locations, and depths to basement rock. The Alabama Coastal Plain area is underlain by a conduction dominated, deep sedimentary basin where geothermal gradients are low to moderate (1.0 to 1.8/sup 0/F/100 feet). In some areas of southwest Alabama, abnormally high temperatures are found in association with geopressured zones within the Haynesville Formation of Jurassic age; however, rocks of poor reservoir quality dominate this formation, with the exception of a 200-square-mile area centered in southernmost Clarke County where a porous and permeable sand unit is encased within massive salt deposits of the lower Haynesville. The results of a petrograhic study of the Smackover Formation, which underlies the Haynesville, indicate that this carbonate rock unit has sufficient porosity in some areas to be considered a potential geothermal reservoir. Future development of geothermal resources in south Alabama will be restricted to low or moderate temperature, non-electric applications, which constitute a significant potential energy source for applications in space heating and cooling and certain agricultural and industrial processes.

  9. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment for Membrane Distillation Desalination in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac; Turchi, Craig

    2017-05-01

    Substantial drought and declines in potable groundwater in the United States over the last decade has increased the demand for fresh water. Desalination of saline water such as brackish surface or groundwater, seawater, brines co-produced from oil and gas operations, industrial wastewater, blow-down water from power plant cooling towers, and agriculture drainage water can reduce the volume of water that requires disposal while providing a source of high-quality fresh water for industrial or commercial use. Membrane distillation (MD) is a developing technology that uses low-temperature thermal energy for desalination. Geothermal heat can be an ideal thermal-energy source for MD desalination technology, with a target range of $1/m3 to $2/m3 for desalinated water depending on the cost of heat. Three different cases were analyzed to estimate levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for integration of MD desalination technology with low-grade geothermal heat: (1) residual heat from injection brine at a geothermal power plant, (2) heat from existing underutilized low-temperature wells, and (3) drilling new wells for low-temperature resources. The Central and Western United States have important low-temperature (<90 degrees C) geothermal resource potential with wide geographic distribution, but these resources are highly underutilized because they are inefficient for power production. According to the USGS, there are 1,075 identified low temperature hydrothermal systems, 55 low temperature sedimentary systems and 248 identified medium to high temperature geothermal systems in the United States. The estimated total beneficial heat potential from identified low temperature hydrothermal geothermal systems and residual beneficial heat from medium to high temperature systems is estimated as 36,300 MWth, which could theoretically produce 1.4 to 7 million m3/day of potable water, depending on desalination efficiency.

  10. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment for Membrane Distillation Desalination in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac; Turchi, Craig

    2016-10-01

    Substantial drought and declines in potable groundwater in the United States over the last decade has increased the demand for fresh water. Desalination of saline water such as brackish surface or groundwater, seawater, brines co-produced from oil and gas operations, industrial wastewater, blow-down water from power plant cooling towers, and agriculture drainage water can reduce the volume of water that requires disposal while providing a source of high-quality fresh water for industrial or commercial use. Membrane distillation (MD) is a developing technology that uses low-temperature thermal energy for desalination. Geothermal heat can be an ideal thermal-energy source for MD desalination technology, with a target range of $1/m3 to $2/m3 for desalinated water depending on the cost of heat. Three different cases were analyzed to estimate levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for integration of MD desalination technology with low-grade geothermal heat: (1) residual heat from injection brine at a geothermal power plant, (2) heat from existing underutilized low-temperature wells, and (3) drilling new wells for low-temperature resources. The Central and Western United States have important low-temperature (<90 degrees C) geothermal resource potential with wide geographic distribution, but these resources are highly underutilized because they are inefficient for power production. According to the USGS, there are 1,075 identified low temperature hydrothermal systems, 55 low temperature sedimentary systems and 248 identified medium to high temperature geothermal systems in the United States. The estimated total beneficial heat potential from identified low temperature hydrothermal geothermal systems and residual beneficial heat from medium to high temperature systems is estimated as 36,300 MWth, which could theoretically produce 1.4 to 7 million m3/day of potable water, depending on desalination efficiency.

  11. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of the past and present development of geothermal energy worldwide and a more detailed one in Switzerland. Worldwide installed electrical power using geothermal energy sources amounts to 8900 MW el . Worldwide utilization of geothermal energy for thermal applications amounts to 28,000 MW th . The main application (56.5%) is ground-coupled heat pumps, others are thermal spas and swimming pools (17.7%), space heating (14.9%), heating of greenhouses (4.8%), fish farming (2.2%), industrial uses (1,8%), cooling and melting of snow (1.2%), drying of agricultural products (0.6 %). Switzerland has become an important user of geothermal energy only in the past 25 years. Earlier, only the exploitation of geothermal springs (deep aquifers) in Swiss thermal baths had a long tradition, since the time of the Romans. Today, the main use of geothermal energy is as a heat source for heat pumps utilizing vertical borehole heat exchangers of 50 to 350 meters length. 35,000 installations of this type with heating powers ranging from a few kW to 1000 kW already exist, representing the highest density of such installations worldwide. Other developments are geostructures and energy piles, the use of groundwater for heating and cooling, geothermal district heating, the utilization of draining water from tunnels and the project 'Deep Heat Mining' allowing the combined production of heat and electric power

  12. Geothermal energy and the law. I. The Federal Lands Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.D.; McNamara, J.

    1975-09-30

    A broad range of problems in the legal and institutional environment which hampers the development of the geothermal industry is discussed. The topics include: the development of geothermal energy; pre-leasing procedures--public vs. private assessment; exploratory permits and related strategies; the rate of geothermal leasing-past and future; compensation strategies; lessee qualifications; lands available for leasing; noncompensatory lease terms; ongoing leasehold and production requirements; problems of ''secondary'' geothermal uses; and water law conflicts. (LBS)

  13. Geothermal potential assessment for a low carbon strategy: A new systematic approach applied in southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpy, E.; Botteghi, S.; Caiozzi, F.; Donato, A.; Gola, G.; Montanari, D.; Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Santilano, A.; Wees, J.D. van; Manzella, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a new approach to geothermal potential assessment was set up and applied in four regions in southern Italy. Our procedure, VIGORThermoGIS, relies on the volume method of assessment and uses a 3D model of the subsurface to integrate thermal, geological and petro-physical data. The

  14. Geothermal potential assessment for a low carbon strategy : A new systematic approach applied in southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpy, E.; Botteghi, S.; Caiozzi, F.; Donato, A.; Gola, G.; Montanari, D.; Pluymaekers, M. P D; Santilano, A.; van Wees, J. D.; Manzella, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a new approach to geothermal potential assessment was set up and applied in four regions in southern Italy. Our procedure, VIGORThermoGIS, relies on the volume method of assessment and uses a 3D model of the subsurface to integrate thermal, geological and petro-physical data. The

  15. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, David; Manzella, Adelle; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.; van Wees, J.-D.

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  16. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, Jon; Boxem, Thijs; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, D.F.; Manzella, Adele; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Wees, Jan Diederik

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  17. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers: A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, M.; Bruhn, D.; Manzella, A.; Calcagno, P.; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.; Wees, J.D. van

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  18. Economic assessment of using nonmetallic materials in the direct utilization of geothermal energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabibbo, S.V.; Ammerlaan, T.

    1979-02-01

    The cost effectiveness of nonmetallic materials in three direct-use geothermal applications was assessed. An extensive review of the available literature was conducted in order to ascertain those processes for which sufficient design and cost data had been published to permit this economic assessment to be made. Only three such processes could be found and they are discussed.

  19. Assessment of the geothermal space heating system at Rotorua Hospital, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steins, Christopher; Zarrouk, Sadiq J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The doublet geothermal heating system at Rotorua Hospital has a unique design. ► The system has been running with 300 % redundancy and 100% availability since 1977. ► Geothermal fluid with more than 130 °C is produced from 85 meter depth only. ► Full infield reinjection insures the sustainability of the shallow resource. ► Two-phase flow and non condensable gas reduces the overall heat transfer coefficient. - Abstract: Rotorua township is situated on top of a shallow geothermal reservoir within the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand. The resource is easy to access for private users and is commonly used for domestic and commercial heating. The Rotorua Hospital is located on one of the up flows of the geothermal reservoir and uses a doublet geothermal heating system that was commissioned in 1977. The performance of the heating system is evaluated and the impact on the geothermal reservoir is assessed. The heating exchanger system has a unique design of 18 once through counter flow 4 m long heat exchangers connected in series. It was built with significant safety margin of 300% in redundant production well capacity and is reliably serving the hospital’s heating requirements at 100% availability with the potential to increase the heat output. The infield reinjection of the produced water is neither causing temperature decline nor pressure drawdown on the geothermal reservoir, which is following natural cycles. The chemistry of the produced fluid is not causing any significant scaling or corrosion in the heat exchangers. Recommendations were given to improve the data acquisition system for better understanding of the system performance.

  20. Evaluation of Oil-Industry Stimulation Practices for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Van Dyke; Leen Weijers; Ann Robertson-Tait; Norm Warpinski; Mike Mayerhofer; Bill Minner; Craig Cipolla

    2007-10-17

    fluid below fracturing gradients) (section 4.1 on page 50); b) zonal isolation methods (by use of perforated casing or packers) (section 4.2 on page 57); c) fracture re-orientation and fracture network growth techniques (e.g., by use of alternating high- and low-rate injections) (section 4.4 on page 74); and d) fluid diversion methods (by use of the SurgiFrac technique, the StimGun perforation technique, or stress shadowing). This project task is to be completed in the first project year, enabling the most promising techniques to be field tested and evaluated in the second project year. 3) Study the applicability of the methods listed above by utilizing several techniques (section 5 on page 75) including, but not limited to: a) Hydraulic Impedance Testing (HIT) to determine the location of open hydraulic fractures along a open-hole interval; b) pressure transient testing to determine reservoir permeability, pore pressure, and closure stress; and c) treatment well tilt mapping or microseismic mapping to evaluate fracture coverage. These techniques were reviewed for their potential application for EGS in the first project year (section 5.1 on page 75). This study also includes further analysis of any field testing that will be conducted in the Desert Peak area in Nevada for ORMAT Nevada, Inc. (section 5.2 on page 86), with the aim to close the loop to provide reliable calibrated fracture model results. Developed through its hydraulic fracture consulting business, techniques of Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. for stimulating and analyzing fracture growth have helped the oil and gas industry to improve hydraulic fracturing from both a technical and economic perspective. In addition to more than 30 years of experience in the development of geothermal energy for commercial power generation throughout the world, GeothermEx, Inc. brings to the project: 1) Detailed information about specific developed and potential EGS reservoirs, 2) experience with geothermal well design

  1. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, Christopher B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schroeder, Jenna N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Martino, Louis E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2

  2. Oregon Trail Mushrooms geothermal loan guaranty application, Malheur County, Oregon: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The action assessed is the guaranty of a loan by the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance the construction and operation of a mushroom-growing facility that will use geothermal (hot) water for process and space heat. The project consists of two separate facilities: a growing facility located just outside of the eastern limit of the city of Vale, Oregon (Malheur County, Oregon) and a composting facility located about 6.4 km (4 miles) southwest of the city limits (also in Malheur County, Oregon). Five test wells have been drilled into the geothermal resource at the growing site. Either well No. 4 or well No. 5 will serve as a production well. All geothermal fluids will be reinjected into the geothermal aquifer, so either well No. 3 will be used for this purpose, wells Nos. 1 and 2 will be deepened, or a new well will be drilled on the site. A cold-water well will be drilled at the growing site, and another will be drilled at the composting site. The environmental effects of the proposed project are not expected to be significant.

  3. Japanese geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the end of the seventies, the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry have started two independent projects of deep geothermics research in Honshu island (Japan). The two sites are 50 km apart of each other and the boreholes have been drilled up to 2300 and 1100 m of depth, respectively, in hot-dry moderately fractured volcanic rocks. These sites are characterized by high geothermal gradients with a rock temperature reaching 250 C at the bottom of the wells. Hydraulic circulation tests are still in progress to evaluate the profitability of these sites. (J.S.). 1 fig., 1 photo

  4. Geopressured geothermal resource of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast: a technology characterization and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usibelli, A.; Deibler, P.; Sathaye, J.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal resource: (1) the technological requirements for well drilling, completion, and energy conversion, and, (2) the environmental impacts of resource exploitation are examined. The information comes from the literature on geopressured geothermal research and from interviews and discussions with experts. The technology characterization section emphasizes those areas in which uncertainty exists and in which further research and development is needed. The environmental assessment section discusses all anticipated environmental impacts and focuses on the two largest potential problems: (a) subsidence and (b) brine disposal.

  5. An in-depth assessment of hybrid solar–geothermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Cheng; Doroodchi, Elham; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We model hybrid solar thermal and geothermal energy conversion system in the Australian context. • Solar thermal and geothermal energy can be effectively hybridised. • Thermodynamic advantages and economic benefits are realised. • Hybrid system overcomes adverse effects of diurnal temperature change on power generation. • Cost of electricity of an Enhanced Geothermal System can drop by more than 20% if hybridised with solar energy. - Abstract: A major problem faced by many standalone geothermal power plants, particularly in hot and arid climates such as Australia, is the adverse effects of diurnal temperature change on the operation of air-cooled condensers which typically leads to fluctuation in the power output and degradation of thermal efficiency. This study is concerned with the assessment of hybrid solar–geothermal power plants as a means of boosting the power output and where possible moderating the impact of diurnal temperature change. The ultimate goal is to explore the potential benefits from the synergies between the solar and geothermal energy sources. For this purpose the performances of the hybrid systems in terms of power output and the cost of electricity were compared with that of stand-alone solar and geothermal plants. Moreover, the influence of various controlling parameters including the ambient temperature, solar irradiance, geographical location, resource quality, and the operating mode of the power cycle on the performance of the hybrid system were investigated under steady-state conditions. Unsteady-state case studies were also performed to examine the dynamic behaviour of hybrid systems. These case studies were carried out for three different Australian geographic locations using raw hourly meteorological data of a typical year. The process simulation package Aspen-HYSYS was used to simulate plant configurations of interest. Thermodynamic analyses carried out for a reservoir temperature of 120 °C and a fixed

  6. Economic assessment of polymer concrete usage in geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study established to review the Heber and Niland, California 50 MWe conceptual geothermal power plants designs and to identify areas where non-metallic materials, such as polymer concrete, can be technically and economically employed are reported. Emphasis was directed toward determining potential economic advantages and resulting improvements in plant availability. It is estimated that use of polymer concrete in the Heber plant will effect a savings of 6.18 mills per KWH in the cost of power delivered to the network, a savings of 9.7%. A similar savings should be effected in the Niland plant.

  7. Geothermal reservoir assessment case study: Northern Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.M.; Bell, E.J.; Jodry, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    Two 1500 foot temperature gradient holes and two deep exploratory wells were drilled and tested. Hydrologic-hydrochemical, shallow temperature survey, structural-tectonic, petrologic alteration, and solid-sample geochemistry studies were completed. Eighteen miles of high resolution reflection seismic data were gathered over the area. The study indicates that a geothermal regime with temperatures greater than 400/sup 0/F may exist at a depth of approximately 7500' to 10,000' over an area more than ten miles in length.

  8. Mexico's Geothermal Market Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Sarah [Booth Clean Energy LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Graves, Andrew [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2017-03-29

    This report is intended to help U.S. companies in the geothermal sector understand potential business opportunities created by recent changes in the Mexican energy market and regulatory environment. can also provide a variety of technology products and services for export into the Mexican market. This report will help U.S. companies identify the many public and private sector stakeholders in the United States and Mexico, which can help U.S. companies navigate the new regulatory and permitting environment, build new partnerships, and identify vehicles for financial assistance and risk mitigation.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Geothermal Resource Potential at the UTTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Smith, PhD., PG; Robert P. Breckenridge, PhD.; Thomas R. Wood, PhD.

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the current state of geologic knowledge concerning potential high-temperature geothermal development on the lands controlled by Hill Air Force Base (HAFB) at the Utah Testing and Training Range (UTTR) and the lands encompassed by the Dugway Proving Grounds (Dugway). This report is based on currently available published and publically available information. Most of the information presented here is purely geologic in nature. Therefore, the logistical issues (such as military exclusion areas, proximity to electrical infrastructure, and access) are additional considerations that are being addressed in a separate report that will be issued to HAFB by the SES corporation.

  10. Geothermal for kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemzer, M.; Condy, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that educating children about geothermal energy is crucial to the future growth of the geothermal industry. The Geothermal Education Office (GEO) was founded in 1989 to provide materials and support to teachers and the geothermal community in educating grades K-12 about geothermal energy. GEO's goals are to: provide easy access to or referral to appropriate sources of geothermal information; foster teacher interest; create posters, booklets, lesson plans and other educational materials; monitor and review textbooks, encyclopedias and other educational materials distributed by educational groups to ensure inclusion of appropriate, accurate information and to encourage fair treatment of alternative energy resources; contribute articles to industry, science and educational publications; and foster communication and cooperation among GEO, the geothermal industry, government agencies, and educational and environmental groups

  11. Environmental assessment of proposed geothermal well testing in the Tigre Lagoon Oil Field, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    An environmental assessment is made of the proposed testing of two geopressured, geothermal aquifers in central coastal Louisiana. On the basis of an analysis of the environmental setting, subsurface characteristics, and the proposed action, potential environmental impacts are determined and evaluated together with potential conflicts with federal, state, and local programs. (LBS )

  12. Industry participation in DOE-sponsored geopressured geothermal resource development. Final report, 1 September 1977-30 April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffer, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    A series of DOE/Industry forums were carried out to keep industry advised of the DOE program to develop the geopressured geothermal resources of the Gulf Coast. A total of eighteen meetings were held with registered attendance of 621 representing a good cross section of industry, state, and federal agencies. An Overview Group and four working subgroups - site selection, drilling and testing, environmental/laboratory research, and legal institutional were established to subdivide the DOE programs into areas of interest and expertise. During the contract period three overview, four site selection, three drilling and testing, five environmental/laboratory research and three legal/institutional meetings have been conducted. Interest in and attendance at the meetings continue to grow reflecting increased industry contact with the DOE Geopressured Geothermal Resource Development Program. Two other studies were carried out for DOE under this contract; a Salt Water Disposal Study and an Industry Survey to evaluate the DOE Resource Development Program. The Salt Water Disposal Study reviewed subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast. This preliminary study concluded that subsurface brine disposal should be possible in the areas of interest with adequate evaluation of the geology of each area and a well designed and constructed surface and subsurface facility. The industry survey indicated general satisfaction with the technical design of the resource evaluation program but felt the program should be moving faster.

  13. Gulf Coast Programmatic Environmental Assessment Geothermal Well Testing: The Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR Part 711, environmental assessments are being prepared for significant activities and individual projects of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). This environmental assessment of geopressure well testing addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environments, and possible impacts in a broad sense. The specific part of the program addressed by this environmental assessment is geothermal well testing by the take-over of one or more unsuccessful oil wells before the drilling rig is removed and completion of drilling into the geopressured zone. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. In the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource. The project addressed by this environmental assessment is the performance of a geothermal well test in high potential geothermal areas. Well tests involve four major actions each of which may or may not be required for each of the well tests. The four major actions are: site preparation, drilling a salt-water disposal well, actual flow testing, and abandonment of the well.

  14. Industrial uses of geothermal energy: A framework for application in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, N.C.; Bernardo, R.O.; Cornelio, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a model of approach for agroindustrial development utilizing geothermal energy in an agriculturally based tropical developing country. Presented is the complexity of patterns in raw materials productivity, demand and the present problems of preserving their quality from biological deterioration thru drying. Utilization of a geothermal agroindustrial estate have to be carefully studied and programmed in reply to an almost constant heat demand profile consistent with seasonal available raw materials. This study uses the Tongonan Geothermal Field in Leyte Island as the model for presentation

  15. El Centro Geothermal Utility Core Field Experiment environmental-impact report and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The City of El Centro is proposing the development of a geothermal energy utility core field experiment to demonstrate the engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing moderate temperature geothermal heat, on a pilot scale, for space cooling, space heating, and domestic hot water. The proposed facility is located on part of a 2.48 acre (1 hectare) parcel owned in fee by the City in the southeastern sector of El Centro in Imperial County, California. Geothermal fluid at an anticipated temperature of about 250/sup 0/F (121/sup 0/C) will heat a secondary fluid (water) which will be utilized directly or processed through an absorption chiller, to provide space conditioning and water heating for the El Centro Community Center, a public recreational facility located approximately one-half mile north of the proposed well site. The geothermal production well will be drilled to 8500 feet (2590m) and an injection well to 4000 feet (1220m) at the industrially designated City property. Once all relevant permits are obtained it is estimated that site preparation, facility construction, the completion and testing of both wells would be finished in approximately 26 weeks. The environmental impacts are described.

  16. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  17. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  18. Inventory and case studies of Louisiana, non-electric industrial applications of geopressured geothermal resources. Quarterly progress report, March 1-May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnadelbach, T.W. Jr.

    1977-06-01

    An inventory is provided of geopressured geothermal resources in Louisiana. The Louisiana industries; classified as Food and Kindred Products were cataloged and inventoried to determine potential and specific uses of the known energy resources. The possibility of relocating industries to the available resources is explored. Individual case studies are presented for near term industrial conversion for resource application. (MHR)

  19. Fracture detection and mapping for geothermal reservoir definition: an assessment of current technology, research, and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.

    1984-11-01

    The detection and mapping of fractures and other zones of high permeability, whether natural or manmade, has been a subject of considerable economic and scientific interest to the pertroleum industry and to the geothermal community. Research related to fractured geothermal reservoirs has been conducted under several past DOE geothermal energy development programs. In this paper we review the present state of technology in fracture detection and mapping. We outline the major problems and limitations of the ''conventional'' techniques, and current research in new technologies. We also present research needs.

  20. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott; Marmillion, Pat; Lercel, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. In 2002, a survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of mask equipment. The 2005 survey was the fourth in the current series of annual surveys. The survey data can be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors, and equipment utilization. Because the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were just added to the survey, no trend analysis is possible. Within each category are many questions that together create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. The assessment participation has changed from year to year. The 2005 survey, for example, includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  1. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's survey data were presented in detail at BACUS and the detailed trend analysis presented at EMLC. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the seventh in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the surveys in 2005 through 2007. Questions are grouped into seven categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss, Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. (Examples are given below). Within each category is a multitude of questions that creates a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  2. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Phase I studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM file for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Phase II studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  3. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  4. Environmental Assessment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project Well Flow Test Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-11-01

    The Hawaii Geothermal Project, a coordinated research effort of the University of Hawaii, funded by the County and State of Hawaii, and ERDA, was initiated in 1973 in an effort to identify, generate, and use geothermal energy on the Big Island of Hawaii. A number of stages are involved in developing geothermal power resources: exploration, test drilling, production testing, field development, power plant and powerline construction, and full-scale production. Phase I of the Project, which began in the summer of 1973, involved conducting exploratory surveys, developing analytical models for interpretation of geophysical results, conducting studies on energy recovery from hot brine, and examining the legal and economic implications of developing geothermal resources in the state. Phase II of the Project, initiated in the summer of 1975, centers on drilling an exploratory research well on the Island of Hawaii, but also continues operational support for the geophysical, engineering, and socioeconomic activities delineated above. The project to date is between the test drilling and production testing phase. The purpose of this assessment is to describe the activities and potential impacts associated with extensive well flow testing to be completed during Phase II.

  5. Geothermal reservoir assessment, Roosevelt Hot Springs. Final report, October 1, 1977-June 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The geology, geophysics, and geothermal potential of the northern Mineral Mountains, located in Beaver and Millard Counties, Utah, are studied. More specifically, the commercial geothermal potential of lease holdings of the Geothermal Power Corporation is addressed.

  6. Geothermal resource assessment of Canon City, Colorado Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 a program was initiated to fully define the geothermal conditions of an area east of Canon City, bounded by the mountains on the north and west, the Arkansas River on the south and Colorado Highway 115 on the east. Within this area are a number of thermal springs and wells in two distinct groups. The eastern group consists of 5 thermal artesian wells located within one mile of Colorado Highway 115 from Penrose on the north to the Arkansas river on the south. The western group, located in and adjacent to Canon City, consists of one thermal spring on the south bank of the Arkansas River on the west side of Canon City, a thermal well in the northeast corner of Canon City, another well along the banks of Four Mile Creek east of Canon City and a well north of Canon City on Four Mile Creek. All the thermal waters in the Canon City Embayment, of which the study area is part of, are found in the study area. The thermal waters unlike the cold ground waters of the Canon City Embayment, are a calcium-bicarbonate type and range in temperature from 79 F (26 C) to a high of 108 F (42 C). The total combined surface discharge o fall the thermal water in the study area is in excess of 532 acre feet (A.F.) per year.

  7. Geothermal resource assessment of Ouray, Colorado. Resource series 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.; Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, a program was initiated to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of geothermal resources in Colorado. In the Ouray area, this effort consisted of geological mapping, soil mercury geochemical surveys and resistivity geophysical surveys. The soil mercury obtained inconclusive results, with the Box Canyon area indicating a few anomalous values, but these values are questionable and probably are due to the hot spring activity and mineralization within the Leadville limestone rock. One isolated locality indicating anomalous values was near the Radium Springs pool and ball park, but this appears to be related to warm waters leaking from a buried pipe or from the Uncompahgre River. The electrical resistivity survey however, indicated several areas of low resistivity zones namely above the Box Canyon area, the power station area and the Wiesbaden Motel area. From these low zones it is surmised that the springs are related to a complex fault system which serves as a conduit for the deep circulation of ground waters through the system.

  8. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  9. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  10. Possibilities for electricity production from geothermal energy in Slovenia in the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to raise awareness of the public, with the aim that anyone can judge reality and accuracyof records that appear in the media on the exploitation of geothermal energy. It provides a comprehensive overviewof geothermal systems, potential of hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems, of mechanisms and characteristicsof middle and high enthalpy geothermal resources. It also deals with a mode of their conversion into electricity.Featured are the main factors affecting the decision on effectiveness of conversion of geothermal energy intoelectricity. Given are the review of the research necessary to establish the geothermal potential and assessment oftechnological and economic possibilities of installing geothermal power plants in Slovenia. The paper also describesthe state of knowledge of middle- and high temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia with initial conditions forconstructing geothermal power plants. In addition, we present theoretical calculations of the conversion efficiencyof geothermal energy into electricity with conventional turbines and present some problems for the exploitationof geothermal energy, which are associated with additional costs and further reduce the efficiency of investment.Described are the characteristics and performance of binary geothermal power plants and foreign experience inobtaining electricity from the EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System. We also address the overlapping of the oil andgas industry with the operation of the EGS and the possibility of exploiting oil and gas wells for producing thegeothermal electricity.

  11. Application of magnetic method to assess the extent of high temperature geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soengkono, S.; Hochstein, M.P.

    1995-01-26

    The extent of thermally altered rocks in high temperature geothermal reservoirs hosted by young volcanic rocks can be assessed from magnetic surveys. Magnetic anomalies associated with many geothermal field in New Zealand and Indonesia can be interpreted in terms of thick (up to 1 km) demagnetized reservoir rocks. Demagnetization of these rocks has been confirmed by core studies and is caused by hydrothermal alteration produced from fluid/rock interactions. Models of the demagnetized Wairakei (NZ) and Kamojang (Indonesia) reservoirs are presented which include the productive areas. Magnetic surveys give fast and economical investigations of high temperature prospects if measurements are made from the air. The magnetic interpretation models can provide important constraints for reservoir models. Magnetic ground surveys can also be used to assess the extent of concealed near surface alteration which can be used in site selection of engineering structures.

  12. Assessment of the Geothermal System Near Stanley, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Armstrong; John Welhan; Mike McCurry

    2012-06-01

    The City of Stanley, Idaho (population 63) is situated in the Salmon River valley of the central Idaho highlands. Due to its location and elevation (6270 feet amsl) it is one of the coldest locales in the continental U.S., on average experiencing frost 290 days of the year as well as 60 days of below zero (oF) temperatures. Because of high snowfall (76 inches on average) and the fact that it is at the terminus of its rural grid, the city also frequently endures extended power outages during the winter. To evaluate its options for reducing heating costs and possible local power generation, the city obtained a rural development grant from the USDA and commissioned a feasibility study through author Roy Mink to determine whether a comprehensive site characterization and/or test drilling program was warranted. Geoscience students and faculty at Idaho State University (ISU), together with scientists from the Idaho Geological Survey (IGS) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted three field data collection campaigns between June, 2011 and November, 2012 with the assistance of author Beckwith who arranged for food, lodging and local property access throughout the field campaigns. Some of the information collected by ISU and the IGS were compiled by author Mink and Boise State University in a series of progress reports (Makovsky et al., 2011a, b, c, d). This communication summarizes all of the data collected by ISU including data that were compiled as part of the IGS’s effort for the National Geothermal Data System’s (NGDS) data compilation project funded by the Department of Energy and coordinated by the Arizona Geological Survey.

  13. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979 to 1980 of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for reservoir assessment and confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Statewide assessment studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM File for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Site specific assessment studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  14. Fiscal 1992 report on geothermal development promotion survey (Development of geothermal reservoir assessment technique); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa (Chinetsu choryusou hyoka shuho kaihatsu hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Efforts were exerted in fiscal 1984-1992 to develop techniques for appropriately assessing a geothermal reservoir for its productivity for duly predicting the optimum scale of power generation to be provided thereby. In the development of simulators, geothermal reservoir simulators (SING-1, -2, -3) and a geothermal well 2-phase flow simulator (WENG) were developed. As for the treatment of fractures in a reservoir and of substances soluble in the hot water, the methods for dealing with them were improved and augmented. In a model field study in a Hokkaido forest, reservoir pressure continuous observation and monitoring, temperature logging and pressure logging for existing wells, and geothermal fluid chemical analysis were performed for reservoir analysis, in which both natural state simulation and history mapping excellently reproduced the temperature and pressure distributions. The temperature and pressure distributions in a natural state simulation, out of the results of an analysis of the Oguni district model field, Kumamoto Prefecture, agreed not only with those in the natural state but also with the pressure transition data in the observation well. (NEDO)

  15. Geothermal heat - The second stream for geothermal sectors; Electricity production: industries are facing the geological unexpected events; Heat networks: a new boom in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Appert, Olivier; Moisant, Francois; Salha, Bernard; Tardieu, Bernard; Florette, Marc; Basilico, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    A first article proposes an overview of recent development in the field of geothermal power (individual heat pumps, urban heating networks, electricity production in volcanic context, and possibility of non conventional fields). These developments are notably interesting in a context of an evolving energy mix. Some benefits of geothermal power are outlined: a reliable and predictable production, and a low footprint. An installation of deep geothermal power in Alsace is presented. By evoking the construction of three high-energy geothermal power stations by GDF Suez in Sumatra, a second article outlines the high costs associated with exploration drilling which can face geological difficulties. It indicates and comments the distribution of costs among exploration, confirmation, authorizations, drilling, steam collection, electric plant, and connection to the grid. The third and last article comments the development of heat networks in France, and more particularly in the Parisian Basin which has the highest concentration of low-energy geothermal exploitations

  16. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Testing Activity, Frio Formation, Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the Division of Geothermal Energy's decisions to expand the geothermal well testing activities to include sites in the Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana. It is proposed that drilling rigs be leased before they are removed from sites in the formation where drilling for gas or oil exploration has been unsuccessful and that the rigs be used to complete the drilling into the geopressured zone for resource exploration. This EA addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environment, and the possible impacts in a broad sense as they apply to the Gulf Coast well testing activity of the Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram of the Department of Energy. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay, Atlas) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. in the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource.

  17. Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wenning, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thirumaran, Kiran [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    IAC Operations Manual describes organizational model and operations of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC), Center management activities, typical process of energy assessment, and energy assessment data for specific industry sectors.

  18. Geothermal Loan Guarantee Program: Westmorland Development Project, Imperial County, California: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The action assessed is the guaranty of a loan by DOE to finance geothermal exploration, development, and testing by Mapco Geothermal, Inc. and Republic Geothermal, Inc. in the Westmorland area of Imperial County, California. Initial drilling and flow testing of up to three production wells will occur in the exploratory phase. Exploration is proposed for either or both of two portions of the leasehold area. If exploration confirms the presence of a viable resource in the Sweetwater area, the preferred site based on limited temperature data, then up to 19 new production wells and three new injection wells may be drilled and tested there in preparation for the construction of a 55-MW double-flash electric power plant. If, however, the Sweetwater resource proves infeasible, further exploration and possible full-field development may occur instead at the Dearborn-Kalin-Landers area. At this site, up to 19 new production wells and three new injection wells may be drilled and tested, with six existing wells also used for injection. This environmental assessment chiefly addresses effects of the drilling and testing program. In summary, this paper discusses the proposed action, describes the existing environment and discusses the potential environmental impacts. 75 refs. (LSP)

  19. Geothermal Today - 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Energy Program Highlights Partnering with Industry A New Power Source for Nevada Drilling Research Finding Geothermal Resources Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plants The Heat Beneath Your Feet R&D 100 Award Program in Review Milestones January 2000 The U.S. Department of Energy GeoPowering the West initiative was launched. February 2000 Grants totaling $4.8 million were awarded in six western states, primarily for development of reservoir exploration, character

  20. Geothermal handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  1. Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-15

    important from the geothermal point of view. These are known as La Tacita, Hacienda de Agua Fria, Banos del Chino, Laguna Verde, El Nopal...Institute for the Electrical Industry has begun to study surface geo- logy, photointerpretation, and gas and water sampling. La Primavera . - La ... Primavera is situated close to and west of the city of Guadalajara, capital of the State of Jalisco . It is described as a volcanic caldera, and the

  2. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  3. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Structural and reservoir quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusillon, Elme; Clerc, Nicolas; Makhloufi, Yasin; Brentini, Maud; Moscariello, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    A reservoir assessment was performed in the Greater Geneva Basin to evaluate the geothermal resources potential of low to medium enthalpy (Moscariello, 2016). For this purpose, a detail structural analysis of the basin was performed (Clerc et al., 2016) simultaneously with a reservoir appraisal study including petrophysical properties assessment in a consistent sedimentological and stratigraphical frame (Brentini et al., 2017). This multi-disciplinary study was organised in 4 steps: (1) investigation of the surrounding outcrops to understand the stratigraphy and lateral facies distribution of the sedimentary sequence from Permo-Carboniferous to Lower Cretaceous units; (2) development of 3D geological models derived from 2D seismic and well data focusing on the structural scheme of the basin to constrain better the tectonic influence on facies distribution and to assess potential hydraulic connectivity through faults between reservoir units ; (3) evaluation of the distribution, geometry, sedimentology and petrophysical properties of potential reservoir units from well data; (4) identification and selection of the most promising reservoir units for in-depth rock type characterization and 3D modeling. Petrophysical investigations revealed that the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian Reef Complex and the underlying Calcaires de Tabalcon units are the most promising geothermal reservoir targets (porosity range 10-20%; permeability to 1mD). Best reservoir properties are measured in patch reefs and high-energy peri-reefal depositional environments, which are surrounded by synchronous tight lagoonal deposits. Associated highly porous dolomitized intervals reported in the western part of the basin also provide enhanced reservoir quality. The distribution and geometry of best reservoir bodies is complex and constrained by (1) palaeotopography, which can be affected by synsedimentary fault activity during Mesozoic times, (2) sedimentary factors such as hydrodynamics, sea level variations

  4. Final Report and Strategic Plan on the Feasibility Study to Assess Geothermal Potential on Warm Springs Reservation Lands. Report No. DOE/GO/15177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates

    2007-05-17

    In 2005 the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Tribal Council authorized an evaluation of the geothermal development potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises obtained a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct a geological assessment and development estimate. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises utilized a team of expert consultants to conduct the study and develop a strategic plan. The resource assessment work was completed in 2006 by GeothermEx Inc., a consulting company specializing in geothermal resource assessments worldwide. The GeothermEx report indicates there is a 90% probability that a commercial geothermal resource exists on tribal lands in the Mt. Jefferson area. The geothermal resource assessment and other cost, risk and constraints information has been incorporated into the strategic plan.

  5. Geothermal energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Enriko

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal energy, as a natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades in order to generate electricity as well as district heating and industrial processes. The present geothermal electrical installed capacity in the world is about 10.000 MWe and the thermal capacity in non-electrical uses is about 8.200 MWt. Electricity is produced with an efficiency of 10-17%, and the cost of the kWh is competitive with conventional energy sources. In the developing countries, where a total installed electrical power is still low, geothermal energy can play a significant role: in El Salvador, for example, 25% of electricity comes from geothermal spring, 20% in the Philippines and 8% in Kenya. Present technology makes it possible to control the environmental impact of geothermal exploitation. Geothermal energy could also be extracted from deep geopressured reservoirs in large sedimentary basins, hot dry rock systems and magma bodies. (author)

  6. G.POT: a method for the assessment and mapping of the near-surface geothermal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2017-04-01

    Shallow geothermal systems are widely recognised as a valuable technology for the heating and cooling of buildings. The most adopted technology is the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE), since it can be installed almost everywhere. However, the economic viability of BHEs depends on the thermal load that can be efficiently exchanged with the ground, i.e. the near-surface geothermal potential. We present the G.POT (Geothermal POTential) method for the assessment of near-surface geothermal potential as a function of the thermal conductivity and capacity of the ground, of its initial temperature, of the thermal resistance of the BHE and of the duration of the sinusoidal thermal load cycle, which reproduces the typical pattern of a thermal load during a heating or a cooling season. The function was calibrated from the results of numerical heat transfer simulations, performed varying the values of the aforementioned parameters over broad ranges. G.POT is a simple mathematical tool which can be easily implemented for the large-scale assessment and mapping of the near-surface geothermal potential for heating or cooling purpose. An example of its application is also shown, and advice is provided on the processing of input parameters. References A. Casasso, R. Sethi, G.POT: A quantitative method for the assessment and mapping of the shallow geothermal potential, Energy 106 (2016) 765-773. A. Casasso, R. Sethi, Assessment and mapping of the shallow geothermal potential in the province of Cuneo (Piedmont, NW Italy), Renewable Energy 102, Part B (2017) 306-315.

  7. Lithosphere temperature model and resource assessment for deep geothermal exploration in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekesi, Eszter; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Vrijlandt, Mark; Lenkey, Laszlo; Horvath, Ferenc

    2017-04-01

    The demand for deep geothermal energy has increased considerably over the past years. To reveal potential areas for geothermal exploration, it is crucial to have an insight into the subsurface temperature distribution. Hungary is one of the most suitable countries in Europe for geothermal development, as a result of Early and Middle Miocene extension and subsequent thinning of the lithosphere. Hereby we present the results of a new thermal model of Hungary extending from the surface down to the lithosphere-astenosphere boundary (LAB). Subsurface temperatures were calculated through a regular 3D grid with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km, a vertical resolution of 200 m for the uppermost 7 km, and 3 km down to the depth of the LAB The model solves the heat equation in steady-state, assuming conduction as the main heat transfer mechanism. At the base, it adopts a constant basal temperature or heat flow condition. For the calibration of the model, more than 5000 temperature measurements were collected from the Geothermal Database of Hungary. The model is built up by five sedimentary layers, upper crust, lower crust, and lithospheric mantle, where each layer has its own thermal properties. The prior thermal properties and basal condition of the model is updated through the ensemble smoother with multiple data assimilation technique. The conductive model shows misfits with the observed temperatures, which cannot be explained by neglected transient effects related to lithosphere extension. These anomalies are explained mostly by groundwater flow in Mesozoic carbonates and other porous sedimentary rocks. To account for the effect of heat convection, we use a pseudo-conductive approach by adjusting the thermal conductivity of the layers where fluid flow may occur. After constructing the subsurface temperature model of Hungary, the resource base for EGS (Enhanced Geothermal Systems) is quantified. To this end, we applied a cash-flow model to translate the geological

  8. Effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Both the developed and developing nations of the world would like to move toward a position of sustainable development while paying attention to the restoration of natural resources, improving the environment, and improving the quality of life. The impacts of geothermal development projects are generally positive. It is important, however, that the environmental issues associated with development be addressed in a systematic fashion. Drafted early in the project planning stage, a well-prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can significantly add to the quality of the overall project. An EIA customarily ends with the decision to proceed with the project. The environmental analysis process could be more effective if regular monitoring, detailed in the EIA, continues during project implementation. Geothermal development EIAs should be analytic rather than encyclopedic, emphasizing the impacts most closely associated with energy sector development. Air quality, water resources and quality, geologic factors, and socioeconomic issues will invariably be the most important factors. The purpose of an EIA should not be to generate paperwork, but to enable superb response. The EIA should be intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences and take proper actions. The EIA process has been defined in different ways throughout the world. In fact, it appears that no two countries have defined it in exactly the same way. Going hand in hand with the different approaches to the process is the wide variety of formats available. It is recommended that the world geothermal community work towards the adoption of a standard. The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)(OLADE, 1993) prepared a guide that presents a comprehensive discussion of the environmental impacts and suggested mitigation alternatives associated with geothermal development projects. The OLADE guide

  9. Assessment of water management tools for the geothermal reservoir Waiwera (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Altmannsberger, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    provide a more flexible tool for future and prospective scenarios which are not covered by data driven models [3]. [1] Kühn M, Stöfen H (2005) A reactive flow model of the geothermal reservoir Waiwera, New Zealand. Hydrogeology Journal 13, 606-626, doi: 10.1007/s10040-004-0377-6 [2] Rose JL, Zemansky G (2013) Updated Hydrogeological Evaluation of the Waiwera Geothermal Aquifer. GNS Scientific Consultancy Report 2013/67, GNS Institute of Geological & Nuclear Science, Wellington, New Zealand [3] Altmannsberger C (2015) Assessment of water management tools for the geothermal reservoir Waiwera (New Zealand). BSc Thesis, University of Potsdam, Earth and Environmental Sciences (in German, unpublished)

  10. Near-surface geothermal potential assessment of the region Leogang - Saalbach-Hinterglemm in Salzburg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottig, Magdalena; Rupprecht, Doris; Hoyer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Within the EU-funded Alpine Space project GRETA (Near-surface Geothermal Resources in the Territory of the Alpine space), a potential assessment for the use of near-surface geothermal energy is being performed. The focus region for Austria is represented by the two communities Leogang and Saalbach-Hinterglemm where settlements are located in altitudes of about 800 - 1.000 m. In these communities, as well as in large parts of the alpine space region in Austria, winter sports tourism is an important economic factor. The demand for heating and domestic hot water in this region of about 6.000 inhabitants rises significantly in the winter months due to around 2 million guest nights per year. This makes clear why the focus is on touristic infrastructure like alpine huts or hotels. It is a high-altitude area with a large number of remote houses, thus district-heating is not ubiquitous - thus, near-surface geothermal energy can be a useful solution for a self-sufficient energy supply. The objective of detailed investigation within the project is, to which extent the elevation, the gradient and the orientation of the hillside influence the geothermal usability of the shallow underground. To predict temperatures in depths of up to 100 m and therefore make statements on the geothermal usability of a certain piece of land, it is necessary to attain a precise ground-temperature map which reflects the upper model boundary. As there are no ground temperature measurement stations within the region, the GBA has installed four monitoring stations. Two are located in the valley, at altitudes of about 800 m, and two in higher altitudes of about 1.200 m, one on a south- and one on a north-slope. Using a software invented by the University of Soil Sciences in Vienna a ground-temperature map will be calculated. The calculation is based on climatic data considering parameters like soil composition. Measured values from the installed monitoring stations will help to validate or to

  11. Geothermal Economics Calculator (GEC) - additional modifications to final report as per GTP's request.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, Varun; Hogue, Michael

    2015-07-17

    This report will discuss the methods and the results from economic impact analysis applied to the development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), conventional hydrothermal, low temperature geothermal and coproduced fluid technologies resulting in electric power production. As part of this work, the Energy & Geoscience Institute (EGI) has developed a web-based Geothermal Economics Calculator (Geothermal Economics Calculator (GEC)) tool that is aimed at helping the industry perform geothermal systems analysis and study the associated impacts of specific geothermal investments or technological improvements on employment, energy and environment. It is well-known in the industry that geothermal power projects will generate positive economic impacts for their host regions. Our aim in the assessment of these impacts includes quantification of the increase in overall economic output due to geothermal projects and of the job creation associated with this increase. Such an estimate of economic impacts of geothermal investments on employment, energy and the environment will also help us understand the contributions that the geothermal industry will have in achieving a sustainable path towards energy production.

  12. Chloride/magnesium ratio of shallow groundwaters as a regional geothermal indicator in Hawaii. Assessment of geothermal resources in Hawaii: Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, M.E.; Thomas, D.M.

    1979-11-01

    Because of the complex geological and hydrological conditions and the virtual lack of thermal springs, regional geothermal investigations in Hawaii require the use of techniques substantially different from those conventionally applied in other geothermal environments. The large number of hydrological wells in the state provides an appreciable source of groundwater chemical data. However, largely because of the island environment, interpretation of much of these data as geothermal indicators becomes ambiguous. Initially, SiO/sub 2/ and temperature of groundwaters were used to identify thermally anomalous zones, but on a regional basis it has been found that these criteria are not always successful. As a further criterion for assessment, the Cl/Mg ratio of the groundwater has been used. On a state-wide basis, this ratio has been successful in further screening the SiO/sub 2/-temperature selected sites, and in defining more specific areas which warrant further investigation. Temperature, SiO/sub 2/ and Cl/Mg values for nearly 400 groundwater samples are included.

  13. Geothermal resource assessment of Hot Sulphur Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 10 springs whose waters are used for recreation, steam baths and laundry purposes are located at Hot Sulphur Springs. Estimated heat-flow at Hot Sulphur Springs is approximately 100 mW/m2, which is about normal for western Colorado. Recent work tends to show that surface and reduced heat flow in the mountains of northern Colorado could be high. The thermal waters have an estimated discharge of 50 gpm, a temperature that ranges from 104/sup 0/F (40/sup 0/C) to a high of 111/sup 0/F (44/sup 0/C), and a total dissolved solid content of 1200 mg/l. The waters are a sodium bicarbonate type with a large concentration of sulphate. It is estimated that the most likely reservoir temperature of this system ranges from 167/sup 0/F (75/sup 0/F) to 302/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/C) and that the areal extent of the system could encompass 1.35 sq mi (3.50 sq km) and could contain 0.698 Q's (1015 B.T.U.'s) of heat energy. Soil mercury and electrical resistivity surveys were conducted. The geophysical survey delineated several areas of low resistivity associated with the north trending fault that passes just to the west of the spring area. It appears that this fault is saturated with thermal waters and may be the conduit along which the thermal waters are moving up from depth. The appendices to this report include tables showing water temperatures required for various industrial processes, as well as dissolved minerals, trace elements and radioactivity levels found in the thermal waters. Also presented are a complete description of the factors affecting the electrical resistivity measurements, a description of the electrical resistivity equipment used, and the resistivity field procedures. Electrical resistivity calculations are also included in the appendices.

  14. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    Data pertaining to wells and thermal aquifers and data interpretation methods are presented. Findings from a program of field measurements of water temperatures (mainly in South-Central Texas) and an assessment of hydrologic properties of three Cretaceous aquifers (in North-Central Texas) are included. Landsat lineaments and their pertinance to the localization of low-temperature geothermal resources are emphasized. Lineament data were compared to structural and stratigraphic features along the Balcones/Ouachita trend in Central Texas to test for correlations. (MHR)

  15. Use of geothermal heat for sugar refining. Final report, October 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.O.

    1977-05-01

    The economic and technical feasibility of applying low grade geothermal heat (less than 300/sup 0/F) in the beet sugar refining industry for both new factory construction and retrofit conversion of existing factories was assessed. The representative Holly Sugar factory at Brawley, California, was utilized as a baseline primarily because of its centralized location with respect to the known and partially developed geothermal anomalies at Brawley, East Mesa, and Heber. Nominal values for the key parameters of the sugar refining process and typical values for the geothermal fluid parameters representative of geothermal resources in areas of existing or potential future sugar factories were defined, promising points of application were identified, and conceptual designs synthesized for introducing the geothermal heat into the process. The design approaches were then quantified with capital, operating and maintenance costs, and comparative economic evaluations were made with other fuels projected to 1995. In parallel with the detailed study of process conversion to geothermal heat, the existing pattern and potential growth of the sugar refining industry was assessed to estimate the potential market for new factory construction at suitable areas, as well as the potential for retrofit conversion of existing factories. The environmental impact of other geothermal application concepts was also assessed, and expected technological or industry/government policy changes which might affect the potential for conversion to geothermal heat were identified and evaluated. Emphasis was placed on achieving results that would stimulate commercial utilization of geothermal heat for beet sugar refining and related processes.

  16. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  17. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, F.; Kappelmeyer, O.; Herde, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective of this brochure is to present the subject Geothermics and the possible use of geothermal energy to the public. The following aspects will be refered to: -present energy situation -geothermal potential -use of geothermal energy -environemental aspects -economics. In addition, it presents an up-dated overview of geothermal projects funded by the German government, and a list of institutions and companies active in geothermal research and developments. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Probabilistic approach of resource assessment in Kerinci geothermal field using numerical simulation coupling with monte carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Iki; Sutopo; Pratama, Heru Berian

    2017-12-01

    The Kerinci geothermal field is one phase liquid reservoir system in the Kerinci District, western part of Jambi Province. In this field, there are geothermal prospects that identified by the heat source up flow inside a National Park area. Kerinci field was planned to develop 1×55 MWe by Pertamina Geothermal Energy. To define reservoir characterization, the numerical simulation of Kerinci field is developed by using TOUGH2 software with information from conceptual model. The pressure and temperature profile well data of KRC-B1 are validated with simulation data to reach natural state condition. The result of the validation is suitable matching. Based on natural state simulation, the resource assessment of Kerinci geothermal field is estimated by using Monte Carlo simulation with the result P10-P50-P90 are 49.4 MW, 64.3 MW and 82.4 MW respectively. This paper is the first study of resource assessment that has been estimated successfully in Kerinci Geothermal Field using numerical simulation coupling with Monte carlo simulation.

  19. Geothermal energy program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  20. Geothermal Energy Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained with the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost- effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy -- the heat of the Earth -- is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40% of the total US energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma ( the four types of geothermal energy) still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program

  1. Assessment and evaluation of geothermal potential in Switzerland; Atlas des ressources geothermiques suisses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andenmatten-Berthoud, N. [Geowatt AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kohl, T. [Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Institut de Geophysique, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the first part of a project that aims at assessing the geothermal energy potential of Switzerland's underground. Due to the presence of the Alps the Swiss underground is highly heterogeneous with numerous geologic faults. Geothermal energy assessment has to be carried out region after region. The first steps consisted in collecting existing geological and hydrogeological data and finding out the best appropriate methodology. Analysis was restricted to the Northwest of Switzerland (Basle-Zurich area), which has a dense population - an important factor for future applications - and is better known than others, thanks to previous studies performed in conjunction with site pre-selection for future radioactive waste disposal facilities. In this area, sandstones and limestones are found on the crystalline bottom rock. Mathematical models and computer codes were developed for interpolation and extrapolation of local and regional data. Three dimensional finite-element techniques were used. The results are presented in diagrams and maps.

  2. Geothermal Energy for New Mexico: Assessment of Potential and Exploratory Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Person, Lara Owens, James Witcher

    2010-02-17

    This report summarizes the drilling operations and subsequent interpretation of thermal and geochemical data from the New Mexico Tech NMT-2GT (OSE RG- 05276 POD) test well. This slim hole was drilled along an elongate heat-flow anomaly at the base of the Socorro Mountains to better assess the geothermal resource potential (Socorro Peak geothermal system) on the western side of the New Mexico Tech campus in Socorro, New Mexico. The reservoir depth, hydraulic properties, temperature and chemistry were unknown prior to drilling. The purpose of the NMT-2GT (OSE RG-05276 POD) well was to explore the feasibility of providing geothermal fluids for a proposed district space heating system on the New Mexico Tech campus. With DOE cost over runs funds we completed NMT-2GT to a depth of 1102 feet at the Woods Tunnel drill site. Temperatures were nearly constant (41 oC ) between a depth of 1102 feet. Above this isothermal zone, a strong temperature gradient was observed (210 oC /km) beneath the water table consistent with vertical convective heat transfer. The existence of a groundwater upflow zone was further supported by measured vertical hydraulic head measurements which varied between about 258 feet at the water table to 155 feet at a depth of 1102 feet yielding a vertical hydraulic a gradient of about 0.1. If the upflow zone is 1 km deep, then a vertical flow rate is about 0.6 m/yr could have produced the observed curvature in the thermal profile. This would suggest that the deep bedrock permeability is about 20 mD. This is much lower than the permeability measured in a specific capacity aquifer test completed in 2009 within fracture Paleozoic sandstones near the water table (3000 D). Flow rates measured during drilling were measured using a v-notch weir. Flow rates were consistently around 1000 gpm. While the temperatures are lower than we had anticipated, this geothermal resource can still be developed to heat the NM Tech campus using heat pump technology.

  3. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  4. Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanloz, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Stone, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); et al.

    2013-12-31

    DOE, through the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, requested this study, identifying a focus on: i) assessment of technologies and approaches for subsurface imaging and characterization so as to be able to validate EGS opportunities, and ii) assessment of approaches toward creating sites for EGS, including science and engineering to enhance permeability and increase the recovery factor. Two days of briefings provided in-depth discussion of a wide range of themes and challenges in EGS, and represented perspectives from industry, government laboratories and university researchers. JASON also contacted colleagues from universities, government labs and industry in further conversations to learn the state of the field and potential technologies relevant to EGS.

  5. Industry participation in DOE-sponsored geopressured geothermal research development. Final report, May 1, 1979-April 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffer, H.F.

    1982-07-01

    Nine DOE/Industry Forum meetings where the progress of DOE's resource development program was outlined and discussed were planned, organized, conducted, and reported. These nine forum meetings included three meetings of the Drilling and Testing group, two Site Selection meetings, one meeting each of the Legal and Environmental groups and two Overview meetings where the entire DOE program was discussed. Summaries of each of these meetings are included and the progress of DOE's geopressured geothermal resource evaluation program from its early beginnings to demonstration of the tremendous size and widespread availability of this supplementary energy resource are shown. Attendees at the meetings represented a broad cross section of state and federal agencies and potential users and developers of this large energy source. Attendance at meetings averages 50 to 80 with the most interest shown at meetings where reservoir testing results were discussed. In addition to the forums 16 newsletters were prepared and distributed to all participants. These were instituted to keep industry apprised of the latest developments in this DOE resource evaluation program. Three additional studies were carried out for DOE under this contract: a reservoir continuity study, a survey of gas stripping operations, and the development of a lease agreement for design well prospects.

  6. Geothermal energy in California: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citron, O.; Davis, C.; Fredrickson, C.; Granit, R.; Kerrisk, D.; Leibowitz, L.; Schulkin, B.; Wornack, J.

    1976-06-30

    The potential for electric energy from geothermal resources in California is currently estimated to be equivalent to the output from 14 to 21 large (1000 MW) central station power plants. In addition, since over 30 California cities are located near potential geothermal resources, the non-electric applications of geothermal heat (industrial, agriculture, space heating, etc.) could be enormous. Therefore, the full-scale utilization of geothermal resources would have a major impact upon the energy picture of the state. This report presents a summary of the existing status of geothermal energy development in the state of California as of the early part of 1976. The report provides data on the extent of the resource base of the state and the present outlook for its utilization. It identifies the existing local, state, and federal laws, rules and regulations governing geothermal energy development and the responsibilities of each of the regulatory agencies involved. It also presents the differences in the development requirements among several counties and between California and its neighboring states. Finally, it describes on-going and planned activities in resource assessment and exploration, utilization, and research and development. Separate abstracts are prepared for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) for Sections II--VI and the three Appendixes.

  7. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  8. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Geothermal Greenhouse Development Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the popular applications of low-to moderated-temperature geothermal resources. Using geothermal energy is both an economical and efficient way to heat greenhouses. Greenhouse heating systems can be designed to utilize low-temperature (>50oC or 122oF) resources, which makes the greenhouse an attractive application. These resources are widespread throughout the western states providing a significant potential for expansion of the geothermal greenhouse industry. This article summarizes the development of geothermal heated greenhouses, which mainly began about the mid-1970's. Based on a survey (Lienau, 1988) conducted in 1988 and updated in 1997, there are 37 operators of commercial greenhouses. Table 1 is a listing of known commercial geothermal greenhouses, we estimate that there may be an additional 25% on which data is not available.

  10. Niland development project geothermal loan guaranty: 49-MW (net) power plant and geothermal well field development, Imperial County, California: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The proposed federal action addressed by this environmental assessment is the authorization of disbursements under a loan guaranteed by the US Department of Energy for the Niland Geothermal Energy Program. The disbursements will partially finance the development of a geothermal well field in the Imperial Valley of California to supply a 25-MW(e) (net) power plant. Phase I of the project is the production of 25 MW(e) (net) of power; the full rate of 49 MW (net) would be achieved during Phase II. The project is located on approximately 1600 acres (648 ha) near the city of Niland in Imperial County, California. Well field development includes the initial drilling of 8 production wells for Phase I, 8 production wells for Phase II, and the possible need for as many as 16 replacement wells over the anticipated 30-year life of the facility. Activities associated with the power plant in addition to operation are excavation and construction of the facility and associated systems (such as cooling towers). Significant environmental impacts, as defined in Council on Environmental Quality regulation 40 CFR Part 1508.27, are not expected to occur as a result of this project. Minor impacts could include the following: local degradation of ambient air quality due to particulate and/or hydrogen sulfide emissions, temporarily increased ambient noise levels due to drilling and construction activities, and increased traffic. Impacts could be significant in the event of a major spill of geothermal fluid, which could contaminate groundwater and surface waters and alter or eliminate nearby habitat. Careful land use planning and engineering design, implementation of mitigation measures for pollution control, and design and implementation of an environmental monitoring program that can provide an early indication of potential problems should ensure that impacts, except for certain accidents, will be minimized.

  11. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, Oscar P.; Tangir, Daniel; Perri, Matias S.

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  12. Assessment of industrial liquid waste management in Omdurman Industrial Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnasri, R. A. A.

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted mainly to investigate the effects of industrial liquid waste on the environment in the Omdurman area. Various types of industries are found around Omdurman. According to the ISC the major industries are divided into eight major sub-sectors, each sub-sector is divided into types of industries. Special consideration was given to the liquid waste because of its effects. In addition to the available data, personal observation supported by photographs, laboratory analyses were carried on the industrial effluents. The investigated parameters in the analysis were, BOD, COD, O and G, Cr, TDS, TSS, pH, temp and conductivity. Interviews were conducted with waste handling workers in the industries, in order to assess the effects of industrial pollution. The results obtained showed that pollutants produced by all the factories were found to exceed the accepted levels of the industrial pollution control. The effluents disposed of in the sites allotted by municipal authorities have adverse effects on the surrounding environment and public health and amenities. Accordingly the study recommends that the waste water must be pretreated before being disposed of in site allotted by municipal authorities. Develop an appropriate system for industrial waste proper management. The study established the need to construct a sewage system in the area in order to minimize the pollutants from effluents. (Author)

  13. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices E through H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    These appendices include: a folio of maps showing lineaments perceived across the state; an index and critique of the Landsat images used in perceiving the lineaments; a selected bibliography on lineaments; and a discussion of area-specific assessments of geothermal resources near military bases in Bexar, Travis, and Val Verde Counties. (MHR)

  14. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  15. Quantifying the undiscovered geothermal resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released summary results of an assessment of the electric power production potential from the moderate- and high-temperature geothermal resources of the United States (Williams et al., 2008a; USGS Fact Sheet 2008-3082; http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3082). In the assessment, the estimated mean power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 Megawatts-electric (MWe), more than three times the estimated mean potential from identified geothermal systems: 9057 MWe. The presence of significant undiscovered geothermal resources has major implications for future exploration and development activities by both the government and private industry. Previous reports summarize the results of techniques applied by the USGS and others to map the spatial distribution of undiscovered resources. This paper describes the approach applied in developing estimates of the magnitude of the undiscovered geothermal resource, as well as the manner in which that resource is likely to be distributed among geothermal systems of varying volume and temperature. A number of key issues constrain the overall estimate. One is the degree to which characteristics of the undiscovered resources correspond to those observed among identified geothermal systems. Another is the evaluation of exploration history, including both the spatial distribution of geothermal exploration activities relative to the postulated spatial distribution of undiscovered resources and the probability of successful discoveries from the application of standard geothermal exploration techniques. Also significant are the physical, chemical, and geological constraints on the formation and longevity of geothermal systems. Important observations from this study include the following. (1) Some of the largest identified geothermal systems, such as The Geysers vapor-dominated system in northern California and the diverse geothermal manifestations found in Yellowstone

  16. Geothermal Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.; Bennett, M.; Atkins, D.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2008) outlined a mean 30 GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western United States. One goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. DOE has focused efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont and Foster, 1990-1992) will give developers central location for information gives models for identifying new geothermal areas, and guide efficient exploration and development of these areas. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with GTO to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In 2012, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In 2013, ten additional case studies were completed, and Semantic MediaWiki features were developed to allow for more data and the direct citations of these data. These case studies are now in the process of external peer review. In 2014, NREL is working with universities and industry partners to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough data set to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  17. Competence assessment toolbox for event industry professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Heinonen, Elina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project based thesis is to design an effective competence assess-ment tool for event management industry professionals. The writer noticed the lack of competence tools for the event management industry and therefore wanted to follow the topic trough a project thesis. The competence assessment tools will be designed through a portfolio of competence related instruments. The design of the assessment tools based on a careful literature review about the event management, p...

  18. 7 CFR 900.42 - Industry assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry assessments. 900.42 Section 900.42 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Marketing Orders § 900.42 Industry assessments. If the Secretary determines it is necessary to improve or...

  19. The decree of the 8 January 2015 related to geothermal industry: a determining step for the development of this sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lormeteau, Blanche

    2015-01-01

    In order to favour the use of small-scale geothermal energy, this decree has simplified the regulatory framework by substituting an on-line work declaration to the previous authorization-based regime. This article analyses and discusses the content of this decree which makes the distinction between small-scale geothermal energy, low temperature geothermal energy, and high temperature geothermal energy. The decree modifies the mining title regime, simplifies procedures of exploitation of small scale geothermal sites. The author outlines that this new regime will be more precisely defined by other decrees which are to be published during the summer 2015, and will be completed by arrangements which are part of the bill on energy transition

  20. Assessment of the State-Of-The-Art of Numerical Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-11-01

    The reservoir features of importance in the operation of enhanced geothermal systems are described first (Section 2). The report then reviews existing reservoir simulators developed for application to HDR reservoirs (Section 3), hydrothermal systems (Section 4), and nuclear waste isolation (Section 5), highlighting capabilities relevant to the evaluation and assessment of EGS. The report focuses on simulators that include some representation of flow in fractures, only mentioning other simulators, such as general-purpose programs or groundwater models (Section 6). Following these detailed descriptions, the report summarizes and comments on the simulators (Section 7), and recommends a course of action for further development (Section 8). The references are included in Section 9. Appendix A contains contractual information, including a description of the original and revised scope of work for this study. Appendix B presents comments on the draft report from DOE reviewer(s) and the replies of the authors to those comments. [DJE-2005

  1. Assessment of the State-Of-The-Art of Numerical Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    The reservoir features of importance in the operation of enhanced geothermal systems are described first (Section 2). The report then reviews existing reservoir simulators developed for application to HDR reservoirs (Section 3), hydrothermal systems (Section 4), and nuclear waste isolation (Section 5), highlighting capabilities relevant to the evaluation and assessment of EGS. The report focuses on simulators that include some representation of flow in fractures, only mentioning other simulators, such as general-purpose programs or groundwater models (Section 6). Following these detailed descriptions, the report summarizes and comments on the simulators (Section 7), and recommends a course of action for further development (Section 8). The references are included in Section 9. Appendix A contains contractual information, including a description of the original and revised scope of work for this study. Appendix B presents comments on the draft report from DOE reviewer(s) and the replies of the authors to those comments. [DJE-2005

  2. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endeshaw, A.; Belaineh, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  3. Assessing the industry's new shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The one-page article discusses the changes in recent years in the hydrogenerator market which has forced ABB Alstom Power to reduce its workforce by tens of thousands. The Company blames 'a continuing shift from steam based power generation to gas.' Although there is a demand in the business of refurbishing, there are few new projects, and if the hydro industry fails to offer rapid competitive hydro plant construction then further downsizing is likely

  4. Basic overview towards the assessment of landslide and subsidence risks along a geothermal pipeline network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astisiasari, Astisiasari; Van Westen, C.J.; Jetten, V.; Van Der Meer, F.D.; Hizbaron, Dyah Rahmawati

    2018-01-01

    An operating geothermal power plant consists of installation units that work systematically in a network. The pipeline network connects various engineering structures, e.g. well pads, separator, scrubber, and power station, in the process of transferring geothermal fluids to generate electricity.

  5. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  6. Geothermal environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armannsson, H.; Kristmannsdottir, H.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal utilization can cause surface disturbances, physical effects due to fluid withdrawal noise, thermal effects and emission of chemicals as well as affect the communities concerned socially and economically. The environmental impact can be minimized by multiple use of the energy source and the reinjection of spent fluids. The emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuels as an industrial energy source wherever possible

  7. A reservoir engineering assessment of the San Jacinto-Tizate Geothermal Field, Nicaragua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapenko, S.; Spektor, S.; Davila, H.; Porras, E.; Perez, M.

    1996-01-24

    More than twenty yews have passed since geothermal research and drilling took place at the geothermal fields in Nicaragua- Tbe well horn Momotombo Geothermal Field (70 We) has been generating electricity since 1983, and now a new geothermal field is under exploration. the San Jacinto-Tizate. Two reservoirs hydraulic connected were found. The shallow reservoir (270°C) at the depth of 550 - 1200 meters, and the deep one at > 1600 meters. Both of theme are water dominated reservoirs, although a two phase condition exist in the upper part of the shallow one. Different transient tests and a multi-well interference test have been carried out, very high transmissivity value were estimated around the well SJ-4 and average values for the others. A preliminar conceptual model of the geothermal system is given in this paper, as the result of the geology, geophysics, hydrology studies, drilling and reservoir evaluation.

  8. Geothermal-energy files in computer storage: sites, cities, and industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dea, P.L.

    1981-12-01

    The site, city, and industrial files are described. The data presented are from the hydrothermal site file containing about three thousand records which describe some of the principal physical features of hydrothermal resources in the United States. Data elements include: latitude, longitude, township, range, section, surface temperature, subsurface temperature, the field potential, and well depth for commercialization. (MHR)

  9. Industrial process heat market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve

  10. Survey report: study of information/educational discussions with private industries and public institutions on the direct-heat utilization of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, J.V.

    1977-03-01

    Results of a study of private and public institutions' responses to the proposed use of geothermal energy in the form of direct heat are summarized. This heat energy would be used as an alternate or supportive source for their process or other heat requirements. The summary includes information from over 75 personal contacts with firms in several categories. No attempt is made to reference specific data to any particular company. Although not necessarily confidential, some financial information concerning energy costs to profits was considered sensitive and is respected as such. The companies contacted are in the following categories: food processing--canning, drying, dehydration; chemicals; paper/wood-pulp processing; food machinery; horticulture; and dairy. The area covered in the study was from Seattle, Washington, to San Diego, California, during mid-1976. Industry's response varied from mild interest, as with corporations that had little or no knowledge of geothermal energy (and regard it as a new unproven science), to enthusiasm from corporations that employ their own energy departments. The study clearly indicated the need for a basic educational/promotional program and an operating demonstration project (industrial park) to prove economic feasibility and instill confidence in the potential of geothermal energy.

  11. Geothermal Program Review VII: proceedings. DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an indepth review of its entire geothermal R and D program. The 2--3 day conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R and D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. This year's conference, Program Review 7, was held in San Francisco on March 21--23, 1989. As indicated by its title, ''DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace'', Program Review 7 emphasized developing technologies, concepts, and innovations having potential for commercial application in the foreseeable future. Program Review 7 was comprised of eight sessions including an opening session and a special presentation on the ''Role of Geothermal Energy in Minimizing Global Environmental Problems.'' The five technical sessions covered GTD-sponsored R and D in the areas of hydrothermal (two sessions), hot dry rock, geopressured, and magma. Presentations were made by the relevant field researchers, and sessions were chaired by the appropriate DOE Operations Office Geothermal Program Manager. The technical papers and commentary of invited speakers contained in these Proceedings have been compiled in the order in which they were presented at Program Review 7.

  12. Analysis of the apiclutural industry in relation to geothermal development and agriculture in the Imperial Valley, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, E.L.

    1979-04-01

    PART I: Continuous exposure to 30 ppB H/sub 2/S increased lifespan of caged worker honey bees, Apis mellifera L., 33%; whereas, bees exposed > 13 days to 100 ppB and 300 ppB H/sub 2/S the lifespan was shortened 32% and 51%, respectively, over unexposed bees; bees exposed > 15 days to a combination of 300 ppB H/sub 2/S + 50 ppM CO/sub 2/ the lifespan was shortened 4.4% more that 300 ppB H/sub 2/S alone. The mean temperature and/or relative humidity did not exert a direct effect on the hazard to bees. A continuous exposure to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ was detrimental to caged worker honey bees; and, a mean temperature of 27.2/sup 0/C was 75.7% more toxic than the same dosage at 16.7/sup 0/C. Worker bee lifespans exposed to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ at 16.7/sup 0/C were shortened 13.5% and 79%, respectively, compared to unexposed bees. Therefore, both dosage and temperature exert direct effects on the hazards to bees. PART II: The status of the apicultural industry in Imperial County, California, was outlined giving a short characterization of the area in relation to the apicultural industry. Agriculture utilizes 500,000 intensely farmed acres which generated a 11-year average income of $370 million. Over 40 agricultural commodities are produced. The apicultural industry is intimately involved in 25% of the total gross agricultural income. In addition, most of the flora growing in the desert community which comprises the remainder of the county are very important to honey bees by providing sustaining nectar and/or pollen for brood rearing. The bee foraged flora provides substantial bee forage when colonies are located outside of the agriculutral area. It is concluded that geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley is contemplated to have minimal effects on the apicultural industry.

  13. A biological method to monitor early effects of the air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Loppi, Stefano

    2008-09-01

    The suitability of a set of ecophysiological parameters, to be used as early warning indicator to detect signs of a worsening environment around geothermal power plants, was tested by comparison with the diversity of epiphytic lichens, a well-established indicator of geothermal air pollution. Samples of the lichen Evernia prunastri were transplanted around a geothermal power plant at Larderello (Tuscany, Italy) and at a control site, and integrity of cell membranes, concentration of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, chlorophyll integrity and variations in pH of thalli were measured. The results showed that cell membrane damage, expressed by changes in electrical conductivity, could be used to detect early (exposure periods as short as 1 month) deleterious effects of geothermal air pollution.

  14. Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasescu, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive

  15. Assessing the industry using Porter's five forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To develop a business and plan for the future, there is a need to assess the current situation. One way of doing this is to use Porter's five forces framework. This was the brainchild of Harvard Business School's Michael Porter and developed in 1979. Looking at the competitive intensity of an industry, the model assesses internal and external factors that act together to determine the direction of the business; taken together, this gives an indication of the attractiveness of the industry.

  16. Investigation of the geothermal potential of the UK. A preliminary assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Geologically, Britain is an extremely stable area without active volcanism. In this situation the development of geothermal resources depends upon the occurrence of permeable rocks in deep sedimentary basins or the successful development of the hot dry rock concept. The average geothermal gradient is about 25C/km, but two belts of above average heat flow extend across northern and south-western England. In these areas the gradient can be 30C/km or more. The principal aquifers occur in the Mesozoic and the greatest geothermal potential is in sandstones of the Permo-Triassic where their occurrence at depth coincides with the high heat flow belts.

  17. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  18. Geothermal energy program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the lead federal role in the research and development (R D) of technologies that will assist industry in economically exploiting the nation's vast geothermal resources. The GTD R D Program represents a comprehensive, balanced approach to establishing all forms of geothermal energy as significant contributors to the nation's energy supply. It is structured both to maintain momentum in the growth of the existing hydrothermal industry and to develop long-term options offering the greatest promise for practical applications. This volume, Volume 2, contains a detailed compilation of each GTD-funded R D activity performed by national laboratories or under contract to industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions.

  19. Geothermal engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the engineering required to bring geothermal resources into use. The book covers specifically engineering aspects that are unique to geothermal engineering, such as measurements in wells and their interpretation, transport of near-boiling water through long pipelines, turbines driven by fluids other than steam, and project economics. The explanations are reinforced by drawing comparisons with other energy industries.

  20. Mask industry assessment trend analysis 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia

    2007-02-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's survey data was presented at BACUS and a detailed trend analysis is presented here. The annual survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the fifth in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify trends in the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 survey. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss, Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. Note: the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were only added to the survey in 2005; therefore meaningful trend analysis is not yet available.

  1. A new assessment of combined geothermal electric generation and desalination in western Saudi Arabia: targeted hot spot development

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-17

    High heat flow associated with the tectonic spreading of the Red Sea make western Saudi Arabia a region with high potential for geothermal energy development. The hydraulic properties of the Precambrian-age rocks occurring in this region are not conducive to direct production of hot water for heat exchange, which will necessitate use of the hot dry rock (HDR) heat harvesting method. This would require the construction of coupled deep wells; one for water injection and the other for steam recovery. There are some technological challenges in the design, construction, and operation of HDR geothermal energy systems. Careful geotechnical evaluation of the heat reservoir must be conducted to ascertain the geothermal gradient at the chosen site to allow pre-design modeling of the system for assessment of operational heat flow maintenance. Also, naturally occurring fractures or faults must be carefully evaluated to make an assessment of the potential for induced seismicity. It is anticipated that the flow heat exchange capacity of the system will require enhancement by the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the injection well with the production well drilled into the fracture zone to maximum water recovery efficiency and reduce operating pressure. The heated water must be maintained under pressure and flashed to steam at surface to produce to the most effective energy recovery. Most past evaluations of geothermal energy development in this region have been focused on the potential for solely electricity generation, but direct use of produced steam could be coupled with thermally driven desalination technologies such as multi-effect distillation, adsorption desalination, and/or membrane distillation to provide a continuous source of heat to allow very efficient operation of the plants. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  2. Mask industry assessment trend analysis: 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David

    2012-02-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply among the top critical issues for lithography. A survey was designed by SEMATECH with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers to objectively assess the overall conditions of the mask industry. With the continued support of the industry, this year's assessment was the tenth in the current series of annual reports. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2011 surveys. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that ultimately produce a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. We received data from 11 companies this year, which was a record high since the beginning of the series. The responding companies represented more than 96% of the volume shipped and about 90% of the 2011 revenue for the photomask industry. These survey reports are often used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. They will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities. Results can also be used to guide future investments in critical path issues.

  3. Mask industry assessment trend analysis: 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2010-05-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was designed with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers and support from SEMATECH to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's assessment was the eighth in the current series of annual reports. Its data were presented in detail at BACUS, and the detailed trend analysis is presented at EMLC. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. Its results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the surveys in 2005 through 2009. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that creates a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  4. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  5. Geothermal low-temperature reservoir assessment in Dona Ana County, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L.; Lohse, R.L.

    1983-04-01

    Sixty-four shallow temperature gradient holes were drilled on the Mesilla Valley East Mesa (east of Interstate Highways 10 and 25), stretching from US Highway 70 north of Las Cruces to NM Highway 404 adjacent to Anthony, New Mexico. Using these data as part of the site selection process, Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. of Denver, Colorado, drilled two low-temperature geothermal production wells to the immediate north and south of Tortugas Mountain and encountered a significant low-temperature reservoir, with a temperature of about 150{sup 0}F and flow rates of 750 to 1500 gallons per minute at depths from 650 to 1250 feet. These joint exploration activities resulted in the discovery and confirmation of a 30-square-mile low-temperature geothermal anomaly just a few miles to the east of Las Cruces that has been newly named as the Las Cruces east Mesa Geothermal Field. Elevated temperature and heat flow data suggest that the thermal anomaly is fault controlled and extends southward to the Texas border covering a 100-square-mile area. With the exception of some localized perturbations, the anomaly appears to decrease in temperature from the north to the south. Deeper drilling is required in the southern part of the anomaly to confirm the existence of commercially-exploitable geothermal waters.

  6. Environmental assessment: Raft River geothermal project pilot plant, Cassia County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The action assessed here is the construction and operation of a 5- to 6-MW(e) (gross) geothermal pilot plant in the Raft River Valley of southern Idaho. This project was originally planned as a thermal test loop using a turbine simulator valve. The test loop facility (without the simulator valve) is now under construction. The current environmental assessment addresses the complete system including the addition of a turbine-generator and its associated switching gear in place of the simulator valve. The addition of the turbine-generator will result in a net production of 2.5 to 3.5 MW(e) with a commensurate reduction in waste heat to the cooling tower and will require the upgrading of existing transmission lines for offsite delivery of generated power. Construction of the facility will require disturbance of approximately 20 ha (50 acres) for the facility itself and approximately 22.5 ha (57 acres) for construction of drilling pads and ponds, pipelines, and roads. Existing transmission lines will be upgraded for the utility system interface. Interference with alternate land uses will be minimal. Loss of wildlife habitat will be acceptable, and US Fish and Wildlife Service recommendations for protection of raptor nesting sites, riparian vegetation, and other important habitats will be observed. During construction, noise levels may reach 100 dBA at 15 m (50 ft) from well sites, but wildlife and local residents should not be significantly affected if extended construction is not carried out within 0.5 km (0.3 miles) of residences or sensitive wildlife habitat. Water use during construction will not be large and impacts on competing uses are unlikely.

  7. Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of the 'Canton de Vaud', Switzerland; Evaluation du potentiel geothermique du canton de Vaud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J. [Jules Wilhelm, Pully (Switzerland); Bianchetti, G. [ALPGEO, Sierre (Switzerland); Vuataz, F.-D. [University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report presents an assessment of the geothermal energy potential in the provincial state of Vaud in western Switzerland. According to the authors the prospect for the three current main technologies: low-temperature surface water, deep hot water springs and advanced geothermal systems, is good. In about 10 years it would be possible to extract some 3.6x10{sup 6} MJ per year from low-temperature surface water while the energy production from deep hot springs could be near to 2x10{sup 4} MJ. Finally, in the forthcoming 20 years the construction of 3 advanced geothermal power plants ('Deep Heat Mining', i.e. the extraction of deep-rock thermal energy by water circulation) could produce about 30 MW electricity in a cogeneration operation mode. Recommendations are given regarding measures needed at the political level to promote geothermal power plants.

  8. Report on a mission to the Philippines regarding the opportunities for private investment in geothermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The Philippines has a rich potential for geothermal energy development, according to the assessment of opportunities for U.S. private investment in the sector. Areas covered in detail are the Philippines' geothermal resources, the legal structure of the geothermal industry, conditions acting as stimuli to geothermal power generation, and interest in private geothermal investment. Major finding are as follows. (1) The Philippine geothermal power industry is the world's second largest. (2) Geothermal resources are owned by the Government of the Philippines and a complex legal structure governs their exploitation. (3) Since the Philippines is poor in most energy resources (e.g., coal, oil, and gas), use of geothermal energy is necessary. (4) Despite legal and structural obstacles, various foreign private enterprises are interested in participating in geothermal development. Two possible options for U.S. investors are presented: a joint venture with the National Oil Company, and negotiation of a service contract, either alone or with a Philippine partner, for a concession on land administered by the Office of Energy Affairs

  9. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Allen [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Darlow, Rick [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sanchez, Angel [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Pierce, Michael [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sellers, Blake [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  10. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, Ph.; Lemale, J.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source which consists in exploiting the heat coming from the Earth. It covers a wide range of techniques and applications which are presented in this article: 1 - the Earth, source of heat: structure of the Earth, geodynamic model and plate tectonics, origin of heat, geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flux; 2 - geothermal fields and resources; 3 - implementation of geothermal resources: exploration, main characteristic parameters, resource exploitation; 4 - uses of geothermal resources: power generation, thermal uses, space heating and air conditioning heat pumps, district heating, addition of heat pumps; 5 - economical aspects: power generation, heat generation for district heating; 6 - environmental aspects: conditions of implementation, impacts as substitute to fossil fuels; 7 - geothermal energy in France: resources, organisation; 8 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  11. 7 CFR 900.33 - Industry assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry assessments. 900.33 Section 900.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Rules of Practice Governing Proceedings To Amend Federal Milk Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders...

  12. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  13. Assessment of Needs for Further Research to Understand the Role of Governments in Supporting Geothermal Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, Bethany; Young, Kate

    2017-05-01

    This paper looks at financing barriers to geothermal resource exploration in the United States (U.S.) for electricity generation projects and analyzes why the market is not developing as quickly as foreign geothermal markets or as quickly as other renewable energy technologies in the U.S. Research opportunities and approaches to understanding these discrepancies are discussed, particularly whether government policies and programs are spurring development activities. Further analysis to understand policies, programmatic cost efficiencies, potential project revenues, and other economic impacts are recommended together with the preliminary conclusions.

  14. An Estimate of Shallow, Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullane, Michelle; Gleason, Michael; McCabe, Kevin; Mooney, Meghan; Reber, Timothy; Young, Katherine R.

    2016-10-01

    Low-temperature geothermal resources in the United States potentially hold an enormous quantity of thermal energy, useful for direct use in residential, commercial and industrial applications such as space and water heating, greenhouse warming, pool heating, aquaculture, and low-temperature manufacturing processes. Several studies published over the past 40 years have provided assessments of the resource potential for multiple types of low-temperature geothermal systems (e.g. hydrothermal convection, hydrothermal conduction, and enhanced geothermal systems) with varying temperature ranges and depths. This paper provides a summary and additional analysis of these assessments of shallow (= 3 km), low-temperature (30-150 degrees C) geothermal resources in the United States, suitable for use in direct-use applications. This analysis considers six types of geothermal systems, spanning both hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). We outline the primary data sources and quantitative parameters used to describe resources in each of these categories, and present summary statistics of the total resources available. In sum, we find that low-temperature hydrothermal resources and EGS resources contain approximately 8 million and 800 million TWh of heat-in-place, respectively. In future work, these resource potential estimates will be used for modeling of the technical and market potential for direct-use geothermal applications for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Vision Study.

  15. An Estimate of Shallow, Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullane, Michelle; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; McCabe, Kevin; Mooney, Meghan; Young, Katherine R.

    2017-05-01

    Low-temperature geothermal resources in the United States potentially hold an enormous quantity of thermal energy, useful for direct use in residential, commercial and industrial applications such as space and water heating, greenhouse warming, pool heating, aquaculture, and low-temperature manufacturing processes. Several studies published over the past 40 years have provided assessments of the resource potential for multiple types of low-temperature geothermal systems (e.g. hydrothermal convection, hydrothermal conduction, and enhanced geothermal systems) with varying temperature ranges and depths. This paper provides a summary and additional analysis of these assessments of shallow (= 3 km), low-temperature (30-150 degrees C) geothermal resources in the United States, suitable for use in direct-use applications. This analysis considers six types of geothermal systems, spanning both hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). We outline the primary data sources and quantitative parameters used to describe resources in each of these categories, and present summary statistics of the total resources available. In sum, we find that low-temperature hydrothermal resources and EGS resources contain approximately 8 million and 800 million TWh of heat-in-place, respectively. In future work, these resource potential estimates will be used for modeling of the technical and market potential for direct-use geothermal applications for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Vision Study.

  16. Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Jordan Valley Salt Lake County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauk, R.H.

    1984-07-01

    Two known low-temperature areas (Warm Springs fault and Crystal Hot Springs) are located in the Jordan Valley, but the primary purpose of this report is to locate other low-temperature resources not previously identified. Geothermal reconnaissance techniques utilized in this study include a temperature survey and chemical analysis of wells and springs, and temperature-depth measurements in holes of opportunity. Also, further site specific gravity modelling for the Warm Springs fault geothermal area and initial modelling for the entire valley were also conducted. Areas identified as having potential low-temperature geothermal resources at depth are: (1) the north-central valley area; (2) an east-west portion of the central valley; and (3) a north-south oriented area extending from Draper to Midvale. Each of these areas exhibits ground-water temperatures 20/sup 0/C or greater. Each area has thermal wells with common ion characteristics similar to both Crystal Hot Springs and the Warm Springs fault geothermal systems. Significant concentrations of Sr, Li, B, and F are present in many of these wells.

  17. 75 FR 29361 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Competitive Geothermal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Tomichi Dome east of Gunnison, Colorado. While the BLM lands at issue are currently open to geothermal... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCOS06000-L91310000-EI0000] Notice of..., Gunnison County, CO and Land Use Plan Amendment AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  18. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  19. Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreddine Ghaffour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting.

  20. Geothermal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  1. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S. [eds.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  2. Low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada: area specific studies, Pumpernickel Valley, Carlin and Moana. Final report June 1, 1981-July 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Koenig, B.A.; Bell, E.J.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys were used in conjunction with temperature gradient hole drilling to assess the geothermal resources in Pumpernickel Valley and Carlin, Nevada. This program is based on a statewide assessment of geothermal resources that was completed in 1979. The exploration techniques are based on previous federally-funded assessment programs that were completed in six other areas in Nevada and include: literature search and compilation of existing data, geologic reconnaissance, chemical sampling of thermal and non-thermal fluids, interpretation of satellite imagery, interpretation of low-sun angle aerial photographs, two-meter depth temperature probe survey, gravity survey, seismic survey, soil-mercury survey, and temperature gradient drilling.

  3. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  4. Geothermal assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada. Final report, April 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Bruce, J.L.; Cates, D.; Dolan, H.H.; Covington, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    A preliminary geothermal resource assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada focused on Coyote Spring Valley in southeastern Nevada. Initially, an extensive literature search was conducted and a bibliography consisting of 750 entries was compiled covering all aspects of geology pertaining to the study area. A structural study indicates that Coyote Spring Valley lies in a tectonically active area which is favorable for the discovery of geothermal resources. Hot water may be funneled to the near-surface along an extensive fracture and fault system which appears to underlie the valley, according to information gathered during the literature search and aerial photo survey. A total of 101 shallow temperature probes were emplanted in Coyote Spring Valley. Three anomalous temperature points all lying within the same vicinity were identified in the north-central portion of the valley near a fault. A soil-mercury study also identified one zone of anomalous mercury concentrations around the north end of the Arrow Canyon Range. A literature search covering regional fluid geochemistry indicated that the three fluid samples taken from Coyote Spring Valley have a higher concentration of Na + K. During field work, seven fluid samples were collected in Coyote Spring Valley which also appear to be derived from volcanic units due to the presence of Ca-Mg or Na-K carbonate-bicarbonate. A temperature gradient study of six test water wells indicates that only one geothermal well with a temperature of 35.5/sup 0/C (96/sup 0/F) exists in the central portion of the valley at the north end of Arrow Canyon Range near the zone of anomalous soil-mercury points. A cultural assessment of Coyote Spring Valley was performed prior to field work.

  5. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  6. Very low energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Very low energy geothermics correspond to temperatures below 30 C and has been developed to cover heating and cooling needs of recent individual houses or tertiary industries using heat pumps and low depth aquifers (<100 m). Geothermal heat pumps industry has made great strides in European Northern countries, China, Japan and the United States of America. Geothermal heat pumps are less energy consuming than air heat pumps and require less cooling fluid and maintenance. The Aquapac procedure has been developed in France in 1983 by the AFME (French Energy Control Agency), EdF and the BRGM (Geologic and Mining Research Office) to encourage the use of geothermal heat pump for domestic and sanitary water heating and to make a survey of low-depth aquifers in the whole french territory. The decay of energy costs that started in 1986 has led to a loss of interest for the Aquapac procedure, even in the tertiary industries for which the air-conditioning demand is growing up. (J.S.). 1 tab

  7. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, Michelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  8. Measuring Impact of U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies Office Funding: Considerations for Development of a Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.; Bennett, Mitchell; Segneri, Brittany

    2015-04-25

    This paper reviews existing methodologies and reporting codes used to describe extracted energy resources such as coal and oil and describes a comparable proposed methodology to describe geothermal resources. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of assessing the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow for GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to inform development of a geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and we sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for assessing and reporting on GTO funding according to resource knowledge and resource grade (or quality). This methodology would allow GTO to target funding or measure impact by progression of projects or geological potential for development.

  9. Geophysical survey, Paso Robles geothermal area, California, part of the resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1980-11-10

    Some general background information concerning the geology and geothermal occurrences in the Southern Coast Ranges is included, as well as the more detailed information dealing with the Paso Robles area proper. Results for two geophysical methods that have been used in the area: the ground magnetic and gravity surveys, are discussed and interpreted.

  10. Competitive assessment of the US: Renewable energy equipment industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    This report is a competitive assessment of the U.S. renewable energy equipment industry. The contents include: Definition of technologies; Industry characteristics; Historical perspectives; Industry performance; Trends and projections; The world marketplace; and Issues and options.

  11. Preliminary assessment of the Velocity Pump Reaction Turbine as a geothermal total-flow expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, O.J.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation was made of the Velocity Pump Reaction Turbine (VPRT) as a total flow expander in a geothermal-electric conversion cycle. Values of geofluid effectiveness of VPRT systems were estimated for conditions consisting of: a 360/sup 0/F geothermal resource, 60/sup 0/F wet-bulb ambient temperature, zero and 0.003 mass concentrations of dissolved noncondensible gas in the geofluid, 100 and 120/sup 0/F condensing temperature, and engine efficiencies ranging from 0.4 to 1.0. Achievable engine efficiencies were estimated to range from 0.47 to 0.77, with plant geofluid effectivenss values ranging as high as 9.5 Watt hr/lbm geofluid. This value is competitive with magnitudes of geofluid effectiveness projected for advanced binary plants, and is on the order of 40% higher than estimates for dual-flash steam systems and other total flow systems reviewed. Because of its potentially high performance and relative simplicity, the VPRT system appears to warrant further investigation toward its use in a well-head geothermal plant. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  12. A market survey of geothermal wellhead power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The market potential for a portable geothermal wellhead power conversion device is assessed. Major study objectives included identifying the most promising applications for such a system, the potential impediments confronting their industrialization, and the various government actions needed to overcome these impediments. The heart of the study was a series of structured interviews with key decision-making individual in the various disciplines of the geothermal community. In addition, some technical and economic analyses of a candidate system were performed to support the feasibility of the basic concept.

  13. Simulation of geothermal subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, I.; Dershowitz, W.; Jones, K.; Myer, L.; Roman, K.; Schauer, M.

    1980-03-01

    The results of an assessment of existing mathematical models for subsidence simulation and prediction are summarized. The following subjects are discussed: the prediction process, physical processes of geothermal subsidence, computational models for reservoir flow, computational models for deformation, proficiency assessment, and real and idealized case studies. (MHR)

  14. Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

    2009-05-01

    To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was

  15. Hot dry rock geothermal energy: status of exploration and assessment. Report No. 1 of the hot dry rock assessment panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The status of knowledge of attempts to utilize hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy is summarized. It contains (1) descriptions or case histories of the ERDA-funded projects at Marysville, MT, Fenton Hill, NM, and Coso Hot Springs, CA; (2) a review of the status of existing techniques available for exploration and delineation of HDR; (3) descriptions of other potential HDR sites; (4) definitions of the probable types of HDR resource localities; and (5) an estimate of the magnitude of the HDR resource base in the conterminous United States. The scope is limited to that part of HDR resource assessment related to the determination of the extent and character of HDR, with emphasis on the igneous-related type. It is estimated that approximately 74 Q (1 Q = 1,000 Quads) of heat is stored in these sites within the conterminous U.S. at depths less than 10 km and temperatures above 150/sup 0/C, the minimum for power generation. (Q = 10/sup 18/ BTU = 10/sup 21/J; the total U.S. consumption for 1972 was approximately 0.07 Q). Approximately 6300 Q are stored in the conduction-dominated parts of the crust in the western U.S. (23% of the total surface area), again at depths less than 10 km and temperatures above 150/sup 0/C. Nearly 10,000 Q are believed to be contained in crustal rocks underlying the entire conterminous U.S., at temperatures above 150/sup 0/C. The resource base is significantly larger for lower grade heat. (JGB)

  16. Competency assessments for nuclear industry personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    In 1996, the IAEA published Technical Reports Series No. 380, Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation: A Guidebook. This publication provides guidance for the development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes for all nuclear power plant personnel using the systematic approach to training (SAT) methodology. The SAT methodology has since been adopted and used for the development and implementation of training programmes for all types of nuclear facility and activities in the nuclear industry. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that an additional publication be prepared to provide further guidance concerning competency assessments used for measuring the knowledge, skills and attitudes of personnel as the result of training. This publication has been prepared in response to that recommendation. A critical component of SAT (as part of the implementation phase) is the assessment of whether personnel have achieved the standards identified in the training objectives. The nuclear industry spends a significant amount of resources conducting competency assessments. Competency assessments are used for employee selection, trainee assessment, qualification, requalification and authorization (in some Member States the terminology may be 'certification' or 'licensing'), and job advancement and promotion. Ineffective testing methods and procedures, or inappropriate interpretation of test results, can have significant effects on both human performance and nuclear safety. Test development requires unique skills and, as with any skill, training and experience are needed to develop and improve them. Test item and examination development, use, interpretation of results and examination refinement, like all other aspects of SAT, should be part of an ongoing, systematic process. This publication is primarily intended for use by personnel responsible for developing and administering

  17. Geothermal demonstration: Zunil food dehydration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, O. (Consultecnia, Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Altseimer, J.; Thayer, G.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Cooper, L. (Energy Associates International, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Caicedo, A. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1991-08-01

    A food dehydration facility was constructed near the town of Zunil, Guatemala, to demonstrate the use of geothermal energy for industrial applications. The facility, with some modifications to the design, was found to work quite satisfactorily. Tests using five different products were completed during the time geothermal energy was used in the plant. During the time the plant was not able to use geothermal energy, a temporary diesel-fueled boiler provided the energy to test dehydration on seven other crops available in this area. The system demonstrates that geothermal heat can be used successfully for dehydrating food products. Many other industrial applications of geothermal energy could be considered for Zunil since a considerable amount of moderate-temperature heat will become available when the planned geothermal electrical facility is constructed there. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  19. Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

  20. Development of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the geothermal development promotion survey project. NEDO is taking the lead in investigation and development to reduce risks for private business entities and promote their development. The program is being moved forward by dividing the surveys into three ranks of A, B and C from prospects of geothermal resource availability and the state of data accumulation. The survey A lacks number of data, but covers areas as wide as 100 to 300 km{sup 2}, and studies possible existence of high-temperature geothermal energy. The survey B covers areas of 50 to 70 km{sup 2}, investigates availability of geothermal resources, and assesses environmental impacts. The survey C covers areas of 5 to 10 km{sup 2}, and includes production well drilling and long-term discharge tests, other than those carried out by the surveys A and B. Results derived in each fiscal year are evaluated and judged to establish development plans for the subsequent fiscal year. This paper summarizes development results on 38 areas from among 45 areas surveyed since fiscal 1980. Development promotion surveys were carried out over seven areas in fiscal 1994. Development is in progress not only on utilization of high-temperature steam, but also on binary cycle geothermal power generation utilizing hot waters of 80 to 150{degree}C. Fiscal 1994 has carried out discussions for spread and practical use of the systems (particularly on economic effects), and development of small-to-medium scale binary systems. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Laney

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or

  2. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently

  3. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.V.; Lacy, S.B.; Lowe, G.D.; Nussbaum, A.M.; Walter, K.M.; Willens, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of the use of low and moderate temperature geothermal heat in the mining and processing of tungsten ore is explored. The following are covered: general engineering evaluation, design of a geothermal energy system, economics, the geothermal resource, the institutional barriers assessment, environmental factors, an alternate geothermal energy source, and alternates to geothermal development. (MHR)

  4. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you

  5. Industrial food processing and space heating with geothermal heat. Final report, February 16, 1979-August 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, J.F.; Marlor, J.K.

    1982-08-01

    A competitive aware for a cost sharing program was made to Madison County, Idaho to share in a program to develop moderate-to-low temperature geothermal energy for the heating of a large junior college, business building, public shcools and other large buildings in Rexburg, Idaho. A 3943 ft deep well was drilled at the edge of Rexburg in a region that had been probed by some shallower test holes. Temperatures measured near the 4000 ft depth were far below what was expected or needed, and drilling was abandoned at that depth. In 1981 attempts were made to restrict downward circulation into the well, but the results of this effort yielded no higher temperatures. The well is a prolific producer of 70/sup 0/F water, and could be used as a domestic water well.

  6. Industrial assessment center program. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad R. Ganji, Ph.D., P.E., IAC DIrector

    2007-01-01

    The Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at San Francisco State University (SFSU) has served the cause of energy efficiency as a whole, and in particular for small and medium-sized manufacturing facilities in northern and central California, within a approximately 150 miles (radial) of San Francisco since 1992. In the current reporting period (September 1, 2002 through November 31, 2006) we have had major accomplishments, which include but are not limited to: Performing a total of 94 energy efficiency and waste minimization audit days of 87 industrial plants; Recommending and analysis of 809 energy efficiency measures; Training 22 energy engineers, most of whom have joined energy services companies in California; Disseminating energy efficiency information among local manufacturers; Acting as an information source for energy efficiency for local manufacturers and utilizes; Cooperating with local utilities and California Energy Commission in their energy efficiency projects; Performing various assignments by DOE such as dissemination of information on SEN initiative, conducting workshops on energy efficiency issues, contacting large energy user plants--Establishing a course on 'Energy: Resources, Alternatives and Conservation' as a general education course at SFSU; Bringing energy issues to the attention of students in classrooms

  7. Plant Wide Assessment for SIFCO Industries, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Kissock, Arvind Thekdi et. al.

    2005-07-06

    Sifco Industries carreid out a plant wide energy assessment under a collaborative program with the U.S. Department of Energy during October 2004 to September 2005. During the year, personnel from EIS, E3M, DPS, BuyCastings.Com, and Sifco plant facilities and maintenance personnel, as a team collected energy use, construction, process, equipment and operational information about the plant. Based on this information, the team identified 13 energy savings opportunities. Near term savings opportunities have a total potential savings of about $1,329,000 per year and a combined simple payback of about 11 months. Implementation of these recommendations would reduce CO2 emissions by about 16,000,000 pounds per year, which would reduce overall plant CO2 emissions by about 45%. These totals do not include another $830,000 per year in potential savings with an estimated 9-month payback, from converting the forging hammers from steam to compressed air.

  8. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The following mission and goal statements guide the overall activities of the Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy.

  9. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data: Community Requirements and Information Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-10-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to advance geothermal energy as a viable renewable energy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is investing in the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to supply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are discussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geothermal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS includes a work plan that addresses data assets and resources of interest to users, a survey of data providers, data content models, and how data will be exchanged and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  10. Innovation versus monopoly: geothermal energy in the West. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, S.L.; Stover, D.F.; Nelson, P.A.; Lamont, W.J.

    1977-07-01

    The following subjects are covered: geothermal energy and its use, electric utilities and the climate for geothermal development, the raw fuels industry and geothermal energy, and government and energy. The role of large petroleum companies and large public utilities is emphasized. (MHR)

  11. Assessment of geothermal assisted coal-fired power generation using an Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Cheng; Doroodchi, Elham; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic techno-economic analyses of GAPG system completed for Australian conditions. • Greater utilisation efficiency of both geothermal and fossil fuel resources was achieved. • Reference maps developed to predict conditions when hybrid plant outperforms two stand-alone plants. • Carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are adequate. • HDR resources should be located no further than 20 km from the plant. - Abstract: A systematic techno-economic analysis of geothermal assisted power generation (GAPG) was performed for a 500 MW unit of a typical coal-fired power plant located at the upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Specifically, the GAPG viability and performance was examined by investigating the impacts of reservoir temperature, resource distance, hybridisation scheme, and economic conditions including carbon tax and Renewable Energy Certificates (REC). The process simulation package, Aspen HYSYS, was employed for all simulation purposes. Thermodynamically, GAPG system was found to increase the power output of the plant by up to 19% under the booster mode whilst in fuel saving mode the coal consumption reduced by up to 0.3 million tonne/year decreasing the Green House Gas (GHG) emission by up to 15% (0.6 million tonne/year). Economic analyses showed that for a typical HDR resource with a reservoir temperature about 150 °C located within a 5 km radius from the power plant, the GAPG system becomes economically competitive to the stand-alone fossil fuel based plant when minimum carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are introduced. The figure of merit analyses comparing GAPG system with both stand-alone fossil fuel and stand-alone geothermal plants showed that an economically feasible GAPG system requires the use of HDR resources located no further than 20 km from the plants. Reference maps were also developed to predict suitable conditions for which the hybrid plant outperforms the

  12. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  13. Geothermal energy - availability - economy - prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1992-01-01

    The heat contained in the earth's crust represents an inexhaustible reservoir of energy on the technical scale, which is available at all times of day and at all seasons. In the volcanically active zones, the earth's heat is used industrially: Worldwide, the electrical power of geothermal powerstations is about 5000 MW; in addition, about 10,000 MW are used for direct thermal applications (heating) in regions with normal geothermal conditions. The geothermal power plants have been expanded at an annual rate of 12.2% since 1970. In many developing countries, the geothermal energy is the most important home source of energy for electricity generation. In Europe, in the Paris Basin, hot groundwater is pumped from a depth of about 2 km and is used for heating blocks of flats. In France as a whole, about 170,000 flats have been supplied with heat and hot water from underground for more than a decade. (orig./DG) [de

  14. Geothermal Information Dissemination and Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clutter, Ted J. [Geothermal Resources Council (United States)

    2005-02-18

    Project Purpose. To enhance technological and topical information transfer in support of industry and government efforts to increase geothermal energy use in the United States (power production, direct use, and geothermal groundsource heat pumps). Project Work. GRC 2003 Annual Meeting. The GRC convened the meeting on Oct. 12-15, 2003, at Morelia's Centro de Convenciones y ExpoCentro in Mexico under the theme, International Collaboration for Geothermal Energy in the Americas. The event was also sponsored by the Comision Federal de Electricidad. ~600 participants from more than 20 countries attended the event. The GRC convened a Development of Geothermal Projects Workshop and Geothermal Exploration Techniques Workshop. GRC Field Trips included Los Azufres and Paricutin Volcano on Oct. 11. The Geothermal Energy Association (Washington, DC) staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Annual Meeting Opening Session was convened on Oct. 13, and included the governor of Michoacan, the Mexico Assistant Secretary of Energy, CFE Geothermal Division Director, DOE Geothermal Program Manager, and private sector representatives. The 2003 Annual Meeting attracted 160 papers for oral and poster presentations. GRC 2004. Under the theme, Geothermal - The Reliable Renewable, the GRC 2004 Annual Meeting convened on Aug. 29-Sept. 1, 2004, at the Hyatt Grand Champions Resort at Indian Wells, CA. Estimated total attendance (including Trade Show personnel, guests and accompanying persons) was ~700. The event included a workshop, Geothermal Production Well Pump Installation, Operation and Maintenance. Field trips went to Coso/Mammoth and Imperial Valley/Salton Sea geothermal fields. The event Opening Session featured speakers from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the private sector. The Geothermal Energy Association staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Geothermal Education Office staged its Geothermal Energy Workshop. Several local radio and

  15. Assessment of University- Industry Collaboration and Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the cultural differences between university and industry, the mutual benefits from collaboration between university and industry have long been recognized in the advanced countries. Recently, the issue of technology transfer and collaboration between universities and industries has been receiving attention in the ...

  16. assessment of university- industry collaboration and technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... and ecommerce [3]. Technology transfer between industry and university come in different ways such as direct hires of students, graduates, temporary exchanges of researchers, university/faculty consultancies, joint research involving industry and academic scientists and engineers, industry-sponsored.

  17. Careers in Geothermal Energy: Power from below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new energy resources, scientists have discovered ways to use the Earth itself as a valuable source of power. Geothermal power plants use the Earth's natural underground heat to provide clean, renewable energy. The geothermal energy industry has expanded rapidly in recent years as interest in renewable energy has grown. In 2011,…

  18. Geothermal progress monitor: Report Number 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    Short articles are presented related to activities in the federal government and the geothermal industry, international developments, state and local government activities, technology development, and technology transfer. Power plant tables and a directory of organizations involved in geothermal resource development are included

  19. Geothermal progress monitor: Report Number 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Short articles are presented related to activities in the federal government and the geothermal industry, international developments, state and local government activities, technology development, and technology transfer. Power plant tables and a directory of organizations involved in geothermal resource development are included.

  20. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment.

  1. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment

  2. The Role of Cost Shared R&D in the Development of Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-03-16

    This U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Program Review starts with two interesting pieces on industries outlook about market conditions. Dr. Allan Jelacics introductory talk includes the statistics on the impacts of the Industry Coupled Drilling Program (late-1970's) on geothermal power projects in Nevada and Utah (about 140 MWe of power stimulated). Most of the papers in these Proceedings are in a technical report format, with results. Sessions included: Exploration, The Geysers, Reservoir Engineering, Drilling, Energy Conversion (including demonstration of a BiPhase Turbine Separator), Energy Partnerships (including the Lake County effluent pipeline to The Geysers), and Technology Transfer (Biochemical processing of brines, modeling of chemistry, HDR, the OIT low-temperature assessment of collocation of resources with population, and geothermal heat pumps). There were no industry reviews at this meeting.

  3. Preliminary analysis of dry-steam geothermal power plant by employing exergy assessment: Case study in Kamojang geothermal power plant, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Rudiyanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to perform the exergy analysis and ambient temperature optimization of the Kamojang geothermal power plant by employing Engineering Equation Solver (EES. The geothermal capacity is 55 MW and the field is vapor-dominated reservoir with temperature 245 °C. In the initial state temperature, pressure and mass flow data are collected from the plant operation. The study results show that system has overall efficiency of 35.86% which means that only 111,138.92 kW electrical power can be extracted from 309,000 kW thermal power being produced by 10 production wells of Kamojang. This low efficiency is due to irreversibility associated with different processes and components in the system. The largest irreversibility occurs in condenser due to which 53% of total energy is disposed into the environment. Ambient temperature at Kamojang varies from 17 to 20 °C. The effect of this variation in temperature is also investigated and it is observed that higher temperature does not have any significant impact on system efficiency.

  4. Modification of risk assessment value to test industry reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2015-05-01

    This paper is in a form of a technical note, in which modified method of industry reliability analysis is reviewed. This paper introduces a multi-expert approach group decision making analysis for Risk Assessment Value (RAV), which directly tests the reliability of the system (industry). A case of construction industry has been studied for verification of the method. Reviewed RAV modified technique helps to assess the value of industry reliability; and brings contribution to the body of risk management knowledge.

  5. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1981-12-01

    The potential geothermal direct-use energy market and its application to projects in California are assessed. Project identification effort is to be focused on those that have the highest probability for near-term successful commercial operations. Near-term herein means 2 to 5 years for project implementation. Phase I has been focused on defining and assessing: (1) the geothermal direct-use resources that are suitable for near-term utilization; and (2) the generic applications (municipal heating districts, horticultural greenhouse firms, laundries, etc.) that are suitable for near-term projects. Five economic development regions in the state, containing recognized geothermal direct-use resources, have been defined. Thirty-eight direct use resources have been evaluated in these regions. After assessment against pre-selected criteria, twenty-seven have been rated with a priority of I, II or III, thereby qualifying them for further marketing effort. The five areas with a priority of I are summarized. These areas have no perceived impediments to near-term development. Twenty-nine generic categories of applications were assessed against previously selected criteria to determine their near term potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. Some twenty industry, commercial and institutional application categories were rated with a priority of I, II or III and warrant further marketing efforts. The seven categories with a priority of I are listed. These categories were found to have the least impediments to near-term application projects.

  6. Geothermal Progress Monitor 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-12-01

    Some of the more interesting articles in this GPM are: DOE supporting research on problems at The Geysers; Long-term flow test of Hot Dry Rock system (at Fenton Hill, NM) to begin in Fiscal Year 1992; Significant milestones reached in prediction of behavior of injected fluids; Geopressured power generation experiment yields good results. A number of industry-oriented events and successes are reported, and in that regard it is noteworthy that this report comes near the end of the most active decade of geothermal power development in the U.S. There is a table of all operating U.S. geothermal power projects. The bibliography of research reports at the end of this GPM is useful. (DJE 2005)

  7. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Doug [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Leggett, Jim [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-07-29

    The Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager project has a goal to develop a wireline ultrasonic imager that is capable of operating in temperatures up to 300°C (572°F) and depths up to 10 km (32,808 ft). This will address one of the critical needs in any EGS development of understanding the hydraulic flow paths in the reservoir. The ultrasonic imaging is well known in the oil and gas industry as one of the best methods for fracture evaluation; providing both high resolution and complete azimuthal coverage of the borehole. This enables fracture detection and characterization, both natural and induced, providing information as to their location, dip direction and dip magnitude. All of these factors are critical to fully understand the fracture system to enable the optimization of the thermal drainage through injectors and producers in a geothermal resource.

  8. Resource assessment/commercialization planning meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy and Division of Geothermal Resource Management, sponsored a Resource Assessment/Commercialization Planning meeting in Salt Lake City on January 21-24, 1980. The meeting included presentations by state planning and resource teams from all DOE regions. An estimated 130 people representing federal, state and local agencies, industry and private developers attended.

  9. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits

  10. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  11. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  12. Geothermal investigations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ravnik

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and the results of geothermal investigations, based on seventy-two boreholes in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.The data of fundamental geothermal quantities: formation temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production of rocks as well as surface heat flow density are stored in a computerized data base. Their synthesis is given in the map of formation temperatures at 1000 m depth and in the map of surface heat flow density. In both maps the thermal difference between the Pannonian basin in theeastern and the Dinarides in the western part of Slovenia is clearly expressed.However, in the boundary area between these two tectonic units, for a distance of about 100 km in SW-NE direction, elevated horizontal gradients of formation temperature as well as heat flow density are evident. A small positive thermal anomaly in the Ljubljana depression is conspicuous.The low-temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia such as thermalsprings and thermal water from boreholes, are estimated to have a flow rate of 1120 kg/s, corresponding to the ideal total heat production of 144 MWt. In the geothermally promising areas amounting to 3200 km2 the rate of accessible resource base (ARB down to the depth of 3 km has been assessed to about 8.5 x lO 20» J.

  13. Supplement to the technical assessment of geoscience-related research for geothermal energy technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    Detailed information (e.g., project title, sponsoring organization, research area, objective status, etc.) is presented for 338 geoscience/geothermal related projects. A summary of the projects conducted by sponsoring organization is presented and an easy reference to obtain detailed information on the number and type of efforts being sponsored is presented. The projects are summarized by research area (e.g., volcanology, fluid inclusions, etc.) and an additional project cross-reference mechanism is also provided. Subsequent to the collection of the project information, a geosciences classification system was developed to categorize each project by research area (e.g., isotope geochemistry, heat flow studies) and by type of research conducted (e.g., theoretical research, modeling/simulation). A series of matrices is included that summarize, on a project-by-project basis, the research area addressed and the type of R and D conducted. In addition, a summary of the total number of projects by research area and R and D type is given.

  14. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  15. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development

  16. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  17. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  18. DMRC studies geothermal energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-01

    The Deep Mining Research Consortium (DMRC) is an industry-led research consortium that includes Vale Inco, Xstrata, Rio Tinto, Goldcorp, Agnico-Eagle, Barrick Gold, CANMET and the City of Sudbury. This article reported on the application of geothermal energy technologies to cool deep mine workings and use the heat from underground to produce energy to heat surface buildings. Researchers at the University of British Columbia's Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials have proposed the use of heat pumps and water-to-air heat exchangers at depth to chill mine workings. The heat pumps would act as refrigerators, taking heat from one area and moving it elsewhere. The purpose would be to extract heat from naturally occurring ground water and pass the chilled water through a heat exchanger to cool the air. The heated water would then be pumped to surface and used to heat surface facilities. The technology is well suited for using geothermal energy from decommissioned mines for district heating. The technology has been successfully used in Spring Hill, Nova Scotia, where geothermal energy from a decommissioned coal mine is used to heat an industrial park. A feasibility study is also underway for the city of Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories to produce up to 10 megawatts of heat from the Con Gold Mine, enough energy to heat half of Yellowknife. Geothermal energy can also be used to generate electricity, particularly in the Pacific Rim where underground temperatures are higher and closer to surface. In Sudbury Ontario, the enhanced geothermal systems technology would require two holes drilled to a depth of four kilometers. The ground between the two holes should be fractured to create an underground geothermal circuit. Geothermal energy does not produce any greenhouse gases or chemical wastes. 1 fig.

  19. State policies for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  20. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices A through D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    These appendices include: a folio of county maps showing locations of well data across the state; a computerized tabulation of the wells depicted; an explanation of the computer coding procedures; and a selected bibliography on heat flow and geothermics. (MHR)

  1. Geothermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Mangor, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Vast amounts of heat exist below the planet's surface. Geothermal Energy shows how scientists are tapping into this source of energy to heat homes and generate electricity. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject. Features include a table of contents, infographics, a glossary, additional resources, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  2. Description and assessment of the Raft River Lotic system in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal Area. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Raft River is the only perennial lotic system within this area and one concern has been the impact a spill of geothermal water would have on the biota of the stream. Identification of the structure of these communities is the baseline information which was the objective of this study. The results of the inventory in terms of potential recovery of downstream communities from the impact of geothermal water induced perturbations are discussed.

  3. Needs Assessment of Hospitality/Tourism Industry in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Shirley

    This report of an assessment of the hospitality/tourism industry in Kentucky begins with a history/description of the hospitality/tourism industry written from research; the hospitality/tourism training programs conducted by various institutions in the state are also described. For the assessment itself, two survey instruments were prepared and…

  4. The underground geothermal resource about Bure is not exceptional. Answers by the ANDRA to critics made by associations on the geothermal resource in the Cigeo study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Marc-Antoine

    2013-01-01

    As some documents published by associations stated that the site chosen for Cigeo (Industrial centre for geological storage of nuclear materials and wastes) could be a geothermal resource of interest, the ANDRA herein states again that this resource is neither exceptional nor attractive in the present technological and economical conditions. In order to precisely answer to the arguments stated by the associations, it notably refers to some drillings performed in this area. It discusses drilling conditions and tests, test result interpretation, measurements, the process transparency, and the actual assessment of geothermal resources

  5. Environmental assessment in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines the subject matter to be dealt with in environmental impact assessments for uranium production facilities, the development of environmental impact statements and the processes used for assessing projects. Different types of regulatory process used to assess projects are described, using Canadian and Australian examples. Some of the techniques used in developing environmental assessments are described. Public participation, including that of special interest groups, is discussed. Some examples of assessments are examined, particularly looking at recent assessments for uranium mining projects in Canada. Trends in environmental assessment are described, using examples from a number of different projects over the past 25 years. Some recommendations for the future are offered. (author)

  6. Environmental assessment in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The paper examines the subject matter to be dealt with in environmental impact assessments for uranium production facilities, the development of environmental impact statements and the processes used for assessing projects. Different types of regulatory process used to assess projects are described, using Canadian and Australian examples. Some of the techniques used in developing environmental assessments are described. Public participation, including that of special interest groups, is discussed. Some examples of assessments are examined, particularly looking at recent assessments for uranium mining projects in Canada. Trends in environmental assessment are described, using examples from a number of different projects over the past 25 years. Some recommendations for the future are offered. (author)

  7. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

    2003-08-14

    Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

  8. Geothermal Money Book [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2004-02-01

    Small business lending is big business and growing. Loans under $1 million totaled $460 billion in June 2001, up $23 billion from 2000. The number of loans under $100,000 continued to grow at a rapid rate, growing by 10.1%. The dollar value of loans under $100,000 increased 4.4%; those of $100,000-$250,000 by 4.1%; and those between $250,000 and $1 million by 6.4%. But getting a loan can be difficult if a business owner does not know how to find small business-friendly lenders, how to best approach them, and the specific criteria they use to evaluate a loan application. This is where the Geothermal Money Book comes in. Once a business and financing plan and financial proposal are written, the Geothermal Money Book takes the next step, helping small geothermal businesses locate and obtain financing. The Geothermal Money Book will: Explain the specific criteria potential financing sources use to evaluate a proposal for debt financing; Describe the Small Business Administration's (SBA) programs to promote lending to small businesses; List specific small-business friendly lenders for small geothermal businesses, including those which participate in SBA programs; Identify federal and state incentives which are relevant to direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; and Provide an extensive state directory of financing sources and state financial incentives for the 19 states involved in the GeoPowering the West (GPW). GPW is a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored activity to dramatically increase the use of geothermal energy in the western United States by promoting environmentally compatible heat and power, along with industrial growth and economic development. The Geothermal Money Book will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve

  9. Geopressured-geothermal energy development: government incentives and institutional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)

  10. Industry participation in DOE-sponsored geopressured geothermal resource development. Interim report, September 12, 1977-April 13, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffer, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    An industry forum for detailed discussions of the DOE resource evaluation program was instituted. An Overview Group was established along with four working subgroups - Site Selection, Drilling and Testing, Environmental/Laboratory Research, Legal/Institutional - at the initial forum meeting. All forum meetings are open to the public and are announced in the Federal Register. To date, 12 meetings have been conducted including two overview, two site selection, three drilling and testing, three environmental/laboratory research and two legal/institutional meetings. The meetings have been well attended. Representatives of 15 of the 19 largest US oil companies as well as 12 other major industrial firms have participated. In addition, 25 small businesses, 12 DOE contractors, 8 state agencies and 6 federal government agencies have been represented. Discussions have been open and spirited resulting in a useful interchange of ideas. The enthusiastic cooperation of the participants has demonstrated the ability of the government and industry to work harmoniously on programs aimed at solving the energy crisis.

  11. Agribusiness geothermal energy utilization potential of Klamath and Western Snake River Basins, Oregon. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1978-03-01

    Resource assessment and methods of direct utilization for existing and prospective food processing plants have been determined in two geothermal resource areas in Oregon. Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. and Amalgamated Sugar Company in the Snake River Basin; Western Polymer Corporation (potato starch extraction) and three prospective industries--vegetable dehydration, alfalfa drying and greenhouses--in the Klamath Basin have been analyzed for direct utilization of geothermal fluids. Existing geologic knowledge has been integrated to indicate locations, depth, quality, and estimated productivity of the geothermal reservoirs. Energy-economic needs and balances, along with cost and energy savings associated with field development, delivery systems, in-plant applications and fluid disposal have been calculated for interested industrial representatives.

  12. Assessment of US industry's technology trends and new technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The utility and effectiveness of a novel approach (the Applications Development, or AD approach), intended to augment the efficiency of NASA's technology utilization (TU) through dissemination of NASA technologies and joint technology development efforts with U.S. industry is tested. The innovative AD approach consists of the following key elements: selection of NASA technologies appearing to have leading edge attributes; interaction with NASA researchers to assess the characteristics and quality of each selected technology; identification of industry's needs in the selected technology areas; structuring the selected technologies in terms of specifications and standards familiar to industry (industrial Spec. Sheets); identification and assessment of industry's interest in the specific selected NASA technologies, utilizing the greatly facilitated communication made possible by the availability of the industrial Spec. Sheets; and matching selected NASA technologies with the needs of selected industries.

  13. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  14. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed, R.J.; Laney, P.T.

    2002-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives.

  15. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed, Robert John; Laney, Patrick Thomas

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives.

  16. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, R.J.; Laney, P.T.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives

  17. Magnetotelluric Phase Tensor Applications to Geothermal Assessment in New Zealand and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Feucht, D. W.; Brown, D.; Castro, B.; Chang, J.; Goff, D.; Hardwick, C.; Hollingshaus, B.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Nakai, J.; Wilson, C.; Bertrand, E. A.; Bennie, S.; Caldwell, G.; Hill, G. J.; Wallin, E.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Hasterok, D. P.; Pellerin, L.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) phase tensor analysis preserves the background (regional) phase response irrespective of galvanic distortion even if distorting inhomogeneities change between multiple MT deployments. This characteristic is the basis for repeat MT monitoring of the South Karapiti, New Zealand region near the Wairakei Power Station where 1-2 km-deep reinjection of spent geothermal fluids will commence soon. Deep electrical conductivity changes caused by this injection may be detected by background phase tensor changes independent of possible surficial changes, e.g., from drilling operations, or from differing sensor alignments during the multi-MT occupations. In 2010-2012 twenty MT sites within 1.5 km of a newly-drilled injection well were reoccupied by New Zealand GNS scientists and US students from NSF's International Research Experiences for Students program. Maps of phase tensor ellipses at various frequencies have identified frequency bands exhibiting good repeatability, therefore, they are potentially useful for detection of future brine injection. Final reoccupation of the MT sites is scheduled in 2013 after a large brine injection. In New Mexico, the 2012 SAGE program (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) applied phase tensor analysis to 8 MT soundings aimed at understanding the occurrence of anomalously high vertical and horizontal temperature gradients located approximately 25 km NW of Santa Fe. Plots of phase tensor ellipses allowed unique, distortion-free visualization of the dimensionality and directions of background geoelectric variations. Analysis of the plots as functions of frequency and location revealed a nearly one-dimensional (1-D) upper conductive (sedimentary) section. Variations in the orientations of the principal axes of phase tensor ellipses exposed an overall, deeper three-dimensional (3-D) geoelectric structure in the region. However, two sequential frequency bands revealed dominantly two-dimensional (2-D) regional features

  18. A landscape ecology approach to assessing development impacts in the tropics: A geothermal energy example in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Trettin, C.C.; O'Neill, R. V.

    2002-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly being used in environmental impact assessments (EIA) because GIS is useful for analysing spatial impacts of various development scenarios. Spatially representing these impacts provides another tool for landscape ecology in environmental and geographical investigations by facilitating analysis of the effects of landscape patterns on ecological processes and examining change over time. Landscape ecological principles are applied in this study to a hypothetical geothermal development project on the Island of Hawaii. Some common landscape pattern metrics were used to analyse dispersed versus condensed development scenarios and their effect on landscape pattern. Indices of fragmentation and patch shape did not appreciably change with additional development. The amount of forest to open edge, however, greatly increased with the dispersed development scenario. In addition, landscape metrics showed that a human disturbance had a greater simplifying effect on patch shape and also increased fragmentation than a natural disturbance. The use of these landscape pattern metrics can advance the methodology of applying GIS to EIA.

  19. Non-electric utilization of geothermal energy in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorum, M.; Coury, G.E.; Goering, S.W.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Information on the geothermal resources of the San Luis Valley, Colorado, has been gathered and reviewed and a preliminary, quantitative assessment of the magnitude and quality of resources present was carried out. Complete process designs were developed for the processes of producing crystal sugar from beets and for malting barley for use in the brewing industry, in each case adapting the processes to use a 302/sup 0/F geothermal water supply as the main process energy source. A parametric design analysis was performed for a major pipeline to be used to ship geothermal water, and thus deliver its heat, out of the San Luis Valley to three major Colorado cities along the eastern threshold of the Rocky Mountains. Cost estimates for capital equipment and energy utilization are presented. The analyses of the two process applications indicate favorable economics for conversion and operation as geothermally-heated plants. A major geothermal water pipeline for this region is seriously limited on achievement of the economy of scale by the physical absence of significant demand for heat energy. Finally, the development and utilization of Colorado's San Luis Valley geothermal groundwaters hold the potential to contribute to the prudent and beneficial management of that area's natural water resources systems.

  20. Geothermal rice drying unit in Kotchany, Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, K.; Dimitrov, K.; Andrejevski, B.; Popovska, S.

    1992-01-01

    A geothermal field in Kotchany (Macedonia) has very advantageous characteristics for direct application purposes. Low content of minerals, moderate temperature (78C) and substantial available geothermal water flow (up to 300 1/s) enabled the establishment of a district heating scheme comprising mainly agricultural and industrial uses. A rice drying unit of 10 t/h capacity was installed 8 years ago, using the geothermal water as the primary heat source. A temperature drop of 75/50C enables the adaptation of conventional drying technology, already proven in practice in the surrounding rice growing region. Water to air heat exchanger and all necessary equipment and materials are of local production, made of copper and carbon steel. The use of such drying units is strongly recommended for the concrete district heating scheme because it offers a very simple geothermal application and enables improvement in the annual heating load factor without high investments in geothermal water distribution lines

  1. Geothermal in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the current market for geothermal projects in the US and overseas. The topics of the article include future capacity needs, upgrading the Coso Geothermal project, the productivity of the Geysers area of Northern California, the future of geothermal, and new projects at Soda Lake, Carson Basin, Unalaska Island, and the Puna Geothermal Venture in Hilo, Hawaii

  2. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J. (comps.)

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  3. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

  4. Geothermal program overview: Fiscal years 1993--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The DOE Geothermal Energy Program is involved in three main areas of research: finding and tapping the resource; power generation; and direct use of geothermal energy. This publication summarizes research accomplishments for FY 1993 and 1994 for the following: geophysical and geochemical technologies; slimhole drilling for exploration; resource assessment; lost circulation control; rock penetration mechanics; instrumentation; Geothermal Drilling Organization; reservoir analysis; brine injection; hot dry rock; The Geysers; Geothermal Technology Organization; heat cycle research; advanced heat rejection; materials development; and advanced brine chemistry.

  5. Assessment of Ecological and Seismological Situations In The Geothermal Area of Tbilisi By Hydrodynamic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelidze, T.; Buntebarth, G.; Melikadze, G.; Kumsiashvili, G.; Bendukidze, G.

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the hydrodynamic regime of deep aquifers of the Tbilisi hydrothermal area, in order to delineate the spatial distribution of ther- mal water basins and to understand recorded anomalies quantitatively. Thermal min- eral waters or "sulphur springs" of Tbilisi have been of particular importance for its population during the 1,5 thousand years history of Tbilisi. Water of these springs is hot (40-50 C) and somewhat sulphurous: contain sulphuretted hydrogen and it is used for therapeutic and recreation purposes. The water resort is based on them. Hot natural springs are connected to the exposed sediments of middle Eocene in the river Mtkvari gorge. The water-bearing complex of volcanic type of middle Eocene is abundant at the Tbilisi thermal fields. Through drilling in the North - West part of the city (Lisi dis- trict), several boreholes were opened, where the sulphurous thermal water of 60-70 oC has been encountered. This water is used for room heating. Drilling will be continued for providing the city with hot water. It is planned to warm 30-40 % of the whole Tbil- isi using the geothermal water circulation system. From west to east, these deposits are buried under younger rocks. 20-30 km far from the deposit, oil has been found in an anticline structure. Intensive exploitation of this oil deposit caused the perturbation of the hydraulic regime with consequences in its central part where the thermal springs partly faded out in the eighties. Until present, the hydrodynamical interdependence be- tween these 3 districts has been studied by various authors, but its true character is still unclear. The spatial extent of the thermal waters has also to be investigated. Without detailed research, the sustainable and ecologically correct use of the thermal reservoir is impossible. In the period from July 1999 to July 2001 the monitoring network of water level in boreholes (WLB) and microtemperatures was operating on three wells

  6. Geothermal resources of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  7. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  8. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) is the 11th since the inception of the publication in 1980. It continues to synthesize information on all aspects of geothermal development in this country and abroad to permit identification and quantification of trends in the use of this energy technology. In addition, the GPM is a mechanism for transferring current information on geothermal technology development to the private sector, and, over time, provides a historical record for those interested in the development pathway of the resource. In sum, the Department of Energy makes the GPM available to the many diverse interests that make up the geothermal community for the multiple uses it may serve. This issue of the GPM points up very clearly how closely knit many of those diverse interests have become. It might well be called an international issue'' since many of its pages are devoted to news of geothermal development abroad, to the efforts of the US industry to participate in overseas development, to the support given those efforts by federal and state agencies, and to the formation of the International Geothermal Association (IGA). All of these events indicate that the geothermal community has become truly international in character, an occurrence that can only enhance the future of geothermal energy as a major source of energy supply worldwide. 15 figs.

  9. Assessment of risk of potential exposures on facilities industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leocadio, Joao Carlos

    2007-03-01

    This work develops a model to evaluate potential exposures on open facilities of industrial radiography in Brazil. This model will decisively contribute to optimize operational, radiological protection and safety procedures, to prevent radiation accidents and to reduce human errors in industrial radiography. The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology was very useful to assess potential exposures. The open facilities of industrial radiography were identified as the scenario to be analyzed in what concerns the evaluation of potential exposures, due to their high accidents indices. The results of the assessment of potential exposures confirm that the industrial radiography in Brazil is a high-risk practice as classified by the IAEA. The risk of potential exposure was estimated to be 40,5 x 10 -2 per year in Brazil, having as main consequences injuries to the workers' hands and arms. In the world scene, the consequences are worst, leading to fatalities of people, thus emphasizing the high risk of industrial radiography. (author)

  10. Geothermal potential assessment of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano based on rock thermal conductivity measurements and numerical modeling of heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Maria Isabel; Blessent, Daniela; Córdoba, Sebastián; López-Sánchez, Jacqueline; Raymond, Jasmin; Parra-Palacio, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    This work presents an estimation of the geothermal potential of the Nevado del Ruiz (NDR) volcano, bridging the knowledge gap to develop geothermal energy in Colombia and improve resource estimates in South America. Field work, laboratory measurements, geological interpretations, 2D numerical modeling, and uncertainty analysis were conducted to the northwest of the NDR to assess temperature at depth and define thermal energy content. About 60 rock samples were collected at outcrops to measure thermal conductivity with a needle probe. A 2D numerical model, built from an inferred geological cross-section, was developed with the software OpenGeoSys to simulate the underground temperature distribution and then estimate the geothermal potential of a 1 km2 area with sufficient temperature, assuming a recovery factor equal to 2.4% and a 30 years exploitation time. Coupled groundwater flow and heat transfer were simulated in steady-state considering two different thermal conductivity scenarios. Results show that the average estimated potential is 1.5 × 10-2 MWt m-1 of the reservoir thickness, considering temperatures greater than 150 °C located at a depth of approximately 2 km, in a selected area situated outside of the Los Nevados National Natural Park (NNP), to avoid any direct intervention on this protected area. According to a Monte Carlo analysis considering pessimist and optimist scenarios of thermal conductivity, the estimated geothermal power was 1.54 × 10-2 MW m-1 (σ = 2.91 × 10-3 MW m-1) and 1.88 × 10-2 MW/m (σ = 2.91 × 10-3 MW m-1) for the two modeling scenario considered.

  11. Modern geothermal power: Binary cycle geothermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    In the second part of the review of modern geothermal power plant technologies and equipment, a role, a usage scale, and features of application of binary cycle plants in the geothermal economy are considered. Data on the use of low-boiling fluids, their impact on thermal parameters and performance of geothermal binary power units are presented. A retrospective of the use of various low-boiling fluids in industrial binary power units in the world since 1965 is shown. It is noted that the current generating capacity of binary power units running on hydrocarbons is equal to approximately 82.7% of the total installed capacity of all the binary power units in the world. At the same time over the past 5 years, the total installed capacity of geothermal binary power units in 25 countries increased by more than 50%, reaching nearly 1800 MW (hereinafter electric power is indicated), by 2015. A vast majority of the existing binary power plants recovers heat of geothermal fluid in the range of 100-200°C. Binary cycle power plants have an average unit capacity of 6.3 MW, 30.4 MW at single-flash power plants, 37.4 MW at double-flash plants, and 45.4 MW at power plants working on superheated steam. The largest binary cycle geothermal power plants (GeoPP) with an installed capacity of over 60 MW are in operation in the United States and the Philippines. In most cases, binary plants are involved in the production process together with a steam cycle. Requirements to the fluid ensuring safety, reliability, and efficiency of binary power plants using heat of geothermal fluid are determined, and differences and features of their technological processes are shown. Application of binary cycle plants in the technological process of combined GeoPPs makes it possible to recover geothermal fluid more efficiently. Features and advantages of binary cycle plants using multiple fluids, including a Kalina Cycle, are analyzed. Technical characteristics of binary cycle plants produced by various

  12. Technology assessment of automation trends in the modular home industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Mitchell; Robert Russell Hurst

    2009-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technology used in manufacturing modular homes in the United States, and that used in the German prefabricated wooden home industry. It is the first step toward identifying the research needs in automation and manufacturing methods that will facilitate mass customization in the home manufacturing industry. Within the United States...

  13. Panel Session--Rapporteurs' Reports Various Definitions of Geothermal Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-14

    To assess the importance of the confidence level of geothermal resources to those involved with the decisions on utilization, it was felt that a panel discussion to review the factors which affect the confidence level would be of general interest. With that objective, the panel members listed above were convened to discuss the problems of confidence level of the various sectors of the geothermal community. To allow for freedom of expression of the panel members, formal prepared presentations were not required. Instead three rapporteurs also representing diverse sectors of the community, industry, non-profit institutions, and government agencies, were requested to prepare summary overviews of the panelists remarks. The rapporteur reports follow.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  15. Biomass power industry: Assessment of key players and approaches for DOE and industry interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    A review team established by the Department of Energy conducted an assessment of the US biomass power industry. The review team visited with more than 50 organizations representing all sectors of the biomass power industry including utilities, independent power producers, component manufacturers, engineering and construction contractors, agricultural organizations, industrial users, and regulatory organizations. DOE solicited industry input for the development of the Biomass Power Division`s Five Year Plan. DOE believed there was a critical need to obtain industry`s insight and working knowledge to develop the near- and long-term plans of the program. At the heart of this objective was the desire to identify near-term initiatives that the program could pursue to help accelerate the further development of biomass power projects.

  16. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Culver, G.; Ellis, P.F.; Higbee, C.; Kindle, C.; Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.; Rafferty, K.; Stiger, S.; Wright, P.M.

    1989-03-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of these resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse, aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental considerations. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very potential in the United States.

  17. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

  18. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States

  19. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  20. Monitoring H2S air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy: the pitfall of using lichens as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppi, Stefano; Nascimbene, Juri

    2010-08-01

    This study showed that NH(3) emitted from geothermal power plants affects the surrounding epiphytic lichen vegetation and diversity, confounding the interpretation of lichen diversity counts in terms of air pollution by H(2)S. The presence of nitrophytic lichen species around geothermal installations, determined by NH(3), caused relatively high diversity values that were not related with the levels of air pollution by H(2)S. It is recommended that in the presence of NH(3) emission, nitrophytic species are excluded from the calculation of lichen diversity values. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Credit risk assessment: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring different risk factors such as credit risk in banking industry has been an interesting area of studies. The artificial neural network is a nonparametric method developed to succeed for measuring credit risk and this method is applied to measure the credit risk. This research’s neural network follows back propagation paradigm, which enables it to use historical data for predicting future values with very good out of sample fitting. Macroeconomic variables including GDP, exchange rate, inflation rate, stock price index, and M2 are used to forecast credit risk for two Iranian banks; namely Saderat and Sarmayeh over the period 2007-2011. Research data are being tested for ADF and Causality Granger tests before entering the ANN to achieve the best lag structure for the research model. MSE and R values for the developed ANN in this research respectively are 86×〖10〗^(-4 and 0.9885, respectively. The results showed that ANN was able to predict banks’ credit risk with low error. Sensibility analyses which has accomplished on this research’s ANN corroborates that M2 has the highest effect on the ANN’s credit risk and should be considered as an additional leading indicator by Iran’s banking authorities. These matters confirm validation of macroeconomic notions in Iran’s credit systematic risk.

  2. Lunar resource assessment: an industry perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. C.; Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.

    The goals of the U.S. space program are to return to the Moon, establish a base, and continue onward to Mars. To accomplish this in a relatively short time frame and to avoid the high costs of transporting materials from the Earth, resources on the Moon will need to be mined. Oxygen will be one of the most important resources, to be used as a rocket propellant and for life support. Ilmenite and lunar regolith have both been considered as ores for the production of oxygen. Resource production on the Moon will be a very important part of the U.S. space program. To produce resources we must explore to identify the location of ore or feedback and calculate the surface and underground reserves. Preliminary resource production tests will provide the information that can be used in final plant design. Bechtel Corporation's experience in terrestrial engineering and construction has led to an interest in lunar resource assessment leading to the construction of production facilities on the Moon. There is an intimate link between adequate resource assessment to define feedstock quantity and quality, material processing requirements, and the successful production of lunar oxygen. Although lunar resource assessment is often viewed as a research process, the engineering and production aspects are very important to consider. Resource production often requires the acquisition of different types, scales, or resolutions of data than that needed for research, and it is needed early in the exploration process. An adequate assessment of the grade, areal extent, and depth distribution of the resources is a prerequisite to mining. The need for a satisfactory resource exploration program using remote sensing techniques, field sampling, and chemical and physical analysis is emphasized. These data can be used to define the ore for oxygen production and the mining, processing facilities, and equipment required.

  3. Environmental Assessment - Gotten across to industrial designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a simplified method for environmental assessment for designers, the Oil Point Method (OPM). The paper explains characteristics of the method, such as the reduced problem with missing data, and describes how the method is used with its three steps, “FOCUS on the problem...... into an Internet-based design tool, and results and conclusions from four empirical tests with environmentally non-skilled designers are presented....

  4. Risk assessment of the Groningen geothermal potential : From seismic to reservoir uncertainty using a discrete parameter analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniilidis, Alexandros; Doddema, Leon; Herber, Rien

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal exploitation is subject to several uncertainties, even in settings with high data availability, adding to project risk. Uncertainty can stem from the reservoir's initial state, as well as from the geological and operational parameters. The interplay between these aspects entails

  5. Geothermal assessment of the deep aquifers of the northwestern part of the Bohemian Cretaceous basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiráková, H.; Procházka, M.; Dědeček, Petr; Kobr, M.; Hrkal, Z.; Huneau, F.; Le Coustumer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2011), s. 112-124 ISSN 0375-6505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : heat flux * geothermal gradients * thermal conductivity * thermometry * well logging * groundwater Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.919, year: 2011

  6. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry. 1984 viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the second annual assessment of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry's resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. The data and analysis in support of this assessment and the report itself have been developed pursuant to requirements set forth in Section 23(b) of Public Law 97-415, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act, which was enacted on January 4, 1983. The report provides information on recent uranium supply, demand, and marketing conditions and projections of the domestic uranium industry's ability to continue to supply the needs of the domestic nuclear power industry through the year 2000. Industry capability is assessed under a variety of assumed conditions with respect to hypothetical disruptions of uranium imports

  7. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry: 1986 viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the fourth annual assessment of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry's resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. The data and analysis in support of this assessment and the report itself have been developed pursuant to Public Law 97-415, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act of 1982. The report provides information on recent uranium supply, demand, and marketing conditions, as well as projections of the domestic uranium industry's ability to continue to supply the needs of the domestic nuclear power industry through the year 2000. Industry capability is assessed under a variety of assumed conditions with respect to hypothetical disruptions of uranium imports. 13 refs., 26 figs., 37 tabs

  8. A method for analyzing geothermal gradient histories using the statistical assessment of uncertainties in maturity models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huvaz, O. [Turkish Petroleum Corp., Ankara (Turkey). Exploration Group; Thomsen, R.O. [Maersk Oil and Gas AS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Noeth, S. [Schlumberger Data and Consultating Services, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-04-01

    A major factor contributing to uncertainty in basin modelling is the determination of the parameters necessary to reconstruct the basin's thermal history. Thermal maturity modelling is widely used in basin modelling for assessing the exploration risk. Of the available models, the chemical kinetic model Easy%Ro has gained wide acceptance. In this study, the thermal gradient at five wells in the Danish North Sea is calibrated against vitrinite reflectance using the Easy%Ro model coupled with an inverse scheme in order to perform sensitivity analysis and to assess the uncertainty. The mean squared residual (MSR) is used as a quantitative measure of mismatch between the modelled and measured reflectance values. A 90% confidence interval is constructed for the determined mean of the squared residuals to assess the uncertainty for the given level of confidence. The sensitivity of the Easy%Ro model to variations in the thermal gradient is investigated using the uncertainty associated with scatter in the calibration data. The best thermal gradient (minimum MSR) is obtained from the MSR curve for each well. The aim is to show how the reconstruction of the thermal gradient is related to the control data and the applied model. The applied method helps not only to determine the average thermal gradient history of a basin, but also helps to investigate the quality of the calibration data and provides a quick assessment of the uncertainty and sensitivity of any parameter in a forward deterministic model. (author)

  9. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update, FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Joel Lawrence

    2001-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: 1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and 2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research.

  10. Process applications for geothermal energy resources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Packer, M.B.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1981-08-01

    The principal goal of the program was to demonstrate economical and technical suitability of geothermal energy as a source of industrial process heat through a cooperative program with industrial firms. To accomplish that: a critical literature survey in the field was performed; a workshop with the paper and pulp industry representatives was organized; and four parallel methods dealing with technical and economical details of geothermal energy use as a source of industrial process heat were developed.

  11. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  12. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The following mission and goal statements guide the overall activities of the Office. The goals are: (1) Reduce the levelized cost of generating geothermal power to 3-5 cents per kWh by 2007; (2) Double the number of States with geothermal electric power facilities to eight by 2006; and (3) Supply the electrical power or heat energy needs of 7 million homes and businesses in the United States by 2010. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2003. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy. balanced strategy for the Geothermal Program.

  13. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. To develop the technology needed to harness the Nation's vast geothermal resources, DOE's Office of Geothermal Technologies oversees a network of national laboratories, industrial contractors, universities, and their subcontractors. The goals are: (1) Double the number of States with geothermal electric power facilities to eight by 2006; (2) Reduce the levelized cost of generating geothermal power to 3-5 cents per kWh by 2007; and (3) Supply the electrical power or heat energy needs of 7 million homes and businesses in the United States by 2010. This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2002. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy. balanced strategy for the Geothermal Program.

  14. Geothermal Progress Monitor, report No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) Issue No. 13 documents that most related factors favor the growth and geographic expansion of the US geothermal industry and that the industry is being technologically prepared to meet those challenges into the next century. It is the function of GPM to identify trends in the use of this resource and to provide a historical record of its development pathway. The information assembled for this issue of GPM indicates that trends in the use of geothermal energy in this country and abroad continue to be very positive. Favorable sentiments as well as pertinent actions on the part of both government and industry are documented in almost every section. The FEDERAL BEAT points up that the National Energy Strategy (NES) developed at the highest levels of the US government recognizes the environmental and energy security advantages of renewable energy, including geothermal, and makes a commitment to substantial diversification'' of US sources of energy. With the announcement of the construction of several new plants and plant expansions, the INDUSTRY SCENE illustrates industry's continued expectation tha the use of geothermal energy will prove profitable to investors. In DEVELOPMENT STATUS, spokesmen for both an investor-owned utility and a major geothermal developer express strong support for geothermal power, particularly emphasizing its environmental advantages. DEVELOPMENT STATUS also reports that early successes have been achieved by joint DOE/industry R D at The Geysers which will have important impacts on the future management of this mature field. Also there is increasing interest in hot dry rock. Analyses conducted in support of the NES indicate that if all the postulated technology developments occur in this field, the price of energy derived from hot dry rock in the US could drop.

  15. Geothermal pilot study final report: creating an international geothermal energy community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresee, J.C.; Yen, W.W.S.; Metzler, J.E. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    The Geothermal Pilot Study under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was established in 1973 to apply an action-oriented approach to international geothermal research and development, taking advantage of the established channels of governmental communication provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Pilot Study was composed of five substudies. They included: computer-based information systems; direct application of geothermal energy; reservoir assessment; small geothermal power plants; and hot dry rock concepts. The most significant overall result of the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study, which is now complete, is the establishment of an identifiable community of geothermal experts in a dozen or more countries active in development programs. Specific accomplishments include the creation of an international computer file of technical information on geothermal wells and fields, the development of studies and reports on direct applications, geothermal fluid injection and small power plants, and the operation of the visiting scientist program. In the United States, the computer file has aready proven useful in the development of reservoir models and of chemical geothermometers. The state-of-the-art report on direct uses of geothermal energy is proving to be a valuable resource document for laypersons and experts in an area of increasing interest to many countries. Geothermal fluid injection studies in El Salvador, New Zealand, and the United States have been assisted by the Reservoir Assessment Substudy and have led to long-range reservoir engineering studies in Mexico. At least seven small geothermal power plants are in use or have been planned for construction around the world since the Small Power Plant Substudy was instituted--at least partial credit for this increased application can be assigned to the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study. (JGB)

  16. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The report summarizes geothermal activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the second quarter of FY-95. It describes 92 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research activities are summarized on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low temperature resource assessment and ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct heat Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  17. The geopressured-geothermal resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wys, J.N.; Dorfman, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the Geopressured-Geothermal resource has an estimated 5,700 recoverable quad of gas and 11,000 recoverable quad of thermal energy in the onshore Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts area alone. After 15 years the program is now beginning a transition to commercialization. The program presently has three geopressured-geothermal wells in Texas and Louisiana. The Pleasant Bayou Well has a 1 MWe hybrid power system converting some gas and the thermal energy to electricity. The Gladys McCall Well produced over 23 MM bbls brine with 23 scf per bbl over 4 1/2 years. It is now shut-in building up pressure. The deep Hulin Well has been cleaned out and short term flow tested. It is on standby awaiting funds for long-term flow testing. In January 1990 an Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource was convened at Rice University, Houston, TX. Sixty-five participants heard industry cost-shared proposals for using the hot geopressured brine. Proposals ranged from thermal enhanced oil recovery to aquaculture, conversion, and environmental clean up processes. By the September meeting at UTA-Balcones Research Center, industry approved charters will have been received, an Advisory Board will be appointed, and election of officers from industry will he held

  18. Geothermal aquaculture: a guide to freshwater prawn culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1980-05-01

    Biological data of the Malaysian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are summarized. A history on its rearing techniques is given, but through the use of geothermal water or industrial warm water effluent, its range can be expanded. The use of wasted geothermal water at the Oregon Institute of Technology for prawn ponds is noted. Pond management and design; the hatchery design and function for larval culture; and geothermal applications (legal aspects and constraints) are discussed. (MCW)

  19. Assessment and perspectives for the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saffar, Ali; Bouchard, Georges; Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Delamare, Monique; Remont, Sophie; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations proposed by contributors at the 2015 AFG Convention. These contributions comment the data published in the World Energy Outlook 2014 with a focus on gas (shares, sources of demand, unconventional gas production, share and evolution of LNG, competitiveness versus coal, gas to coal switching in Europe), propose an overview of the world gas market with a focus of European gas demand on the medium term, comment the evolution of the gas market on the short term in a context of oil price decrease (evolution of demand, of storage, of production and of imports in Europe), discuss an outlook for gas demand for power, comment recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (prices, supply/demand balance, influence of price evolution on delivery destinations), propose an assessment of the French gas market (competition in the retail market, world trends, creation of a unique market zone in France, European challenges, regime of access to storage, challenges of energy transition), discuss the role of storage as a tool for supply security, propose an analysis of gas supply safety (its pillars in the perspective of public authorities, associated prospective, aspects related to public service, problems related to storage, safeguard measures, European regulation), propose an overview of the present status and perspectives for the European gas supply, and discuss stress tests and measures on a short term aimed at improving supply security

  20. 34th Geothermal Coordinating Group Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-11-09

    Chairman William Ogle said the overall purpose of the meeting was to consider how the US government, and the Division of Geothermal Energy in particular, might apply its geothermal effort more effectively. Given the present situation, how does Uncle Sam make the best possible effort? On this theme, there are 4 main subquestions: (1) what government support is needed? (2) how can we improve cooperation between industry, the national laboratories, universities, and industries, and does it matter? (3) how do we transfer technology to industry? (4) What should the technical aims be for the next year or so?

  1. Internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers-An assessment of the marine energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovdal, Nicolai; Neumann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Research on conditions to develop new innovations within emerging renewable energy industries is often done with a national focus. However, recent research on international entrepreneurship has revealed that firms operate on international levels very early in their life time. Thus, based on former research on international entrepreneurship and case examples, we build the propositions that firms in the marine energy industry use internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers. Our primary source of data is a unique dataset from a global survey of all the companies in the marine energy industry who are aiming to commercialize a wave or tidal energy device. This paper is organized in two steps: first we identified the most challenging industry barriers perceived by companies. Second we use these to form propositions which we assess through empirical data. The two most challenging barriers perceived by the companies are need for capital and need for supportive political schemes. Our findings reveal that internationalization certainly is a common strategy to access capital and attractive support schemes in foreign countries. The early internationalization has implications for researchers, managers and policy makers. - Research highlights: → Industry barriers identified as access to capital and supportive political schemes. → International entrepreneurship is used to overcome industry barriers. → Start-ups in emerging energy industries 'shop' national support schemes. → Future research to provide policy advice should adapt to the international reality. → Research based on a worldwide survey of wave and tidal energy device developers.

  2. Internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers-An assessment of the marine energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovdal, Nicolai, E-mail: nicolai.lovdal@iot.ntnu.n [Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Neumann, Frank, E-mail: frank@wave-energy-centre.or [Wave Energy Centre, Av. Manuel Maia, 36, r/c Dto., 1000-201 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    Research on conditions to develop new innovations within emerging renewable energy industries is often done with a national focus. However, recent research on international entrepreneurship has revealed that firms operate on international levels very early in their life time. Thus, based on former research on international entrepreneurship and case examples, we build the propositions that firms in the marine energy industry use internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers. Our primary source of data is a unique dataset from a global survey of all the companies in the marine energy industry who are aiming to commercialize a wave or tidal energy device. This paper is organized in two steps: first we identified the most challenging industry barriers perceived by companies. Second we use these to form propositions which we assess through empirical data. The two most challenging barriers perceived by the companies are need for capital and need for supportive political schemes. Our findings reveal that internationalization certainly is a common strategy to access capital and attractive support schemes in foreign countries. The early internationalization has implications for researchers, managers and policy makers. - Research highlights: {yields} Industry barriers identified as access to capital and supportive political schemes. {yields} International entrepreneurship is used to overcome industry barriers. {yields} Start-ups in emerging energy industries 'shop' national support schemes. {yields} Future research to provide policy advice should adapt to the international reality. {yields} Research based on a worldwide survey of wave and tidal energy device developers.

  3. Application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA in Sugar Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Astuti Arieyanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the main commodities that are needed for human life. The demand of sugar is very high with the trend increase from year to year. This condition makes the sugar industry become a leading industry that must be maintained sustainability. The sustainability of the sugar industry is influenced by the use of energy and natural resources and the resulting environmental impacts. Therefore, an effort is needed to analyze the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts resulting from a product (sugar, by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. LCA is a very important tool for the analysis of a process/system from its cradle to grave. This technique is very useful in the estimation of energy usage and environmental load of a product/system. This paper aims to describe the main elements of sugar industries using Life Cycle Assessment.

  4. Application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Sugar Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Arieyanti Dwi; Astuti, Rahayu Siwi Dwi; Hadiyanto, Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    Sugar is one of the main commodities that are needed for human life. The demand of sugar is very high with the trend increase from year to year. This condition makes the sugar industry become a leading industry that must be maintained sustainability. The sustainability of the sugar industry is influenced by the use of energy and natural resources and the resulting environmental impacts. Therefore, an effort is needed to analyze the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts resulting from a product (sugar), by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is a very important tool for the analysis of a process/system from its cradle to grave. This technique is very useful in the estimation of energy usage and environmental load of a product/system. This paper aims to describe the main elements of sugar industries using Life Cycle Assessment.

  5. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. - Highlights: ► The global industrial sector and its industries are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. ► Global industrial sector efficiencies are evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. ► Exergy analysis shows global industrial energy to be less efficient than does energy analysis. ► A misleadingly low margin for efficiency improvement is indicated by energy analysis. ► A significant and rational margin for efficiency improvement exists from an exergy perspective

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RELIABILITY OF INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazaryan Robert Kamoevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the procedure of identification of organizational and technological reliability is described. This methodology is applicable both to separate functional areas and to all industrial enterprises. Its objective is to assess the expediency of reorganization. The objective of this scientific research is the substantiation of reorganization of an industrial enterprise. Multivariable models, or convolutions, were used as research methods. According to the RF law, industrial enterprises are divided into four functional areas, each of which is assessed on the basis of multiple criteria. Assessment of organizational and technological reliability requires a multi-parameter model. Its axes correspond to the number of evaluation criteria. The set of criteria designated for the assessment of organizational and technological reliability is identified on the basis of the homogeneity of trend indicators designated for centripetal and centrifugal models. The axes of a multi-parameter model represent real and benchmark values. The unit serves as the benchmark value; it is the maximal value of this parameter. The formula based on average values shall be used to determine the total value of the above parameters. The authors have also generated a model of organizational and technological reliability of industrial enterprises. It is noteworthy that assessment of organizational and technological reliability of an industrial enterprise requires a concentric multi-layer model developed through the application of the convolution method.

  7. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  8. Workshop on technical assessment of industrial thermal insulation materials: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.

    1976-07-01

    Over 80 participants representing 50 organizations met to discuss the report, Industrial Thermal Insulation--An Assessment, ORNL/TM-5283. Presentations on the performance of available materials, economic considerations, and measurement problems were followed by discussion. A final wrap-up session concluded that the report was valuable in pointing the direction for needed effort in the area, confirmed the indicated actions needed to further industrial application of insulation, and called for future meetings to continue the dialogue between the various facets of the industry

  9. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  10. Prospects for Assessing Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS Basement Rock Flow Stimulation by Wellbore Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Leary

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We use Matlab 3D finite element fluid flow/transport modelling to simulate localized wellbore temperature events of order 0.05–0.1 °C logged in Fennoscandia basement rock at ~1.5 km depths. The temperature events are approximated as steady-state heat transport due to fluid draining from the crust into the wellbore via naturally occurring fracture-connectivity structures. Flow simulation is based on the empirics of spatially-correlated fracture-connectivity fluid flow widely attested by well-log, well-core, and well-production data. Matching model wellbore-centric radial temperature profiles to a 2D analytic expression for steady-state radial heat transport with Peclet number Pe ≡ r0φv0/D (r0 = wellbore radius, v0 = Darcy velocity at r0, φ = ambient porosity, D = rock-water thermal diffusivity, gives Pe ~ 10–15 for fracture-connectivity flow intersecting the well, and Pe ~ 0 for ambient crust. Darcy flow for model Pe ~ 10 at radius ~10 m from the wellbore gives permeability estimate κ ~ 0.02 Darcy for flow driven by differential fluid pressure between least principal crustal stress pore pressure and hydrostatic wellbore pressure. Model temperature event flow permeability κm ~ 0.02 Darcy is related to well-core ambient permeability κ ~ 1 µDarcy by empirical poroperm relation κm ~ κ exp(αmφ for φ ~ 0.01 and αm ~ 1000. Our modelling of OTN1 wellbore temperature events helps assess the prospect of reactivating fossilized fracture-connectivity flow for EGS permeability stimulation of basement rock.

  11. Assessment of impacts by open-loop geothermal system operation on hydrogeochemical properties in riverside aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E. H.; Park, B. H.; Park, J.; Lee, K. K.; Lee, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) utilizes groundwater in the subsurface, which maintains constant temperature regardless of seasonal changes, to be circulated through a heat pump system coupled with pumping and injection wells. During operation of the open-loop GSHP facilities, the hydrogeochemical properties of the subsurface aquifer can be altered by contacting with atmospheric air, changing temperature and pressure. Such changes in the water quality can impede energy efficiency of the open-loop GSHP. Therefore, it is important to monitor the groundwater components regularly before and after the operation of GSHP. In the riverside area of the Yangpyeong, South Korea, an open-loop GSHP has been installed for a test research, which has objectives to improve energy efficiency of the open-loop GSHP facilities and to evaluate environmental changes caused by the GSHP operation. Because the study area is located near the Han River, it is necessary to assess hydrochemical changes of groundwater resulted by the open-loop GSHP operation in consideration of interaction between the river water and groundwater. Periodic monitoring of groundwater and river water quality had been conducted from Jan., 2014 to Apr., 2016 including the operation periods of the open-loop GSHP after Apr., 2015. As the result of the open-loop GSHP operation, there were no abrupt changes in groundwater quality parameters except an increase in Cl- concentration and decrease in DO concentration over the study area. The enriched Cl- concentration was observed in both river water and groundwater based on estimation of effects by eutrophication in the river. Lowering DO concentration throughout the study area was affected by re-injection of the pumped groundwater with depleted DO during the GSHP operation with an increase of Fe2+ concentration. Such changes in the water chemistry were evaluated not to give a harmful influence on the long-term operation of the GSHP system in the study area.

  12. Geothermal reservoir assessment case study, Northern Basin and Range Province. Final Report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Campbell E No. 2 well in the Humboldt House geothermal field in central Pershing County, Nevada was drilled to a depth of 8061 ft in order to confirm the existence of a commercial reservoir. This well offsets the field discovery well which was drilled in 1977 and completed to a depth of only 1835 ft. Desert Peak B-23-1 well was likewise drilled in order to help evaluate a previously discovered geothermal field located in northwestern Churchill County, Nevada. The Desert Peak B-23-1 well was drilled to a depth of 9641 ft as compared to the deepest of three earlier wells drilled to 7662 ft. The drilling and completion of both these wells are described, including the daily drilling reports, drill bit records, descriptions of the casing and cementing programs, drilling fluid descriptions including methods of combating lost circulation, wellhead equipment descriptions, and logging programs.

  13. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  14. Reflectance spectral analyses for the assessment of environmental pollution in the geothermal site of Mt. Amiata (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Ciro; Salvini, Riccardo; Guastaldi, Enrico; Nicolardi, Valentina; Protano, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    We studied the environmental impact of geothermal activities in the Mt. Amiata area, using on-site spectral analyses of various ecological components. Analytical techniques were based on the study of the “red-edge”, which represents the spectral feature of the reflectance spectra defined between red and infrared wavelengths (λ) within the range 670-780 nm. Since in the study area the geothermal exploitation causes the drifting of contaminants such as Hg, Sb, S, B, As and H2S (hydrogen sulfide) from power plants, the spectral response of vegetation and lichens depends on their distance from the power stations, and also on the exposed surface, material type and other physical parameters. In the present research, the spectral radiance of targets was measured in the field using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) Field-Spec™FR portable radiometer. Spectral measurements were made on vegetation and lichen samples located near to and far from geothermal areas and potential pollution sources (e.g., power plants), with the aim of spatially defining their environmental impact. Observations for vegetation and lichens showed correlation with laboratory chemical analyses when these organisms were under stress conditions. The evaluation of relationships was carried out using several statistical approaches, which allowed to identify methods for identifying contamination indicators for plants and lichens in polluted areas. Results show that the adopted spectral indices are sensitive to environmental pollution and their responses spatialstatically correlated to chemical and ecophysiological analyses within a notable distance.

  15. Assessment of the origin and geothermal potential of the thermal waters by hydro-isotope geochemistry: Eskisehir province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Italiano, Francesco; Yasin, Didem; Taskiran, Lutfi; Gulbay, Ahmet Hilmi

    2017-05-01

    The thermal fluids vented over Eskisehir province have been investigated for their origin and to estimate the geothermal potential of the area. Thermal waters as well as bubbling and dissolved gases were collected and analysed for their chemical and isotopic features. Their isotopic composition varies in the range from -11.5 to -7.7 ‰ for δ 18 O, -84 and -57 ‰ for δ 2 H, and 0-7.2 TU for tritium. The gases (bubbling and dissolved) are mostly N 2 -dominated with a significant amount of CO 2 . The helium isotopic ratios are in the range of 0.2-0.66 R/Rac, indicate remarkable mantle-He contribution ranging between 2 and 10 % in the whole study area. Considering the estimated geothermal gradient about three times higher than the normal gradient, and the reservoir temperatures estimated to be between 50 and 100 °C using quartz and chalcedony geothermometers, a circulation model was built where possible mixing with shallow waters cool down the uprising geothermal fluids.

  16. Energia geotermica at the present time: Geothermal Today (Spanish version); La energia geotermica en la actualidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-09-01

    This outreach publication highlights federal program milestones and accomplishments of the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program for 2003. This is a special 8-page Spanish supplement for the audience at the Geothermal Resources Council/Geothermal Energy Association Annual Meeting and Industry Exhibit, Morelia, Mexico.

  17. Geothermal Brief: Market and Policy Impacts Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, B.

    2012-10-01

    Utility-scale geothermal electricity generation plants have generally taken advantage of various government initiatives designed to stimulate private investment. This report investigates these initiatives to evaluate their impact on the associated cost of energy and the development of geothermal electric generating capacity using conventional hydrothermal technologies. We use the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST) to analyze the effects of tax incentives on project economics. Incentives include the production tax credit, U.S. Department of Treasury cash grant, the investment tax credit, and accelerated depreciation schedules. The second half of the report discusses the impact of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Loan Guarantee Program on geothermal electric project deployment and possible reasons for a lack of guarantees for geothermal projects. For comparison, we examine the effectiveness of the 1970s DOE drilling support programs, including the original loan guarantee and industry-coupled cost share programs.

  18. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  19. Geothermal technology in Australia: Investigating social acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, Anne-Maree; Boughen, Naomi; Ashworth, Peta; Carr-Cornish, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Issues of social acceptance, such as lack of awareness and negative community perceptions and reactions, can affect low emission energy technology development, despite general support observed for reducing carbon emissions and mitigating climate change. Negative community reactions and lack of understanding have affected geothermal developments, as demonstrated by the fearful community reactions and negative media experienced in response to seismic disturbances caused by 'hot rock' geothermal energy generation in Switzerland and Germany. Focusing on geothermal energy, this paper presents the results of using a participatory action research methodology to engage diverse groups within the Australian public. A key finding is that the majority of the Australian public report limited the knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology and have various concerns including water usage and seismic activity instigated by geothermal drilling. However, geothermal energy receives general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources in preference to traditional forms of energy generation and controversial technologies. This paper also demonstrates the effectiveness of using an engagement process to explore public understanding of energy technologies in the context of climate change, and suggests a way forward for governments and industry to allocate resources for greatest impact when communicating about geothermal technology. - Highlights: → Majority of Australians have limited knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology. → Various concerns, including water usage and seismic activity instigated by drilling, were raised. → Geothermal energy has general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources. → Methodology shows the effectiveness of an engagement process to explore public understanding. → Participants expressed intention to change behaviours, which can be a catalyst for change.

  20. Initial assessment of public perception and acceptance of Geothermal Energy applications in Çanakkale, NW Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Çekiç, Osman; Ertekin, Can; Bakırcı, Mesut

    2016-04-01

    Growing need of energy in global scale has resulted in increasing number of research and development of renewable energy technologies. Turkey, being very rich in the renewable energy resources, has recently paid special attention to accelerate utilization of these resources to reduce the carbon based energy cost. Among these, Geothermal Energy resources in the country, mainly utilized in district heating and balneological applications, has been shifted toward harvesting electric energy in the shed of recent incentives. While these developments are happening at the policy level, the knowledge and the perception of the public is important to shape the future policies and acceptance of such resources in daily life. In light of these developments, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the public awareness and acceptance mechanisms for the successful deployment of future and ongoing geothermal investments in Çanakkale region of the Biga Peninsula using geological, social and economic constraints in a well-defined questionnaire. The study employed a mixed method to explore the public perception. Mixed method studies involve qualitative and quantitative techniques and intends to explore an issue in-depth. Thus a sequential explanatory design was used to gather the public's perception. Exploratory design involves a qualitative study followed by a design of a quantitative survey and analysis. The researchers, firs, interviewed 24 college students about their knowledge and perceptions of geothermal resources using a semi-structured interview protocol. The protocol comprised of 8 open ended questions. With the help of the literature and the qualitative survey results, an item database with 51 questions were constructed. The initial survey and the items then were sent to 5 experts. Following the expert review, the survey was given its final form and the item numbers were dropped to 34. Then this survey was applied to a group of 100 college students. The survey also

  1. Geothermal energy in Italy - its importance, potential and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the perspectives for the use of geothermal energy in Italy. Starting with an overview of the principles of the use of geothermal energy in general, the article goes on to review Italy's geothermal resources and their relevance to energy supply. Figures are given on the political situation in Italy concerning energy and the rapidly increasing demands made on electricity supply. Political support for renewable energy in Italy is looked at and models for financing projects are examined. Examples of geothermal energy projects are given and the perspectives for further developments in this industry are looked at

  2. The effect of silica in washing with geothermal water, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindal, B.

    1992-01-01

    Industrial washing operation using geothermal water in Iceland are reported and testing designed to explain the beneficial effect of geothermal water for washing described. The findings indicate, that the silica content of the water may be the principal component for a superior washing quality

  3. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  4. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  5. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world`s most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  6. The impact of large-scale renewable energy development on the poor: environmental and socio-economic impact of a geothermal power plant on a poor rural community in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariita, N.O. [Kenya Electricity Generating Company Ltd., Naivasha (Kenya)

    2002-09-01

    The article assesses the local environmental and socio-economic impact of geothermal power plant on poor rural community in Kenya. The country's geothermal resources are located in the Rift Valley region - an environmentally and culturally fragile part of the country. Kenya's main geothermal plants are located in the middle of one of Rift Valley's major wildlife parks - a major tourist attraction. Over the last two decades, the surrounding area has also become a major centre for Kenya's flourishing commercial flower farming, which is now partially powered by geothermal energy. This article examines environmental and socio-economic impacts on the nomadic low-income rural Maasai community of the simultaneous development of geothermal energy, flower farming and wildlife/tourism industry. While the near-term environmental impacts have been minimal, the article warns of significant adverse impacts in the future if the competing demands of the fast growing geothermal energy, flower farming as well as wildlife/tourism sector are not adequately addressed. In the short-term, however, the socio-economic impact of geothermal energy development is likely to be the main source of conflict. The article ends by proposing policy and institutional measures that would ensure that the local Maasai community enjoys a wider range of socio-economic benefits as well as mitigate long-term adverse environmental impacts associated with geothermal energy development. (author)

  7. World geothermal congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarov, O.A.; Tomarov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The World geothermal congress took place in the period from 28 May up to 10 June 2000 in Japan. About 2000 men from 43 countries, including specialists in the area of developing geothermal fields, creating and operating geothermal electrical and thermal plants and various systems for the earth heat application, participated in the work of the Congress. It was noted at the Congress, that development of the geothermal power engineering in the world is characterized by the large-scale application of geothermal resources for the electrical energy generation [ru

  8. Hawaii geothermal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  9. Geothermal energy. Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal energy has certain features that make it highly recommendable as a source of power production. It is noted by its high load factor; it may be used as a basic or peak source; its versatility and high availability among others. In spite of these advantages, geothermal energy has not attained a significant development up to now. There are several reasons for this to happen, while the main one is that it requires an important initial investment. Assessing if an area is potentially profitable for the obtention of a given type of energy implies performing a complex set of analyses and prospective work, but it is not so significant as that associated with petroleum. The strategy for the exploration of geothermal resources is based on the execution of consecutive stages ranging from a surveillance at a regional scale to a project feasibility study, with growing investments and using more and more complex techniques. Many Latin American countries are located in areas considered as promisory concerning the development of this type of exploitation. Another factor supporting this view is a special demographic feature, showing a very irregular distribution of the population, with extense isolated areas with a minimun number of inhabitants that does not justify the extension of the electric power network. There are plants operating in four countries producing, as a whole, 881 MW. In Argentina the activities are aimed to intensifying the knowledge about the availability of this resource within the local territory and to estimating the feasibility of its usage in areas where exploration is more advanced [es

  10. Health and environmental effects document on geothermal energy: 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; O' Banion, K.D.

    1981-12-04

    Several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MW/sub e/ for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10/sup 18/ J) are assessed. The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in water. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. For individuals living within an 80 km radius of the geothermal resources, chronic exposure to particulate sulfate could result in between 0 to 95 premature deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity generated. The mean population risk of leukemia from the inhalation of benzene was calculated to be 3 x 10/sup -2/ cases per 10/sup 18/ J. Exposure to elemental mercury in the atmosphere could produce between 0 and 8.2 cases of tremors per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity. Inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters poses a mean population risk of 4.2 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancers per 10/sup 18/ J. Analysis of skin cancer risk from the ingestion of surface water contaminated with geothermally derived arsenic suggests that a dose-response model is inconsistent with data showing that arsenic is an essential element and that excessive body burdens do not appear even when arsenic reaches 100 ..mu..g/liter in drinking water. Estimates of occupational health effects were based on rates of accidental deaths and occupational diseases in surrogate industries. According to calculations, there would be 14 accidental deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity and 340 cases of occupational diseases per 10/sup 18/ J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants.

  11. Final Technical Report for University of Michigan Industrial Assessment Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atreya, Arvind

    2007-04-17

    The UM Industrial Assessment Center assisted 119 primary metals, automotive parts, metal casting, chemicals, forest products, agricultural, and glass manufacturers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana to become more productive and profitable by identifying and recommending specific measures to improve energy efficiency, reduce waste and increase productivity. This directly benefits the environment by saving a total of 309,194 MMBtu of energy resulting in reduction of 0.004 metric tons of carbon emissions. The $4,618,740 implemented cost savings generated also saves jobs that are evaporating from the manufacturing industries in the US. Most importantly, the UM Industrial Assessment Center provided extremely valuable energy education to forty one UM graduate and undergraduate students. The practical experience complements their classroom education. This also has a large multiplier effect because the students take the knowledge and training with them.

  12. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1993-06-01

    Technical assistance was provided to 60 requests from 19 states. R&D progress is reported on: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Two presentations and one tour were conducted, and three technical papers were prepared. The Geothermal Progress Monitor reported: USGS Forum on Mineral Resources, Renewable Energy Tax Credits Not Working as Congress Intended, Geothermal Industry Tells House Panel, Newberry Pilot Project, and Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources in Nevada.

  13. Sectoral programming mission isotope techniques for geothermal development. Philippines. UNDP sectoral support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, K.; Sun, Y.

    1995-10-01

    This report discusses the accomplishments of IAEA Technical Cooperation project PHI/8/016 ''Isotope Techniques in Geothermal Hydrology''. It is intended to help Philippine National Oil Company's Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC) in use of isotope techniques for geothermal development. This report discusses outcomes of the mission, conclusions and recommendations on applications of isotopes techniques in geothermal agro-industrial plants and geothermal hydrology

  14. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1993-11-01

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  15. Institutional and Regulatory Assessment of the Extractive Industries in Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Smith International

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a baseline institutional and regulatory assessment of the oil and gas, mining (including jade and gemstones) and the hydropower sectors in Myanmar. As such the report is an input to Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in Myanmar. However, it is not exhaustive with respect to all the sectors that may be considered under a scoping study for EITI .This re...

  16. An Assessment of Performance of Industrial Development Centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the performance of Industrial Development Centres (IDCs) in Nigeria. The study specifically aimed to determine the extent to which IDCs have met the service targets set for meeting their objectives for developing small-scale businesses in Nigeria and to identify problems(if any) that hindered the IDCs ...

  17. An Assessment of Industrial Customers' Satisfaction at Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Assessment of Industrial Customers' Satisfaction at Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation: A Case of South Addis Ababa Region. ... up with an appropriate service delivery standards, proper complaint handling mechanisms, relevant training for its employees, and strengthening decision making power of employees.

  18. INEL Geothermal Environmental Program. 1979 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurow, T.L.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-04-01

    The Raft River Geothermal Environmental Program is designed to assess beneficial and detrimental impacts to the ecosystem resulting from the development of moderate temperature geothermal resources in the valley. The results of this research contribute to developing an understanding of Raft River Valley ecology and provide a basis for making management decisions to reduce potential long-term detrimental impacts on the environment. The environmental monitoring and research efforts conducted during the past six years of geothermal development and planned future research are summarized.

  19. A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu and assessment of potential impacts to waterbirds from the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.; Woodside, D.; Bruegmann, M. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, HI (United States). Pacific Islands Office

    1994-08-01

    A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu was conducted during August and September 1993 to identify potential waterbird habitats within the general area of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor and to assess the potential impacts to endangered waterbird of installing and operating a high voltage transmission line from the Island of Hawaii to the islands of Oahu and Maui. Annual waterbird survey information and other literature containing information on specific wetland sites were summarized. Literature describing impacts of overhead transmission lines on birds was used to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed project on endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. On Oahu, five wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within 2.5 miles of the proposed transmission line corridor. On Maui, three wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within the general area of the proposed transmission line corridor. Several of the wetlands identified on Oahu and Maui also supported resident wading birds and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. Endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory birds may collide with the proposed transmission lines wires. The frequency and numbers of bird collisions is expected to be greater on Oahu than on Maui because more wetland habitat exists and greater numbers of birds occur in the project area on Oahu. In addition, the endangered Hawaiian goose and the endangered Hawaiian petrel may be impacted by the proposed segment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission line on Maui.

  20. Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuckmyun Kwon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm- shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers’ compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012 and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  1. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  2. Geothermal Progress Monitor. Report No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The near-term challenges of the US geothermal industry and its long-range potential are dominant themes in this issue of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Progress Monitor which summarizes calendar-year 1996 events in geothermal development. Competition is seen as an antidote to current problems and a cornerstone of the future. Thus, industry's cost-cutting strategies needed to increase the competitiveness of geothermal energy in world markets are examined. For example, a major challenge facing the US industry today is that the sales contracts of independent producers have reached, or soon will, the critical stage when the prices utilities must pay them drop precipitously, aptly called the cliff. However, Thomas R. Mason, President and CEO of CalEnergy told the DOE 1996 Geothermal Program Review XIV audience that while some of his company's plants have ''gone over the cliff, the world is not coming to an end.'' With the imposition of severe cost-cutting strategies, he said, ''these plants remain profitable... although they have to be run with fewer people and less availability.'' The Technology Development section of the newsletter discusses enhancements to TOUGH2, the general purpose fluid and heat flow simulator and the analysis of drill cores from The Geysers, but the emphasis is on advanced drilling technologies.

  3. The machines maintenance conditions assessment in the plastic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Borkowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose, methodology, main findings, the originality of the subject area (research, way of using. The main research analysis purpose is a presentation, an assessment and an interpretation of the research findings on the machines maintenance conditions in the plastic industry. The research analysis was carried out with applying Technology ABC method and TPM coefficients calculations connected with Techno pak machine components maintenance. The research was carried out in the chosen manufacturing enterprise of the plastic industry. Research findings interpretation results have been introduced in the analyzed enterprise in the form of the manufacturing processes improvement.

  4. Health technology assessment from a Canadian device industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrusi, Ilia L; Ames, David; Lim, Morgan E; Goeree, Ron

    2009-05-01

    Health technology assessment has significantly improved the decision-making process via the thorough and systematic evaluation of the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of new drugs and health technologies. However, the device industry faces a significant challenge in meeting the evidentiary demands of the health technology assessment process, particularly given the small size of the Canadian market and device manufacturers. This is further compounded by the somewhat short-sighted nature of health care budgets, which see medical devices as a cost-driver given the sometimes significant upfront investment required to implement a technology producing downstream benefits in the long-term. Industry is the research and development of the health care system, but innovative development could be stifled unless the health technology assessment process recognizes the risk of manufacturers. The authors propose that health technology assessment can be improved by recognizing the challenges that device manufacturers face and by sharing the risk associated with evaluations of effectiveness. Health technology assessment is a powerful tool that can be used to evaluate new and potentially obsolete technologies alike, with the goal of meeting the needs of patients as customers of both the device industry and the health care system.

  5. Development of Systematic Sustainability Assessment (SSA) for the Malaysian Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability assessment is recognized as a powerful and important tool to measure the performance of sustainability in a company or industry. There are various initiatives exists on tools for sustainable development. However, most of the sustainability measurement tools emphasize on environmental, economy and governance aspects. Some of the companies also implement different of sustainability indicators to evaluate the performance of economy, social and environmental separately. In this research, a new methodology for assessing sustainability in the context of Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of Green Project Management (GPM) P5 Integration Matrix, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This systematic assessment will help the engineers or project managers measure the critical element of sustainability compliance.

  6. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Hauber, L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  7. Probabilistic risk assessment in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Hall, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book describes the more important improvements in risk assessment methodology developed over the last decade. The book covers the following areas - a general view of risk pertaining to nuclear power, mathematics necessary to understand the text, a concise overview of the light water reactors and their features for protecting the public, probabilities and consequences calculated to form risk assessment to the plant, and 34 applications of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the power generation industry. There is a glossary of acronyms and unusual words and a list of references. (author)

  8. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  9. AN APPROACH TO ASSESSMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS OF NATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekarev A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available National pharmaceutical industry profiles an innovation-driven indicator of any national economy and level of social assistance. Innovation in pharmaceutical industry associated with branded pharmaceutical companies which make a great deal of investments in Research and Development (R & D. The world pharmaceutical market partition by different regions was suggested referring to analytical information. It was made according to the factors such as different national pharmaceutical market conditions and its tendencies, governments’ patent protection, amount of consumers’ and government’s expenditures on the market. Component analysis, regression, and cluster analysis were implemented for estimation of competitiveness level of national pharmaceutical industries. According to the assessment countries’ rating was suggested, where the place of Russia was defined.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of complex industrial wastes: Implications for exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Gallagher, J.E.; Houk, V.S.; Simmons, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes were evaluated. Ten samples were studied for hepatotoxicity: These samples and an additional five were studied for mutagenicity. Although the data are limited to these samples, the results suggest that the Salmonella assay (either TA98 or TA100) or a prophage-induction assay (both in the presence of S9) in combination with determination of relative liver weight and levels of a set of serum enzymes in rats would provide a battery of tests suitable to characterize complex industrial wastes for mutagenic and hepatotoxic potential. The biological activities exhibited by the wastes were not readily predicted by the chemical profiles of the wastes, emphasizing the importance of characterizing potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes by both chemical and biological means.

  11. Selective Recovery of Metals from Geothermal Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, Susanna [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bhamidi, Srinivas [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perea, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing a new generation of highly selective low-cost ion-exchange resins based on metal-ion imprinted polymers for the separation of metals from geothermal fluids. Expansion of geothermal energy production over the entire U.S. will involve exploitation of low-to-medium temperature thermal waters. Creating value streams from the recovery of critical and near-critical metals from these thermal waters will encourage geothermal expansion. Selective extraction of metals from geothermal fluids is needed to design a cost-effective process for the recovery of lithium and manganese-two near-critical metals with well-known application in the growing lithium battery industry. We have prepared new lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymers in the form of beads by crosslinking polymerization of a metal polymerizable chelate, where the metal acts as a template. Upon leaching out the metal template, the crosslinked polymer is expected to leave cavities defined by the ligand functional group with enhanced selectivity for binding the template metal. We have demonstrated that lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymer beads can be used as selective solid sorbents for the extraction of lithium and manganese from brines. The polymers were tested both in batch extractions and packed bed lab-scale columns at temperatures of 45-100°C. Lithium-imprinted polymers were found to have Li+ adsorption capacity as high as 2.8 mg Li+/g polymer at 45°C. Manganese-imprinted polymers were found to have a Mn2+ adsorption capacity of more than 23 mg Mn2+/g polymer at 75°C. The Li+ extraction efficiency of the Li-imprinted polymer was found to be more that 95% when a brine containing 390 ppm Li+, 410 ppm Na+, and 390 ppm K+ was passed through a packed bed of the polymer in a lab-scale column at 45°C. In brines containing 360 ppm Li

  12. The radiological assessment of TENORM waste produced by coal power plant and Denizli geothermal power plant in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this report, analysis results of samples collected from thermal and geothermal power plant were presented for the purpose of determination of radioactive substances in products, by-products, residues and waste materials at the end of power generation of exploitation of coal and geothermal water sources. TENORM, soil, sediment and water samples collected from the field were brought to Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center on appropriate conditions. After sample preparation procedure and a secular equilibrium period of four weeks, samples were measured with gamma-ray spectrometers by using ASTM E 181 standard method. Radioactivity content of TENORM's according to measurement results were compared with literature and equivalent radium activity, gamma radioactivity concentration index and health index were calculated. TENORM's radiological hazards for human and environment in the TENORM disposal and storage areas were discussed. Related imperfect data would be used as a basis in the remediation (recovery) of areas constituting such radiological hazards. Most of European Union Countries completed TENORM originated radioactivity survey and prepared legal regulation and standards. This report is the most comprehensive source appealed to determination of legal regulations and aspect of TENORM originated radiological hazards for human and environment.

  13. Genotoxic Assessment of Some Inorganic Compounds in Desert Pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) in the Evaporation Pond from a Geothermal Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Galván, Miguel; Arellano-García, Evarista; Ruiz-Campos, Gorgonio; Daesslé, Luis Walter

    2017-08-01

    The frequency of micro nucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) from a geothermal effluent pond is determined and compared to organisms kept in an aquarium. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes found in pupfish from the geothermal pond is 2.75 (±2.09) and only 0.44 (±0.52) in captivity organisms. Dissolved As in the ponds doubles the 340 µg L -1 US-EPA acute quality criteria for aquatic life and Hg equals the 1.77 µg L -1 chronic criteria. The organisms with high MNE also have significantly high Se, As and Hg concentrations in muscle and liver. Compared to international maximum allowable limits for fish consumption, there is 81× enrichment for Se, 6× for As and 5× for Hg. Although Se is not significantly enriched in water, it is likely that its bioaccumulation occurs via feeding of detritus. The desert pupfish has a significant resistance to extreme metal accumulations and to recover under unpolluted conditions.

  14. The alcohol industry and trade agreements: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2009-02-01

    To review trade agreements, their relation to alcohol control policy and examine the role of the alcohol industry in supporting and attempting to influence trade policy. Review of peer review, public health advocacy literature (both pro and con on free trade), business, press and government documents on trade agreements, assess current and potential challenges by trade agreements to alcohol control policy and investigate the means and extent of industry influence in trade agreements. 'Free' trade agreements reduce trade barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote alcohol consumption. However, international treaties, negotiated by free trade experts in close consultation with corporate lobbyists and without significant, if any, public health input, governments and corporations contain significant provisions that will result in increased alcohol consumption and may challenge public health measures of other nations as constraints on trade. Conversely, alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and product promotion. The prospect is for increased alcohol consumption and concomitant problems throughout the world. Trade agreements challenge effective alcohol control policies. The alcohol industry seeks to influence agreements and can be expected to work through trade agreements to reduce tariffs, increase market access and seek to restrict effective domestic regulations. Further research is needed on the impact of trade agreements and the ongoing role of the industry. Advocates must recognize the inherent conflicts between unbridled free trade and public health, work to exclude alcohol from trade agreements, counter industry influence and protect alcohol control policies.

  15. Protectionism and industrialization: a critical assessment of the Latin American industrialization period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Levy-Orlik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Protectionist policies were considered one of the pivotal features of the import industrialization process in Latin America. In this paper the effects of protectionist policies are assessed in terms of the principal macroeconomic variables, productive structure and external trade composition; also, ECLAC's perspective on the import substitution process is discussed. The main conclusions are that regional protectionist policies were spontaneous, and their effects were limited due to the generalized protection that took place and the government's commitment to price stability.

  16. Methodology for Assessment and Optimization of Industrial Eco-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Zondervan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging trend in evaluating industrial activities using principles of industrial ecology because of the emphasis on sustainability initiatives by major process industries. Attention has also been targeted at developing planned industrial ecosystems (IEs across the globe. We point out the current state-of-the art in this exciting discipline and subsequently identify the challenges that have not been encountered by the scientific community yet. Ecological Input Output Analysis (EIOA may be considered as an “all-inclusive model” for the assessment of an IE because of its ability to capture the economic, environmental, and societal behavior of an IE. It could also be utilized to illustrate the detailed inter-relationships among the entities of an IE. Optimization of a fully integrated IE using conventional multi-objective optimization techniques would be too complex. For such multi-objective optimization problems, Hierarchical-Pareto optimization discussed in the literature has shown promise, but there is a need to establish a methodology to assess and/or improve the robustness of an IE using such techniques.

  17. Energy Efficiency Practices: Assessment of Ohrid Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Cingoski, Vlatko

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides information on the extent how the hotel industry in Ohrid meets the energy efficiency practices in terms of the current level of involvement. By undertaking an online survey in three, four and five-star hotels, the study assesses the attitudes and willingness of hotel managers concerning applying energy efficiency and environmental protection concepts and practices. Moreover, it investigates various determinants of energy consumption, like: solid waste management, resource...

  18. Success in geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, V.

    1992-01-01

    Success in geothermal development can be defined as the ability to produce geothermal energy at compatible energy prices to other energy sources. Drilling comprises usually the largest cost in geothermal development, and the results of drilling is largely influencing the final price of geothermal energy. For 20 geothermal fields with operating power plants, the ratio between installed capacity and the total number of well in the field is 1.9 MWe/well. The drilling history in 30 geothermal fields are analyzed by plotting the average cumulative well outputs as function of the number of wells drilled in the field. The range of the average well output is 1-10 MWe/well with the mean value 4.2 MWe/well for the 30 geothermal fields studied. A leaning curve is defined as the number of wells drilled in each field before the average output per well reaches a fairly constant value, which is characteristic for the geothermal reservoir. The range for this learning time is 4-36 wells and the average is 13 wells. In general, the average well output in a given field is fairly constant after some 10-20 wells has been drilled in the field. The asymptotic average well output is considered to be a reservoir parameter when it is normalized to the average drilling depth. In average, this reservoir parameter can be expressed as 3.3 MWe per drilled km for the 30 geothermal fields studied. The lifetime of the resource or the depletion time of the geothermal reservoir should also be considered as a parameter influencing the success of geothermal development. Stepwise development, where the reservoir response to the utilization for the first step is used to determine the timing of the installment of the next step, is considered to be an appropriate method to minimize the risk for over investment in a geothermal field

  19. Geothermal Today - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  20. An industry approach to the risk assessment of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The regulatory control of pesticides has developed over the last 40 years during which time major changes have occurred, not only in the scientific basis of risk assessment but also in the socio-political perception of pesticides and of the agricultural and chemical industries. Traditionally, and logically, the registration of pesticides has been based on a pre-marketing risk-benefit assessment by but changes have occurred in the relative importance associated with the two elements of this assessment. These potential risks have assumed a greater importance as has the acceptability of such risks. By contrast the benefits of using plant protection products to increase agricultural productivity and production has assumed less importance in the light of perceived agricultural surpluses, at least in the Developed Countries. This paper will consider current and future regulatory requirements for pesticides and identify some of the key areas which are of importance to the Plant Protection Industry. It will also discuss initiatives, by both the Industry and Government, aimed at ensuring the safe use of plant protection products, how such initiatives are likely to impact on new product developments and the consequential effects on global food supplies

  1. Simulation model for assessing the efficiency of a combined power installation based on a geothermal heat pump and a vacuum solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaysman, Ya I.; Surkov, AA; Surkova, Yu I.; Kychkin, AV

    2017-06-01

    The article is devoted to the use of renewable energy sources and the assessment of the feasibility of their use in the climatic conditions of the Western Urals. A simulation model that calculates the efficiency of a combined power installations (CPI) was (RES) developed. The CPI consists of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) and the vacuum solar collector (VCS) and is based on the research model. This model allows solving a wide range of problems in the field of energy and resource efficiency, and can be applied to other objects using RES. Based on the research recommendations for optimizing the management and the application of CPI were given. The optimization system will give a positive effect in the energy and resource consumption of low-rise residential buildings projects.

  2. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program, Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    The report summarizes activities of the Geo-Heat Center (GHC) at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1995. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research is also being conducted on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low-temperature geothermal resource assessment, use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction materials and geothermal heat pumps. Outreach activities include the publication of a quarterly Bulletin on direct heat applications and dissemination of information on low-temperature geothermal resources and utilization.

  4. California Geothermal Forum: A Path to Increasing Geothermal Development in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Katherine R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The genesis of this report was a 2016 forum in Sacramento, California, titled 'California Geothermal Forum: A Path to Increasing Geothermal Development in California.' The forum was held at the California Energy Commission's (CEC) headquarters in Sacramento, California with the primary goal being to advance the dialogues for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) and CEC technical research and development (R&D) focuses for future consideration. The forum convened a diverse group of stakeholders from government, industry, and research to lay out pathways for new geothermal development in California while remaining consistent with critical Federal and State conservation planning efforts, particularly at the Salton Sea.

  5. Gas Analysis of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions: A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Norman; Joseph Moore

    2004-03-09

    To increase our knowledge of gaseous species in geothermal systems by fluid inclusion analysis in order to facilitate the use of gas analysis in geothermal exploration. The knowledge of gained by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal production. Knowledge of the gas contents in reservoir fluids can be applied to fluid inclusion gas analysis of drill chip cuttings in a similar fashion as used in the petroleum industry. Thus the results of this project may lower exploration costs both in the initial phase and lower drill hole completion costs. Commercial costs for fluid inclusion analysis done on at 20 feet intervals on chip samples for 10,000 ft oil wells is about $6,000, and the turn around time is a few weeks.

  6. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  8. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low......-temperature heat resources are bringing geothermal energy to the spotlight as a renewable baseload energy option for a sustainable energy mix. Although the environmental impact and economic viability of geothermal exploitation must be carefully evaluated for each case, the use of deep low-temperature geothermal...

  9. Assessing Water Risks in the Mining Industry using Life Cycle Assessment Based Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    STEPHEN ALAN NORTHEY

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances life cycle assessment methodology provide an opportunity to gain a more holistic understanding of how the mining industry interacts with water resources. A detailed review of assessment methodology and water management in the mining industry was undertaken to identify research needs. Global datasets of water use statistics for mining operations were also developed, and an exhaustive analysis of how global mineral resources and production are spatially distributed across local ...

  10. Legal and institutional problems facing geothermal development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The problems discussed confronting future geothermal development in Hawaii include: a seemingly insoluble mismatch of resource and market; the burgeoning land claims of the Native Hawaiian community; a potential legal challenge to the State's claim to hegemony over all of Hawaii's geothermal resources, regardless of surface ownership; resistance to any sudden, large scale influx of Mainland industry, and questionable economics for the largest potential industrial users. (MHR)

  11. Assessment of precise surface-gravity measurements for monitoring the response of a geothermal reservoir to exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grannell, R.B.; Whitcomb, J.H.; Aronstam, P.S.; Clover, R.C.

    1981-06-01

    Recommendations for carrying out surveys which achieve 15, 10 and 5 microgal precisions are presented. Achieving the smaller standard deviations will require more field effort and will be more costly. For a 60 station survey, at commercial rates in 1981, typical costs are estimated to be $20,000, $26,000 and $35,000 respectively, for data collection, reduction and interpretation. These figures exclude instrument purchase or rental. Twenty geothermal areas in the western United States which might be suitable for precise repetitive gravity monitoring were evaluated. The evaluation criteria included capability for subsidence on a geological basis, estimated electrical production, environmental impact, and anticipation of production in the near future. It is felt that the most promising areas in order of priority are: (1) the Salton Sea field, California; (2) Valles Caldera, New Mexico; (3) The Geysers-Clear Lake; and (4) Westmorland, California; (5) Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah; and (6) Heber; (7) Brawley; and (8) Long Valley, California.

  12. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground source heat exchanger, rooftop photovoltaic panels, and a heat pump cycle. Exergetic efficiency of the solar-geothermal heat pump system does not exceed 10 percent, and most exergy destruction takes place in photovoltaic panel, condenser, and evaporator. Although SI of PV system remains constant during a year, SI of GSHP varies depending on cooling and heating mode. The results also show that utilization of this hybrid system can reduce CO2 emissions by almost 70 tons per year.

  13. Geothermal energy geopressure subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geopressured-geothermal resource fluid well for intermittent production testing over the first year of the test. During the next two years, long-term testing of 40,000 BPD will be flowed. A number of scenarios may be implemented, but it is felt that the total fluid production will approximate 50 million barrels. The test well will be drilled with a 22 cm (8.75 in.) borehole to a total depth of approximately 5185 m (17,000 ft). Up to four disposal wells will provide disposal of the fluid from the designated 40,000 BPD test rate. The following are included in this assessment: the existing environment; probable environmental impacts-direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, regional, and local agencies; and alternative actions. (MHR)

  14. Chemical and physical reservoir parameters at initial conditions in Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador: a first assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Amore, F. [CNR, Pisa (Italy). International Institute for Geothermal Research ; Mejia, J.T. [Comision Ejuctiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa, El Salvador (El Salvador)

    1999-02-01

    A study has been made to obtain the main chemical and physical reservoir conditions of the Berlin field (El Salvador), before the commencement of large-scale exploitation of the geothermal resource. The upflow zone and the main flow path within the geothermal system have been determined from the area distribution of chemical parameters such as Cl concentrations, ratios such as Na/K, K/Mg, K/Ca, and temperatures computed from silica concentrations and cation ratios. Gas compositions have been used to calculate reservoir parameters such as temperature, steam fraction and P{sub CO{sub 2}}. The computer code WATCH (new edition 1994) has been used to evaluate the temperature of equilibrium between the aqueous species and selected alteration minerals in the reservoir. The fluid in Berlin flows to the exploited reservoir from the south, entering it in the vicinity of well TR-5. Along its flow-path (south-north direction), the fluid is cooled by boiling and conductive cooling. The chloride-enthalpy diagram indicates the existence of a parent water, with a chemical composition similar to well TR-5, that boils and the residual brine produces the fluid of well TR-3, which is very concentrated in salts. The fluid of TR-5 is probably produced from this parent water, generating the fluids of wells TR-2 and TR-9 by boiling, and the fluids of wells TR-1 and TR-4 by conductive cooling. The computed values for the deep steam fraction clearly indicate that this is a liquid-dominated system, with computed temperature values decreasing from 310{sup o}C (upflow zone) to about 230{sup o}C, from south to north. (author)

  15. Investigating ultra high-enthalpy geothermal systems: a collaborative initiative to promote scientific opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Nielson, D.; Schiffman, P.; Schriener, A., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists, engineers, and policy makers gathered at a workshop in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California in October 2013 to discuss the science and technology involved in developing high-enthalpy geothermal fields. A typical high-enthalpy geothermal well between 2000 and 3000 m deep produces a mixture of hot water and steam at 200-300 °C that can be used to generate about 5-10 MWe of electric power. The theme of the workshop was to explore the feasibility and economic potential of increasing the power output of geothermal wells by an order of magnitude by drilling deeper to reach much higher pressures and temperatures. Development of higher enthalpy geothermal systems for power production has obvious advantages; specifically higher temperatures yield higher power outputs per well so that fewer wells are needed, leading to smaller environmental footprints for a given size of power plant. Plans for resource assessment and drilling in such higher enthalpy areas are already underway in Iceland, New Zealand, and Japan. There is considerable potential for similar developments in other countries that already have a large production of electricity from geothermal steam, such as Mexico, the Philippines, Indonesia, Italy, and the USA. However drilling deeper involves technical and economic challenges. One approach to mitigating the cost issue is to form a consortium of industry, government and academia to share the costs and broaden the scope of investigation. An excellent example of such collaboration is the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP), which is investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal reservoirs, and this approach could serve as model for future developments elsewhere. A planning committee was formed to explore creating a similar initiative in the USA.

  16. Geothermal progress monitor: Report No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    This issue synthesizes information on all aspects of geothermal development in this country and abroad to permit identification and quantification of trends in the use of this source of energy. The contents include: (1) the Federal Beat; (2) The Industry Scene; (3) Financing; (4) Development Status; (5) Leasing and Drilling; (6) State and Local; (7) International; and (8) Technology Transfer. (ACR)

  17. A Roadmap for Strategic Development of Geothermal Exploration Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Benjamin R. [SRA International Inc. and Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Ziagos, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur [Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Hass, Eric [Geothermal Technologies Office, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-02-13

    Characterizing productive geothermal systems is challenging yet critical to identify and develop an estimated 30 gigawatts electric (GWe) of undiscovered hydrothermal resources in the western U.S. This paper, undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO), summarizes needs and technical pathways that target the key geothermal signatures of temperature, permeability, and fluid content, and develops the time evolution of these pathways, tying in past and current GTO exploration Research and Development (R&D) projects. Beginning on a five-year timescale and projecting out to 2030, the paper assesses technologies that could accelerate the confirmation of 30 GWe. The resulting structure forms the basis for a Geothermal Exploration Technologies Roadmap, a strategic development plan to help guide GTO R&D investments that will lower the risk and cost of geothermal prospect identification. This roadmap is currently open for public comment. Send your comments to geothermal@ee.doe.gov.

  18. Toxicological evaluation of complex industrial wastes: Implications for exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Gallagher, J.E.; Houk, V.S.; Simmons, J.E.

    1990-07-01

    We evaluated a variety of short-term bioassays to construct a battery of tests that could be used for assessing the biological effects of potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes. Ten samples were studied for hepatotoxicity; these samples and an additional five were studied for mutagenicity. Although the data are limited to these samples, the results suggest that the Salmonella assay (strain TA98) or a prophage-induction assay (both in the presence of S9) in combination with determination of relative liver weight and levels of a set of serum enzymes in rats may provide a battery of tests suitable to characterize complex industrial wastes for mutagenic and hepatotoxic potential. The biological activities exhibited by the wastes were not readily predicted by the chemical profiles of the wastes, emphasizing the importance of characterizing potentially hazardous complex industrial wastes by both chemical and biological means. DNA from liver, lung, and bladder of rats exposed to some of the wastes was analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling technique for the presence of DNA adducts. A waste that produced mutagenic urine produced a DNA adduct in bladder DNA. The implications of this approach for assessment of exposure to complex hazardous waste mixtures are discussed.

  19. Pueblo of Jemez Geothermal Feasibility Study Fianl Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A. Kelley; N. Rogers; S. Sandberg; J. Witcher; J. Whittier

    2005-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of developing geothermal energy on the Pueblo of Jemez, with particular attention to the Red Rocks area. Geologic mapping of the Red Rocks area was done at a scale of 1:6000 and geophysical surveys identified a potential drilling target at a depth of 420 feet. The most feasible business identified to use geothermal energy on the reservation was a greenhouse growing culinary and medicinal herbs. Space heating and a spa were identified as two other likely uses of geothermal energy at Jemez Pueblo. Further geophysical surveys are needed to identify the depth to the Madera Limestone, the most likely host for a major geothermal reservoir.

  20. Quantified risk assessment for hazardous industry: the Australian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the key conceptual and methodological aspects of Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) and Hazard Analysis techniques as applied in the process industry, mostly in New South Wales, Australia. Variations in the range of applications of the techniques between the nuclear and non-nuclear industries are highlighted. The opportunity is taken to discuss current and future issues and trends concerning QRA, including: uncertainties and limitations; acceptability of risk criteria; toxicity and chronic health effects; new technology; modelling topics; and environmental risk. The paper concludes by indicating that the next generation QRA, as applicable to Australian conditions in particular, will benefit from a rethink in two areas: a multi-level approach to QRA, and a range of not fully explored applications. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Geothermal resources in Italy and world-wide: scientific debate and market evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, M.; Rizzi, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the state of the art in development and utilization of geothermal resources in Italy and Tuscany. Departing from the geological peculiarities of this region, which have contributed to Italy's leading role in technological innovation since the beginning of geo thermoelectric power generation (GPG), recent evidences from the market and scientific community are here analyzed in order to answer the question whether the economic downturn will put geothermal energy on the back burner, or if it will function as a catalyst for change. The first section explores the role of geothermal energy within the renewable energy mix. After an introduction on the strengths and weaknesses of the Italian energy system, the evolution of the matches between different types of geothermal resources (high, medium and low enthalpies) and technologies is analyzed from an economic, technical and environmental point of view. Here, the evolution of the regulatory framework emerges as one of the main driving forces behind incremental innovation and the spreading of technologies. The move towards sustainability seems to stimulate the market in spite of the barriers to entry linked to capital intensiveness and the risks related to geothermal investments. Beside the growth of relationships between industrial actors, public administration and scientific community, the analysis identifies the down scale of plants, the integration with other renewable and the industrial integration as the main next challenges in the field of geothermal competitiveness. To this end, the implementation of such new tools for territorial management as the ones based on LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) and SMCE (Social Multi Criteria Evaluation) is expected to stimulate further improvements and innovations. The second section analyzes the present regulatory framework at the communitarian, national and local level and the allocation of economical resources to research and development in particular in relation

  2. Geothermal Today: 2003 Geothermal Technologies Program Highlights (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-05-01

    This outreach publication highlights milestones and accomplishments of the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program for 2003. Included in this publication are discussions of geothermal fundamentals, enhanced geothermal systems, direct-use applications, geothermal potential in Idaho, coating technology, energy conversion R&D, and the GeoPowering the West initiative.

  3. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  4. Characterizing U.S. Heat Demand Market for Potential Application of Geothermal Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; Young, Katherine R.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we assess the U.S. demand for low-temperature thermal energy at the county resolution for four major end-use sectors: residential buildings, commercial buildings, manufacturing facilities, and agricultural facilities. Existing, publicly available data on the U.S. thermal demand market are characterized by coarse spatial resolution, with assessments typically at the state-level or larger. For many uses, these data are sufficient; however, our research was motivated by an interest in assessing the potential demand for direct use (DU) of low-temperature (30 degrees to 150 degrees C) geothermal heat. The availability and quality of geothermal resources for DU applications are highly spatially heterogeneous; therefore, to assess the potential market for these resources, it is necessary to understand the spatial variation in demand for low-temperature resources at a local resolution. This paper presents the datasets and methods we used to develop county-level estimates of the thermal demand for the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. Although this analysis was motivated by an interest in geothermal energy deployment, the results are likely to have broader applications throughout the energy industry. The county-resolution thermal demand data developed in this study for four major U.S. sectors may have far-reaching implications for building technologies, industrial processes, and various distributed renewable energy thermal resources (e.g. biomass, solar).

  5. Characterizing U.S. Heat Demand for Potential Application of Geothermal Direct Use: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; Young, Katherine R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we assess the U.S. demand for low-temperature thermal energy at the county resolution for four major end-use sectors: residential buildings, commercial buildings, manufacturing facilities, and agricultural facilities. Existing, publicly available data on the U.S. thermal demand market are characterized by coarse spatial resolution, with assessments typically at the state-level or larger. For many uses, these data are sufficient; however, our research was motivated by an interest in assessing the potential demand for direct use (DU) of low-temperature (30 degrees to 150 degrees C) geothermal heat. The availability and quality of geothermal resources for DU applications are highly spatially heterogeneous; therefore, to assess the potential market for these resources, it is necessary to understand the spatial variation in demand for low-temperature resources at a local resolution. This paper presents the datasets and methods we used to develop county-level estimates of the thermal demand for the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. Although this analysis was motivated by an interest in geothermal energy deployment, the results are likely to have broader applications throughout the energy industry. The county-resolution thermal demand data developed in this study for four major U.S. sectors may have far-reaching implications for building technologies, industrial processes, and various distributed renewable energy thermal resources (e.g. biomass, solar).

  6. Distributed Wind Resource Assessment: State of the Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) goals, researchers from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are investigating the Distributed Wind Resource Assessment (DWRA) process, which includes pre-construction energy estimation as well as turbine site suitability assessment. DWRA can have a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will help the distributed wind industry follow a similar trajectory to the low-wind-speed designs in the utility-scale industry sector. By understanding the wind resource better, the industry could install larger rotors, capture more energy, and as a result, increase deployment while lowering the LCOE. a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that

  7. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  8. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  9. Prospects of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzella, A.; Bianchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy has great potential as a renewable energy with low environmental impact, the use of heat pumps is becoming established in Italy but the national contributions are still modest when compared to other nations. Mature technologies could double the installed geothermal power in Italy at 2020. [it

  10. Strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in industrial effluents: IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reemtsma, T.; Klinkow, N.

    2001-08-01

    The assessment of amounts and effects of hazardous substances in industrial effluents necessitates a combination of chemical and biological investigations. Therefore in this study a strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in wastewater discharges was developed which connects the parameters persistence, bioaccumulation, and aquatic toxicity. The strategy IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment) was elaborated based on the evaluation of existing investigation strategies and the available test systems. The strategy has a modular structure to assure a flexible investigation with regard to the particularities of a given wastewater. After the determination of acute and chronic toxicity and genotoxicity a microbial degradation test is carried out to obtain the persistent wastewater fraction. The bioaccumulating substances are determined from this fraction by solid-phase extraction. Within the strategy differences between direct and indirect discharges are taken into account and particulate matter is considered as well. By the modular linking it can be determined if a wastewater contains toxic and persistent and bioaccumulating substances, which present an important potential of hazard for the aquatic environment. The first application of the strategy on three wastewater samples of the chemical and the metal processing industry showed that the strategy can be used as planned. (orig.) [German] Die Erfassung der Gehalte und Wirkungen gefaehrlicher Stoffe in Abwassereinleitungen der Industrie erfordert eine Kombination chemischer und biologischer Untersuchungen, die ueber das bisher in der AbwV festgelegte Mass hinausgeht. In dieser Studie wurde deshalb eine Untersuchungsstrategie fuer gefaehrliche Stoffe in Abwasserleitungen entwickelt, die die Parameter Persistenz, Bioakkumulierbarkeit und Toxizitaet auch experimentell verknuepft. Die Ausarbeitung erfolgte nach Auswertung der international bestehenden Untersuchungsstrategien sowie der zur Verfuegung stehenden

  11. Summary of the 2010 assessment on medium- to low-temperature geothermal resources in Mexico; Resumen de la evaluacion 2010 de los recursos geotermicos mexicanos de temperatura intermedia a baja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R.; Torres, Rodolfo J.; Martinez Estrella, J. Ignacio; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx

    2011-07-15

    In 2003 we published our first assessment of the medium- to low-temperature (T {<=} 200 degrees Celsius) Mexican geothermal resources. The assessment was based on a database of 1,358 geothermal manifestations (surface manifestations, e.g. springs, fumaroles, water wells, etc.) identified at that time. Due to a lack of information on one or more relevant parameters, such as geographical coordinates, reservoir or surface temperatures, types of fluid, etc., that assessment included only about 30% of the geothermal manifestations in the database. Since then our group has increased significantly the amount of information in the database, using field work and data compilation from different sources. We have developed a database linked with a Geographical Information System (GIS). This work presents an updated assessment of the medium- to low-temperature Mexican geothermal resources based on our current database, which includes 2,361 geothermal manifestations. As before, we have relied on the volume method and Montecarlo simulations to estimate geothermal resources and their uncertainties for each identified geothermal system. These geothermal systems very often include more than one geothermal manifestation, generally increasing the reliability of the individual estimations. In all, we estimated the geothermal resources of 918 individual geothermal systems which included 1,797 geothermal manifestations (as before, a significant fraction of the identified manifestations lack relevant information) located in 26 of the 32 Mexican States. In most cases these resources would be classified as inferred resources, according to the Australian Geothermal Code. We then added the inferred thermal-energy statistical distributions of the 918 geothermal systems by Montecarlo simulation, obtaining the total estimated geothermal resources of the 26 Mexican States and its uncertainty. With the resulting statistical distribution, we estimated the total-thermal energy stored in the 918

  12. Idaho Geothermal Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Gay Davis; Esposito, Louis; Montgomery, Martin

    1979-07-01

    Idaho's energy problems have increased at alarming rates due to their dependency on imports of gas and oil. The large hydroelectric base developed in Idaho has for years kept the electric rates relatively low and supplied them with energy on a consumer demand basis. However, this resource cannot be 4expected to meet their growing demands in the years to come. Energy alternatives, in whatever form, are extremely important to the future welfare of the State of Idaho. This handbook addresses the implications, uses, requirements and regulations governing one of Idaho's most abundant resources, geothermal energy. The intent of the Idaho Geothermal Handbook is to familiarize the lay person with the basis of geothermal energy in Idaho. The potential for geothermal development in the State of Idaho is tremendous. The authors hope this handbook will both increase your knowledge of geothermal energy and speed you on your way to utilizing this renewable resource.

  13. Geothermal country update of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy in Japan. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, present utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, information about geothermal localities, and wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources to January 1, 1990

  14. Study on Assembly Precision Reliability Assessment for Industrial Sensing Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the method of assembly precision reliability assessment for industrial sensing devices. The part variation is formulated by small displacement torsor. The assembly error model is developed through the approach of pose transformation matrix, then the error transfer between the parts is analyzed and the assembly error is calculated. The concept of assembly precision reliability is proposed. Monte Carlo simulation is adopted to calculate the reliability, after that the procedure of assembly precision reliability is determined. Case study of a laser sensor is provided therefore the effectiveness of the proposed models is verified.

  15. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  16. Magnetotelluric-Geochemistry Investigations of Blawan Geothermal Field, East Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sukir Maryanto; Cinantya N. Dewi; Vanisa Syahra; Arief Rachmansyah; James Foster; Ahmad Nadhir; Didik R. Santoso

    2017-01-01

    An integrated magnetotelluric (MT) and geochemical study of the Blawan geothermal field has been performed. The character of the hot springs, the reservoir temperature, and geothermal reserve potential of Blawan geothermal field are assessed. MT measurements, with 250 m up to 1200 m spacings, were made at 19 sites, and 6 locations at the Blawan hot springs have been sampled for geochemical survey. The results of 2D modelling indicated that the geothermal system in the research area consisted...

  17. Utilization of geothermal energy in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, V.I.; Dvorov, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that at present geothermal energy is utilized in the USSR mostly for district heating, and for industrial and agricultural purposes. The populations of 7 towns have district heating that is supplied by thermal waters. The population supplied totals about 125,000 people. The total area of greenhouses is 850,000 m 2 . Electric energy generated at geothermal power stations still remains negligible with the installed capacity of the single Pauzhetka station (Kamchatka) being 11 MW. another station at Mutnovka is currently under construction and is expected to be producing 50 MW by 1992 and 200 MW by 1998. The proven geothermal resources in the USSR provide hope for a significant increase in the utilization of the earth's deep heat in the near future

  18. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  19. Assessing the future of a CSP industry in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahia, Ramon; Arce, Rafael de; Medina, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey on the feasibility of, and difficulties in, establishing a locally CSP manufacturing industry in Morocco. First, the survey explores which specific components of the CSP production chain could be manufactured in Morocco today and which would require moderate or significant changes being made in that country over the next decade. This paper contributes to demonstrating the potential for a CSP manufacturing industry in Morocco at the present time, ideal business models and current restrictions. Second, on the one hand this survey provides insight into the entrepreneurial, policy- and market-related barriers hampering the development of this industry and, on the other, the relative advantages offered by Morocco for the development of a CSP sector. Complementing the empirical findings on foreign direct investment determinants, this exercise stresses the key relevance of the economic context not only in terms of size, stability and predictability of the market, but also in regard to the critical importance of institutional and policy-related issues such as stability and public policy commitment. The results show that prior experience of firms in developing areas is a crucial issue in the accurate assessment of the risks and benefits associated with FDI decisions. - Highlights: • A CSP industry in Morocco is viable under certain adjustments in the next decade. • Policy related barriers are more critical than entrepreneurial or market obstacles. • It urges to provide a legislative and administrative support for CSP initiatives. • The volume of installed CSP capacity in the region doesn't reach a critical level. • Some foreign investors might have a negative miss perception of Moroccan reality

  20. Economic Valuation of a Geothermal Production Tax Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, B.

    2002-04-01

    The United States (U.S.) geothermal industry has a 45-year history. Early developments were centered on a geothermal resource in northern California known as The Geysers. Today, most of the geothermal power currently produced in the U.S. is generated in California and Nevada. The majority of geothermal capacity came on line during the 1980s when stable market conditions created by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) in 1978 and tax incentives worked together to create a wave of geothermal development that lasted until the early 1990s. However, by the mid-1990s, the market for new geothermal power plants began to disappear because the high power prices paid under many PURPA contracts switched to a lower price based on an avoided cost calculation that reflected the low fossil fuel-prices of the early 1990s. Today, market and non-market forces appear to be aligning once again to create an environment in which geothermal energy has the potential to play an important role in meeting the nation's energy needs. One potentially attractive incentive for the geothermal industry is the Production Tax Credit (PTC). The current PTC, which was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) (P.L. 102-486), provides an inflation-adjusted 1.5 cent per kilowatt-hour (kWh) federal tax credit for electricity produced from wind and closed-loop biomass resources. Proposed expansions would make the credit available to geothermal and solar energy projects. This report focuses on the project-level financial impacts of the proposed PTC expansion to geothermal power plants.

  1. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

    1998-08-01

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  2. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

    1998-09-20

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  3. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  4. 77 FR 71194 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy... Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy Products,'' dated November... Evaluation (CBER), Office of Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies (OCTGT). The product areas covered by this...

  5. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-23

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. It is intended for geothermal experts in either the private or public sector who are less familiar with how the electricity system operates beyond the geothermal plant. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this "big picture" three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology’s market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  6. A guide to geothermal energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagel, Alyssa; Bates, Diana; Gawell, Karl

    2005-04-22

    Geothermal energy, defined as heat from the Earth, is a statute-recognized renewable resource. The first U.S. geothermal power plant, opened at The Geysers in California in 1960, continues to operate successfully. The United States, as the world's largest producer of geothermal electricity, generates an average of 15 billion kilowatt hours of power per year, comparable to burning close to 25 million barrels of oil or 6 million short tons of coal per year. Geothermal has a higher capacity factor (a measure of the amount of real time during which a facility is used) than many other power sources. Unlike wind and solar resources, which are more dependent upon weather fluctuations and climate changes, geothermal resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While the carrier medium for geothermal electricity (water) must be properly managed, the source of geothermal energy, the Earth's heat, will be available indefinitely. A geothermal resource assessment shows that nine western states together have the potential to provide over 20 percent of national electricity needs. Although geothermal power plants, concentrated in the West, provide the third largest domestic source of renewable electricity after hydropower and biomass, they currently produce less than one percent of total U.S. electricity.

  7. Mass customization and sustainability an assessment framework and industrial implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Boër, Claudio R; Bettoni, Andrea; Sorlini, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    To adapt to global competitive pressures, manufacturers must develop methods and enabling technologies towards a personalized, customer oriented and sustainable manufacturing. Mass Customization and Sustainability defines the two concepts of mass customization and sustainability and introduces a framework to establish a link between the two concepts to answer the questions: Are these two aspects empowering one another? Or are they hindering one another?   These questions investigate mass customization as one of the main driving forces to achieve effective sustainability.  A methodology to assess the contribution of mass customization to sustainability is developed, providing an assessment model composed by a set of indicators covering the three aspects of sustainability: social, economical and environmental. This is supported and further explained using ideas and new concepts compiled from recent European research.   Researchers, scientists, managers and industry professionals alike can follow a set of ...

  8. Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram: DOE Lafourche Crossing No. 1, Terrebonne Parish and Lafourche Parish, Louisiana: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geothermal fluid well for intermittent production testing of 284 days over a three year period. Two disposal wells will initially be drilled to provide disposal of lower volume fluids produced during initial testing. Two additional disposal wells will be drilled, logged, completed, tested, and operated prior to commencement of high volume fluid production. Construction of the proposed action will change the land-use of 2 ha (5 ac) for the test well and each of the injection wells from agriculture or wetlands to resource exploration. Lands will be cleared and erosion and runoff will result. During operation of the well test, the only expected impacts are from venting of gases or flaring of gases and noise. After the tests are completed, the area will be restored as much as possible to its natural condition by revegetation programs using nature species. All sources of pollutants will be collected and disposed in environmentally acceptable ways. Accidents may result from this proposed action.

  9. Direct use applications of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California. Final report, May 23, 1977--July 31, 1978. Volume II: appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, C.C.

    1978-07-01

    The following appendixes are included: Desert Hot Springs (DHS) Geothermal Project Advisory Board, Geothermal Citizens Advisory Committee, community needs assessment, geothermal resource characterization, a detailed discussion of the geothermal applications considered for DHS, space/water heating, agricultural operations, detailed analysis of a geothermal aquaculture facility, detailed discussion of proposed energy cascading systems for DHS, regulatory requirements, environmental impact assessment, resource management plan, and geothermal resources property rights and powers of cities to regulate indigenous geothermal resources and to finance construction of facilities for utilization of such resources. (MHR)

  10. Geothermal electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal conversion, as discussed here, is the conversion of the heat bound within the topmost three kilometres of the upper crust of the earth into useful energy, principally electricity. The characteristics of a geothermal reservoir and its individual technical features are highly site-specific. Applications therefore must be designed to match the specific geothermal reservoir. An estimate of the electric energy potential world-wide made by the Electric Power Research Institute (United States) in 1978 and based on sustaining a continuous 30-year operation is given in the box at the right for comparison purposes only. 8 refs, 5 figs

  11. Global geothermal energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Singh, A.; Pandey, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    To resolve the energy crisis efforts have been made in exploring and utilizing nonconventional energy resources since last few decades. Geothermal energy is one such energy resource. Fossil fuels are the earth's energy capital like money deposited in bank years ago. The energy to build this energy came mainly from the sun. Steam geysers and hot water springs are other manifestations of geothermal energy. Most of the 17 countries that today harness geothermal energy have simply tapped such resources where they occur. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Worldwide installed geothermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide electric energy production data are easy to compile, according to the informations given by individual countries. On the contrary, thermal applications of geothermics are difficult to quantify due to the variety of applications and the number of countries concerned. Exhaustive informations sometimes cannot be obtained from huge countries (China, Russia..) because of data centralization problems or not exploitable data transmission. Therefore, installed power data for geothermal heat production are given for 26 countries over the 57 that have answered the International Geothermal Association questionnaire. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 1 photo

  13. Navy Geothermal Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  14. Screening of Industrial Development Policies, Plans and Programs of Strategic Environmental Assessment in the Industrial Sector of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    J. Nouri; B. Maghsoudlou Kamali

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the quality of capacity building and institutional strengthening of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in the industrial sector as well as determining the environmental strategies for industrial sustainable development in Iran. The leading aim of this paper has been to systematize the environmental considerations in industrial development strategies, policies, plans and programs in the highest strategic decision making processes and to ensure environ...

  15. ARIES: System for Health effects Assessment in industrial risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabago, I.; Vidania, R. de; Inmaculada, S.

    1992-01-01

    . (Application lo Industrial Risk for Health Effects Assessment) (Author)

  16. Twelfth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Rivera, J. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1987-01-22

    Preface The Twelfth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 20-22, 1987. The year ending December 1986 was very difficult for the domestic geothermal industry. Low oil prices caused a sharp drop in geothermal steam prices. We expected to see some effect upon attendance at the Twelfth Workshop. To our surprise, the attendance was up by thirteen from previous years, with one hundred and fifty-seven registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and Turkey. Despite a worldwide surplus of oil, international geothermal interest and development is growing at a remarkable pace. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Seven technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published; they concern geothermal developments and research in Iceland, Italy, and New Zealand. In addition to these forty-eight technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was John R. Berg from the Department of Energy. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants his thoughts on the expectations of this agency in the role of alternative energy resources, specifically geothermal, within the country???s energy framework. His talk is represented as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, K. Goyal, G.S. Bodvarsson, A.S. Batchelor, H. Dykstra, M.J. Reed, A. Truesdell, J.S. Gudmundsson, and J.R. Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank Jean Cook, Marilyn King, Amy Osugi, Terri Ramey, and Rosalee Benelli for their valued help with the meeting

  17. Sixteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1991-01-25

    The Sixteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23-25, 1991. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Mohinder Gulati of UNOCAL Geothermal. Dr. Gulati gave an inspiring talk on the impact of numerical simulation on development of geothermal energy both in The Geysers and the Philippines. Dr. Gulati was the first recipient of The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award. The registered attendance figure of one hundred fifteen participants was up slightly from last year. There were seven foreign countries represented: Iceland, Italy, Philippines, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Japan. As last year, papers on about a dozen geothermal fields outside the United States were presented. There were thirty-six papers presented at the Workshop, and two papers were submitted for publication only. Attendees were welcomed by Dr. Khalid Aziz, Chairman of the Petroleum Engineering Department at Stanford. Opening remarks were presented by Dr. Roland Horne, followed by a discussion of the California Energy Commission's Geothermal Activities by Barbara Crowley, Vice Chairman; and J.E. ''Ted'' Mock's presentation of the DOE Geothermal Program: New Emphasis on Industrial Participation. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: hot dry rock, geochemistry, tracer injection, field performance, modeling, and chemistry/gas. As in previous workshops, session chairpersons made major contributions to the program. Special thanks are due to Joel Renner, Jeff Tester, Jim Combs, Kathy Enedy, Elwood Baldwin, Sabodh Garg, Marcel0 Lippman, John Counsil, and Eduardo Iglesias. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Angharad Jones, Rosalee Benelli, Jeanne Mankinen, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also

  18. INEL Geothermal Environmental Program. Final environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurow, T.L.; Cahn, L.S.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of environmental monitoring programs and research during development of a moderate temperature geothermal resource in the Raft River Valley is presented. One of the major objectives was to develop programs for environmental assessment and protection that could serve as an example for similar types of development. The monitoring studies were designed to establish baseline conditions (predevelopment) of the physical, biological, and human environment. Potential changes were assessed and adverse environmental impacts minimized. No major environmental impacts resulted from development of the Raft River Geothermal Research Facility. The results of the physical, biological, and human environment monitoring programs are summarized.

  19. United States geothermal technology: Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This document has two intended audiences. The first part, ``Geothermal Energy at a Glance,`` is intended for energy system decision makers and others who are interested in wide ranging aspects of geothermal energy resources and technology. The second part, ``Technology Specifics,`` is intended for engineers and scientists who work with such technology in more detailed ways. The glossary at the end of the document defines many of the specialized terms. A directory of US geothermal industry firms who provide goods and services for clients around the world is available on request.

  20. Exploration Criteria for Low Permeability Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, D

    1977-03-01

    The decision to drill deep holes in a prospective geothermal system implies that geothermal energy resources exist at depth. The drill hole location and budget result from hypothesis regarding the location and depth of the resource within the overall system. Although operational decisions normally dictate the practicality of drilling, the characteristics, we must first understand how unique various surface or shallow subsurface data are in assessing the nature of the resource. The following progress report summarizes the results of numerical simulations of heat and mass transport around igneous plutons and the synthesis of geologic data. To date, the results of the study describe the transient nature of thermal resources and the ambiguities which must be accounted for in using current technology to assess the nation's geothermal resources. [DJE-2005

  1. The Pawsey Supercomputer geothermal cooling project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Horowitz, F.; Western Australian Geothermal Centre Of Excellence, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Australian Government has funded the Pawsey supercomputer in Perth, Western Australia, providing computational infrastructure intended to support the future operations of the Australian Square Kilometre Array radiotelescope and to boost next-generation computational geosciences in Australia. Supplementary funds have been directed to the development of a geothermal exploration well to research the potential for direct heat use applications at the Pawsey Centre site. Cooling the Pawsey supercomputer may be achieved by geothermal heat exchange rather than by conventional electrical power cooling, thus reducing the carbon footprint of the Pawsey Centre and demonstrating an innovative green technology that is widely applicable in industry and urban centres across the world. The exploration well is scheduled to be completed in 2013, with drilling due to commence in the third quarter of 2011. One year is allocated to finalizing the design of the exploration, monitoring and research well. Success in the geothermal exploration and research program will result in an industrial-scale geothermal cooling facility at the Pawsey Centre, and will provide a world-class student training environment in geothermal energy systems. A similar system is partially funded and in advanced planning to provide base-load air-conditioning for the main campus of the University of Western Australia. Both systems are expected to draw ~80-95 degrees C water from aquifers lying between 2000 and 3000 meters depth from naturally permeable rocks of the Perth sedimentary basin. The geothermal water will be run through absorption chilling devices, which only require heat (as opposed to mechanical work) to power a chilled water stream adequate to meet the cooling requirements. Once the heat has been removed from the geothermal water, licensing issues require the water to be re-injected back into the aquifer system. These systems are intended to demonstrate the feasibility of powering large-scale air

  2. Geothermal progress monitor. Report No. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This issue, the 16th since 1980, illustrates the potential of the liquid-dominated geothermal resource. Achievement of this potential by publicly held companies, who are required to publish financial statements, has involved the use of high-quality resources and the best available technologies or, in some instances, their own innovative modifications of existing technologies as well as a high degree of technical and management expertise. This issue also documents some effects of the new climate of utility deregulation and competition among independent power producers on the geothermal industry. The continuing importance attached to geothermal heat pumps as a preferred space conditioning technology by a number of disparate interests is illustrated by a number of articles. Magma Power Co. reported record gains in both 1993 revenues and earnings over 1992; California Energy has acquired Magma, creating the largest geothermal energy producer in the world. Owing to stagnation in USA, it was decided to focus on international markets. After the introduction, the issue has sections on: Federal beat, industry scene, financing, technology development, direct use technology, state and local, international, technology transfer, and directory.

  3. New Zealand geothermal: Wairakei -- 40 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This quarterly bulletin highlights the geothermal developments in New Zealand with the following articles: A brief history of the Wairakei geothermal power project; Geothermal resources in New Zealand -- An overview; Domestic and commercial heating and bathing -- Rotorua area; Kawerau geothermal development: A case study; Timber drying at Kawerau; Geothermal greenhouses at Kawerau; Drying of fibrous crops using geothermal steam and hot water at the Taupo Lucerne Company; Prawn Park -- Taupo, New Zealand; Geothermal orchids; Miranda hot springs; and Geothermal pipeline.

  4. Environmental emissions by Chinese industry: Exergy-based unifying assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Zhang; Chen, G.Q.; Xia, X.H.; Li, S.C.; Chen, Z.M.; Xi Ji

    2012-01-01

    Based on chemical exergy as an objective measure for the chemical deviation between the emission and the environment, a unifying assessment is carried out for major environmental emissions covering COD, ammonia nitrogen, SO 2 , soot, dust, NO x and solid waste by Chinese industry over 1997–2006, with emphasis on the sectoral and regional levels in 2006. Of the total emission in exergy up to 274.1 PJ in 2006, 67.7% is estimated from waste gases, 29.9% from waste water and 2.4% from solid waste. Five of 40 sectors and 12 of 30 regions are responsible for 72.7% and 65.5% of the total emission, respectively. SO 2 is the leading emission type in 9 sectors and 25 regions, and COD in another 28 sectors and 5 regions. Some pollution-intensive sectors such as Production and Distribution of Electric Power and Heat Power and Manufacture of Paper and Paper Products, and western and inland regions such as Guangxi and Ningxia with high emission intensities are identified. By clustering and disjoint principal component analysis with intensities of emissions and fuel coal use as variables, three principal components are extracted, and four statistically significant clusters are pinpointed in the sectoral and regional analysis. Corresponding policy-making implications are addressed. - Highlights: ► A chemical exergy-based unifying assessment for industrial emissions is performed. ► The emissions at the sectoral/regional levels in 2006 are systematically revealed. ► The main principal components and clusters for emission intensities are pinpointed.

  5. Imperial County geothermal development semi-annual report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The current geothermal progress in Imperial County is reported. Three areas are reported: Geothermal Administration, Geothermal Planning, and other Geothermal Activities. Geothermal Administration addresses the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of Geothermal field inspections. In addition, the cooperative efforts between industry and the County; Master EIR for the Salton Sea KGRA and the resurveying of the subsidence detection network are covered. Geothermal Planning addresses a Board of Supervisor action on the Union Oil Geothermal Production Permit for 16 wells in the Salton Sea KGRA and a permit for Southern California Edison 10 megawatts power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA. Planning Commission action covers: Amendment of Magma Power's 49 megawatts Geothermal Production Permit to 28 megawatt power plant and relocation of the plant and wells within the Salton Sea KGRA; Exploration permit to Occidental Geothermal for four exploratory wells in East Brawley; Geothermal Production Permit to Southern California Edison to operate a 10 megawatt power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA; and Geothermal production permit to Union Oil for 16 production-injection wells in the Salton Sea KGRA. Lastly, EIR exemptions to CEQA were granted to Chevron for 70 shallow temperature observation holes and Union for fifteen. Other Geothermal Activity addresses the County Direct Heat Development study; the solicitation for district heating and cooling proposals; the new Geothermal Class II-1 disposal site; the DOE Region IX meeting in Tucson; and USGA designating a new KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, the Westmorland KGRA, and revising the southern border of the Salton Sea KGRA.

  6. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well

  7. NGDC Geothermal Data Bases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geothermics is the study of heat generated in Earth's interior and its manifestation at the surface. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has a variety of...

  8. Effective geothermal heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelsen, Atle

    2006-01-01

    Scandinavia's currently largest geothermal heating project: the New Ahus hospital, is briefly presented. 300-400 wells on a field outside the hospital are constructed to store energy for both heating and cooling purposes

  9. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  10. Geothermics in Aquitaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The geothermal exploitation of the Aquitanian Basin (S W France) started 15 years ago and has extended today to 12 different places. Three main aquifers of different depth are exploited in Bordeaux region: the old alluvial deposits of Garonne river (20-30 m), the Middle Eocene aquifer (300-400 m), and the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer (900-1100 m) which is the deepest and most exploited for geothermal purposes. The drinkable quality of the water and the use of single-well technique are important factors that reduce the operating costs. Geothermics remains competitive with other energy sources due to the long-term stability of geothermal energy costs. (J.S.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 5 photos

  11. Geothermal Orientation Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-07-01

    This is a useful overview of the Department of Energy's outlook on geothermal energy development in the U.S. as of late 1983. For example, Exhibit 4 shows how electric utility planners' estimates of likely amounts of geothermal power on line for 1990 and 2000 first increased and then declined over time as they were surveyed in 1977 through 1983 (date are from the EPRI Survey). Additions to direct heat uses in 1979 through 1981 are in Exhibit 7. A Table (not numbered) at the back of the report "Historical Development of Geothermal Power ..." shows world installed geothermal capacity by nation at decadal intervals from 1950 to 1980, and the first year of power production for each country. (DJE 2005)

  12. Geothermal power generation in the United States 1985 through 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannels, J.E.; McLarty, L.

    1990-01-01

    The United States has used geothermal energy for the production of electricity since 1960 and has the largest installed capacity of any country in the world. During the 1980s, expansion at The Geysers and emergence of the hot water segment of the industry fueled explosive growth in generating capacity. In this paper geothermal development in the U.S. during the second half of the decade is reviewed, and development over the next five years is forecast

  13. Commercial Utilization of West Coast Geothermal Resources of Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is commercial evaluation of West coast geothermal resources of India. The western parts of Maharashtra State are also known as the economic back-bone of India, where in about 60% of Agro-Industrial products is being manufactured from this part. Considering this fact, it is necessary to evaluate the west coast geothermal resources for non-electric uses. To save the expense of drilling investigation, indirect methods of evaluation of reservoir are chosen. The petrologi...

  14. Geothermal studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Yang, Wang; Mo-Xiang, Chen; Ji-An, Wang; Xiao, Deng; Jun, Wang; Hsien-Chieh, Shen; Liang-Ping, Hsiung; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhi-Cheng, Fan; Xiu-Wen, Liu; Ge-Shan, Huang; Wen-Ren, Zhang; Hai-Hui, Shao; Rong-Yan, Zhang

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuously since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research on geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; and (3) geothermal studies in mines. Regional geothermal studies have been conducted recently in North China and more than 2000 values of subsurface temperature have been obtained. Temperatures at a depth of 300 m generally range from 20 to 25°C with geothermal gradients from 20 to 40°C/km. These values are regarded as an average for the region with anomalies related to geological factors. To date, 22 reliable heat flow data from 17 sites have been obtained in North China and the data have been categorized according to fault block tectonics. The average heat flow value at 16 sites in the north is 1.3 HFU, varying from 0.7 to 1.8 HFU. It is apparent that the North China fault block is characterized by a relatively high heat flow with wide variations in magnitude compared to the mean value for similar tectonic units in other parts of the world. It is suggested that although the North China fault block can be traced back to the Archaean, the tectonic activity has been strengthening since the Mesozoic resulting in so-called "reactivation of platform" with large-scale faulting and magmatism. Geothermal resources in China are extensive; more than 2000 hot springs have been found and there are other manifestations including geysers, hydrothermal explosions, hydrothermal steam, fumaroles, high-temperature fountains, boiling springs, pools of boiling mud, etc. In addition, there are many Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins with widespread aquifers containing geothermal water resources in abundance. The extensive exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources began early in the 1970's. Since then

  15. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, J.L.

    2001-08-15

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: (1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and (2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research.

  16. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: (1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and (2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research

  17. Geothermal System Extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnerson, Jon [Boise City Corporation, ID (United States); Pardy, James J. [Boise City Corporation, ID (United States)

    2017-09-30

    This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0000318. The City of Boise operates and maintains the nation’s largest geothermal heating district. Today, 91 buildings are connected, providing space heating to over 5.5 million square feet, domestic water heating, laundry and pool heating, sidewalk snowmelt and other related uses. Approximately 300 million gallons of 177°F geothermal water is pumped annually to buildings and institutions located in downtown Boise. The closed loop system returns all used geothermal water back into the aquifer after heat has been removed via an Injection Well. Water injected back into the aquifer has an average temperature of 115°F. This project expanded the Boise Geothermal Heating District (Geothermal System) to bring geothermal energy to the campus of Boise State University and to the Central Addition Eco-District. In addition, this project also improved the overall system’s reliability and increased the hydraulic capacity.

  18. Environmental performance assessment: a case study in the paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Antonov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The inherent complexity of environmental performance measurement makes it difficult to be gauged, sending it forth to methodologies supported on assessments of the various factors that could influence the overall performance. In association with the environmental performance lies the need to create methods that allows the assessment over the time in order to facilitate comparisons amongst different organizations or operations of a same company. Measurement of environmental performance comes from several sources thus a dominant approach widely recognized and accepted by the academic community and organizations can not be singled out. The purpose of this review is to test a method for assessing environmental performance in a manufacturer organization, performing a case study in the paper industry. The results can be compared with other operations and can be used, cumulatively, in supply chains. The specific objectives are (i to model the environmental performance of the transaction, (ii to use the model to measure performance, and (iii to interpret the results and come to a conclusion. It begins with a review of the environmental performance measurement and then proceeds to the description of the research methodology and the results of its application. The method consists of five constructs, assessed by managers and processes experts according to their potential of environmental performance's improvement: solid waste, wastewater, gas emissions, deployment of natural resources, and legal compliance. The constructs are perceived by qualitative indicators categorically evaluated. The final result is an index of 76.69%, which represents the environmental performance of the operation.

  19. Industrial assessment of radiofrequency and microwave radiations: case study at electronic manufacturing industries in Penang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaid Abdullah

    1996-01-01

    In electronic manufacturing industry, the applications of an equipment emitting radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are numerous and Increasing. It is known that exposure to RFR at sufficiently high intensity and duration can produce a variety of adverse health effects. This paper presents some results from an extensive studies in the RFR field measurements at frequency range from 100 MHz to 1 GHz. All measurements were performed inside factories located at the Penang Free Trade Zone. In this case, the factories chosen are those that manufacture the electronic components whereby the applications of RFR equipment are likely to be intensive compared to other type of industries. The measurement system used in this study are the portable spectrum-analyzer, the passive log-periodic antenna and a desktop computer for data analysis. Results from this study have indicated that the RFR exposure levels in most factories are in the range of 7.7 x 10 sup -4 - 4.31 x 10 sup -3 Wm sup -2 and 0.01 - 0. 741 Vm sup -1 for power density and electric strength measurement respectively. These ranges are at least 100 times lower compared to the RFR protection guidelines proposed by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI). However, the exposure levels inside the factory are consistently 10 sup -3 - 10 sup -4 higher than the levels caused by natural sources and is about 10 sup 2 - 10 sup 6 higher than the levels measured at a distance of 30 m from a low-power output mobile phone transmitter. In the case of the health effect assessment, no sufficient evidence has been found to indicate the potential consequences resulting from excessive RFR exposure. Nonetheless, many factories surveyed are unaware of the existence of the international guidelines and codes on the safe use of radiofrequency energy even though, some measures are being taken to protect their employees against RFR

  20. A new look at the statistical assessment of approximate and rigorous methods for the estimation of stabilized formation temperatures in geothermal and petroleum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza-Ojeda, O M; Santoyo, E; Andaverde, J

    2011-01-01

    Approximate and rigorous solutions of seven heat transfer models were statistically examined, for the first time, to estimate stabilized formation temperatures (SFT) of geothermal and petroleum boreholes. Constant linear and cylindrical heat source models were used to describe the heat flow (either conductive or conductive/convective) involved during a borehole drilling. A comprehensive statistical assessment of the major error sources associated with the use of these models was carried out. The mathematical methods (based on approximate and rigorous solutions of heat transfer models) were thoroughly examined by using four statistical analyses: (i) the use of linear and quadratic regression models to infer the SFT; (ii) the application of statistical tests of linearity to evaluate the actual relationship between bottom-hole temperatures and time function data for each selected method; (iii) the comparative analysis of SFT estimates between the approximate and rigorous predictions of each analytical method using a β ratio parameter to evaluate the similarity of both solutions, and (iv) the evaluation of accuracy in each method using statistical tests of significance, and deviation percentages between 'true' formation temperatures and SFT estimates (predicted from approximate and rigorous solutions). The present study also enabled us to determine the sensitivity parameters that should be considered for a reliable calculation of SFT, as well as to define the main physical and mathematical constraints where the approximate and rigorous methods could provide consistent SFT estimates